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Sample records for cattle indicator traits

  1. Genome-Wide Association Study for Indicator Traits of Sexual Precocity in Nellore Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Irano, Natalia; de Camargo, Gregório Miguel Ferreira; Costa, Raphael Bermal; Terakado, Ana Paula Nascimento; Magalhães, Ana Fabrícia Braga; Silva, Rafael Medeiros de Oliveira; Dias, Marina Mortati; Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; Baldi, Fernando; Carvalheiro, Roberto; de Oliveira, Henrique Nunes; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to detect chromosome regions associated with indicator traits of sexual precocity in Nellore cattle. Data from Nellore animals belonging to farms which participate in the DeltaGen® and Paint® animal breeding programs, were used. The traits used in this study were the occurrence of early pregnancy (EP) and scrotal circumference (SC). Data from 72,675 females and 83,911 males with phenotypes were used; of these, 1,770 females and 1,680 males were genotyped. The SNP effects were estimated with a single-step procedure (WssGBLUP) and the observed phenotypes were used as dependent variables. All animals with available genotypes and phenotypes, in addition to those with only phenotypic information, were used. A single-trait animal model was applied to predict breeding values and the solutions of SNP effects were obtained from these breeding values. The results of GWAS are reported as the proportion of variance explained by windows with 150 adjacent SNPs. The 10 windows that explained the highest proportion of variance were identified. The results of this study indicate the polygenic nature of EP and SC, demonstrating that the indicator traits of sexual precocity studied here are probably controlled by many genes, including some of moderate effect. The 10 windows with large effects obtained for EP are located on chromosomes 5, 6, 7, 14, 18, 21 and 27, and together explained 7.91% of the total genetic variance. For SC, these windows are located on chromosomes 4, 8, 11, 13, 14, 19, 22 and 23, explaining 6.78% of total variance. GWAS permitted to identify chromosome regions associated with EP and SC. The identification of these regions contributes to a better understanding and evaluation of these traits, and permits to indicate candidate genes for future investigation of causal mutations. PMID:27494397

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study for Indicator Traits of Sexual Precocity in Nellore Cattle.

    PubMed

    Irano, Natalia; de Camargo, Gregório Miguel Ferreira; Costa, Raphael Bermal; Terakado, Ana Paula Nascimento; Magalhães, Ana Fabrícia Braga; Silva, Rafael Medeiros de Oliveira; Dias, Marina Mortati; Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; Baldi, Fernando; Carvalheiro, Roberto; de Oliveira, Henrique Nunes; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to detect chromosome regions associated with indicator traits of sexual precocity in Nellore cattle. Data from Nellore animals belonging to farms which participate in the DeltaGen® and Paint® animal breeding programs, were used. The traits used in this study were the occurrence of early pregnancy (EP) and scrotal circumference (SC). Data from 72,675 females and 83,911 males with phenotypes were used; of these, 1,770 females and 1,680 males were genotyped. The SNP effects were estimated with a single-step procedure (WssGBLUP) and the observed phenotypes were used as dependent variables. All animals with available genotypes and phenotypes, in addition to those with only phenotypic information, were used. A single-trait animal model was applied to predict breeding values and the solutions of SNP effects were obtained from these breeding values. The results of GWAS are reported as the proportion of variance explained by windows with 150 adjacent SNPs. The 10 windows that explained the highest proportion of variance were identified. The results of this study indicate the polygenic nature of EP and SC, demonstrating that the indicator traits of sexual precocity studied here are probably controlled by many genes, including some of moderate effect. The 10 windows with large effects obtained for EP are located on chromosomes 5, 6, 7, 14, 18, 21 and 27, and together explained 7.91% of the total genetic variance. For SC, these windows are located on chromosomes 4, 8, 11, 13, 14, 19, 22 and 23, explaining 6.78% of total variance. GWAS permitted to identify chromosome regions associated with EP and SC. The identification of these regions contributes to a better understanding and evaluation of these traits, and permits to indicate candidate genes for future investigation of causal mutations. PMID:27494397

  3. Characterization of biological types of cattle: Indicator traits of fertility in beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity among breeds of cattle allows producers to select animals for specific environments or market conditions. Reproductive efficiency is a multi-component trait that is largely influenced by environmental influences such as health and nutritional status. However, there are clearly gene...

  4. National cattle evaluation system for combined analysis of carcass characteristics and indicator traits recorded using ultrasound in Angus cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this study were to 1) evaluate genetic relationships of sex-specific indicators of carcass merit obtained using ultrasound with carcass traits of steers, 2) estimate genetic parameters needed to implement combined analyses of carcass and indicator traits to produce unified national cat...

  5. Genetic parameters for carcass traits and their live animal indicators in Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Crews, D H; Pollak, E J; Weaber, R L; Quaas, R L; Lipsey, R J

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate parameters required for genetic evaluation of Simmental carcass merit using carcass and live animal data. Carcass weight, fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score were available from 5,750 steers and 1,504 heifers sired by Simmental bulls. Additionally, yearling ultrasound measurements of fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and estimated percentage of intramuscular fat were available on Simmental bulls (n = 3,409) and heifers (n = 1,503). An extended pedigree was used to construct the relationship matrix (n = 23,968) linking bulls and heifers with ultrasound data to steers and heifers with carcass data. All data were obtained from the American Simmental Association. No animal had both ultrasound and carcass data. Using an animal model and treating corresponding ultrasound and carcass traits separately, genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood. Heritability estimates for carcass traits were 0.48 +/- 0.06, 0.35 +/- 0.05, 0.46 +/- 0.05, and 0.54 +/- 0.05 for carcass weight, fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score, respectively. Heritability estimates for bull (heifer) ultrasound traits were 0.53 +/- 0.07 (0.69 +/- 0.09), 0.37 +/- 0.06 (0.51 +/- 0.09), and 0.47 +/- 0.06 (0.52 +/- 0.09) for fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and intramuscular fat percentage, respectively. Heritability of weight at scan was 0.47 +/- 0.05. Using a bivariate weight model including scan weight of bulls and heifers with carcass weight of slaughter animals, a genetic correlation of 0.77 +/- 0.10 was obtained. Models for fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score were each trivariate, including ultrasound measurements on yearling bulls and heifers, and corresponding carcass traits of slaughter animals. Genetic correlations of carcass fat thickness with bull and heifer ultrasound fat were 0.79 +/- 0.13 and 0.83 +/- 0.12, respectively. Genetic correlations of

  6. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  7. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  8. Breed group effects for chute exit velocity as an indicator trait for temperament in weaner cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine breed group differences in chute exit velocity (CEV) in weaner cattle (n=3176). Data were collected in 2004 through 2008 under procedures of objective 3, Southern Regional Research project S1013 with the following states contributing data: FL, LA, and MS...

  9. Reaction norms for the study of genotype-environment interaction for growth and indicator traits of sexual precocity in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Lemos, M V A; Chiaia, H L J; Berton, M P; Feitosa, F L B; Aboujaoude, C; Venturini, G C; Oliveira, H N; Albuquerque, L G; Baldi, F

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the magnitude of genotype-environment interaction (GxE) effects on age at first calving (AFC), scrotal circumference (SC), and yearling weight (YW) in Nellore cattle using reaction norms. For the study, 89,152 weight records of female and male Nellore animals obtained at yearling age were used. Genetic parameters were estimated with a single-trait random-regression model using Legendre polynomials as base functions. The heritability estimates were of low to medium magnitude for AFC (0.05 to 0.47) and of medium to high magnitude for SC (0.32 to 0.51) and YW (0.13 to 0.72), and increased as the environmental gradient became more favorable. The genetic correlation estimates ranged from 0.25 to 1.0 for AFC, from 0.71 to 1.0 for SC, and from 0.42 to 1.0 for YW. High Spearman correlation coefficients were obtained for the three traits, ranging from 0.97 to 0.99. The reaction norms along the environmental gradient of 10 sires each with the highest or lowest breeding value for YW predicted by single-trait analysis demonstrated more plastic phenotypes for YW and more robust phenotypes for SC. The effect of GxE was most important for YW and AFC with respect to SC. When animals are selected for higher SC or YW or lower AFC, considering or not the GxE effect, it is expected that the same animals will be selected. The reaction norms obtained based on sire breeding values along the environmental gradient showed that animals with extreme breeding values respond differently as environmental conditions improve. PMID:26125926

  10. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Haskell, Marie J.; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582

  11. Quantitative trait loci for male reproductive traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Lunstra, D D; Stone, R T

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for male reproductive traits in a half-sib family from a Bos indicus (Brahman) x Bos taurus (Hereford) sire. The sire was mated with MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Red Poll and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows. Testicular traits were measured from 126 male offspring born in 1996 and castrated at 8.5 months. Traits analysed were concentration of follicle stimulating hormone in peripheral blood at castration (FSH), paired testicular weight (PTW) and paired testicular volume (PTV) adjusted for age of dam, calculated age at puberty (AGE), and body weight at castration (BYW). A putative QTL was observed for FSH on chromosome 5. The maximum F-statistic was detected at 70 cM from the beginning of the linkage group. Animals inheriting the Hereford allele had a 2.47-ng/ml higher concentration of FSH than those inheriting the Brahman allele. Evidence also suggests the existence of a putative QTL on chromosome 29 for PTW, PTV, AGE and BYW. The maximum F-statistic was detected at cM 44 from the beginning of the linkage group for PTW, PTV and AGE, and at cM 52 for BYW. Animals that inherited the Brahman allele at this chromosomal region had a 45-g heavier PTW, a 42-cm(3) greater PTV, a 39-day younger AGE and a 22.8-kg heavier BYW, compared with those inheriting the Hereford allele. This is the first report of QTL for male reproductive traits in cattle. PMID:15566467

  12. Genomic evaluation of health traits in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is growing interest from dairy producers in traits related to health and fitness of cattle, which often have low heritabilities but high economic values. Traits with low heritability can be improved by genetic selection, but large numbers of daughter records are required to produce predicted t...

  13. Genetic analysis of first lactation production traits in Kankrej cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ankuya, K. J.; Pareek, N. K.; Patel, M. P.; Rathod, B. S.; Prajapati, K. B.; Patel, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to estimate genetic factors affecting the first lactation milk production traits in Kankrej cattle of North Gujarat. Materials and Methods: The 475 first lactation records of Kankrej cows that were maintained at the Livestock Research Station, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat, over a period of 35 years from 1980 to 2014 were studied. The least squares maximum likelihood program was used to estimate genetic parameters of first lactation traits. Heritability was estimated through paternal half-sib analysis in adjusted data. Results: The heritability estimate for production traits was 0.40±0.17, 0.45±0.17, 0.35±0.18, and 0.20±0.14 for standard 300 days milk yield (F300Y), total lactation milk yield (FLY), wet average (FWA), and lactation length (FLL), respectively, in the first parity. All the genetic and phenotypic correlations among different production efficiency traits were high and positive. Genetic correlations between F300Y and FLY, FLL, and FWA were 0.80±0.20, 0.59±0.16, and 0.81±0.32, where as the phenotypic correlations were 0.969, 0.688, and 0.868, respectively. Genetic correlations of FLY with FLL and FWA were 0.60±0.13 and 0.79±0.20, whereas the phenotypic correlations were 0.777 and 0.817, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlation between FLL and FWA was 0.63±0.28 and 0.31, respectively. Conclusion: The heritability estimate of all first parity lactation traits waslow to medium (0.20-0.45) indicated the scope for further improvement in this trait through selection as well as managemental practice. Higher genetic and phenotypic correlation between thefirst lactation milk production traits gives theidea that genetic gain due to selection for one trait also givesmorecorrelated response of selection for other traits which is economically advantageous. PMID:27397993

  14. Ranking of Nellore animals in cattle championships: genetic parameters and correlations with production traits.

    PubMed

    Simielli Filho, E A; Mercadante, M E Z; Ii Vasconcelos Silva, J A; Josahkian, L A

    2014-01-01

    Records of 17,141 Nellore cattle participating in cattle championships, born from 1994-2009, were used to estimate genetic parameters between animal rank in cattle championships, evaluated from weaning to 36 months of age as repeated traits, and growth, fertility, and carcass traits, evaluated at 365 days of age as single traits. Two traits were defined for animal rank in cattle championships: value 1 was attributed to animals ranked from 1st to 3rd place within the age category, and value 0 was assigned to the remaining animals (TOP3). Value 1 was attributed to animals ranked from 1st to 5th place within the age category and value 0 was assigned to the remaining animals (TOP5). The (co)variance components were estimated based on Bayesian inference under a 2-trait threshold-linear animal model. The posterior means of heritability estimated for TOP3 and TOP5 were 0.182 ± 0.010 and 0.260 ± 0.012, respectively, and their repeatabilities were 0.341 ± 0.007 and 0.400 ± 0.007, respectively. High-ranking animals generally presented higher breeding values for body weight, height, body length, and heart girth. The phenotypic correlations indicate that judges of cattle championships primarily rank animals based on weight and heart girth. PMID:25117330

  15. DETECTION OF QUANTITATIAVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN BOS INDICUS BEEF CATTLE (NELLORE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci of economic importance in purebred Bos indicus beef cattle breed (Nellore). Two half-sib families constituted of 187 (family 1) and 189 (family 2) female sisters, daughters from two distinct bulls, where used. Each parent (F0) was ...

  16. Relationship of various incoming cattle traits with feedlot performance and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, C D; Busby, W D; Corah, L R

    2009-09-01

    Steers (n = 15,631) and heifers (n = 5,897) fed at 18 feedlots (total confinement, partial confinement, or open lots) in southwest Iowa between 2002 and 2006 as part of the Tri-County Steer Carcass Futurity sponsored by Iowa State University were used to correlate various phenotypic traits with feedlot performance and carcass traits. Dependent variables [ADG, respiratory morbidity, HCW, fat thickness, calculated yield grade, marbling score, presence or absence of lung damage, loin muscle area (LMA), and LMA x 100/HCW] were evaluated on the basis of various phenotypic traits [initial BW, disposition score (1 = calm, 6 = extremely excitable), muscle score, frame score, BCS, number of treatments for respiratory disease, presence of lung lesions, breed makeup, and percentage Angus genetics]. Subjectively evaluated phenotypic traits were evaluated by Iowa State University or USDA personnel. Cattle with greater disposition score (more excitable) had decreased initial BW, final BW, ADG, HCW, yield grade, quality grade, marbling score, and mortality (P < 0.01). Respiratory morbidity was negatively correlated with initial BW, ADG, yield grade, HCW, and marbling score (P < 0.01). As initial BW increased, final BW and HCW increased and respiratory morbidity decreased (P < 0.01). Cattle with greater BCS on arrival had greater initial BW but were lighter at slaughter (P < 0.01). Increased number of treatments for respiratory disease was associated with decreased ADG, greater mortality rate, and greater incidence of lung lesions (P < 0.01). Body weight gain was similar between English- and Continental-breed cattle (P > 0.05), although final BW and HCW were greater and yield grade and yield grade-adjusted marbling score were less for Continental-breed cattle (P < 0.01). Cattle with a poorer muscling score had reduced HCW and LMA and greater yield grade, marbling score, and quality grade (P < 0.01). Animal disposition, health, breed type, and frame score have dramatic effects on

  17. Cattle temperament: persistence of assessments and associations with productivity, efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Cafe, L M; Robinson, D L; Ferguson, D M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Greenwood, P L

    2011-05-01

    Relationships between temperament and a range of performance, carcass, and meat quality traits in young cattle were studied in 2 experiments conducted in New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA), Australia. In both experiments, growth rates of cattle were assessed during backgrounding on pasture and grain finishing in a feedlot. Carcass and objective meat quality characteristics were measured after slaughter. Feed intake and efficiency during grain finishing were also determined in NSW. Brahman (n = 82 steers and 82 heifers) and Angus (n = 25 steers and 24 heifers) cattle were used in the NSW experiment. In NSW, temperament was assessed by measuring flight speed [FS, m/s on exit from the chute (crush)] on 14 occasions, and by assessing agitation score during confinement in the crush (CS; 1 = calm to 5 = highly agitated) on 17 occasions over the course of the experiment. Brahman (n = 173) and Angus (n = 20) steers were used in the WA experiment. In WA, temperament was assessed by measuring FS on 2 occasions during backgrounding and on 2 occasions during grain feeding. At both sites, a hormonal growth promotant (Revalor-H, Virbac, Milperra, New South Wales, Australia) was applied to one-half of the cattle at feedlot entry, and the Brahman cattle were polymorphic for 2 calpain-system markers for beef tenderness. Temperament was not related (most P > 0.05) to tenderness gene marker status in Brahman cattle and was not (all P > 0.26) modified by the growth promotant treatment in either breed. The Brahman cattle had greater individual variation in, and greater correlations within and between, repeated assessments of FS and CS than did the Angus cattle. Correlations for repeated measures of FS were greater than for repeated assessments of CS, and the strength of correlations for both declined over time. Average FS or CS for each experiment and location (NSW or WA × backgrounding or finishing) were more highly correlated than individual measurements, indicating

  18. Genetic Variants in SDC3 Gene are Significantly Associated with Growth Traits in Two Chinese Beef Cattle Breeds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Fang, Xing-Tang; Song, En-Liang; Chen, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Identification of the genes and polymorphisms underlying quantitative traits, and understanding these genes and polymorphisms affect economic growth traits, are important for successful marker-assisted selection and more efficient management strategies in commercial cattle (Bos taurus) population. Syndecan-3 (SDC3), a member of the syndecan family of type I transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans is a novel regulator of feeding behavior and body weight. The aim of this study is to examine the association of the SDC3 polymorphism with growth traits in Chinese Jiaxian and Qinchuan cattle breeds (). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-4) were detected in 555 cows from three Chinese native cattle breeds by means of sequencing pooled DNA samples and polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methods. We found one SNP (g.28362A > G) in intron and three SNPs (g.30742T > G, g.30821C > T and 33418 A > G) in exons. The statistical analyses indicated that these SNPs of SDC3 gene were associated with bovine body height, body length, chest circumference, and circumference of cannon bone (P < 0.05). The mutant-type variant was superior for growth traits; the heterozygote was associated with higher growth traits compared to wild-type homozygote. Our result confirms the polymorphisms in the SDC3 gene are associated with growth traits that may be used for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding programs. PMID:27119984

  19. QTL Mapping OF PARASITE RESISTANCE INDICATOR traits IN AN EXPERIMENTAL ANGUS POPULATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    QTL for parasite indicator traits in cattle are ideal targets for study of marker assisted selection; however, the phenotypic data and available resource populations were not optimal for reliable QTL identification. Fecal egg count (FEC) values, which are used to measure resistance to nematodes, are...

  20. Genetic and phenotypic variance and covariance components for methane emission and postweaning traits in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, K A; Bird-Gardiner, T; Arthur, P F; Herd, R M; Hegarty, R F

    2016-04-01

    Ruminants contribute 80% of the global livestock greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mainly through the production of methane, a byproduct of enteric microbial fermentation primarily in the rumen. Hence, reducing enteric methane production is essential in any GHG emissions reduction strategy in livestock. Data on 1,046 young bulls and heifers from 2 performance-recording research herds of Angus cattle were analyzed to provide genetic and phenotypic variance and covariance estimates for methane emissions and production traits and to examine the interrelationships among these traits. The cattle were fed a roughage diet at 1.2 times their estimated maintenance energy requirements and measured for methane production rate (MPR) in open circuit respiration chambers for 48 h. Traits studied included DMI during the methane measurement period, MPR, and methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), with means of 6.1 kg/d (SD 1.3), 132 g/d (SD 25), and 22.0 g/kg (SD 2.3) DMI, respectively. Four forms of residual methane production (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR, were evaluated. For the first 3 forms, predicted MPR was calculated using published equations. For the fourth (RMP), predicted MPR was obtained by regression of MPR on DMI. Growth and body composition traits evaluated were birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), final weight (FWT), and ultrasound measures of eye muscle area, rump fat depth, rib fat depth, and intramuscular fat. Heritability estimates were moderate for MPR (0.27 [SE 0.07]), MY (0.22 [SE 0.06]), and the RMP traits (0.19 [SE 0.06] for each), indicating that genetic improvement to reduce methane emissions is possible. The RMP traits and MY were strongly genetically correlated with each other (0.99 ± 0.01). The genetic correlation of MPR with MY as well as with the RMP traits was moderate (0.32 to 0.63). The genetic correlation between MPR and the growth traits (except BWT) was strong (0.79 to 0.86). These results indicate that

  1. Genetic association of growth traits with carcass and meat traits in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Tonussi, R L; Espigolan, R; Gordo, D G M; Magalhães, A F B; Venturini, G C; Baldi, F; de Oliveira, H N; Chardulo, L A L; Tonhati, H; de Albuquerque, L G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic associations of growth traits with carcass and meat traits in Nellore cattle. Data from male and female animals were used for weaning weight (WW; N = 241,416), yearling weight (YW, N = 126,596), weight gain from weaning to yearling (GWY, N = 78,687), and yearling hip height (YHH, N = 90,720), respectively; 877 male animals were used for hot carcass weight (HCW) and 884 for longissimus muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BT), marbling score (MS), and shear force (SF). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using three-trait animal models that included WW. The model for WW included direct and maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental, and residual effects as random effects; contemporary group as fixed effects; and age of dam at calving and age of animal as covariates (linear and quadratic effects). For the other traits, maternal effects and the effect of age of dam at calving were excluded from the model. Heritability ranged from 0.10 ± 0.12 (LMA) to 0.44 ± 0.007 (YW). Genetic correlations ranged from -0.40 ± 0.38 (WW x LMA) to 0.55 ± 0.10 (HCW x YW). Growth, carcass, and meat traits have sufficient genetic variability to be included as selection criteria in animal breeding programs. PMID:26782521

  2. Association between polymorphisms of the CRH and POMC genes with economic traits in Korean cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Seong, J; Kong, H S

    2015-01-01

    The corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and proo-piomelanocortin (POMC) genes are considered to play an important role in the growth and development of mammals. In this study, the bovine CRH and POMC genes were characterized to detect genetic variation at these loci in relation to economic traits in Korean cattle (Hanwoo). Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; C148T, A186G, A234C, G269A, G1030A, G1084A, A1136C, G1179C, and A1439G) were detected in the CRH gene, and six SNPs (C7017T, A7027T, C7050T, G7063T, C7160T, and C7221T) were detected in the POMC gene. Three SNPs in the CRH gene (G1030A, G1084A, and G1179C) were missense mutations, and three SNPs in the POMC gene (C7017T, A7027T, and C7160T) were missense mutations. Statistical analysis indicated that one CRH polymorphism (G1084A) was signifi-cantly (P = 0.05) associated with the longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA), and a POMC polymorphism (C7221T) significantly influenced LMA and marbling scores. A significant interaction was detected be-tween CRH and POMC in relation to carcass weight and LMA. These results indicate that CRH and POMC may be candidate genes for car-cass traits, and suggest that the interaction between CRH and POMC strongly affects carcass traits in cattle. PMID:26400272

  3. [Relationship between genotypes at MyoD locus and carcass traits in cattle].

    PubMed

    Tian, Lu; Xu, Shang-Zhong; Yue, Wen-Bin; Li, Jun-Ya; Gao, Xue; Ren, Hong-Yan

    2007-03-01

    A 261 bp sequence of the bovine MyoD gene intron 2 was cloned and was found to bear no similarities to the human MyoD gene sequence. Polymorphisms of the Myod gene in cattle including three Chinese breeds (Luxi cattle, Jinnan cattle and Qinchuan cattle) and four cross-breeding populations (Limousin x Luxi cattle, Simmental x Luxi cattle, Charolais x Luxi cattle and Angus x Luxi cattle) were detected by PCR-SSCP. Two SSCP alleles (A and B) were detected, which caused by a C-->T at 39 bp and a C-->G transition at 112 bp. Only two genotypes AA and AB occurred in the population. In Chinese local cattle, B allele was dominant, and this locus was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for the Charolais x Luxi cattle and Angus x Luxi cattle. The association of these polymorphisms with cattle carcass traits was analyzed using the general linear model (GLM). Statistical analysis revealed a higher value of living weight, carcass weight and loin eye area for individuals with genotype AA than AB (P < 0.05). Further studies on a bigger population size are needed to confirm the observed effect of MyoD genotypes on carcass quality traits. PMID:17369152

  4. Invited review: overview of new traits and phenotyping strategies in dairy cattle with a focus on functional traits.

    PubMed

    Egger-Danner, C; Cole, J B; Pryce, J E; Gengler, N; Heringstad, B; Bradley, A; Stock, K F

    2015-02-01

    For several decades, breeding goals in dairy cattle focussed on increased milk production. However, many functional traits have negative genetic correlations with milk yield, and reductions in genetic merit for health and fitness have been observed. Herd management has been challenged to compensate for these effects and to balance fertility, udder health and metabolic diseases against increased production to maximize profit without compromising welfare. Functional traits, such as direct information on cow health, have also become more important because of growing concern about animal well-being and consumer demands for healthy and natural products. There are major concerns about the impact of drugs used in veterinary medicine on the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria that can negatively impact human health. Sustainability and efficiency are also increasingly important because of the growing competition for high-quality, plant-based sources of energy and protein. Disruptions to global environments because of climate change may encourage yet more emphasis on these traits. To be successful, it is vital that there be a balance between the effort required for data recording and subsequent benefits. The motivation of farmers and other stakeholders involved in documentation and recording is essential to ensure good data quality. To keep labour costs reasonable, existing data sources should be used as much as possible. Examples include the use of milk composition data to provide additional information about the metabolic status or energy balance of the animals. Recent advances in the use of mid-infrared spectroscopy to measure milk have shown considerable promise, and may provide cost-effective alternative phenotypes for difficult or expensive-to-measure traits, such as feed efficiency. There are other valuable data sources in countries that have compulsory documentation of veterinary treatments and drug use. Additional sources of data outside of the farm

  5. Describing variation in carcass quality traits of crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, H R; Verbyla, A P; Deland, M P B; Pitchford, W S

    2009-02-01

    In order to investigate variation in carcass quality traits, during a four-year period, mature Hereford cows (637) were mated to 97 sires from seven breeds (Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin and Belgian Blue), resulting in 1144 calves. Carcass production traits (carcass weight = HCWt, fat depth = P8, eye muscle area = EMA, intramuscular fat = IMF) were obtained from these cattle that constitute the Australia's Southern Crossbreeding Project. Data were analysed using multi-variate sire model containing fixed effects of sex, sire breed, slaughter age nested within sexes. Random effects were sire, dam, management (location-year-post-weaning groups) and environmental effects. HCWt of South Devon, Belgian Blue, Limousin and unexpectedly, Angus were the heaviest on the average. Hereford calves were intermediate and Jersey and Wagyu were lighter on the average than others. Carcasses of the Belgian Blue and Limousin had low P8 and IMF, carcasses of Hereford and South Devon were intermediate and Angus, Jersey and Wagyu had high P8 and IMF. Management group effects were greatest especially for EMA and IMF. The sire variation was about 6, 6, 4 and 2% of total variation for HCWt, P8, EMA and IMF. Heritability ranged from 0.20 to 0.37 (carcass weight). The genetic correlation between the two fat depots was not as high (0.18) as expected. Results from this study suggest that strategies to increase genetic potential for HCWt would increase the genetic potential for EMA but may reduce marbling and tend to slightly increase P8. All phenotypic correlations were positive, although not large. PMID:19579950

  6. Relationships between fed cattle traits and Igenity panel scores.

    PubMed

    DeVuyst, E A; Biermacher, J T; Lusk, J L; Mateescu, R G; Blanton, J B; Swigert, J S; Cook, B J; Reuter, R R

    2011-05-01

    Although several previous studies have identified associations between cattle carcass characteristics and various SNP, comparatively little work has sought to validate the marker panels currently sold and marketed by commercial genotyping companies. Panels typically use a handful of SNP, but these range from as few as 2 to more than 100. Data from 764 commercially fed steers and heifers were used to assess the relationships of growth and carcass traits and Igenity panel scores for ADG, marbling (or percentage of USDA Choice), rib-eye area (REA), tenderness, fat thickness, and USDA Yield grade (YG). Results revealed statistically significant, but low, correlations between carcass measurements and corresponding Igenity panel scores. Genetic correlations were computed among the various Igenity panels and demonstrated either that several common markers existed across the panels or that markers across panels were in high linkage disequilibrium. Across all breeds, the genotypic correlations between the Igenity panel scores for ADG, REA, marbling, and YG with observed ADG, REA, USDA Quality grade, and YG at slaughter were 0.51, 0.38, 0.63, and 0.59 (P < 0.01), respectively. The partial effects of the Igenity marbling panel persisted in a multivariate regression model. Net return was significantly affected only by marbling panel score; a 1-unit increase in marbling panel score increased the net return by an estimated $7.53 per animal. PMID:21278104

  7. Association of the expression levels in the skeletal muscle and a SNP in the CDC10 gene with growth-related traits in Japanese Black beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Tong, B; Li, G P; Sasaki, S; Muramatsu, Y; Ohta, T; Kose, H; Yamada, T

    2015-04-01

    Growth performance, as well as marbling, is the main breeding objective in Japanese Black (JB) cattle, the major beef breed in Japan. The septin 7 (CDC10) gene, involved in cellular proliferation, is located within a genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for growth-related traits. In this study, we first showed that the expression levels of the CDC10 gene in the skeletal muscle were higher in JB steers with extremely high growth performance than in JB steers with extremely low growth, using real-time PCR. Further, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), NC_007302.5:g.63264949G>C, was detected in the promoter region of the CDC10 gene and genotyped in three Japanese cattle breeds (known as 'Wagyu' in Japan) and the Brown Swiss dairy cattle breed. All four cattle populations showed a moderate genetic diversity at the SNP of the CDC10 gene. An association analysis indicated that the SNP was associated with growth-related traits in JB cattle. These findings suggest possible effects of the expression levels in the skeletal muscle and the SNP of the CDC10 gene on growth-related traits in JB cattle. The CDC10 SNP may be useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase beef productivity in JB beef cattle. PMID:25691006

  8. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for carcass traits in a Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle population.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Y; Watanabe, T; Fujinaka, K; Iwamoto, E; Sugimoto, Y

    2006-02-01

    To detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) that influence economically important traits in a purebred Japanese Black cattle population, we performed a preliminary genome-wide scan using 187 microsatellite markers across a paternal half-sib family composed of 258 offspring. We located six QTL at the 1% chromosome-wise level on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 4, 6, 13, 14 and 21. A second screen of these six QTL regions using 138 additional paternal offspring half-sib from the same sire, provided further support for five QTL: carcass weight on BTA14 (22-39 cM), one for rib thickness on BTA6 (27-58 cM) and three for beef marbling score (BMS) on BTA4 (59-67 cM), BTA6 (68-89 cM) and BTA21 (75-84 cM). The location of QTL for subcutaneous fat thickness on BTA13 was not supported by the second screen (P > 0.05). We determined that the combined contribution of the three QTLs for BMS was 10.1% of the total variance. The combined phenotypic average of these three Q was significantly different (P < 0.001) from those of other allele combinations. Analysis of additional half-sib families will be necessary to confirm these QTL. PMID:16441296

  9. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance quantitative trait loci on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Naveen K; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S; Sahana, Goutam

    2015-12-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve. Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis and milk yield on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50K; Illumina, San Diego, CA), which identifies 1,568 single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both clinical mastitis and milk yield peaked in the 26- to 40-Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single-variant association analyses were carried out in the QTL region using whole sequence level variants imputed from references of 2,036 HD genotypes (BovineHD BeadChip; Illumina) and 242 whole-genome sequences. The milk QTL were also segregating in RDC and JER on the BTA20-targeted region; however, an indication of differences in the causal factor(s) was observed across breeds. A previously reported F279Y mutation (rs385640152) within the growth hormone

  10. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci underlying sensory meat quality traits in three French beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Allais, S; Levéziel, H; Hocquette, J F; Rousset, S; Denoyelle, C; Journaux, L; Renand, G

    2014-10-01

    Improving the traits that underlie meat quality is a major challenge in the beef industry. The objective of this paper was to detect QTL linked to sensory meat quality traits in 3 French beef cattle breeds. We genotyped 1,059, 1,219, and 947 young bulls and their sires belonging to the Charolais, Limousin, and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds, respectively, using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). After estimating relevant genetic parameters using VCE software, we performed a linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis on 4 meat traits: intramuscular fat content, muscle lightness, shear force, and tenderness score. Heritability coefficients largely ranged between 0.10 and 0.24; however, they reached a maximum of 0.44 and 0.50 for intramuscular fat content and tenderness score, respectively, in the Charolais breed. The 2 meat texture traits, shear force and tenderness score, were strongly genetically correlated (-0.91 in the Charolais and Limousin breed and -0.86 in the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed), indicating that they are 2 different measures of approximately the same trait. The genetic correlation between tenderness and intramuscular fat content differed across breeds. Using a significance threshold of 5 × 10(-4) for QTL detection, we found more than 200 significant positions across the 29 autosomal chromosomes for the 4 traits in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds; in contrast, there were only 78 significant positions in the Limousin breed. Few QTL were common across breeds. We detected QTL for intramuscular fat content located near the myostatin gene in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds. No mutation in this gene has been reported for the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed; therefore, it suggests that an unknown mutation could be segregating in this breed. We confirmed that, in certain breeds, markers in the calpastatin and calpain 1 gene regions affect tenderness. We also found new QTL as several QTL on chromosome 3 that are

  11. Genetic correlations between visual slaughter conformation scores and growth and reproductive traits in Canchim cattle.

    PubMed

    Borba, L H F; Baldi, F; Feitosa, F L B; da Silva, L O C; Pereira, A S C; Alencar, M M

    2016-01-01

    We obtained heritability and (co)variance component estimates for slaughter conformation scores at 420 days of age (SCS420), age at calving (first, AFC; second, ASC), calving occurrence until 38 months of age (CP38), weight at 420 days of age (W420), and scrotal circumference at 420 days (SC420) in Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu) cattle. A total of 23,168 records of Canchim animals, including 12,493 females and 10,675 males, were analyzed. SCS420 indicated carcass structure, muscle development, and subcutaneous fat deposition. The slaughter conformation score of each animal was relative to the whole contemporary group; 1 corresponded to the lowest expression of the trait and 6 to the highest. Heritabilities, and genetic and residual correlation estimates between SCS420 and reproductive and weight traits, were estimated by multitrait analyses using an animal model with Bayesian inference, employing a linear model for AFC, ASC, SC420, and W420 and a threshold model for CP38 and SCS420. Heritability estimates for SCS420, AFC, ASC, CP38, W420, and SC420 were 0.11, 0.15, 0.15, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.30, respectively. Genetic correlation estimates between SCS420 and the other traits were 0.08 (AFC), 0.58 (ASC), 0.08 (CP38), 0.43 (W420), and 0.17 (SC420). Visual slaughter conformation scores respond to individual selection and can be used as selection criteria in Canchim cattle. Selection to improve sexual precocity would not be effective in improving carcass conformation and composition, and selection for animals with high breeding values for yearling weight may improve slaughter conformation at the yearling stage. PMID:27323049

  12. Relationship of polymorphisms within metabolic genes and carcass traits in crossbred beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Rempel, L A; Casas, E; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L

    2012-04-01

    Feed intake has been shown to alter neurological signaling related to feeding behavior and subsequent activation of adipogenic mechanisms. Fat characteristics are pivotal for carcass and meat quality, including marbling score, flavor, and tenderness. The objective of this study was to establish the association of SNP, from genes functionally related to fat metabolism and obesity, with growth, fat, and carcass traits in steers. A total of 33 informative SNP from candidate genes [cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), DNA-protein kinase (DNA-PK), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and fat mass and obesity associated (FTO)] were used to genotype crossbred steers (n = 620), and associations with growth and carcass traits were assessed. Five markers within the DNA-PK gene were associated (P < 0.05) with fat thickness. One of these SNP was also associated (P < 0.05) with percent choice, yield grade, and retail product yield. Additionally, 2 unique DNA-PK SNP were associated (P < 0.05) with marbling score. Three haplotypes were observed using these SNP and were significantly (P = 0.0014) associated with marbling score. Slaughter weight, ADG, and HCW were associated (P < 0.05) with SNP from CART, FTO, and FASN. Data from this study indicate that polymorphisms within candidate genes have an indirect relationship with lipogenesis. Replication of these results within other populations will be necessary to establish if these markers will be successful as predictors of fatness components and carcass traits in cattle. PMID:22100592

  13. Genetic parameters for carcass traits and body weight using a Bayesian approach in the Canchim cattle.

    PubMed

    Meirelles, S L C; Mokry, F B; Espasandín, A C; Dias, M A D; Baena, M M; de A Regitano, L C

    2016-01-01

    Correlation between genetic parameters and factors such as backfat thickness (BFT), rib eye area (REA), and body weight (BW) were estimated for Canchim beef cattle raised in natural pastures of Brazil. Data from 1648 animals were analyzed using multi-trait (BFT, REA, and BW) animal models by the Bayesian approach. This model included the effects of contemporary group, age, and individual heterozygosity as covariates. In addition, direct additive genetic and random residual effects were also analyzed. Heritability estimated for BFT (0.16), REA (0.50), and BW (0.44) indicated their potential for genetic improvements and response to selection processes. Furthermore, genetic correlations between BW and the remaining traits were high (P > 0.50), suggesting that selection for BW could improve REA and BFT. On the other hand, genetic correlation between BFT and REA was low (P = 0.39 ± 0.17), and included considerable variations, suggesting that these traits can be jointly included as selection criteria without influencing each other. We found that REA and BFT responded to the selection processes, as measured by ultrasound. Therefore, selection for yearling weight results in changes in REA and BFT. PMID:27323151

  14. Exploring Biological Relationships Between Calving Traits in Primiparous Cattle with a Bayesian Recursive Model

    PubMed Central

    de Maturana, Evangelina López; Wu, Xiao-Lin; Gianola, Daniel; Weigel, Kent A.; Rosa, Guilherme J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Structural equation models (SEMs) of a recursive type with heterogeneous structural coefficients were used to explore biological relationships between gestation length (GL), calving difficulty (CD), and perinatal mortality, also known as stillbirth (SB), in cattle, with the last two traits having categorical expression. An acyclic model was assumed, where recursive effects existed from the GL phenotype to the liabilities (latent variables) to CD and SB and from the liability to CD to that of SB considering four periods regarding GL. The data contained GL, CD, and SB records from 90,393 primiparous cows, sired by 1122 bulls, distributed over 935 herd-calving year classes. Low genetic correlations between GL and the other calving traits were found, whereas the liabilities to CD and SB were high and positively correlated, genetically. The model indicated that gestations of ∼274 days of length (3 days shorter than the average) would lead to the lowest CD and SB and confirmed the existence of an intermediate optimum of GL with respect to these traits. PMID:18984571

  15. Estimated genetic parameters for carcass traits of Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W

    2002-04-01

    Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from feedlot and carcass data collected from Brahman calves (n = 504) in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Data were analyzed using animal models in MTDFREML. Models included contemporary group (n = 44; groups of calves of the same sex, fed in the same pen, slaughtered on the same day) as a fixed effect and calf age in days at slaughter as a continuous variable. Estimated feedlot trait heritabilities were 0.64, 0.67, 0.47, and 0.26 for ADG, hip height at slaughter, slaughter weight, and shrink. The USDA yield grade estimated heritability was 0.71; heritabilities for component traits of yield grade, including hot carcass weight, adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness, loin muscle area, and percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat were 0.55, 0.63, 0.44, and 0.46, respectively. Heritability estimates for dressing percentage, marbling score, USDA quality grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.77, 0.44, 0.47, 0.71, 0.5, and 0.54, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations of adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness with ADG, slaughter weight, marbling score, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, and yield grade (0.49, 0.46, 0.56, 0.63, and 0.93, respectively) were generally larger than most literature estimates. Estimated genetic correlations of marbling score with ADG, percentage shrink, loin muscle area, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, USDA yield grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.28, 0.49, 0.44, 0.27, 0.45, -0.43, 0.27, and 0.43, respectively. Results indicate that sufficient genetic variation exists within the Brahman breed for design and implementation of effective selection programs for important carcass quality and yield traits. PMID:12008662

  16. Association analysis of bovine Foxa2 gene single sequence variant and haplotype combinations with growth traits in Chinese cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Li, Mijie; Wang, Shaoqiang; Xu, Yao; Lan, Xianyong; Li, Zhuanjian; Lei, Chuzhao; Yang, Dongying; Jia, Yutang; Chen, Hong

    2014-02-25

    Forkhead box A2 (Foxa2) has been recognized as one of the most potent transcriptional activators that is implicated in the control of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. However, similar researches about the effects of genetic variations of Foxa2 gene on growth traits are lacking. Therefore, this study detected Foxa2 gene polymorphisms by DNA pool sequencing, PCR-RFLP and PCR-ACRS methods in 822 individuals from three Chinese cattle breeds. The results showed that four sequence variants (SVs) were screened, including two mutations (SV1, g. 7005 C>T and SV2, g. 7044 C>G) in intron 4, one mutation (SV3, g. 8449 A>G) in exon 5 and one mutation (SV4, g. 8537 T>C) in the 3'UTR. Notably, association analysis of the single mutations with growth traits in total individuals (at 24months) revealed that significant statistical difference was found in four SVs, and SV4 locus was highly significantly associated with growth traits throughout all three breeds (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Meanwhile, haplotype combination CCCCAGTC also indicated remarkably associated to better chest girth and body weight in Jiaxian Red cattle (P<0.05). We herein described a comprehensive study on the variability of bovine Foxa2 gene that was predictive of molecular markers in cattle breeding for the first time. PMID:24333857

  17. Genetic analysis of carcass traits in beef cattle using random regression models.

    PubMed

    Englishby, T M; Banos, G; Moore, K L; Coffey, M P; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-04-01

    Livestock mature at different rates depending, in part, on their genetic merit; therefore, the optimal age at slaughter for progeny of certain sires may differ. The objective of the present study was to examine sire-level genetic profiles for carcass weight, carcass conformation, and carcass fat in cattle of multiple beef and dairy breeds, including crossbreeds. Slaughter records from 126,214 heifers and 124,641 steers aged between 360 and 1,200 d and from 86,089 young bulls aged between 360 and 720 d were used in the analysis; animals were from 15,127 sires. Variance components for each trait across age at slaughter were generated using sire random regression models that included quadratic polynomials for fixed and random effects; heterogeneous residual variances were assumed across ages. Heritability estimates across genders ranged from 0.08 (±0.02) to 0.34 (±0.02) for carcass weight, from 0.24 (±0.02) to 0.42 (±0.01) for conformation, and from 0.16 (±0.03) to 0.40 (±0.02) for fat score. Genetic correlations within each trait across ages weakened as the interval between ages compared lengthened but were all >0.64, suggesting a similar genetic background for each trait across different ages. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the additive genetic covariance matrix revealed genetic variability among animals in their growth profiles for carcass traits, although most of the genetic variability was associated with the height of the growth profile. At the same age, a positive genetic correlation (0.60 to 0.78; SE ranged from 0.01 to 0.04) existed between carcass weight and conformation, whereas negative genetic correlations existed between fatness and both conformation (-0.46 to 0.08; SE ranged from 0.02 to 0.09) and carcass weight (-0.48 to -0.16; SE ranged from 0.02 to 0.14) at the same age. The estimated genetic parameters in the present study indicate genetic variability in the growth trajectory in cattle, which can be exploited through breeding programs and

  18. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) polymorphisms associated with carcass traits of meat in Korean cattle

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hyun Sub; Yoon, Du-Hak; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Park, Byung Lae; Choi, Yoo Hyun; Chung, Eui Ryong; Cho, Yong Min; Park, Eng Woo; Cheong, Il-Cheong; Oh, Sung-Jong; Yi, Sung-Gon; Park, Taesung; Shin, Hyoung Doo

    2006-01-01

    Background Cold carcass weight (CW) and longissimus muscle area (EMA) are the major quantitative traits in beef cattle. In this study, we found several polymorphisms of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene and examined the association of polymorphisms with carcass traits (CW and EMA) in Korean native cattle (Hanwoo). Results By direct DNA sequencing in 24 unrelated Korean cattle, we identified 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms within the 9 kb full gene region, including the 1.5 kb promoter region. Among them, six polymorphic sites were selected for genotyping in our beef cattle (n = 428) and five marker haplotypes (frequency > 0.1) were identified. Statistical analysis revealed that -4241A>T showed significant associations with CW and EMA. Conclusion Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in GHRH might be one of the important genetic factors that influence carcass yield in beef cattle. Sequence variation/haplotype information identified in this study would provide valuable information for the production of a commercial line of beef cattle. PMID:16749938

  19. Multi-Trait GWAS and New Candidate Genes Annotation for Growth Curve Parameters in Brahman Cattle.

    PubMed

    Crispim, Aline Camporez; Kelly, Matthew John; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; Fonseca e Silva, Fabyano; Fortes, Marina Rufino Salinas; Wenceslau, Raphael Rocha; Moore, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of beef cattle growth cannot be limited simply to the genome-wide association study (GWAS) for body weight at any specific ages, but should be extended to a more general purpose by considering the whole growth trajectory over time using a growth curve approach. For such an approach, the parameters that are used to describe growth curves were treated as phenotypes under a GWAS model. Data from 1,255 Brahman cattle that were weighed at birth, 6, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months of age were analyzed. Parameter estimates, such as mature weight (A) and maturity rate (K) from nonlinear models are utilized as substitutes for the original body weights for the GWAS analysis. We chose the best nonlinear model to describe the weight-age data, and the estimated parameters were used as phenotypes in a multi-trait GWAS. Our aims were to identify and characterize associated SNP markers to indicate SNP-derived candidate genes and annotate their function as related to growth processes in beef cattle. The Brody model presented the best goodness of fit, and the heritability values for the parameter estimates for mature weight (A) and maturity rate (K) were 0.23 and 0.32, respectively, proving that these traits can be a feasible alternative when the objective is to change the shape of growth curves within genetic improvement programs. The genetic correlation between A and K was -0.84, indicating that animals with lower mature body weights reached that weight at younger ages. One hundred and sixty seven (167) and two hundred and sixty two (262) significant SNPs were associated with A and K, respectively. The annotated genes closest to the most significant SNPs for A had direct biological functions related to muscle development (RAB28), myogenic induction (BTG1), fetal growth (IL2), and body weights (APEX2); K genes were functionally associated with body weight, body height, average daily gain (TMEM18), and skeletal muscle development (SMN1). Candidate

  20. Multi-Trait GWAS and New Candidate Genes Annotation for Growth Curve Parameters in Brahman Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Crispim, Aline Camporez; Kelly, Matthew John; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; e Silva, Fabyano Fonseca; Fortes, Marina Rufino Salinas; Wenceslau, Raphael Rocha; Moore, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of beef cattle growth cannot be limited simply to the genome-wide association study (GWAS) for body weight at any specific ages, but should be extended to a more general purpose by considering the whole growth trajectory over time using a growth curve approach. For such an approach, the parameters that are used to describe growth curves were treated as phenotypes under a GWAS model. Data from 1,255 Brahman cattle that were weighed at birth, 6, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months of age were analyzed. Parameter estimates, such as mature weight (A) and maturity rate (K) from nonlinear models are utilized as substitutes for the original body weights for the GWAS analysis. We chose the best nonlinear model to describe the weight-age data, and the estimated parameters were used as phenotypes in a multi-trait GWAS. Our aims were to identify and characterize associated SNP markers to indicate SNP-derived candidate genes and annotate their function as related to growth processes in beef cattle. The Brody model presented the best goodness of fit, and the heritability values for the parameter estimates for mature weight (A) and maturity rate (K) were 0.23 and 0.32, respectively, proving that these traits can be a feasible alternative when the objective is to change the shape of growth curves within genetic improvement programs. The genetic correlation between A and K was -0.84, indicating that animals with lower mature body weights reached that weight at younger ages. One hundred and sixty seven (167) and two hundred and sixty two (262) significant SNPs were associated with A and K, respectively. The annotated genes closest to the most significant SNPs for A had direct biological functions related to muscle development (RAB28), myogenic induction (BTG1), fetal growth (IL2), and body weights (APEX2); K genes were functionally associated with body weight, body height, average daily gain (TMEM18), and skeletal muscle development (SMN1). Candidate

  1. Validation and Estimation of Additive Genetic Variation Associated with DNA Tests for Quantitative Beef Cattle Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC) has been involved in the validation of commercial DNA tests for quantitative beef quality traits since their first appearance on the U.S. market in the early 2000s. The NBCEC Advisory Council initially requested that the NBCEC set up a syst...

  2. Proopiomelanocortin gene polymorphisms and its association with meat quality traits by ultrasound measurement in Chinese cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Li, Linqiang; Xin, Yaping

    2013-10-15

    Ultrasound technology was used to measure live animal meat traits instead of true carcass meat traits for beef production and cattle breeding by an increasing number of institutions. In this study, we analyzed the association between genetic polymorphisms of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and ultrasound measurement traits in Chinese cattle. Using direct DNA sequencing in 322 individuals of 7 different cattle subpopulation, 7 SNPs were identified for genotyping within 790bp region of intron 2 and exon 3 of POMC. 6586 T>G in intron 2 and 6769 C>T and 7216 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ultrasound backfat thickness (UBF) (P<0.05) and ultrasound loin muscle area (ULMA) (P<0.01) in the total population; 6694 C>T, 6706 T>C, 6796 C>T and 6810 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ULMA (P<0.0001) in the total population. These results clearly suggest that these SNPs of POMC be benefit for selection of individuals with good quality meat in Chinese cattle breeding program. Following validation in other populations and breeds, these markers could be incorporated into breeding programs to increase the rate of improvement in carcass and meat quality traits. PMID:23872232

  3. FTO gene variants are associated with growth and carcass traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Jevsinek Skok, D; Kunej, T; Kovac, M; Malovrh, S; Potocnik, K; Petric, N; Zgur, S; Dovc, P; Horvat, S

    2016-04-01

    An important aim in animal breeding is the improvement of growth and meat quality traits. Previous studies have demonstrated that genetic variants in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have a relatively large effect on human obesity as well as on body composition in rodents and, more recently, in livestock. Here, we examined the effects of the FTO gene variants on growth and carcass traits in the Slovenian population of Simmental (SS) and Brown (SB) cattle. To validate and identify new polymorphisms, we used sequencing, PCR-RFLP analysis and TaqMan assays in the SS breed and FTO gene variants data from the Illumina BovineSNP50 v1 array for the SB breed. Sequencing of the eight samples of progeny-tested SS sires detected 108 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine FTO gene. Statistical analyses between growth and carcass traits and 34 FTO polymorphisms revealed significant association of FTO variants with lean meat percentage in both breeds. Additionally, FTO SNPs analyzed in SS cattle were associated with fat percentage, bone weight and live weight at slaughter. The FTO gene can thus be regarded as a candidate gene for the marker-assisted selection programs in our and possibly other populations of cattle. Future studies in cattle might reveal novel roles for the FTO gene in shaping carcass traits in livestock species as well as body composition control in other mammals. PMID:26708680

  4. Heritability of rectal temperature and genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress affects production and reproduction in dairy cattle. Genetic selection for body temperature might help to decrease the effects of heat stress on those traits. Objectives of the current study were a) to estimate genetic parameters of rectal temperature in dairy cows under heat stress cond...

  5. Identification of Genetic Associations and Functional Polymorphisms of SAA1 Gene Affecting Milk Production Traits in Dairy Cattle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaohua; Gao, Yahui; Zhang, Shengli; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao

    2016-01-01

    Our initial RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that the Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene was differentially expressed in the mammary glands of lactating Holstein cows with extremely high versus low phenotypic values of milk protein and fat percentage. To further validate the genetic effect and potential molecular mechanisms of SAA1 gene involved in regulating milk production traits in dairy cattle, we herein performed a study through genotype-phenotype associations. Six identified SNPs were significantly associated with one or more milk production traits (0.00002< P < 0.0025), providing additional evidence for the potential role of SAA1 variants in milk production traits in dairy cows. Subsequently, both luciferase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) clearly demonstrated that the allele A of g.-963C>A increased the promoter activity by binding the PARP factor while allele C did not. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the secondary structure of SAA protein changed by the substitution A/G in the locus c. +2510A>G. Our findings were the first to reveal the significant associations of the SAA1 gene with milk production traits, providing basis for further biological function validation, and two identified SNPs, g.-963C>A and c. +2510A>G, may be considered as genetic markers for breeding in dairy cattle. PMID:27610623

  6. Genetic parameters for milk production traits and breeding goals for Gir dairy cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prata, M A; Faro, L E; Moreira, H L; Verneque, R S; Vercesi Filho, A E; Peixoto, M G C D; Cardoso, V L

    2015-01-01

    To implement an animal breeding program, it is important to define the production circumstances of the animals of interest to determine which traits of economic interest will be selected for the breeding goal. The present study defined breeding goals and proposed selection indices for milk production and quality traits of Gir dairy cattle. First, a bioeconomic model was developed to calculate economic values. The genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated based on records from 22,468 first-lactation Gir dairy cows and their crosses for which calving occurred between 1970 and 2011. Statistical analyses were carried out for the animal model, with multitrait analyses using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Two situations were created in the present study to define the breeding goals: 1) including only milk yield in the breeding goal (HGL1) and 2) including fat and protein in addition to the milk yield (HGL2). The heritability estimates for milk, protein, and fat production were 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.26 ± 0.02, and 0.24 ± 0.02, respectively. All phenotypic and genetic correlations were highly positive. The economic values for milk, fat, and protein were US$0.18, US$0.27, and US$7.04, respectively. The expected economic responses for HGL2 and for HGL1 were US$126.30 and US$79.82, respectively. These results indicate that milk component traits should be included in a selection index to rank animals evaluated in the National Gir Dairy Breeding Program developed in Brazil. PMID:26505409

  7. Novel polymorphisms of the APOA2 gene and its promoter region affect body traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Caixia; Cai, Hanfang; Xu, Yao; Lan, Xianyong; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong

    2013-12-01

    Apolipoprotein A-II (APOA2) is one of the major constituents of high-density lipoprotein and plays a critical role in lipid metabolism and obesity. However, similar research for the bovine APOA2 gene is lacking. In this study, polymorphisms of the bovine APOA2 gene and its promoter region were detected in 1021 cows from four breeds by sequencing and PCR-RFLP methods. Totally, we detected six novel mutations which included one mutation in the promoter region, two mutations in the exons and three mutations in the introns. There were four polymorphisms within APOA2 gene were analyzed. The allele A, T, T and G frequencies of the four loci were predominant in the four breeds when in separate or combinations analysis which suggested cows with those alleles to be more adapted to the steppe environment. The association analysis indicated three SVs in Nangyang cows, two SVs in Qinchun cows and the 9 haplotypes in Nangyang cows were significantly associated with body traits (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The results of this study suggested the bovine APOA2 gene may be a strong candidate gene for body traits in the cattle breeding program. PMID:24004543

  8. Genetic parameter estimation for pre- and post-weaning traits in Brahman cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Giovana; Buzanskas, Marcos Eli; Guidolin, Diego Gomes Freire; Grossi, Daniela do Amaral; Bonifácio, Alexandre da Silva; Lôbo, Raysildo Barbosa; da Fonseca, Ricardo; Oliveira, João Ademir de; Munari, Danísio Prado

    2014-10-01

    Beef cattle producers in Brazil use body weight traits as breeding program selection criteria due to their great economic importance. The objectives of this study were to evaluate different animal models, estimate genetic parameters, and define the most fitting model for Brahman cattle body weight standardized at 120 (BW120), 210 (BW210), 365 (BW365), 450 (BW450), and 550 (BW550) days of age. To estimate genetic parameters, single-, two-, and multi-trait analyses were performed using the animal model. The likelihood ratio test was verified between all models. For BW120 and BW210, additive direct genetic, maternal genetic, maternal permanent environment, and residual effects were considered, while for BW365 and BW450, additive direct genetic, maternal genetic, and residual effects were considered. Finally, for BW550, additive direct genetic and residual effects were considered. Estimates of direct heritability for BW120 were similar in all analyses; however, for the other traits, multi-trait analysis resulted in higher estimates. The maternal heritability and proportion of maternal permanent environmental variance to total variance were minimal in multi-trait analyses. Genetic, environmental, and phenotypic correlations were of high magnitude between all traits. Multi-trait analyses would aid in the parameter estimation for body weight at older ages because they are usually affected by a lower number of animals with phenotypic information due to culling and mortality. PMID:25037588

  9. Effect of Genetic Variations within the I-mfa Gene on the Growth Traits of Chinese Cattle.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Li, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Fang, Xing-Tang; Lan, Xian-Yong; Qi, Xing-Lei; Chen, Hong

    2016-10-01

    I-mfa (inhibitor of the MyoD family a) is a transcription modulator that binds to MyoD family members and inhibits their transcriptional activities. It is highly expressed in the sclerotome and plays an important role in the patterning of the somite early in development. In this study, the polymorphisms of the bovine I-mfa gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA pool sequencing methods in 541 individuals from three Chinese cattle breeds. The results showed that P3 locus had two novel complete linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (NC_007324.4:g.12284A>G and g.12331T>C), resulting in a missense mutation p.S(AGC)113G(GGC) and a synonymous mutation p.H(CAT)128H(CAC), respectively. P4 locus had a novel SNP (NC_007324.4: g.16432C>A), which resulted in a nonsense mutation p.C(TGC)241X(TGA). The statistical analyses indicated that the three SNPs, are associated with the phenotypic traits in Luxi (LX), Qinchuan (QC), and Jiaxian (JX) cattle population (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The mutant-type variants were superior for growth traits; the heterozygote diplotype was associated with higher growth traits compared to wild-type homozygote. Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms in the I-mfa gene are associated with growth traits and may be used for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding program. PMID:27565872

  10. Expression of the SIRT2 Gene and Its Relationship with Body Size Traits in Qinchuan Cattle (Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Lin-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Ran; Liu, Gui-Yao; Zan, Lin-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Silent information regulator 2 (SIRT2) is a member of the sirtuin family of class III NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)-dependent protein deacetylases and may regulate senescence, metabolism and apoptosis. The aims of this study were to investigate whether the SIRT2 gene could be used as a candidate gene in the breeding of Qinchuan cattle. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that among all types of tissue that were analyzed, the highest mRNA expression levels of the gene were found in subcutaneous fat. DNA sequencing of 468 individual Qinchuan cattle identified two novel, single nucleotide polymorphisms (g.19501 C > T and g.19518 C > T) in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the SIRT2 gene. The frequencies of SNP g.19501 C > T and g.19518 C > T were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium in all the samples (chi-square test, χ2 < χ0.052). An association analysis showed that the two loci were significantly correlated with some body size traits and the H2H2 (-CT-CT-) diplotypes performed better than other combinations. These results indicated that the variations in the SIRT2 gene and their corresponding genotypes may be considered as molecular markers for economic traits in cattle breeding. PMID:25622258

  11. Genome-wide association analyses for growth and feed efficiency traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Lu, D; Miller, S; Sargolzaei, M; Kelly, M; Vander Voort, G; Caldwell, T; Wang, Z; Plastow, G; Moore, S

    2013-08-01

    A genome-wide association study using the Illumina 50K BeadChip included 38,745 SNP on 29 BTA analyzed on 751 animals, including 33 purebreds and 718 crossbred cattle. Genotypes and 6 production traits: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), ADG, DMI, midtest metabolic BW (MMWT), and residual feed intake (RFI), were used to estimate effects of individual SNP on the traits. At the genome-wide level false discovery rate (FDR < 10%), 41 and 5 SNP were found significantly associated with BWT and WWT, respectively. Thirty-three of them were located on BTA6. At a less stringent significance level (P < 0.001), 277 and 27 SNP were in association with single traits and multiple traits, respectively. Seventy-three SNP on BTA6 and were mostly associated with BW-related traits, and heavily located around 30 to 50Mb. Markers that significantly affected multiple traits appeared to impact them in same direction. In terms of the size of SNP effect, the significant SNP (P < 0.001) explained between 0.26 and 8.06% of the phenotypic variation in the traits. Pairs of traits with low genetic correlation, such as ADG vs. RFI or DMI vs. BWT, appeared to be controlled by 2 groups of SNP; 1 of them affected the traits in same direction, the other worked in opposite direction. This study provides useful information to further assist the identification of chromosome regions and subsequently genes affecting growth and feed efficiency traits in beef cattle. PMID:23851991

  12. Genomic heritabilities and genomic estimated breeding values for methane traits in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B J; Donoghue, K A; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bird-Gardiner, T; Herd, R M; Arthur, P F

    2016-03-01

    Enteric methane emissions from beef cattle are a significant component of total greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. The variation between beef cattle in methane emissions is partly genetic, whether measured as methane production, methane yield (methane production/DMI), or residual methane production (observed methane production - expected methane production), with heritabilities ranging from 0.19 to 0.29. This suggests methane emissions could be reduced by selection. Given the high cost of measuring methane production from individual beef cattle, genomic selection is the most feasible approach to achieve this reduction in emissions. We derived genomic EBV (GEBV) for methane traits from a reference set of 747 Angus animals phenotyped for methane traits and genotyped for 630,000 SNP. The accuracy of GEBV was tested in a validation set of 273 Angus animals phenotyped for the same traits. Accuracies of GEBV ranged from 0.29 ± 0.06 for methane yield and 0.35 ± 0.06 for residual methane production. Selection on GEBV using the genomic prediction equations derived here could reduce emissions for Angus cattle by roughly 5% over 10 yr. PMID:27065252

  13. Genome-wide association study for behavior, type traits, and muscular development in Charolais beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Vallée, A; Daures, J; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2016-06-01

    Behavior, type traits, and muscular development are of interest for beef cattle breeding. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enable the identification of candidate genes, which enables gene-based selection and provides insight in the genetic architecture of these traits. The objective of the current study was to perform a GWAS for 3 behavior traits, 12 type traits, and muscular development in Charolais cattle. Behavior traits, including aggressiveness at parturition, aggressiveness during gestation period, and maternal care, were scored by farmers. Type traits, including udder conformation, teat, feet and legs, and locomotion, were scored by trained classifiers. Data used in the GWAS consisted of 3,274 cows with phenotypic records and genotyping information for 44,930 SNP. When SNP had a false discovery rate (FDR) smaller than 0.05, they were referred to as significant. When SNP had a FDR between 0.05 and 0.20, they were referred to as suggestive. Four significant and 12 suggestive regions were detected for aggressiveness during gestation, maternal care, udder balance, teat thinness, teat length, foot angle, foot depth, and locomotion. These 4 significant and 12 suggestive regions were not supported by other significant SNP in close proximity. No SNP with major effects were detected for behavior and type traits, and SNP associations for these traits were spread across the genome, suggesting that behavior and type traits were influenced by many genes, each explaining a small part of genetic variance. The GWAS identified 1 region on chromosome 2 significantly associated with muscular development, which included the myostatin gene (), which is known to affect muscularity. No other regions associated with muscular development were found. Results showed that the myostatin region associated with muscular development had pleiotropic effects on udder volume, teat thinness, rear leg, and leg angle. PMID:27285908

  14. Copy number variations related to reproduction traits in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) is one of important reproduction traits that affect overall profitability in dairy industry. However, historical selection for production and conformation rather than reproduction has resulted in a decline in cow fertility. Genomic structural variation including copy nu...

  15. Adaptive traits of indigenous cattle breeds: The Mediterranean Baladi as a case study.

    PubMed

    Shabtay, Ariel

    2015-11-01

    Generally taken, breeds of Bos taurus ancestry are considered more productive, in comparison with Bos indicus derived breeds that present enhanced hardiness and disease resistance, low nutritional requirements and higher capability of feed utilization. While breeds of B. taurus have been mostly selected for intensive production systems, indigenous cattle, developed mostly from indicine and African taurines, flourish in extensive habitats. Worldwide demographic and economic processes face animal production with new challenges - the increasing demand for animal food products. Intensification of animal husbandry is thus a desired goal in stricken parts of the world. An introduction of productive traits to indigenous breeds might serve to generate improved biological and economic efficiencies. For this to succeed, the genetic merit of traits like efficiency of feed utilization and product quality should be revealed, encouraging the conservation initiatives of indigenous cattle populations, many of which are already extinct and endangered. Moreover, to overcome potential genetic homogeneity, controlled breeding practices should be undertaken. The Baladi cattle are a native local breed found throughout the Mediterranean basin. Purebred Baladi animals are rapidly vanishing, as more European breeds are being introduced or used for backcrosses leading to improved production. The superiority of Baladi over large-framed cattle, in feedlot and on Mediterranean pasture, with respect to adaptability and efficiency, is highlighted in the current review. PMID:26025652

  16. Genetic and environmental heterogeneity of residual variance of weight traits in Nellore beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies have provided evidence of the existence of genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance, suggesting that it could be exploited to improve robustness and uniformity of livestock by selection. However, little is known about the perspectives of such a selection strategy in beef cattle. Methods A two-step approach was applied to study the genetic heterogeneity of residual variance of weight gain from birth to weaning and long-yearling weight in a Nellore beef cattle population. First, an animal model was fitted to the data and second, the influence of additive and environmental effects on the residual variance of these traits was investigated with different models, in which the log squared estimated residuals for each phenotypic record were analyzed using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to assess the reliability of variance component estimates from the second step and the accuracy of estimated breeding values for residual variation. Results The results suggest that both genetic and environmental factors have an effect on the residual variance of weight gain from birth to weaning and long-yearling in Nellore beef cattle and that uniformity of these traits could be improved by selecting for lower residual variance, when considering a large amount of information to predict genetic merit for this criterion. Simulations suggested that using the two-step approach would lead to biased estimates of variance components, such that more adequate methods are needed to study the genetic heterogeneity of residual variance in beef cattle. PMID:22672564

  17. Molecular Characterization of Bovine SMO Gene and Effects of Its Genetic Variations on Body Size Traits in Qinchuan Cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Ran; Gui, Lin-Sheng; Li, Yao-Kun; Jiang, Bi-Jie; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Zan, Lin-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Smoothened (Smo)-mediated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway governs the patterning, morphogenesis and growth of many different regions within animal body plans. This study evaluated the effects of genetic variations of the bovine SMO gene on economically important body size traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Altogether, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-8) were identified and genotyped via direct sequencing covering most of the coding region and 3'UTR of the bovine SMO gene. Both the p.698Ser.>Ser. synonymous mutation resulted from SNP1 and the p.700Ser.>Pro. non-synonymous mutation caused by SNP2 mapped to the intracellular C-terminal tail of bovine Smo protein; the other six SNPs were non-coding variants located in the 3'UTR. The linkage disequilibrium was analyzed, and five haplotypes were discovered in 520 Qinchuan cattle. Association analyses showed that SNP2, SNP3/5, SNP4 and SNP6/7 were significantly associated with some body size traits (p < 0.05) except SNP1/8 (p > 0.05). Meanwhile, cattle with wild-type combined haplotype Hap1/Hap1 had significantly (p < 0.05) greater body length than those with Hap2/Hap2. Our results indicate that variations in the SMO gene could affect body size traits of Qinchuan cattle, and the wild-type haplotype Hap1 together with the wild-type alleles of these detected SNPs in the SMO gene could be used to breed cattle with superior body size traits. Therefore, our results could be helpful for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding programs. PMID:26225956

  18. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci influencing carcass, post-natal growth and reproductive traits in commercial Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    McClure, M C; Morsci, N S; Schnabel, R D; Kim, J W; Yao, P; Rolf, M M; McKay, S D; Gregg, S J; Chapple, R H; Northcutt, S L; Taylor, J F

    2010-12-01

    To gain insight into the number of loci of large effect that underlie variation in cattle, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) scan for 14 economically important traits was performed in two commercial Angus populations using 390 microsatellites, 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one duplication loci. The first population comprised 1769 registered Angus bulls born between 1955 and 2003, with Expected Progeny Differences computed by the American Angus Association. The second comprised 38 half-sib families containing 1622 steers with six post-natal growth and carcass phenotypes. Linkage analysis was performed by half-sib least squares regression with gridqtl or Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of complex pedigrees with loki. Of the 673 detected QTL, only 118 have previously been reported, reflecting both the conservative approach to QTL reporting in the literature, and the more liberal approach taken in this study. From 33 to 71% of the genetic variance and 35 to 56% of the phenotypic variance in each trait was explained by the detected QTL. To analyse the effects of 11 SNPs and one duplication locus within candidate genes on each trait, a single marker analysis was performed by fitting an additive allele substitution model in both mapping populations. There were 53 associations detected between the SNP/duplication loci and traits with -log(10) P(nominal) ≥ 4.0, where each association explained 0.92% to 4.4% of the genetic variance and 0.01% to 1.86% of the phenotypic variance. Of these associations, only six SNP/duplication loci were located within 8 cM of a QTL peak for the trait, with two being located at the QTL peak: SST_DG156121:c.362A>G for ribeye muscle area and TG_X05380:c.422C>T for calving ease. Strong associations between several SNP/duplication loci and trait variation were obtained in the absence of any detected linked QTL. However, we reject the causality of several commercialized DNA tests, including an association between TG

  19. Association of HSL gene E1-c.276C>T and E8-c.51C>T mutation with economical traits of Chinese Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Fang, X B; Zhang, L P; Yu, X Z; Li, J Y; Lu, C Y; Zhao, Z H; Yang, R J

    2014-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is responsible for the decomposition of triglycerides in adipose tissue to release free fatty acids, and it is a key rate-limiting enzyme in the regulation of adipose tissue deposition and decomposition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between novel SNPs in the coding region of bovine HSL gene and carcass and meat quality traits of Chinese Simmental-cross steers. Two novel SNPs were genotyped and the 47 traits of carcass and meat quality traits were measured in the population studied. Statistical analysis revealed that the SNPs of HSL gene were associated with the carcass and meat quality traits. The individuals with TT genotypes of E1-276C>T showed significant higher dressing percentage, net meat rate, hind legs circumference, fat coverage rate, mesenteric fat and kidney fat (p < 0.05). E8-51C>T (P17S) also showed a significant association with the pH of beef and fatty acids content in Chinese Simmental cattle (p < 0.01). Our findings indicated that polymorphisms in HSL might be one of important genetic factors that influence carcass yield and meat quality in beef cattle, and it may be a useful marker for meat quality traits in future marker-assisted selection programs in beef cattle breeding and production. PMID:24213829

  20. Comparison of genetic gains per year for carcass traits among breeding programs in the Japanese Brown and the Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Y; Miyake, T; Gaillard, C; Oguni, T; Matsumoto, M; Ito, M; Kurahara, T; Sasae, Y; Fujinaka, K; Ohtagaki, S; Dougo, T

    2006-02-01

    The breeding program for beef cattle in Japan has changed dramatically over 4 decades. Visual judging was done initially, but progeny testing in test stations began in 1968. In the 1980s, the genetic evaluation program using field records, so-called on-farm progeny testing, was first adopted in Oita, Hyogo, and Kumamoto prefectures. In this study, genetic trends for carcass traits in these 3 Wagyu populations were estimated, and genetic gains per year were compared among the 3 different beef cattle breeding programs. The field carcass records used were collected between 1988 and 2003. The traits analyzed were carcass weight, LM area, rib thickness, s.c. fat thickness, and beef marbling standard number. The average breeding values of reproducing dams born the same year were used to estimate the genetic trends for the carcass traits. For comparison of the 3 breeding programs, birth years of the dams were divided into 3 periods reflecting each program. Positive genetic trends for beef marbling standard number were clearly shown in all populations. The genetic gains per year for all carcass traits were significantly enhanced by adopting the on-farm progeny testing program. These results indicate that the on-farm progeny testing program with BLUP is a very powerful approach for genetic improvement of carcass traits in Japanese Wagyu beef cattle. PMID:16424259

  1. Polymorphisms in the GHRL gene and their associations with traits of economic interest in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Braz, C U; Camargo, G M F; Cardoso, D F; Gil, F M M; Fonseca, P D S; Cyrillo, J N S G; Mercadante, M E Z; Oliveira, H N; Tonhati, H

    2015-01-01

    The hormone ghrelin is produced in the stomach wall, has an orexigenic function, stimulates growth hormone secretion, and affects the energy balance of the animal. Therefore, the ghrelin gene (GHRL) is considered to be a good candidate marker for the identification of traits of great economic importance in cattle, such as those associated with feed intake, growth, and carcass quality. The use of molecular genetic markers associated with such traits permits the earlier and more accurate identification of superior animals, thus reducing the interval between generations, and increasing the genetic gain. Six SNPs were found in the GHRL gene, located in intron 3, intron 4, and exon 5. The positions of the SNPs on the gene and the substitutions were: g.2184A>G, g.2347T>C, g.4469T>C, g.4548A>G, g.4663T>C, and g.4729T>C (GenBank accession No. JX565585). After analysis of linkage disequilibrium, association tests were performed between four SNPs with the traits year weight for males, yearling weight for females, dry matter intake, loin eye area, and rump fat thickness (P ≤ 0.05). Therefore, GHRL is an important candidate gene that may be used to identify genetic variations that influence traits of economic importance in beef cattle. PMID:26782466

  2. Polymorphisms in the LPL gene and their association with growth traits in Jiaxian cattle.

    PubMed

    Gui, L S; Huang, Y M; Hong, J Y; Zan, L S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene was involved in metabolism and transport of lipids, suggesting that the LPL is a potential candidate gene affecting growth traits in animals. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphism in the bovine LPL gene and analyze its possible association with growth traits in 218 randomly selected Jiaxian cattle. We used DNA sequencing to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LPL gene. A sequence analysis revealed three SNPs: two in intron 5 (C18306T and C18341T) and one in exon 6 (G18362A). G18362A is a missense mutation leading to a change of the 325th glycine to serine. Based on χ(2) tests, the genotypic distributions of C18306T were in agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05), whereas the other two mutations were not (0.05 > P > 0.01). Association analyses showed that the C18341T SNP was significantly associated with several growth traits (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), and the G18362A was associated with withers height (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that LPL gene variation may be considered molecular markers for growth traits in Jiaxian cattle. PMID:27173255

  3. Pathway-Based Genome-Wide Association Studies for Two Meat Production Traits in Simmental Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Huizhong; Wu, Yang; Zhou, Xiaojing; Xia, Jiangwei; Zhang, Wengang; Song, Yuxin; Liu, Fei; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Gao, Huijiang; Li, Junya

    2015-01-01

    Most single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), explain only a small fraction of phenotypic variation. Pathway-based GWAS were proposed to improve the proportion of genes for some human complex traits that could be explained by enriching a mass of SNPs within genetic groups. However, few attempts have been made to describe the quantitative traits in domestic animals. In this study, we used a dataset with approximately 7,700,000 SNPs from 807 Simmental cattle and analyzed live weight and longissimus muscle area using a modified pathway-based GWAS method to orthogonalise the highly linked SNPs within each gene using principal component analysis (PCA). As a result, of the 262 biological pathways of cattle collected from the KEGG database, the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synapse pathway and the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathway were significantly associated with the two traits analyzed. The GABAergic synapse pathway was biologically applicable to the traits analyzed because of its roles in feed intake and weight gain. The proposed method had high statistical power and a low false discovery rate, compared to those of the smallest P-value and SNP set enrichment analysis methods. PMID:26672757

  4. Phenotypic and Genetic Correlations of Feed Efficiency Traits with Growth and Carcass Traits in Nellore Cattle Selected for Postweaning Weight

    PubMed Central

    Ceacero, Thais Matos; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; Canesin, Roberta Carrilho; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated phenotypic (rph) and genetic correlations (rg) between 8 feed efficiency traits and other traits of economic interest including weight at selection (WS), loin-eye area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF) in Nellore cattle. Feed efficiency traits were gain:feed, residual feed intake (RFI), residual feed intake adjusted for backfat thickness (RFIb) and for backfat and rump fat thickness (RFIsf), residual body weight gain (RG), residual intake and body weight gain (RIG), and residual intake and body weight gain using RFIb (RIGb) and RFIsf (RIGsf). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a two-trait animal model. The heritability estimates (h2) were 0.14, 0.24, 0.20, 0.22, 0.19, 0.15, 0.11 and 0.11 for gain:feed, RFI, RFIb, RFIsf, RG, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf, respectively. All rph values between traits were close to zero, except for the correlation of feed efficiency traits with dry matter intake and average daily gain. High rg values were observed for the correlation of dry matter intake, average daily gain and metabolic weight with WS and hip height (>0.61) and low to medium values (0.15 to 0.48) with the carcass traits (LEA, BF, RF). Among the feed efficiency traits, RG showed the highest rg with WS and hip height (0.34 and 0.25) and the lowest rg with subcutaneous fat thickness (-0.17 to 0.18). The rg values of RFI, RFIb and RFIsf with WS (0.17, 0.23 and 0.22), BF (0.37, 0.33 and 0.33) and RF (0.30, 0.31 and 0.32) were unfavorable. The rg values of gain:feed, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf with WS were low and favorable (0.07 to 0.22), while medium and unfavorable (-0.22 to -0.45) correlations were observed with fat thickness. The inclusion of subcutaneous fat thickness in the models used to calculate RFI did not reduce the rg between these traits. Selecting animals for higher feed efficiency will result in little or no genetic change in growth and will decrease subcutaneous fat thickness

  5. Phenotypic and Genetic Correlations of Feed Efficiency Traits with Growth and Carcass Traits in Nellore Cattle Selected for Postweaning Weight.

    PubMed

    Ceacero, Thais Matos; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely Dos Santos Gonçalves; Canesin, Roberta Carrilho; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated phenotypic (rph) and genetic correlations (rg) between 8 feed efficiency traits and other traits of economic interest including weight at selection (WS), loin-eye area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF) in Nellore cattle. Feed efficiency traits were gain:feed, residual feed intake (RFI), residual feed intake adjusted for backfat thickness (RFIb) and for backfat and rump fat thickness (RFIsf), residual body weight gain (RG), residual intake and body weight gain (RIG), and residual intake and body weight gain using RFIb (RIGb) and RFIsf (RIGsf). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a two-trait animal model. The heritability estimates (h2) were 0.14, 0.24, 0.20, 0.22, 0.19, 0.15, 0.11 and 0.11 for gain:feed, RFI, RFIb, RFIsf, RG, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf, respectively. All rph values between traits were close to zero, except for the correlation of feed efficiency traits with dry matter intake and average daily gain. High rg values were observed for the correlation of dry matter intake, average daily gain and metabolic weight with WS and hip height (>0.61) and low to medium values (0.15 to 0.48) with the carcass traits (LEA, BF, RF). Among the feed efficiency traits, RG showed the highest rg with WS and hip height (0.34 and 0.25) and the lowest rg with subcutaneous fat thickness (-0.17 to 0.18). The rg values of RFI, RFIb and RFIsf with WS (0.17, 0.23 and 0.22), BF (0.37, 0.33 and 0.33) and RF (0.30, 0.31 and 0.32) were unfavorable. The rg values of gain:feed, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf with WS were low and favorable (0.07 to 0.22), while medium and unfavorable (-0.22 to -0.45) correlations were observed with fat thickness. The inclusion of subcutaneous fat thickness in the models used to calculate RFI did not reduce the rg between these traits. Selecting animals for higher feed efficiency will result in little or no genetic change in growth and will decrease subcutaneous fat thickness

  6. Postweaning Growth and Carcass Traits in Crossbred Cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano Maternal Grandsires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 464 steers and 439 heifers obtained by mating F1 cows to Charolais ...

  7. Meta-Analysis of High-Density SNP Associations for Beef Cattle Production Traits from Three Countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 50,000 SNP were evaluated for associations with growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in three populations of cattle in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Regression coefficients for each SNP were independently estimated within each country. Coefficients for similar traits were stand...

  8. Effect of thyroglobulin gene polymorphisms on growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits in Chinese beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lupei; Ren, Hongyan; Yang, Jiuguang; Gan, Qianfu; Zhao, Fuping; Gao, Huijiang; Li, Junya

    2015-09-01

    The thyroglobulin (TG) gene has been studied as an important gene related to fat deposition, since not only does TG gene locate in a quantitative trait locus with an effect on fat deposition, but also it encodes the precursor of thyroid hormones which have crucial biological functions in energy metabolism. In the present study, we identified four novel SNPs at the 5' flanking region of the bovine TG gene. Association analysis indicated that the G275A, G277C, G280A and C281G SNPs were significantly associated with average daily gain (ADG, P < 0.01 for G275A and G277C, P < 0.05 for G280A and C281G). Five haplotypes for the 4 SNPs were constructed and their effects on growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits were evaluated. The results showed no significant effect of haplotype on ADG. Meanwhile, no significant association was found between 4 SNPs and other growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits including intramuscular fat. Bioinformatics analysis showed that 4 SNPs may results in potential transcription factor binding site changes. Results of this study suggest that TG gene-specific SNPs may be a useful marker for growth traits in marker assisted selection programs in beef cattle. PMID:26232928

  9. Reduced-rank models of growth and reproductive traits in Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Boligon, A A; Silveira, F A; Silveira, D D; Dionello, N J L; Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Souza, F R P

    2015-05-01

    In beef cattle genetic evaluation, principal component models of the additive genetic effect could be used to incorporate several traits in the same analysis, without an important increase in the number of parameters to be estimated. In this study, multitrait (MT) and reduced-rank models were compared for their ability to estimate parameters and predict breeding values for weaning weight, yearling weight, weaning hip height, yearling hip height, weaning to yearling weight gain, scrotal circumference, and age at the first calving. Data obtained were from 74,388 Nelore animals, born to 1441 sires and 28,502 cows. Six analyses were performed using a MT model that incorporated all the traits simultaneously and five reduced-rank models for the genetic additive direct (co)variance matrix, fitting the first one (PC1), two (PC2), three (PC3), four (PC4), and five (PC5) principal components. The model considering the first three principal components (PC3) provided the best fit. Direct and maternal heritability and the respective standard errors obtained from the MT and PC3 models were similar. In general, the PC3 model provided slightly stronger genetic correlations between the traits when compared with those obtained with the MT model. The rank correlations between the breeding values predicted with the MT and PC3 models for the different traits ranged from 0.93 to 0.99. When 2% and 10% of the best sires were selected on the basis of breeding values predicted by the MT model, the degree of concordance with the PC3 model ranged from 86% to 97%. The first three principal components explained most of the genetic variation among animals, suggesting that major changes should not be expected in the sire's classification on the basis of breeding values predicted for growth and reproductive traits. Models of principal components could be used for beef cattle genetic evaluation, especially when considering several economic traits in the same analysis. PMID:25726150

  10. Genomic signatures reveal new evidences for selection of important traits in domestic cattle.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingyang; Bickhart, Derek M; Cole, John B; Schroeder, Steven G; Song, Jiuzhou; Tassell, Curtis P Van; Sonstegard, Tad S; Liu, George E

    2015-03-01

    We investigated diverse genomic selections using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data of five distinct cattle breeds. Based on allele frequency differences, we detected hundreds of candidate regions under positive selection across Holstein, Angus, Charolais, Brahman, and N'Dama. In addition to well-known genes such as KIT, MC1R, ASIP, GHR, LCORL, NCAPG, WIF1, and ABCA12, we found evidence for a variety of novel and less-known genes under selection in cattle, such as LAP3, SAR1B, LRIG3, FGF5, and NUDCD3. Selective sweeps near LAP3 were then validated by next-generation sequencing. Genome-wide association analysis involving 26,362 Holsteins confirmed that LAP3 and SAR1B were related to milk production traits, suggesting that our candidate regions were likely functional. In addition, haplotype network analyses further revealed distinct selective pressures and evolution patterns across these five cattle breeds. Our results provided a glimpse into diverse genomic selection during cattle domestication, breed formation, and recent genetic improvement. These findings will facilitate genome-assisted breeding to improve animal production and health. PMID:25431480

  11. Genomic Signatures Reveal New Evidences for Selection of Important Traits in Domestic Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingyang; Bickhart, Derek M.; Cole, John B.; Schroeder, Steven G.; Song, Jiuzhou; Tassell, Curtis P. Van; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Liu, George E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated diverse genomic selections using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data of five distinct cattle breeds. Based on allele frequency differences, we detected hundreds of candidate regions under positive selection across Holstein, Angus, Charolais, Brahman, and N'Dama. In addition to well-known genes such as KIT, MC1R, ASIP, GHR, LCORL, NCAPG, WIF1, and ABCA12, we found evidence for a variety of novel and less-known genes under selection in cattle, such as LAP3, SAR1B, LRIG3, FGF5, and NUDCD3. Selective sweeps near LAP3 were then validated by next-generation sequencing. Genome-wide association analysis involving 26,362 Holsteins confirmed that LAP3 and SAR1B were related to milk production traits, suggesting that our candidate regions were likely functional. In addition, haplotype network analyses further revealed distinct selective pressures and evolution patterns across these five cattle breeds. Our results provided a glimpse into diverse genomic selection during cattle domestication, breed formation, and recent genetic improvement. These findings will facilitate genome-assisted breeding to improve animal production and health. PMID:25431480

  12. Accuracy of genomic predictions for feed efficiency traits of beef cattle using 50K and imputed HD genotypes.

    PubMed

    Lu, D; Akanno, E C; Crowley, J J; Schenkel, F; Li, H; De Pauw, M; Moore, S S; Wang, Z; Li, C; Stothard, P; Plastow, G; Miller, S P; Basarab, J A

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of genomic predictions can be used to assess the utility of dense marker genotypes for genetic improvement of beef efficiency traits. This study was designed to test the impact of genomic distance between training and validation populations, training population size, statistical methods, and density of genetic markers on prediction accuracy for feed efficiency traits in multibreed and crossbred beef cattle. A total of 6,794 beef cattle data collated from various projects and research herds across Canada were used. Illumina BovineSNP50 (50K) and imputed Axiom Genome-Wide BOS 1 Array (HD) genotypes were available for all animals. The traits studied were DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI). Four validation groups of 150 animals each, including Angus (AN), Charolais (CH), Angus-Hereford crosses (ANHH), and a Charolais-based composite (TX) were created by considering the genomic distance between pairs of individuals in the validation groups. Each validation group had 7 corresponding training groups of increasing sizes ( = 1,000, 1,999, 2,999, 3,999, 4,999, 5,998, and 6,644), which also represent increasing average genomic distance between pairs of individuals in the training and validations groups. Prediction of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) was performed using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and Bayesian method C (BayesC). The accuracy of genomic predictions was defined as the Pearson's correlation between adjusted phenotype and GEBV (), unless otherwise stated. Using 50K genotypes, the highest average achieved in purebreds (AN, CH) was 0.41 for DMI, 0.34 for ADG, and 0.35 for RFI, whereas in crossbreds (ANHH, TX) it was 0.38 for DMI, 0.21 for ADG, and 0.25 for RFI. Similarly, when imputed HD genotypes were applied in purebreds (AN, CH), the highest average was 0.14 for DMI, 0.15 for ADG, and 0.14 for RFI, whereas in crossbreds (ANHH, TX) it was 0.38 for DMI, 0.22 for ADG, and 0.24 for RFI. The of GBLUP predictions were

  13. Genome-wide association study for calving traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Purfield, D C; Bradley, D G; Kearney, J F; Berry, D P

    2014-02-01

    Dystocia and perinatal mortality are quantitative traits that significantly impact animal productivity and welfare. Their economic importance is reflected by their inclusion in the national breeding goals of many cattle populations. The genetic architecture that influences these traits, however, has still yet to be thoroughly defined. Regions of the bovine genome associated with calving difficulty (direct and maternal) and perinatal mortality were detected in this study using a Bayesian approach with 43 204 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on up to 1970 Holstein-Friesian bulls. Several SNPs on chromosomes 5, 6, 11, 12, 17,18 and 28 were detected to be strongly associated with these calving performance traits. Novel genomic regions with previously reported associations with growth, stature, birth weight and bone morphology were identified in the present study as being associated with the three calving performance traits. Morphological abnormalities are a known contributor to perinatal mortality and the most significantly associated SNP for perinatal mortality in the present study was located in a region in linkage disequilibrium with the gene SLC26A7. This gene, SLC26A7, has similarities and colocalises with SLC4A2, which has previously been associated with osteoporosis and mortality in cattle populations. The HHIP gene that is known to be associated with stature in humans was strongly associated with direct calving difficulty in the present study; large calves are known to, on average, have a greater likelihood of dystocia. A stemloop microRNA, bta-mir-1256, on chromosome 12, involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression was associated with maternal calving difficulty. Previously reported quantitative trait loci associated with calving performance traits in other populations were again identified in this study; with one genomic region on chromosome 18 supporting very strong evidence of an underlying causative mutation and accounting for 2

  14. Genetic Polymorphisms of the Bovine NOV Gene Are Significantly Associated with Carcass Traits in Korean Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, B. S.; Kim, S. C.; Park, C. M.; Lee, S. H.; Cho, S. H.; Kim, N. K.; Jang, G. W.; Yoon, D. H.; Yang, B. S.; Hong, S. K.; Seong, H. H.; Choi, B. H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) gene and to evaluate whether these polymorphisms affect carcass traits in the Korean cattle population. We resequenced to detect SNPs from 24 unrelated individuals and identified 19 SNPs within the full 8.4-kb gene, including the 1.5-kb promoter region. Of these 19 SNPs, four were selected for genotyping based on linkage disequilibrium (LD). We genotyped 429 steers to assess the associations of these four SNPs with carcass traits. Statistical analysis revealed that g.7801T>C and g.8379A>C polymorphisms in the NOV gene were associated with carcass weight (p = 0.012 and 0.008, respectively), and the g.2005A>G polymorphism was associated with the back fat thickness (BF) trait (p = 0.0001). One haplotype of the four SNPs (GGTA) was significantly associated with BF (p = 0.0005). Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in the NOV gene may be among the important genetic factors affecting carcass yield in beef cattle. PMID:25049850

  15. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling milk production in dairy cattle by exploiting progeny testing

    SciTech Connect

    Georges, M.; Nielsen, D.; Mackinnon, M.; Mishra, A.; Okimoto, R.; Sargeant, L.S.; Steele, M.R.; Zhao, X.; Pasquino, A.T.

    1995-02-01

    We have exploited {open_quotes}progeny testing{close_quotes} to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the genetic variation of milk production in a selected dairy cattle population. A total of 1,518 sires, with progeny tests based on the milking performances of >150,000 daughters jointly, was genotyped for 159 autosomal microsatellites bracketing 1645 centimorgan or approximately two thirds of the bovine genome. Using a maximum likelihood multilocus linkage analysis accounting for variance heterogeneity of the phenotypes, we identified five chromosomes giving very strong evidence (LOD score {ge} 3) for the presence of a QTL controlling milk production: chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10 and 20. These findings demonstrate that loci with considerable effects on milk production are still segregating in highly selected populations and pave the way toward marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding. 44 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; White, S N; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 population sampled breeds that could be used as alternative germplasm sources in beef cattle production, including Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Norwegian Red. The GPE7 population sampled 7 popular beef cattle breeds used in temperate climates of the United States: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The GPE8 population sampled Bos indicus-influenced breeds used in subtropical regions of the country and subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano. Evaluation of 6 SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including 5 newly described variations, showed no association (P > 0.10) with marbling score in these populations, except a tendency (P < 0.10) for an association with the previously described marker in GPE6. Closer examination of the GPE6 data revealed that the source of the tendency was an association (P < 0.02) with marbling in animals of Wagyu inheritance. Animals having Wagyu background and inheriting the TT genotype had a greater marbling score (599 +/- 20) than those inheriting the CC (540 +/- 10) or the CT (541 +/- 11) genotype. No association was detected with any other carcass trait for this marker in the 3 populations. Furthermore, none of the 5 newly described markers in the gene displayed an association with marbling score. The data indicate that markers at the thyroglobulin gene may be a useful predictor of marbling performance for producers raising Wagyu-based cattle. Although associations with marbling score in the remaining populations were not large or significant, the TT genotype had the numerically greatest marbling score in each population. PMID:17686891

  17. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

    PubMed

    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest

  18. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater

  19. Measures of methane production and their phenotypic relationships with dry matter intake, growth, and body composition traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Herd, R M; Arthur, P F; Donoghue, K A; Bird, S H; Bird-Gardiner, T; Hegarty, R S

    2014-11-01

    .01 to 0.06) traits. All the RMP traits were strongly correlated to MY (r from 0.82 to 0.95). These results indicate that reducing MPR per se can have a negative impact on growth and body composition of cattle. Reducing MY, however, will likely have the effect of reducing MPR without impacting productivity. Where a ratio trait is undesirable, as in animal breeding, any of the RMP traits can be used instead of MY. However, where independence from DMI is desired, RMPR should be a trait worth considering. PMID:25349368

  20. Detection of quantitative trait loci for meat quality traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Wiener, P; Nute, G R; Burton, D; Gill, J L; Wood, J D; Williams, J L

    2008-02-01

    A whole-genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting sensory, organoleptic, physical and chemical properties of meat. The study used phenotypic data from 235 second-generation cross-bred bull calves of a Charolais x Holstein experimental population. Loin muscle samples were evaluated for yield force, intramuscular fat and nitrogen contents, myofibrillar fragmentation index, haem pigment concentration, moisture content and pH at 24 h postmortem. A sensory assessment was performed on grilled loin and roasted silverside joints by trained panellists. A linear regression analysis based on 165 markers revealed 35 QTL at the 5% chromosome-wide significance level (20 for sensory traits and 15 for physical and chemical traits), five of which were highly significant (F-value: > or =9). The most significant QTL was located on chromosome 6 (with the best likely position at 39 cM) and affected haem pigment concentration. The Holstein allele for this QTL was associated with an increase of 0.53 SD in the haem scores. A QTL for pH(24h) was identified on chromosome 14 (at 40 cM) and a QTL for moisture content was identified on chromosome 22 (at 21 cM). Two highly significant QTL were identified for sensory panel-assessed traits: beef odour intensity (grilled sample) on chromosome 10 (at 119 cM), and juiciness (roast sample) on chromosome 16 (at 70 cM). The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the significant QTL ranged from 3.6% (for nitrogen content on chromosome 10) to 9.5% (for juiciness, roast sample on chromosome 16). PMID:18254735

  1. Trailer microclimate during commercial transportation of feeder cattle and relationship to indicators of cattle welfare.

    PubMed

    Goldhawk, C; Crowe, T; Janzen, E; González, L A; Kastelic, J; Pajor, E; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2014-11-01

    factors (P > 0.05). Despite association between indicators of calf welfare and microclimate, all cattle arrived in good condition and there was 0.96% treatment rate within the first 30 d after arrival. Management and auditing decisions related to transportation of feeder cattle should consider the relationship between animal-level and ambient conditions and conditions before transportation. Under the commercial conditions of the current study, the transportation process did not appear to cause distress according to the dimensions of animal welfare that were assessed. PMID:25349359

  2. Genetic Correlations Between Carcass Traits And Molecular Breeding Values In Angus Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research elucidated genetic relationships between carcass traits, ultrasound indicator traits, and their respective molecular breeding values (MBV). Animals whose MBV data were used to estimate (co)variance components were not previously used in development of the MBV. Results are presented fo...

  3. A Multi-Trait, Meta-analysis for Detecting Pleiotropic Polymorphisms for Stature, Fatness and Reproduction in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Pryce, Jennie E.; Reverter, Antonio; Zhang, Yuandan; Barendse, William; Kemper, Kathryn; Tier, Bruce; Savin, Keith; Hayes, Ben J.; Goddard, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms that affect complex traits or quantitative trait loci (QTL) often affect multiple traits. We describe two novel methods (1) for finding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with one or more traits using a multi-trait, meta-analysis, and (2) for distinguishing between a single pleiotropic QTL and multiple linked QTL. The meta-analysis uses the effect of each SNP on each of n traits, estimated in single trait genome wide association studies (GWAS). These effects are expressed as a vector of signed t-values (t) and the error covariance matrix of these t values is approximated by the correlation matrix of t-values among the traits calculated across the SNP (V). Consequently, t'V−1t is approximately distributed as a chi-squared with n degrees of freedom. An attractive feature of the meta-analysis is that it uses estimated effects of SNPs from single trait GWAS, so it can be applied to published data where individual records are not available. We demonstrate that the multi-trait method can be used to increase the power (numbers of SNPs validated in an independent population) of GWAS in a beef cattle data set including 10,191 animals genotyped for 729,068 SNPs with 32 traits recorded, including growth and reproduction traits. We can distinguish between a single pleiotropic QTL and multiple linked QTL because multiple SNPs tagging the same QTL show the same pattern of effects across traits. We confirm this finding by demonstrating that when one SNP is included in the statistical model the other SNPs have a non-significant effect. In the beef cattle data set, cluster analysis yielded four groups of QTL with similar patterns of effects across traits within a group. A linear index was used to validate SNPs having effects on multiple traits and to identify additional SNPs belonging to these four groups. PMID:24675618

  4. A single nucleotide polymorphism in NEUROD1 is associated with production traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, P S N; Tizioto, P C; Malago, W; do Nascimento, M L; Cesar, A S M; Diniz, W J S; de Souza, M M; Lanna, D P D; Tullio, R R; Mourão, G B; de A Mudadu, M; Coutinho, L L; de A Regitano, L C

    2016-01-01

    Feed efficiency and carcass characteristics are late-measured traits. The detection of molecular markers associated with them can help breeding programs to select animals early in life, and to predict breeding values with high accuracy. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the functional and positional candidate gene NEUROD1 (neurogenic differentiation 1), and investigate their associations with production traits in reference families of Nelore cattle. A total of 585 steers were used, from 34 sires chosen to represent the variability of this breed. By sequencing 14 animals with extreme residual feed intake (RFI) values, seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NEUROD1 were identified. The investigation of marker effects on the target traits RFI, backfat thickness (BFT), ribeye area (REA), average body weight (ABW), and metabolic body weight (MBW) was performed with a mixed model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. SNP1062, which changes cytosine for guanine, had no significant association with RFI or REA. However, we found an additive effect on ABW (P ≤ 0.05) and MBW (P ≤ 0.05), with an estimated allele substitution effect of -1.59 and -0.93 kg0.75, respectively. A dominant effect of this SNP for BFT was also found (P ≤ 0.010). Our results are the first that identify NEUROD1 as a candidate that affects BFT, ABW, and MBW. Once confirmed, the inclusion of this SNP in dense panels may improve the accuracy of genomic selection for these traits in Nelore beef cattle as this SNP is not currently represented on SNP chips. PMID:27420997

  5. A genome-wide association study of meat and carcass traits in Australian cattle.

    PubMed

    Bolormaa, S; Neto, L R Porto; Zhang, Y D; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Goddard, M E; Barendse, W

    2011-08-01

    Chromosomal regions containing DNA variation affecting the traits intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), meat tenderness measured as peak force to shear the LM (LLPF), and rump fat measured at the sacro-iliac crest in the chiller (CHILLP8) were identified using a set of 53,798 SNP genotyped on 940 taurine and indicine cattle sampled from a large progeny test experiment. Of these SNP, 87, 64, and 63 were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with the traits IMF, LLPF, and CHILLP8, respectively. A second, nonoverlapping sample of 1,338 taurine and indicine cattle from the same large progeny test experiment genotyped for 335 SNP, including as a positive control the calpastatin (CAST) c.2832A > G SNP, was used to confirm these locations. In total, 37 SNP were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with the same trait and with the same favorable homozygote in both data sets, representing 27 chromosomal regions. For the trait IMF, the effect of SNP in the confirmation data set was predicted from the discovery set by multiplying the estimated allele effect of each SNP in the discovery set by the number of copies of the reference allele of each SNP in the confirmation set. These weighted effects were then summed over all SNP to generate a molecular breeding value (MBV) for each animal in the confirmation data set. Using a bivariate analysis of MBV and IMF phenotypes of animals in the confirmation set, a panel of 14 SNP explained 5.6 and 15.6% of the phenotypic and genetic variance of IMF, respectively, in the confirmation data set. The amount of variation did not increase as more SNP were added to the MBV and instead decreased to 1.2 and 3.8% of the phenotypic and genetic variance of IMF, respectively, when 329 SNP were included in the analysis. PMID:21421834

  6. Genome-Wide Association for Growth Traits in Canchim Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Buzanskas, Marcos E.; Grossi, Daniela A.; Ventura, Ricardo V.; Schenkel, Flávio S.; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Meirelles, Sarah L. C.; Mokry, Fabiana B.; Higa, Roberto H.; Mudadu, Maurício A.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. Barbosa.; Niciura, Simone C. M.; Júnior, Roberto A. A. Torres.; Alencar, Maurício M.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Munari, Danísio P.

    2014-01-01

    Studies are being conducted on the applicability of genomic data to improve the accuracy of the selection process in livestock, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide valuable information to enhance the understanding on the genetics of complex traits. The aim of this study was to identify genomic regions and genes that play roles in birth weight (BW), weaning weight adjusted for 210 days of age (WW), and long-yearling weight adjusted for 420 days of age (LYW) in Canchim cattle. GWAS were performed by means of the Generalized Quasi-Likelihood Score (GQLS) method using genotypes from the BovineHD BeadChip and estimated breeding values for BW, WW, and LYW. Data consisted of 285 animals from the Canchim breed and 114 from the MA genetic group (derived from crossings between Charolais sires and ½ Canchim + ½ Zebu dams). After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 10% significance level, a total of 4, 12, and 10 SNPs were significantly associated with BW, WW, and LYW, respectively. These SNPs were surveyed to their corresponding genes or to surrounding genes within a distance of 250 kb. The genes DPP6 (dipeptidyl-peptidase 6) and CLEC3B (C-type lectin domain family 3 member B) were highlighted, considering its functions on the development of the brain and skeletal system, respectively. The GQLS method identified regions on chromosome associated with birth weight, weaning weight, and long-yearling weight in Canchim and MA animals. New candidate regions for body weight traits were detected and some of them have interesting biological functions, of which most have not been previously reported. The observation of QTL reports for body weight traits, covering areas surrounding the genes (SNPs) herein identified provides more evidence for these associations. Future studies targeting these areas could provide further knowledge to uncover the genetic architecture underlying growth traits in Canchim cattle. PMID:24733441

  7. Genome-wide association study identifies loci and candidate genes for meat quality traits in Simmental beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiangwei; Qi, Xin; Wu, Yang; Zhu, Bo; Xu, Lingyang; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Chen, Yan; Li, Junya; Gao, Huijiang

    2016-06-01

    Improving meat quality is the best way to enhance profitability and strengthen competitiveness in beef industry. Identification of genetic variants that control beef quality traits can help breeders design optimal breeding programs to achieve this goal. We carried out a genome-wide association study for meat quality traits in 1141 Simmental cattle using the Illumina Bovine HD 770K SNP array to identify the candidate genes and genomic regions associated with meat quality traits for beef cattle, including fat color, meat color, marbling score, longissimus muscle area, and shear force. In our study, we identified twenty significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (p < 1.47 × 10(-6)) associated with these five meat quality traits. Notably, we observed several SNPs were in or near eleven genes which have been reported previously, including TMEM236, SORL1, TRDN, S100A10, AP2S1, KCTD16, LOC506594, DHX15, LAMA4, PREX1, and BRINP3. We identified a haplotype block on BTA13 containing five significant SNPs associated with fat color trait. We also found one of 19 SNPs was associated with multiple traits (shear force and longissimus muscle area) on BTA7. Our results offer valuable insights to further explore the potential mechanism of meat quality traits in Simmental beef cattle. PMID:27126640

  8. Estimates of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in Brahman cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Cavani, L; Garcia, D A; Carreño, L O D; Ono, R K; Pires, M P; Farah, M M; Ventura, H T; Millen, D D; Fonseca, R

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to estimate genetic parameters for the following traits of Brahman cattle in Brazil: age at first calving (AFC), calving interval (CI), rebreeding (REB), and stayability (STAY). For REB, the value 1 was assigned to heifers that rebred and calved after first calving and the value 0 was assigned to heifers that failed to rebreed after first calving. Likewise, for STAY, the value 1 was assigned to cows that calved at least 3 times by the time they reach 6 yr of age; otherwise, the value 0 was assigned. A bivariate analysis was used to estimate covariances components by using linear animal model for CI and AFC and threshold animal model for REB and STAY. The mean h(2) were 0.10, 0.02, 0.22, and 0.10 for AFC, CI, REB, and STAY, respectively. The genetic correlations were –0.13 between AFC and CI, –0.35 between AFC and REB, –0.57 between AFC and STAY, and 0.32 between REB and STAY, which reveal that cows that remain productive for longer periods in the herd also start breeding younger and present greater chances to REB. The selection of Brahman cattle for reproductive traits, such as AFC, CI, REB, and STAY, will render low magnitude and long-term responses. PMID:26439997

  9. Feasibility of the grandprogeny design for quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection in purebred beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moody, D E; Pomp, D; Buchanan, D S

    1997-04-01

    The grandprogeny design (GPD) was developed for dairy cattle to use existing pedigreed populations for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection. Marker genotypes of grandsires and sons are determined, and trait phenotypic data from grandprogeny are analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of GPD in purebred beef cattle populations. Pedigree structures of Angus (n = 123,319), Hereford (n = 107,778), Brangus (n = 14,449), and Gelbvieh (n = 8,114) sire evaluation reports were analyzed to identify potentially useful families. Power of QTL detection was calculated for a range of QTL effects (.1 to .5 SD) and two Type I error rates (.01 and .001). Reasonable power (> .75) could be achieved using GPD in Angus and Hereford for QTL having moderate effects (.3 SD) on weaning weight and large effects (.4 to .5 SD) on birth, yearling, and maternal weaning weights by genotyping 500 animals. Existing Gelbvieh and Brangus families useful for GPD were limited, and reasonable power could be expected only for QTL having large effects on weaning or birth weights. Although family structures suitable for GPD exist in purebred beef populations, large amounts of genotyping would be required to achieve reasonable power, and only QTL having moderate to large effects could be expected to be identified. PMID:9110205

  10. Novel SNPs in HSPB8 gene and their association with heat tolerance traits in Sahiwal indigenous cattle.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nishant; Gupta, Ishwar Dayal; Verma, Archana; Kumar, Rakesh; Das, Ramendra; Vineeth, M R

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are expressed in response to heat stress, and the polymorphism in HSP genes at single-nucleotide level has been reported to be associated with heat tolerance and production performance traits in cattle. HSPB8 gene has been mapped on Bos taurus autosome 17 (BTA-17) spanning nearly 13,252 bp and comprising three exons and two introns. The present study was conducted in Sahiwal cows (n = 108) reared in subtropical climate with the objectives to identify SNPs in all three exons and part of intron 1 of HSPB8 gene and to analyze their association with heat tolerance traits in Sahiwal cows. Respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded once during probable extreme hours in different seasons or Temperature-Humidity Index (THI), i.e., winter, spring, and summer. Heat tolerance coefficient (HTC) was also calculated to check the adaptability of the animals during the period of heat stress. The comparative sequence analysis revealed a total two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), i.e., g.507G>A in exon 1 and g.881T>C in intron 1 of HSPB8 gene. Out of these two identified SNPs, only one SNP, i.e., g.507G>A, was found to be significantly associated with heat tolerance indicator traits (RR, RT, and HTC) in Sahiwal cows. The perusal of results across different seasons showed the significant (P < 0.01) difference in RR, RT, and HTC between winter, spring, and summer seasons. RR, RT, and HTC were found to be significantly lower (P < 0.01) in GA as compared to GG genotype of g.507G>A SNP of HSPB8 gene. However, in case of another SNP, i.e., g.881T>C, located on intron 1, the RR, RT, and HTC were having non-significant association with the different genotypes, i.e., TT and TC. These findings may partly suggest that GA genotype of SNP g.507G>A of HSPB8 gene has a probable role in heat tolerance in Sahiwal cattle and can therefore be utilized as a marker in propagation of thermo-tolerance cattle in hot tropical and subtropical

  11. Quantitative trait loci analysis for growth and carcass traits in a half-sib family of purebred Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle.

    PubMed

    Mizoshita, K; Watanabe, T; Hayashi, H; Kubota, C; Yamakuchi, H; Todoroki, J; Sugimoto, Y

    2004-12-01

    We used a half-sib family of purebred Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle to locate economically important quantitative trait loci. The family was composed of 348 fattened steers, 236 of which were genotyped for 342 microsatellite markers spanning 2,664 cM of 29 bovine autosomes. The genome scan revealed evidence of 15 significant QTL (<5% chromosome-wise level) affecting growth and carcass traits. Of the 15 QTL, six QTL were significant at the 5% experiment-wise level and were located in bovine chromosomes (BTA) 4, 5, and 14. We analyzed these three chromosomes in more detail in the 348 steers, with an average marker interval of 1.2 cM. The second scan revealed that the same haplotype of the BTA 4 region (52 to 67 cM) positively affected LM area and marbling. We confirmed the QTL for carcass yield estimate on BTA 5 in the region of 45 to 54 cM. Five growth-related QTL located on BTA 14, including slaughter and carcass weights, were positively affected by the same region of the haplotype of BTA 14 (29-51 cM). These data should provide a useful reference for further marker-assisted selection in the family and positional cloning research. The research indicates that progeny design with moderate genotyping efforts is a powerful method for detecting QTL in a purebred half-sib family. PMID:15537759

  12. Using genomics to enhance selection of novel traits in North American dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Chesnais, J P; Cooper, T A; Wiggans, G R; Sargolzaei, M; Pryce, J E; Miglior, F

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this paper were to briefly review progress in the genetic evaluation of novel traits in Canada and the United States, assess methods to predict selection accuracy based on cow reference populations, and illustrate how the use of indicator traits could increase genomic selection accuracy. Traits reviewed are grouped into the following categories: udder health, hoof health, other health traits, feed efficiency and methane emissions, and other novel traits. The status of activities expected to lead to national genetic evaluations is indicated for each group of traits. For traits that are more difficult to measure or expensive to collect, such as individual feed intake or immune response, the development of a cow reference population is the most effective approach. Several deterministic methods can be used to predict the reliability of genomic evaluations based on cow reference population size, trait heritability, and other population parameters. To provide an empirical validation of those methods, predicted accuracies were compared with observed accuracies for several cow reference populations and traits. Reference populations of 2,000 to 20,000 cows were created through random sampling of genotyped Holstein cows in Canada and the United States. The effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were estimated from those cow records, after excluding the dams of validation bulls. Bulls that were first progeny tested in 2013 and 2014 were then used to carry out a validation and estimate the observed accuracy of genomic selection based on those SNP effects. Over the various cow population sizes and traits considered in the study, even the best prediction methods were found, on average, to either under-evaluate observed accuracy by 0.20 or over-evaluate it by 0.22, depending on the approach used to estimate the number of independently segregating chromosome segments. In some instances, differences between observed and predicted accuracies were as large

  13. The chemical composition of carcasses can be predicted from proxy traits in finishing male beef cattle: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Jammas, M; Agabriel, J; Vernet, J; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2016-09-01

    Management practices can contribute to improving carcass quality if carcass quality could be simply evaluated under a wide range of conditions. The objective of this study was to derive quantitative relationships between the most accurate (but laborious) measurements of carcass chemical composition and proxy traits easily obtainable at slaughter (yield grade, subcutaneous fat thickness, marbling, ribeye area and hot carcass weight) by meta-analysis. Data from 34 publications using male beef cattle were used to develop and validate the models. The breeds were characterized according to origin, rate of maturity, production purpose and frame size. The results indicated that the changes in carcass fat and protein can be predicted from the yield grade or subcutaneous fat thickness, and hot carcass weight, with prediction errors ranging between 9 and 12%. Including the breed characteristics in the models did not improve the fit. The relationships are applicable to group values of male beef cattle having light and fatty carcasses from early-maturing British breeds. PMID:27206053

  14. Discovery of novel genetic networks associated with 19 economically important traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhihua; Michal, Jennifer J; Chen, Jie; Daniels, Tyler F; Kunej, Tanja; Garcia, Matthew D; Gaskins, Charles T; Busboom, Jan R; Alexander, Leeson J; Wright, Raymond W; Macneil, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative or complex traits are determined by the combined effects of many loci, and are affected by genetic networks or molecular pathways. In the present study, we genotyped a total of 138 mutations, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from 71 functional genes on a Wagyu x Limousin reference population. Two hundred forty six F(2) animals were measured for 5 carcass, 6 eating quality and 8 fatty acid composition traits. A total of 2,280 single marker-trait association runs with 120 tagged mutations selected based on the HAPLOVIEW analysis revealed 144 significant associations (P < 0.05), but 50 of them were removed from the analysis due to the small number of animals (< or = 9) in one genotype group or absence of one genotype among three genotypes. The remaining 94 single-trait associations were then placed into three groups of quantitative trait modes (QTMs) with additive, dominant and overdominant effects. All significant markers and their QTMs associated with each of these 19 traits were involved in a linear regression model analysis, which confirmed single-gene associations for 4 traits, but revealed two-gene networks for 8 traits and three-gene networks for 5 traits. Such genetic networks involving both genotypes and QTMs resulted in high correlations between predicted and actual values of performance, thus providing evidence that the classical Mendelian principles of inheritance can be applied in understanding genetic complexity of complex phenotypes. Our present study also indicated that carcass, eating quality and fatty acid composition traits rarely share genetic networks. Therefore, marker-assisted selection for improvement of one category of these traits would not interfere with improvement of another. PMID:19727437

  15. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease. PMID:18998232

  16. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management. PMID:26484575

  17. Alternative models in genetic analyses of carcass traits measured by ultrasonography in Guzerá cattle: A Bayesian approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to study alternative models for genetic analyses of carcass traits assessed by ultrasonography in Guzerá cattle. Data from 947 measurements (655 animals) of Rib-eye area (REA), rump fat thickness (RFT) and backfat thickness (BFT) were used. Finite polygenic models (FPM), infinitesi...

  18. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Boran, Tuli, and Belgian Blue sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birt...

  19. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth...

  20. Evaluation of BTA1 and BTA5 QTL Regions for Growth and Carcass Traits in American and Korean Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, K. S.; Kim, S. W.; Raney, N. E.; Ernst, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Previously identified QTL regions on BTA1 and BTA5 were investigated to validate the QTL regions and to identify candidate genes for growth and carcass traits in commercial cattle populations from the USA and Korea. Initially, a total of 8 polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers in the BTA1 and 5 QTL regions were used for Chi-square tests to compare the frequencies of individual alleles between high and low phenotypic groups for the US (Michigan Cattleman’s Association/Michigan State University; MCA/MSU) cattle. For a subsequent study, 24 candidate genes containing missense mutations and located within the QTL regions based on bovine genome sequence data were analyzed for genotyping in the two commercial cattle populations. Re-sequencing analyses confirmed 18 public missense SNPs and identified 9 new SNPs. Seventeen of these SNPs were used for genotyping of the MCA/MSU cattle (n = 98) and Korean native cattle (n = 323). On BTA1, UPK1B, HRG, and MAGEF1 polymorphisms residing between BM1312 and BMS4048 were significantly associated with growth and carcass traits in one or both of the MCA/MSU and Korean populations. On BTA5, ABCD2, IL22 and SNRPF polymorphisms residing between BL4 and BR2936 were associated with marbling and backfat traits in one or both of the MCA/MSU and Korean cattle populations. These results suggested that BTA 1 and 5 QTL regions may be segregating in both Korean Hanwoo and USA commercial cattle populations and DNA markers tested in this study may contribute to the identification of positional candidate genes for marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:25049512

  1. Genetic parameters for EUROP carcass traits within different groups of cattle in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hickey, J M; Keane, M G; Kenny, D A; Cromie, A R; Veerkamp, R F

    2007-02-01

    The first objective of this study was to test the ability of systems of weighing and classifying bovine carcasses used in commercial abattoirs in Ireland to provide information that can be used for the purposes of genetic evaluation of carcass weight, carcass fatness class, and carcass conformation class. Secondly, the study aimed to test whether genetic and phenotypic variances differed by breed of sire. Variance components for carcass traits were estimated for crosses between dairy cows and 8 breeds of sire commonly found in the Irish cattle population. These 8 breeds were Aberdeen Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Friesian, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin, and Simmental. A multivariate animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters within the Holstein sire breed group. Univariate analyses were used to estimate variance components for the remaining 7 sire breed groups. Multivariate sire models were used to formally test differences in genetic variances in sire breed groups. Field data on 64,443 animals, which were slaughtered in commercial abattoirs between the ages of 300 and 875 d, were analyzed in 8 analyses. Carcass fat class and carcass conformation class were measured using the European Union beef carcass classification system (EUROP) scale. For all 3 traits, the sire breed group with the greatest genetic variance had a value of more than 8 times the sire breed group with least genetic variance. Heritabilities ranged from zero to moderate for carcass fatness class (0.00 to 0.40), from low to moderate for carcass conformation class (0.04 to 0.36), and from low to high for carcass weight (0.06 to 0.65). Carcass weight was the most heritable (0.26) of the 3 traits. Carcass conformation class and carcass fatness class were equally heritable (0.17). Genetic and phenotypic correlations were all positive in the Holstein sire breed group. The genetic correlations varied from 0.11 for the relationship between carcass weight and carcass fatness class to 0.44 for the

  2. Associated effects of copy number variants on economically important traits in Spanish Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ben Sassi, Neila; González-Recio, Óscar; de Paz-Del Río, Raquel; Rodríguez-Ramilo, Silvia T; Fernández, Ana I

    2016-08-01

    Copy number variants (CNV) are structural variants consisting of duplications or deletions of genomic fragments longer than 1 kb that present variability in the population and are heritable. The objective of this study was to identify CNV regions (CNVR) associated with 7 economically important traits (production, functional, and type traits) in Holstein cattle: fat yield, protein yield, somatic cell count, days open, stature, foot angle, and udder depth. Copy number variants were detected by using deep-sequencing data from 10 sequenced bulls and the Bovine SNP chip array hybridization signals. To reduce the number of false-positive calls, only CNV identified by both sequencing and Bovine SNP chip assays were kept in the final data set. This resulted in 823 CNVR. After filtering by minor allele frequency >0.01, a total of 90 CNVR appeared segregating in the bulls that had phenotypic data. Linear and quadratic CNVR effects were estimated using Bayesian approaches. A total of 15 CNVR were associated with the traits included in the analysis. One CNVR was associated with fat and protein yield, another 1 with fat yield, 3 with stature, 1 with foot angle, 7 with udder depth, and only 1 with days open. Among the genes located within these regions, highlighted were the MTHFSD gene that belongs to the folate metabolism genes, which play critical roles in regulating milk protein synthesis; the SNRPE gene that is related to several morphological pathologies; and the NF1 gene, which is associated with potential effects on fertility traits. The results obtained in the current study revealed that these CNVR segregate in the Holstein population, and therefore some potential exists to increase the frequencies of the favorable alleles in the population after independent validation of results in this study. However, genetic variance explained by the variants reported in this study was small. PMID:27209136

  3. Estimates of genetic parameters for growth traits in Brahman cattle using random regression and multitrait models.

    PubMed

    Bertipaglia, T S; Carreño, L O D; Aspilcueta-Borquis, R R; Boligon, A A; Farah, M M; Gomes, F J; Machado, C H C; Rey, F S B; da Fonseca, R

    2015-08-01

    Random regression models (RRM) and multitrait models (MTM) were used to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits in Brazilian Brahman cattle and to compare the estimated breeding values obtained by these 2 methodologies. For RRM, 78,641 weight records taken between 60 and 550 d of age from 16,204 cattle were analyzed, and for MTM, the analysis consisted of 17,385 weight records taken at the same ages from 12,925 cattle. All models included the fixed effects of contemporary group and the additive genetic, maternal genetic, and animal permanent environmental effects and the quadratic effect of age at calving (AAC) as covariate. For RRM, the AAC was nested in the animal's age class. The best RRM considered cubic polynomials and the residual variance heterogeneity (5 levels). For MTM, the weights were adjusted for standard ages. For RRM, additive heritability estimates ranged from 0.42 to 0.75, and for MTM, the estimates ranged from 0.44 to 0.72 for both models at 60, 120, 205, 365, and 550 d of age. The maximum maternal heritability estimate (0.08) was at 140 d for RRM, but for MTM, it was highest at weaning (0.09). The magnitude of the genetic correlations was generally from moderate to high. The RRM adequately modeled changes in variance or covariance with age, and provided there was sufficient number of samples, increased accuracy in the estimation of the genetic parameters can be expected. Correlation of bull classifications were different in both methods and at all the ages evaluated, especially at high selection intensities, which could affect the response to selection. PMID:26440161

  4. Explorations in genome-wide association studies and network analyses with dairy cattle fertility traits.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Null, D J; Cole, J B

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene networks associated with 3 fertility traits in dairy cattle-daughter pregnancy rate, heifer conception rate, and cow conception rate-using different approaches. Deregressed predicted transmitting abilities were available for approximately 24,000 Holstein bulls and 36,000 Holstein cows sampled from the National Dairy Database with high-density genotypes. Of those, 1,732 bulls and 375 cows had been genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). The remaining animals were genotyped with various chips of lower density that were imputed to high density. Univariate and trivariate genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with both medium- (60,671 markers) and high-density (312,614 markers) panels were performed for daughter pregnancy rate, heifer conception rate, and cow conception rate using GEMMA (version 0.94; http://www.xzlab.org/software.html). Analyses were conducted using bulls only, cows only, and a sample of both bulls and cows. The partial correlation and information theory algorithm was used to develop gene interaction networks. The most significant markers were further investigated to identify putatively associated genes. Little overlap in associated genes could be found between GWAS using different reference populations of bulls only, cows only, and combined bulls and cows. The partial correlation and information theory algorithm was able to identify several genes that were not identified by ordinary GWAS. The results obtained herein will aid in further dissecting the complex biology underlying fertility traits in dairy cattle, while also providing insight into the nuances of GWAS. PMID:27209127

  5. Multiple trait genetic evaluation of clinical mastitis in three dairy cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Govignon-Gion, A; Dassonneville, R; Baloche, G; Ducrocq, V

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, a routine genetic evaluation on occurrence of clinical mastitis in three main dairy cattle breeds-- Montbéliarde (MO), Normande (NO) and Holstein (HO)--was implemented in France. Records were clinical mastitis events reported by farmers to milk recording technicians and the analyzed trait was the binary variable describing the occurrence of a mastitis case within the first 150 days of the first three lactations. Genetic parameters of clinical mastitis were estimated for the three breeds. Low heritability estimates were found: between 2% and 4% depending on the breed. Despite its low heritability, the trait exhibits genetic variation so efficient genetic improvement is possible. Genetic correlations with other traits were estimated, showing large correlations (often>0.50, in absolute value) between clinical mastitis and somatic cell score (SCS), longevity and some udder traits. Correlation with milk yield was moderate and unfavorable (ρ=0.26 to 0.30). High milking speed was genetically associated with less mastitis in MO (ρ=-0.14) but with more mastitis in HO (ρ=0.18). A two-step approach was implemented for routine evaluation: first, a univariate evaluation based on a linear animal model with permanent environment effect led to pre-adjusted records (defined as records corrected for all non-genetic effects) and associated weights. These data were then combined with similar pre-adjusted records for others traits in a multiple trait BLUP animal model. The combined breeding values for clinical mastitis obtained are the official (published) ones. Mastitis estimated breeding values (EBV) were then combined with SCSs EBV into an udder health index, which receives a weight of 14.5% to 18.5% in the French total merit index (ISU) of the three breeds. Interbull genetic correlations for mastitis occurrence were very high (ρ=0.94) with Nordic countries, where much stricter recording systems exist reflecting a satisfactory quality of phenotypes as reported by the

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study of Meat Quality Traits in Nellore Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana F. B.; de Camargo, Gregório M. F.; Fernandes, Gerardo A.; Gordo, Daniel G. M.; Tonussi, Rafael L.; Costa, Raphael B.; Espigolan, Rafael; Silva, Rafael M. de O.; Bresolin, Tiago; de Andrade, Willian B. F.; Takada, Luciana; Feitosa, Fabieli L. B.; Baldi, Fernando; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Chardulo, Luis A. L.; de Albuquerque, Lucia G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions that are associated with meat quality traits in the Nellore breed. Nellore steers were finished in feedlots and slaughtered at a commercial slaughterhouse. This analysis included 1,822 phenotypic records of tenderness and 1,873 marbling records. After quality control, 1,630 animals genotyped for tenderness, 1,633 animals genotyped for marbling, and 369,722 SNPs remained. The results are reported as the proportion of variance explained by windows of 150 adjacent SNPs. Only windows with largest effects were considered. The genomic regions were located on chromosomes 5, 15, 16 and 25 for marbling and on chromosomes 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 for tenderness. These windows explained 3,89% and 3,80% of the additive genetic variance for marbling and tenderness, respectively. The genes associated with the traits are related to growth, muscle development and lipid metabolism. The study of these genes in Nellore cattle is the first step in the identification of causal mutations that will contribute to the genetic evaluation of the breed. PMID:27359122

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study of Meat Quality Traits in Nellore Cattle.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Ana F B; de Camargo, Gregório M F; Fernandes, Gerardo A; Gordo, Daniel G M; Tonussi, Rafael L; Costa, Raphael B; Espigolan, Rafael; Silva, Rafael M de O; Bresolin, Tiago; de Andrade, Willian B F; Takada, Luciana; Feitosa, Fabieli L B; Baldi, Fernando; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Chardulo, Luis A L; de Albuquerque, Lucia G

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions that are associated with meat quality traits in the Nellore breed. Nellore steers were finished in feedlots and slaughtered at a commercial slaughterhouse. This analysis included 1,822 phenotypic records of tenderness and 1,873 marbling records. After quality control, 1,630 animals genotyped for tenderness, 1,633 animals genotyped for marbling, and 369,722 SNPs remained. The results are reported as the proportion of variance explained by windows of 150 adjacent SNPs. Only windows with largest effects were considered. The genomic regions were located on chromosomes 5, 15, 16 and 25 for marbling and on chromosomes 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 for tenderness. These windows explained 3,89% and 3,80% of the additive genetic variance for marbling and tenderness, respectively. The genes associated with the traits are related to growth, muscle development and lipid metabolism. The study of these genes in Nellore cattle is the first step in the identification of causal mutations that will contribute to the genetic evaluation of the breed. PMID:27359122

  8. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    PubMed

    G T Pereira, Anirene; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B P; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Garcia, José F

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  9. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B. P.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J.; Garcia, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  10. Selection for feed efficiency traits and correlated genetic responses in feed intake and weight gain of Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Grion, A L; Mercadante, M E Z; Cyrillo, J N S G; Bonilha, S F M; Magnani, E; Branco, R H

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for indicator traits of feed efficiency and to recommend traits that would result in better responses to selection for increased weaning weight (weaning weight adjusted to 210 d of age [W210]), ADG, and metabolic BW (BW(0.75)) and lower DMI. Records of W210 from 8,004 Nellore animals born between 1978 and 2011 and postweaning performance test records from 678 males and females born between 2004 and 2011 were used. The following feed efficiency traits were evaluated: G:F, partial efficiency of growth (PEG), relative growth rate (RGR), Kleiber's ratio (KR), residual feed intake (RFI), residual weight gain (RWG), and residual intake and gain (RIG). Covariance and variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using multitrait analysis under an animal model. Estimates of genetic gain and correlated responses were obtained considering single-stage and 2-stage selection. Heritability estimates were 0.22 ± 0.03 (W210), 0.60 ± 0.08 (DMI), 0.42 ± 0.08 (ADG), 0.56 ± 0.06 (BW(0.75)), 0.19 ± 0.07 (G:F), 0.25 ± 0.09 (PEG), 0.19 ± 0.07 (RGR), 0.22 ± 0.07 (KR), 0.33 ± 0.10 (RFI), 0.13 ± 0.07 (RWG), and 0.19 ± 0.08 (RIG). The genetic correlations of DMI with W210 (0.64 ± 0.10), ADG (0.87 ± 0.06), and BW(0.75) (0.84 ± 0.05) were high. The only efficiency traits showing favorable responses to selection for lower DMI were G:F, PEG, RFI, and RIG. However, the use of G:F, PEG, or RFI as a selection criterion results in unfavorable correlated responses in some growth traits. The linear combination of RFI and RWG through RIG is the best selection criterion to obtain favorable responses in postweaning growth and feed intake of Nellore cattle in single-stage selection. Genetic gains in feed efficiency are expected even after preselection for W210 and subsequent feed efficiency testing of the preselected animals. PMID:24492579

  11. Genetic relationships between carcass cut weights predicted from video image analysis and other performance traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Pabiou, T; Fikse, W F; Amer, P R; Cromie, A R; Näsholm, A; Berry, D P

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the genetic associations between a range of carcass-related traits including wholesale cut weights predicted from video image analysis (VIA) technology, and a range of pre-slaughter performance traits in commercial Irish cattle. Predicted carcass cut weights comprised of cut weights based on retail value: lower value cuts (LVC), medium value cuts (MVC), high value cuts (HVC) and very high value cuts (VHVC), as well as total meat, fat and bone weights. Four main sources of data were used in the genetic analyses: price data of live animals collected from livestock auctions, live-weight data and linear type collected from both commercial and pedigree farms as well as from livestock auctions and weanling quality recorded on-farm. Heritability of carcass cut weights ranged from 0.21 to 0.39. Genetic correlations between the cut traits and the other performance traits were estimated using a series of bivariate sire linear mixed models where carcass cut weights were phenotypically adjusted to a constant carcass weight. Strongest positive genetic correlations were obtained between predicted carcass cut weights and carcass value (min r g(MVC) = 0.35; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.69), and animal price at both weaning (min r(g(MVC)) = 0.37; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.66) and post weaning (min r(g(MVC)) = 0.50; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.67). Moderate genetic correlations were obtained between carcass cut weights and calf price (min r g(HVC) = 0.34; max r g(LVC) = 0.45), weanling quality (min r(g(MVC)) = 0.12; max r (g(VHVC)) = 0.49), linear scores for muscularity at both weaning (hindquarter development: min r(g(MVC)) = -0.06; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.46), post weaning (hindquarter development: min r(g(MVC)) = 0.23; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.44). The genetic correlations between total meat weight were consistent with those observed with the predicted wholesale cut weights. Total fat and total bone weights were generally negatively correlated with carcass value, auction

  12. Genomic analysis of dominance effects on milk production and conformation traits in Fleckvieh cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimates of dominance variance in dairy cattle based on pedigree data vary considerably across traits and amount to up to 50% of the total genetic variance for conformation traits and up to 43% for milk production traits. Using bovine SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genotypes, dominance variance can be estimated both at the marker level and at the animal level using genomic dominance effect relationship matrices. Yield deviations of high-density genotyped Fleckvieh cows were used to assess cross-validation accuracy of genomic predictions with additive and dominance models. The potential use of dominance variance in planned matings was also investigated. Results Variance components of nine milk production and conformation traits were estimated with additive and dominance models using yield deviations of 1996 Fleckvieh cows and ranged from 3.3% to 50.5% of the total genetic variance. REML and Gibbs sampling estimates showed good concordance. Although standard errors of estimates of dominance variance were rather large, estimates of dominance variance for milk, fat and protein yields, somatic cell score and milkability were significantly different from 0. Cross-validation accuracy of predicted breeding values was higher with genomic models than with the pedigree model. Inclusion of dominance effects did not increase the accuracy of the predicted breeding and total genetic values. Additive and dominance SNP effects for milk yield and protein yield were estimated with a BLUP (best linear unbiased prediction) model and used to calculate expectations of breeding values and total genetic values for putative offspring. Selection on total genetic value instead of breeding value would result in a larger expected total genetic superiority in progeny, i.e. 14.8% for milk yield and 27.8% for protein yield and reduce the expected additive genetic gain only by 4.5% for milk yield and 2.6% for protein yield. Conclusions Estimated dominance variance was substantial

  13. Joint genomic evaluation of French dairy cattle breeds using multiple-trait models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Using a multi-breed reference population might be a way of increasing the accuracy of genomic breeding values in small breeds. Models involving mixed-breed data do not take into account the fact that marker effects may differ among breeds. This study was aimed at investigating the impact on accuracy of increasing the number of genotyped candidates in the training set by using a multi-breed reference population, in contrast to single-breed genomic evaluations. Methods Three traits (milk production, fat content and female fertility) were analyzed by genomic mixed linear models and Bayesian methodology. Three breeds of French dairy cattle were used: Holstein, Montbéliarde and Normande with 2976, 950 and 970 bulls in the training population, respectively and 964, 222 and 248 bulls in the validation population, respectively. All animals were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine SNP50 array. Accuracy of genomic breeding values was evaluated under three scenarios for the correlation of genomic breeding values between breeds (rg): uncorrelated (1), rg = 0; estimated rg (2); high, rg = 0.95 (3). Accuracy and bias of predictions obtained in the validation population with the multi-breed training set were assessed by the coefficient of determination (R2) and by the regression coefficient of daughter yield deviations of validation bulls on their predicted genomic breeding values, respectively. Results The genetic variation captured by the markers for each trait was similar to that estimated for routine pedigree-based genetic evaluation. Posterior means for rg ranged from −0.01 for fertility between Montbéliarde and Normande to 0.79 for milk yield between Montbéliarde and Holstein. Differences in R2 between the three scenarios were notable only for fat content in the Montbéliarde breed: from 0.27 in scenario (1) to 0.33 in scenarios (2) and (3). Accuracies for fertility were lower than for other traits. Conclusions Using a multi-breed reference population

  14. The effect of body weight on some welfare indicators in feedlot cattle in a hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, Serdal; Ustuner, Hakan; Orman, Abdulkadir

    2012-03-01

    Heat stress has important effects on the welfare of livestock. The effects of heat stress in cattle include changes in biological functions and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral differences between light and heavy feedlot cattle reared in a hot environment. Sixteen male Holstein feedlot cattle were allocated to light (353.8 ± 15.5 kg, n = 8) and heavy (737.1 ± 15.8 kg, n = 8) groups according to their live weight and were kept in a semi-open feedlot barn. The individual behavioral response variables measured were standing, lying, feeding, drinking, ruminating, locomotor activity and elimination (urinating and defecating). The effects of group, day, observation time, replicate and all interactions were included in an explanatory statistical (GLM) model. The data were analyzed using the PROC GLM procedure of SAS. Overall, the heavy cattle spent more time standing ( P < 0.001), lying ( P < 0.001), and eliminating ( P < 0.05) compared to the light group. In contrast, the light group spent more time eating, drinking and ruminating ( P < 0.001). Locomotor activity did not differ significantly between groups ( P > 0.05). During the day, heavy cattle spent more time standing (at 1600 hours) and less time eating in comparison with the light cattle ( P < 0.001) (at 1300 and 1600 hours). Light and heavy feedlot cattle behaved differently in a hot environment. The findings of the study indicate that the welfare of the heavy Holstein feedlot cattle was impacted negatively when the ambient temperature was high (at 1300 hours).

  15. Evaluation of Bovine chemerin (RARRES2) Gene Variation on Beef Cattle Production Traits1

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Rempel, Lea A.; Smith, Timothy P. L.; Cushman, Robert A.; McDaneld, Tara G.; Wheeler, Tommy L.; Shackelford, Steven D.; King, David A.; Freetly, Harvey C.

    2012-01-01

    A previous study in cattle based on >48,000 markers identified markers on chromosome 4 near the chemerin gene associated with average daily feed intake (ADFI) in steers (P < 0.008). Chemerin is an adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans, representing a strong candidate gene potentially underlying the observed association. To evaluate whether the bovine chemerin gene is involved in feed intake, 16 markers within and around the gene were tested for association in the same resource population. Eleven were nominally significant for ADFI (P < 0.05) and two were significant after Bonferroni correction. Two and five SNP in this region were nominally significant for the related traits of average daily gain (ADG) and residual feed intake (RFI), respectively. All markers were evaluated for effects on meat quality and carcass phenotypes. Many of the markers associated with ADFI were associated with hot carcass weight (HCW), adjusted fat thickness (AFT), and marbling (P < 0.05). Marker alleles that were associated with lower ADFI were also associated with lower HCW, AFT, and marbling. Markers associated with ADFI were genotyped in a validation population of steers representing 14 breeds to determine predictive merit across populations. No consistent relationships for ADFI were detected. To determine whether cattle feed intake or growth phenotypes might be related to chemerin transcript abundance, the expression of chemerin was evaluated in adipose of 114 heifers that were siblings of the steers in the discovery population. Relative chemerin transcript abundance was not correlated with ADFI, ADG, or RFI, but associations with body condition score and yearling weight were observed. We conclude that variation in the chemerin gene may underlie observed association in the resource population, but that additional research is required to determine if this variation is widespread among breeds and to develop robust markers with predictive merit

  16. Genetic Analysis of Growth Traits in Polled Nellore Cattle Raised on Pasture in Tropical Region Using Bayesian Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Fernando Brito; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Paulini, Fernanda; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Miyagi, Eliane Sayuri; Lôbo, Raysildo Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Components of (co)variance and genetic parameters were estimated for adjusted weights at ages 120 (W120), 240 (W240), 365 (W365) and 450 (W450) days of Polled Nellore cattle raised on pasture and born between 1987 and 2010. Analyses were performed using an animal model, considering fixed effects: herd-year-season of birth and calf sex as contemporary groups and the age of cow as a covariate. Gibbs Samplers were used to estimate (co)variance components, genetic parameters and additive genetic effects, which accounted for great proportion of total variation in these traits. High direct heritability estimates for the growth traits were revealed and presented mean 0.43, 0.61, 0.72 and 0.67 for W120, W240, W365 and W450, respectively. Maternal heritabilities were 0.07 and 0.08 for W120 and W240, respectively. Direct additive genetic correlations between the weight at 120, 240, 365 and 450 days old were strong and positive. These estimates ranged from 0.68 to 0.98. Direct-maternal genetic correlations were negative for W120 and W240. The estimates ranged from −0.31 to −0.54. Estimates of maternal heritability ranged from 0.056 to 0.092 for W120 and from 0.064 to 0.096 for W240. This study showed that genetic progress is possible for the growth traits we studied, which is a novel and favorable indicator for an upcoming and promising Polled Zebu breed in Tropical regions. Maternal effects influenced the performance of weight at 120 and 240 days old. These effects should be taken into account in genetic analyses of growth traits by fitting them as a genetic or a permanent environmental effect, or even both. In general, due to a medium-high estimate of environmental (co)variance components, management and feeding conditions for Polled Nellore raised at pasture in tropical regions of Brazil needs improvement and growth performance can be enhanced. PMID:24040412

  17. Estimated genetic parameters for palatability traits of steaks from Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W

    2003-01-01

    Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from carcass and beef palatability data collected from Brahman calves (n = 504) born in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Traits evaluated included Warner-Bratzler shear force (after 7, 14, and 21 d of aging), panel tenderness score, connective tissue amount, juiciness, flavor intensity, and off flavor (after 14 d of aging), percentages of raw and cooked lipids, and milligrams per gram of muscle calpastatin activity. Parameters were estimated using an animal model and derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood procedures. Estimated heritabilities for d 7, 14, and 21 shear force were 0.14,0.14, and 0.06, respectively, indicating that improvement in these traits by selection would be slow. Estimated heritabilities of sensory panel attributes were 0.11, 0.12, 0.05, 0.04, and 0.01 for tenderness, connective tissue amount, juiciness, flavor intensity, and off flavor, respectively. The estimated heritabilities for percentages of raw and cooked lipids, and calpastatin activity were 0.34, 0.17, and 0.07, respectively. Most of the estimated genetic correlations among palatability traits and for palatability traits with fat thickness, marbling score, and loin muscle area were consistent with other estimates from the literature. Results indicated that improvement in tenderness based on selection for favorable shear force, sensory panel tenderness, or calpastatin activity would be slow; therefore, postslaughter intervention programs should also be considered. PMID:12597372

  18. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  19. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  20. Evidence for quantitative trait loci affecting twinning rate in North American Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, J; Dentine, M R; Berger, P J; Kirkpatrick, B W

    2004-06-01

    Twinning in dairy cattle has been associated with many negative health and reproductive events that cause economic loss to the producer. Reports have suggested that twinning rates are increasing and that there may be a positive relationship between milk production and twinning frequency. Putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for twinning and ovulation rate on bovine chromosomes 5, 7, 19 and 23 have been previously identified in other populations. The objective of this study was to detect and possibly confirm the existence and effects of these QTL in the North American Holstein population. Half-sib families of 20 North American Holstein sires with above average twinning rate predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) comprised the sample population under investigation. Twinning rate PTA values had been estimated from calving data. DNA extracted from semen samples was analysed using 45-61 microsatellite markers across the four chromosomes. Marker heterozygosity of the patriarchs averaged 62%. Evidence of twinning QTL was found in multiple families on chromosomes 5, 7 and 23 and in one family on chromosome 19. Four of the sires formed one three-generation family: one sire and three half-sib sons with sons of their own. This extended family was analysed with additional markers confirming a twinning QTL of significant size on chromosome 5. PMID:15147392

  1. Short communication: Genetic relationships between functional longevity and direct health traits in Austrian Fleckvieh cattle.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, C; Fuerst, C; Ducrocq, V; Fuerst-Waltl, B

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a multitrait 2-step approach applied to yield deviations and deregressed breeding values to get genetic parameters of functional longevity, clinical mastitis, early fertility disorders, cystic ovaries, and milk fever of Austrian Fleckvieh cattle. An approximate multitrait approach allows the combination of information from pseudo-phenotypes derived from different statistical models in routine genetic evaluation, which cannot be estimated easily in a full multitrait model. A total of 66,890 Fleckvieh cows were included in this study. For estimating genetic parameters, a simple linear animal model with year of birth as a fixed effect and animal as a random genetic effect was fitted. The joint analysis of yield deviations and deregressed breeding values was feasible. As expected, heritabilities were low, ranging from 0.03 (early fertility disorders) to 0.15 (functional longevity). Genetic correlations between functional longevity and clinical mastitis, early fertility disorders, cystic ovaries, and milk fever were 0.63, 0.29, 0.20, and 0.20, respectively. Within direct health traits genetic correlations were between 0.14 and 0.45. Results suggest that selecting for more robust disease-resistant cows would imply an improvement of functional longevity. PMID:26277309

  2. Estimation of genetic parameters for individual udder quarter milk content traits in Brown Swiss cattle.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M; Erbe, M; Bapst, B; Bieber, A; Simianer, H

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and accuracies of breeding values for milk content traits of individual udder quarters in Brown Swiss cattle. Data of 1,799 phenotyped cows from 40 Swiss dairy herds were analyzed, taking the complete pedigree into account. Fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents, somatic cell score (SCS), and information about hyperkeratosis were available for each udder quarter. The milk of rear udder quarters was found to have significantly higher lactose content and significantly lower fat content than milk of the front udder quarters. The same trend found for fat content was observed for protein content, whereas no differences between the udder quarters were observed for urea content, SCS, or hyperkeratosis. Heritabilities for each udder quarter were in the following ranges: fat content 0.09±0.06 to 0.14±0.06, protein content 0.20±0.09 to 0.33±0.07, lactose content 0.04±0.03 to 0.16±0.07, urea content 0.13±0.07 to 0.22±0.08, SCS 0.18±0.06 to 0.32±0.07, and hyperkeratosis 0.12±0.04 to 0.26±0.05. In our study, hyperkeratosis, protein content, and SCS showed higher heritabilities in the front udder quarters, fat content had higher heritabilities in the rear udder quarters, and no systematic pattern in heritability was observed for lactose content or urea content. Additive genetic correlations between all udder quarters were >0.90 for protein and urea contents, whereas they were remarkably low (<0.60) for SCS. For fat and lactose contents, the genetic correlations between the 2 front or between the 2 rear quarters, respectively, were notably higher than correlations between 1 front and 1 rear quarter, suggesting that the front and the rear udders could be considered as partly genetically different organs. The variability within the udder as such was found to be of low heritability (<0.10) in general, but repeatability was moderate to high for some traits (lactose content: 0.33±0.05, protein content: 0.53±0

  3. Genetic associations between scrotal circumference and female reproductive traits in Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Terakado, A P N; Boligon, A A; Baldi, F; Silva, J A I I V; Albuquerque, L G

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic associations between scrotal circumference obtained at 12 (SC12; mean of 21.46 ± 2.74 cm), 15 (SC15; mean of 25.31 ± 3.19 cm), and 18 mo of age (SC18; mean of 26.77 ± 2.95 cm) and reproductive traits measured directly in heifers (age at first calving [AFC]: mean of 1,062.06 ± 114.79 d; heifer pregnancy at 16 mo of age [HP]: mean of 15.4 ± 0.36%; and subsequent rebreeding of primiparous heifers [HR]: mean of 27.1 ± 0.44%) using Bayesian inference to evaluate the possible inclusion of these traits as selection criteria in beef cattle breeding programs. Genetic gains comparisons were also estimated. A total of 53,683 data of Nelore animals born between 1990 and 2006, obtained from the livestock archive of Agropecuária Jacarezinho Ltda. (Valparaíso, São Paulo, Brazil), were analyzed. Two-trait analysis provided heritability estimates of 0.35 ± 0.08, 0.40 ± 0.04, 0.37 ± 0.03, 0.21 ± 0.01, 0.55 ± 0.03, and 0.17 ± 0.03 for SC12, SC15, SC18, AFC, HP, and HR, respectively. The genetic correlations between scrotal circumference and AFC, HP, and HR were -0.42 ± 0.12, 0.43 ± 0.13, and -0.13 ± 0.17, respectively, for SC12; -0.25 ± 0.07, 0.26 ± 0.07, and -0.11 ± 0.10, respectively, for SC15; and -0.22 ± 0.06, 0.39 ± 0.06, and 0.11 ± 0.09, respectively, for SC18. The direct selection response for HP was 0.12%, but when HP is indirectly selected based on the scrotal circumferences, the gains on these correlated responses were higher (0.16, 0.16, and 0.22%) for selection based on SC12, SC15, and SC18, respectively. These findings suggest that the selection of animals for larger scrotal circumference, particularly at 12 mo of age, should result in higher rates of HP and younger AFC of Nelore females. PMID:26115258

  4. Composite selection signals can localize the trait specific genomic regions in multi-breed populations of cattle and sheep

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discerning the traits evolving under neutral conditions from those traits evolving rapidly because of various selection pressures is a great challenge. We propose a new method, composite selection signals (CSS), which unifies the multiple pieces of selection evidence from the rank distribution of its diverse constituent tests. The extreme CSS scores capture highly differentiated loci and underlying common variants hauling excess haplotype homozygosity in the samples of a target population. Results The data on high-density genotypes were analyzed for evidence of an association with either polledness or double muscling in various cohorts of cattle and sheep. In cattle, extreme CSS scores were found in the candidate regions on autosome BTA-1 and BTA-2, flanking the POLL locus and MSTN gene, for polledness and double muscling, respectively. In sheep, the regions with extreme scores were localized on autosome OAR-2 harbouring the MSTN gene for double muscling and on OAR-10 harbouring the RXFP2 gene for polledness. In comparison to the constituent tests, there was a partial agreement between the signals at the four candidate loci; however, they consistently identified additional genomic regions harbouring no known genes. Persuasively, our list of all the additional significant CSS regions contains genes that have been successfully implicated to secondary phenotypic diversity among several subpopulations in our data. For example, the method identified a strong selection signature for stature in cattle capturing selective sweeps harbouring UQCC-GDF5 and PLAG1-CHCHD7 gene regions on BTA-13 and BTA-14, respectively. Both gene pairs have been previously associated with height in humans, while PLAG1-CHCHD7 has also been reported for stature in cattle. In the additional analysis, CSS identified significant regions harbouring multiple genes for various traits under selection in European cattle including polledness, adaptation, metabolism, growth rate, stature

  5. Evaluation in beef cattle of six deoxyribonucleic acid markers developed for dairy traits reveals an osteopontin polymorphism associated with postweaning growth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six DNA markers have been reported to be associated with variation in dairy production traits. The objectives of this study were to 1) estimate allele frequencies in U.S. beef cattle and 2) evaluate association of marker genotype with beef production traits. Several genetic markers have been assoc...

  6. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

  7. A promoter polymorphism of MSTN g.-371T>A and its associations with carcass traits in Korean cattle.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Hyun; Cho, In-Cheol; Ko, Moon-Suck; Kim, Eun-Young; Park, Se-Pill; Lee, Sung-Soo; Oh, Hong-Shik

    2012-04-01

    A promoter polymorphism of bovine Myostatin (MSTN) gene g.-371T>A was screened in Holstein and two Korean indigenous cattle breeds, Hanwoo and Jeju Black cattle (JBC). The MSTN g.-371T>A polymorphism was found in all three cattle breeds tested. An allele MSTN g.-371A was the most frequent in the JBC breed among breeds tested. The association of MSTN genotypes for carcass traits was also tested in the Hanwoo population. Significant differences were found between the genotypes and level of meat quality grade index which converted the marbling score levels (P < 0.05), reflecting the metabolic role of MSTN for inhibition of preadipocyte differentiation in intramuscular fat deposition. In addition, significant differences were found for fat color index of backfat according to MSTN genotypes (P < 0.05), suggesting that MSTN may play a role in deposition of white-yellow adipocytes in backfat. However, there was no detection of significant association of genotypes with the live weight, carcass weight, backfat thickness, eye muscle area, marbling score, or meat color index (P > 0.05). Despite the lack of statistical association, wild type g.-371T/-showed association patterns similar to those of A/A homozygotes, such as heavier weights, thinner backfat, larger eye muscle area, and lower marbling score. The results of the present study suggest that MSTN promoter polymorphism g.-371T>A may affect carcass traits, which could be a useful molecular marker for planning improvements in the economic traits of Korean cattle breeds. PMID:21743995

  8. Breed effects, retained heterosis, and estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters for carcass and meat traits of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M

    1994-05-01

    Retained heterosis for meat traits was estimated in F3 generation castrate males in three composite populations of beef cattle finished on two levels of dietary energy density (2.82 Mcal of ME and 3.07 Mcal of ME and 11.50% CP) and serially slaughtered at four end points at intervals of 20 to 22 d. Breed effects were evaluated in nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, and 1/4 A). Breed effects were important (P < .01) for all carcass and meat traits evaluated. Dietary energy density and slaughter group affected (P < .05) most traits evaluated. The effects of retained heterosis were not consistent among composites. For the mean of the three composites, retained heterosis was significant only for percentage of 9-10-11th rib fat and for percentage of retail product. Phenotypic correlations indicated that marbling score was a poor predictor of palatability attributes of individual carcasses. Estimates of heritability were intermediate to high for measures of fatness but were generally low for palatability attributes. The high negative genetic correlation (-.56) between percentage of retail product and marbling score and the relatively low genetic correlations between percentage of retail product and palatability attributes suggests the need for simultaneous attention to percentage of retail product and palatability attributes rather than to marbling score. Correlations among breed group means were generally high for measures of fatness with palatability attributes and were high and negative for percentage of retail product with marbling score and with other measures of fatness. Limited opportunity exists for selecting among breeds to achieve high levels of marbling in the longissimus

  9. Multi-trait BLUP model indicates sorghum hybrids with genetic potential for agronomic and nutritional traits.

    PubMed

    Almeida Filho, J E; Tardin, F D; Guimarães, J F R; Resende, M D V; Silva, F F; Simeone, M L; Menezes, C B; Queiroz, V A V

    2016-01-01

    The breeding of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, aimed at improving its nutritional quality, is of great interest, since it can be used as a highly nutritive alternative food source and can possibly be cultivated in regions with low rainfall. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential and genetic diversity of grain-sorghum hybrids for traits of agronomic and nutritional interest. To this end, the traits grain yield and flowering, and concentrations of protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, and zinc in the grain were evaluated in 25 grain-sorghum hybrids, comprising 18 experimental hybrids of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo and seven commercial hybrids. The genetic potential was analyzed by a multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) model, and cluster analysis was accomplished by squared Mahalanobis distance using the predicted genotypic values. Hybrids 0306037 and 0306034 stood out in the agronomic evaluation. The hybrids with agronomic prominence, however, did not stand out for the traits related to the nutritional quality of the grain. Three clusters were formed from the dendrogram obtained with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean method. From the results of the genotypic BLUP and the analysis of the dendrogram, hybrids 0577337, 0441347, 0307651, and 0306037 were identified as having the potential to establish a population that can aggregate alleles for all the evaluated traits of interest. PMID:26985915

  10. Factor Analysis of Linear Type Traits and Their Relation with Longevity in Brazilian Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Cobuci, Jaime Araújo; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; Pimentel, Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-01-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the reduction in dimensionality of 20 linear type traits and more final score in 14,943 Holstein cows in Brazil using factor analysis, and indicate their relationship with longevity and 305 d first lactation milk production. Low partial correlations (−0.19 to 0.38), the medium to high Kaiser sampling mean (0.79) and the significance of the Bartlett sphericity test (p<0.001), indicated correlations between type traits and the suitability of these data for a factor analysis, after the elimination of seven traits. Two factors had autovalues greater than one. The first included width and height of posterior udder, udder texture, udder cleft, loin strength, bone quality and final score. The second included stature, top line, chest width, body depth, fore udder attachment, angularity and final score. The linear regression of the factors on several measures of longevity and 305 d milk production showed that selection considering only the first factor should lead to improvements in longevity and 305 milk production. PMID:25050015

  11. Allelic frequencies and association with carcass traits of six genes in local subpopulations of Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Nishimaki, Takahiro; Ibi, Takayuki; Siqintuya; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Akiyama, Takayuki; Yoshida, Emi; Imai, Kazumi; Matsui, Mayu; Uemura, Keiichi; Eto, Hisayoshi; Watanabe, Naoto; Fujita, Tatsuo; Saito, Yosuke; Komatsu, Tomohiko; Hoshiba, Hiroshi; Mannen, Hideyuki; Sasazaki, Shinji; Kunieda, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is expected to accelerate the genetic improvement of Japanese Black cattle. However, verification of the effects of the genes for MAS in different subpopulations is required prior to the application of MAS. In this study, we investigated the allelic frequencies and genotypic effects for carcass traits of six genes, which can be used in MAS, in eight local subpopulations. These genes are SCD, FASN and SREBP1, which are associated with the fatty acid composition of meat, and NCAPG, MC1R and F11, which are associated with carcass weight, coat color and blood coagulation abnormality, respectively. The frequencies of desirable alleles of SCD and FASN were relatively high and that of NCAPG was relatively low, and NCAPG was significantly associated with several carcass traits, including carcass weight. The proportions of genotypic variance explained by NCAPG to phenotypic variance were 4.83 for carcass weight. We thus confirmed that NCAPG is a useful marker for selection of carcass traits in these subpopulations. In addition, we found that the desirable alleles of six genes showed no negative effects on carcass traits. Therefore, selection using these genes to improve target traits should not have negative impacts on carcass traits. PMID:26249527

  12. Factors influencing the priority of access to food and their effects on the carcass traits for Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle.

    PubMed

    Takanishi, N; Oishi, K; Kumagai, H; Uemura, M; Hirooka, H

    2015-12-01

    The factors influencing the priority of access to food and the effects of the priority of access to food on their carcass traits were analyzed for Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle in a semi-intensive fattening production system. The records of 96 clinically healthy steers and heifers were analyzed. The calves at ∼3 to 4 months of age were allocated to pens with four animals per pen; all four animals in the same pen were of the same sex and of similar body size. The ranking of the animals' priority of access to food (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th), which was determined by the farm manager, was used as an indicator of social dominance in the present study. Four models including sire line, maternal grandsire line and the difference in the animals' birth dates as fixed effects were used to analyze factors influencing the priority of access to food. Ranking was represented by ordinal scores (highest=4, lowest=1) in Model 1, and the binary scores were assigned in Model 2 (highest=1; 2nd, 3rd and 4th=0), Model 3 (1st and 2nd=1; 3rd and 4th=0) and Model 4 (1st, 2nd and 3rd=1; lowest=0). The results showed that the difference in the animals' birth dates had a significant effect on the establishment of the priority of access to food in Model 3 (P<0.05), suggesting that animals born earlier may become more dominant in the pen. The maternal grandsire line tended to affect the social rank score in Models 2 and 3 (P<0.10). Our results indicated that the maternal grandsire line may affect the temperament of calves through their mothers' genetic performance and thereby more aggressive calves may be more dominant and have higher priority of access to food. On the other hand, there was a significant effect of the priority of access to food on beef marbling score (BMS; P<0.05), and the priority of access to food also tended to influence the carcass weight (P=0.09). The highest BMS was observed for animals with the first rank of the priority of access to food (P<0.05), and the higher

  13. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VIII): carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate alternative sources of tropically adapted cattle germplasm and compare them with Angus- (AN) and Hereford- (HE) sired steers. Carcass, yield, and longissimus thoracis palatability traits from F(1) steers (n = 621) obtained from mating AN and MARC III cows to HE, AN, Brangus (BR), Beefmaster (BM), Bonsmara (BO), or Romosinuano (RO) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (426 d), carcass weight (340 kg), fat thickness (1.0 cm), fat trim percentage (25%), and marbling (Small(00)) endpoints. For Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force and trained and untrained sensory panel traits, data were obtained on LM from ribeye steaks stored at 2 degrees C for 14 or 15 d postmortem. The following comparisons were from the age-constant endpoint. Carcasses from BM-, AN-, and BR-sired steers (358, 355, and 351 kg, respectively) were heavier (P < 0.05) than carcasses from steers from HE (343 kg) and BO (331 kg) sires; RO-sired steers (318 kg) had the lightest (P < 0.05) carcasses. Adjusted fat thicknesses for AN- and BM-sired steers (1.3 and 1.2 cm, respectively) were greater (P < 0.05) than for steers from BR (1.0 cm) and BO (0.9 cm) sires; RO-sired steers (0.8 cm) had the least fat thickness. Longissimus areas were larger (P < 0.05) for BO- and BR-sired steers (84.4 and 84.1 cm(2), respectively) than for BM- and HE-sired steers (80.8 and 80.2 cm(2), respectively). A greater (P < 0.05) percentage of carcasses from AN-sired steers graded USDA Choice (69%) than other sire breeds (17 to 47%) except HE (52%). Carcass yield of boneless, totally trimmed retail product was least (P < 0.05) for AN-sired steers (60.1%) and greatest (P < 0.05) for RO- and BO-sired steers (64.4 to 63.5%). Considering all measurements, AN LM tended to be more tender and BM LM tended to be least tender. American composite breeds BM and BR were heavier, fatter, lesser yielding, with similar marbling scores but less tender LM than BO and RO. Angus

  14. Inbreeding effects on postweaning production traits, conformation, and calving performance in Irish beef cattle.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Kearney, J F; MacHugh, D E; Berry, D P

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of inbreeding on carcass quality, growth rate, live conformation measures, and calving performance in purebred populations of Charolais, Limousin, Simmental, Hereford, and Angus beef cattle using data from Irish commercial and pedigree herds. Variables analyzed are reflective of commercial farming practices. Inbreeding was included in a linear mixed model as either a class variable or a linear continuous variable. Nonlinear effects were nonsignificant across all traits. Inbred animals had decreased carcass weight and less carcass fat. The effects of inbreeding were more pronounced in the British beef breeds. Effects for carcass weight ranged from -0.87 kg (Charolais) to -1.90 kg (Hereford) per 1% increase in inbreeding. Inbred Charolais and Hereford animals were younger at slaughter by 3 and 5 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding, whereas the effect of inbreeding on age at slaughter differed significantly with animal sex in the Limousin and Angus breeds. Inbred Limousin and Angus heifers were younger at slaughter by 5 and 7 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding. Continental animals were more affected by inbreeding for live muscling and skeletal conformational measurements than the British breeds; inbred animals were smaller and narrower with poorer developed muscle. Calf inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Charolais, Simmental, and Hereford animals. The effects were dependent upon dam parity and calf sex; however, where significant, the association was always unfavorable. Dam inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Limousin and Hereford animals. Effects differed by parity in Limousins. Inbred first-parity Angus dams had a greater incidence of dystocia. Although the effects of inbreeding were some-times significant, they were small and are unlikely to make a large financial effect on commercial beef production in Ireland. PMID

  15. Mapping of a quantitative trait locus for beef marbling on bovine chromosome 9 in purebred Japanese black cattle.

    PubMed

    Imai, K; Matsughige, T; Watanabe, T; Sugimoto, Y; Ihara, N

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study is to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for carcass traits applicable for a DNA-based breeding system in a Japanese Black cattle population. A purebred paternal half-sib family from a commercial line composed of 65 steers was initially analyzed using 188 informative microsatellites giving a 16-cM average interval covering 29 autosomes. A significant QTL for marbling was detected in the centromeric portion of bovine chromosome (BTA) 9. After additional marker genotyping across a larger sample size composed of 169 individuals, this locus was refined to a 20-cM confidence interval between microsatellites BM1227 (24 cM) and DIK2741 (50 cM) at a 1% chromosome-wise threshold. The allele substitution effect between Q and q for a beef marbling standard score (1 to 12 range) on BTA9 was 1.0 (5.7% of total phenotypic variance in QTL contribution in this family). This result provides a primary platform for a marker-assisted selection system of the beef marbling trait within the Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle population. PMID:17453646

  16. Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle

    PubMed Central

    Anderung, Cecilia; Bouwman, Abigail; Persson, Per; Carretero, José Miguel; Ortega, Ana Isabel; Elburg, Rengert; Smith, Colin; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Ellegren, Hans; Götherström, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The geographic situation of the Iberian Peninsula makes it a natural link between Europe and North Africa. However, it is a matter of debate to what extent African influences via the Straits Gibraltar have affected Iberia's prehistoric development. Because early African pastoralist communities were dedicated to cattle breeding, a possible means to detect prehistoric African–Iberian contacts might be to analyze the origin of cattle breeds on the Iberian Peninsula. Some contemporary Iberian cattle breeds show a mtDNA haplotype, T1, that is characteristic to African breeds, generally explained as being the result of the Muslim expansion of the 8th century A.D., and of modern imports. To test a possible earlier African influence, we analyzed mtDNA of Bronze Age cattle from the Portalón cave at the Atapuerca site in northern Spain. Although the majority of samples showed the haplotype T3 that dominates among European breeds of today, the T1 haplotype was found in one specimen radiocarbon dated 1800 calibrated years B.C. Accepting T1 as being of African origin, this result indicates prehistoric African–Iberian contacts and lends support to archaeological finds linking early African and Iberian cultures. We also found a wild ox haplotype in the Iberian Bronze Age sample, reflecting local hybridization or backcrossing or that aurochs were hunted by these farming cultures. PMID:15941827

  17. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP

  18. Indicators of lead, zinc and cadmium exposure in cattle. I. Results in a polluted area

    SciTech Connect

    Milhaud, G.E.; Mehennaoui, S.

    1988-12-01

    Dairy cattle on a farm located in the vicinity of a lead and zinc-ore processing factory were studied over 21 mo and compared with cattle on a control farm. Mean daily intakes of lead from the diet were 4.3 mg/kg body weight, with great variations; mean daily zinc intakes were 5.6 mg/kg body weight; and mean daily cadmium intakes were 0.064 mg/kg body weight. The 3 major indicators of contamination were blood lead concentrations, with mean values of 50 micrograms/100 ml of blood, zinc protoporphyrin with mean values of 165 micrograms/100 ml blood, and lead concentrations in hair which averaged 10 micrograms/g. Blood zinc concentrations and zinc concentrations were not significantly increased. One cow developed fatal post-partum paralysis. Liver, kidney and bone lead concentrations and kidney cadmium concentrations were good ''post-mortem'' indicators of exposure.

  19. Combining evidence of selection with association analysis increases power to detect regions influencing complex traits in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hitchhiking mapping and association studies are two popular approaches to map genotypes to phenotypes. In this study we combine both approaches to complement their specific strengths and weaknesses, resulting in a method with higher statistical power and fewer false positive signals. We applied our approach to dairy cattle as they underwent extremely successful selection for milk production traits and since an excellent phenotypic record is available. We performed whole genome association tests with a new mixed model approach to account for stratification, which we validated via Monte Carlo simulations. Selection signatures were inferred with the integrated haplotype score and a locus specific permutation based integrated haplotype score that works with a folded frequency spectrum and provides a formal test of signifance to identify selection signatures. Results About 1,600 out of 34,851 SNPs showed signatures of selection and the locus specific permutation based integrated haplotype score showed overall good accordance with the whole genome association study. Each approach provides distinct information about the genomic regions that influence complex traits. Combining whole genome association with hitchhiking mapping yielded two significant loci for the trait protein yield. These regions agree well with previous results from other selection signature scans and whole genome association studies in cattle. Conclusion We show that the combination of whole genome association and selection signature mapping based on the same SNPs increases the power to detect loci influencing complex traits. The locus specific permutation based integrated haplotype score provides a formal test of significance in selection signature mapping. Importantly it does not rely on knowledge of ancestral and derived allele states. PMID:22289501

  20. Explorations in genome-wide association studies and network analyses with dairy cattle fertility traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unfavorable genetic correlations between production and fertility traits are well documented. Genetic selection for fertility traits is slow, however, due to low heritabilities. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) involved in reproduction has improved the reliability of genomic e...

  1. Estimates of missing heritability for complex traits in Brown Swiss cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genomic selection estimates genetic merit based on dense SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genotypes and phenotypes. This requires that SNPs explain a large fraction of the genetic variance. The objectives of this work were: (1) to estimate the fraction of genetic variance explained by dense genome-wide markers using 54 K SNP chip genotyping, and (2) to evaluate the effect of alternative marker-based relationship matrices and corrections for the base population on the fraction of the genetic variance explained by markers. Methods Two alternative marker-based relationship matrices were estimated using 35 706 SNPs on 1086 dairy bulls. Both pedigree- and marker-based relationship matrices were fitted simultaneously or separately in an animal model to estimate the fraction of variance not explained by the markers, i.e. the fraction explained by the pedigree. The phenotypes considered in the analysis were the deregressed estimated breeding values (dEBV) for milk, fat and protein yield and for somatic cell score (SCS). Results When dEBV were not sufficiently accurate (50 or 70%), the estimated fraction of the genetic variance explained by the markers was around 65% for yield traits and 45% for SCS. Scaling marker genotypes with locus-specific frequencies of heterozygotes slightly increased the variance explained by markers, compared with scaling with the average frequency of heterozygotes across loci. The estimated fraction of the genetic variance explained by the markers using separately both relationships matrices followed the same trends but the results were underestimated. With less accurate dEBV estimates, the fraction of the genetic variance explained by markers was underestimated, which is probably an artifact due to the dEBV being estimated by a pedigree-based animal model. Conclusions When using only highly accurate dEBV, the proportion of the genetic variance explained by the Illumina 54 K SNP chip was approximately 80% for Brown Swiss cattle

  2. Effect of LEPR, ABCG2 and SCD1 gene polymorphisms on reproductive traits in the Iranian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Asadollahpour Nanaei, H; Ansari Mahyari, S; Edriss, M-A

    2014-10-01

    During the last decades, genetic selection for milk production traits has led to increased fertility and health problems in dairy cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of three polymorphisms located in the ATP-binding cassette superfamily G member 2 transporter (ABCG2), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes on reproductive traits and somatic cell count (SCC). The analysis was conducted on 408 randomly selected cows. The SNPs within the genes (LEPR, ABCG2 and SCD1) were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP method. All three possible genotypes were observed for SCD1-T878C and LEPR-T945M SNPs, but not for ABCG2-Y581S SNP. LEPR-T945M and ABCG2-Y581S SNPs had no statistically significant effect on the studied reproductive traits and SCC. However, SCD1-T878C SNP were negatively and significantly related to pregnancy length, dry days and open days (p < 0.05), which lead to decreased profitability in dairy herds. The results suggest that the T878C SNP of SCD1 might be useful as a DNA marker to decrease reproductive problems and improve production traits in Iranian Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25130486

  3. Association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the bovine chemerin gene and carcass traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Tian, W Q; Wang, H C; Song, F B; Zan, L S; Wang, H; Wang, H B; Xin, Y P; Ujan, J A

    2011-01-01

    Qinchuan is a red or yellow draft and beef breed in China. In order to identify a predictor of carcass traits on the basis of associations between carcass traits and gene polymorphism, variation in the bovine chemerin gene was investigated using PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism and DNA sequencing. An SNP of A868G located in exon 2 of the Bos taurus chemerin gene was detected in 716 samples of six breeds (Jiaxian red, Luxi, Nan yang, Qinchuan, Simmental and Luxi crossbred steers, and Xia'nan), all in China, and three genotypes (AA, AG and GG) were found. Based on the χ(2) test, the AA/AG/GG genotype frequencies of all six breeds were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A possible association of A868G with some carcass traits was investigated in 106 Qinchuan cattle. Animals with the AG genotype were found to have significantly lower mean loin eye area and meat tenderness compared to those with the AA and GG genotypes. However, there was no significant association between any individual haplotype and backfat thickness, water holding capacity or marbling score. We suggest that A868G could be used as a molecular marker in marker-assisted selection for carcass traits. PMID:22095607

  4. Genome wide scan for quantitative trait loci affecting tick resistance in cattle (Bos taurus × Bos indicus)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In tropical countries, losses caused by bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation have a tremendous economic impact on cattle production systems. Genetic variation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus to tick resistance and molecular biology tools might allow for the identification of molecular markers linked to resistance traits that could be used as an auxiliary tool in selection programs. The objective of this work was to identify QTL associated with tick resistance/susceptibility in a bovine F2 population derived from the Gyr (Bos indicus) × Holstein (Bos taurus) cross. Results Through a whole genome scan with microsatellite markers, we were able to map six genomic regions associated with bovine tick resistance. For most QTL, we have found that depending on the tick evaluation season (dry and rainy) different sets of genes could be involved in the resistance mechanism. We identified dry season specific QTL on BTA 2 and 10, rainy season specific QTL on BTA 5, 11 and 27. We also found a highly significant genome wide QTL for both dry and rainy seasons in the central region of BTA 23. Conclusions The experimental F2 population derived from Gyr × Holstein cross successfully allowed the identification of six highly significant QTL associated with tick resistance in cattle. QTL located on BTA 23 might be related with the bovine histocompatibility complex. Further investigation of these QTL will help to isolate candidate genes involved with tick resistance in cattle. PMID:20433753

  5. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the akirin 2 gene with economically important traits in Korean native cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Lee, S K; Hong, M W; Park, S R; Lee, Y S; Kim, J W; Lee, H K; Jeong, D K; Song, Y H; Lee, S J

    2013-12-01

    The akirin 2 gene, located on chromosome 9 in cattle, was previously reported to be associated with nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), involved in immune reactions and marbling of meat. To determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in akirin 2 is associated with economically important traits of Korean native cattle, the c.*188G>A SNP DNA marker in the 3'-UTR region of akirin 2 was analyzed for its association with carcass weight, longissimus muscle area and marbling. The c.*188G>A SNP was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism, and the frequency of the AA, AG, and GG genotypes were 6.82%, 71.29% and 21.88% respectively. This SNP was significantly associated with longissimus muscle area (Bonferroni corrected P < 0.05), and marbling score (Bonferroni corrected P < 0.01). These results suggest that the c.*188G>A SNP of akirin 2 might be useful as a DNA marker for longissimus muscle area and marbling scores in Korean native cattle. PMID:23718263

  6. Association of ADIPOQ, OLR1 and PPARGC1A gene polymorphisms with growth and carcass traits in Nelore cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Patrícia D. da S.; de Souza, Fábio R.P.; de Camargo, Gregório M.F.; Gil, Fernanda M.M.; Cardoso, Diercles F.; Zetouni, Larissa; Braz, Camila U.; Boligon, Arione A.; Branco, Renata H.; de Albuquerque, Lucia G.; Mercadante, Maria E.Z.; Tonhati, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    In beef cattle farming, growth and carcass traits are important for genetic breeding programs. Molecular markers can be used to assist selection and increase genetic gain. The ADIPOQ, OLR1 and PPARGC1A genes are involved in lipid synthesis and fat accumulation in adipose tissue. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms in these genes and to assess the association with growth and carcass traits in Nelore cattle. A total of 639 animals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP for rs208549452, rs109019599 and rs109163366 in ADIPOQ, OLR1 and PPARGC1A gene, respectively. We analyzed the association of SNPs identified with birth weight, weaning weight, female yearling weight, female hip height, male yearling weight, male hip height, loin eye area, rump fat thickness, and backfat thickness. The OLR1 marker was associated with rump fat thickness and weaning weight (P < 0.05) and the PPARGC1 marker was associated with female yearling weight. PMID:25853056

  7. Association of ADIPOQ, OLR1 and PPARGC1A gene polymorphisms with growth and carcass traits in Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Patrícia D da S; de Souza, Fábio R P; de Camargo, Gregório M F; Gil, Fernanda M M; Cardoso, Diercles F; Zetouni, Larissa; Braz, Camila U; Boligon, Arione A; Branco, Renata H; de Albuquerque, Lucia G; Mercadante, Maria E Z; Tonhati, Humberto

    2015-06-01

    In beef cattle farming, growth and carcass traits are important for genetic breeding programs. Molecular markers can be used to assist selection and increase genetic gain. The ADIPOQ, OLR1 and PPARGC1A genes are involved in lipid synthesis and fat accumulation in adipose tissue. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms in these genes and to assess the association with growth and carcass traits in Nelore cattle. A total of 639 animals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP for rs208549452, rs109019599 and rs109163366 in ADIPOQ, OLR1 and PPARGC1A gene, respectively. We analyzed the association of SNPs identified with birth weight, weaning weight, female yearling weight, female hip height, male yearling weight, male hip height, loin eye area, rump fat thickness, and backfat thickness. The OLR1 marker was associated with rump fat thickness and weaning weight (P < 0.05) and the PPARGC1 marker was associated with female yearling weight. PMID:25853056

  8. Association between CSN3 and BCO2 gene polymorphisms and milk performance traits in the Czech Fleckvieh cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Bartonova, P; Vrtkova, I; Kaplanova, K; Urban, T

    2012-01-01

    Daily milk, fat and protein yield and amount of somatic cells in cow milk are very important factors that influence milk performance traits. An association between polymorphisms in the kappa casein (CSN3) gene and milk production, composition and technical properties has been previously reported; however, this type of information is not available for the bovine β-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2) gene--the BCO2 gene has relationship with milk color and meat fat color, which is dependent on content of β-carotene. We analyzed these two genes and their relationship with milk performance traits (daily milk, fat and protein yield, somatic cell count, SCC) in one cattle population, Czech Fleckvieh (N = 152). All animals were milked twice a day and kept in the same environmental conditions. The Fleckvieh is a typical Czech cattle breed farming for milk and meat production. It is the most common breed in the Czech Republic. DNA was isolated from milk or from hairs. Genes were analyzed using PCR-RFLP, frequencies of alleles and genotypes were calculated and association analysis was performed using a GLM Procedure in SAS. Statistical analysis established that the CSN3 gene has no statistically significant influence on daily milk, fat and protein yield and SCC. Compared to other references this result can be explained by, e.g., small group of animals and different cattle breed. The BCO2 gene (genotypes AA and AG) shows a statistically significant relationship (P = 0.05) with daily milk, protein yield and SCC. PMID:22614274

  9. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano maternal grandsires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 464 steers and 439 heifers obtained by mating F(1) cows to Charolais and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) sires. The F(1) cows were obtained from mating Angus and MARC III dams to Hereford, Angus, Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano sires. Traits evaluated were postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, HCW, dressing percentage, percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), and retail product weight. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits. Animals with Angus grandsires grew faster and had the heaviest carcasses, with the greatest percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice and the greatest marbling scores when compared with other grandsire breeds. Animals with Romosinuano and Bonsmara inheritance grew slower, had the lightest weights at slaughter, the lightest carcass weights, the least percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, and the least amount of marbling and fat thickness. Animals with inheritance from these 2 breeds had a more desirable yield grade with the greatest retail product yield. Maternal granddam breed was significant (P < 0.05) for marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, and retail product yield. Sex class was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except for retail product yield. Steers grew faster, were heavier, had heavier carcasses, and were leaner than heifers. Heifers had a greater dressing percentage, a greater percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, a greater LM area, and a decreased yield grade when compared with steers. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate

  10. Strategies to predict and improve eating quality of cooked beef using carcass and meat composition traits in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Mateescu, R G; Oltenacu, P A; Garmyn, A J; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L

    2016-05-01

    Product quality is a high priority for the beef industry because of its importance as a major driver of consumer demand for beef and the ability of the industry to improve it. A 2-prong approach based on implementation of a genetic program to improve eating quality and a system to communicate eating quality and increase the probability that consumers' eating quality expectations are met is outlined. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the best carcass and meat composition traits to be used in a selection program to improve eating quality and 2) to develop a relatively small number of classes that reflect real and perceptible differences in eating quality that can be communicated to consumers and identify a subset of carcass and meat composition traits with the highest predictive accuracy across all eating quality classes. Carcass traits, meat composition, including Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), intramuscular fat content (IMFC), trained sensory panel scores, and mineral composition traits of 1,666 Angus cattle were used in this study. Three eating quality indexes, EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, were generated by using different weights for the sensory traits (emphasis on tenderness, flavor, and juiciness, respectively). The best model for predicting eating quality explained 37%, 9%, and 19% of the variability of EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, and 2 traits, WBSF and IMFC, accounted for most of the variability explained by the best models. EATQ1 combines tenderness, juiciness, and flavor assessed by trained panels with 0.60, 0.15, and 0.25 weights, best describes North American consumers, and has a moderate heritability (0.18 ± 0.06). A selection index (I= -0.5[WBSF] + 0.3[IMFC]) based on phenotypic and genetic variances and covariances can be used to improve eating quality as a correlated trait. The 3 indexes (EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3) were used to generate 3 equal (33.3%) low, medium, and high eating quality classes, and linear combinations of traits that

  11. Detection of quantitative trait loci in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle using genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The apparent effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on phenotype depends on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the SNP and a quantitative trait locus (QTL). However, the phase of LD between a SNP and a QTL may differ between Bos indicus and Bos taurus because they diverged at least one hundred thousand years ago. Here, we test the hypothesis that the apparent effect of a SNP on a quantitative trait depends on whether the SNP allele is inherited from a Bos taurus or Bos indicus ancestor. Methods Phenotype data on one or more traits and SNP genotype data for 10 181 cattle from Bos taurus, Bos indicus and composite breeds were used. All animals had genotypes for 729 068 SNPs (real or imputed). Chromosome segments were classified as originating from B. indicus or B. taurus on the basis of the haplotype of SNP alleles they contained. Consequently, SNP alleles were classified according to their sub-species origin. Three models were used for the association study: (1) conventional GWAS (genome-wide association study), fitting a single SNP effect regardless of subspecies origin, (2) interaction GWAS, fitting an interaction between SNP and subspecies-origin, and (3) best variable GWAS, fitting the most significant combination of SNP and sub-species origin. Results Fitting an interaction between SNP and subspecies origin resulted in more significant SNPs (i.e. more power) than a conventional GWAS. Thus, the effect of a SNP depends on the subspecies that the allele originates from. Also, most QTL segregated in only one subspecies, suggesting that many mutations that affect the traits studied occurred after divergence of the subspecies or the mutation became fixed or was lost in one of the subspecies. Conclusions The results imply that GWAS and genomic selection could gain power by distinguishing SNP alleles based on their subspecies origin, and that only few QTL segregate in both B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. Thus, the QTL that segregate in

  12. ASSOCIATION OF A SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM IN SPP1 WITH GROWTH TRAITS AND TWINNING IN A CATTLE POPULATION SELECTED FOR TWINNING RATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continued validation of genetic markers for economically important traits is crucial to establishing marker-assisted selection as a tool in the cattle industry. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (T9/T10) in the Osteopontin gene (S...

  13. Using genomics to enhance selection of novel traits in North American dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics offers new opportunities for the effective selection of novel traits. For traits such as mastitis resistance, hoof health, or the prediction of milk composition from mid-infrared (MIR) data, for example, enough records are usually available to carry out genomic evaluations using sire genoty...

  14. Genome-wide association study for endocrine fertility traits using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and sequence variants in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Tenghe, A M M; Bouwman, A C; Berglund, B; Strandberg, E; de Koning, D J; Veerkamp, R F

    2016-07-01

    Endocrine fertility traits, which are defined from progesterone concentration levels in milk, are interesting indicators of dairy cow fertility because they more directly reflect the cows own reproductive physiology than classical fertility traits, which are more biased by farm management decisions. The aim of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 7 endocrine fertility traits in dairy cows by performing a genome-wide association study with 85k single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), and then fine-map targeted QTL regions, using imputed sequence variants. Two classical fertility traits were also analyzed for QTL with 85k SNP. The association between a SNP and a phenotype was assessed by single-locus regression for each SNP, using a linear mixed model that included a random polygenic effect. A total of 2,447 Holstein Friesian cows with 5,339 lactations with both phenotypes and genotypes were used for association analysis. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.09 to 0.15 for endocrine fertility traits and 0.03 to 0.10 for classical fertility traits. The genome-wide association study identified 17 QTL regions for endocrine fertility traits on Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) 2, 3, 8, 12, 15, 17, 23, and 25. The highest number (5) of QTL regions from the genome-wide association study was identified for the endocrine trait "proportion of samples with luteal activity." Overlapping QTL regions were found between endocrine traits on BTA 2, 3, and 17. For the classical trait calving to first service, 3 QTL regions were identified on BTA 3, 15, and 23, and an overlapping region was identified on BTA 23 with endocrine traits. Fine-mapping target regions for the endocrine traits on BTA 2 and 3 using imputed sequence variants confirmed the QTL from the genome-wide association study, and identified several associated variants that can contribute to an index of markers for genetic improvement of fertility. Several potential candidate genes underlying endocrine

  15. Evaluation of bovine chemerin (RARRES2) gene variation on beef cattle production traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous genome-wide association study in cattle based on >48,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers identified markers on chromosome 4 near the chemerin gene associated with average daily feed intake (ADFI) in steers (P<0.008). Chemerin is an adipokine that has been associated with obe...

  16. REPRODUCTIVE, GROWTH, FEEDLOT, AND CARCASS TRAITS OF TWIN VERSUS SINGLE BIRTHS IN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual frequency of fraternal twins increased 3.1% per year to 50 to 55% in a selected herd of cattle at the U. S. Meat Animal Research Center. Because twin ovulations are the first prerequisite for fraternal twins, breeding value for twinning was predicted by repeated measures of ovulation rate in ...

  17. Genetic analysis of superovulation and embryo transfer traits in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and investigate genomic regions of interest associated with superovulation and embryo transfer in dairy cattle. Superovulation and embryo transfer are methods commonly used by dairy producers to increase the rate of genetic gain achie...

  18. Utilization of Bos Indicus cattle in Florida beef enterprises: Carcass Traits and Merit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The F1 Brahman cow is the most productive cow type for the Southern United States, both in terms of reproduction (calving and weaning rate) and maternal ability. However, the substandard quality and tenderness of beef from Brahman and Brahman-cross cattle is an opportunity for improvement in the br...

  19. Genome-Wide scans for carcass and meat traits in nellore cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle industry is one of the main highlights of Brazilian agribusiness, however the standardization of meat products is still an issue. The lack of standardization of quality characteristics as fat thickness and tenderness, and the burden and time spent on collecting and evaluating large numbe...

  20. Genome Wide Analysis of Fertility and Production Traits in Italian Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Alessandra; Biffani, Stefano; Negrini, Riccardo; Lazzari, Barbara; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Williams, John L .

    2013-01-01

    A genome wide scan was performed on a total of 2093 Italian Holstein proven bulls genotyped with 50K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with the objective of identifying loci associated with fertility related traits and to test their effects on milk production traits. The analysis was carried out using estimated breeding values for the aggregate fertility index and for each trait contributing to the index: angularity, calving interval, non-return rate at 56 days, days to first service, and 305 day first parity lactation. In addition, two production traits not included in the aggregate fertility index were analysed: fat yield and protein yield. Analyses were carried out using all SNPs treated separately, further the most significant marker on BTA14 associated to milk quality located in the DGAT1 region was treated as fixed effect. Genome wide association analysis identified 61 significant SNPs and 75 significant marker-trait associations. Eight additional SNP associations were detected when SNP located near DGAT1 was included as a fixed effect. As there were no obvious common SNPs between the traits analyzed independently in this study, a network analysis was carried out to identify unforeseen relationships that may link production and fertility traits. PMID:24265800

  1. Genetic Relationships of Carcass Traits with Retail Cut Productivity of Hanwoo Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Daeyoung; Lee, Jeongkoo; Won, Seunggun; Lee, Chaeyoung; Kim, Jongbok

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate genetic correlation between carcass grading and retail productivity traits and to estimate the correlated response on retail productivity traits through selection for carcass grading traits in order to assess the efficacy of indirect selection. Genetic parameters were estimated with the data from 4240 Hanwoo steers using mixed models, and phenotypes included carcass weight (CWT), back fat thickness (BFT), eye muscle area (EMA), marbling (MAR), and estimated lean yield percentage (ELP) as the carcass grading traits, and weight and portion of retail cuts (RCW and RCP), trimmed fats (TFW and TFP) and trimmed bones (TBW and TBP) as the lean productivity traits. The CWT had positive genetic correlations with RCW (0.95) and TFW (0.73), but its genetic correlation with RCP was negligible (0.02). The BFT was negatively correlated with RCP (−0.63), but positively correlated with TFW and TFP (0.77 and 0.70). Genetic correlations of MAR with TFW and TFP were low. Among the carcass grading traits, only EMA was positively correlated with both RCW (0.60) and RCP (0.72). The EMA had a relatively strong negative genetic correlation with TFW (−0.64). The genetic correlation coefficients of ELP with RCP, TFW, and TFP were 0.76, −0.90, and −0.82, respectively. These correlation coefficients suggested that the ELP and EMA might be favorable traits in regulating lean productivity of carcass. PMID:25178288

  2. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphism marker density on degree of genetic variance explained and genomic evaluation for carcass traits in Japanese Black beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Japanese Black cattle are a beef breed whose meat is well known to excel in meat quality, especially in marbling, and whose effective population size is relatively low in Japan. Unlike dairy cattle, the accuracy of genomic evaluation (GE) for carcass traits in beef cattle, including this breed, has been poorly studied. For carcass weight and marbling score in the breed, as well as the extent of whole genome linkage disequilibrium (LD), the effects of equally-spaced single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) density on genomic relationship matrix (G matrix), genetic variance explained and GE were investigated using the genotype data of about 40,000 SNPs and two statistical models. Results Using all pairs of two adjacent SNPs in the whole SNP set, the means of LD (r 2 ) at ranges 0–0.1, 0.1–0.2, 0.2–0.5 and 0.5–1 Mb were 0.22, 0.13, 0.10 and 0.08, respectively, and 25.7, 13.9, 10.4 and 6.4% of the r 2 values exceeded 0.3, respectively. While about 90% of the genetic variance for carcass weight estimated using all available SNPs was explained using 4,000–6,000 SNPs, the corresponding percentage for marbling score was consistently lower. With the conventional linear model incorporating the G matrix, correlation between the genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) obtained using 4,000 SNPs and all available SNPs was 0.99 for carcass weight and 0.98 for marbling score, with an underestimation of the former GEBVs, especially for marbling score. Conclusions The Japanese Black is likely to be in a breed group with a relatively high extent of whole genome LD. The results indicated that the degree of marbling is controlled by only QTLs with relatively small effects, compared with carcass weight, and that using at least 4,000 equally-spaced SNPs, there is a possibility of ranking animals genetically for these carcass traits in this breed. PMID:24491120

  3. DNA sequence polymorphisms in a panel of eight candidate bovine imprinted genes and their association with performance traits in Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies in mice and humans have shown that imprinted genes, whereby expression from one of the two parentally inherited alleles is attenuated or completely silenced, have a major effect on mammalian growth, metabolism and physiology. More recently, investigations in livestock species indicate that genes subject to this type of epigenetic regulation contribute to, or are associated with, several performance traits, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In the present study, a candidate gene approach was adopted to assess 17 validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their association with a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Irish Holstein-Friesian artificial insemination sires. These SNPs are located proximal to, or within, the bovine orthologs of eight genes (CALCR, GRB10, PEG3, PHLDA2, RASGRF1, TSPAN32, ZIM2 and ZNF215) that have been shown to be imprinted in cattle or in at least one other mammalian species (i.e. human/mouse/pig/sheep). Results Heterozygosities for all SNPs analysed ranged from 0.09 to 0.46 and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (P ≤ 0.01) were observed at four loci. Phenotypic associations (P ≤ 0.05) were observed between nine SNPs proximal to, or within, six of the eight analysed genes and a number of performance traits evaluated, including milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, culled cow and progeny carcass weight, angularity, body conditioning score, progeny carcass conformation, body depth, rump angle, rump width, animal stature, calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. Notably, SNPs within the imprinted paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3) gene cluster were associated (P ≤ 0.05) with calving, calf performance and fertility traits, while a single SNP in the zinc finger protein 215 gene (ZNF215) was associated with milk protein percentage (P ≤ 0.05), progeny carcass weight (P ≤ 0.05), culled cow carcass weight (P ≤ 0.01), angularity (P

  4. Evaluation of performance characteristics in a diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. II. Carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Comerford, J W; Benyshek, L L; Bertrand, J K; Johnson, M H

    1988-02-01

    Evaluations of steer and heifer progeny from a diallel mating design of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle over 5 yr are presented. Traits evaluated included final weight, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, dressing percentage and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat. Progeny of Simmental sires were heavier at slaughter than those with Brahman sires (P less than .05), but no differences were found for carcass weight. Dressing percentage was higher for Limousin crosses compared with progeny of other sire breeds (P less than .05). Similar results were found for dam breeds, except that progeny of Limousin dams had heavier carcasses with a higher dressing percentage (P less than .05) than Brahman crosses. Crosses of Limousin and Simmental had larger ribeye areas (P less than .05) compared with calves of the other breeds. Progeny of Polled Hereford dams had higher marbling scores and were fatter than progeny of dams of other breeds (P less than .05). Heterosis estimates were significant for all Brahman crosses for final weight, carcass weight and ribeye area, but these contrasts were negligible for other traits. Estimates of general combining ability were positive and significant for Simmental for final weight, carcass weight, ribeye area and marbling score and were significant and negative for Limousin for final weight, fat thickness and yield grade. Maternal values were generally small. PMID:3372376

  5. Genetic and non-genetic parameters of replacement rate component traits in Holstein Friesian cattle.

    PubMed

    Goshu, Gebeyehu; Singh, Harpal

    2013-01-01

    Records on 3092 pregnancies distributed over a period of 24 years (1986 to 2010) were used to estimate genetic and non genetic parameters of threshold traits in Holstein Friesian. Parity, season and year of calving were included in the model to estimate their effect on replacement traits. A total of 105 sires' records were used to study the genetic component of the characters. The overall averages for abnormal and normal births, male-female sex ratios, mortality and culling rate in females up to age at first calving and female replacement rates based on female births and total pregnancies were estimated as 12.0% and 88.0%, 52.5% and 47.5%, 23.0% and 7.0% and 70.0% and 29.0% respectively. The effects of parity and year of calving on above traits were found to be significant, except parity effects on culling rate and replacement rate based on total pregnancies, which were non-significant. The season effects for all traits were non-significant. Average 3.45 pregnancies were required to produce one heifer that becomes replacement of the old and low producer cow. The heritability culling and replacement rate from total pregnancy were 0.71 and 0.66 suggesting sufficient additive genetic variance for selecting sires in these traits. Better feeding and health management could reduce mortality and force culling female calves. PMID:25674410

  6. Direct and maternal genetic effects on growth, reproduction, and ultrasound traits in zebu Brahman cattle in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Martínez, R A; Dassonneville, R; Bejarano, D; Jimenez, A; Even, G; Mészáros, G; Sölkner, J

    2016-07-01

    Covariance components and genetic parameters were estimated for birth weight (BiW); adjusted weights at 4, 7, 12, and 18 mo; and ADG between 0 and 4 mo, between 4 and 7 mo, between 7 and 12 mo, and between 12 and 18 mo. Additionally, reproductive traits, calving interval, and age at first calving were analyzed, together with traits measured by ultrasound: loin eye area, deep fat mean, back fat, and rump fat. Analyses were performed using an animal model, considering the fixed effects of the farm ( = 37), year and month of birth, sex, calving number (1 to 7), season (dry and rainy seasons), region (North Coast, Andean Region, and Oriental Savannas), and conception (natural mating or AI), whereas the age of the cows at calving was considered a polynomial covariate with linear and quadratic effects. Three different models were used to find the one with the best fit for each trait: a single-trait model with an additive direct genetic effect, a single-trait model with additive direct and maternal genetic effects, and finally, a multitrait model with an additive direct genetic effect. For the growth traits, the heritability was between 0.24 and 0.47, with the lowest value for weight at 7 mo and the greatest value for BiW, and the maternal heritability was found to be between 0.15 and 0.21 but did not decrease later on. The correlation between direct and maternal effects was high and negative (-0.59 to -0.76). With ultrasound traits, a model with only direct effects was used. The heritability was between 0.13 and 0.28 for back fat and loin eye area, respectively. The heritabilities for deep fat mean and rump fat were similar, being 0.19 and 0.21, respectively. The reproductive traits showed high residual variance. In particular, the heritability of calving interval was low (0.06). The results showed that the growth traits have an important genetic component, which is a favorable indicator for obtaining improvement progress in the zebu Brahman breed for beef production in

  7. Models for Estimating Genetic Parameters of Milk Production Traits Using Random Regression Models in Korean Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Cho, C. I.; Alam, M.; Choi, T. J.; Choy, Y. H.; Choi, J. G.; Lee, S. S.; Cho, K. H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to estimate genetic parameters for milk production traits of Holstein cattle using random regression models (RRMs), and to compare the goodness of fit of various RRMs with homogeneous and heterogeneous residual variances. A total of 126,980 test-day milk production records of the first parity Holstein cows between 2007 and 2014 from the Dairy Cattle Improvement Center of National Agricultural Cooperative Federation in South Korea were used. These records included milk yield (MILK), fat yield (FAT), protein yield (PROT), and solids-not-fat yield (SNF). The statistical models included random effects of genetic and permanent environments using Legendre polynomials (LP) of the third to fifth order (L3–L5), fixed effects of herd-test day, year-season at calving, and a fixed regression for the test-day record (third to fifth order). The residual variances in the models were either homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (15 classes, HET15; 60 classes, HET60). A total of nine models (3 orders of polynomials×3 types of residual variance) including L3-HOM, L3-HET15, L3-HET60, L4-HOM, L4-HET15, L4-HET60, L5-HOM, L5-HET15, and L5-HET60 were compared using Akaike information criteria (AIC) and/or Schwarz Bayesian information criteria (BIC) statistics to identify the model(s) of best fit for their respective traits. The lowest BIC value was observed for the models L5-HET15 (MILK; PROT; SNF) and L4-HET15 (FAT), which fit the best. In general, the BIC values of HET15 models for a particular polynomial order was lower than that of the HET60 model in most cases. This implies that the orders of LP and types of residual variances affect the goodness of models. Also, the heterogeneity of residual variances should be considered for the test-day analysis. The heritability estimates of from the best fitted models ranged from 0.08 to 0.15 for MILK, 0.06 to 0.14 for FAT, 0.08 to 0.12 for PROT, and 0.07 to 0.13 for SNF according to days in milk of first

  8. Models for Estimating Genetic Parameters of Milk Production Traits Using Random Regression Models in Korean Holstein Cattle.

    PubMed

    Cho, C I; Alam, M; Choi, T J; Choy, Y H; Choi, J G; Lee, S S; Cho, K H

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to estimate genetic parameters for milk production traits of Holstein cattle using random regression models (RRMs), and to compare the goodness of fit of various RRMs with homogeneous and heterogeneous residual variances. A total of 126,980 test-day milk production records of the first parity Holstein cows between 2007 and 2014 from the Dairy Cattle Improvement Center of National Agricultural Cooperative Federation in South Korea were used. These records included milk yield (MILK), fat yield (FAT), protein yield (PROT), and solids-not-fat yield (SNF). The statistical models included random effects of genetic and permanent environments using Legendre polynomials (LP) of the third to fifth order (L3-L5), fixed effects of herd-test day, year-season at calving, and a fixed regression for the test-day record (third to fifth order). The residual variances in the models were either homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (15 classes, HET15; 60 classes, HET60). A total of nine models (3 orders of polynomials×3 types of residual variance) including L3-HOM, L3-HET15, L3-HET60, L4-HOM, L4-HET15, L4-HET60, L5-HOM, L5-HET15, and L5-HET60 were compared using Akaike information criteria (AIC) and/or Schwarz Bayesian information criteria (BIC) statistics to identify the model(s) of best fit for their respective traits. The lowest BIC value was observed for the models L5-HET15 (MILK; PROT; SNF) and L4-HET15 (FAT), which fit the best. In general, the BIC values of HET15 models for a particular polynomial order was lower than that of the HET60 model in most cases. This implies that the orders of LP and types of residual variances affect the goodness of models. Also, the heterogeneity of residual variances should be considered for the test-day analysis. The heritability estimates of from the best fitted models ranged from 0.08 to 0.15 for MILK, 0.06 to 0.14 for FAT, 0.08 to 0.12 for PROT, and 0.07 to 0.13 for SNF according to days in milk of first

  9. Using growth traits and adipose function to identify indicators of heifer fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of early indicators of fertility would increase profitability by improving the quality of heifers chosen to enter the breeding herd. Growth traits are closely linked to age at puberty and could be predictors of initiation of reproductive cycles and heifer fertility. Adipose has ...

  10. Quality Indicator Development for Positive Screen Follow-up for Sickle Cell Disease and Trait.

    PubMed

    Faro, Elissa Z; Wang, C Jason; Oyeku, Suzette O

    2016-07-01

    Extensive variation exists in the follow-up of positive screens for sickle cell disease. Limited quality indicators exist to measure if the public health goals of screening-early initiation of treatment and enrollment to care-are being achieved. This manuscript focuses on the development of quality indicators related to the follow-up care for individuals identified with sickle cell disease and trait through screening processes. The authors used a modified Delphi method to develop the indicators. The process included a comprehensive literature review with rating of the evidence followed by ratings of draft indicators by an expert panel held in September 2012. The expert panel was nominated by leaders of various professional societies, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and met face to face to discuss and rate each indicator. The panel recommended nine quality indicators focused on key aspects of follow-up care for individuals with positive screens for sickle cell disease and trait. Public health programs and healthcare institutions can use these indicators to assess the quality of follow-up care and provide a basis for improvement efforts to ensure appropriate family education, early initiation of treatment, and appropriate referral to care for individuals identified with sickle cell disease and trait. PMID:27320465

  11. Genetic and Phenotypic Parameter Estimates for Feed Intake and Other Traits in Growing Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake and feed efficiency were moderately heritable; however, residual feed intake was more heritable than intake and feed efficiency. Adjusting residual feed intake and feed efficiency for carcass fatness had little effect on heritability and correlations with remaining traits. Flight speed was ...

  12. Association between milk protein gene variants and protein composition traits in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Huang, W; Peñagaricano, F; Ahmad, K R; Lucey, J A; Weigel, K A; Khatib, H

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify DNA markers in the 4 casein genes (CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, and CSN3) and the 2 major whey protein genes (LALBA and LGB) that show associations with milk protein profile measured by reverse-phase HPLC. Fifty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were genotyped for cows in a unique resource population consisting of purebred Holstein and (Holstein × Jersey) × Holstein crossbred animals. Seven traits were analyzed, including concentrations of α(S)-casein (CN), β-CN, κ-CN, α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and 2 additional secondary traits, the total concentration of the above 5 milk proteins and the α(S)-CN to β-CN ratio. A substantial fraction of phenotypic variation could be explained by the additive genetic component for the 7 milk protein composition traits studied. Moreover, several SNP were significantly associated with all examined traits at an experiment-wise error rate of 0.05, except for α-lactalbumin. Importantly, the significant SNP explained a large proportion of the phenotypic variation of milk protein composition. Our findings could be used for selecting animals that produce milk with desired composition or desired processing and manufacturing properties. PMID:22192223

  13. Discovery of novel genetic networks associated with 19 economically important traits in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative or complex traits are determined by the combined effects of many loci, and are affected by gene-gene interactions, genetic networks or molecular pathways. In the present study, we genotyped a total of 138 mutations, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from 71 functional gene...

  14. Evaluation of temperament and transportation stress on body composition traits and meat quality in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the first study was to evaluate the combined effects of transportation stress and animal temperament on real-time ultrasound body composition traits (primarily percentage of intramuscular fat) in Angus Crossbred (n = 68) and Brahman (n = 60) steers. Temperament scores (1 to 5 scale)...

  15. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VIII): carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate alternative sources of tropically adapted germplasm and compare them to the Angus and Hereford sired crosses. Carcass, yield, and longissimus thoracis palatability traits from F1 steers (n = 621) obtained from mating Angus and MARC III cows to Herefo...

  16. Opportunities for collaborative phenotyping for disease resistance traits in a large beef cattle resource population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) Project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) produces about 3,000 calves per year in support of the following objectives: identification and validation of genetic polymorphisms related to economically relevant traits (ERT), estimation of breed and heterosis...

  17. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes residing under quantitative trait loci in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) developed on candidate genes residing under previously identified quantitative trait loci for marbling score and meat tenderness. Two hundred five SNP were identified on twenty candidate genes. Genes selected under ...

  18. Characterization of two Pro-opiomelanocortin gene variants and their effects on carcass traits in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Carcass quantity (lean meat yield) and quality (degree of marbling) in beef cattle determines much of their economic value. Consequently, it is important to study genes that are part of the appetite pathway and that may ultimately affect carcass composition. Pro-opiomelanocortin is a prohormone that codes for many different peptides, several of which are involved in the appetite pathway. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.288C>T in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) has previously been associated with hot carcass weight (HCW) and shipping weight (Ship wt) in beef cattle. Results While developing a commercial real time PCR test for POMC c.288C>T a 12 bp deletion (POMC c.293_304delTTGGGGGCGCGG) was identified. The deletion results in the removal of four amino acids (a valine, two glycines, and an alanine). Both the POMC c.288C>T and the deletion were genotyped in 386 crossbred steers and evaluated for associations with carcass traits. The animals with one copy of the deletion had a significantly smaller carcass rib-eye area (7.91 cm2; P = 0.02) in comparison to homozygous normal animals. Significant associations were observed between POMC c.288C>T with start-of-finishing weight (SOF WT; P = 0.04), hot carcass weight (HCW; P = 0.02), average fat and grade fat (both P = 0.05), carcass rib-eye area (REA; P = 0.03) and marbling (P = 0.02). Conclusions These results suggest that it could be beneficial for beef producers to know both the deletion and POMC c.288C>T genotypes when making marketing and culling decisions. PMID:21205304

  19. How stressor specific are trait-based ecological indices for ecosystem management?

    PubMed

    Schuwirth, Nele; Kattwinkel, Mira; Stamm, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Using macroinvertebrates as ecological indicators for different stressors has a long tradition. However, when applied to field data, one often observes correlations between different macroinvertebrate indices that can be attributed to both correlations of stressors and inherent correlations due to the sensitivity of taxa to different stressors. Ignoring the source of any given correlation leads to ambiguous conclusions about the impact of different stressors. Here, we demonstrate how to distinguish the causes of correlation by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We assessed to which degree trait-based indices are stressor-specific and whether this depends on the pool of taxa and its taxonomic resolution. Therefore, we (1) analysed the frequencies of "sensitive" and "insensitive" taxa for pairwise combinations of different indices, (2) analysed the inherent correlation of indices with random samples from different taxon pools derived from field samples and from a complete species list of a whole ecoregion, and (3) compared this inherent correlation with the actual correlation of the field samples. We exemplified this approach by analysing two existing indices (SPEARpesticides, Saprobic Index) and new indices for temperature, flow and pH stress. We used these new indices to illustrate our approach while in-depth testing of their applicability was not the focus of our study. We found strong correlations between several indices in our study area at the Swiss Plateau. The probability that this correlation is only due to inherent correlation in the taxa sensitivities was low (maximum of 0.34). The problem of inherent correlation between indices is more severe for the smaller taxon pool with lower taxonomic resolution. Correlation in the sensitivity of different taxa to different stressors leads to an inherent correlation in trait-based indices, which weakens their explanatory power. Our results highlight the importance of correlation analyses when using trait-based indices

  20. Values of somatic traits and of body proportion indices in male and female newborns of Lublin.

    PubMed

    Zatorska, M

    1992-01-01

    Between December 1984 and May 1985, anthropometric measurements were applied to 455 full-term and healthy newborns (225 boys and 230 girls). The purpose of the investigation was to learn about somatic development and body proportions of Lublin newborns. It has been found that although the studied somatic traits show bigger differences between newborns of the same sex, rather than between newborns of the opposite sexes, sexual dimorphism of morphological traits apparently starts already at birth. Out of the analysed somatic traits and calculated body proportion indices, the following ones have significantly bigger values on boys: body mass and length, length of trunk with head and neck, length of trunk alone, hip width, shoulder width, width of distal femoral epiphysis, head length, width and circumference, and Quetelet index. In girls, in turn, thickness of three skin folds and shoulder-hip index are statistically more prominent. Mean values of somatic traits and body proportion indices may serve the purposes of regional standards for the evaluation of newborns in Lublin itself as well as in other towns of similar characteristics. PMID:1344736

  1. Estimation of breed and heterosis effects for growth and carcass traits in cattle using published crossbreeding studies.

    PubMed

    Williams, J L; Aguilar, I; Rekaya, R; Bertrand, J K

    2010-02-01

    Current genetic evaluations are performed separately for each breed. Multiple breed genetic evaluations, however, assume a common base among breeds, enabling producers to compare cattle of different breed makeup. Breed and heterosis effects are needed in a multibreed evaluation because databases maintained by breed associations include few crossbred animals, which may not be enough to accurately estimate these effects. The objective of this study was to infer breed effects, maternal effects, direct heterosis effects, and maternal heterosis effects for growth and carcass traits using least squares means estimates from crossbreeding studies published in the literature from 1976 to 1996. The data set was formed by recording each least squares mean along with the breed composition, maternal breed composition, and direct and maternal heterozygosity. Each trait was analyzed using a single trait fixed effect model, which included study as a fixed effect and breed composition and heterozygosity as covariates. Breed solutions for each trait were expressed relative to the Angus breed. Direct breed effects for weaning weight ranged from -7.0 +/- 0.67 kg (British Dairy) to 29.3 +/- 0.74 kg (Simmental), and maternal effects ranged from -11.7 +/- 0.24 kg (Hereford) to 31.1 +/- 2.22 kg (Gelbvieh). Direct breed effects for birth weight ranged from -0.5 +/- 0.14 kg (British Dairy) to 10.1 +/- 0.46 kg (Continental Beef), and maternal effects ranged from -7.2 +/- 0.13 kg (Brahman) to 6.0 +/- 1.07 kg (Continental Beef). Direct breed effects ranged from -17.9 +/- 1.64 kg (Brahman) to 21.6 +/- 1.95 kg (Charolais), from -6.5 +/- 1.29 kg (Brahman) to 55.8 +/- 1.47 kg (Continental Beef), from -8.1 +/- 0.48 cm(2) (Shorthorn) to 21.0 +/- 0.48 cm(2) (Continental Beef), and from -1.1 +/- 0.02 cm (Continental Beef) to 0 +/- 0.00 cm (Angus) for postweaning BW gain, carcass weight, LM area, and fat thickness, respectively. The use of literature estimates to predict direct and maternal breed and

  2. A genome-wide association study reveals a quantitative trait locus for days open on chromosome 2 in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shinji; Ibi, Takayuki; Kojima, Takatoshi; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2016-02-01

    Days open (DO), which is the interval from calving to conception, is an important trait related to reproductive performance in cattle. To identify quantitative trait loci for DO in Japanese Black cattle, we conducted a genome-wide association study with 33,303 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using 459 animals with extreme DO values selected from a larger group of 15,488 animals. We identified a SNP on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2) that was associated with DO. After imputation using phased haplotype data inferred from 586 812 SNPs of 1041 Japanese Black cattle, six SNPs associated with DO were located in an 8.5-kb region of high linkage disequilibrium on BTA2. These SNPs were located on the telomeric side at a distance of 177 kb from the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R) gene. The association was replicated in a sample of 1778 animals. In the replicated population, the frequency of the reduced-DO allele (Q) was 0.63, and it accounted for 1.72% of the total genetic variance. The effect of a Q-to-q allele substitution on DO was a decrease of 3.74 days. The results suggest that the Q allele could serve as a marker in Japanese Black cattle to select animals with superior DO performance. PMID:26374166

  3. Genetic analyses involving microsatellite ETH10 genotypes on bovine chromosome 5 and performance trait measures in Angus- and Brahman-influenced cattle.

    PubMed

    DeAtley, K L; Rincon, G; Farber, C R; Medrano, J F; Luna-Nevarez, P; Enns, R M; VanLeeuwen, D M; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G

    2011-07-01

    ETH10 is a dinucleotide microsatellite within the promoter of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) gene on bovine chromosome 5. ETH10 is included in the panel of genetic markers used in parentage testing procedures of cattle breed associations. Allelic sizes of ETH10 PCR amplicons range from 199 to 225 bp. Objectives of this study were to use microsatellite data from beef cattle breed associations to investigate genetic distance and population stratification among Angus- and Brahman-influenced cattle and to use ETH10 genotypes and growth and ultrasound carcass data to investigate their statistical relationships. Three series of genotype to phenotype association analyses were conducted with 1) Angus data (n=5,094), 2) Brangus data (3/8 Brahman × 5/8 Angus; n=2,296), and 3) multibreed data (n=4,426) of Angus and Brangus cattle. Thirteen alleles and 38 genotypes were observed, but frequencies varied among breed groups. Tests of genetic identity and distance among 6 breed composition groups increasing in Brahman influence from 0 to 75% revealed that as Brahman-influence increased to ≥50%, genetic distance from Angus ranged from 18.3 to 43.5%. This was accomplished with 10 microsatellite loci. A mixed effects model involving genotype as a fixed effect and sire as a random source of variation suggested that Angus cattle with the 217/219 genotype tended to have 2.1% heavier (P=0.07) 205-d BW than other genotypes. In Brangus cattle, allele combinations were classified as small (≤215 bp) or large (≥217 bp). Brangus cattle with the small/large genotype had 2.0% heavier (P<0.05) birth weight, yet cattle with the large/large genotype had approximately 5.1% greater (P<0.05) percentage of fat within LM and more LM per BW than cattle with small/large or small/small genotypes. Genotype-to-phenotype relationships were not detected in multibreed analyses. The ETH10 locus appears to be associated with growth and carcass traits in Angus and Brangus cattle

  4. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: Results of use in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Katariina; Rantala, Merja; Hautala, Maria; Pyörälä, Satu; Kaartinen, Liisa

    2008-01-01

    Background Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country. All patients consulting the veterinary practice during a 1-week period were included in the study and veterinarians returned a completed questionnaire for each patient receiving antimicrobial treatment. As cattle received most of the treatments, results from the survey are given using cattle as an example species. Results The survey was sent to 681 veterinarians, of whom 262 (39%) responded. In total 2850 questionnaires were completed. The largest quantities of antimicrobials, measured in kilograms, were used for cattle, followed by pigs, dogs and horses. The species that were treated most were cattle (n = 1308), dogs (n = 989) and cats (n = 311). For cattle, the most common reason for treatment was acute mastitis (52%), followed by dry-cow therapy (21%), subclinical mastitis (6%) and treatment for acute enteritis (4%). The remaining treatments covered 17% of cattle patients and 15 different indications. For acute mastitis, parenteral or intramammary treatment was used in 36% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The remaining 30% received both treatments simultaneously. Of the parenteral treatments (n = 459), benzyl penicillin was used in 83% of the treated animals (n = 379), while fluoroquinolones were used in 49 cases (11%). Of the 433 cows receiving intramammary treatment, ampicillin combined with cloxacillin was most commonly used (n = 157; 36%), followed by cephalexin+streptomycin (n = 113; 26%). Conclusion This cross-sectional prospective survey provided a useful method for the

  5. A Multiple-SNP Approach for Genome-Wide Association Study of Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ming; Fu, Weixuan; Jiang, Dan; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao; Ding, Xiangdong; Liu, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    The multiple-SNP analysis has been studied by many researchers, in which the effects of multiple SNPs are simultaneously estimated and tested in a multiple linear regression. The multiple-SNP association analysis usually has higher power and lower false-positive rate for detecting causative SNP(s) than single marker analysis (SMA). Several methods have been proposed to simultaneously estimate and test multiple SNP effects. In this research, a fast method called MEML (Mixed model based Expectation-Maximization Lasso algorithm) was developed for simultaneously estimate of multiple SNP effects. An improved Lasso prior was assigned to SNP effects which were estimated by searching the maximum joint posterior mode. The residual polygenic effect was included in the model to absorb many tiny SNP effects, which is treated as missing data in our EM algorithm. A series of simulation experiments were conducted to validate the proposed method, and the results showed that compared with SMMA, the new method can dramatically decrease the false-positive rate. The new method was also applied to the 50k SNP-panel dataset for genome-wide association study of milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle. Totally, 39 significant SNPs and their nearby 25 genes were found. The number of significant SNPs is remarkably fewer than that by SMMA which found 105 significant SNPs. Among 39 significant SNPs, 8 were also found by SMMA and several well-known QTLs or genes were confirmed again; furthermore, we also got some positional candidate gene with potential function of effecting milk production traits. These novel findings in our research should be valuable for further investigation. PMID:25148050

  6. Maternal grandsire, granddam, and sire breed effects on growth and carcass traits of crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2003-04-01

    Postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were analyzed on 1,422 animals obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British breeds) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC IIIHereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Breed groups were fed in replicated pens and slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr. Postweaning average daily gain; live weight; hot carcass weight; fat depth; longissimus area; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (percentage); percentage Choice; marbling score; USDA yield grade; retail product yield (percentage); retail product weight; fat yield (percentage); fat weight; bone yield (percentage); and bone weight were analyzed in this population. Quadratic regressions of pen mean weight on days fed and of cumulative ME consumption on days fed were used to estimate gain, ME consumption and efficiency (Mcal of ME/kg of gain) over time (0 to 200 d on feed), and weight (300 to 550 kg) intervals. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.01) for all traits. Maternal granddam breed (Hereford, Angus, or MARC III)was significant (P < 0.05) only for fat depth, USDA yield grade, retail product yield, fat yield, fat weight, and bone yield. Sire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for live weight, hot carcass weight, longissimus area, and bone weight. Sex class was a significant (P < 0.001) source of variation for all traits except for percentage Choice, marbling score, retail product yield, and fat yield. Interactions between maternal grandsire and sire breed were nonexistent. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems. PMID:12723078

  7. Genetic parameters for functional traits in dairy cattle from daily random regression models.

    PubMed

    Karacaören, B; Jaffrézic, F; Kadarmideen, H N

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the research was to estimate genetic parameters, such as heritabilities and genetic correlations, using daily test day data for milk yield (MY), milking speed (MS), dry matter intake (DMI), and body weight (BW) using random regression methodology. Data were from first lactation dairy cows (n = 320) from the Chamau research farm of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland over the period from April 1994 to 2004. All traits were recorded daily using automated machines. Estimated heritabilities (h(2)) varied from 0.18 to 0.30 (mean h(2) = 0.24) for MY, 0.003 to 0.098 (mean h(2) = 0.03) for MS, 0.22 to 0.53 (mean h(2) = 0.43) for BW, and 0.12 to 0.34 (mean h(2) = 0.23) for DMI. A permanent environmental effect was included in both the univariate and bivariate models, but was assumed constant in estimating some genetic correlations because of convergence problems. Estimated genetic correlations varied from 0.31 to 0.41 between MY and MS, from -0.47 to 0.29 between MY and DMI, from -0.60 to 0.54 between MY and BW, from 0.17 to 0.26 between MS and DMI, from -0.18 to 0.25 between MS and BW, and from -0.89 to 0.29 between DMI and BW. Genetic correlations for MY, MS, DMI, and BW from calving to midlactation decreased similarly to 0.40, 0.36, 0.14, and 0.36 and, at the end of the lactation, decreased to -0.06, 0.23, -0.07, and 0.09, respectively. Daily genetic variance-covariance of many functional traits are reported for the first time and will be useful when constructing selection indexes for more than one trait based on longitudinal genetic parameters. PMID:16428647

  8. Genetic Parameter Estimates of Carcass Traits under National Scale Breeding Scheme for Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Do, ChangHee; Park, ByungHo; Kim, SiDong; Choi, TaeJung; Yang, BohSuk; Park, SuBong; Song, HyungJun

    2016-08-01

    Carcass and price traits of 72,969 Hanwoo cows, bulls and steers aged 16 to 80 months at slaughter collected from 2002 to 2013 at 75 beef packing plants in Korea were analyzed to determine heritability, correlation and breeding value using the Multi-Trait restricted maximum likelihood (REML) animal model procedure. The traits included carcass measurements, scores and grades at 24 h postmortem and bid prices at auction. Relatively high heritability was found for maturity (0.41±0.031), while moderate heritability estimates were obtained for backfat thickness (0.20±0.018), longissimus muscle (LM) area (0.23±0.020), carcass weight (0.28±0.019), yield index (0.20±0.018), yield grade (0.16±0.017), marbling (0.28±0.021), texture (0.14±0.016), quality grade (0.26±0.016) and price/kg (0.24±0.025). Relatively low heritability estimates were observed for meat color (0.06±0.013) and fat color (0.06±0.012). Heritability estimates for most traits were lower than those in the literature. Genetic correlations of carcass measurements with characteristic scores or quality grade of carcass ranged from -0.27 to +0.21. Genetic correlations of yield grade with backfat thickness, LM area and carcass weight were 0.91, -0.43, and -0.09, respectively. Genetic correlations of quality grade with scores of marbling, meat color, fat color and texture were -0.99, 0.48, 0.47, and 0.98, respectively. Genetic correlations of price/kg with LM area, carcass weight, marbling, meat color, texture and maturity were 0.57, 0.64, 0.76, -0.41, -0.79, and -0.42, respectively. Genetic correlations of carcass price with LM area, carcass weight, marbling and texture were 0.61, 0.57, 0.64, and -0.73, respectively, with standard errors ranging from ±0.047 to ±0.058. The mean carcass weight breeding values increased by more than 8 kg, whereas the mean marbling scores decreased by approximately 0.2 from 2000 through 2009. Overall, the results suggest that genetic improvement of productivity and

  9. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and carcass composition in cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Shackelford, S D; Keele, J W; Koohmaraie, M; Smith, T P L; Stone, R T

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci for economically important traits in a family from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire. A Brahman x Hereford sire was used to develop a half-sib family (n = 547). The sire was mated to Bos taurus cows. Traits analyzed were birth (kg) and weaning weights (kg); hot carcass weight (kg); marbling score; longissimus area (cm2); USDA yield grade; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (%); fat thickness (cm); fat yield (%); and retail product yield (%). Meat tenderness was measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force (kg) at 3 and 14 d postmortem. Two hundred and thirty-eight markers were genotyped in 185 offspring. One hundred and thirty markers were used to genotype the remaining 362 offspring. A total of 312 markers were used in the final analysis. Seventy-four markers were common to both groups. Significant QTL (expected number of false-positives < 0.05) were observed for birth weight and longissimus area on chromosome 5, for longissimus area on chromosome 6, for retail product yield on chromosome 9, for birth weight on chromosome 21, and for marbling score on chromosome 23. Evidence suggesting (expected number of false-positives < 1) the presence of QTL was detected for several traits. Putative QTL for birth weight were detected on chromosomes 1, 2, and 3, and for weaning weight on chromosome 29. For hot carcass weight, QTL were detected on chromosomes 10, 18, and 29. Four QTL for yield grade were identified on chromosomes 2, 11, 14, and 19. Three QTL for fat thickness were detected on chromosomes 2, 3, 7, and 14. For marbling score, QTL were identified on chromosomes 3, 10, 14, and 27. Four QTL were identified for retail product yield on chromosomes 12, 18, 19, and 29. A QTL for estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was detected on chromosome 15, and a QTL for meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 3 d postmortem was identified on chromosome 20. Two QTL were detected for meat

  10. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle V): carcass traits and longissimus palatability.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2001-05-01

    Carcass (n = 854) and longissimus thoracis palatability (n = 802) traits from F1 steers obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III cows to Hereford or Angus (HA), Tuli (Tu), Boran (Bo), Brahman (Br), Piedmontese (Pm), or Belgian Blue (BB) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (444 d), carcass weight (333 kg), fat thickness (1.0 cm), fat trim percentage (21%), and marbling (Small00) end points. Results presented in this abstract are for age-constant data. Carcasses from BB- and HA-sired steers were heaviest (P < 0.05) and carcasses from Bo- and Tu-sired steers were lightest (P < 0.05). Adjusted fat thickness was greatest (P < 0.05) on carcasses from HA-sired steers and least (P < 0.05) on carcasses from BB- and Pm-sired steers. Numerical USDA yield grades were lowest (P < 0.05) for carcasses from Pm- and BB-sired steers and highest (P < 0.05) for carcasses from HA- and Br-sired steers. Marbling scores were highest (P < 0.05) for carcasses from HA- and Tu-sired steers and lowest (P < 0.05) for carcasses from Br-, BB-, and Pm-sired steers. Longissimus thoracis from carcasses of HA-, Pm-, and Tu-sired steers had the lowest (P < 0.05) 14-d postmortem Warner-Bratzler shear force values. Carcasses from HA-sired steers had longissimus thoracis with the highest (P < 0.05) tenderness ratings at 7 d postmortem. Longissimus thoracis from carcasses of Br- and Bo-sired steers had the highest (P < 0.05) Warner-Bratzler shear forces and the lowest (P < 0.05) tenderness ratings at 7 d postmortem. Adjustment of traits to various slaughter end points resulted in some changes in sire breed differences for carcass traits but had little effect on palatability traits. Carcasses from BB- and Pm-sired steers provided the most desirable combination of yield grade and longissimus palatability, but carcasses from HA-cross steers provided the most desirable combination of quality grade and longissimus palatability. Tuli, a breed shown to be heat-tolerant, had

  11. Identification of quantitative trait loci for growth and carcass composition in cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Stone, R T

    2004-02-01

    A genomic screening to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits was pursued. Two hundred nineteen microsatellite markers were genotyped on 176 of 620 (28%) progeny from a Brahman x Angus sire mated to mostly MARC III dams. Selective genotyping, based on retail product yield (%) and fat yield (%), was used to select individuals to be genotyped. Traits included in the study were birth weight (kg), hot carcass weight (kg), retail product yield, fat yield, marbling score (400 = slight00 and 500 = small00), USDA yield grade, and estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat (%). The QTL were classified as significant when the expected number of false positives (ENFP) was less than 0.05 (F-statistic greater than 17.3), and suggestive when the ENFP was <1 (F-statistic between 10.2 and 17.3). A significant QTL (F = 19; ENFP = 0.02) was detected for marbling score at centimorgan (cM) 54 on chromosome 2. Suggestive QTL were detected for fat yield at 50 cM, for retail product yield at 53 cM, and for USDA yield grade at 63 cM on chromosome 1, for marbling score at 56 cM, for retail product yield at 70 cM, and for estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat at 79 cM on chromosome 3, for marbling score at 44 cM, for hot carcass weight at 49 cM, and for estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat at 62 cM on chromosome 16, and for fat yield at 35 cM on chromosome 17. Two suggestive QTL for birth weight were identified, one at 12 cM on chromosome 20 and the other at 56 cM on chromosome 21. An additional suggestive QTL was detected for retail product yield, for fat yield, and for USDA yield grade at 26 cM on chromosome 26. Results presented here represent the initial search for quantitative trait loci in this family. Validation of detected QTL in other populations will be necessary. PMID:14731222

  12. Genetic Parameter Estimates of Carcass Traits under National Scale Breeding Scheme for Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Do, ChangHee; Park, ByungHo; Kim, SiDong; Choi, TaeJung; Yang, BohSuk; Park, SuBong; Song, HyungJun

    2016-01-01

    Carcass and price traits of 72,969 Hanwoo cows, bulls and steers aged 16 to 80 months at slaughter collected from 2002 to 2013 at 75 beef packing plants in Korea were analyzed to determine heritability, correlation and breeding value using the Multi-Trait restricted maximum likelihood (REML) animal model procedure. The traits included carcass measurements, scores and grades at 24 h postmortem and bid prices at auction. Relatively high heritability was found for maturity (0.41±0.031), while moderate heritability estimates were obtained for backfat thickness (0.20±0.018), longissimus muscle (LM) area (0.23±0.020), carcass weight (0.28±0.019), yield index (0.20±0.018), yield grade (0.16±0.017), marbling (0.28±0.021), texture (0.14±0.016), quality grade (0.26±0.016) and price/kg (0.24±0.025). Relatively low heritability estimates were observed for meat color (0.06±0.013) and fat color (0.06±0.012). Heritability estimates for most traits were lower than those in the literature. Genetic correlations of carcass measurements with characteristic scores or quality grade of carcass ranged from −0.27 to +0.21. Genetic correlations of yield grade with backfat thickness, LM area and carcass weight were 0.91, −0.43, and −0.09, respectively. Genetic correlations of quality grade with scores of marbling, meat color, fat color and texture were −0.99, 0.48, 0.47, and 0.98, respectively. Genetic correlations of price/kg with LM area, carcass weight, marbling, meat color, texture and maturity were 0.57, 0.64, 0.76, −0.41, −0.79, and −0.42, respectively. Genetic correlations of carcass price with LM area, carcass weight, marbling and texture were 0.61, 0.57, 0.64, and −0.73, respectively, with standard errors ranging from ±0.047 to ±0.058. The mean carcass weight breeding values increased by more than 8 kg, whereas the mean marbling scores decreased by approximately 0.2 from 2000 through 2009. Overall, the results suggest that genetic improvement of

  13. Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows a Near Eastern Neolithic origin for domestic cattle and no indication of domestication of European aurochs

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Bollongino, Ruth; Scheu, Amelie; Chamberlain, Andrew; Tresset, Anne; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Baird, Jillian F; Larson, Greger; Ho, Simon Y.W; Heupink, Tim H; Shapiro, Beth; Freeman, Abigail R; Thomas, Mark G; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Arndt, Betty; Bartosiewicz, László; Benecke, Norbert; Budja, Mihael; Chaix, Louis; Choyke, Alice M; Coqueugniot, Eric; Döhle, Hans-Jürgen; Göldner, Holger; Hartz, Sönke; Helmer, Daniel; Herzig, Barabara; Hongo, Hitomi; Mashkour, Marjan; Özdogan, Mehmet; Pucher, Erich; Roth, Georg; Schade-Lindig, Sabine; Schmölcke, Ulrich; Schulting, Rick J; Stephan, Elisabeth; Uerpmann, Hans-Peter; Vörös, István; Voytek, Barbara; Bradley, Daniel G; Burger, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius) was a large type of cattle that ranged over almost the whole Eurasian continent. The aurochs is the wild progenitor of modern cattle, but it is unclear whether European aurochs contributed to this process. To provide new insights into the demographic history of aurochs and domestic cattle, we have generated high-confidence mitochondrial DNA sequences from 59 archaeological skeletal finds, which were attributed to wild European cattle populations based on their chronological date and/or morphology. All pre-Neolithic aurochs belonged to the previously designated P haplogroup, indicating that this represents the Late Glacial Central European signature. We also report one new and highly divergent haplotype in a Neolithic aurochs sample from Germany, which points to greater variability during the Pleistocene. Furthermore, the Neolithic and Bronze Age samples that were classified with confidence as European aurochs using morphological criteria all carry P haplotype mitochondrial DNA, suggesting continuity of Late Glacial and Early Holocene aurochs populations in Europe. Bayesian analysis indicates that recent population growth gives a significantly better fit to our data than a constant-sized population, an observation consistent with a postglacial expansion scenario, possibly from a single European refugial population. Previous work has shown that most ancient and modern European domestic cattle carry haplotypes previously designated T. This, in combination with our new finding of a T haplotype in a very Early Neolithic site in Syria, lends persuasive support to a scenario whereby gracile Near Eastern domestic populations, carrying predominantly T haplotypes, replaced P haplotype-carrying robust autochthonous aurochs populations in Europe, from the Early Neolithic onward. During the period of coexistence, it appears that domestic cattle were kept separate from wild aurochs and introgression was extremely rare. PMID

  14. Admixture mapping of tuberculosis and pigmentation-related traits in an African–European hybrid cattle population

    PubMed Central

    Kassahun, Yonas; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Ameni, Gobena; Hailu, Elena; Aseffa, Abraham; Young, Douglas B.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Bradley, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Admixture mapping affords a powerful approach to genetic mapping of complex traits and may be particularly suited to investigation in cattle where many breeds and populations are hybrids of the two divergent ancestral genomes, derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus. Here we design a minimal genome wide SNP panel for tracking ancestry in recent hybrids of Holstein–Friesian and local Arsi zebu in a field sample from a region of high bovine tuberculosis (BTB) endemicity in the central Ethiopian highlands. We first demonstrate the utility of this approach by mapping the red coat color phenotype, uncovering a highly significant peak over the MC1R gene and a second peak with no previously known candidate gene. Secondly, we exploit the described differential susceptibility to BTB between the ancestral strains to identify a region in which Bos taurus ancestry associates, at suggestive significance, with skin test positivity. Interestingly, this association peak contains the toll-like receptor gene cluster on chromosome 6. With this work we have shown the potential of admixture mapping in hybrid domestic animals with divergent ancestral genomes, a recurring condition in domesticated species. PMID:26124773

  15. Molecular characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cattle indicates that only some isolates have zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Irshad M; Fayer, Ron; Yang, Chunfu; Santin, Monica; Matos, Olga; Xiao, Lihua

    2004-03-01

    In this study, 338 fecal samples were analyzed for Enterocytozoon bieneusi from cattle farms in Florida, Maryland, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Portugal. The internal transcribed spacer region (392 bp) of the rRNA gene of E. bieneusi was amplified using a nested PCR protocol. Thirty-two E. bieneusi-PCR positive samples were sequenced. A high degree of genetic polymorphism, represented by five distinct genotypes (BEB1-BEB5), was found among the E. bieneusi isolates from cattle. Most of the isolates formed a distinct cluster consisting of only the four cattle genotypes, but six isolates of a genotype clustered together with E. bieneusi genotypes from humans and other domestic animals. Therefore, only some E. bieneusi isolates from cattle may be of public health importance. PMID:14727187

  16. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Coding Region of Bovine Chemerin Gene and Their Associations with Carcass Traits in Japanese Black Cattle.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Eri; Suzuki, Yutaka; So, Kyoung-Ha; Suzuki, Kei-Ichi; Katoh, Kazuo; Roh, Sang-Gun

    2015-08-01

    Chemerin, highly expressed in adipose and liver tissues, regulates glucose and lipid metabolism and immunity in these tissues in ruminants and mice. Our previous reports showed that chemerin is involved in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue as an adipokine. The aim of the present study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region of the chemerin gene and to analyze their effects on carcass traits and intramuscular fatty acid compositions in Japanese Black cattle. The SNPs in the bovine chemerin gene were detected in 232 Japanese Black steers (n = 161) and heifers (n = 71) using DNA sequencing. The results revealed five novel silent mutations: NM_001046020: c.12A>G (4aa), c.165GT (92aa), c.321 A>G (107aa), and c.396C>T (132aa). There was no association between 4 of the SNPs (c.12A>G [4aa], c.165GG [107aa], and c.396C>T) and carcass traits or intramuscular fatty acid compositions. Regarding the remaining SNP, c.276C>T, we found that cattle with genotype CC had a higher beef marbling score than that of cattle with genotype CT, whereas cattle with genotype CT had a higher body condition score (p<0.10). Further, cattle with genotype CC had significantly higher C18:0 content in their intramuscular fat tissue than that of cattle with genotype CT (p<0.05). On the other hand, cattle with genotype CT had significantly higher C14:0 and C16:0 content in their intramuscular fat tissue (p<0.05). Moreover, the number of individuals carrying the minor allele of c.276C>T SNP is small. It is suggested that the c.276C>T SNP of the chemerin gene has potential in cattle breeding using modern methods, such as marker assisted selection. So, further functional and physiological research elucidating the impact of the chemerin gene on bovine lipid metabolism including fatty acid synthesis will help in understanding these results. PMID:26104515

  17. Effects of calpastatin and micro-calpain markers in beef cattle on tenderness traits.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; White, S N; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Smith, T P L

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) developed at the calpastatin (CAST) and mu-calpain (CAPN1) genes with meat tenderness and palatability traits in populations with diverse genetic backgrounds. Three populations were used in the study. One population consisted of Bos taurus that included crossbred animals derived from Hereford, Angus, Red Angus, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Simmental (GPE7; n = 539). Another population consisted of Bos taurus with Bos indicus influence, including crossbred animals from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano (GPE8; n = 580). The third population was Bos indicus and consisted of purebred Brahman (STARS; n = 444). Traits evaluated were meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; kg) at 14 d postmortem, and traits evaluated by trained sensory panels that included tenderness score, juiciness, and flavor intensity. A SNP at the CAST gene had a significant (P < 0.003) effect on WBSF and tenderness score in the GPE7 and GPE8 populations. Animals inheriting the TT genotype at CAST had meat that was more tender than those inheriting the CC genotype. The marker at the CAPN1 gene was significant (P < 0.03) for tenderness score in GPE7 and GPE8. Animals inheriting the CC genotype at CAPN1 had meat that was more tender than those inheriting the TT genotype. Markers at the CAST and CAPN1 genes were associated with flavor intensity in the GPE8 population. Animals inheriting the CC genotype at CAST and the TT genotype at CAPN1 produced steaks with an intense flavor when compared with the other genotypes. An interaction between CAST and CAPN1 was detected (P < 0.05) for WBSF on GPE8. The statistical significance of the interaction is questionable because of the limited number of observations in some cells. Markers developed at the CAST and CAPN1 genes are suitable for use in identifying animals with the genetic potential to produce meat

  18. Association of myostatin on early calf mortality, growth, and carcass composition traits in crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L; Cundiff, L V

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a potential association of an inactive myostatin allele with early calf mortality, and evaluate its effect on growth and carcass traits in a crossbred population. Animals were obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British Breed) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford, Angus, Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Belgian Blue was the source of the inactive myostatin allele. Myostatin genotypes were determined for all animals including those that died before weaning. Early calf mortality was examined in the F2 subpopulation (n = 154), derived from the F1 sires mated to F1 cows from Belgian Blue sires, to evaluate animals with zero, one, or two copies of inactive myostatin allele. An overall 1:2:1 ratio (homozygous active myostatin allele:heterozygous:homozygous inactive myostatin allele) was observed in the population; however, a comparison between calves dying before weaning and those alive at slaughter showed an unequal distribution across genotypes (P < 0.01). Calves with two copies of the inactive allele were more likely (P < 0.01) to die before weaning. Postweaning growth traits were evaluated in the surviving animals (n = 1,370), including birth, weaning, and live weight at slaughter, and postweaning ADG. Carcass composition traits analyzed were hot carcass weight, fat thickness, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, retail product yield and weight, fat yield and weight, bone yield and weight, and percentage of carcasses classified as Choice. Charolais lack the inactive myostatin allele segregating in Belgian Blue; thus, in the population sired by Charolais (n = 645), only animals with zero or one copy of the inactive myostatin allele were evaluated. Animals carrying one copy were heavier at birth and at weaning, and their carcasses

  19. A meta-analysis of lasalocid effects on rumen measures, beef and dairy performance, and carcass traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Golder, H M; Lean, I J

    2016-01-01

    The effects of lasalocid on rumen measures, beef and dairy performance, and carcass traits were evaluated using meta-analysis. Meta-regression was used to investigate sources of heterogeneity. Ten studies (20 comparisons) were used in the meta-analysis on rumen measures. Lasalocid increased total VFA and ammonia concentrations by 6.46 and 1.44 m, respectively. Lasalocid increased propionate and decreased acetate and butyrate molar percentage (M%) by 4.62, 3.18, and 0.83%, respectively. Valerate M% and pH were not affected. Meta-regression found butyrate M% linearly increased with duration of lasalocid supplementation (DUR; = 0.017). When >200 mg/d was fed, propionate and valerate M% were higher and acetate M% was lower ( = 0.042, = 0.017, and = 0.005, respectively). Beef performance was assessed using 31 studies (67 comparisons). Lasalocid increased ADG by 40 g/d, improved feed-to-gain ratio (F:G) by 410 g/kg, and improved feed efficiency (FE; combined measure of G:F and the inverse of F:G). Lasalocid did not affect DMI, but heterogeneity in DMI was influenced by DUR ( = 0.004) and the linear effect of entry BW ( = 0.011). The combination of ≤100 vs. >100 d DUR and entry BW ≤275 vs. >275 kg showed that cattle ≤275 kg at entry fed lasalocid for >100 d had the lowest DMI. Heterogeneity of ADG was influenced by the linear effect of entry BW ( = 0.028) but not DUR. Combining entry BW ≤275 vs. >275 kg and DUR showed that cattle entering at >275 kg fed ≤100 d had the highest ADG. The FE ( = 0.025) and F:G ( = 0.015) linearly improved with dose, and entry BW >275 kg improved F:G ( = 0.038). Fourteen studies (25 comparisons) were used to assess carcass traits. Lasalocid increased HCW by 4.73 kg but not dressing percentage, mean fat cover, or marbling score. Heterogeneity of carcass traits was low and not affected by DUR or dose. Seven studies (11 comparisons) were used to assess dairy performance but the study power was relatively low and the evidence base is

  20. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms of the bovine methyltransferase 3b gene and their association with meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Guo, X Y; Xu, X Z; Wu, M; Zhang, X; Li, Q; Ma, P P; Zhang, Y; Wang, C Y; Geng, F J; Qin, C H; Liu, L; Shi, W H; Wang, Y C; Yu, Y

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential for adipose deposition in mammals. We screened SNPs of the bovine DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) gene in Snow Dragon beef, a commercial beef cattle population in China. Nine SNPs were found in the population and three of six novel SNPs were chosen for genotyping and analyzing a possible association with 16 meat quality traits. The frequencies of the alleles and genotypes of the three SNPs in Snow Dragon beef were similar to those in their terminal-paternal breed, Wagyu. Association analysis disclosed that SNP1 was not associated with any of the traits; SNP2 was significantly associated with lean meat color score and chuck short rib score, and SNP3 had a significant effect on dressing percentage and back-fat thickness in the beef population. The individuals with genotype GG for SNP2 had a 25.7% increase in lean meat color score and a 146% increase in chuck short rib score, compared with genotype AA. The cattle with genotype AG for SNP3 had 35.7 and 24% increases in dressing percentage and 28.8 and 29.2% increases in back-fat thickness, compared with genotypes GG and AA, respectively. Genotypic combination analysis revealed significant interactions between SNP1 and SNP2 and between SNP2 and SNP3 for the traits rib-eye area and live weight. We conclude that there is considerable evidence that DNMT3b is a determiner of beef quality traits. PMID:22843074

  1. Genetic evaluation of carcass traits in Simmental-sired cattle at different slaughter end points.

    PubMed

    Shanks, B C; Tess, M W; Kress, D D; Cunningham, B E

    2001-03-01

    Our objectives were to estimate genetic parameters for carcass traits and evaluate the influence of slaughter end point on estimated breeding values (BV). Data provided by the American Simmental Association were divided into three sets: 1) 9,604 records of hot carcass weight (CW) and percentage retail cuts (PRC), 2) 6,429 records of CW, PRC, and marbling score (MS), and 3) 1,780 records of CW, PRC, MS, fat thickness (FT), and longissimus muscle area (LMA). Weaning weights (WW) from animals with carcass data and from their weaning contemporaries were used. Data were analyzed with a multiple-trait animal model and REML procedures to estimate genetic parameters and BV on an age-, CW-, MS-, or FT-constant basis. The model for carcass traits included fixed contemporary group and covariates for breed, heterozygosity, and slaughter end point and random additive direct genetic and residual effects. Weaning weight was preadjusted for founder effects, direct and maternal heterosis, age of dam, and age of calf. The model for WW included fixed contemporary group and random additive direct genetic, maternal genetic, maternal permanent environment, and residual effects. Heritabilities from data set 1 were 0.34 for CW and 0.25 for PRC on an age-constant basis and 0.25 for PRC on a CW end point. Heritabilities for data set 2 were 0.35, 0.24, and 0.36 for CW, PRC, and MS, respectively, on an age-constant basis. Data set 2 heritabilities were 0.25 for PRC and 0.34 for MS on a CW-constant basis and 0.33 for CW and 0.25 for PRC at a constant MS end point. Heritabilities on an age-constant basis for data set 3 were as follows: CW, 0.32; PRC, 0.09; MS, 0.12; FT, 0.10; and LMA, 0.26. Heritability estimates for data set 3 on a CW-, MS-, and FT-constant basis were similar to those on an age-constant basis. Heritabilities were 0.12 for PRC, 0.12 for MS, 0.14 for FT, and 0.22 for LMA on a CW-constant basis; 0.30 for CW, 0.09 for PRC, 0.10 for FT, and 0.28 for LMA at a constant MS end point

  2. Dissecting the Effects of Simulated Cattle Activity on Floristic Composition and Functional Traits in Mediterranean Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Dobarro, Iker; Pérez Carmona, Carlos; Peco, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    Livestock exerts direct and indirect effects on plant communities, changing colonization and extinction rates of species and the surrounding environmental conditions. There is scarce knowledge on how and to what extent these effects control the floristic and functional composition of plant communities in grasslands. We performed an experiment that included several treatments simulating trampling, defoliation, faeces addition and their combinations in a Mediterranean scrub community grazing-abandoned for at least 50 years. We monitored the plots for four years, and collected data on species composition, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and red∶far-red ratio (R∶FR), soil moisture and compaction. We estimated community weighted means (CWM) for height, habit, life cycle, seed mass and SLA. Neither compaction nor soil moisture were modified by the treatments, while PAR and R∶FR increased in all treatments in comparison to the Control and Faeces treatments. The floristic composition of all treatments, except for Faeces, converged over time, but deviated from that of the Control. The functional traits displayed the trends expected in the presence of grazing: loss of erect species and increased cover of short species with light seeds, with rosettes and prostrate habit. However, contrary to the results in literature, SLA was lower in all the treatments than Control plots. Like the results for floristic composition, all treatments except for Faeces converged towards a similar functional composition at the end of the four year period. The results of this study show the initial evolution of a Mediterranean plant community in the presence of grazing, driven primarily by the destructive action of livestock. These actions seem to directly affect the rates of extinction/colonization, and indirectly affect the light environment but not the soil conditions. However, their effects on floristic and trait composition do not seem to differ, at least at the small spatio

  3. Principal component analysis of biometric traits to reveal body confirmation in local hill cattle of Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Deepak; Sankhyan, Varun; Katoch, Sanjeet; Thakur, Yash Pal

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In the present study, biometric traits (body length [BL], heart girth [HG], paunch girth (PG), forelimb length (FLL), hind limb length (HLL), face length, forehead width, forehead length, height at hump, hump length (HL), hook to hook distance, pin to pin distance, tail length (TL), TL up to switch, horn length, horn circumference, and ear length were studied in 218 adult hill cattle of Himachal Pradesh for phenotypic characterization. Materials and Methods: Morphological and biometrical observations were recorded on 218 hill cattle randomly selected from different districts within the breeding tract. Multivariate statistics and principal component analysis are used to account for the maximum portion of variation present in the original set of variables with a minimum number of composite variables through Statistical software, SAS 9.2. Result: Five components were extracted which accounted for 65.9% of variance. The first component explained general body confirmation and explained 34.7% variation. It was represented by significant loading for BL, HG, PG, FLL, and HLL. Communality estimate ranged from 0.41 (HL) to 0.88 (TL). Second, third, fourth, and fifth component had a high loading for tail characteristics, horn characteristics, facial biometrics, and rear body, respectively. Conclusion: The result of component analysis of biometric traits suggested that indigenous hill cattle of Himachal Pradesh are small and compact size cattle with a medium hump, horizontally placed short ears, and a long tail. The study also revealed that factors extracted from the present investigation could be used in breeding programs with sufficient reduction in the number of biometric traits to be recorded to explain the body confirmation. PMID:27047059

  4. Comparing local and commercial breeds on functional traits and profitability: the case of Reggiana dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Gandini, G; Maltecca, C; Pizzi, F; Bagnato, A; Rizzi, R

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fertility, longevity, milkability, and profitability of cows from the Reggiana and Holstein breeds in northern Italy. Profitability was gauged for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. Calving to first service interval, days open, and calving interval were significantly shorter in Reggiana than in Holstein cows. Reggiana cows conceived approximately one estrus cycle before Holstein and had a calving interval 33 d shorter. Holstein cows released a significantly higher quantity of milk per unit of time (1.81 vs. 1.28 kg/min). Reggiana cows had longer expected total and productive lives than Holstein cows, by 5.8 and 10.0 mo, respectively. Replacement rate was 26% higher in the Holstein. Standard 305-d milk production was 5,360 and 7,870 kg in Reggiana and Holstein, respectively. Comparing breeds on annual milk and meat production, instead of standard 305-d milk yield, changed marginally the difference in annual profitability between the Reggiana and Holstein, from -696 euros to -679 euros per cow per year. Including feeding, milking, replacement, and insemination costs reduced the gap between breeds by 32%, from -679 euros, measured on annual milk and meat production, to -460 euros. These differences in profitability assumed a pricing scenario referring to milk sold to the dairy industry where protein and fat contents are valued but not the breed origin of milk. Incentive payments to farmers of endangered cattle compensated partially (22%) the lower income from Reggiana cows. When Reggiana milk production was sold as branded Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, Reggiana cows were more profitable than Holstein cows by 1,953 euros per cow per year. PMID:17369242

  5. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VI): carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2004-04-01

    Carcass (n = 568) and longissimus thoracis palatability (n = 460) traits from F1 steers obtained from mating Hereford (H), Angus (A), and U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) III cows to H, A, Norwegian Red (NR), Swedish Red and White (RW), Friesian (F), or Wagyu (W) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (471 d), carcass weight (356 kg), fat thickness (1.0 cm), percentage of fat trim (24%), and marbling (Small35) end points. For Warner-Bratzler shear force and trained sensory panel traits, data were obtained on longissimus thoracis steaks stored at 2 degrees C for 14 d postmortem. The following comparisons were from the age-constant end point. Carcasses from H- and A-sired steers (377 and 374 kg, respectively) were the heaviest (P < 0.05) and carcasses from W-sired steers (334 kg) were the lightest (P < 0.05). A greater (P < 0.05) percentage of carcasses from A- and W-sired steers graded USDA Choice (88 and 85%, respectively) than carcasses from other sire breeds (52 to 71%). Adjusted fat thickness for carcasses from A-sired steers (1.3 cm) was highest (P < 0.05), followed by H-sired steers (1.1 cm) and W- and F-sired steers (0.9 cm); NR- and RW-sired steers (0.8 cm) had the lowest (P < 0.05) adjusted fat thickness. Longissimus thoracis area was not different (P > 0.05) among sire breeds (mean = 80.6 cm2). Carcass yield of boneless, totally trimmed retail product was least (P < 0.05) for A-sired steers (60.1%), intermediate for H-sired steers (61.5%), and similar (P > 0.05) for all other sire breeds (62.5 to 62.8%). Longissimus thoracis steaks from carcasses of A- (3.7 kg) and W-sired (3.7 kg) steers had lower (P < 0.05) shear force values than longissimus thoracis steaks from other sire breeds (4.1 to 4.2 kg). Trained sensory panel tenderness, juiciness, or beef flavor intensity ratings for longissimus thoracis steaks did not differ (P > 0.05) among the sire breeds. Sire breed comparisons were affected by adjusting data to other end points

  6. Comparison of models for the genetic evaluation of reproductive traits with censored data in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Garcia, D A; Rosa, G J M; Valente, B D; Carvalheiro, R; Albuquerque, L G

    2016-06-01

    In typical genetic evaluation, often some females have missing records due to reproductive failure and due to voluntary and involuntary culling before the breeding season. These partially or unobserved phenotypes are known as censored records and their inclusion into genetic evaluations might lead to better inferences and breeding value predictions. Then, the objective was to compare prediction ability of models in which the phenotypic expression of age at the first calving (AFC) and days to calving (DC) were considered to be censored and uncensored in a Nellore cattle population. Age at first calving and days to calving were analyzed as following: uncensored animals (LM); penalization of 21 d (PLM); censored records simulated from truncated normal distributions (CLM); threshold-linear model in which censored records were handled as missing (TLM) or coded as the upper AFC/DC value within contemporary group (PTLM); and Weibull frailty hazard model (WM). Pearson correlations (PC), the percentage of the 10% best bulls in common (pTOP10%), accuracy of estimated breeding values (), and a cross-validation scheme were performed. Heritability estimates for AFC were 0.18, 0.12, 0.12, 0.17, 0.14, and 0.07 for LM, PLM, CLM, TLM, PTLM, and WM, respectively. PC and pTOP10% were higher among linear models and smaller between these models and WM. The models provided similar r of sire breeding values. Heritability estimates for DC were 0.03, 0.08, 0.06, 0.02, 0.07, and 0.10 for LM, PLM, CLM, TLM, PTLM, and WM, respectively. Strongly associated predictions were observed in CLM, PLM, PTLM, and WM. The highest coincidence levels of sires in the TOP10% were between CLM, PLM, and PTLM. The r of sire breeding values obtained applying CLM, PLM, PTLM, and WM were similar and higher than those obtained with LM and TLM. In terms of prediction ability, WM, PLM, TLM, and PTLM showed similar prediction performance for AFC. On the other hand, CLM, PLM, PTLM, and WM showed the similar prediction

  7. Two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbreeding of beef cattle: carcass traits.

    PubMed

    DeRouen, S M; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Blouin, D C

    1992-12-01

    Carcass data from 1,494 straightbred and rotational crossbred steers were collected over four generations. Mating systems included straightbreds (Angus [A], Brahman [B], Charolais [C], and Hereford [H]); two-breed rotations (A-B, C-B, and H-B); three-breed rotations (A-B-C, A-B-H, and B-C-H); and a four-breed rotation (A-B-C-H). Steers were randomly allocated to one of four postweaning treatments that varied in length of grazing and feeding periods. Treatment and breed group (four straightbreds and seven rotational combinations) significantly influenced hot carcass weight (HCWT), retail yield (RY), longissimus muscle area (LM), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MS), USDA quality grade (QG), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Feeding for longer periods resulted in greater (P < .05) HCWT, RY, FT, and MS, higher QG, and lower (P < .05) WBS values. Among the straightbreds, C was heavier and larger for HCWT, RY, and LM (P < .01), whereas A and H had greater (P < .01) FT and MS. The B was similar to H for HCWT, RY, and LM and to C for FT but ranked last (P < .01) for MS and WBS. Three- and four-breed rotational mating systems were superior (P < .05) to the two-breed rotation for HCWT, RY, and LM but were similar for FT, MS, and WBS. Rotational combinations exceeded (P < .05) the straightbreds for all carcass traits except MS. PMID:1474006

  8. Alteration in clinico-biochemical profile and oxidative stress indices associated with hyperglycaemia with special reference to diabetes in cattle--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Deepa, Padinjare Melepat; Dimri, Umesh; Jhambh, Ricky; Yatoo, Mohd Iqbal; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess hyperglycaemia with special reference to diabetes mellitus in cattle by clinico-biochemical estimation and evaluation of oxidative stress indices. A total of 256 cattle exhibiting weakness, poor body condition and reduced milk yield in lactating cattle were included in the study. These animals were screened with blood glucose level, urine glucose and ketone bodies. Out of these, 32 (12.5%) cattle showed hyperglycaemia and glycosuria, of which 25% exhibited ketonuria. Diabetes was confirmed in five cattle by estimation of fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, serum fructosamine, intravenous glucose tolerance test and insulin level. This reports first confirmation of diabetes in cattle in India. All these five animals revealed low level of serum insulin suggestive of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in cattle. The level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) was found to be increased in diabetic cattle. Oxidant/antioxidant balance was assessed in hyperglycaemic cattle and five age-matched Holstein Friesian (HF) cross-bred healthy control animals. Diabetic cattle revealed significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) levels of erythrocytic lipid peroxides in comparison with other hyperglycaemic cattle and healthy controls whereas the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase was found to be significantly lower in diabetes-affected animals in comparison to healthy controls. Reduced glutathione did not show a significant difference between hyperglycaemic and control groups. It is concluded from the present study that oxidative stress associated with diabetes in cattle is obvious compared with other hyperglycaemic cattle. PMID:25433646

  9. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VII): Carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to provide a current evaluation of the seven most prominent beef breeds in the United States and to determine the relative changes that have occurred in these breeds since they were evaluated with samples of sires born 25 to 30 yr earlier. Carcass (n = 649), yield (n = 569), and longissimus thoracis palatability (n = 569) traits from F(1) steers obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III cows to Hereford (H), Angus (A), Red Angus (RA), Charolais (C), Limousin (L), Simmental (S), or Gelbvieh (G) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (445 d), carcass weight (363 kg), fat thickness (1.1 cm), fat trim percent (25%), and marbling (Small(35)) endpoints. For Warner-Bratzler shear force and trained sensory panel traits, data were obtained on LM from steaks stored at 2 degrees C for 14 d postmortem. The following comparisons were from the age-constant endpoint. Carcasses from L-, G-, and H-sired steers (361, 363, and 364 kg, respectively) were lighter (P < 0.05) than carcasses from steers from all other sire breeds. Adjusted fat thickness for carcasses from A-, RA-, and H-sired steers (1.5, 1.4, and 1.3 cm, respectively) was higher (P < 0.05) than for carcasses from steers from all other sire breeds (0.9 cm). Longissimus muscle areas were largest (P < 0.05) for carcasses from L-, C-, S-, and G-sired steers (89.9, 88.7, 87.6, and 86.5 cm(2), respectively) and smallest for carcasses from H- and RA-sired steers (79.5 and 78.4 cm(2)). A greater (P < 0.05) percentage of carcasses from RA- and A-sired steers graded USDA Choice (90 and 88%, respectively) than from carcasses from other sire breeds (57 to 66%). Carcass yield of boneless, totally trimmed retail product was least (P < 0.05) for RA- and A-sired steers (59.1 and 59.2%, respectively) and greatest (P < 0.05) for G, L-, C-, and S-sired steers (63.0 to 63.8%). Longissimus muscle from carcasses of A-sired steers (4.0 kg) had lower (P < 0.05) Warner-Bratzler shear

  10. Direct and maternal genetic effects for carcass traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    DeRouen, S M; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Blouin, D C

    1992-12-01

    Carcass measurements were taken on 1,537 steers produced over four generations in a rotational crossbreeding study. Breed direct and maternal additive and heterotic genetic effects were estimated for hot carcass weight (HCWT), retail yield (RY), longissimus muscle area (LM), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MS), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Angus (A), Brahman (B), Charolais (C), and Hereford (H) breeds were involved in straightbred, first-cross, and two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbred matings with each crossbred combination including the B. Breed direct (Ig) and maternal (Mg) additive genetic effects and direct (Ih) and maternal (Mh) heterotic genetic effects were estimated using a multiple-regression model. The Ig and Mg effects were expressed as deviations from the overall mean. The IgC effects (Ig for C breed) were significant for HCWT, RY, and LM and resulted in leaner, heavier carcasses. The IgA and IgH effects were, in general, negative (P < .05) for HCWT, RY, LM, and WBS, and positive (P < .01) for FT and MS. The IgB effects were large and undesirable for HCWT, RY, LM, MS, and WBS (P < .01). The majority of Ih effects were beneficial (P < .05) for HCWT, RY, LM, and WBS. The Ih effects exhibited by B combinations were of greater (P < .05) magnitude with positive influences for HCWT, RY, and LM and desirable effects for WBS. The maternal additive and heterotic effects were of lesser importance than the direct additive and heterotic effects for the carcass traits studied. PMID:1474007

  11. Application of multivariate heavy-tailed distributions to residuals in the estimation of genetic parameters of growth traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Peters, S O; Kizilkaya, K; Garrick, D J; Fernando, R L; Pollak, E J; De Donato, M; Hussain, T; Imumorin, I G

    2013-04-01

    Assumptions of normality in most animal breeding applications may make inferences vulnerable to the presence of outliers. Heavy-tail densities are viable alternatives to normal distributions and provide robustness against unusual or outlying observations when used to model the densities of residual effects. Our objective is to compare estimates of genetic parameters by fitting multivariate normal (MN) or heavy-tail distributions [multivariate Student's t (MSt) and multivariate slash (MS)] for residuals in data of body birth weight (BBW), weaning (WW), and yearling (YW) weight traits in beef cattle. A total of 17,019 weight records for BBW, WW, and YW from 1998 through 2010 from a large commercial cow/calf operation in the sand hills of Nebraska were analyzed. Models included fixed effects of contemporary group and sire breed whereas animal and maternal effects were random and the degrees of freedom (v) was treated as unknown for MSt and MS. Model comparisons using deviance information criteria (DIC) favored MSt over MS and MN models, respectively. The posterior means [and 95% posterior probability intervals (PPI)] of v for the MSt and MS models were 5.28 (4.80, 5.85) and 1.88 (1.76, 2.00), respectively. Smaller values of posterior densities of v for MSt and MS models confirm that the assumption of normally distributed residuals is not adequate for the analysis of BBW, WW, and YW datasets. Posterior mean (PM) and posterior median (PD) estimates of direct and maternal genetic variances were the same and posterior densities of these parameters were found to be symmetric. The 95% PPI estimates from MN and MSt models for BBW did not overlap, which indicates significant difference between PM estimates from MN or MSt models. The observed antagonistic relationship between additive direct and additive maternal effects indicated that genetic evaluation and selection strategies will be sensitive to the assumed model for residuals. PMID:23408820

  12. Identification of Exonic Nucleotide Variants of the Thyroid Hormone Responsive Protein Gene Associated with Carcass Traits and Fatty Acid Composition in Korean Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dong-yep; Lee, Yoon-seok; La, Boo-mi; Lee, Jea-young; Park, Yong-soo; Lee, Ji-hong; Ha, Jae-jung; Yi, Jun-koo; Kim, Byung-ki; Yeo, Jung-sou

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid hormone responsive protein (THRSP) gene is a functional gene that can be used to indicate the fatty acid compositions. This study investigates the relationships of exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the THRSP gene and fatty acid composition of muscle fat and marbling score in the 612 Korean cattle. The relationships between fatty acid composition and eight SNPs in the THRSP gene (g.78 G>A, g.173 C>T, g.184 C>T, g.190 C>A, g.194 C>T, g.277 C>G, g.283 T>G and g.290 T>G) were investigated, and according to the results, two SNPs (g.78 G>A and g.184 C>T) in exon 1 were associated with fatty acid composition. The GG and CC genotypes of g.78 G>A and g.184 C>T had higher unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content (p<0.05). In addition, the ht1*ht1 group (Val/Ala haplotype) in a linkage disequilibrium increased MUFAs and marbling scores for carcass traits (p<0.05). As a result, g.78 G>A and g.184 C>T had significantly relationships with UFAs and MUFAs. Two SNPs in the THRSP gene affected fatty acid composition, suggesting that GG and CC genotypes and the ht1*ht1 group (Val/Ala haplotype) can be markers to genetically improve the quality and flavor of beef. PMID:25178286

  13. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Cundiff, L V

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle (Bos taurus). Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth weight, weaning weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG was measured in 1,370 calves born and 1,285 calves weaned. Calves were obtained by mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) mature cows to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires. Calves were born during the spring of 1997 and 1998. Sire breed was significant for gestation length, birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Offspring from Swedish Red and White and Friesian had the shortest gestation length (282 d), whereas offspring from Wagyu sires had the longest gestation length (286 d). Progeny from British breeds were the heaviest at birth (40.5 kg) and at 205 d (237 kg), and grew faster (0.97 kg/d) than offspring from other breeds. Offspring from Wagyu sires were the lightest at birth (36.3 kg) and at 205 d (214 kg), and had the slowest growth (0.91 kg/d). Dam breed was significant for gestation length (P < 0.001), birth weight (P = 0.009), BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Offspring from Hereford cows had the longest gestation length (284 d), whereas offspring from Angus cows had the shortest (282 d). Offspring from MARC III cows were the heaviest at birth (39.4 kg) when compared with offspring from Hereford (38.2 kg) and Angus (38.6 kg) cows. Progeny from Angus cows were the heaviest at 205 d (235 kg) and grew faster (0.96 kg/d), whereas offspring from Hereford cows were the lightest at 205 d (219 kg) and were the slowest in growth (0.88 kg/d). Sex was significant for gestation length (P = 0.026), birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Male calves had a longer gestation length

  14. Additive and epistatic genome-wide association for growth and ultrasound scan measures of carcass-related traits in Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Ali, A A; Khatkar, M S; Kadarmideen, H N; Thomson, P C

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies are routinely used to identify genomic regions associated with traits of interest. However, this ignores an important class of genomic associations, that of epistatic interactions. A genome-wide interaction analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using highly dense markers can detect epistatic interactions, but is a difficult task due to multiple testing and computational demand. However, It is important for revealing complex trait heredity. This study considers analytical methods that detect statistical interactions between pairs of loci. We investigated a three-stage modelling procedure: (i) a model without the SNP to estimate the variance components; (ii) a model with the SNP using variance component estimates from (i), thus avoiding iteration; and (iii) using the significant SNPs from (ii) for genome-wide epistasis analysis. We fitted these three-stage models to field data for growth and ultrasound measures for subcutaneous fat thickness in Brahman cattle. The study demonstrated the usefulness of modelling epistasis in the analysis of complex traits as it revealed extra sources of genetic variation and identified potential candidate genes affecting the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 and ultrasound scan measure of fat depth traits. Information about epistasis can add to our understanding of the complex genetic networks that form the fundamental basis of biological systems. PMID:25754883

  15. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu maternal grandsires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 434 steers and 373 heifers obtained by mating F1 cows to Charolais sires. Maternal grandsires represented Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British Breeds), Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, or Friesian breeds. Breed groups were slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr (2002 and 2003). Postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, percentage Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), retail product weight, fat yield (percentage), fat weight, bone yield (percentage), and bone weight were analyzed. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except dressing percentage, percentage Choice, and LM area. Marbling score for animals with Norwegian Red, Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, British Breeds, and Friesian inheritance was 550, 544, 532, 530, and 515, respectively (SEM = 8). Retail product weight for these animals was 224, 211, 227, 223, and 223 kg, respectively (SEM = 2 kg). Maternal granddam breed was not significant for any of the traits analyzed. Grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems. PMID:16424257

  16. Expression of MMP-1, -2, and -8 in longissimus dorsi muscle and their relationship with meat quality traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Qi, Y X; Zhang, X H; Wang, Y Q; Pang, Y Z; Zhang, Z B; Zhang, T L; Zhang, Z X

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the major macromolecule in skeletal muscle, which affects meat quality greatly. The remodeling of the ECM is mainly regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The expression patterns of MMP-1, -2, and -8 in longissimus dorsi muscle were explored using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results show that the expression of MMP-1, -2, and -8 decreased significantly from 135 days of pregnancy to postnatal 30 months. While the expression of MMP-1, -2, and -8 showed no significant relationships with intramuscular fat contents, MMP-1 and -2 showed significant negative correlations with the shearing force of the longissimus dorsi muscle in cattle. The expression of MMP-1 also showed a significant negative correlation with cooking loss and a positive correlation with water holding capacity. The expression levels of MMP-1 and -2 were usually higher in fat than in skeletal muscle tissue. The expression of MMP-8 was significantly higher in the mammary fat pad and the longissimus dorsi muscle than in all other tissues. This study indicates that the remodeling of the ECM has important effects both on the development of postnatal skeletal muscle and on meat quality. PMID:26985938

  17. Genetic variants in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors are associated with concentrations of plasma cortisol, muscle glycogen content, and meat quality traits in male Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Poleti, M D; DeRijk, R H; Rosa, A F; Moncau, C T; Oliveira, P S; Coutinho, L L; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C

    2015-04-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) are key components in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine axis and coordinate the physiological response to stress agents to reestablish homeostasis. Genetic variations of GR (NR3C1) and MR (NR3C2) genes could explain the alterations in animals to adapt to challenges, and therefore, their influence on production traits. The present study aimed to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine NR3C1 and NR3C2 genes and explore their associations to relevant traits of beef cattle production. Genotypes and phenotypes were collected from 241 male Nellore cattle (119 noncastrated and 122 castrated surgically) with an average of 24 ± 1.2 mo of age and live weight of 508 ± 39 kg. The traits evaluated were concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, muscle glycogen and lactate content, and pH, color, cooking loss, and shear force of longissimus thoracis measured on the 1st, 7th, and 14th days postmortem. Five SNPs were identified, 2 in the NR3C1 gene and 3 in the NR3C2 gene. There was an associative relationship between the SNP NR3C1_1 g.3293A>G and postmortem plasma concentration of cortisol (P = 0.0008). The SNPs NR3C2_1 g.115T>C and NR3C2_2 g.570T>C were associated with muscle glycogen content (P = 0.0306 and P = 0.0158), postmortem plasma concentration of ACTH (P = 0.0118 and P = 0.0095), and cooking loss of the steak aged 1 d (P = 0.0398 and P = 0.0423). Haplotype analysis showed associations of GR haplotypes with postmortem plasma concentrations of cortisol and MR haplotypes with meat color, cooking losses, muscle glycogen content, and plasma concentrations of ACTH. The associations observed in the present study show that SNPs in GR and MR genes are related with changes of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and metabolic profile in cattle, leading to individual variation in meat quality traits. PMID:25617989

  18. Association of selected SNP with carcass and taste panel assessed meat quality traits in a commercial population of Aberdeen Angus-sired beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jennifer L; Bishop, Stephen C; McCorquodale, Caroline; Williams, John L; Wiener, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), previously associated with meat and milk quality traits in cattle, in a population of 443 commercial Aberdeen Angus-cross beef cattle. The eight SNP, which were located within five genes: μ-calpain (CAPN1), calpastatin (CAST), leptin (LEP), growth hormone receptor (GHR) and acylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), are included in various commercial tests for tenderness, fatness, carcass composition and milk yield/quality. Methods A total of 27 traits were examined, 19 relating to carcass quality, such as carcass weight and fatness, one mechanical measure of tenderness, and the remaining seven were sensory traits, such as flavour and tenderness, assessed by a taste panel. Results An SNP in the CAPN1 gene, CAPN316, was significantly associated with tenderness measured by both the tenderometer and the taste panel as well as the weight of the hindquarter, where animals inheriting the CC genotype had more tender meat and heavier hindquarters. An SNP in the leptin gene, UASMS2, significantly affected overall liking, where animals with the TT genotype were assigned higher scores by the panellists. The SNP in the GHR gene was significantly associated with odour, where animals inheriting the AA genotype produced steaks with an intense odour when compared with the other genotypes. Finally, the SNP in the DGAT1 gene was associated with sirloin weight after maturation and fat depth surrounding the sirloin, with animals inheriting the AA genotype having heavier sirloins and more fat. Conclusion The results of this study confirm some previously documented associations. Furthermore, novel associations have been identified which, following validation in other populations, could be incorporated into breeding programmes to improve meat quality. PMID:19555501

  19. Identification of indicator traits of fertility in the postpartum beef cow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive failure is the primary reason that a beef cow leaves the production herd; however, the low heritability of reproductive traits makes identification of genetic markers for fertility difficult. Postpartum interval is a moderately heritable trait that influences fertility because cows that...

  20. EST-based Gene Indices for the Cattle Fever Tick, the Horn Fly, and the Screwworm Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, and the New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, are economically important parasites of cattle throughout the world. Understanding the biology and genomics of these pests is critical to developin...

  1. EST-based gene indices for the cattle fever tick, the horn fly, and the screwworm fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, and the New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, are economically important parasites of cattle throughout the world. Understanding the biology and genomics of these pests is critical to developin...

  2. Energy efficiency and its relationship with milk, body, and intake traits and energy status among primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, P; Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, E A

    2012-06-01

    Existing variation in energy efficiency and its relationship with milk yield and milk composition, body weight and body condition, feed intake, and energy status was studied in primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle with data including 3,752 weekly records from 145 cows. Energy efficiency was defined as energy conversion efficiency (ECE) and as residual energy intake (REI) estimated based on Finnish feeding standards (REI₁) or from the current data (REI₂). The results indicated true phenotypic variation in energy efficiency of the cows. The proportion of total variance due to the animal was 0.35 for REI₁, 0.30 for REI₂, and 0.50 for ECE. The high efficiency based on ECE was associated with increased mobilization of body reserves (r = -0.50) and decreased dry matter intake (r = -0.51). With REI as an energy efficiency measure, the increased efficiency was associated with a large decrease in feed intake (REI₁: r = 0.60; REI2: r = 0.74) without any effect on body weight change (REI₁: r = 0.13; REI2: r = 0.00). Increased efficiency based on ECE and REI₁ was associated with increased milk yield (ECE: r = 0.58; REI₁: r = -0.41). A clear effect of stage of lactation on REI was found, which could be caused by true differences in utilization of metabolizable energy during lactation. However, it might also be related, in part, to the lack of knowledge of the composition of body weight change in the beginning of lactation. PMID:22612955

  3. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations.

    PubMed

    Sahner, Josephine; Budi, Sri Wilarso; Barus, Henry; Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems. PMID:26366576

  4. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D.; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems. PMID:26366576

  5. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 pop...

  6. The use of population-scale sequencing to identify CNVs impacting productive traits in different cattle breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individualized copy number variation (CNV) maps have highlighted the need for population surveys of cattle to detect rare and common variants. While SNP and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays have provided preliminary data, next-generation sequence (NGS) data analysis offers an increased...

  7. Genome-wide association mapping for identification of quantitative trait loci for rectal temperature during heat stress in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress negatively affects the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. One strategy to reduce the magnitude of heat stress is to select individuals that are genetically resistant to heat stress. Most of the negative effects of heat stress on animal performance are a consequence of eit...

  8. Effects of bovine cytochrome P450 single nucleotide polymorphism, forage type, and body condition on production traits in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to cows with acceptable productivity could benefit cattle breeders especially in areas where tall fescue is the predominant forage. This study aimed to 1) identify SNPs in bovine cytochrome P450 3A28 (CYP3A28) and 2) determine associations between SNP g...

  9. CAPN1 and GDF8 genetic marker effects on heifer performance, reproduction, and first calf performance traits in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To increase the accuracy of effect estimation and assess potential unintended correlated effects for two marker systems used commercially for muscling and meat tenderness, a composite beef cattle population segregating the markers was selected for multiple years to increase minor allele frequency (M...

  10. Polymorphism of MyoD1 and Myf6 genes and associations with carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Du, X H; Gan, Q F; Yuan, Z R; Gao, X; Zhang, L P; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

    2013-01-01

    Myogenic determination factor 1 (MyoD1) and myogenic factor 6 (Myf6) genes belong to the myogenic differentiation (MyoD) gene family, which play key roles in growth and muscle development. The study aimed to investigate the effects of variants in cattle MyoD1 and Myf6 on carcass and meat traits. We screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of both genes in 8 cattle populations, including Simmental, Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Limousin, Qinchuan, Luxi, and Jinnan by sequencing. The G782A locus was identified in exon 1 of MyoD1 (MyoD1-BglI) as well as the T186C locus in exon 1 of Myf6 (Myf6-ApaLI). For the two SNPs, the A allele was significantly more frequent than the B allele in the populations tested. The χ(2) test showed that the MyoD1-BglI locus conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the 8 populations, as did the Myf6-ApaLI locus, with the exception of the Simmental population (P > 0.05). Association analysis revealed that the MyoD1-BglI locus was significantly associated with loin muscle area (LMA) (P < 0.05), and the Myf6-ApaLI locus was significantly associated with carcass length (CL) (P < 0.05). Animals with BB and AB genotypes for the MyoD1-BglI locus had larger LMAs compared to animals with AA genotype. Individuals with BB genotype had longer CLs compared to those with AA and AB genotypes. We conclude that the two SNPs might provide useful genetic markers, opening up new possibilities for cattle breeding and improvements in gene-assisted selection. PMID:24391012

  11. Associations between novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Bos taurus growth hormone gene and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mullen, M P; Berry, D P; Howard, D J; Diskin, M G; Lynch, C O; Berkowicz, E W; Magee, D A; MacHugh, D E; Waters, S M

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone, produced in the anterior pituitary gland, stimulates the release of insulin-like growth factor-I from the liver and is of critical importance in the control of nutrient utilization and partitioning for lactogenesis, fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to discover novel polymorphisms in the bovine growth hormone gene (GH1) and to quantify their association with performance using estimates of genetic merit on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI (artificial insemination) dairy sires. Associations with previously reported polymorphisms in the bovine GH1 gene were also undertaken. A total of 38 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5' promoter, intronic, exonic, and 3' regulatory regions, encompassing approximately 7 kb of the GH1 gene. Following multiple regression analysis on all SNP, associations were identified between 11 SNP (2 novel and 9 previously identified) and milk fat and protein yield, milk composition, somatic cell score, survival, body condition score, and body size. The G allele of a previously identified SNP in exon 5 at position 2141 of the GH1 sequence, resulting in a nonsynonymous substitution, was associated with decreased milk protein yield. The C allele of a novel SNP, GH32, was associated with inferior carcass conformation. In addition, the T allele of a previously characterized SNP, GH35, was associated with decreased survival. Both GH24 (novel) and GH35 were independently associated with somatic cell count, and 3 SNP, GH21, 2291, and GH35, were independently associated with body depth. Furthermore, 2 SNP, GH24 and GH63, were independently associated with carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of GH1 on milk production, fertility, and growth-related traits in cattle. PMID:21094770

  12. Effects of stress by unfamiliar sounds on carcass and meat traits in bulls from three continental beef cattle breeds at different ageing times.

    PubMed

    Peña, F; Avilés, C; Domenech, V; González, A; Martínez, A; Molina, A

    2014-12-01

    One-hundred-and-twenty-four young bulls of three Continental beef cattle breeds were used to study the effect of pre-slaughter stress by unfamiliar sounds on carcass traits and quality characteristics of beef aged for three different periods. Stress due to unfamiliar noises had a moderately negative effect on carcass and meat quality. Carcasses from group Stressed had higher (P<0.05) values of pH0, pH24, a*, and Warner-Bratzler shear force, and lower (P<0.05) values of L*, b* and pressure losses than from Unstressed animals. There were significant differences (P<0.05) among breeds in L*, a* and pressure losses. The ageing time had a significant effect on chromatic variables, WBSF and pressure losses. The cooking losses were not significantly affected by any of the three factors discussed. These results emphasize the importance of implementing appropriate management practices during pre-slaughter handling of cattle in order to reduce any possible risk factor for stress, as well as the different sensitivity of the breeds to similar stimuli. PMID:25105491

  13. The influence of animals from embryo transfer on the genetic evaluation of growth in Simmental beef cattle by using multi-trait models

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Rodrigo Reis; Lopes, Paulo Sávio; Marques, Luiz Fernando Aarão; da Silva, Luciano Pinheiro; de Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela; de Almeida Torres, Robledo

    2013-01-01

    The weight records from Simmental beef cattle were used in a genetic evaluation of growth with or without the inclusion of animals obtained by embryo transfer. A multi-trait model in which embryo transfer individuals were excluded (MTM1) contained 29,510 records from 10,659 animals, while another model without exclusion of these animals (MTM2) contained 62,895 weight records from 23,160 animals. The weight records were adjusted for ages of 100, 205, 365, 450, 550 and 730 days. The (co)variance components and genetic parameters were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The (co)variance components were similar in both models, except for maternal permanent environment variance. Direct heritabilities (h2d) in MTM1 were 0.04, 0.11, 0.20, 0.27, 0.31 and 0.42, while in MTM2 they were 0.11, 0.11, 0.17, 0.21, 0.22 and 0.26 for 100, 205, 365, 450, 550 and 730 days of age, respectively. Estimates of h2d in MTM1 were higher than in MTM2 for the weight at 365 days of age. Genetic correlations between weights in both models ranged from moderate to high, suggesting that these traits may be determined mainly by the same genes. Animals from embryo transfer may be included in the genetic evaluation of Simmental beef cattle in Brazil; this inclusion may provide potential gains in accuracy and genetic gains by reducing the interval between generations. PMID:23569407

  14. Bovine cysticercosis in slaughtered cattle as an indicator of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and epidemiological risk factors.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Mathias, Luis Antonio; Martins, Ana Maria Centola Vidal; Mussi, Leila Aparecida; Prata, Luiz Francisco

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on estimating the economic losses resulting from cysticercosis at beef cattle farms that supply an export slaughterhouse located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify the epidemiological risks factors involved in the disease to ascertain if these farms adopt Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). To this, we used data recorded in 2012 by Brazil's Federal Inspection Service (SIF) on the daily occurrence of the disease, according to the farm from which the animals originated. In addition, the associated risk factors were determined based on a case-control study at 48 farms. Cysticercosis was detected in 2.26% (95% CI 2.2-2.33) of the 190,903 bovines supplied by 556 farms in the following four states: 2.92% (95% CI 2.83-3.03) in São Paulo, 1.81% (95% CI 1.71-1.93) in Minas Gerais, 0.71% (95% CI 0.6-0.82) in Goiás and 1.11% (95% CI 0.79-1.57) in Mato Grosso do Sul, with significant differences in the epidemiological indices of these states. Cysticercosis was detected at 58.45% (95% CI 54.36-62.55) of the farms of this study, representing estimated economic losses of US$312,194.52 for the farmers. Lower prevalence of this disease were found at the farms qualified for exports to the European Union, indicating a statistically significant difference from those not qualified to export to Europe. The access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, as well as sport fishing activities near the farms, was identified as risk factors. Cysticercosis causes considerable losses in Brazil's beef supply chain, with lower prevalence appearing only at farms qualified to export to the European Union. As for the access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, this is an indication that GAP are not implemented by some farms, demonstrating the violation of international agreements by the industry and the farms. PMID:25631403

  15. Common and distinct modulation of electrophysiological indices of feedback processing by autistic and psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Carter Leno, Virginia; Naples, Adam; Cox, Anthony; Rutherford, Helena; McPartland, James C

    2016-08-01

    Both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and psychopathy are primarily characterized by social dysfunction; overlapping phenotypic features may reflect altered function in common brain mechanisms. The current study examined the degree to which neural response to social and nonsocial feedback is modulated by autistic versus psychopathic traits in a sample of typically developing adults (N = 31, 11 males, 18-52 years). Event-related potentials were recorded whilst participants completed a behavioral task and received feedback on task performance. Both autistic and psychopathic traits were associated with alterations in the neural correlates of feedback processing. Sensitivity to specific forms of feedback (social, nonsocial, positively valenced, negatively valenced) differed between the two traits. Autistic traits were associated with decreased sensitivity to social feedback. In contrast, the antisocial domain of psychopathic traits was associated with an overall decrease in sensitivity to feedback, and the interpersonal manipulation domain was associated with preserved processing of positively valenced feedback. Results suggest distinct alterations within specific mechanisms of feedback processing may underlie similar difficulties in social behavior. PMID:26471250

  16. Association, effects and validation of polymorphisms within the NCAPG - LCORL locus located on BTA6 with feed intake, gain, meat and carcass traits in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a previously reported genome-wide association study based on a high-density bovine SNP genotyping array, 8 SNP were nominally associated (P ≤ 0.003) with average daily gain (ADG) and 3 of these were also associated (P ≤ 0.002) with average daily feed intake (ADFI) in a population of crossbred beef cattle. The SNP were clustered in a 570 kb region around 38 Mb on the draft sequence of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6), an interval containing several positional and functional candidate genes including the bovine LAP3, NCAPG, and LCORL genes. The goal of the present study was to develop and examine additional markers in this region to optimize the ability to distinguish favorable alleles, with potential to identify functional variation. Results Animals from the original study were genotyped for 47 SNP within or near the gene boundaries of the three candidate genes. Sixteen markers in the NCAPG-LCORL locus displayed significant association with both ADFI and ADG even after stringent correction for multiple testing (P ≤ 005). These markers were evaluated for their effects on meat and carcass traits. The alleles associated with higher ADFI and ADG were also associated with higher hot carcass weight (HCW) and ribeye area (REA), and lower adjusted fat thickness (AFT). A reduced set of markers was genotyped on a separate, crossbred population including genetic contributions from 14 beef cattle breeds. Two of the markers located within the LCORL gene locus remained significant for ADG (P ≤ 0.04). Conclusions Several markers within the NCAPG-LCORL locus were significantly associated with feed intake and body weight gain phenotypes. These markers were also associated with HCW, REA and AFT suggesting that they are involved with lean growth and reduced fat deposition. Additionally, the two markers significant for ADG in the validation population of animals may be more robust for the prediction of ADG and possibly the correlated trait ADFI, across multiple breeds

  17. Facial Skin Smoothness as an Indicator of Perceived Trustworthiness and Related Traits.

    PubMed

    Tsankova, Elena; Kappas, Arvid

    2016-04-01

    Facial texture has typically been studied as an umbrella phenomenon comprising several properties, such as skin tone and smoothness. Furthermore, texture has normally been addressed within complex models including also structural and dynamic properties and focusing on the extraction of perceptual dimensions from large numbers of physical and personality traits. It is yet unclear how individual facial textural properties affect the perception of individual physical and personality traits. We took a step in this direction by showing that the manipulation of a single facial textural property (skin smoothness) affected explicit evaluations of trustworthiness, competence, attractiveness, and health independently and in combination. Within the context of skin smoothness, our data also suggest a direct perceptual route for physical and an indirect perceptual route for personality traits. PMID:26621963

  18. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for feed intake and other traits in growing beef cattle, and opportunities for selection.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, K M; Snelling, W M; Nielsen, M K; Freetly, H C; Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G

    2011-11-01

    Growth, feed intake, and temperament indicator data, collected over 5 yr on a total of 1,141 to 1,183 mixed-breed steers, were used to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters. All steers had a portion of Hereford, Angus, or both as well as varying percentages of Simmental, Charolais, Limousin, Gelbvieh, Red Angus, and MARC III composite. Because the steers were slaughtered on various dates each year and the animals thus varied in days on feed, BW and feed data were adjusted to a 140-d feeding period basis. Adjustment of measures of feed efficiency [G:F or residual feed intake (RFI), intake adjusted for metabolic body size, and BW gain] for body fatness recorded at slaughter had little effect on the results of analyses. Average daily gain was less heritable (0.26) than was midtest BW (MBW; 0.35). Measures of feed intake had greater estimates of heritability, with 140-d DMI at 0.40 and RFI at 0.52; the heritability estimate for G:F was 0.27. Flight speed (FS), as an indicator of temperament, had an estimated heritability of 0.34 and a repeatability of 0.63. As expected, a strong genetic (0.86) correlation was estimated between ADG and MBW; genetic correlations were less strong between DMI and ADG or MBW (0.56 and 0.71). Residual feed intake and DMI had a genetic correlation of 0.66. Indexes for phenotypic RFI and genotypically restricted RFI (no correlation with BW gain) were compared with simple economic indexes incorporating feed intake and growth to elucidate expected selection responses under different criteria. In general, few breed differences were detected across the various measurements. Heterosis contributed to greater DMI, RFI, and MBW, but it did not significantly affect ADG, G:F, or FS. Balancing output (growth) with input costs (feed) is needed in practicing selection, and FS would not be recommended as an indicator trait for selection to change feed efficiency. An index including BW gain and RFI produced the best economic outcome. PMID:21622877

  19. Genome-wide association analysis for quantitative trait loci influencing Warner–Bratzler shear force in five taurine cattle breeds

    PubMed Central

    McClure, M C; Ramey, H R; Rolf, M M; McKay, S D; Decker, J E; Chapple, R H; Kim, J W; Taxis, T M; Weaber, R L; Schnabel, R D; Taylor, J F

    2012-01-01

    Summary We performed a genome-wide association study for Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF), a measure of meat tenderness, by genotyping 3360 animals from five breeds with 54 790 BovineSNP50 and 96 putative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within μ-calpain [HUGO nomenclature calpain 1, (mu/I) large subunit; CAPN1] and calpastatin (CAST). Within- and across-breed analyses estimated SNP allele substitution effects (ASEs) by genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and variance components by restricted maximum likelihood under an animal model incorporating a genomic relationship matrix. GBLUP estimates of ASEs from the across-breed analysis were moderately correlated (0.31–0.66) with those from the individual within-breed analyses, indicating that prediction equations for molecular estimates of breeding value developed from across-breed analyses should be effective for genomic selection within breeds. We identified 79 genomic regions associated with WBSF in at least three breeds, but only eight were detected in all five breeds, suggesting that the within-breed analyses were underpowered, that different quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlie variation between breeds or that the BovineSNP50 SNP density is insufficient to detect common QTL among breeds. In the across-breed analysis, CAPN1 was followed by CAST as the most strongly associated WBSF QTL genome-wide, and associations with both were detected in all five breeds. We show that none of the four commercialized CAST and CAPN1SNP diagnostics are causal for associations with WBSF, and we putatively fine-map the CAPN1 causal mutation to a 4581-bp region. We estimate that variation in CAST and CAPN1 explains 1.02 and 1.85% of the phenotypic variation in WBSF respectively. PMID:22497286

  20. Effects of polymorphic microsatellites in the regulatory region of IGF1 and GHR on growth and carcass traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Curi, R A; Oliveira, H N; Silveira, A C; Lopes, C R

    2005-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2) and their associated binding proteins and transmembrane receptors (GHR, IGF1R and IGF2R) play an important role in the physiology of mammalian growth. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of microsatellite markers located in the 5'-regulatory region of the IGF1 and GHR genes in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups and to determine effects of these markers on growth and carcass traits in these animals under an intensive production system. For this purpose, genotyping was performed on 384 bulls including 79 Nellore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu) and 275 crossbred animals originating from crosses of Simmental (1/2 Simmental, n = 30) and Angus (1/2 Angus, n = 245) sires with Nellore females. The effects of substituting L allele for S allele of GHR microsatellite across Nellore, Canchim and 1/2 Angus were significant for weight gain and body weight (P < 0.05). The IGF1 microsatellite allele substitutions of 229 for 225 within Nellore group and of 225 for 229 within 1/2 Angus were not significant for any of the traits. PMID:15670132

  1. Comparison of Carcass and Sensory Traits and Free Amino Acid Contents among Quality Grades in Loin and Rump of Korean Cattle Steer

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Min Yu; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ko, Jong-Youl; Baik, Myunggi

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to compare carcass traits, sensory characteristics, physiochemical composition, and contents of nucleotides, collagen, and free amino acids among quality grades (QG) and to understand the association between QG and above parameters in loin and rump of Korean cattle steer. Loin and rump samples were obtained from 48 Korean cattle steers with each of four QG (QG 1++, 1+, 1, and 2; average 32 months of age). Carcass weight and marbling score (MS) were highest in QG 1++, whereas texture score measured by a meat grader was highest in QG 2. A correlation analysis revealed that MS (r = 0.98; p<0.01) and fat content (r = 0.73; p<0.01) had strong positive correlations with QG and that texture had a strong negative correlation (r = −0.78) with QG. Fat content in loin was highest but protein and moisture contents were lowest in QG 1++. Our results confirmed that a major determinant of QG is the MS; thus, intramuscular fat content. The International Commission on Illumination L*, a*, and b* values in loin were highest in QG 1++. Numeric values of shear force in loin were lowest in QG 1++, whereas those of tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability tended to be highest in QG 1++ without statistical significance. QG was strongly correlated with juiciness (r = 0.81; p<0.01) and overall acceptability (r = 0.87; p<0.001). All sensory characteristics were higher (p<0.05) in loin than those in rump. Adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP) and inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) contents in both loin and rump did not differ among QGs. No nucleotide (AMP, IMP, inosine, hypoxanthine) was correlated with any of the sensory traits. Total, soluble, and insoluble collagen contents in loin were higher in QG 1++ than those in QG 1. All three collagens had lower content in loin than that in rump. All three collagens were positively correlated with tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Glutamic acid content did not significantly differ among the four QGs in

  2. Lactation traits associated with short- and long-term once-daily milking performance in New Zealand crossbred dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Davis, S R; Turner, S-A; Obolonkin, V; Tiplady, K; Spelman, R J; Phyn, C V C

    2015-09-01

    The main objectives of this study were to establish the relative value of milk yields under twice-daily milking (TDM) as a predictor of yield and yield loss under once-daily milking (ODM), and to understand the role of residual milk and udder storage capacity-related traits in regulating yield and yield loss during ODM. A Holstein-Friesian × Jersey crossbred herd was established over 2 seasons (years), as 2 individual cohorts on the same farm, managed on a pasture-based system over 4 lactations. Short-term (1-wk) ODM studies, with a starting total of 690 cows, were undertaken in mid- and late-lactation in lactation 2 and in mid-lactation in lactation 3 for each cohort. A 10-wk study of ODM performance began in mid-lactation in lactation 3, whereas lactation 4 was a full-lactation assessment of ODM. In the short-term studies, milk yield under ODM was well predicted (R(2)=0.7 to 0.8 in 5 of 6 studies) by the daily yield under TDM in the week before ODM. Yield loss (kg/d) increased with increasing milk yield and with increasing somatic cell count (SCC), although predictions were relatively poor (R(2)=0.09 to 0.30). Yield loss (%) decreased with increasing TDM yield in 3 of the 6 studies and was positively correlated with SCC during ODM. Nevertheless, ODM yield loss, in absolute or percentage terms, was a poorly repeatable trait in grazing cows. Part of the variation in yield loss percentage (30%) was positively associated with residual milk (%), measured pretrial, during measurement of functional udder capacity in lactation 3. Total production (kg of milk) over the full-lactation ODM study in lactation 4 was correlated with total production in the 10-wk trial in lactation 3 (r=0.72 and 0.63 for cohorts 1 and 2, respectively). Identifying the highest- and lowest-producing 10% of animals during the full lactation of ODM indicated that poor production was associated with high yields of residual milk (measured in lactation 3) and, conversely, high production was

  3. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes residing on chromosomes 14 and 29 for association with carcass composition traits in Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; White, S N; Riley, D G; Smith, T P L; Brenneman, R A; Olson, T A; Johnson, D D; Coleman, S W; Bennett, G L; Chase, C C

    2005-01-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), thyroglobulin (TG), and micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease (CAPN1) genes with carcass composition and meat quality traits in Bos indicus cattle. A population of Brahman calves (n = 479) was developed in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Traits analyzed were ADG, hip height, slaughter weight, fat thickness, HCW, marbling score, LM area, estimated KPH fat, yield grade, retail yield, sensory panel tenderness score, carcass hump height, and cooked meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem. Single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported in the TG and DGAT1 genes were used as markers on chromosome 14. Two previously reported and two new SNP in the CAPN1 gene were used as markers on chromosome 29. One SNP in CAPN1 was uninformative, and another one was associated with tenderness score (P < 0.05), suggesting the presence of variation affecting meat tenderness. All three informative SNP at the CAPN1 gene were associated with hump height (P < 0.02). The TG marker was associated with fat thickness and LMA (P < 0.05), but not with marbling score. No significant associations of the SNP in the DGAT1 gene were observed for any trait. Allele frequencies of the SNP in TG and CAPN1 were different in this Brahman population than in reported allele frequencies in Bos taurus populations. The results suggest that the use of molecular marker information developed in Bos taurus populations to Bos indicus populations may require development of appropriate additional markers. PMID:15583037

  4. Discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with fertility and production traits in Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for specific genes involved in reproduction might improve reliability of genomic estimates for these low-heritability traits. Semen from 550 Holstein bulls of high (≥ 1.7; n = 288) or low (≤ −2; n = 262) daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) was genotyped for 434 candidate SNPs using the Sequenom MassARRAY® system. Three types of SNPs were evaluated: SNPs previously reported to be associated with reproductive traits or physically close to genetic markers for reproduction, SNPs in genes that are well known to be involved in reproductive processes, and SNPs in genes that are differentially expressed between physiological conditions in a variety of tissues associated in reproductive function. Eleven reproduction and production traits were analyzed. Results A total of 40 SNPs were associated (P < 0.05) with DPR. Among these were genes involved in the endocrine system, cell signaling, immune function and inhibition of apoptosis. A total of 10 genes were regulated by estradiol. In addition, 22 SNPs were associated with heifer conception rate, 33 with cow conception rate, 36 with productive life, 34 with net merit, 23 with milk yield, 19 with fat yield, 13 with fat percent, 19 with protein yield, 22 with protein percent, and 13 with somatic cell score. The allele substitution effect for SNPs associated with heifer conception rate, cow conception rate, productive life and net merit were in the same direction as for DPR. Allele substitution effects for several SNPs associated with production traits were in the opposite direction as DPR. Nonetheless, there were 29 SNPs associated with DPR that were not negatively associated with production traits. Conclusion SNPs in a total of 40 genes associated with DPR were identified as well as SNPs for other traits. It might be feasible to include these SNPs into genomic tests of reproduction and other traits. The genes associated with DPR are likely to be

  5. Random regression test-day model for clinical mastitis: genetic parameters, model comparison, and correlations with indicator traits.

    PubMed

    Gernand, E; König, S

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to study genetic (co)variance components for binary clinical mastitis (CM), test-day protein yield, and udder health indicator traits [test-day somatic cell score (SCS) and type traits of the udder composite] in the course of lactation with random regression models (RRM). The study used a data set from selected 15 large-scale contract herds including 26,651 Holstein cows. Test-day production and CM data were recorded from 2007 to 2012 and comprised parities 1 to 3. A longitudinal CM data structure was generated by assigning CM records to adjacent official test dates. Bivariate threshold-linear RRM were applied to estimate genetic (co)variance components between longitudinal binary CM (0 = healthy; 1 = diseased) and longitudinal Gaussian distributed protein yield and SCS test-day data. Heritabilities for liability to CM (heritability ~0.15 from 0 to 305 d after calving) were slightly higher than for SCS for corresponding days in milk (DIM) in the course of lactation. Daily genetic correlations between CM and SCS were moderate to high (genetic correlation ~0.70), but substantially decreased at the very end of lactation. Genetic correlations between CM at different test days were close to 1 for adjacent test days, but were close to zero for test days far apart. Daily genetic correlations between CM and protein yield were low to moderate. For identical DIM (e.g., DIM 20, 160, and 300), genetic correlations were -0.03, 0.11, and 0.18, respectively, and disproved pronounced genetic antagonisms between udder health and productivity. Correlations between estimated breeding values (EBV) for CM from the RRM and official EBV for linear type traits of the udder composite, including EBV from 74 influential sires (sires with >60 daughters), were -0.31 for front teat placement, -0.01 for rear teat placement, -0.31 for fore udder attachment, -0.32 for udder depth, and -0.08 for teat length. Estimated breeding values for CM from the RRM were compared with EBV from

  6. The hunt for a functional mutation affecting conformation and calving traits on chromosome 18 in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequence data from 11 US Holstein bulls were analyzed to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. The SNP ARS-BFGL-NGS-109285 at 57,589,121 bp (UMD 3.1 assembly) on BTA18 has large effects on 4 measures of body shape and size, 2 measures of dystocia, longev...

  7. Discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with fertility and production traits in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for specific genes involved in reproduction might improve reliability of genomic estimates for these low- heritability traits. Semen from 550 Holstein bulls of high (>= 1.7; n=288) or low (<= -2; n = 262) daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) was geno...

  8. Copy number variations of the extensively amplified Y-linked genes, HSFY and ZNF280BY, in cattle and their association with male reproductive traits in Holstein bulls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent transcriptomic analysis of the bovine Y chromosome revealed at least six multi-copy protein coding gene families, including TSPY, HSFY and ZNF280BY, on the male-specific region (MSY). Previous studies indicated that the copy number variations (CNVs) of the human and bovine TSPY were associated with male fertility in men and cattle. However, the relationship between CNVs of the bovine Y-linked HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families and bull fertility has not been investigated. Results We investigated the copy number (CN) of the bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY in a total of 460 bulls from 15 breeds using a quantitative PCR approach. We observed CNVs for both gene families within and between cattle breeds. The median copy number (MCN) of HSFY among all bulls was 197, ranging from 21 to 308. The MCN of ZNF280BY was 236, varying from 28 to 380. Furthermore, bulls in the Bos taurus (BTA) lineage had a significantly higher MCN (202) of HSFY than bulls in the Bos indicus (BIN) lineage (178), while taurine bulls had a significantly lower MCN (231) of ZNF280BY than indicine bulls (284). In addition, the CN of ZNF280BY was positively correlated to that of HSFY on the BTAY. Association analysis revealed that the CNVs of both HSFY and ZNF280BY were correlated negatively with testis size, while positively with sire conception rate. Conclusion The bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families have extensively expanded on the Y chromosome during evolution. The CN of both gene families varies significantly among individuals and cattle breeds. These variations were associated with testis size and bull fertility in Holstein, suggesting that the CNVs of HSFY and ZNF280BY may serve as valuable makers for male fertility selection in cattle. PMID:24507556

  9. Changes in autistic trait indicators in parents and their children with ASD: A preliminary longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Munesue, Toshio; Takesaki, Natsumi; Higashida, Haruhiro; Oi, Manabu; Minabe, Yoshio; Asada, Minoru

    2015-08-30

    This study investigated whether the longitudinal changes in symptom severity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with changes in the parents׳ autistic traits. The results demonstrated two significant correlations between the changes in children׳s Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) score changes in either the father or both parents. Autistic symptom mitigation in ASD children was associated with increased empathy levels in their parents. PMID:26099658

  10. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and beef carcass fatness traits in a cross between Bos taurus (Angus) and Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Farnir, F; Savell, J; Taylor, J F

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth and beef carcass fatness traits in an experimental population of Angus and Brahman crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 602 progeny from 29 reciprocal backcross and three F2 full-sib families, and 417 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-averaged map of the 29 autosomes spanning 2,642.5 Kosambi cM. Alternative interval-mapping approaches were applied under line-cross (LC) and random infinite alleles (RA) models to detect QTL segregating between and within breeds. A total of 35 QTL (five with genomewide significant and 30 with suggestive evidence for linkage) were found on 19 chromosomes. One QTL affecting yearling weight was found with genomewide significant evidence for linkage in the interstitial region of bovine autosome (BTA) 1, and an additional 19 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the LC model. Many of these QTL had a dominant (complete or overdominant) mode of gene action, and only a few of the QTL were primarily additive, which reflects the fact that heterosis for growth is known to be appreciable in crosses among Brahman and British breeds. Four QTL affecting growth were detected with genomewide significant evidence for linkage under the RA model on BTA 2 and BTA 6 for birth weight, BTA 5 for yearling weight, and BTA 23 for hot carcass weight. An additional 11 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the RA model. None of the QTL (except for yearling weight on BTA 5) detected under the RA model were found by the LC analyses, suggesting the segregation of alternate alleles within one or both of the parental breeds. Our results reveal the utility of implementing both the LC and RA models to detect dominant QTL and also QTL with similar allele frequency distributions within parental breeds. PMID:12926775

  11. Decay of Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Cattle Feces

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and microbial source tracking (MST) markers in water microcosms and manure amended soils has been well documented; however, little is known about the survival of MST markers in bovine feces deposited on pastures. We conducted a study...

  12. Primary genome scan to identify putative quantitative trait loci for feedlot growth rate, feed intake, and feed efficiency of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Nkrumah, J D; Sherman, E L; Li, C; Marques, E; Crews, D H; Bartusiak, R; Murdoch, B; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A; Moore, S S

    2007-12-01

    Feed intake and feed efficiency of beef cattle are economically relevant traits. The study was conducted to identify QTL for feed intake and feed efficiency of beef cattle by using genotype information from 100 microsatellite markers and 355 SNP genotyped across 400 progeny of 20 Angus, Charolais, or Alberta Hybrid bulls. Traits analyzed include feedlot ADG, daily DMI, feed-to-gain ratio [F:G, which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of gain (G:F)], and residual feed intake (RFI). A mixed model with sire as random and QTL effects as fixed was used to generate an F-statistic profile across and within families for each trait along each chromosome, followed by empirical permutation tests to determine significance thresholds for QTL detection. Putative QTL for ADG (chromosome-wise P < 0.05) were detected across families on chromosomes 5 (130 cM), 6 (42 cM), 7 (84 cM), 11 (20 cM), 14 (74 cM), 16 (22 cM), 17 (9 cM), 18 (46 cM), 19 (53 cM), and 28 (23 cM). For DMI, putative QTL that exceeded the chromosome-wise P < 0.05 threshold were detected on chromosomes 1 (93 cM), 3 (123 cM), 15 (31 cM), 17 (81 cM), 18 (49 cM), 20 (56 cM), and 26 (69 cM) in the across-family analyses. Putative across-family QTL influencing F:G that exceeded the chromosome-wise P < 0.05 threshold were detected on chromosomes 3 (62 cM), 5 (129 cM), 7 (27 cM), 11 (16 cM), 16 (30 cM), 17 (81 cM), 22 (72 cM), 24 (55 cM), and 28 (24 cM). Putative QTL influencing RFI that exceeded the chromosome-wise P < 0.05 threshold were detected on chromosomes 1 (90 cM), 5 (129 cM), 7 (22 cM), 8 (80 cM), 12 (89 cM), 16 (41 cM), 17 (19 cM), and 26 (48 cM) in the across-family analyses. In addition, a total of 4, 6, 1, and 8 chromosomes showed suggestive evidence (chromosome-wise, P < 0.10) for putative ADG, DMI, F:G, and RFI QTL, respectively. Most of the QTL detected across families were also detected within families, although the locations across families were not necessarily the locations within families, which is

  13. Combining mouse mammary gland gene expression and comparative mapping for the identification of candidate genes for QTL of milk production traits in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Micha; Israeli, Galit; Seroussi, Eyal; Weller, Joel I; Gregg, Jeffrey P; Shani, Moshe; Medrano, Juan F

    2007-01-01

    Background Many studies have found segregating quantitative trait loci (QTL) for milk production traits in different dairy cattle populations. However, even for relatively large effects with a saturated marker map the confidence interval for QTL location by linkage analysis spans tens of map units, or hundreds of genes. Combining mapping and arraying has been suggested as an approach to identify candidate genes. Thus, gene expression analysis in the mammary gland of genes positioned in the confidence interval of the QTL can bridge the gap between fine mapping and quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) determination. Results We hybridized Affymetrix microarray (MG-U74v2), containing 12,488 murine probes, with RNA derived from mammary gland of virgin, pregnant, lactating and involuting C57BL/6J mice in a total of nine biological replicates. We combined microarray data from two additional studies that used the same design in mice with a total of 75 biological replicates. The same filtering and normalization was applied to each microarray data using GeneSpring software. Analysis of variance identified 249 differentially expressed probe sets common to the three experiments along the four developmental stages of puberty, pregnancy, lactation and involution. 212 genes were assigned to their bovine map positions through comparative mapping, and thus form a list of candidate genes for previously identified QTLs for milk production traits. A total of 82 of the genes showed mammary gland-specific expression with at least 3-fold expression over the median representing all tissues tested in GeneAtlas. Conclusion This work presents a web tool for candidate genes for QTL (cgQTL) that allows navigation between the map of bovine milk production QTL, potential candidate genes and their level of expression in mammary gland arrays and in GeneAtlas. Three out of four confirmed genes that affect QTL in livestock (ABCG2, DGAT1, GDF8, IGF2) were over expressed in the target organ. Thus, cg

  14. Incidences of and genetic parameters for mastitis, claw disorders, and common health traits recorded in dairy cattle contract herds.

    PubMed

    Gernand, E; Rehbein, P; von Borstel, U U; König, S

    2012-04-01

    Test-day records for protein yield, protein percent, fat percent and somatic cell score combined with diagnoses for health traits from 19,870 Holstein cows kept in 9 large-scale contract herds in the region of Thuringia, Germany, were used to infer genetic parameters. From an electronic database system for recording diagnoses, 15 health disorders with highest incidences were extracted and grouped into the following 5 disease categories: claw disorders, mastitis, female fertility, metabolism, and ectoparasites. In a bayesian approach, threshold methodology was applied for binary distributed health disorders and linear models were used for gaussian test-day observations. Variances and variance ratios for health disorders were from univariate and covariance components among health disorders and between health disorders, and test-day production traits were from bivariate repeatability models. Incidences of health disorders increased with increasing parity and were substantially higher at the beginning of lactation. Only incidences for ectoparasites slightly increased with increasing stage of lactation. Heritabilities ranged from 0.00 for ectoparasites to 0.22 for interdigital hyperplasia. Heritabilities of remaining health disorders were in a narrow range between 0.04 (corpus luteum persistent) and 0.09 (dermatitis digitalis). Clustering diseases into categories did not result in higher heritabilities. The variance ratio of the permanent environmental component was higher than the heritability for the same trait, pointing to the conclusion that non-genetic factors influence repeated occurrence of health problems during lactation. Repeatabilities were relatively high with values up to 0.49 for interdigital hyperplasia. Genetic correlations among selected health disorders were low and close to zero, disproving the assumption that a cow being susceptible for a specific disease is also susceptible for other types of health disorders. Antagonistic genetic relationships

  15. Copy number variations in Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle genomes using the massively parallel sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Woo; Chung, Won-Hyong; Lim, Kyu-Sang; Lim, Won-Jun; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Lee, Seung-Soo; Cho, Eun-Seok; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Kim, Namshin; Kim, Jeong-Dae; Kim, Jong-Bok; Chai, Han-Ha; Cho, Yong-Min; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lim, Dajeong

    2016-09-01

    Hanwoo is an indigenous Korean beef cattle breed, and it shared an ancestor with Yanbian cattle that are found in the Northeast provinces in China until the last century. During recent decades, those cattle breeds experienced different selection pressures. Here, we present genome-wide copy number variations (CNVs) by comparing Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle sequencing data. We used ~3.12 and ~3.07 billion sequence reads from Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle, respectively. A total of 901 putative CNV regions (CNVRs) were identified throughout the genome, representing 5,513,340bp. This is a smaller number than has been reported in previous studies, indicating that Hanwoo are genetically close to Yanbian cattle. Of the CNVRs, 53.2% and 46.8% were found to be gains and losses in Hanwoo. Potential functional roles of each CNVR were assessed by annotating all CNVRs and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. We found that 278 CNVRs overlapped with cattle gene-sets (genic-CNVRs) that could be promising candidates to account for economically important traits in cattle. The enrichment analysis indicated that genes were significantly over-represented in GO terms, including developmental process, multicellular organismal process, reproduction, and response to stimulus. These results provide a valuable genomic resource for determining how CNVs are associated with cattle traits. PMID:27188257

  16. Differences in Trait Impulsivity Indicate Diversification of Dog Breeds into Working and Show Lines.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Fernanda Ruiz; Driscoll, Patricia; Pilot, Malgorzata; Wright, Hannah; Zulch, Helen; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Impulsiveness describes the inability to inhibit behaviour in the presence of salient cues. Trait-level impulsivity exists on a continuum and individual differences can be adaptive in different contexts. While breed related differences in behavioural tendency in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) are well established, the phenomenon within lines of a breed which have been selected more recently is not well studied, although it may challenge the popular notion of breed-typical behaviour. We describe differences in impulsivity between and within two dog breeds with working and show lines selected for different levels of impulsivity: Border Collies (herding work) and Labrador Retrievers (gun work). Recent show line selection might have lessened differences in impulsivity between breeds. We tested this hypothesis on a dataset of 1161 individuals assessed using a validated psychometric tool (Dog Impulsivity Assessment Scale--DIAS). Collies were more impulsive on average, consistent with the original purpose of breed selection. Regarding line, working Collies differed from working Labradors, but show lines from the two breeds were not significantly different. Altered or relaxed artificial selection for behavioural traits when appearance rather than behaviour become the primary focus for breeders may reduce average differences in impulsivity between breeds in show lines. PMID:26963916

  17. Differences in Trait Impulsivity Indicate Diversification of Dog Breeds into Working and Show Lines

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, Fernanda Ruiz; Driscoll, Patricia; Pilot, Malgorzata; Wright, Hannah; Zulch, Helen; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Impulsiveness describes the inability to inhibit behaviour in the presence of salient cues. Trait-level impulsivity exists on a continuum and individual differences can be adaptive in different contexts. While breed related differences in behavioural tendency in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) are well established, the phenomenon within lines of a breed which have been selected more recently is not well studied, although it may challenge the popular notion of breed-typical behaviour. We describe differences in impulsivity between and within two dog breeds with working and show lines selected for different levels of impulsivity: Border Collies (herding work) and Labrador Retrievers (gun work). Recent show line selection might have lessened differences in impulsivity between breeds. We tested this hypothesis on a dataset of 1161 individuals assessed using a validated psychometric tool (Dog Impulsivity Assessment Scale - DIAS). Collies were more impulsive on average, consistent with the original purpose of breed selection. Regarding line, working Collies differed from working Labradors, but show lines from the two breeds were not significantly different. Altered or relaxed artificial selection for behavioural traits when appearance rather than behaviour become the primary focus for breeders may reduce average differences in impulsivity between breeds in show lines. PMID:26963916

  18. SNP exploring in the middle and terminal regions of the IGF-1 gene and association with production and reproduction traits in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Abdolmohammadi, A; Zamani, P

    2014-04-25

    Five primer sets were designed in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in middle and terminal exons (2 to 6) and in some flanking intronic regions of the bovine insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene. Sequencing results of PCR products for 10% of animals showed no variant in exons but a SNP at intron 4 was occurred. Both polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and high resolution melting (HRM) methods were developed to genotype samples. The PCR-RFLP results showed the presence of three fragments on agarose gel for the C allele due to two cleavage sites while two fragments for the T allele were observed. Melting curves of 123bp fragments in HRM analysis showed a difference between temperature melting (Tm) of two homozygous genotypes as the CC genotypes had higher Tm than the TT genotypes. Melting curve of the CT genotype was different and crossed two parallel patterns of homozygous genotypes. The frequencies of the CC, CT and TT genotypes were 0.6, 0.37 and 0.03, respectively. Also, the estimated allele frequencies were 0.785 and 0.215 for the C and T alleles, respectively. Results showed higher accuracy of the HRM analysis compared to the PCR-RFLP method. Least square means (LSMs) comparison of the different genotypes in the SNP showed significant association with milk fat yield trait in the first lactation and open days after the second calving. The polymorphism did not have a significant effect on other milk production or reproduction traits. It seems that other variants or QTLs known in this region underlie genetic variation in the production and reproduction of dairy cattle. PMID:24530703

  19. Housing and management factors associated with indicators of dairy cattle welfare.

    PubMed

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Reenen, C G; Engel, B; van Schaik, G; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of potential synergies and trade-offs between housing and management factors for different aspects of animal welfare is essential for farmers who aim to improve the level of welfare in their herds. The aim of this research was to identify and compare housing and management factors associated with prevalence of lameness, prevalence of lesions or swellings, prevalence of dirty hindquarters, and frequency of displacements (social behavior) in dairy herds in free-stall housing. Seven observers collected data regarding housing and management characteristics of 179 Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 22-211 cows) in free-stall housing during winter. Lame cows, cows with lesions or swellings, and cows with dirty hindquarters were counted and occurrence of displacements was recorded during 120 min of observation. For each of the four welfare indicators, housing and management factors associated with the welfare indicator were selected in a succession of logistic or log-linear regression analyses. Prevalence of lameness was associated with surface of the lying area, summer pasturing, herd biosecurity status, and far-off and close-up dry cow groups (P<0.05). Prevalence of lesions or swellings was associated with surface of the lying area, summer pasturing, light intensity in the barn, and days in milk when the maximum amount of concentrates was fed (P<0.05). Prevalence of dirty hindquarters was associated with surface of the lying area, proportion of stalls with fecal contamination, head lunge impediments in stalls, and number of roughage types (P<0.05). Average frequency of displacements was associated with the time of introducing heifers in the lactating group, the use of cow brushes, continuous availability of roughage, floor scraping frequency, herd size, and the proportion cows to stalls (P<0.05). Prevalences of lameness and of lesions or swellings were lower in herds with soft mats or mattresses (odd ratio (OR)=0.66 and 0.58, confidence interval (CI)=0.48-0.91 and

  20. Effects of Direct-fed Microbial and Pine Cone Extract on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle).

    PubMed

    Muhlisin; Song, Chang Soo; Rhee, Yong Joon; Song, Young Han; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-05-01

    The carcass traits and meat quality of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) whose diets were supplemented with direct-fed microbial (DFM) and pine cone extract (PCE) were evaluated. Twenty head of Hanwoo steers were divided equally into four groups and for a period of 6 months were given different diets: One group was fed a basal diet as control (CON), the other three groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with DFM-1%, DFM+PCE-1% and DFM+PEC-3%, respectively. DFM+PCE3% diet resulted the lowest carcass quality grade. The loins of DFM-1% contained higher moisture and lower fat than did the loins from the CON group. The crude protein content of DFM+PCE-3% group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear force of the DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were lower than those of the CON and DFM-1% groups. The DFM-1% and 3% groups contained lower saturated fatty acid, higher unsaturated fatty acid, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, and poly-unsaturated fatty acid than did CON and DFM+PCE 1% group. Moreover, the n6:n3 ratios of DFM-1% and DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were slightly lower than that of the CON group. Thus we concluded that DFM and PCE supplementation resulted healthier Hanwoo beef with lower fat content and n6:n3 ratio. PMID:26954123

  1. Effects of breed and nutrition on the productive traits of beef cattle in South East Brazil: Part 2-Tissue distribution and carcase composition.

    PubMed

    Norman, G A; de Felicio, P E

    1982-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series recording the effects of breed and nutrition on the productive traits of Nelore, Guzerá, Charolais and Canchim cattle in south-east Brazil. Significant treatment variations were recorded in carcase bone weights but differences in meat to bone ratios were not sufficiently marked to demonstrate that bone might grow at the expense of muscle when animals are maintained on particularly severe nutritional regimes. A simple carcase weight to length ratio was shown to be highly correlated with total bone proportion but not with yield of saleable meat. Recovery of total saleable meat was only marginally and not significantly affected by breed but was significantly affected by treatment. The increased levels of fatness in the carcases of the zebu and, in particular, all animals finished in feedlot, that affected the yield of saleable meat, was also thought to be responsible for the decreased recovery of first quality meat in these carcases. In general, tissue differences were more noticeable between treatments than between breeds and reflected the varying nutritional status of the animals pre-slaughter. PMID:22054702

  2. Effects of Direct-fed Microbial and Pine Cone Extract on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle)

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Song, Chang Soo; Rhee, Yong Joon; Song, Young Han; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    The carcass traits and meat quality of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) whose diets were supplemented with direct-fed microbial (DFM) and pine cone extract (PCE) were evaluated. Twenty head of Hanwoo steers were divided equally into four groups and for a period of 6 months were given different diets: One group was fed a basal diet as control (CON), the other three groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with DFM-1%, DFM+PCE-1% and DFM+PEC-3%, respectively. DFM+PCE3% diet resulted the lowest carcass quality grade. The loins of DFM-1% contained higher moisture and lower fat than did the loins from the CON group. The crude protein content of DFM+PCE-3% group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear force of the DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were lower than those of the CON and DFM-1% groups. The DFM-1% and 3% groups contained lower saturated fatty acid, higher unsaturated fatty acid, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, and poly-unsaturated fatty acid than did CON and DFM+PCE 1% group. Moreover, the n6:n3 ratios of DFM-1% and DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were slightly lower than that of the CON group. Thus we concluded that DFM and PCE supplementation resulted healthier Hanwoo beef with lower fat content and n6:n3 ratio. PMID:26954123

  3. Startle Reflex Potentiation During Aversive Picture Viewing as an Indicator of Trait Fear

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J.; Bernat, Edward M.

    2009-01-01

    Measures of fearfulness and measures of psychopathy show positive and negative associations, respectively, with startle reflex potentiation during unpleasant picture viewing. We tested the hypothesis that a common bipolar trait dimension underlies these differing associations. Blink responses to noise probes were recorded during pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures in 88 undergraduates assessed with a battery of self-report scales indexing fear and psychopathy/fearlessness. A significant positive association was found between an omnibus index of fear, consisting of scores on the first component from a PCA of these various scales, and startle potentiation during aversive picture viewing. This association was most robust, across participants overall and within gender subgroups, for scenes that were most directly threatening. Implications for psychophysiological research on individual differences and psychopathology are discussed. PMID:19055499

  4. Growth curves of carcass traits obtained by ultrasonography in three lines of Nellore cattle selected for body weight.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, C C; Mercadante, M E Z; Jorge, A M; Paz, C C P; El Faro, L; Monteiro, F M

    2015-01-01

    The effect of selection for postweaning weight was evaluated within the growth curve parameters for both growth and carcass traits. Records of 2404 Nellore animals from three selection lines were analyzed: two selection lines for high postweaning weight, selection (NeS) and traditional (NeT); and a control line (NeC) in which animals were selected for postweaning weight close to the average. Body weight (BW), hip height (HH), rib eye area (REA), back fat thickness (BFT), and rump fat thickness (RFT) were measured and records collected from animals 8 to 20 (males) and 11 to 26 (females) months of age. The parameters A (asymptotic value) and k (growth rate) were estimated using the nonlinear model procedure of the Statistical Analysis System program, which included fixed effect of line (NeS, NeT, and NeC) in the model, with the objective to evaluate differences in the estimated parameters between lines. Selected animals (NeS and NeT) showed higher growth rates than control line animals (NeC) for all traits. Line effect on curves parameters was significant (P < 0.001) for BW, HH, and REA in males, and for BFT and RFT in females. Selection for postweaning weight was effective in altering growth curves, resulting in animals with higher growth potential. PMID:26535722

  5. Carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore cattle fed different non-fiber carbohydrates sources associated with crude glycerin.

    PubMed

    Favaro, V R; Ezequiel, J M B; Almeida, M T C; D'Aurea, A P; Paschoaloto, J R; van Cleef, E H C B; Carvalho, V B; Junqueira, N B

    2016-08-01

    Crude glycerin, a potential energy source for ruminant animals, has been evaluated, mainly, in diets with high starch content. However, a limit number of studies have evaluated the inclusion of crude glycerin in low starch diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of crude glycerin with corn grain or citrus pulp on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (n=30, 402±31 kg initial weight). The treatment consisted of: CON=control, without crude glycerin; CG10=10% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CG15=15% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CP10=10% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp; CP15=15% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp. The performance parameters and carcass traits were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). The inclusion of crude glycerin decreased yellow color intensity and increased fatty acids pentadecanoic and heptadecenoic in meat (P<0.05), without affecting neither the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids nor the relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The association of crude glycerin with corn or citrus pulp has no adverse effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality. PMID:26857157

  6. Functional traits as indicators of fodder provision over a short time scale in species-rich grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Ansquer, Pauline; Duru, Michel; Theau, Jean Pierre; Cruz, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Fodder provision in species-rich grasslands, i.e. herbage growth, proportion of leaf, and leaf and stem digestibility, is difficult to predict for short periods of time, such as between two defoliations or less. The value of two methods based on plant traits for evaluating these agronomic properties was examined. Methods One method is based on plant trait measurements on the plant community (leaf dry matter content, plant height, flowering date); the other is on vegetation composition expressed as plant functional types (acquisitive versus conservative PFTs) established by measuring leaf dry matter content on pure grass stands. The experiment consisted of 18 fields with three different defoliation regimes (combinations of cutting and grazing) and two levels of fertilization. To establish a growth curve over the first growth cycle, herbage was sampled about 10 times in spring. Key Results Coefficients of correlation between agronomic properties of the vegetation and its functional composition were higher when the latter was assessed through PFT and an indicator of the plant nutrient status (Ni) instead of measured plant traits. The date at which the ceiling yield occurred for the standing herbage mass or only the leaf component, which varied by up to 500 degree-days between treatments, and the leaf proportion, depended entirely on the PFT, and largely so for the leaf digestibility. The standing herbage mass at the time of ceiling yield depended only on Ni, or mainly so in the case of the daily herbage growth rate. Similar plant digestibility between plant communities was found at flowering time, although there were big differences in PFT composition. The shape of the growth curve was flatter when there was great functional diversity in the plant community. Conclusions The PFT composition and the Ni were more reliable than the plant functional traits measured in the field for evaluating herbage growth pattern and digestibility in spring. PMID

  7. Predicting complex traits using a diffusion kernel on genetic markers with an application to dairy cattle and wheat data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arguably, genotypes and phenotypes may be linked in functional forms that are not well addressed by the linear additive models that are standard in quantitative genetics. Therefore, developing statistical learning models for predicting phenotypic values from all available molecular information that are capable of capturing complex genetic network architectures is of great importance. Bayesian kernel ridge regression is a non-parametric prediction model proposed for this purpose. Its essence is to create a spatial distance-based relationship matrix called a kernel. Although the set of all single nucleotide polymorphism genotype configurations on which a model is built is finite, past research has mainly used a Gaussian kernel. Results We sought to investigate the performance of a diffusion kernel, which was specifically developed to model discrete marker inputs, using Holstein cattle and wheat data. This kernel can be viewed as a discretization of the Gaussian kernel. The predictive ability of the diffusion kernel was similar to that of non-spatial distance-based additive genomic relationship kernels in the Holstein data, but outperformed the latter in the wheat data. However, the difference in performance between the diffusion and Gaussian kernels was negligible. Conclusions It is concluded that the ability of a diffusion kernel to capture the total genetic variance is not better than that of a Gaussian kernel, at least for these data. Although the diffusion kernel as a choice of basis function may have potential for use in whole-genome prediction, our results imply that embedding genetic markers into a non-Euclidean metric space has very small impact on prediction. Our results suggest that use of the black box Gaussian kernel is justified, given its connection to the diffusion kernel and its similar predictive performance. PMID:23763755

  8. Evaluation of crossbred Brahman and continental European beef cattle in a subtropical environment for birth and weaning traits.

    PubMed

    Williamson, W D; Humes, P E

    1985-11-01

    A total of 528 birth and 475 weaning records collected over a 3-yr period were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of several beef cattle breed crosses. The calves were produced by artificial insemination using 17 Brahman, 15 Chianina, 15 Maine Anjou and 16 Simmental sires bred to Angus and Hereford dams varying in age from 3 to 11 yr. Breed-of-sire effects were important (P less than .05 to P less than .001) for gestation length, birth weight, conformation score and condition score, but were not observed for birth weight adjusted for gestation length, percentage calving assistance, survival rate or weaning weight. Brahman crosses had the longest gestation lengths, being 4.7 d longer than Simmental crosses, which were the shortest in length. Chianina crosses were the heaviest at birth and experienced the most calving difficulty. Simmental crosses had the highest survival rate. Although breed-of-sire differences were observed in conformation score, the difference was less than one-third of a grade between the highest-scoring Simmental crosses and the lowest-scoring Brahman and Chianina crosses. Brahman crosses had the highest condition scores, being approximately one-third of a grade higher than the lowest-ranking Chianina crosses. Differences among the sire breeds for weaning weight were surprisingly small, varying only 3 kg from the heaviest to lightest breed-of-sire groups. Angus dams had shorter gestation lengths (P less than .001) and produced calves that weighed more at weaning (P less than .001) and scored higher for conformation (P less than .001) and condition (P less than .001) score than Hereford dams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4077759

  9. Congenital Sensorineural Deafness in Australian Stumpy-Tail Cattle Dogs Is an Autosomal Recessive Trait That Maps to CFA10

    PubMed Central

    Sommerlad, Susan; McRae, Allan F.; McDonald, Brenda; Johnstone, Isobel; Cuttell, Leigh; Seddon, Jennifer M.; O'Leary, Caroline A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Congenital sensorineural deafness is an inherited condition found in many dog breeds, including Australian Stumpy-tail Cattle Dogs (ASCD). This deafness is evident in young pups and may affect one ear (unilateral) or both ears (bilateral). The genetic locus/loci involved is unknown for all dog breeds. The aims of this study were to determine incidence, inheritance mechanism, and possible association of congenital sensorineural deafness with coat colour in ASCD and to identify the genetic locus underpinning this disease. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 315 ASCD were tested for sensorineural deafness using the brain stem auditory evoked response (BAER) test. Disease penetrance was estimated directly, using the ratio of unilaterally to bilaterally deaf dogs, and segregation analysis was performed using Mendel. A complete genome screen was undertaken using 325 microsatellites spread throughout the genome, on a pedigree of 50 BAER tested ASCD in which deafness was segregating. Fifty-six dogs (17.8%) were deaf, with 17 bilaterally and 39 unilaterally deaf. Unilaterally deaf dogs showed no significant left/right bias (p = 0.19) and no significant difference was observed in frequencies between the sexes (p = 0.18). Penetrance of deafness was estimated as 0.72. Testing the association of red/blue coat colour and deafness without accounting for pedigree structure showed that red dogs were 1.8 times more likely to be deaf (p = 0.045). The within family association between red/blue coat colour and deafness was strongly significant (p = 0.00036), with red coat colour segregating more frequently with deafness (COR = 0.48). The relationship between deafness and coat speckling approached significance (p = 0.07), with the lack of statistical significance possibly due to only four families co-segregating for both deafness and speckling. The deafness phenotype was mapped to CFA10 (maximum linkage peak on CFA10 −log10 p-value = 3

  10. Effects of bovine cytochrome P450 single-nucleotide polymorphism, forage type and body condition on production traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sales, M A; Larson, M J; Reiter, S T; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Looper, M L; Coffey, K P; Rosenkrans, C F

    2012-08-01

    Relating single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to cows with acceptable productivity could benefit cattle breeders in areas where tall fescue is the predominant forage. This study aimed to (i) identify SNPs in bovine cytochrome P450 3A28 (CYP3A28) and (ii) determine the associations between SNP genotype, forage and cow body condition (BC). Genotype (CC, CG or GG) and forage [Kentucky-31 wild-type endophyte-infected tall fescue (KY+) vs. bermudagrass] effects on milk volume and quality were determined in Herd 1 cows (123 cows); in Herd 2 (99 cows), genotype and BC (low vs. moderate) effects on ovarian follicle size, calving date and calving per cent were determined; and in Herd 3 (114 cows), effects of genotype and fescue cultivar [KY+ vs. non-toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (HiMag4)] were related to calving per cent, calving date and weaning weights of both cow and her calf. A cytosine (C) to guanine (G) transversion at base 994 (C994G) in CYP3A28 was identified. There was a genotype × forage type interaction (p < 0.05) on milk protein in Herd 1 cows; CC cows grazing bermudagrass had greater milk protein percentage in relation to other cows in the herd. In Herd 2, BC and genotype × BC tended (p < 0.10) to influence follicle size and Julian calving date respectively. Diameter of the largest follicle tended to be larger in moderate BC than in low-BC cows; whereas, CC and CG cows in moderate BC and homozygous (CC and GG) cows in low BC tended to calve 14 days earlier in relation to CG cows in low BC. In Herd 3, there was a genotype × forage type interaction (p < 0.05) on calving per cent, Julian calving date and calf weaning weight. In this study, genetic alterations (G allele at C994G) coupled with nutritional factors (low BC and toxic tall fescue) resulted in overall lower productivity in cows. PMID:21668515

  11. Effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms of CAPN1 and CAST genes on meat traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) and in their crosses with Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Curi, R A; Chardulo, L A L; Mason, M C; Arrigoni, M D B; Silveira, A C; de Oliveira, H N

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the segregation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the calpain 1, large subunit (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) genes in Nellore (Bos indicus) and Nellore xBos taurus beef cattle, as well as to evaluate their effects on meat traits. For this, 300 animals, including 114 Nellore, 67 Angus x Nellore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nellore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way crosses and 15 Braunvieh three-way crosses, were genotyped for the CAPN4751 [AF_248054.2:g.6545C>T (GenBank accession AF248054.2)] and CAST/DdeI [AF_159246.1:g.2959A>G (GenBank accession AF159246.1)] polymorphisms and phenotyped for Ribeye Area, Backfat Thickness, Intramuscular Fat, Shear Force (SF) and Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index (MFI). In relation to the CAPN4751 polymorphism, a frequency of 10.5% was observed for the C allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample of studied animals, a significant association was found between genotypes and meat tenderness, assessed by SF (P = 0.005) and MFI (P = 0.008), with genotype CT being more favourable than TT. For the CAST/DdeI polymorphism, a frequency of 55.7% was found for the A allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample, a significant association was observed between genotypes and meat tenderness - SF (P = 0.004) and MFI (P = 0.006), with genotype AA being more favourable than AG. The relationship between genotypes and aged meat tenderness in confluence with the distribution of favourable alleles shows great potential for application of the CAPN4751 and CAST/DdeI polymorphisms in the genetic improvement of the Nellore breed, whilst contributing to the validation, in this breed and in its crosses with B. taurus, of the association results previously described in the literature. PMID:19392828

  12. Biochemical Indices and Life Traits of Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta caretta) from Cape Verde Islands

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Sara; Martins, Samir; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Marco, Adolfo; Teodósio, M. Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) is an endangered marine reptile for whom assessing population health requires knowledge of demographic parameters such as individual growth rate. In Cape Verde, as within several populations, adult female loggerhead sea turtles show a size-related behavioral and trophic dichotomy. While smaller females are associated with oceanic habitats, larger females tend to feed in neritic habitats, which is reflected in their physiological condition and in their offspring. The ratio of RNA/DNA provides a measure of cellular protein synthesis capacity, which varies depending on changes in environmental conditions such as temperature and food availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined use of morphometric data and biochemical indices as predictors of the physiological condition of the females of distinct sizes and hatchlings during their nesting season and how temperature may influence the physiological condition on the offspring. Here we employed biochemical indices based on nucleic acid derived indices (standardized RNA/DNA ratio-sRD, RNA concentration and DNA concentration) in skin tissue as a potential predictor of recent growth rate in nesting females and hatchling loggerhead turtles. Our major findings were that the physiological condition of all nesting females (sRD) decreased during the nesting season, but that females associated with neritic habitats had a higher physiological condition than females associated with oceanic habitats. In addition, the amount of time required for a hatchling to right itself was negatively correlated with its physiological condition (sRD) and shaded nests produced hatchlings with lower sRD. Overall, our results showed that nucleic acid concentrations and ratios of RNA to DNA are an important tool as potential biomarkers of recent growth in marine turtles. Hence, as biochemical indices of instantaneous growth are likely temperature-, size- and age-dependent, the utility and

  13. Short communication: Genotyping of cows to speed up availability of genomic estimated breeding values for direct health traits in Austrian Fleckvieh (Simmental) cattle--genetic and economic aspects.

    PubMed

    Egger-Danner, C; Schwarzenbacher, H; Willam, A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of genotyping cows with reliable phenotypes for direct health traits on annual monetary genetic gain (AMGG) and discounted profit. The calculations were based on a deterministic approach using ZPLAN software (University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany). It was assumed that increases in reliability of the total merit index (TMI) of 5, 15, and 25 percentage points were achieved through genotyping 5,000, 25,000, and 50,000 cows, respectively. Costs for phenotyping, genotyping, and genomic estimated breeding values vary between €150 and €20 per cow. The gain in genotyping cows for traits with medium to high heritability is more than for direct health traits with low heritability. The AMGG is increased by 1.5% if the reliability of TMI is 5 percentage points higher (i.e., 5,000 cows genotyped) and 6.53% higher AMGG can be expected when the reliability of TMI is increased by 25 percentage points (i.e., 50,000 cows genotyped). The discounted profit depends not only on the costs of genotyping but also on the population size. This study indicates that genotyping cows with reliable phenotypes is feasible to speed up the availability of genomic estimated breeding values for direct health traits. But, because of the huge amount of valid phenotypes and genotypes needed to establish an efficient genomic evaluation, it is likely that financial constraints will be the main limiting factor for implementation into breeding program such as Fleckvieh Austria. PMID:24835973

  14. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for feed intake and other traits in growing beef cattle, and opportunities for selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth, feed intake, and temperament indicator data, collected over 5 yr on a total of 1,141 to 1,183 mixed-breed steers, were used to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters. All steers had a portion of either Hereford or Angus or both plus varying percentages also of Simmental, Charolais, Limo...

  15. Environmental heterogeneity influences the reliability of secondary sexual traits as condition indicators.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Pablo; Martinez-Padilla, J; Mougeot, F; Leckie, F; Redpath, S M

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown positive associations between ornaments and condition, as predicted by indicator models of sexual selection. However, this idea is continuously challenged by opposite results, which reveal our lack of full understanding of how sexual selection works. Environmental heterogeneity may explain such inconsistencies, but valid field tests of this idea are currently lacking. We first analysed the relationship between condition and ornament expression from nine populations over 7 years in a wild bird, the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. We then manipulated male aggressiveness at the population level by means of testosterone implants in a replicated field experiment. We found that the relationship between condition and ornamentation varied greatly between environments and became stronger when environmental conditions (ECs) were worse or when aggressiveness in the population was experimentally increased. Some ornaments may therefore reliably advertise a better condition only in adverse ECs. Considering environmental heterogeneity can help reconcile conflicting findings regarding the reliability of ornaments as indicators of condition and will help our understanding of sexual selection processes. PMID:22022806

  16. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine Toll-like receptor 1 gene and association with health traits in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Bovine mastitis remains the most common and costly disease of dairy cattle worldwide. A complementary control measure to herd hygiene and vaccine development would be to selectively breed cattle with greater resistance to mammary infection. Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) has an integral role for the initiation and regulation of the immune response to microbial pathogens, and has been linked to numerous inflammatory diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the bovine TLR1 gene (boTLR1) are associated with clinical mastitis (CM). Selected boTLR1 SNPs were analysed within a Holstein Friesian herd. Significant associations were found for the tagging SNP -79 T > G and the 3'UTR SNP +2463 C > T. We observed favourable linkage of reduced CM with increased milk fat and protein, indicating selection for these markers would not be detrimental to milk quality. Furthermore, we present evidence that some of these boTLR1 SNPs underpin functional variation in bovine TLR1. Animals with the GG genotype (from the tag SNP -79 T > G) had significantly lower boTLR1 expression in milk somatic cells when compared with TT or TG animals. In addition, stimulation of leucocytes from GG animals with the TLR1-ligand Pam3csk4 resulted in significantly lower levels of CXCL8 mRNA and protein. SNPs in boTLR1 were significantly associated with CM. In addition we have identified a bovine population with impaired boTLR1 expression and function. This may have additional implications for animal health and warrants further investigation to determine the suitability of identified SNPs as markers for disease susceptibility. PMID:22417166

  17. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    PubMed Central

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Background Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual communication. We here investigate the evolutionary basis for the intricate agonistic signalling system in eland antelopes, paying particular attention to the evolutionary phenomenon of loud knee-clicking. Results A principal components analysis separated seven male traits into three groups. The dominant frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age-related traits such as fighting experience. Facemask darkness, frontal hairbrush size and body greyness aligned with a third underlying variable, presumed to be androgen-related aggression. A longitudinal study provided independent support of these findings. Conclusion The results show that the multiple agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1) body size, (2) age and (3) presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action of several selective forces, each of which favours multiple signals. Specifically, loud knee-clicking is discovered to be an honest signal of body size, providing an exceptional example of the potential for non-vocal acoustic communication in mammals. PMID:18986518

  18. Functional traits of selected mangrove species in Brazil as biological indicators of different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Souza, Iara; Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira; Rodella, Roberto Antônio; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo

    2014-04-01

    Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf & Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (-0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change. PMID:24496023

  19. Teaching Teams To Be Teams: An Exercise Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Five-Factor Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinebell, Sharon; Stecher, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Management students formed teams after completing exercises based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Team members examined how types and traits might affect performance. Most students indicated that understanding personality increased awareness of behavior. Teams that used extreme division of labor were…

  20. Genetic markers that influence feed efficiency phenotypes also affect cattle temperament as measured by flight speed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The measure of flight speed for cattle has been shown to be a predictive indicator of temperament and has also been associated with feed efficiency phenotypes, thus, genetic markers associated with both traits may assist with the selection of animals with calmer disposition and economic value. Chrom...

  1. From phenotyping towards breeding strategies: using in vivo indicator traits and genetic markers to improve meat quality in an endangered pig breed.

    PubMed

    Biermann, A D M; Yin, T; König von Borstel, U U; Rübesam, K; Kuhn, B; König, S

    2015-06-01

    In endangered and local pig breeds of small population sizes, production has to focus on alternative niche markets with an emphasis on specific product and meat quality traits to achieve economic competiveness. For designing breeding strategies on meat quality, an adequate performance testing scheme focussing on phenotyped selection candidates is required. For the endangered German pig breed 'Bunte Bentheimer' (BB), no breeding program has been designed until now, and no performance testing scheme has been implemented. For local breeds, mainly reared in small-scale production systems, a performance test based on in vivo indicator traits might be a promising alternative in order to increase genetic gain for meat quality traits. Hence, the main objective of this study was to design and evaluate breeding strategies for the improvement of meat quality within the BB breed using in vivo indicator traits and genetic markers. The in vivo indicator trait was backfat thickness measured by ultrasound (BFiv), and genetic markers were allele variants at the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) locus. In total, 1116 records of production and meat quality traits were collected, including 613 in vivo ultrasound measurements and 713 carcass and meat quality records. Additionally, 700 pigs were genotyped at the RYR1 locus. Data were used (1) to estimate genetic (co)variance components for production and meat quality traits, (2) to estimate allele substitution effects at the RYR1 locus using a selective genotyping approach and (3) to evaluate breeding strategies on meat quality by combining results from quantitative-genetic and molecular-genetic approaches. Heritability for the production trait BFiv was 0.27, and 0.48 for backfat thickness measured on carcass. Estimated heritabilities for meat quality traits ranged from 0.14 for meat brightness to 0.78 for the intramuscular fat content (IMF). Genetic correlations between BFiv and IMF were higher than estimates based on carcass backfat

  2. Effect of sire on mu- and m-calpain activity and rate of tenderization as indicated by myofibril fragmentation indices of steaks from Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Pringle, T D; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Coleman, S W

    2003-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of sire on mu- and m-calpain activities, to evaluate the relationships of activities of these enzymes to other traits related to beef palatability, and to assess the influence of sire on the rate of tenderization (as measured by myofibril fragmentation index [MFI]) in Brahman longissimus muscle. Brahman calves (n = 87), sired by nine bulls, were born, weaned, fed, and slaughtered in central Florida. Traits evaluated were mu- and m-calpain activities and MFI after 1, 7, 14, and 21 d of aging. Other traits were analyzed to determine their associations with mu- and m-calpain activity and MFI, including calpastatin activity, percentage of raw and cooked lipids, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values after 7, 14, and 21 d of aging, and sensory panel rating of tenderness, juiciness, and connective tissue amount after 14 d of aging. Data were analyzed using a model with sire, sex, year, and slaughter group (calves of the same sex slaughtered on the same date) as fixed effects, and adjusted to a constant adjusted 12th-rib fat thickness. Sire affected mu-calpain activity (P < 0.04), calpastatin activity (P < 0.01), d-14 MFI (P < 0.02), d-7 WBSF (P < 0.05), d-14 WBSF (P < 0.04), and sensory panel juiciness score (P < 0.01), but not (P < 0.75) m-calpain activity. Measures of tenderness and palatability were generally moderately to strongly correlated (both simple and residual correlations) with calpastatin and m-calpain activity. Myofibril fragmentation index residuals (adjusted for all model components except sire) after all aging periods were fitted using nonlinear regression to the exponential curve (MFI(i) = kappa0 + kappa1 exp[kappa2 t(i)] + epsilon(i), where t(i) represents aging in days, k0 is ultimate MFI after aging, kappa1 is the difference between initial and ultimate MFI, kappa2 is the rate of increase in MFI, and epsilon(i) is the error term associated with the ith observation, assumed to be independent

  3. Community genomic analyses constrain the distribution of metabolic traits across the Chloroflexi phylum and indicate roles in sediment carbon cycling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sediments are massive reservoirs of carbon compounds and host a large fraction of microbial life. Microorganisms within terrestrial aquifer sediments control buried organic carbon turnover, degrade organic contaminants, and impact drinking water quality. Recent 16S rRNA gene profiling indicates that members of the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi are common in sediment. Only the role of the class Dehalococcoidia, which degrade halogenated solvents, is well understood. Genomic sampling is available for only six of the approximate 30 Chloroflexi classes, so little is known about the phylogenetic distribution of reductive dehalogenation or about the broader metabolic characteristics of Chloroflexi in sediment. Results We used metagenomics to directly evaluate the metabolic potential and diversity of Chloroflexi in aquifer sediments. We sampled genomic sequence from 86 Chloroflexi representing 15 distinct lineages, including members of eight classes previously characterized only by 16S rRNA sequences. Unlike in the Dehalococcoidia, genes for organohalide respiration are rare within the Chloroflexi genomes sampled here. Near-complete genomes were reconstructed for three Chloroflexi. One, a member of an unsequenced lineage in the Anaerolinea, is an aerobe with the potential for respiring diverse carbon compounds. The others represent two genomically unsampled classes sibling to the Dehalococcoidia, and are anaerobes likely involved in sugar and plant-derived-compound degradation to acetate. Both fix CO2 via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, a pathway not previously documented in Chloroflexi. The genomes each encode unique traits apparently acquired from Archaea, including mechanisms of motility and ATP synthesis. Conclusions Chloroflexi in the aquifer sediments are abundant and highly diverse. Genomic analyses provide new evolutionary boundaries for obligate organohalide respiration. We expand the potential roles of Chloroflexi in sediment carbon cycling beyond

  4. Selection for genetic markers in beef cattle reveals complex associations of thyroglobulin and casein1-S1 with carcass and meat traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic markers in casein (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genes have previously been associated with fat distribution in cattle. Determining the nature of these genetic associations (additive, recessive, or dominant) has been difficult because both markers have small minor allele frequencies in mos...

  5. MAPPING QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI ASSOCIATED WITH PARASITIC INFECTION USING 50K SNP CHIP IN ANGUS BREED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    QTL for parasite indicator traits in cattle are ideal targets for study of marker assisted selection; however the phenotypic data and available resource populations were not optimal for reliable QTL identification. Fecal egg count (FEC) values, which are used to measure resistance to nematodes, are ...

  6. Relationships among measures of growth performance and efficiency with carcass traits, visceral organ mass, and pancreatic digestive enzymes in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Mader, C J; Montanholi, Y R; Wang, Y J; Miller, S P; Mandell, I B; McBride, B W; Swanson, K C

    2009-04-01

    Ninety-three crossbred steer calves (BW+/-SD=385+/-50 kg) were used (n=48 steers in yr 1, n=45 steers in yr 2) to examine the relationship among carcass traits, lean, bone, and fat proportions, visceral tissue weights, and pancreatic digestive enzyme activity with DMI, ADG, G:F, and residual feed intake. Calves were progeny from crossbred dams predominantly of Angus and Simmental breeding and were sired by Angus, Simmental, crossbred (predominantly of Angus and Simmental breeding), Charolais, or Piedmontese bulls. Steers were fed a high-moisture corn-based diet for an average of 112 d. Partial correlation analysis accounting for year, pen within year, week of slaughter within year, and sire breed was conducted. Gain:feed was negatively correlated (P 0.10) between performance measures and the pancreatic proportional content of alpha-amylase and trypsin activity (units/kg of BW). These data indicate that carcass fatness traits and changes in the

  7. Fine-scale geographic variation in photosynthetic-related traits of Picea glauca seedlings indicates local adaptation to climate.

    PubMed

    Benomar, Lahcen; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Villeneuve, Isabelle; Rainville, André; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; Margolis, Hank A

    2015-08-01

    Climate-related variations in functional traits of boreal tree species can result both from physiological acclimation and genetic adaptation of local populations to their biophysical environment. To improve our understanding and prediction of the physiological and growth responses of populations to climate change, we studied the role of climate of seed origin in determining variations in functional traits and its implications for tree improvement programs for a commonly reforested boreal conifer, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). We evaluated growth, root-to-shoot ratio (R/S), specific leaf area (SLA), needle nitrogen (N(mass)), total non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and photosynthetic traits of 3-year-old seedlings in a greenhouse experiment using seed from six seed orchards (SO) representing the different regions where white spruce is reforested in Québec. Height and total dry mass (TDM) were positively correlated with photosynthetic capacity (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and mesophyll conductance (g(m)). Total dry mass, but not height growth, was strongly correlated with latitude of seed origin (SO) and associated climate variables. A(max), g(s), g(m) and more marginally, photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE) were positively associated with the mean July temperature of the SO, while water use efficiency (WUE) was negatively associated. Maximum rates of carboxylation (V(cmax)), maximum rates of electron transport (J(max)), SLA, N(mass), NSC and R/S showed no pattern. Our results did not demonstrate a higher Amax for northern seed orchards, although this has been previously hypothesized as an adaptation mechanism for maintaining carbon uptake in northern regions. We suggest that gs, gm, WUE and PNUE are the functional traits most associated with fine-scale geographic clines and with the degree of local adaptation of white spruce populations to their biophysical environments. These geographic patterns may reflect in situ adaptive genetic

  8. Vigorous Root Growth Is a Better Indicator of Early Nutrient Uptake than Root Hair Traits in Spring Wheat Grown under Low Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaosheng; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Magid, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    A number of root and root hair traits have been proposed as important for nutrient acquisition. However, there is still a need for knowledge on which traits are most important in determining macro- and micronutrient uptake at low soil fertility. This study investigated the variations in root growth vigor and root hair length (RHL) and density (RHD) among spring wheat genotypes and their relationship to nutrient concentrations and uptake during early growth. Six spring wheat genotypes were grown in a soil with low nutrient availability. The root and root hair traits as well as the concentration and content of macro- and micronutrients were identified. A significant genetic variability in root and root hair traits as well as nutrient uptake was found. Fast and early root proliferation and long and dense root hairs enhanced uptake of macro- and micronutrients under low soil nutrient availability. Vigorous root growth, however, was a better indicator of early nutrient acquisition than RHL and RHD. Vigorous root growth and long and dense root hairs ensured efficient acquisition of macro- and micronutrients during early growth and a high root length to shoot dry matter ratio favored high macronutrient concentrations in the shoots, which is assumed to be important for later plant development. PMID:27379145

  9. Influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the myostatin and myogenic factor 5 muscle growth-related genes on the performance traits of Marchigiana beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Sarti, F M; Lasagna, E; Ceccobelli, S; Di Lorenzo, P; Filippini, F; Sbarra, F; Giontella, A; Pieramati, C; Panella, F

    2014-09-01

    The Marchigiana is famous for its large body size and favorable dressing percentage. A myostatin (MSTN) gene mutation (a G to T transversion) was identified in the breed. The homozygote "GG" yields a "normal" phenotype, the homozygote "TT" yields a double muscled body shape but sometimes causes survival problems, and the heterozygote genotype produces an extremely muscled body without defects. In practice, Marchigiana "TT" homozygotes are culled from reproduction, but the heterozygotes are chosen as sires. The objective of this study was to assess genes involved in Marchigiana muscle development to improve selection procedures. The effects of the MSTN and myogenic factor 5 (MYF5) genes on the growth and muscle traits in the Marchigiana breed were assessed. The effects of MSTN together with the genotype of the causative mutation (g.874G > T) and the effects of the two SNP in the promoter were studied (g.-371T > A and g.-805G > C). The SNP effects were evaluated in a comparison between the means of the several genotypes or for the average gene substitution and dominance effect. Two hundred forty-nine bullocks were evaluated using a performance test. At the beginning and end of the trial, the animals were weighed and their bodies were measured every 21 d up to 12 mo of age. In addition to these observations, morphological scores and the BLUP indices were estimated at the end of the performance test. The obtained results suggested that the MSTN g.874G > T and MYF5 SNP could be considered in the selection program of the Marchigiana breed. A MSTN g.874G > T genotyping service for the breeders could help to avoid the "TT" genotype and to select for the "GT" genotype. The "AA" MYF5 SNP genotype could also be selected for even if good muscle development yields a certain size reduction. PMID:25023801

  10. Effect of summer conditions and shade on behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort in Holstein dairy and Belgian Blue beef cattle on pasture.

    PubMed

    Van Laer, E; Moons, C P H; Ampe, B; Sonck, B; Vandaele, L; De Campeneere, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-09-01

    Using behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort, that is, shade seeking, panting scores (PS) and respiration rate (RR), we evaluated the effect of hot summer conditions and shade, for a herd of adult Holstein dairy cows and a herd of Belgian Blue beef cows kept on pasture in a temperate area (Belgium). During the summer of 2012, both herds were kept on pasture without access to shade (NS). During the summers of 2011 and 2013 each herd was divided into one group with (S) and one without (NS) access to shade. Shade was provided by young trees with shade cloth (80% reduction in solar radiation) hung between them. For S cows, we investigated how shade use was related to hot conditions as quantified by six climatic indices. The heat load index (HLI), which incorporates air temperature and humidity, solar radiation and wind speed, was the best predictor of the six indices tested. In 2011, there was a relatively high threshold for use of shade. When HLI=90, shade use probability reached 17% for dairy cows and 27% for beef cows. In 2013, however, at HLI=90, shade use probability reached 48% for dairy cows and 41% for beef cows. For animals from the NS treatment we determined the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS (with 0=no panting and 4.5=extreme panting). In both types of cattle, an increase in black globe temperature was the best predictor for increasing RR and PS. Furthermore, we determined how the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS was affected by the use of shade. Under hot conditions (black globe temperature ⩾ 30°C), >50% of the animals under shade retained normal PS and RR (PS<1 and RR<90 breaths per minute), whereas normal RR and PS were significantly less prevalent for animals outside shade. Our findings suggest that, even in temperate summers, heat can induce thermal discomfort in cattle, as evidenced by increases in shade use, RR and PS, and that shade increases thermal comfort. PMID:25994098

  11. Influence of production system in local and conventional pig breeds on stress indicators at slaughter, muscle and meat traits and pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Bonhomme, N; Méteau, K; Prunier, A

    2015-08-01

    Sensory quality of pork is a complex phenotype determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed at describing the respective influences of breed and production system on the development of pork quality. Plasma stress indicators and Longissimus muscle (LM) composition, physicochemical and sensory quality traits were determined in two contrasted breeds - the conventional Large White (LW, n=40) and the French local Basque (B, n=60). Pigs were reared in either a conventional (C; n=20 per breed), alternative (A; sawdust bedding and outdoor area, n=20 per breed) or extensive system (E; free-range, n=20 B). All the pigs from A and C systems were slaughtered at the same slaughterhouse, whereas B pigs from the E system were slaughtered at a local commercial abattoir. Major breed differences were found for almost all traits under study. LM from B pigs exhibited higher lipid, lower water and collagen concentrations, as well as lower collagen thermal solubility (P0.05) influence plasma stress indicators, LM chemical composition and physicochemical or sensory traits of pork. In contrast, within the B pigs, the E system affected the meat quality more. Lower plasma cortisol levels (P<0.05), but higher plasma lactate, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and more skin lesions (P<0.05), indicating higher muscular activity during pre-slaughter handling, were found in pigs produced in the E compared with the C system. E pigs exhibited higher meat pH1 and pHu values and shear force (P<0.01) and exhibited lower lightness, hue angle and drip and thawing losses (P<0.01) compared with the C pigs, whereas LM lipid, protein or collagen concentrations were not affected. Regarding sensory traits, the E system produced redder meat, but did not impact the eating quality of pork. Altogether, this study demonstrates that differences in meat quality between B and LW breeds can be modulated by extensive pig production system. PMID:25908582

  12. A genome-wide association study of calf birth weight in Holstein cattle using single nucleotide polymorphisms and phenotypes predicted from auxiliary traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has found that there is a QTL affecting calving and conformation traits on Bos taurus (BTA) autosome 18 that may be related to increased calf birth weights, which are not routinely recorded in the US. Birth weight (BW) data from large, intensively managed dairies in eastern German...

  13. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) in sheep. III. QTL for carcass composition traits derived from CT scans and aligned with a meta-assembly for sheep and cattle carcass QTL

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An (Awassi × Merino) × Merino single-sire backcross family with 165 male offspring was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for body composition traits on a framework map of 189 microsatellite loci across all autosomes. Two cohorts were created from the experimental progeny to represent alternative maturity classes for body composition assessment. Animals were raised under paddock conditions prior to entering the feedlot for a 90-day fattening phase. Body composition traits were derived in vivo at the end of the experiment prior to slaughter at 2 (cohort 1) and 3.5 (cohort 2) years of age, using computed tomography. Image analysis was used to gain accurate predictions for 13 traits describing major fat depots, lean muscle, bone, body proportions and body weight which were used for single- and two-QTL mapping analysis. Using a maximum-likelihood approach, three highly significant (LOD ≥ 3), 15 significant (LOD ≥ 2), and 11 suggestive QTL (1.7 ≤ LOD < 2) were detected on eleven chromosomes. Regression analysis confirmed 28 of these QTL and an additional 17 suggestive (P < 0.1) and two significant (P < 0.05) QTL were identified using this method. QTL with pleiotropic effects for two or more tissues were identified on chromosomes 1, 6, 10, 14, 16 and 23. No tissue-specific QTL were identified. A meta-assembly of ovine QTL for carcass traits from this study and public domain sources was performed and compared with a corresponding bovine meta-assembly. The assembly demonstrated QTL with effects on carcass composition in homologous regions on OAR1, 2, 6 and 21. PMID:20846385

  14. Temperament traits of beef calves measured under field conditions and their relationships to performance.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, S; Brandt, H R; König, S; Erhardt, G; Gauly, M

    2010-06-01

    A total of 3,050 German Angus (Aberdeen Angus x German dual-purpose breeds), Charolais, Hereford, Limousin, and German Simmental calves were used to examine temperament traits of beef cattle using 2 different test procedures. The chute test and the flight-speed test have been validated in terms of routine on-farm applicability. Behavior tests were performed in 2006 and 2007 on 24 commercial beef cattle farms located in the northern and eastern part of Germany. A single, trained observer assigned subjective scores to characterize the behavior of each animal during restraint in the head gate (calm, restless shifting, squirming, vigorous movement, violent struggling) and when leaving the chute (walk, trot, run, jumping out of the chute). Breed was a significant source of variation in chute scores and flight-speed scores (P < 0.001). Charolais and Limousin cattle had the greatest scores in both traits, whereas Herefords had the least (P < 0.001) chute scores. German Angus and Hereford calves had the least (P < 0.001) flight-speeds, indicating that these breeds have a more favorable temperament. Temperament scores differed significantly between male and female calves (P < 0.01), with females scoring better for both traits. Average daily BW gains of the calves were significantly influenced by effects of breed (P < 0.001) and sex (P < 0.001) of the calves. Heritabilities were estimated for chute- and flight-speed scores of beef cattle. They were least for chute score and flight-speed score of Limousin cattle with values of 0.11. In contrast, greatest heritabilities were 0.33 for chute score and 0.36 for flight-speed score of Hereford cattle. Genetic correlations were estimated among both temperament traits, with values between 0.57 and 0.98. Chute scores and visual flight-speed scores were negatively correlated with daily BW gain of the calves in most breeds. The results presented in this paper indicate that on-farm evaluation of beef cattle temperament is possible

  15. A Meta-Analysis of Zilpaterol and Ractopamine Effects on Feedlot Performance, Carcass Traits and Shear Strength of Meat in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lean, Ian J.; Thompson, John M.; Dunshea, Frank R.

    2014-01-01

    This study is a meta-analysis of the effects of the beta-agonists zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on feedlot performance, carcase characteristics of cattle and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of muscles. It was conducted to evaluate the effect of the use of these agents on beef production and meat quality and to provide data that would be useful in considerations on the effect of these agents on meat quality in Meat Standards Australia evaluations. We conducted a comprehensive literature search and study assessment using PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scirus, and CAB and identification of other studies from reference lists in papers and searches. Searches were based on the key words: zilpaterol, zilmax, ractopamine, optaflexx, cattle and beef. Studies from theses obtained were included. Data were extracted from more than 50 comparisons for both agents and analysed using meta-analysis and meta-regression. Both agents markedly increased weight gain, hot carcase weight and longissimus muscle area and increased the efficiency of gain:feed. These effects were particularly large for ZH, however, fat thickness was decreased by ZH, but not RAC. Zilpaterol also markedly increased WBSF by 1.2 standard deviations and more than 0.8 kg, while RAC increased WBSF by 0.43 standard deviations and 0.2 kg. There is evidence in the ZH studies, in particular, of profound re-partitioning of nutrients from fat to protein depots. This work has provided critically needed information on the effects of ZH and RAC on production, efficiency and meat quality. PMID:25548908

  16. A Comparison of Phenotypic Traits Related to Trypanotolerance in Five West African Cattle Breeds Highlights the Value of Shorthorn Taurine Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, David; Peylhard, Moana; Dayo, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan; Flori, Laurence; Sylla, Souleymane; Bolly, Seydou; Sakande, Hassane; Chantal, Isabelle; Thevenon, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Background Animal African Trypanosomosis particularly affects cattle and dramatically impairs livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa. African Zebu (AFZ) or European taurine breeds usually die of the disease in the absence of treatment, whereas West African taurine breeds (AFT), considered trypanotolerant, are able to control the pathogenic effects of trypanosomosis. Up to now, only one AFT breed, the longhorn N’Dama (NDA), has been largely studied and is considered as the reference trypanotolerant breed. Shorthorn taurine trypanotolerance has never been properly assessed and compared to NDA and AFZ breeds. Methodology/Principal Findings This study compared the trypanotolerant/susceptible phenotype of five West African local breeds that differ in their demographic history. Thirty-six individuals belonging to the longhorn taurine NDA breed, two shorthorn taurine Lagune (LAG) and Baoulé (BAO) breeds, the Zebu Fulani (ZFU) and the Borgou (BOR), an admixed breed between AFT and AFZ, were infected by Trypanosoma congolense IL1180. All the cattle were genetically characterized using dense SNP markers, and parameters linked to parasitaemia, anaemia and leukocytes were analysed using synthetic variables and mixed models. We showed that LAG, followed by NDA and BAO, displayed the best control of anaemia. ZFU showed the greatest anaemia and the BOR breed had an intermediate value, as expected from its admixed origin. Large differences in leukocyte counts were also observed, with higher leukocytosis for AFT. Nevertheless, no differences in parasitaemia were found, except a tendency to take longer to display detectable parasites in ZFU. Conclusions We demonstrated that LAG and BAO are as trypanotolerant as NDA. This study highlights the value of shorthorn taurine breeds, which display strong local adaptation to trypanosomosis. Thanks to further analyses based on comparisons of the genome or transcriptome of the breeds, these results open up the way for better knowledge

  17. Association of a genetic marker at the bovine Janus kinase 2 locus (JAK2/RsaI) with milk production traits of four cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Szewczuk, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    In addition to the main components of the somatotrophic axis (GH/GHR/IGF-I/IGF-IR), great importance in the control of growth and development is also attached to the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) pathway. Induced by the GH/GHR complex, JAK2 activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), and in consequence, may be involved in the regulation of expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in the mammary gland. Silent mutation (rs110298451) has been identified within exon 20 using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total of 904 individuals of four dairy or dual-purpose breeds (Polish Holstein-Friesian, Montbeliarde, Simmental and Jersey) were genotyped. A genotypic imbalance in the populations was observed. In the case of dual-purpose breeds (Montbeliarde and Simmental), the frequencies of both alleles were almost equal. In contrary, the JAK2G allele was predominant in the Polish Holstein-Friesian breed while JAK2A allele in Jersey. A pronounced relationship between JAK2/RsaI polymorphism and milk production traits was found where, irrespective of breed and lactation order, the GG genotype was significantly associated with higher milk, protein and fat yields, as compared to the AA genotype. Heterozygous individuals were generally characterised by intermediate values of the analysed milk traits. It can be argued that the JAK2 gene polymorphism is a potential marker for milk production traits. However, due to the fact that rs110298451 SNP does not directly affect amino acid sequence, other association studies involving missense mutation should also be performed. PMID:26119533

  18. Rare Variants in Transcript and Potential Regulatory Regions Explain a Small Percentage of the Missing Heritability of Complex Traits in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Recio, Oscar; Daetwyler, Hans D.; MacLeod, Iona M.; Pryce, Jennie E.; Bowman, Phil J.; Hayes, Ben J.; Goddard, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    The proportion of genetic variation in complex traits explained by rare variants is a key question for genomic prediction, and for identifying the basis of “missing heritability”–the proportion of additive genetic variation not captured by common variants on SNP arrays. Sequence variants in transcript and regulatory regions from 429 sequenced animals were used to impute high density SNP genotypes of 3311 Holstein sires to sequence. There were 675,062 common variants (MAF>0.05), 102,549 uncommon variants (0.01traits, however very large reference sets will be required to exploit this to

  19. Devising an Indicator to Detect Mid-Term Abortions in Dairy Cattle: A First Step Towards Syndromic Surveillance of Abortive Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Hénaux, Viviane; Madouasse, Aurélien; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Bovine abortion surveillance is essential for human and animal health because it plays an important role in the early warning of several diseases. Due to the limited sensitivity of traditional surveillance systems, there is a growing interest for the development of syndromic surveillance. Our objective was to assess whether, routinely collected, artificial insemination (AI) data could be used, as part of a syndromic surveillance system, to devise an indicator of mid-term abortions in dairy cattle herds in France. A mid-term abortion incidence rate (MAIR) was computed as the ratio of the number of mid-term abortions to the number of female-weeks at risk. A mid-term abortion was defined as a return-to-service (i.e. a new AI) taking place 90 to 180 days after the previous AI. Weekly variations in the MAIR in heifers and parous cows were modeled with a time-dependent Poisson model at the département level (French administrative division) during the period of 2004 to 2010. The usefulness of monitoring this indicator to detect a disease-related increase in mid-term abortions was evaluated using data from the 2007–2008 episode of bluetongue serotype 8 (BT8) in France. An increase in the MAIR was identified in heifers and parous cows in 47% (n = 24) and 71% (n = 39) of the départements. On average, the weekly MAIR among heifers increased by 3.8% (min-max: 0.02–57.9%) when the mean number of BT8 cases that occurred in the previous 8 to 13 weeks increased by one. The weekly MAIR among parous cows increased by 1.4% (0.01–8.5%) when the mean number of BT8 cases occurring in the previous 6 to 12 weeks increased by one. These results underline the potential of the MAIR to identify an increase in mid-term abortions and suggest that it is a good candidate for the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system for bovine abortions. PMID:25746469

  20. Effects of pre-slaughter diet/management system and fasting period on physiological indicators and meat quality traits of lambs.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Serhat; Erdoğan, Sibel; Kor, Dilek; Kor, Aşkın

    2016-06-01

    This study determined the effects of pre-slaughter diet/management system on blood and rumen parameters and meat-quality traits of Norduz lambs. Eighty lambs were divided into two groups according to diet (AH: alfalfa hay; BAH: alfalfa supplemented with 500 g/head barley) for 21 days. Following this period, lambs from each group were distributed among four groups according to pre-slaughter fasting period as 0, 12, 24 or 48 h. Cortisol concentrations were found to be significantly higher in the 24 h and 48 h groups when compared to the 0 h group (p<0.01). Diet and fasting period had limited effect on muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH·L*, WHC and moisture decreased in line with increases in the fasting period (p<0.01). In conclusion, carcass conformation and some meat quality traits were better in BAH lambs. Fasting had a negative effect on some meat quality parameters, with significant increases in some physiological stress indicators after fasting periods of 24 h or longer. PMID:26874084

  1. Effect of dietary fat concentration from condensed corn distillers' solubles, during the growing phase, on beef cattle performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and ruminal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Segers, J R; Felix, T L; Green, A R; Maia, G N; Ramirez, B C; Shike, D W

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of fat concentration from corn distillers' solubles (CDS), fed during the growing phase, on DMI, gain, carcass traits, digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and methane emissions of steers. In Exp. 1, 40 steers (age = 136 ± 20 d; BW = 185 ± 11 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) a cosrn-based gro\\wing diet (CNT), 2) 0% CDS, 3) 10% CDS, 4) 19% CDS, or 5) 27% CDS. Diets 2 through 5 included coproducts (corn gluten feed and soybean hulls) and were formulated to achieve fat concentrations of 3, 5, 7, and 9%, respectively. Diets were fed once daily for 106 d (growing phase). All steers were fed a corn-based diet from d 107 to 196. Contrasts were used to examine 1) the difference between CNT and 10% CDS and 2) linear and quadratic effects of CDS inclusion. During the growing phase, steers fed CNT had increased ( < 0.01) ADG and G:F compared with steers fed 10% CDS. Increasing CDS inclusion increased (linear, ≤ 0.02) ADG and G:F. Overall, steers fed CNT had increased ( < 0.01) ADG compared with steers fed 10% CDS, but increasing CDS inclusion had no effect ( = 0.19) on overall ADG. Overall DMI and G:F were not different ( ≥ 0.16) in any contrast. There was a trend (Linear; = 0.08) for ultrasound marbling at d 196 to increase as CDS inclusion increased; however, there were no effects ( ≥ 0.20) of treatment on carcass marbling or quality grade. In Exp. 2, 5 steers (BW = 335 ± 56 kg) were fed Exp. 1 diets for ad libitum intakes in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Apparent DM digestibility increased (linear, = 0.02) with increasing dietary CDS inclusion. Steers fed CNT had greater ( = 0.01) DM digestibility than those fed 10% CDS. Fat digestibility increased (linear, < 0.01) in steers with increasing CDS, but NDF and ADF digestibility were not affected ( ≥ 0.17) by treatment. Similarly, ruminal pH and VFA concentrations were not affected ( ≥ 0.13). Also, there was no difference ( ≥ 0

  2. The influence of peri-conception and first trimester dietary restriction of protein in cattle on meat quality traits of entire male progeny.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Tharcilla I R C; Copping, Katrina J; Han, Xuemei; Clayton, Edward H; Meyer, Richard J; Rodgers, Raymond J; McMillen, I Caroline; Perry, Viv E A; Geesink, Geert

    2016-11-01

    Primiparous Santa Gertrudis heifers were used to evaluate the effects of gestational dietary protein content on meat quality traits of 20month old bull progeny (n=40). At -60d before AI, heifers were randomly allocated to HIGH or LOW protein diet (HPERI and LPERI). From 24dpc, half of each treatment group changed to an alternative post-conception HIGH or LOW protein diet (HPOST and LPOST). LPERI and LPOST diets resulted in higher shear force of the semitendinosus muscle than HPERI (P=0.053) and HPOST (P=0.003), respectively. Heat-soluble collagen in the semitendinosus muscle was lower (P=0.019) for LPERI than HPERI. Collagen and tenderness of the longissimus muscle were not affected by dam nutrition (P>0.05). Color, pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, compression values, desmin and troponin-T degradation, fiber type, intramuscular fat and polyunsaturated fatty acid content were not affected by dam nutrition during the peri-conception and first trimester gestational period (P>0.05). PMID:27317848

  3. Effect of breed and nutrition on the productive traits of beef cattle in south-east Brazil: Part 3-Meat quality.

    PubMed

    Norman, G A

    1982-02-01

    Significant differences in a number of economically important appearance and palatability traits were recorded between the Bos indicus and Bos taurus breeds. Muscles from the Charolais and Canchim animals were consistently and significantly lighter in colour than those from the zebu breeds, even after pH effects had been taken into account. Differences were shown to be directly related to variations in muscle myoglobin levels, but may have been complicated by observed textural differences. Muscles from the zebu animals were not noticeably coarser grained, having significantly larger fibre diameters and fibre bundle sizes. The inferiority of the Bos indicus breeds in terms of muscle tenderness was clearly demonstrated. Significantly higher shear force values were recorded in all muscles from the Nelore and Guzera breeds, except the Psoas major. These differences were also detected by taste panel evaluation. Major differences between breeds were demonstrated in the thermo-stability of extracted intra-muscular connective tissue elements, being highest in the zebu breeds, intermediate in the Canchim and lowest in the Charolais. These solubility characteristics were thought to be due to differences in the relative proportions of genetically different collagen types in the muscles and an association between coarseness of texture and toughness was shown. PMID:22054790

  4. Use of near infrared spectroscopy for estimating meat chemical composition, quality traits and fatty acid content from cattle fed sunflower or flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; López-Campos, O; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Juárez, M; Uttaro, B

    2014-10-01

    This study tested the ability of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict meat chemical composition, quality traits and fatty acid (FA) composition from 63 steers fed sunflower or flaxseed in combination with high forage diets. NIRS calibrations, tested by cross-validation, were successful for predicting crude protein, moisture and fat content with coefficients of determination (R(2)) (RMSECV, g·100g(-1) wet matter) of 0.85 (0.48), 0.90 (0.60) and 0.86 (1.08), respectively, but were not reliable for meat quality attributes. This technology accurately predicted saturated, monounsaturated and branched FA and conjugated linoleic acid content (R(2): 0.83-0.97; RMSECV: 0.04-1.15mg·g(-1) tissue) and might be suitable for screening purposes in meat based on the content of FAs beneficial to human health such as rumenic and vaccenic acids. Further research applying NIRS to estimate meat quality attributes will require the use on-line of a fibre-optic probe on intact samples. PMID:24976561

  5. Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P < 0.05) with milk protein concentration and calf perinatal mortality. It had a tendency to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The G allele of LEP-1238 was associated (P < 0.05) with reduced milk fat concentration, reduced milk protein concentration, longer gestation length and tended to associate (P < 0.1) with an increase in calving difficulty, calf perinatal mortality and somatic cells in the milk. LEP-963 exhibited an association (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and gestation length. It also tended to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The R25C SNP associated (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and length of gestation. The T allele of the Y7F SNP significantly associated with reduced angularity (P < 0.01) and reduced milk protein yield (P < 0.05). There was also a tendency (P < 0.1) for Y7F to associate with increased body condition score, reduced milk yield and shorter gestation (P < 0.1). A80V associated with reduced survival in the herd (P < 0.05). Conclusions Several leptin polymorphisms (LEP-2470, LEP-1238, LEP-963, Y7F and R25C) associated with the energetically expensive process of

  6. Growth and Development Symposium: Impacts of inflammation on cattle growth and carcass merit.

    PubMed

    Gifford, C A; Holland, B P; Mills, R L; Maxwell, C L; Farney, J K; Terrill, S J; Step, D L; Richards, C J; Burciaga Robles, L O; Krehbiel, C R

    2012-05-01

    Inflammation caused by bovine respiratory disease (BRD) continues to be one of the greatest challenges facing beef cattle producers and feedlot managers. Inflammation decreases DMI, ADG, and G:F in feedlot calves, decreasing growth rate and increasing days on feed, which results in economic losses during the feeding period. During the past decade, marketing of feedlot animals has changed from selling cattle on a live basis to a grid-based marketing system. When cattle are marketed on a live basis, the economic effects of BRD stop at increased health cost and decreased feedlot performance, carcass weight, and death loss. However, when cattle are marketed in a grid-based system, inflammation has the potential to also affect carcass cutability and quality. The effects of inflammation on feedlot cattle in regards to performance are well understood; however, specific effects on cattle growth and ultimately carcass merit are not as well described. Recent studies in feedlot cattle have indicated that the incidence of BRD decreases both HCW and marbling; however, mechanisms are not understood. Research in other species has demonstrated that during the acute phase response, pro-inflammatory cytokines promote skeletal muscle catabolism to supply AA and energy substrates for immune tissues. Further, during this early immune response, the liver changes its metabolic priorities to the production of acute phase proteins for use in host defense. Together these dramatic shifts in systemic metabolism may explain the detrimental effects on performance and carcass traits commonly associated with BRD in feedlot calves. Moreover, recent studies relative to human health have revealed complex multilevel interactions between the metabolic and immune systems, and highlighted inflammation as being a significant contributor to major metabolic diseases. The objective of this paper is to review data to help explain the economical and physiological effects of inflammation on cattle growth and

  7. Short communication: Effects of Bos taurus autosome 9-located quantitative trait loci haplotypes on enzymatic mastitis indicators of milk from dairy cows experimentally inoculated with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, L P; Engberg, R M; Løvendahl, P; Larsen, T

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a quantitative trait locus associated with mastitis caused by Escherichia coli, with one haplotype being more susceptible (HH) and another being more resistant (HL) to E. coli mastitis, on the activity of 4 inflammatory related milk enzymes. In particular, we investigated the suitability of β-glucuronidase (GLU) as an early indicator of E. coli mastitis. Besides GLU, the enzymes l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase were included. The study was conducted in an experimental setup with 31 Holstein cows divided into 4 groups representing repeated experiments and, within group, divided according to quantitative trait locus haplotype. All cows were inoculated with viable E. coli, and milk samples were collected 27 times from -6 to 396 h post-E. coli inoculation (PI). Activity of the 4 enzymes in milk, somatic cell count (SCC), daily milk yield, viable E. coli counts, and results of a semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction for pathogen detection, were all analyzed with a repeatability model. The response variables all expressed a strong reaction to the E. coli infection. Daily milk yield decreased significantly at 12 h PI and bacteria counts increased 100-fold and peaked at 18 h PI, which was validated by PCR. Also, SCC started to increase at 12 h PI and increased on average 70 times; however, no significant differences in SCC level were detected between HH and HL cows at any sampling point. The enzymes LDH, NAGase, and alkaline phosphatase showed similar responses, with a significantly increased activity and higher peak values for the HH than the HL cows. Significant differences between HH and HL cows were detected at different time points for these 3 enzymes, but not after adjusting P-values for multiple testing. A different pattern was also observed for GLU, where HL cows expressed the highest peak activity. Indication of differences in GLU activity

  8. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle. PMID:27506091

  9. Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains Isolated from Supershedding Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Rafiq; Chase-Topping, Margo; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Schmidt, John W.; Bono, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports have indicated that a small proportion of cattle shedding high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the main source for transmission of this organism between animals. Cattle achieving a fecal shedding status of 104 CFU of E. coli O157:H7/gram or greater are now referred to as supershedders. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of E. coli O157:H7 strain type to supershedding and to determine if supershedding was restricted to a specific set of E. coli O157:H7 strains. Fecal swabs (n = 5,086) were collected from cattle at feedlots or during harvest. Supershedders constituted 2.0% of the bovine population tested. Supershedder isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), phage typing, lineage-specific polymorphism assay (LSPA), Stx-associated bacteriophage insertion (SBI) site determination, and variant analysis of Shiga toxin, tir, and antiterminator Q genes. Isolates representing 52 unique PFGE patterns, 19 phage types, and 12 SBI clusters were obtained from supershedding cattle, indicating that there is no clustering to E. coli O157:H7 genotypes responsible for supershedding. While being isolated directly from cattle, this strain set tended to have higher frequencies of traits associated with human clinical isolates than previously collected bovine isolates with respect to lineage and tir allele, but not for SBI cluster and Q type. We conclude that no exclusive genotype was identified that was common to all supershedder isolates. PMID:23645203

  10. Fine Mapping and Evolution of a QTL Region on Cattle Chromosome 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donthu, Ravikiran

    2009-01-01

    The goal of my dissertation was to fine map the milk yield and composition quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped to cattle chromosome 3 (BTA3) by Heyen et al. (1999) and to identify candidate genes affecting these traits. To accomplish this, the region between "BL41" and "TGLA263" was mapped to the cattle genome sequence assembly Btau 3.1 and a…

  11. Assessment of biodiversity in Chilean cattle using the distribution of major histocompatibility complex class II BoLA-DRB3 allele.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, S-N; Miyasaka, T; Matsumoto, Y; Xue, G; Diaz, V de la Barra; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Giovambattista, G; Ortiz, M; Oltra, J; Kanemaki, M; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) are used extensively as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. In this study, we estimated BoLA-DRB3 allele frequencies using 888 cattle from 10 groups, including seven cattle breeds and three crossbreeds: 99 Red Angus, 100 Black Angus, 81 Chilean Wagyu, 49 Hereford, 95 Hereford × Angus, 71 Hereford × Jersey, 20 Hereford × Overo Colorado, 113 Holstein, 136 Overo Colorado, and 124 Overo Negro cattle. Forty-six BoLA-DRB3 alleles were identified, and each group had between 12 and 29 different BoLA-DRB3 alleles. Overo Negro had the highest number of alleles (29); this breed is considered in Chile to be an 'Old type' European Holstein Friesian descendant. By contrast, we detected 21 alleles in Holstein cattle, which are considered to be a 'Present type' Holstein Friesian cattle. Chilean cattle groups and four Japanese breeds were compared by neighbor-joining trees and a principal component analysis (PCA). The phylogenetic tree showed that Red Angus and Black Angus cattle were in the same clade, crossbreeds were closely related to their parent breeds, and Holstein cattle from Chile were closely related to Holstein cattle in Japan. Overall, the tree provided a thorough description of breed history. It also showed that the Overo Negro breed was closely related to the Holstein breed, consistent with historical data indicating that Overo Negro is an 'Old type' Holstein Friesian cattle. This allelic information will be important for investigating the relationship between major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and disease. PMID:25430590

  12. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps were constructed for eight breeds of cattle. These data provide fundamental information concerning bovine genome organization which will allow the design of studies to associate genetic variation with economically important traits and also provides bac...

  13. Multibreed Genomic Evaluations in Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multibreed models are currently used in traditional USDA dairy cattle genetic evaluations of yield and health traits, but within-breed models are used in genomic evaluations. Multibreed genomic evaluation models were developed and tested using 19,686 genotyped bulls included in the official August 2...

  14. Multibreed Genomic Evaluation of Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multibreed models are currently used in traditional USDA dairy cattle genetic evaluations of yield and health traits, but within-breed models are used in genomic evaluations. Multibreed genomic models were developed and tested using all 19,686 genotyped bulls included in the official August 2009 USD...

  15. Dairy cattle genomics evaluation program update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of genomic evaluation has caused profound changes in dairy cattle breeding. All young bulls bought by major artificial-insemination organizations now are selected based on these evaluation. Evaluation reliability can reach ~75% for yield traits, which is adequate for marketing semen o...

  16. Genetic evaluation of mobility for Brown Swiss dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic parameters were estimated for mobility score and 16 current linear type traits for Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Mobility is defined as a composite trait measuring the cow’s ability to move as well as the structure of her feet, pasterns, and legs. Scores from 50-99 were assigned by appraisers fo...

  17. Simulation, prediction, and genetic analyses of daily methane emissions in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Yin, T; Pinent, T; Brügemann, K; Simianer, H; König, S

    2015-08-01

    probability, there are more important effects contributing to variations of MEm that are not explained or are independent from these functions. Furthermore, autocorrelations exist between indicator traits and predicted MEm. Nevertheless, this integrative approach, combining information from dairy cattle nutrition with dairy cattle genetics, generated novel traits which are difficult to record on a large scale. The simulated data basis for MEm was used to determine the size of a cow calibration group for genomic selection. A calibration group including 2,581 cows with MEm phenotypes was competitive with conventional breeding strategies. PMID:26026753

  18. Genome-wide association study and ancestral origins of the slick-hair coat in tropically adapted cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The slick hair coat (SLICK) is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted cattle that are from Criollo descent through Spanish colonization of cattle into the New World. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-t...

  19. Selection enhanced estimates of µ-calpain, calpastatin, and dacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 genetic effects on pre-weaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in composite ... cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection of the composite MARC III population for markers allowed better estimates of effects and inheritance of markers for targeted carcass quality traits (n=254) and nontargeted traits and an evaluation of SNP specific residual variance models for tenderness. Genotypic effects of CAPN1 haplotyp...

  20. Peste des petits ruminants infection among cattle and wildlife in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lembo, Tiziana; Oura, Christopher; Parida, Satya; Hoare, Richard; Frost, Lorraine; Fyumagwa, Robert; Kivaria, Fredrick; Chubwa, Chobi; Kock, Richard; Cleaveland, Sarah; Batten, Carrie

    2013-12-01

    We investigated peste des petits ruminants (PPR) infection in cattle and wildlife in northern Tanzania. No wildlife from protected ecosystems were seropositive. However, cattle from villages where an outbreak had occurred among small ruminants showed high PPR seropositivity, indicating that spillover infection affects cattle. Thus, cattle could be of value for PPR serosurveillance. PMID:24274684

  1. A comparison of THI indices leads to a sensible heat-based heat stress index for shaded cattle that aligns temperature and humidity stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, A.; Horovitz, Talia; Kaim, M.; Gacitua, H.

    2016-01-01

    The combined temperature-humidity heat stress is estimated in farm animals by indices derived of an index based on human thermal comfort sensation. The latter index consists of temperature and humidity measures that sum to form the temperature-humidity index (THI). The hitherto unknown relative contribution of temperature and humidity to the THI was examined. A temperature-humidity data set (temperature 20-42 °C and relative humidity 10-70 %) was used to assess by regression procedures the relative weights of temperature and humidity in the variance of THI values produced by six commonly used heat stress indices. The temperature (Ta) effect was predominant (0.82-0.95 of variance) and humidity accounted for only 0.05 to 0.12 of THI variance, half of the variance encountered in animal responses to variable humidity heat stress. Significant difference in THI values was found between indices in the relative weights of temperature and humidity. As in THI indices, temperature and humidity are expressed in different physical units, their sum has no physical attributes, and empirical evaluations assess THI relation to animal responses. A sensible heat THI was created, in which at higher temperatures humidity reaches 0.25 of sensible heat, similarly to evaporative heat loss span in heat stressed animals. It relates to ambient temperature-humidity similarly to present THI; its values are similar to other THI but greater at higher humidity. In warm conditions, mean animal responses are similar in both indices. The higher sensitivity to humidity makes this index preferable for warm-humid conditions.

  2. Applied Bovine Genomics: Chipping away at the genetics underlying disease traits.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sequencing of the bovine genome has resulted in the development of experimental tools and reagents that will greatly enhance genome biology research in cattle, especially for traits affecting health. Previously, mapping studies to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting health traits w...

  3. Sudden death of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Glock, R D; DeGroot, B D

    1998-01-01

    Sudden deaths or the sudden death syndrome are perceived as major concerns in cattle feedlots because most of these deaths occur in cattle near market weight. Etiology and preventive measures are poorly defined. The current literature indicates that sudden deaths are associated most commonly with digestive upsets. Death is thought to be the result of interactions between factors including acidosis, bloat, and endotoxemia. Trauma, peracute interstitial pneumonia, and other identifiable events are specifically defined but relatively uncommon. Enterotoxemia is of questionable significance as a cause of sudden deaths. PMID:9464913

  4. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cattle with abomasal displacement.

    PubMed

    Irmak, K; Turgut, K

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate haemostatic function in cattle with abomasal displacement (AD) and to reflect the occurrence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Ten adult cattle with left displacement of abomasum (LDA) (group I), 10 adult cattle with right displacement of abomasum with volvulus (RDA) (group II) and 10 clinically healthy adult cattle (control group) were used as material. Numbers of platelets (PLT) and coagulation tests (activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), serum fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs), fibrinogen) were measured before the surgical treatment of cattle with LDA and RDA. APTT was prolonged only in group II compared with the control and group I (p<0.05). However, when the individual values of coagulation profiles of each cow were evaluated, two cattle in group I and three cattle in group II had at least three abnormal coagulation profiles, which reflect the occurrence of DIC. These cattle died after surgical treatment. The two cattle with LDA had abnormal APTT, FDPs and PLT values; three cattle with RDA had abnormal APTT, PT, TT, FDPs and PLT values. APTT (5 cases), FDPs (5 cases) and thrombocytopenia (5 cases) were the three most common abnormal tests on coagulation profile in the cattle with LDA and RDA. The results of the study indicate that cattle with AD had a spectrum of haemostatic dysfunction and that DIC was a significant risk factor for mortality. PMID:15727292

  5. Identification of genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in Nelore cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed efficiency is jointly determined by productivity and feed requirements, both of which are economically relevant traits in beef cattle production systems. The objective of this study was to identify genes/QTLs associated with components of feed efficiency in Nelore cattle using Illumina BovineHD...

  6. A high-resolution cattle CNV map by population-scale genome sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy Number Variations (CNVs) are common genomic structural variations that have been linked to human diseases and phenotypic traits. Prior studies in cattle have produced low-resolution CNV maps. We constructed a draft, high-resolution map of cattle CNVs based on whole genome sequencing data from 7...

  7. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  8. SNPs to Chips: Changing the paradigm of mapping and selection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The past 25 years of research on the cattle genome has focused on DNA marker based tools that can be applied to genetic improvement in cattle. However, the paradigm of marker assisted selection for complex traits has recently shifted from focusing on genetic variation contained in specific quantita...

  9. A high-resolution cattle CNV map by population-scale genome sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy Number Variations (CNVs) are common genomic structural variations that have been linked to human diseases and phenotypic traits. CNVs represent an important type of genetic variation among cattle breeds and even individual animals; however, only low-resolution maps of cattle CNVs currently exis...

  10. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  11. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally. PMID:25866439

  12. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China. PMID:15068334

  13. Global Metabolic Reconstruction and Metabolic Gene Evolution in the Cattle Genome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woonsu; Park, Hyesun; Seo, Seongwon

    2016-01-01

    The sequence of cattle genome provided a valuable opportunity to systematically link genetic and metabolic traits of cattle. The objectives of this study were 1) to reconstruct genome-scale cattle-specific metabolic pathways based on the most recent and updated cattle genome build and 2) to identify duplicated metabolic genes in the cattle genome for better understanding of metabolic adaptations in cattle. A bioinformatic pipeline of an organism for amalgamating genomic annotations from multiple sources was updated. Using this, an amalgamated cattle genome database based on UMD_3.1, was created. The amalgamated cattle genome database is composed of a total of 33,292 genes: 19,123 consensus genes between NCBI and Ensembl databases, 8,410 and 5,493 genes only found in NCBI or Ensembl, respectively, and 266 genes from NCBI scaffolds. A metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome and cattle pathway genome database (PGDB) was also developed using Pathway Tools, followed by an intensive manual curation. The manual curation filled or revised 68 pathway holes, deleted 36 metabolic pathways, and added 23 metabolic pathways. Consequently, the curated cattle PGDB contains 304 metabolic pathways, 2,460 reactions including 2,371 enzymatic reactions, and 4,012 enzymes. Furthermore, this study identified eight duplicated genes in 12 metabolic pathways in the cattle genome compared to human and mouse. Some of these duplicated genes are related with specific hormone biosynthesis and detoxifications. The updated genome-scale metabolic reconstruction is a useful tool for understanding biology and metabolic characteristics in cattle. There has been significant improvements in the quality of cattle genome annotations and the MetaCyc database. The duplicated metabolic genes in the cattle genome compared to human and mouse implies evolutionary changes in the cattle genome and provides a useful information for further research on understanding metabolic adaptations of cattle. PMID

  14. Random Forests approach for identifying additive and epistatic single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Yao, C; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Page, C D; VandeHaar, M J; Bickhart, D M; Weigel, K A

    2013-10-01

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in the beef and dairy cattle industries. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of partial efficiency that is independent of production level per unit of body weight. The objective of this study was to identify significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and RFI in dairy cattle using the Random Forests (RF) algorithm. Genomic data included 42,275 SNP genotypes for 395 Holstein cows, whereas phenotypic measurements were daily RFI from 50 to 150 d postpartum. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between an animal's feed intake and the average intake of its cohort, after adjustment for year and season of calving, year and season of measurement, age at calving nested within parity, days in milk, milk yield, body weight, and body weight change. Random Forests is a widely used machine-learning algorithm that has been applied to classification and regression problems. By analyzing the tree structures produced within RF, the 25 most frequent pairwise SNP interactions were reported as possible epistatic interactions. The importance scores that are generated by RF take into account both main effects of variables and interactions between variables, and the most negative value of all importance scores can be used as the cutoff level for declaring SNP effects as significant. Ranking by importance scores, 188 SNP surpassed the threshold, among which 38 SNP were mapped to RFI quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions reported in a previous study in beef cattle, and 2 SNP were also detected by a genome-wide association study in beef cattle. The ratio of number of SNP located in RFI QTL to the total number of SNP in the top 188 SNP chosen by RF was significantly higher than in all 42,275 whole-genome markers. Pathway analysis indicated that many of the top 188 SNP are in genomic regions that contain annotated genes with biological functions that may influence RFI. Frequently occurring

  15. Turning science on robust cattle into improved genetic selection decisions.

    PubMed

    Amer, P R

    2012-04-01

    More robust cattle have the potential to increase farm profitability, improve animal welfare, reduce the contribution of ruminant livestock to greenhouse gas emissions and decrease the risk of food shortages in the face of increased variability in the farm environment. Breeding is a powerful tool for changing the robustness of cattle; however, insufficient recording of breeding goal traits and selection of animals at younger ages tend to favour genetic change in productivity traits relative to robustness traits. This paper has extended a previously proposed theory of artificial evolution to demonstrate, using deterministic simulation, how choice of breeding scheme design can be used as a tool to manipulate the direction of genetic progress, whereas the breeding goal remains focussed on the factors motivating individual farm decision makers. Particular focus was placed on the transition from progeny testing or mass selection to genomic selection breeding strategies. Transition to genomic selection from a breeding strategy where candidates are selected before records from progeny being available was shown to be highly likely to favour genetic progress in robustness traits relative to productivity traits. This was shown even with modest numbers of animals available for training and when heritability for robustness traits was only slightly lower than that for productivity traits. When transitioning from progeny testing to a genomic selection strategy without progeny testing, it was shown that there is a significant risk that robustness traits could become less influential in selection relative to productivity traits. Augmentations of training populations using genotyped cows and support for industry-wide improvements in phenotypic recording of robustness traits were put forward as investment opportunities for stakeholders wishing to facilitate the application of science on robust cattle into improved genetic selection schemes. PMID:22436269

  16. Genomic selection strategies in a small dairy cattle population evaluated for genetic gain and profit.

    PubMed

    Thomasen, J R; Egger-Danner, C; Willam, A; Guldbrandtsen, B; Lund, M S; Sørensen, A C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a genomic breeding scheme in a small dairy cattle population that was intermediate in terms of using both young bulls (YB) and progeny-tested bulls (PB). This scheme was compared with a conventional progeny testing program without use of genomic information and, as the extreme case, a juvenile scheme with genomic information, where all bulls were used before progeny information was available. The population structure, cost, and breeding plan parameters were chosen to reflect the Danish Jersey cattle population, being representative for a small dairy cattle population. The population consisted of 68,000 registered cows. Annually, 1,500 bull dams were screened to produce the 500 genotyped bull calves from which 60 YB were selected to be progeny tested. Two unfavorably correlated traits were included in the breeding goal, a production trait (h(2)=0.30) and a functional trait (h(2)=0.04). An increase in reliability of 5 percentage points for each trait was used in the default genomic scenario. A deterministic approach was used to model the different breeding programs, where the primary evaluation criterion was annual monetary genetic gain (AMGG). Discounted profit was used as an indicator of the economic outcome. We investigated the effect of varying the following parameters: (1) increase in reliability due to genomic information, (2) number of genotyped bull calves, (3) proportion of bull dam sires that are young bulls, and (4) proportion of cow sires that are young bulls. The genomic breeding scheme was both genetically and economically superior to the conventional breeding scheme, even in a small dairy cattle population where genomic information causes a relatively low increase in reliability of breeding values. Assuming low reliabilities of genomic predictions, the optimal breeding scheme according to AMGG was characterized by mixed use of YB and PB as bull sires. Exclusive use of YB for production cows increased AMGG up

  17. Hemochromatosis in Salers cattle.

    PubMed

    House, J K; Smith, B P; Maas, J; Lane, V M; Anderson, B C; Graham, T W; Pino, M V

    1994-01-01

    Two 2-year-old Salers cattle from different herds raised on pasture were evaluated for retarded growth and diarrhea. Increase of liver enzyme activities and prolonged sulfobromophothalein (BSP) half life (T1/2) indicated liver disease with impaired liver function. Histopathologic examination of liver biopsies revealed a micronodular cirrhosis with marked deposition of hemosiderin in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and arterioles. Transferrin saturation (TS) and liver iron content were markedly increased, consistent with a diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Both animals were euthanatized due to deterioration in their condition. Necropsy findings included hepatomegaly and hemosiderin accumulation in the liver, lymph nodes, pancreas, spleen, thyroid, kidney, brain and other glandular tissue. Continued surveillance of the second herd (serum iron, total iron binding capacity [TIBC], unsaturated iron binding capacity [UIBC], and TS), identified a heifer as a hemochromatosis suspect in a subsequent generation. Liver biopsies from that animal revealed the same histopathologic changes as the previous 2 animals, and similar increases in liver iron content (8,700 ppm, normal range 45 to 300 ppm). The 3 affected cattle were all products of line breeding programs and shared a common ancestor. The absence of dietary iron loading in conjunction with the histopathologic and metabolic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of primary hemochromatosis. The reported disease is similar to idiopathic hemochromatosis in human beings in which there is a hereditary defect in iron metabolism. PMID:8046672

  18. Residual feed intake and blood variables in young Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, C F; Branco, R H; Bonilha, S F M; Cyrillo, J N S G; Negrão, J A; Mercadante, M E Z

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate associations of performance traits, feed efficiency, and blood variables with residual feed intake (RFI) in growing Nellore cattle. A total of 118 growing Nellore animals, 62 males and 56 females, were used. A diet containing 2 Mcal/kg was offered ad libitum and individual DMI was measured over a period of 84 d. Animals were classified as low (≤0.128 kg/d; = 40), medium (-0.128 to 0.135 kg/d; = 42), or high RFI (>0.135 kg/d; = 36). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the test for determination of plasma concentrations of different blood variables. Data were analyzed using a mixed model that included the random effect of facility the fixed effects of sex, RFI class, and linear effect of the covariate age within sex; and the interaction between RFI class and sex. Least squares means were compared using a -test. Animals of different RFI classes presented similar performance traits and different DMI. Low-RFI animals consumed, on average, 0.670 kg/d less DM than high-RFI animals. Among the blood variables analyzed, significant differences among RFI classes were observed for urea, IGF-1, and insulin. Plasma urea concentrations were lower (5.58 vs. 5.91 mmol/L) and insulin (4.45 vs. 3.70 μIU/mL) and IGF-1 (433 vs. 399 ng/mL) concentrations were higher in low-RFI animals when compared to high-RFI animals. Plasma concentrations of urea, IGF-1, and insulin can be used as indicators of feed utilization efficiency in Nellore cattle. PMID:26020908

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms concordant with the horned/polled trait in Holsteins

    PubMed Central

    Cargill, Edward J; Nissing, Nick J; Grosz, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Background Cattle that naturally do not grow horns are referred to as polled, a trait inherited in a dominant Mendelian fashion. Previous studies have localized the polled mutation (which is unknown) to the proximal end of bovine chromosome 1 in a region approximately 3 Mb in size. While a polled genetic test, Tru-Polled™, is commercially available from MetaMorphix Inc., Holsteins are not a validated breed for this test. Findings Approximately 160 kb were sequenced within the known polled region from 12 polled and 12 horned Holsteins. Analysis of the polymorphisms identified 13 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are concordant with the horned/polled trait. Three of the 13 SNPs are located in gene coding or regulatory regions (e.g., the untranslated region, or UTR) where one is located in the 3'UTR of a gene and the other two are located in the 5'UTR and coding region (synonymous SNP) of another gene. The 3'UTR of genes have been shown to be targets of microRNAs regulating gene expression. In silico analysis indicates the 3'UTR SNP may disrupt a microRNA target site. Conclusion These 13 novel SNPs concordant with the horned/polled trait in Holsteins represent a test panel for the breed and this is the first report to the authors' knowledge of SNPs within gene coding or regulatory regions concordant with the horned/polled trait in cattle. These SNPs will require further testing for verification and further study to determine if the 3'UTR SNP may have a functional effect on the polled trait in Holsteins. PMID:19063733

  20. Genetic variability of Wagyu cattle estimated by statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Kenji

    2011-06-01

    The genetic evaluation of economically important traits utilizes estimates of genetic variability, which are represented by heritability. This review summarizes the published heritabilities of traits estimated in Wagyu cattle. Two different mean heritabilities, unweighted and weighted by standard errors, were calculated. In Japanese Black cattle, the average unweighted and weighted direct heritabilities of birth weight were 0.35 and 0.28, respectively, whereas the respective maternal heritabilities were 0.17 and 0.07. The mean unweighted heritability of calf market weight was estimated to be 0.30 in Japanese Black cattle. The mean unweighted heritability of daily gain during performance testing was 0.29 in Japanese Black and 0.40 in Japanese Shorthorn cattle. In Japanese Black cattle, the unweighted mean heritability was 0.48 for carcass weight, 0.46 for rib-eye area, 0.38 for rib thickness, 0.39 for subcutaneous fat thickness, and 0.55 for marbling. The mean weighted heritability of the calving interval was low, and estimated to be 0.05. In general, the heritabilities estimated in Wagyu cattle were similar to those estimated in other beef breeds. PMID:21615828

  1. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Nellore beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to assess the quality of genomic predictions in a Nellore beef cattle population, for 14 growth, carcass composition and reproduction traits, evaluated either at weaning or as yearlings. A forward prediction scheme was applied, so that information on a set of older animals...

  2. Applications of Genomics to Genetic Improvement of Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of genomic evaluation has caused profound changes in dairy cattle breeding. All young bulls bought by major artificial-insemination (AI) organizations now are selected based on such evaluations. Evaluation reliability can reach about 75% for yield traits, which is adequate for marketi...

  3. Evaluation of methods of temperament scoring for beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperament can negatively affect various production traits, including live weight, ADG, DMI, conception rates and carcass weight. The objective of this research study was to evaluate temperament scoring methods in beef cattle. Crossbred (n = 228) calves were evaluated for temperament at weaning by ...

  4. Gene expression profiling for genetic merit in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene expression patterns have been shown to be a heritable trait in dairy cattle. Thus, the pattern of gene expression in many selected tissues may serve as a biomarker for genetic stature or physiological condition. Our laboratory has conducted a 5-year study on the use of gene expression pattern...

  5. Reliability of Genomic Evaluation of Holstein Cattle in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers in Canada and the United States have been collaborating to develop and implement genomic evaluations aiming to fully integrate them into their national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle in 2009. A total of 44 Canadian traits were analyzed for 12,913 Holstein animals. For 43 out of 44...

  6. Anxiety: States, Traits--Situations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the utility of situational assessments of trait anxiety in predicting state anxiety reactions. Results indicated that the STAI-A-Trait and the S-R GTA Evaluation measures correlated significantly higher with each other than either did with the S-R GTA Physical Danger measure. Both stresses produced significant increases in state…

  7. Short communication: Genetic evaluation of mobility for Brown Swiss dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic parameters were estimated for mobility score and 16 linear type traits of Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Mobility is an overall assessment trait that measures a cow’s ability to move as well as the structure of her feet, pasterns, and legs. Scores from 50 to 99 were assigned by appraisers for the...

  8. A genome-wide scan for selection signatures in Nelore cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brazilian Nelore cattle have been selected for growth traits over more than four decades. In recent years, reproductive and meat quality traits have become more important because of increasing consumption, exports and consumer demand. The identification of genomic regions altered by artificial selec...

  9. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 1. Growth, efficiency, temperament, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Experiments were conducted concurrently at 2 locations to quantify effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on growth, efficiency, temperament, and carcass traits of Brahman cattle. Cattle were selected at weaning from commercial and research herds based on their genotype for commercially available calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Genotypes for mu-calpain gene markers (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) were also determined and included in statistical analyses. The New South Wales (NSW) herd was composed of 82 heifers and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3. The Western Australia (WA) herd was composed of 173 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3. One-half of the cattle at each site were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant (HGP: Revalor-H) during grain finishing. Cattle were backgrounded at pasture for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. Individually, or in combination with each other and with CAPN1-4751 status, CAST and CAPN3 status had no significant (all P > 0.05) effects on BW, growth, feed efficiency, or temperament traits. The only significant effect of CAST or CAPN3 on carcass characteristics was a small increase in rib fat with increasing number of favorable CAST alleles (P = 0.042) in the WA herd. There were no significant interactions (all P > 0.05) between the markers, or between the markers and sex or HGP treatment apart from CAST x HGP for area of the M. longissimus lumborum (P = 0.024) in the NSW experiment. Favorable CAST or CAPN3 alleles appear unlikely to have detrimental effects on growth, efficiency, temperament, or carcass characteristics of Brahman cattle; however, some effects evident for CAPN1 status indicate the need for further production studies on effects of these markers. Overall, the findings of the present study indicate that calpain-system gene markers are

  10. μ-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype and allele frequencies.

    PubMed

    Tait, R G; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; King, D A; Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Smith, T P L; Bennett, G L

    2014-02-01

    Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size and mode of inheritance for previously reported SNP on targeted beef carcass quality traits; 2) estimate effects of previously reported SNP on nontarget performance traits; and 3) evaluate tenderness SNP specific residual variance models compared to a single residual variance model for tenderness. Divergent haplotypes within µ-calpain (CAPN1), and SNP within calpastatin (CAST) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) were successfully selected to increase their frequencies. Traits evaluated were birth BW, weaning BW, final BW, fat thickness, LM area, USDA marbling score, yield grade, slice shear force (SSF), and visible and near infrared predicted slice shear force. Both CAPN1 and CAST exhibited additive (P < 0.001) modes of inheritance for SSF and neither exhibited dominance (P ≥ 0.19). Furthermore, the interaction between CAPN1 and CAST for SSF was not significant (P = 0.55). Estimated additive effects of CAPN1 (1.049 kg) and CAST (1.257 kg) on SSF were large in this study. Animals homozygous for tender alleles at both CAPN1 and CAST would have 4.61 kg lower SSF (38.6% of the mean) than animals homozygous tough for both markers. There was also an effect of CAST on yield grade (P < 0.02). The tender CAST allele was associated with more red meat yield and less trimmable fat. There were no significant effects (P ≥ 0.23) for GHR on any of the traits evaluated in this study. Furthermore, CAST specific residual variance models were found to fit significantly better (P < 0.001) than single residual variance models for SSF, with the tougher genotypes having larger residual variance. Thus, the risk of a tough steak from the undesired CAST genotype is increased through both an

  11. CAPN1, CAST, and DGAT1 genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in a beef cattle population selected for haplotype and allele equalization.

    PubMed

    Tait, R G; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; King, D A; Keele, J W; Casas, E; Smith, T P L; Bennett, G L

    2014-12-01

    Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC III) was subjected to marker-assisted selection for multiple years to equalize specific marker frequencies to 1) estimate effect size and mode of inheritance for previously reported SNP on targeted beef carcass quality traits (n=254), 2) estimate pleiotropic effects of previously reported SNP on nontarget performance traits (n=542 or 254), and 3) evaluate tenderness SNP specific residual variance for LM tenderness. Three haplotypes within μ-calpain (CAPN1), a SNP in calpastatin (CAST), and a dinucleotide substitution in diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) were successfully selected to equalize their frequencies. Traits evaluated were birth BW, weaning BW, yearling BW, final BW, dressing percent, HCW, fat thickness, LM area, USDA marbling score, yield grade, LM slice shear force (SSF), and visible and near-infrared (VISNIR)-predicted SSF. While the CAPN1 genotype effect on SSF was not significant (P=0.12), the direction and size of CAPN1 contrasts were consistent with previous research. Effects on SSF between divergent CAPN1 haplotypes (1.153 kg) and the additive effect of CAST (0.902 kg) were large, and animals homozygous for tender alleles at both CAPN1 and CAST would have 4.11 kg lower SSF (27.5% of the mean) than animals homozygous tough for both markers. Furthermore, the interaction between CAPN1 and CAST for SSF was not significant (P=0.40). There were significant effects for DGAT1 on adjusted fat thickness (P=0.02) and VISNIR-predicted SSF (P<0.001) with additive and dominance modes of inheritance (P<0.05) for both traits. Furthermore, CAST genotype specific residual variance models fit significantly better (P<0.001) than single residual variance models for SSF, with the tougher genotypes having progressively larger residual (and hence phenotypic) variances. Therefore, risk of a tough steak

  12. Genetic markers that influence feed efficiency phenotypes also affect cattle temperament as measured by flight speed.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, A K; Kuehn, L A; Freetly, H C; Snelling, W M

    2015-02-01

    Flight speed is a predictive indicator of cattle temperament and is associated with feed efficiency phenotypes. Genetic markers associated with both traits may assist with selection of calmer animals with improved economic value. A preliminary genome-wide association study determined chromosomal regions on BTA9, and 17 were associated with flight speed. The genes quaking (QKI), glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2 (GRIA2) and glycine receptor β (GLRB) were identified in these regions as potential functional candidates. Beef steers (n = 1057) were genotyped with SNPs located within and flanking these genes. One SNP located near QKI and one near GRIA2 were nominally associated with flight speed (P ≤ 0.05) although neither was significant after Bonferroni correction. Several studies have shown a correlation between flight speed and feed intake or gain; therefore, we also analyzed SNPs on BTA6:38-39 Mb known to be associated with average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) for association with flight speed. Several SNPs on BTA6 were associated with flight speed (P ≤ 0.005), and three were significant after Bonferroni correction. These results suggest that the genes tested are unlikely to contribute to flight speed variation for our cattle population, but SNPs on BTA6 associated with ADG and ADFI may influence temperament. Use of these markers to select for economically important feed efficiency phenotypes may produce cattle with more desirable temperaments. PMID:25515066

  13. Genetic selection of cattle for improved immunity and health.

    PubMed

    Mallard, Bonnie A; Emam, Mehdi; Paibomesai, Marlene; Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Wagter-Lesperance, Lauraine

    2015-02-01

    The immune system is a sensing structure composed of tissues and molecules that are well integrated with the neuroendocrine system. This integrate system ensures non-self from self-discrimination. In this capacity the immune system provides detection and protection from a wide range of pathogens. In mammals, the immune system is regulated by several thousand genes (8-9% of the genome) which indicate its high genetic priority as a critical fitness trait providing survival of the species. Identifying and selectively breeding livestock with the inherent ability to make superior immune responses can reduce disease occurrence, improve milk quality and increase farm profitability. Healthier animals also may be expected to demonstrate improvements in other traits, including reproductive fitness. Using the University of Guelph's patented High Immune Response technology it is possible to classify animals as high, average, or low responders based on their genetic estimated breeding value for immune responsiveness. High responders have the inherent ability to produce more balanced and robust immune responses compared with average or low responders. High responders dairy cattle essentially have about one-half the disease occurrence of low responders, and can pass their superior immune response genes on to future generations thereby accumulating health benefits within the dairy herd. PMID:25872325

  14. [Genotype identification by kappa-casein and BLAD mutation using the polymerase chain reaction in cattle. Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency].

    PubMed

    Kirilenko, S D; Glazko, V I

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of BLAD mutation and genotypes for kappa-casein locus in groups of imported Holstein and Simmentals, as well as in Ukrainian Black-and-White cattle was carried out. The carriers of BLAD mutation were not detected. The frequencies of allelic B variant of kappa-casein (valuable trait associated with high the production of top quality cheese) were similar in both groups of imported cattle and substantially higher in Ukrainian cattle. PMID:8713837

  15. Evaluating the suitability of maggot meal as a partial substitute of soya bean on the productive traits, digestibility indices and organoleptic properties of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Khan, S; Khan, R U; Sultan, A; Khan, M; Hayat, S U; Shahid, M S

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to replace soya bean meal with maggot meal at difference percentages. A total of 120 one-day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups. Four diets were formulated with maggot meal to replace soya bean meal at the rate of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% designated as A, B, C and D respectively. Feed and water were offered ad libitum during the study which lasted for 28 days. Feed intake decreased significantly in treated groups while body weight, Feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage increased significantly in group D. Apparent metabolizable energy increased significantly in the group fed 30% maggot meal; however, no significant difference was found in dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, ash and nitrogen free extract between the control and treated groups. The result of sensory evaluation revealed that tenderness and juiciness increased significantly in group C and B respectively. The colour and flavour were most accepted in group B and C. The results indicate that replacement of soya bean meal at the rate of 30% in broiler feed produced most favourable results. PMID:26847519

  16. Breed variation and genetic parameters for growth and body development in diverse beef cattle genotypes.

    PubMed

    Afolayan, R A; Pitchford, W S; Deland, M P B; McKiernan, W A

    2007-02-01

    Conformation scores can account for more than 20% of cattle price variation at Australian livestock sales. However, there are limited available references which define genetic factors relating objective live developmental traits to carcass composition. Weaning and post-weaning weight, height, length, girth, muscle (ratio of stifle to hip width) and fat depth of 1202 progeny from mature Hereford cows (637) mated to seven sire breeds (Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin and Belgian Blue) were examined for growth and development across ages. Crossbred Wagyu and Jersey were both lighter in weight and smaller in size (height, length and girth) than purebred Hereford and crossbred Angus, South Devon, Limousin and Belgian Blue. Within the five larger crossbreds, there were significant changes in relative weight from weaning to 600 days. Sire breeds differed in fat depth, with Angus being the fattest (9% on average fatter than Hereford and Wagyu), and Jersey 5% less fat than Hereford, followed by South Devon and Limousin (19% lower than Hereford) and Belgian Blue (39% lower than Hereford). Direct heritability ranged from 19 to 42% and was higher than the proportion of total phenotypic variance accounted for by maternal effects (which ranged from 0 to 17%) for most body measurement traits except for weight (38 v. 18%) and girth (36 v. 9%) traits at weaning, an indication of maternal effect on some body conformation traits at early ages. Muscularity (19 to 44%) and fat depth (26 to 43%) were moderately to highly heritable across ages. There were large differences for growth and the objective measures of body development between crossbreds with a degree of overlap among the progeny of the seven sire breeds. The variation between genetic (positive) and environmental (negative) correlations for dry versus wet season average daily gains in weight and fat, suggested the potential use of live-animal conformation traits for within breed selection of genetically

  17. The accuracies of DNA-based estimates of genetic merit derived from Angus or multibreed beef cattle training populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several organizations have developed prediction models for molecular breeding values (MBV) for quantitative growth and carcass traits in beef cattle using BovineSNP50 genotypes and phenotypic or EBV data. MBV for Angus cattle have been developed by IGENITY, Pfizer Animal Genetics, and a collaboratio...

  18. Immunocontraception for Managing Feral Cattle in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Massei, Giovanna; Koon, Ka-Kei; Benton, Steven; Brown, Richard; Gomm, Matt; Orahood, Darcy S.; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Eckery, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts between human interests and feral cattle in Hong Kong derive from growing numbers of free-roaming cattle. Public antipathy towards lethal population control led the local authorities to consider fertility control to reduce cattle numbers. This study assessed the potential side effects of the immunocontraceptive GonaCon on individual female cattle and established the effectiveness of GonaCon to induce infertility. We evaluated GonaCon in 34 captive cattle assigned to four groups: Control administered a sham solution; Webbed (surgically sterilized through removal of the oviducts), administered one dose of GonaCon; Webbed, administered one dose of GonaCon and a booster dose three months later, and Treated, administered one dose of GonaCon. The side effects of GonaCon were assessed by monitoring injection site, body weight, body condition, size of lymph nodes, body temperature, and feeding behaviour 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after vaccination and by haematological and biochemical variables at vaccination and three months post-vaccination. The effectiveness of GonaCon to cause infertility was monitored by quantifying anti-GnRH antibody titres and by using kits to detect cycling and pregnancy. GonaCon-treated cattle showed no injection site reaction, limping, or abnormal behaviour. No differences were observed in all physiological and welfare indicators between control and vaccinated cattle. All control cattle and 4 of the 12 cattle in the Treated group became pregnant. Cattle administered a booster dose had higher anti-GnRH antibody titres than cattle that received one dose. We concluded that GonaCon does not compromise the animals’ welfare and is effective in reducing fertility in cattle. A booster dose is likely to increase the duration of infertility. Further studies are required to assess the feasibility and costs of immunocontraception for controlling free-roaming cattle populations. PMID:25856283

  19. Immunocontraception for managing feral cattle in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Massei, Giovanna; Koon, Ka-Kei; Benton, Steven; Brown, Richard; Gomm, Matt; Orahood, Darcy S; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Eckery, Douglas C

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts between human interests and feral cattle in Hong Kong derive from growing numbers of free-roaming cattle. Public antipathy towards lethal population control led the local authorities to consider fertility control to reduce cattle numbers. This study assessed the potential side effects of the immunocontraceptive GonaCon on individual female cattle and established the effectiveness of GonaCon to induce infertility. We evaluated GonaCon in 34 captive cattle assigned to four groups: Control administered a sham solution; Webbed (surgically sterilized through removal of the oviducts), administered one dose of GonaCon; Webbed, administered one dose of GonaCon and a booster dose three months later, and Treated, administered one dose of GonaCon. The side effects of GonaCon were assessed by monitoring injection site, body weight, body condition, size of lymph nodes, body temperature, and feeding behaviour 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after vaccination and by haematological and biochemical variables at vaccination and three months post-vaccination. The effectiveness of GonaCon to cause infertility was monitored by quantifying anti-GnRH antibody titres and by using kits to detect cycling and pregnancy. GonaCon-treated cattle showed no injection site reaction, limping, or abnormal behaviour. No differences were observed in all physiological and welfare indicators between control and vaccinated cattle. All control cattle and 4 of the 12 cattle in the Treated group became pregnant. Cattle administered a booster dose had higher anti-GnRH antibody titres than cattle that received one dose. We concluded that GonaCon does not compromise the animals' welfare and is effective in reducing fertility in cattle. A booster dose is likely to increase the duration of infertility. Further studies are required to assess the feasibility and costs of immunocontraception for controlling free-roaming cattle populations. PMID:25856283

  20. A Genetic Linkage Map for Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, M. D.; Kappes, S. M.; Keele, J. W.; Stone, R. T.; Sunden, SLF.; Hawkins, G. A.; Toldo, S. S.; Fries, R.; Grosz, M. D.; Yoo, J.; Beattie, C. W.

    1994-01-01

    We report the most extensive physically anchored linkage map for cattle produced to date. Three-hundred thirteen genetic markers ordered in 30 linkage groups, anchored to 24 autosomal chromosomes (n = 29), the X and Y chromosomes, four unanchored syntenic groups and two unassigned linkage groups spanning 2464 cM of the bovine genome are summarized. The map also assigns 19 type I loci to specific chromosomes and/or syntenic groups and four cosmid clones containing informative microsatellites to chromosomes 13, 25 and 29 anchoring syntenic groups U11, U7 and U8, respectively. This map provides the skeletal framework prerequisite to development of a comprehensive genetic map for cattle and analysis of economic trait loci (ETL). PMID:7908653

  1. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle

    PubMed Central

    CHIBA, Shiori; FUNATO, Shingo; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; INOKUMA, Hisashi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy. PMID:25421501

  2. NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs that occasionally causes clinical infections in horses, goats, sheep, and deer. The domestic dog is the only known definitive host for N. caninum. In cattle N. caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion in many countries and is one of the mo...

  3. The genetic architecture of climatic adaptation of tropical cattle.

    PubMed

    Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Reverter, Antonio; Prayaga, Kishore C; Chan, Eva K F; Johnston, David J; Hawken, Rachel J; Fordyce, Geoffry; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Sonstegard, Tad S; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Goddard, Michael E; Burrow, Heather M; Henshall, John M; Lehnert, Sigrid A; Barendse, William

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of global food systems to climate change is essential to feed the world. Tropical cattle production, a mainstay of profitability for farmers in the developing world, is dominated by heat, lack of water, poor quality feedstuffs, parasites, and tropical diseases. In these systems European cattle suffer significant stock loss, and the cross breeding of taurine x indicine cattle is unpredictable due to the dilution of adaptation to heat and tropical diseases. We explored the genetic architecture of ten traits of tropical cattle production using genome wide association studies of 4,662 animals varying from 0% to 100% indicine. We show that nine of the ten have genetic architectures that include genes of major effect, and in one case, a single location that accounted for more than 71% of the genetic variation. One genetic region in particular had effects on parasite resistance, yearling weight, body condition score, coat colour and penile sheath score. This region, extending 20 Mb on BTA5, appeared to be under genetic selection possibly through maintenance of haplotypes by breeders. We found that the amount of genetic variation and the genetic correlations between traits did not depend upon the degree of indicine content in the animals. Climate change is expected to expand some conditions of the tropics to more temperate environments, which may impact negatively on global livestock health and production. Our results point to several important genes that have large effects on adaptation that could be introduced into more temperate cattle without detrimental effects on productivity. PMID:25419663

  4. The Genetic Architecture of Climatic Adaptation of Tropical Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Reverter, Antonio; Prayaga, Kishore C.; Chan, Eva K. F.; Johnston, David J.; Hawken, Rachel J.; Fordyce, Geoffry; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Goddard, Michael E.; Burrow, Heather M.; Henshall, John M.; Lehnert, Sigrid A.; Barendse, William

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of global food systems to climate change is essential to feed the world. Tropical cattle production, a mainstay of profitability for farmers in the developing world, is dominated by heat, lack of water, poor quality feedstuffs, parasites, and tropical diseases. In these systems European cattle suffer significant stock loss, and the cross breeding of taurine x indicine cattle is unpredictable due to the dilution of adaptation to heat and tropical diseases. We explored the genetic architecture of ten traits of tropical cattle production using genome wide association studies of 4,662 animals varying from 0% to 100% indicine. We show that nine of the ten have genetic architectures that include genes of major effect, and in one case, a single location that accounted for more than 71% of the genetic variation. One genetic region in particular had effects on parasite resistance, yearling weight, body condition score, coat colour and penile sheath score. This region, extending 20 Mb on BTA5, appeared to be under genetic selection possibly through maintenance of haplotypes by breeders. We found that the amount of genetic variation and the genetic correlations between traits did not depend upon the degree of indicine content in the animals. Climate change is expected to expand some conditions of the tropics to more temperate environments, which may impact negatively on global livestock health and production. Our results point to several important genes that have large effects on adaptation that could be introduced into more temperate cattle without detrimental effects on productivity. PMID:25419663

  5. A whole genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting milk protein percentage in Israeli-Holstein cattle, by means of selective milk DNA pooling in a daughter design, using an adjusted false discovery rate criterion.

    PubMed Central

    Mosig, M O; Lipkin, E; Khutoreskaya, G; Tchourzyna, E; Soller, M; Friedmann, A

    2001-01-01

    Selective DNA pooling was employed in a daughter design to screen all bovine autosomes for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting estimated breeding value for milk protein percentage (EBVP%). Milk pools prepared from high and low daughters of each of seven sires were genotyped for 138 dinucleotide microsatellites. Shadow-corrected estimates of sire allele frequencies were compared between high and low pools. An adjusted false discovery rate (FDR) method was employed to calculate experimentwise significance levels and empirical power. Significant associations with milk protein percentage were found for 61 of the markers (adjusted FDR = 0.10; estimated power, 0.68). The significant markers appear to be linked to 19--28 QTL. Mean allele substitution effects of the putative QTL averaged 0.016 (0.009--0.028) in units of the within-sire family standard deviation of EBVP% and summed to 0.460 EBVP%. Overall QTL heterozygosity was 0.40. The identified QTL appear to account for all of the variation in EBVP% in the population. Through use of selective DNA pooling, 4400 pool data points provided the statistical power of 600,000 individual data points. PMID:11290723

  6. Enhancing knowledge and technology adoption in a misunderstood discipline: The weight trait project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently several commercial DNA marker panels are available for complex traits. In the fall of 2009, the American Angus Association integrated the results of an Angus-specific marker panel into their national cattle evaluation for carcass traits. Despite this advancement, there still exists treme...

  7. GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ANALYSIS IDENTIFIES LOCI FOR PRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN JERSEY BREED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major objective of genomic research in dairy cattle at present is to identify, map, and characterize individual quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affects production traits. A genome scan was conducted in the US Jersey population to identify QTL affecting milk, fat and protein production. Data use...

  8. Evidence for pleiotropism and recent selection in the PLAG1 region in Australian Beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Fortes, M R S; Kemper, K; Sasazaki, S; Reverter, A; Pryce, J E; Barendse, W; Bunch, R; McCulloch, R; Harrison, B; Bolormaa, S; Zhang, Y D; Hawken, R J; Goddard, M E; Lehnert, S A

    2013-12-01

    A putative functional mutation (rs109231213) near PLAG1 (BTA14) associated with stature was studied in beef cattle. Data from 8199 Bos taurus, Bos indicus and Tropical Composite cattle were used to test the associations between rs109231213 and various phenotypes. Further, 23 496 SNPs located on BTA14 were tested for association with these phenotypes, both independently and fitted together with rs109231213. The C allele of rs109231213 significantly increased hip height, weight, net food intake, age at puberty in males and females and decreased IGF-I concentration in blood and fat depth. When rs109231213 was fitted as a fixed effect in the model, there was an overall reduction in associations between other SNPs and these traits but some SNPs remained associated (P < 10(-4) ). Frequency of the mutant C allele of rs109231213 differed among B. indicus (0.52), B. taurus (0.96) and Tropical Composite (0.68). Most chromosomes carrying the C allele had the same surrounding 10 SNP haplotype, probably because the C allele was introgressed into Brahman from B. taurus cattle. A region of reduced heterozygosity surrounds the C allele; this is small in B. taurus but 20 Mb long in Brahmans, indicating recent and strong selection for the mutant allele. Thus, the C allele appears to mark a mutation that has been selected almost to fixation in the B. taurus breeds studied here and introduced into Brahman cattle during grading up and selected to a frequency of 0.52 despite its negative effects on fertility. PMID:23909810

  9. Association between GNRHR, LHR and IGF1 polymorphisms and timing of puberty in male Angus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In bovines, there are significant differences within and among beef breeds in the time when bulls reach puberty. Although the timing of puberty is likely to be a multigenic trait, previous studies indicate that there may also be single genes that exert major effects on the timing of puberty within the general population. Despite its economic importance, there are not many SNPs or genetic markers associated with the age of puberty in male cattle. In the present work, we selected three candidate genes, GNRHR, LHR and IGF1, and associated their polymorphisms with the age of puberty in Angus male cattle. Results After weaning, 276 Angus males were measured every month for weight (W), scrotal circumference (SC), sperm concentration (C) and percentage of motility (M). A total of 4 SNPs, two within GNRHR, one in LHR and one in IGF1 were genotyped using the pyrosequencing technique. IGF1-SnaBI SNP was significant associated (P < 0.01) with age at SC 28 cm, but it were not associated with age at M 10% and C 50 million. Genotype CC exhibited an average age at SC 28 cm of 7 and 11 days higher than CT (p = 0.037) and TT (p = 0.012), respectively. This SNP explained 1.5% of the genetic variance of age of puberty at SC28. LHR-I499L, GNRHR-SNP5 and GNRHR-SNP6 were not associated with any of the measurements. However, GNRHR haplotypes showed a suggestive association with age at SC 28 cm. Conclusions The findings presented here could support the hypothesis that IGF1 is a regulator of the arrival to puberty in male calves and is involved in the events that precede and initiate puberty in bull calves. Given that most studies in cattle, as well as in other mammals, were done in female, the present results are the first evidence of markers associated with age at puberty in male cattle. PMID:22480211

  10. Short communication: Heritability estimates for susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection defined by ELISA and fecal culture test results in Jersey cattle.

    PubMed

    Zare, Y; Shook, G E; Collins, M T; Kirkpatrick, B W

    2014-07-01

    Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease), an enteric disorder in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, causes economic losses in excess of $200 million annually to the US dairy industry. Costly diagnostic testing, cumbersome control programs, incurability, and ineffective vaccination all make M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis susceptibility a good candidate for genetic studies and genetic selection a potentially useful adjunct to management-based control programs. No report has been published for heritability of susceptibility to M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in Jersey cattle. The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and heritability for susceptibility to M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in US Jersey cattle. Data consisted of complete serum ELISA and partial fecal culture results on a total of 2,861 Jersey cows from 23 commercial herds throughout the United States after editing. Four M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis susceptibility phenotypes were defined using (1) ELISA sample-to-positive ratios as a continuous trait, (2) ELISA results as a binary trait (positive=1, negative=0), (3) ELISA results as an ordered categorical trait, and (4) a combined test in which ELISA and fecal culture results were both taken into account in a binary analysis. Three statistical models, including linear, binary threshold, and ordered threshold sire models, were used to analyze the data. All analyses were executed using the restricted maximum likelihood method in ASReml 3 software. The heritability estimates were low to moderate and ranged from 0.08 (±0.03) to 0.27 (±0.11) based on different trait definitions. The nonzero heritability indicates that susceptibility to M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in Jersey cattle is influenced by genetic factors. Therefore, selection of the least susceptible animals could decrease genetic predisposition to M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in Jersey populations in future

  11. Antagonistic coevolution between quantitative and Mendelian traits.

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Masato; Ellner, Stephen P

    2016-03-30

    Coevolution is relentlessly creating and maintaining biodiversity and therefore has been a central topic in evolutionary biology. Previous theoretical studies have mostly considered coevolution between genetically symmetric traits (i.e. coevolution between two continuous quantitative traits or two discrete Mendelian traits). However, recent empirical evidence indicates that coevolution can occur between genetically asymmetric traits (e.g. between quantitative and Mendelian traits). We examine consequences of antagonistic coevolution mediated by a quantitative predator trait and a Mendelian prey trait, such that predation is more intense with decreased phenotypic distance between their traits (phenotype matching). This antagonistic coevolution produces a complex pattern of bifurcations with bistability (initial state dependence) in a two-dimensional model for trait coevolution. Furthermore, with eco-evolutionary dynamics (so that the trait evolution affects predator-prey population dynamics), we find that coevolution can cause rich dynamics including anti-phase cycles, in-phase cycles, chaotic dynamics and deterministic predator extinction. Predator extinction is more likely to occur when the prey trait exhibits complete dominance rather than semidominance and when the predator trait evolves very rapidly. Our study illustrates how recognizing the genetic architectures of interacting ecological traits can be essential for understanding the population and evolutionary dynamics of coevolving species. PMID:27009218

  12. Validation of Commercial DNA Tests for Beef Quality Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Associations between three commercially-available genetic marker panels (GeneSTAR® Quality Grade, GeneSTAR® Tenderness, and Igenity TenderGENE™) and quantitative beef traits were validated by the National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC). Validation was interpreted to be the independent ver...

  13. VALIDATION OF COMMERCIAL DNA TESTS FOR QUANTITATIVE BEEF QUALITY TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Associations between three commercially-available genetic marker panels (GeneSTAR(TM) Quality Grade, GeneSTAR(TM) Tenderness, and Igenity TenderGENE(TM)) and quantitative beef traits were validated by the National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC). Validation was interpreted to be the indepe...

  14. Novel SNPs in the Ankyrin 1 gene and their association with beef quality traits.

    PubMed

    Horodyska, J; Sweeney, T; Ryan, M; Hamill, R M

    2015-10-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of bovine Ankyrin 1 (ANK1) have been associated with tenderness and intramuscular fat level in beef. The objectives of this study were to characterise novel DNA variants in the coding region of bovine ANK1 and test for association with beef quality traits. A 3kb region of ANK1 cDNA was amplified and sequenced in 32 Charolais cattle using five sets of overlapping primers. Eighteen SNPs were identified and a predicted exon was confirmed. An in silico translation indicated that SNP4 and SNP16 were non-conservative. Three SNPs were genotyped in 158 crossbred cattle (n=158) with associated meat quality data. SNP6 was associated with texture scores while SNP17 was associated with juiciness. Haplotype (cHAP) 1 was associated with lightness, redness, ultimate pH, as well as sarcomere length. Alleles of the ANK1 gene could be potential targets for gene-assisted selection to improve a range of meat quality traits in beef. PMID:26051041

  15. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among feed efficiency, production and selected conformation traits in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Manafiazar, G; Goonewardene, L; Miglior, F; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Okine, E; Wang, Z

    2016-03-01

    The difficulties and costs of measuring individual feed intake in dairy cattle are the primary factors limiting the genetic study of feed intake and utilisation, and hence the potential of their subsequent industry-wide applications. However, indirect selection based on heritable, easily measurable, and genetically correlated traits, such as conformation traits, may be an alternative approach to improve feed efficiency. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations among feed intake, production, and feed efficiency traits (particularly residual feed intake; RFI) with routinely recorded conformation traits. A total of 496 repeated records from 260 Holstein dairy cows in different lactations (260, 159 and 77 from first, second and third lactation, respectively) were considered in this study. Individual daily feed intake and monthly BW and body condition scores of these animals were recorded from 5 to 305 days in milk within each lactation from June 2007 to July 2013. Milk yield and composition data of all animals within each lactation were retrieved, and the first lactation conformation traits for primiparous animals were extracted from databases. Individual RFI over 301 days was estimated using linear regression of total 301 days actual energy intake on a total of 301 days estimated traits of metabolic BW, milk production energy requirement, and empty BW change. Pair-wise bivariate animal models were used to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters among the studied traits. Estimated heritabilities of total intake and production traits ranged from 0.27±0.07 for lactation actual energy intake to 0.45±0.08 for average body condition score over 301 days of the lactation period. RFI showed a moderate heritability estimate (0.20±0.03) and non-significant phenotypic and genetic correlations with lactation 3.5 % fat-corrected milk and average BW over lactation. Among the conformation traits, dairy strength, stature, rear attachment width

  16. Genetic Relationship of Productive Life, Production and Type Traits of Korean Holsteins at Early Lactations.

    PubMed

    Wasana, Nidarshani; Cho, GwangHyun; Park, SuBong; Kim, SiDong; Choi, JaeGwan; Park, ByungHo; Park, ChanHyuk; Do, ChangHee

    2015-09-01

    The present study was performed to study the genetic relationship of productive life with production and type traits of Korean Holsteins at first three lactations. The data for the analysis from 56,054, 28,997, and 11,816 animals of first, second and third parity cows which were born from 2006 to 2011 were collected by Dairy Cattle Improvement Center, National Agricultural Co-operative Federation. Milk, protein and fat yields adjusted for 305 days and average somatic cell score considered as production traits and analyzed type traits were stature, strength, body depth, dairy form, rump angle, rump width, rear leg side view, foot angle, front attachment placement, rear attachment height, rear attachment width, udder cleft, udder depth, front teat placement and front teat length. A multi trait genetic analysis was performed using Wombat program with restricted maximum likelihood animal model composed of fixed effect of birth year, farm and the random effect of animal and random residual effect according to the traits. Heritability estimates of productive life were between 0.06 and 0.13. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and productive life traits ranged from 0.35 to 0.04 for milk, 0.16 to 0.05 for protein and 0.18 to 0.02 f 15-0034 (2nd) 150520 or fat. Somatic cells score showed a negative genetic and phenotypic correlation with productive life and also udder type traits, indicating that the selection for higher udder traits will likely to improve resistance to mastitis and persistence in the herd. Among all dairy form type traits, udder characters such as udder cleft showed a significant relationship with productive life. However, a specific change of heritabilities or correlations were not observed with the change of parity. Moreover, further studies are needed to further confirm the significance of the above traits and the effect of parity on above relationships in order to minimize both voluntary and involuntary culling rates while improving

  17. Genetic Relationship of Productive Life, Production and Type Traits of Korean Holsteins at Early Lactations

    PubMed Central

    Wasana, Nidarshani; Cho, GwangHyun; Park, SuBong; Kim, SiDong; Choi, JaeGwan; Park, ByungHo; Park, ChanHyuk; Do, ChangHee

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to study the genetic relationship of productive life with production and type traits of Korean Holsteins at first three lactations. The data for the analysis from 56,054, 28,997, and 11,816 animals of first, second and third parity cows which were born from 2006 to 2011 were collected by Dairy Cattle Improvement Center, National Agricultural Co-operative Federation. Milk, protein and fat yields adjusted for 305 days and average somatic cell score considered as production traits and analyzed type traits were stature, strength, body depth, dairy form, rump angle, rump width, rear leg side view, foot angle, front attachment placement, rear attachment height, rear attachment width, udder cleft, udder depth, front teat placement and front teat length. A multi trait genetic analysis was performed using Wombat program with restricted maximum likelihood animal model composed of fixed effect of birth year, farm and the random effect of animal and random residual effect according to the traits. Heritability estimates of productive life were between 0.06 and 0.13. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and productive life traits ranged from 0.35 to 0.04 for milk, 0.16 to 0.05 for protein and 0.18 to 0.02 f 15-0034 (2nd) 150520 or fat. Somatic cells score showed a negative genetic and phenotypic correlation with productive life and also udder type traits, indicating that the selection for higher udder traits will likely to improve resistance to mastitis and persistence in the herd. Among all dairy form type traits, udder characters such as udder cleft showed a significant relationship with productive life. However, a specific change of heritabilities or correlations were not observed with the change of parity. Moreover, further studies are needed to further confirm the significance of the above traits and the effect of parity on above relationships in order to minimize both voluntary and involuntary culling rates while improving

  18. Genetic Parameters for Milk Yield and Lactation Persistency Using Random Regression Models in Girolando Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Canaza-Cayo, Ali William; Lopes, Paulo Sávio; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa; de Almeida Torres, Robledo; Martins, Marta Fonseca; Arbex, Wagner Antonio; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo

    2015-01-01

    A total of 32,817 test-day milk yield (TDMY) records of the first lactation of 4,056 Girolando cows daughters of 276 sires, collected from 118 herds between 2000 and 2011 were utilized to estimate the genetic parameters for TDMY via random regression models (RRM) using Legendre’s polynomial functions whose orders varied from 3 to 5. In addition, nine measures of persistency in milk yield (PSi) and the genetic trend of 305-day milk yield (305MY) were evaluated. The fit quality criteria used indicated RRM employing the Legendre’s polynomial of orders 3 and 5 for fitting the genetic additive and permanent environment effects, respectively, as the best model. The heritability and genetic correlation for TDMY throughout the lactation, obtained with the best model, varied from 0.18 to 0.23 and from −0.03 to 1.00, respectively. The heritability and genetic correlation for persistency and 305MY varied from 0.10 to 0.33 and from −0.98 to 1.00, respectively. The use of PS7 would be the most suitable option for the evaluation of Girolando cattle. The estimated breeding values for 305MY of sires and cows showed significant and positive genetic trends. Thus, the use of selection indices would be indicated in the genetic evaluation of Girolando cattle for both traits. PMID:26323397

  19. The effect of western juniper on the estrous cycle in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kevin D; Stonecipher, Clint A; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; Parsons, Cory; Deboodt, Tim; Johnson, Bryan

    2015-02-01

    Numerous evergreen trees and shrubs contain labdane acids, including isocupressic acid, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle. Recent research has shown that the bark from western juniper trees can also cause late-term abortions in cattle. Additionally, ranchers have observed that cattle in western juniper-infested rangelands tend to have decreased conception rates. The objective of this study was to determine if western juniper alters the estrous cycle of cattle. Fourteen heifers (10 treated and 4 control) were monitored for 74 days for signs of normal estrous behavior, with a 21 day feeding trial with western juniper bark from days 28-48, after which the cattle were bred naturally with a bull. The cattle were checked for pregnancy 30 days after all cattle had been bred. The data from this study indicate that exposure to western juniper bark does not affect normal estrus, estrous cycle or conception rates of cattle. PMID:25554383

  20. Whole-Genome Resequencing Analysis of Hanwoo and Yanbian Cattle to Identify Genome-Wide SNPs and Signatures of Selection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Woo; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Soo; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Yu, Dayeong; Chung, Won-Hyong; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Chai, Han-Ha; Cho, Yong-Min; Lim, Dajeong

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, Hanwoo has been selectively bred to improve economically important traits. Hanwoo is currently the representative Korean native beef cattle breed, and it is believed that it shared an ancestor with a Chinese breed, Yanbian cattle, until the last century. However, these two breeds have experienced different selection pressures during recent decades. Here, we whole-genome sequenced 10 animals each of Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle (20 total) using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer. A total of approximately 3.12 and 3.07 billion sequence reads were mapped to the bovine reference sequence assembly (UMD 3.1) at an average of approximately 10.71- and 10.53-fold coverage for Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle, respectively. A total of 17,936,399 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were yielded, of which 22.3% were found to be novel. By annotating the SNPs, we further retrieved numerous nonsynonymous SNPs that may be associated with traits of interest in cattle. Furthermore, we performed whole-genome screening to detect signatures of selection throughout the genome. We located several promising selective sweeps that are potentially responsible for economically important traits in cattle; the PPP1R12A gene is an example of a gene that potentially affects intramuscular fat content. These discoveries provide valuable genomic information regarding potential genomic markers that could predict traits of interest for breeding programs of these cattle breeds. PMID:26018558

  1. Genetic analysis of reproductive performance of Frieswal cattle at Military Farm, Ambala

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jagdeep; Singh, Y. P.; Kumar, Sushil; Singh, Rajbir; Kumar, Ravinder; Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the genetic analysis of reproductive performance of Frieswal cattle at Military Farm, Ambala. Materials and Methods: A total number of 3005 lactation records of 1147 Frieswal cows over a period of 15 years extending from 1993 to 2007 were used to study at Military Dairy Farm, Ambala. The study period was divided into 5 period of 3 years each. The average performances of reproduction traits, effect of genetic and non-genetic factors were analyzed, and estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters of reproduction traits was undertaken. Results: The age at first calving (AFC) differed significantly across the periods of calving. The AFC was lowest during the third period (1999-2001) and longest in the first period (1993-95). The effect of season and period of calving, lactation order and regression of AFC on dry period, calving interval and service period was highly significant. The effect of sire was non-significant. The heritability estimates were low for almost all the traits under study. The service period had a high genetic correlation with dry period and calving interval. The dry period also found to have a low genetic correlation with calving interval in Frieswal cows. Service period had a high phenotypic correlation with dry period and very high with a calving interval. The phenotypic correlation between the dry period and calving interval was recognized high. Conclusions: Low heritability estimate for the reproduction traits indicates that there is a very little additive genetic variance in these traits, and individual selection will not be helpful for improving them. Improvement may be brought through better feeding and management of cows by reducing the environmental variability. PMID:27047194

  2. Sickle Cell Trait

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

  3. Host resistance in cattle to infestation with the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, N N; Piper, E K; Constantinoiu, C C

    2014-11-01

    Resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus infestation in cattle has many effector mechanisms, each of which is likely to be modulated by complex, interacting factors. Some of the mechanisms of host resistance and their modulating factors have been identified and quantified, although much remains to be explained. The variation in resistance to tick infestation is most marked between Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle, taurine cattle given the same exposure carrying between five and 10 times as many ticks as indicine cattle. Tick resistance is mostly manifest against attaching larvae, which attempt to feed often and without success, death occurring mostly within 24 h of finding a host. There is evidence of innate and adaptive immune response to tick infestation, and it appears that the relative importance of each differs between indicine and taurine cattle. There is conflicting information regarding the role of humoral immunity in tick resistance, and recent studies indicate that strong IgG responses to tick antigens are not protective. A strong T-cell-mediated response directed against larval stages, as mounted by indicine cattle, seems to be protective. Variation in the extracellular matrix of skin (epidermal growth factors, collagens and other matrix components such as lumican) also contributes to variation in host resistance. PMID:25313455

  4. Badgers prefer cattle pasture but avoid cattle: implications for bovine tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Ham, Cally; Jackson, Seth Y B; Moyes, Kelly; Chapman, Kayna; Stratton, Naomi G; Cartwright, Samantha J

    2016-10-01

    Effective management of infectious disease relies upon understanding mechanisms of pathogen transmission. In particular, while models of disease dynamics usually assume transmission through direct contact, transmission through environmental contamination can cause different dynamics. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and proximity-sensing contact-collars to explore opportunities for transmission of Mycobacterium bovis [causal agent of bovine tuberculosis] between cattle and badgers (Meles meles). Cattle pasture was badgers' most preferred habitat. Nevertheless, although collared cattle spent 2914 collar-nights in the home ranges of contact-collared badgers, and 5380 collar-nights in the home ranges of GPS-collared badgers, we detected no direct contacts between the two species. Simultaneous GPS-tracking revealed that badgers preferred land > 50 m from cattle. Very infrequent direct contact indicates that badger-to-cattle and cattle-to-badger M. bovis transmission may typically occur through contamination of the two species' shared environment. This information should help to inform tuberculosis control by guiding both modelling and farm management. PMID:27493068

  5. Valuing Fed Cattle Using Objective Tenderness Measures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef tenderness is critical in consumer satisfaction with beef steak products. Current fed cattle valuation systems do not differentiate carcasses based upon tenderness variation. However, considerable research indicates consumers are willing to pay more for tender relative to tough beef steak. T...

  6. Genomic prediction in Japanese Black cattle: application of a single-step approach to beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Onogi, A; Ogino, A; Komatsu, T; Shoji, N; Simizu, K; Kurogi, K; Yasumori, T; Togashi, K; Iwata, H

    2014-03-18

    The implementation of genomic selection for Japanese Black cattle known for rich marbling of their meat, is now being explored. Although multiple-step methods are often adopted for dairy cattle, they present shortcomings such as bias and loss of information in addition to operational complexity. These can be avoided using single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) based on the relationship matrix H, which is constructed from the numerator relationship matrix (A) augmented by the genomic relationship matrix (G). This study assessed the use of ssGBLUP for three economically important traits in Japanese Black cattle. Three aspects of ssGBLUP that are important for practical use were examined specifically: the mixing proportions of blending G with A, selection of subsets of genotyped animals used for constructing H, and prediction ability for ungenotyped animals. Different mixing proportions were tested to assess the influence of these proportions on variance component estimation and prediction accuracy. For all traits, the highest or nearly highest accuracy was obtained when the adopted mixing proportion provided heritability closest to that inferred based on A. However, the accuracy did not increase greatly under adjustment of the mixing proportion, thereby suggesting that the influence of the mixing proportion on the accuracy was limited. Genotype data of influential bulls showed a greater contribution to accuracy than that of bulls which were less influential. Genotyping animals with phenotypic records increased the accuracy. It can be prioritized over genotyping bulls that are not influential on the population. These results are expected to present good guides to the future expansion of genotyped populations. Even for animals without genotype data but with genotyped sires, ssGBLUP provided more accurate prediction than BLUP did. For both phenotype and breeding value prediction, ssGBLUP provides more accurate prediction than BLUP, suggesting its usefulness in genomic

  7. Genomic prediction in Japanese Black cattle: application of a single-step approach to beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Onogi, A; Ogino, A; Komatsu, T; Shoji, N; Simizu, K; Kurogi, K; Yasumori, T; Togashi, K; Iwata, H

    2014-05-01

    The implementation of genomic selection for Japanese Black cattle, known for rich marbling of their meat, is now being explored. Although multiple-step methods are often adopted for dairy cattle, they present shortcomings such as bias and loss of information in addition to operational complexity. These can be avoided using single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) based on the relationship matrix H, which is constructed from the numerator relationship matrix (A) augmented by the genomic relationship matrix (G). This study assessed the use of ssGBLUP for 3 economically important traits in Japanese Black cattle. Three aspects of ssGBLUP that are important for practical use were examined specifically: the mixing proportions of blending G with A, selection of subsets of genotyped animals used for constructing H, and prediction ability for ungenotyped animals. Different mixing proportions were tested to assess the influence of these proportions on variance component estimation and prediction accuracy. For all traits, the highest or nearly highest accuracy was obtained when the adopted mixing proportion provided heritability closest to that inferred based on A. However, the accuracy did not increase greatly under adjustment of the mixing proportion, thereby suggesting that the influence of the mixing proportion on the accuracy was limited. Genotype data of influential bulls showed a greater contribution to accuracy than that of bulls that were less influential. Genotyping animals with phenotypic records increased the accuracy. It can be prioritized over genotyping bulls that are not influential on the population. These results are expected to present good guides to the future expansion of genotyped populations. Even for animals without genotype data but with genotyped sires, ssGBLUP provided more accurate prediction than BLUP did. For both phenotype and breeding value prediction, ssGBLUP provides more accurate prediction than BLUP, suggesting its usefulness in genomic selection

  8. Serum biochemical changes and chemiluminescent responses of whole blood in Holstein cattle with leukocyte adhesion deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Tanaka, S; Oba, M; Minami, S; Noda, H

    1994-08-01

    Serum biochemical profile and whole blood chemiluminescent (CL) responses in 8 Holstein cattle affected with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) were evaluated. Concentrations of sodium, chloride and calcium in serum from cattle affected with LAD were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased as compared with controls. The characteristic changes in serum proteins were hypoalbuminemia and hyperglobulinemia, and the concentrations of albumin and gammaglobulin in serum from normal cattle and cattle affected with LAD were significantly (p < 0.01) different. Significantly (p < 0.01) diminished CL indices and prolonged peak time of CL responses in whole blood were detected in cattle affected with LAD. These findings indicate that the CL response associated with iC3b receptor mediated phagocytic activity is impaired in cattle affected with LAD. The whole blood CL assay appeared to be practical and useful for routine evaluation of blood samples from cattle affected with LAD. PMID:7999886

  9. Influence of beta-agonists (ractopamine HCI and zilpaterol HCI) on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of two beta-agonists [ractopamine hydrochloride (Optaflexx**R) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (Zilmax**R)], recently approved for use in feedlot cattle to improve performance traits and carcass leanness, were examined on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle. Fecal samples (...

  10. Seroepidemiologic survey in Thailand of Coxiella burnetii infection in cattle and chickens and presence in ticks attached to dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Usaki, Noriyo; Thongchai, Chalermchaikit; Kramomtong, Indhira; Kriengsak, Poonsuk; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    A seroepidemiologic survey of Coxiella burnetii in cattle and chickens in Thailand was carried out using indirect fluorescent antibody test. Nine of the 130 serum samples from cattle were positive for antibodies against C. burnetii, with antibody titers ranging from 32 to 64. Only one of 113 serum samples from chickens was seropositive, with antibody titer of 16. No C. burnetii-specific DNA was detected using restriction fragment length polymorphism-nested PCR in spleens of cattle and chickens. However, coxiella DNA was detected in two of 102 engorged Rhipicephalus microplus ticks attached to dairy cattle. These results indicated that infestation of C. burnetii among cattle and chickens is considerably low in Thailand. PMID:25417520

  11. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Gene are Associated with Performance in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Michael Paul; Berry, Donagh P.; Howard, Dawn J.; Diskin, Michael G.; Lynch, Ciaran O.; Giblin, Linda; Kenny, David A.; Magee, David A.; Meade, Kieran G.; Waters, Sinead M.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to (1) identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs (2) determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5′ promoter, intronic, and 3′ regulatory regions, encompassing ~5 kb of IGF-1. Genotyping and associations with daughter performance for milk production, fertility, survival, and measures of body size were undertaken on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires. Using multiple regression analysis nominal associations (P < 0.05) were identified between six SNPs (four novel and two previously identified) and milk composition, survival, body condition score, and body size. The C allele of AF017143 a previously published SNP (C-512T) in the promoter region of IGF-1 predicted to introduce binding sites for transcription factors HSF1 and ZNF217 was associated (P < 0.05) with increased cow carcass weight (i.e., an indicator of mature cow size). Novel SNPs were identified in the 3′ region of IGF-1 were associated (P < 0.05) with functional survival and chest width. The remaining four SNPs, all located within introns of IGF-1 were associated (P < 0.05) with milk protein yield, milk fat yield, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, carcass conformation, and carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of IGF-1 on milk production and growth related traits in cattle. PMID:22303302

  12. Temperament Type Specific Metabolite Profiles of the Prefrontal Cortex and Serum in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Bodo; Hadlich, Frieder; Brandt, Bettina; Schauer, Nicolas; Graunke, Katharina L.; Langbein, Jan; Repsilber, Dirk; Ponsuksili, Siriluk; Schwerin, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade the number of studies investigating temperament in farm animals has increased greatly because temperament has been shown not only to affect handling but also reproduction, health and economically important production traits. However, molecular pathways underlying temperament and molecular pathways linking temperament to production traits, health and reproduction have yet to be studied in full detail. Here we report the results of metabolite profiling of the prefrontal cortex and serum of cattle with distinct temperament types that were performed to further explore their molecular divergence in the response to the slaughter procedure and to identify new targets for further research of cattle temperament. By performing an untargeted comprehensive metabolite profiling, 627 and 1097 metabolite features comprising 235 and 328 metabolites could be detected in the prefrontal cortex and serum, respectively. In total, 54 prefrontal cortex and 51 serum metabolite features were indicated to have a high relevance in the classification of temperament types by a sparse partial least square discriminant analysis. A clear discrimination between fearful/neophobic-alert, interested-stressed, subdued/uninterested-calm and outgoing/neophilic-alert temperament types could be observed based on the abundance of the identified relevant prefrontal cortex and serum metabolites. Metabolites with high relevance in the classification of temperament types revealed that the main differences between temperament types in the response to the slaughter procedure were related to the abundance of glycerophospholipids, fatty acyls and sterol lipids. Differences in the abundance of metabolites related to C21 steroid metabolism and oxidative stress indicated that the differences in the metabolite profiles of the four extreme temperament types could be the result of a temperament type specific regulation of molecular pathways that are known to be involved in the stress and fear response

  13. Anthelmintics for cattle.

    PubMed

    Prichard, R K

    1986-07-01

    A number of anthelmintics are available for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. In North America, O. ostertagi, Cooperia spp., lung worm, and F. hepatica probably cause the greatest losses in production. The older anthelmintics are often deficient in their action against some of these parasites. Recently, the Paratect morantel tartrate slow-release bolus has provided a mechanism for the prevention of infections with gastrointestinal nematodes and lung worm, to some extent, and this has been shown to produce considerable economic benefits. Fenbendazole removes arrested O. ostertagi larvae; thus, its availability is an important step in the prevention of type-2 ostertagiasis. It also has a very broad spectrum of activity that includes most other nematodes and tapeworms and is a very safe anthelmintic. Ivermectin is highly effective against almost all cattle nematodes and also has great value for the control of arthropod ectoparasites. In addition, it and levamisole are the only anti-nematode drugs that can be administered to cattle by injection. Clorsulon is a new, safe anthelmintic that provides good control of liver fluke and, thus, fills a gap in the control of helminths of cattle in North America. The efficient use of anthelmintics in association with management based on a knowledge of parasite epidemiology can ensure that cattle do not rapidly become re-infected. In this way, the benefits from the use of anthelmintics can be very considerable and far greater than the costs of control. PMID:3488116

  14. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or ‘pinkeye’ is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species) eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Methods Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects). Genetic correlations between IBK incidence and tick and helminth egg

  15. Multiple-trait genomic evaluation of linear type traits using genomic and phenotypic data in US Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, S; Misztal, I; Aguilar, I; Lawlor, T J

    2011-08-01

    Currently, the USDA uses a single-trait (ST) model with several intermediate steps to obtain genomic evaluations for US Holsteins. In this study, genomic evaluations for 18 linear type traits were obtained with a multiple-trait (MT) model using a unified single-step procedure. The phenotypic type data on up to 18 traits were available for 4,813,726 Holsteins, and single nucleotide polymorphism markers from the Illumina BovineSNP50 genotyping Beadchip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) were available on 17,293 bulls. Genomic predictions were computed with several genomic relationship matrices (G) that assumed different allele frequencies: equal, base, current, and current scaled. Computations were carried out with ST and MT models. Procedures were compared by coefficients of determination (R(2)) and regression of 2004 prediction of bulls with no daughters in 2004 on daughter deviations of those bulls in 2009. Predictions for 2004 also included parent averages without the use of genomic information. The R(2) for parent averages ranged from 10 to 34% for ST models and from 12 to 35% for MT models. The average R(2) for all G were 34 and 37% for ST and MT models, respectively. All of the regression coefficients were <1.0, indicating that estimated breeding values in 2009 of 1,307 genotyped young bulls' parents tended to be biased. The average regression coefficients ranged from 0.74 to 0.79 and from 0.75 to 0.80 for ST and MT models, respectively. When the weight for the inverse of the numerator relationship matrix (A(-1)) for genotyped animals was reduced from 1 to 0.7, R(2) remained almost identical while the regression coefficients increased by 0.11-0.26 and 0.12-0.23 for ST and MT models, respectively. The ST models required about 5s per iteration, whereas MT models required 3 (6) min per iteration for the regular (genomic) model. The MT single-step approach is feasible for 18 linear type traits in US Holstein cattle. Accuracy for genomic evaluation increases when

  16. Seedstock beef cattle: SPA.

    PubMed

    McGrann, J M; Leachman, L

    1995-07-01

    The Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA) for seedstock beef cattle (SPA-SB) is a recommended set of production and financial performance analysis guidelines developed specifically for the seedstock cow-calf, replacement heifer, and the sale bull enterprises. These guidelines were developed by members of the National Cattlemen's Association (NCA) and the National Integrated Resource Management Coordinating Committee to provide beef cattle producers with a comprehensive, standardized means of measuring, analyzing, and reporting the performance and profitability of an operation. This article describes and illustrates through an example the performance measures chosen. NCA certifies software and education materials conforming to the Seedstock SPA Guidelines. PMID:7584819

  17. Genetic parameter estimates for carcass and yearling ultrasound measurements in Brangus cattle.

    PubMed

    Moser, D W; Bertrand, J K; Misztal, I; Kriese, L A; Benyshek, L L

    1998-10-01

    Carcass measurements of 12th-rib fat thickness (CARCFAT), longissimus muscle area (CARCLMA), and weight (CARCWT) on 2,028 Brangus and Brangus-sired fed steers and heifers, as well as yearling weights (YWT) and ultrasound measures of 12th-rib fat thickness (USFAT) and longissimus muscle area (USLMA) on 3,583 Brangus bulls and heifers were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters. Data were analyzed using a six-trait animal model and an average information REML algorithm. The model included fixed effects for contemporary group and breed of dam, covariates for age at slaughter or measurement, and random animal and residual effects. Heritabilities for CARCFAT, CARCLMA, CARCWT, USFAT, USLMA, and YWT were .27+/-.05, .39+/-.05, .59+/-.06, .11+/-.03, .29+/-.04, and .40+/-.04, respectively. Genetic correlations between CARCFAT and USFAT, CARCLMA and USLMA, and CARCWT and YWT were .69+/-.18, .66+/-.14, and .61+/-.11, respectively. The favorable and moderately strong genetic correlations between carcass measurements and similar yearling breeding-animal ultrasound measurements indicate that such measurements of 12th-rib fat and longissimus muscle area are useful in predicting genetic values for carcass leanness and longissimus muscle area. Selection using yearling ultrasound measurements of breeding cattle should result in predictable genetic improvement for carcass characteristics. Inclusion of yearling ultrasound measurements for fat thickness and longissimus muscle area should enhance national cattle evaluation programs. PMID:9814892

  18. The nature, scope and impact of genomic prediction in beef cattle in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Artificial selection has proven to be effective at altering the performance of animal production systems. Nevertheless, selection based on assessment of the genetic superiority of candidates is suboptimal as a result of errors in the prediction of genetic merit. Conventional breeding programs may extend phenotypic measurements on selection candidates to include correlated indicator traits, or delay selection decisions well beyond puberty so that phenotypic performance can be observed on progeny or other relatives. Extending the generation interval to increase the accuracy of selection reduces annual rates of gain compared to accurate selection and use of parents of the next generation at the immediate time they reach breeding age. Genomic prediction aims at reducing prediction errors at breeding age by exploiting information on the transmission of chromosome fragments from parents to selection candidates, in conjunction with knowledge on the value of every chromosome fragment. For genomic prediction to influence beef cattle breeding programs and the rate or cost of genetic gains, training analyses must be undertaken, and genomic prediction tools made available for breeders and other industry stakeholders. This paper reviews the nature or kind of studies currently underway, the scope or extent of some of those studies, and comments on the likely predictive value of genomic information for beef cattle improvement. PMID:21569623

  19. Bootstrap study of genome-enabled prediction reliabilities using haplotype blocks across Nordic Red cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Cuyabano, B C D; Su, G; Rosa, G J M; Lund, M S; Gianola, D

    2015-10-01

    This study compared the accuracy of genome-enabled prediction models using individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) or haplotype blocks as covariates when using either a single breed or a combined population of Nordic Red cattle. The main objective was to compare predictions of breeding values of complex traits using a combined training population with haplotype blocks, with predictions using a single breed as training population and individual SNP as predictors. To compare the prediction reliabilities, bootstrap samples were taken from the test data set. With the bootstrapped samples of prediction reliabilities, we built and graphed confidence ellipses to allow comparisons. Finally, measures of statistical distances were used to calculate the gain in predictive ability. Our analyses are innovative in the context of assessment of predictive models, allowing a better understanding of prediction reliabilities and providing a statistical basis to effectively calibrate whether one prediction scenario is indeed more accurate than another. An ANOVA indicated that use of haplotype blocks produced significant gains mainly when Bayesian mixture models were used but not when Bayesian BLUP was fitted to the data. Furthermore, when haplotype blocks were used to train prediction models in a combined Nordic Red cattle population, we obtained up to a statistically significant 5.5% average gain in prediction accuracy, over predictions using individual SNP and training the model with a single breed. PMID:26233439

  20. Genome-wide association study for longevity with whole-genome sequencing in 3 cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sahana, Goutam

    2016-09-01

    Longevity is an important economic trait in dairy production. Improvements in longevity could increase the average number of lactations per cow, thereby affecting the profitability of the dairy cattle industry. Improved longevity for cows reduces the replacement cost of stock and enables animals to achieve the highest production period. Moreover, longevity is an indirect indicator of animal welfare. Using whole-genome sequencing variants in 3 dairy cattle breeds, we carried out an association study and identified 7 genomic regions in Holstein and 5 regions in Red Dairy Cattle that were associated with longevity. Meta-analyses of 3 breeds revealed 2 significant genomic regions, located on chromosomes 6 (META-CHR6-88MB) and 18 (META-CHR18-58MB). META-CHR6-88MB overlaps with 2 known genes: neuropeptide G-protein coupled receptor (NPFFR2; 89,052,210-89,059,348 bp) and vitamin D-binding protein precursor (GC; 88,695,940-88,739,180 bp). The NPFFR2 gene was previously identified as a candidate gene for mastitis resistance. META-CHR18-58MB overlaps with zinc finger protein 717 (ZNF717; 58,130,465-58,141,877 bp) and zinc finger protein 613 (ZNF613; 58,115,782-58,117,110 bp), which have been associated with calving difficulties. Information on longevity-associated genomic regions could be used to find causal genes/variants influencing longevity and exploited to improve the reliability of genomic prediction. PMID:27289149

  1. Influence of endogamy and mitochondrial DNA on immunological parameters in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogamy increases the risk of manifestation of deleterious recessive genes. Mitochondrial DNA allows the separation of American Zebu (Bos indicus and Bos taurus) and evaluate the effect of mitochondrial DNA on productive traits of cattle. However, the effect of endogamy and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on the immune system remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between endogamy, mtDNA and immune parameters. Results A total of 86 cattle (43 cows and 43 calves) were used in this study. Age, endogamy, milk yield, and origin of mtDNA were measured and their influence on immunological parameters was evaluated. Older cows had increased CD4+ T cells, decreased CD21+ and γδhigh T cells as well as increased CD4+/CD8+ and T/B ratio. Multiple regression analysis indicated that endogamy in calves was associated with increased CD8+ T and CD21+ B lymphocytes, and decreased γδhigh T cells in peripheral blood. Cows with medium and lower endogamy had a lower percentage of B lymphocytes and γδlow T cells and cows with lower endogamy had higher levels of γδ T cells and γδhigh T cells, as well as the CD4+/CD48+ cell ratio. Calves with higher endogamy had higher levels of CD8+ T lymphocytes, whereas calves with lower endogamy had lower levels of γδlow T cells. Conclusions These results demonstrated for the first time that endogamy influences the immune system of cattle. PMID:24694022

  2. Confirmation of quantitative trait loci using a low-density single nucleotide polymorphism map for twinning and ovulation rate on bovine chromosome 5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional genetic selection, in cattle, for traits with low heritability, such as reproduction, has had very little success. With the addition of DNA technologies to the genetic selection toolbox in livestock, opportunity may exist to improve reproductive efficiency in cattle. The U.S. Meat Anima...

  3. Genetic markers on BTA14 predictive for residual feed intake in beef steers and their effects on carcass and meat quality traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the high cost of feed for animal production, genetic selection for animals that metabolize feed more efficiently could result in substantial cost savings for cattle producers. The purpose of this study was to identify DNA markers predictive for differences among cattle for traits associated wit...

  4. WILD CATTLE MOUNTAIN AND HEART LAKE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Denton, David K., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The results of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas in California indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic, nonmetallic, or fossil fuel resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and noncompetitive geothermal lease applications have been filed on much of the rest of Heart Lake Roadless Area. Both areas are adjacent to Lassen Volcanic National Park. Geochemical and geologic data indicate that the thermal manifestations in the Park and at Growler and Morgan Hot Springs just southwest of Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area are part of the same large geothermal system. Consequently, the entire Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of the Heart Lake Roadless Area have a substantiated geothermal resource potential; the rest of the Heart Lake Roadless Area has a probable geothermal resource potential.

  5. Uncertainty quantified trait predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazayeli, Farideh; Kattge, Jens; Banerjee, Arindam; Schrodt, Franziska; Reich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Functional traits of organisms are key to understanding and predicting biodiversity and ecological change, which motivates continuous collection of traits and their integration into global databases. Such composite trait matrices are inherently sparse, severely limiting their usefulness for further analyses. On the other hand, traits are characterized by the phylogenetic trait signal, trait-trait correlations and environmental constraints, all of which provide information that could be used to statistically fill gaps. We propose the application of probabilistic models which, for the first time, utilize all three characteristics to fill gaps in trait databases and predict trait values at larger spatial scales. For this purpose we introduce BHPMF, a hierarchical Bayesian extension of Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF). PMF is a machine learning technique which exploits the correlation structure of sparse matrices to impute missing entries. BHPMF additionally utilizes the taxonomic hierarchy for trait prediction. Implemented in the context of a Gibbs Sampler MCMC approach BHPMF provides uncertainty estimates for each trait prediction. We present comprehensive experimental results on the problem of plant trait prediction using the largest database of plant traits, where BHPMF shows strong empirical performance in uncertainty quantified trait prediction, outperforming the state-of-the-art based on point estimates. Further, we show that BHPMF is more accurate when it is confident, whereas the error is high when the uncertainty is high.

  6. Increasing the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms used in genomic evaluation of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Wiggans, G R; Cooper, T A; VanRaden, P M; Van Tassell, C P; Bickhart, D M; Sonstegard, T S

    2016-06-01

    GeneSeek (Neogen Corp., Lexington, KY) designed a new version of the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler HD BeadChip for Dairy Cattle, which originally had >77,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). A set of >140,000 SNP was selected that included all SNP on the existing GeneSeek chip, all SNP used in US national genomic evaluations, SNP that were possible functional mutations, and other informative SNP. Because SNP with a lower minor allele frequency might track causative variants better, 30,000 more SNP were selected from the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) by choosing SNP to maximize differences in minor allele frequency between a SNP being considered for the new chip and the 2 SNP that flanked it. Single-gene tests were included if their location was known and bioinformatics indicated relevance for dairy cattle. To determine which SNP from the new chip should be included in genomic evaluations, genotypes available from chips already in use were used to impute and evaluate the SNP set. Effects for 134,511 usable SNP were estimated for all breed-trait combinations; SNP with the largest absolute values for effects were selected (5,000 for Holsteins, 1,000 for Jerseys, and 500 each for Brown Swiss and Ayrshires for each trait). To increase overlap with the 60,671 SNP currently used for genomic evaluation, 12,094 more SNP with the largest effects were added. After removing SNP with many parent-progeny conflicts, 84,937 SNP remained. Three cutoff studies were conducted with 3 SNP sets to determine reliability gain over that for parent average when evaluations based on August 2011 data were used to predict December 2014 performance. Across all traits, mean Holstein reliability gains were 32.5, 33.4, and 32.0 percentage points for 60,671, 84,937, and 134,511 SNP, respectively. After genotypes from the new chip became available, the proposed set was reduced from 84,937 to 77,321 SNP to remove SNP that were not included during manufacture

  7. Lack of haplotype structuring for two candidate genes for trypanotolerance in cattle.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, I; Pérez-Pardal, L; Traoré, A; Fernández, I; Goyache, F

    2016-04-01

    Bovine trypanotolerance is a heritable trait associated to the ability of the individuals to control parasitaemia and anaemia. The INHBA (BTA4) and TICAM1 (BTA7) genes are strong candidates for trypanotolerance-related traits. The coding sequence of both genes (3951 bp in total) were analysed in a panel including 79 Asian, African and European cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus) to identify naturally occurring polymorphisms on both genes. In general, the genetic diversity was low. Nineteen of the 33 mutations identified were found just one time. Seventeen different haplotypes were defined for the TICAM1 gene, and 9 and 12 were defined for the exon 1 and the exon 2 of the INHBA gene, respectively. There was no clear separation between cattle groups. The most frequent haplotypes identified in West African taurine samples were also identified in other cattle groups including Asian zebu and European cattle. Phylogenetic trees and principal component analysis confirmed that divergence among the cattle groups analysed was poor, particularly for the INHBA sequences. The European cattle subset had the lowest values of haplotype diversity for both the exon1 (monomorphic) and the exon2 (0.077 ± 0.066) of the INHBA gene. Neutrality tests, in general, did not suggest that the analysed genes were under positive selection. The assessed scenario would be consistent with the identification of recent mutations in evolutionary terms. PMID:26365013

  8. Profile of biochemical traits influencing tenderness of muscles from the beef round.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M J; Lonergan, S M; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K J; Binning, J M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to define the biochemical differences that govern tenderness and palatability of economically important muscles from the beef round using cuts with known tenderness differences. At 24h postmortem, the longissimus dorsi (LD), gracillus (GR), adductor (AD), semimembranosus (SM), sartorius (SAR), vastus lateralis (VL), and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles were removed from ten market weight beef cattle. Sensory and biochemical characteristics were determined in each cut and compared with the LD. The GR, SAR and VI had sensory traits similar to the LD while the SM, AD and VL differed. The GR, SAR, AD, and SM all had multiple biochemical characteristics similar to the LD, while the VI and AD had numerous biochemical differences. While no one biochemical characteristic can be used to predict tenderness across all muscles, analysis of the biochemical characteristics revealed that in most beef round cuts postmortem proteolysis provided a good indication of the tenderization occurring during aging. PMID:22386323

  9. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the requirements for cattle in this subpart and in 9 CFR part 86. (Approved by the Office of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rodeo cattle. 78.14 Section 78.14... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo cattle. (a) Rodeo cattle that are...

  10. US consortium for the genetic improvement of feed efficiency in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection is the only technology proven to unabatedly increase the food produced per animal. However, the cost and difficulty of measurement of feed efficiency (FE) in cattle has constrained quantitative genetic improvement to primarily output traits such as growth, meat yield and quality. As the wo...

  11. Deletion on chromosome 5 associated with decreased reproductive efficiency in female cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive efficiency is arguably the most economically important trait in commercial beef cattle production, as failure to achieve pregnancy reduces the number of calves marketed per cow exposed to breeding. Identification of variation in the genome with predictive merit for reproductive success...

  12. Recent artificial selection in U.S. Jersey cattle impacts autozygosity levels of specific genomic regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome signatures of artificial selection in U.S. Jersey cattle were identified by examining changes in haplotype homozygosity for a resource population of animals born between 1962 and 2005. Genetic merit of this population changed dramatically during this period for a number of traits, especially ...

  13. Gut bacterial communities and their association with production parameters in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the past decade, the development and use of novel nutritional, genomic, and genetic improvement technologies has promoted and lead to great increases in the genetic propensity of beef cattle for a variety of traits including growth, carcass composition, and specifically feed efficiency. Howe...

  14. Genome-wide detection of signatures of selection in Korean Hanwoo cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Korean Hanwoo cattle have been intensively selected for production traits, especially high intramuscular fat content. It is believed that ancient crossings between different breeds contributed to forming the Hanwoo, but little is known about the genomic differences and similarities between other...

  15. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nellore cattle play an important role in beef production in tropical systems and there is great interest in determining if genomic selection can contribute to accelerate genetic improvement of production and fertility in this breed. We present the first results of the implementation of genomic prediction in a Bos indicus (Nellore) population. Methods Influential bulls were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine HD chip in order to assess genomic predictive ability for weight and carcass traits, gestation length, scrotal circumference and two selection indices. 685 samples and 320 238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used in the analyses. A forward-prediction scheme was adopted to predict the genomic breeding values (DGV). In the training step, the estimated breeding values (EBV) of bulls were deregressed (dEBV) and used as pseudo-phenotypes to estimate marker effects using four methods: genomic BLUP with or without a residual polygenic effect (GBLUP20 and GBLUP0, respectively), a mixture model (Bayes C) and Bayesian LASSO (BLASSO). Empirical accuracies of the resulting genomic predictions were assessed based on the correlation between DGV and dEBV for the testing group. Results Accuracies of genomic predictions ranged from 0.17 (navel at weaning) to 0.74 (finishing precocity). Across traits, Bayesian regression models (Bayes C and BLASSO) were more accurate than GBLUP. The average empirical accuracies were 0.39 (GBLUP0), 0.40 (GBLUP20) and 0.44 (Bayes C and BLASSO). Bayes C and BLASSO tended to produce deflated predictions (i.e. slope of the regression of dEBV on DGV greater than 1). Further analyses suggested that higher-than-expected accuracies were observed for traits for which EBV means differed significantly between two breeding subgroups that were identified in a principal component analysis based on genomic relationships. Conclusions Bayesian regression models are of interest for future applications of genomic selection in this population

  16. Genetic evaluation of Ethiopian Boran cattle and their crosses with Holstein Friesian for growth performance in central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haile, A; Joshi, B K; Ayalew, W; Tegegne, A; Singh, A

    2011-04-01

    Breed additive and non-additive effects, and heritabilities of birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), 6 months weight (SMWT), yearling weight (YWT), eighteen months weight (EWT), 2 years weight (TWT) and average daily weight gain from birth to 6 months (ADG1) and from 6 months to 2 years (ADG2) were estimated in Ethiopian Boran (B) cattle and their crosses with Holstein Friesian (F) in central Ethiopia. The data analysed were spread over 15 years. Ethiopian Boran were consistently lighter (p < 0.01) than the B-F crosses at all ages. Ethiopian Boran also gained lower weight than all the crosses. At birth, 50% F crosses were significantly (p < 0.01) lighter than all the other crosses. However, the differences in SMWT, YWT, EWT, TWT, ADG1 and ADG2 were all non-significant among the crosses. The individual additive breed differences between B and F breeds were positive and significant (p < 0.01) for all traits. The individual heterosis effects were significant (p < 0.05) for all traits except WWT for which the effect was non-significant. The maternal heterosis effects were significant (p < 0.01) for BWT (2.5 kg) and WWT (-3.0 kg). The heritability estimates for all traits in B and crosses were generally moderate to high indicating that there is scope for genetic improvement through selection. Selection within B and crossbreeding should be the strategy to enhance the growth performance under such production systems. PMID:21385228

  17. Genetic study of skin thickness and its association with postweaning growth in Nellore cattle: estimation of the genetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, A M; Oliveira, M C S; Cyrillo, J N S G; Albuquerque, L G; Curi, R A; Silva, J A Iiv

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for skin thickness (ST) and postweaning weight gain (PWG550) in Nellore cattle. Records were obtained from 152,392 Nellore animals born between 2001 and 2011. ST was measured in the posterior region of the animal's scapula with a millimeter caliper. The animals were assigned to different contemporary groups, formed on the basis of farm, year, sex, feeding regimen at weaning, date of weaning, feeding regimen at 450 days of age, and date of weighing at 450 days of age. The genetic parameters were estimated by Bayesian analysis using the GIBBS1F90 program. The mean ST and PWG550 observed were 7.71 ± 2.04 mm and 115.95 ± 36.17 kg, respectively. The posterior mean estimates of heritability (h2) were 0.12 ± 0.02 and 0.29 ± 0.02 for ST and PWG550, respectively. The posterior mean estimates of the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental correlations between the traits were 0.16 ± 0.0, 0.17 ± 0.02, and 0.17 ± 0.09, respectively. The traits ST and PWG550 showed sufficient additive genetic variance to be used as selection criteria in breeding programs. The low genetic correlation obtained indicates that genes favoring the expression of one trait may not influence the other. Consequently, a selection favoring ST would be less efficient in increasing PWG550. PMID:26909980

  18. Genetic parameters of ascites-related traits in broilers: correlations with feed efficiency and carcase traits.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Vereijken, A L J; Bovenhuis, H

    2005-02-01

    (1) Pulmonary hypertension syndrome followed by ascites is a metabolic disorder in broilers that occurs more often in fast-growing birds and at cool temperatures. (2) Knowledge of the genetic relationships among ascites-related traits and performance traits like carcase traits or feed efficiency traits is required to design breeding programmes that aim to improve the degree of resistance to ascites syndrome as well as production traits. The objective of this study was to estimate these genetic correlations. (3) Three different experiments were set up to measure ascites-related traits (4202 birds), feed efficiency traits (2166 birds) and carcase traits (2036 birds). The birds in different experiments originated from the same group of parents, which enabled the estimation of genetic correlations among different traits. (4) The genetic correlation of body weight (BW) measured under normal conditions and in the carcase experiment with the ascites indicator trait of right ventricle to total ventricle ratio (RV:TV) measured under cold conditions was 0.30. The estimated genetic correlation indicated that single-trait selecting for BW leads to an increase in occurrence of the ascites syndrome but that there are realistic opportunities of multi-trait selection of birds for improved BW and resistance to ascites. (5) Weak but positive genetic relationships were found between feed efficiency and ascites-related traits suggesting that more efficient birds tend to be slightly more susceptible to ascites. (6) The relatively low genetic correlation between BW measured in the carcase or in the feed efficiency experiments and BW measured in the ascites experiment (0.49) showed considerable genotype by environment interaction. (7) These results indicate that birds with high genetic potential for growth rate under normal temperature conditions have lower growth rate under cold-stress conditions due to ascites. PMID:15835251

  19. Whole Trait Theory

    PubMed Central

    Fleeson, William; Jayawickreme, Eranda

    2014-01-01

    Personality researchers should modify models of traits to include mechanisms of differential reaction to situations. Whole Trait Theory does so via five main points. First, the descriptive side of traits should be conceptualized as density distributions of states. Second, it is important to provide an explanatory account of the Big 5 traits. Third, adding an explanatory account to the Big 5 creates two parts to traits, an explanatory part and a descriptive part, and these two parts should be recognized as separate entities that are joined into whole traits. Fourth, Whole Trait Theory proposes that the explanatory side of traits consists of social-cognitive mechanisms. Fifth, social-cognitive mechanisms that produce Big-5 states should be identified. PMID:26097268

  20. Polymorphisms in positional candidate genes on BTA14 and BTA26 affect carcass quality in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Marques, E; Nkrumah, J D; Sherman, E L; Moore, S S

    2009-08-01

    Several studies have reported the presence of carcass quality QTL on BTA14 and BTA26, with no specific genes being conclusively linked as their cause. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms in genes known to affect lipid metabolism in other species and to assess their association with carcass quality traits. Two genes located on BTA14, 2,4 dienoyl CoA reductase 1 (DECR1) and core binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2, translocated to 1 gene (CBFA2T1), have been previously evaluated in other species and found to contain polymorphisms influencing lipid metabolism. A gene on BTA26, fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8), has in recent studies been linked to several QTL affecting obesity in mice, indicating its potential for regulating adiposity in other species. Sequencing analysis identified 9 polymorphisms in DECR1, 4 in CBFA2T1, and 4 in FGF8. Multiple sequence alignment of DECR1 among cattle, humans, and mice showed that 4 of these mutations lie in conserved regions across these species. Using 464 Angus, Charolais, and crossbred animals produced associations with ultrasound marbling score (CBFA2T1, P = 0.019), ultrasound backfat (DECR1, P = 0.012), carcass backfat (FGF8, P = 0.004), and lean meat yield (FGF8, P = 0.005). Quantitative trait loci analysis including a set of previously genotyped markers on BTA14, and 1 DECR1 polymorphism resulted in several significant QTL peaks: ultrasound backfat (UBF) at 91 cM, lean meat yield at 86 cM, carcass gradefat at 15 cM, and yield grade at 87 cM, all at the P < 0.05 level. Using DECR1 as a genetic covariate removed the UBF QTL, indicating that this SNP was contributing to the variation observed in UBF. A similar analysis was performed on BTA26 using 1 of the FGF8 polymorphisms. Results showed significant peaks for lean meat yield at 2 cM and for yield grade at 25 cM, both at P < 0.01, and for carcass backfat at 25 cM (P < 0.05). Removal of FGF8 SNP in further analysis resulted in the disappearance of the

  1. Cattle cults of the Arabian Neolithic and early territorial societies.

    PubMed

    McCorriston, Joy; Harrower, Michael; Martin, Louise; Oches, Eric

    2012-01-01

    At the cusp of food production, Near Eastern societies adopted new territorial practices, including archaeologically visible sedentism and nonsedentary social defenses more challenging to identify archaeologically. New archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence for Arabia's earliest-known sacrifices points to territorial maintenance in arid highland southern Yemen. Here sedentism was not an option prior to agriculture. Seasonally mobile pastoralists developed alternate practices to reify cohesive identities, maintain alliances, and defend territories. Archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence implies cattle sacrifices were commemorated with a ring of more than 42 cattle skulls and a stone platform buried by 6,400-year-old floodplain sediments. Associated with numerous hearths, these cattle rites suggest feasting by a large gathering, with important sociopolitical ramifications for territories. A GIS analysis of the early Holocene landscape indicates constrained pasturage supporting small resident human populations. Cattle sacrifice in southern Arabia suggests a model of mid-Holocene Neolithic territorial pastoralism under environmental and cultural conditions that made sedentism unsusta PMID:22662353

  2. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    PubMed

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production. PMID:27173954

  3. Temporal dynamics between cattle in-stream presence and suspended solids in a headwater catchment.

    PubMed

    Terry, Julie A; McW H Benskin, Clare; Eastoe, Emma F; Haygarth, Philip M

    2014-07-01

    Cattle in-stream activity is potentially an important contributor to water pollution from agriculture. Here we present research on the physical movements of cattle within a stream on suspended solid concentrations (SSC). This study used camera surveillance to monitor the in-stream activity of dairy cattle in an unfenced reach over a four-month period. Results were compared against high-resolution SSC data. Over the days that cattle grazed the field, 57.9% of the instances when SSC crossed the 25 mg l(-1) Freshwater Fish Directive guideline threshold can be attributed to cattle presence in the stream. Flow was the main driver of total sediments transported over the study period, and no relationship was found between SSC and the absolute number of cattle feet in the water. Hysteresis analysis indicated a 'first-flush' of local sediments rapidly mobilised during the non-cattle related SSC events, a result of cattle proximity to channel margins. Results demonstrate a temporal lag between cattle in-stream presence and a critical amount of their contribution to sediment load, and that monitoring only instantaneously with cattle activity may lead to underestimation of their pollution impact. PMID:24522791

  4. The nasopharyngeal microbiota of feedlot cattle that develop bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; McAllister, Tim A; Topp, Edward; Wright, André-Denis G; Alexander, Trevor W

    2015-10-22

    Bovine respiratory disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. The objective of this study was to compare the nasopharyngeal bacterial microbiota of healthy cattle and cattle treated for BRD in a commercial feedlot setting using a high-density 16S rRNA gene microarray (Phylochip). Samples were taken from both groups of animals (n=5) at feedlot entry (day 0) and ≥60 days after placement. Cattle diagnosed with BRD had significantly less bacterial diversity and fewer OTUs in their nasopharynx at both sampling times. The predominant phyla in both groups were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria was lower in cattle treated for BRD. At the family-level there was a greater relative abundance (P<0.05) of Micrococcaceae (day 0 only), Lachnospiraceae (≥60 days), Lactobacillaceae (day 0), and Bacillaceae (day 0) in healthy cattle compared to BRD-affected cattle. The community structure of the BRD-affected and healthy cattle were also significantly different from each other at both sampling times as measured using unweighted UniFrac distances. All entry samples of cattle diagnosed with BRD had 16S rRNA gene sequences representative of the BRD-associated bacteria Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida, although 3/5 healthy cattle were also positive for M. haemolytica at this time point. The results also indicate that the bovine nasopharyngeal microbiota is relatively unstable during the first 60 days in the feedlot. PMID:26249828

  5. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World

    PubMed Central

    Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae

    2015-01-01

    At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers. PMID:26104394

  6. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World.

    PubMed

    Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae

    2015-07-01

    At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers. PMID:26104394

  7. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes and meat cattle in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Laura M J de F; Damé, Maria Cecília F; Cademartori, Beatris G; da Cunha Filho, Nilton A; Farias, Nara Amélia da R; Ruas, Jerônimo L

    2013-09-01

    Serum samples from 169 water buffaloes and 121 beef cattle were analyzed for antibodies to T. gondii by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Positive results were obtained in 27.2% of water buffaloes and 17.4% of cattle. Statistical analysis indicated significant differences between the prevalence in cattle and buffalo (p ≤ 0.05). The highest titres found in positive animals were 1:256 (buffaloes) and 1:64 (cattle). In both bovine species, toxoplasmosis frequency in young animals (less than 2 years old) was lower compared to older individuals, although the differences seen in cattle were not statistically significant. PMID:23990431

  8. Economics of gastrointestinal parasitism of cattle.

    PubMed

    Corwin, R M

    1997-11-01

    cost and labor in administration of AH. Return is based on performance. Again, nematode parasites can disturb the equation enough to make production less profitable or even unprofitable. Most USA beef cattle producers believe that worm parasites do have an effect on cattle health and production so that 77% use AH and the market impact is that AH have become integrated into cattle herd health programs. However, to be most cost-effective, programs must be strategic but flexible with scheduling tailored for the region and the cattle operation. Other technologies should eventually provide rapid identification of worm populations by species and numbers and recognition of individual animal response to parasites and inheritance of that trait by their progeny. Computerized programs for analysis of seasonality of the epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites and of herd performance could predict appropriate timing and cost benefit for control measures. Modes of AH administration are being developed which are more reliable and convenient in terms of delivery and labor. Control measures must also include better pasture management with less impact on the environment and to justify investment in land. In addition, successful producers are better educated, more cost-conscious, consumer-oriented, sensitive to the environment and attuned to the economics of parasitism. PMID:9460211

  9. New phenotypes for new breeding goals in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boichard, D; Brochard, M

    2012-04-01

    Cattle production faces new challenges regarding sustainability with its three pillars - economic, societal and environmental. The following three main factors will drive dairy cattle selection in the future: (1) During a long period, intensive selection for enhanced productivity has deteriorated most functional traits, some reaching a critical point and needing to be restored. This is especially the case for the Holstein breed and for female fertility, mastitis resistance, longevity and metabolic diseases. (2) Genomic selection offers two new opportunities: as the potential genetic gain can be almost doubled, more traits can be efficiently selected; phenotype recording can be decoupled from selection and limited to several thousand animals. (3) Additional information from other traits can be used, either from existing traditional recording systems at the farm level or from the recent and rapid development of new technologies and precision farming. Milk composition (i.e. mainly fatty acids) should be adapted to better meet human nutritional requirements. Fatty acids can be measured through a new interpretation of the usual medium infrared spectra. Milk composition can also provide additional information about reproduction and health. Modern milk recorders also provide new information, that is, on milking speed or on the shape of milking curves. Electronic devices measuring physiological or activity parameters can predict physiological status like estrus or diseases, and can record behavioral traits. Slaughterhouse data may permit effective selection on carcass traits. Efficient observatories should be set up for early detection of new emerging genetic defects. In the near future, social acceptance of cattle production could depend on its capacity to decrease its ecological footprint. The first solution consists in increasing survival and longevity to reduce replacement needs and the number of nonproductive animals. At the individual level, selection on rumen

  10. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingbo; Li, Pei; Zhao, Xiaoping; Xu, Hailing; Wu, Wenxian; Wang, Yuanfei; Guo, Yaqiong; Wang, Lin; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-30

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are important protists in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal diseases. Cattle are considered potential reservoirs of Cryptosporidium infection in humans, although their role in the transmission of E. bieneusi is not clear. In the present work, 793 fecal specimens from dairy cattle, native beef cattle, and water buffaloes on 11 farms in China were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi using nested PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium spp. and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of E. bieneusi. For Cryptosporidium, 144/446 (32.3%) dairy cattle, 44/166 (26.5%) beef cattle, and 43/181 (23.8%) water buffaloes were PCR-positive. Sequence analysis was successful for 213 of the 231 Cryptosporidium-positive isolates; among them 94 had Cryptosporidium andersoni, 61 had Cryptosporidium bovis, 54 had Cryptosporidium ryanae, 2 had a Cryptosporidium suis-like genotype, and 2 had mixed infections of C. bovis and C. ryanae. In dairy and beef cattle, C. andersoni and C. bovis were the most common species, whereas C. ryanae was the dominant species in water buffaloes. The latter species produced SSU rRNA sequences different between cattle and water buffaloes. For E. bieneusi, the infection rate of E. bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes was 4.9%, 5.4% and 2.2%, respectively. All 35 E. bieneusi-positive specimens were successfully sequenced, revealing the presence of four genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (I, J and BEB4) and one Group 1 genotype recently reported in yaks (CHN11). Genotypes I and J were the most common genotypes in dairy and beef cattle, while genotype CHN11 was the only genotype seen in water buffaloes. Thus, the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in water buffaloes might be different from in dairy and beef cattle in China. These findings indicate that some

  11. Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y. F.; Sun, F. F.; Wan, F. C.; Zhao, H. B.; Liu, X. M.; You, W.; Cheng, H. J.; Liu, G. F.; Tan, X. W.; Song, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). Consumption per kg weight gain of concentrate, silage, and combined net energy (NEmf) were significantly decreased when cattle received TMR, unlike when they received SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05), indicating that the feed efficiency of TMR was the highest. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly decreased when cattle received TMR compared with that in cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference compared with that in cattle receiving SI2. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). The rumen area of cattle that received TMR was significantly larger than that of cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), but there was no difference compared with that of cattle receiving SI2. Although there was no significant difference among the three feeding systems in rumen digesta particle distribution, the TMR group trended to have fewer large- and medium-sized particles and more small-sized particles than those in the SI1 and SI2 groups. In conclusion, cattle with dietary TMR showed increased weight gain and ruminal development and decreased BUN. This indicated that TMR feeding was more conducive toward improving the production performance and rumen fermentation of beef cattle. PMID:26954181

  12. Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y F; Sun, F F; Wan, F C; Zhao, H B; Liu, X M; You, W; Cheng, H J; Liu, G F; Tan, X W; Song, E L

    2016-05-01

    The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). Consumption per kg weight gain of concentrate, silage, and combined net energy (NEmf) were significantly decreased when cattle received TMR, unlike when they received SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05), indicating that the feed efficiency of TMR was the highest. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly decreased when cattle received TMR compared with that in cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference compared with that in cattle receiving SI2. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). The rumen area of cattle that received TMR was significantly larger than that of cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), but there was no difference compared with that of cattle receiving SI2. Although there was no significant difference among the three feeding systems in rumen digesta particle distribution, the TMR group trended to have fewer large- and medium-sized particles and more small-sized particles than those in the SI1 and SI2 groups. In conclusion, cattle with dietary TMR showed increased weight gain and ruminal development and decreased BUN. This indicated that TMR feeding was more conducive toward improving the production performance and rumen fermentation of beef cattle. PMID:26954181

  13. Evaluating the tuberculosis hazard posed to cattle from wildlife across Europe.

    PubMed

    Hardstaff, Joanne L; Marion, Glenn; Hutchings, Michael R; White, Piran C L

    2014-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and other closely related members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) infects many domestic and wildlife species across Europe. Transmission from wildlife species to cattle complicates the control of disease in cattle. By determining the level of TB hazard for which a given wildlife species is responsible, the potential for transmission to the cattle population can be evaluated. We undertook a quantitative review of TB hazard across Europe on a country-by-country basis for cattle and five widely-distributed wildlife species. Cattle posed the greatest current and potential TB hazard other cattle for the majority of countries in Europe. Wild boar posed the greatest hazard of all the wildlife species, indicating that wild boar have the greatest ability to transmit the disease to cattle. The most common host systems for TB hazards in Europe are the cattle-deer-wild boar ones. The cattle-roe deer-wild boar system is found in 10 countries, and the cattle-red deer-wild boar system is found in five countries. The dominance of cattle with respect to the hazards in many regions confirms that intensive surveillance of cattle for TB should play an important role in any TB control programme. The significant contribution that wildlife can make to the TB hazard to cattle is also of concern, given current population and distribution increases of some susceptible wildlife species, especially wild boar and deer, and the paucity of wildlife TB surveillance programmes. PMID:24423727

  14. Characteristics of Fluid Composition of Left Displaced Abomasum in Beef Cattle Fed High-Starch Diets

    PubMed Central

    ICHIJO, Toshihiro; SATOH, Hiroshi; YOSHIDA, Yuki; MURAYAMA, Isao; KIKUCHI, Tomoko; SATO, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To clarify the pathophysiology of left displaced abomasum (LDA), beef cattle fed high-starch diets were examined. The abomasal pH in beef cattle with LDA was lower than that in non-LDA reference animals (data from beef cattle at an abattoir), suggesting that it facilitated acidity. Bacteriological examinations of the abomasal fluid in cattle with LDA revealed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Candida spp., presumably reflecting the accelerated influx of ruminal fluid into the abomasum. Biochemical analyses of serum revealed that LDA cattle had higher lactic acid and lower vitamin A and E levels than non-LDA reference animals. These results indicate that beef cattle with LDA may suffer from vitamin A and E deficiencies due to maldigestion of starch and the high acidity of abomasal fluid. PMID:24813464

  15. Assessing the Utility of Compound Trait Estimates of Narrow Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Credé, Marcus; Harms, Peter D; Blacksmith, Nikki; Wood, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that approximations of narrow traits can be made through linear combinations of broad traits such as the Big Five personality traits. Indeed, Hough and Ones ( 2001 ) used a qualitative analysis of scale content to arrive at a taxonomy of how Big Five traits might be combined to approximate various narrow traits. However, the utility of such compound trait approximations has yet to be established beyond specific cases such as integrity and customer service orientation. Using data from the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample (Goldberg, 2008 ), we explore the ability of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits to approximate scores on 127 narrow trait measures from 5 well-known non-Big-Five omnibus measures of personality. Our findings indicate that individuals' standing on more than 30 narrow traits can be well estimated from 3 different types of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits without a substantial sacrifice in criterion validity. We discuss theoretical accounts for why such relationships exist as well as the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners. PMID:27153207

  16. Tracing the genetic roots of the indigenous White Park Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, A; Alderson, L; Fandrey, E; Lieckfeldt, D; Soederlund, T K; Froelich, K

    2013-08-01

    The White Park Cattle (WPC) is an indigenous ancient breed from the British Isles which has a long-standing history in heroic sagas and documents. The WPC has retained many primitive traits, especially in their grazing behaviour and preferences. Altogether, the aura of this breed has led to much speculation surrounding its origin. In this study, we sequenced the mitogenomes from 27 WPC and three intronic fragments of genes from the Y chromosome of three bulls. We observed six novel mitogenomic lineages that have not been found in any other cattle breed so far. We found no evidence that the WPC is a descendant of a particular North or West European branch of aurochs. The WPC mitogenomes are grouped in the T3 cluster together with most other domestic breeds. Nevertheless, both molecular markers support the primitive position of the WPC within the taurine breeds. PMID:23350719

  17. A Multidimensional Measure of Trait Anxiety: The S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endler, Norman S.; Okada, Marilyn

    1975-01-01

    The S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness was administered to samples of normal youth, normal adult, neurotic, and psychotic subjects. The practical and theoretical uses of the inventory are discussed, and it is specifically indicated how the inventory could be used to extend the Speilberger state-trait anxiety theory. (Author)

  18. Analysis of mononuclear cell functions in Holstein cattle with leukocyte adhesion deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Nochi, H; Sanada, Y; Tamoto, K; Noda, H; Kociba, G J

    1994-08-01

    Lymphocyte functions in cattle affected with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD, termed BLAD in cattle) were evaluated by lymphocyte markers, blastogenic response, and immunoglobulin concentrations; mononuclear phagocyte functions were assessed by chemotactic and luminol-dependent chemiluminescent (CL) responses to determine the effects of impaired expression of leukocyte CD18 on mononuclear cell functions. Deficient CD18 expression on lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes from cattle with BLAD was clearly detected by use of flow cytometric analysis. There were no significant differences in the population of peanut agglutinin (PNA)-positive and surface immunoglobulin-bearing blood lymphocytes from clinically normal cattle and cattle with BLAD, as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Lymphocytes from cattle with BLAD had strong mitogen-induced blastogenic responses, which were greater than those from controls. Adherence of mononuclear phagocytes from cattle with BLAD was markedly impaired, and their chemotactic responses had diminished values, compared with those of controls. Luminol-dependent CL of mononuclear phagocytes from affected cattle, stimulated by opsonized zymosan, had significantly (P < 0.01) decreased values, compared with those of controls. Concentrations of IgG were markedly increased in serum from cattle with BLAD, compared with those in controls. These results indicated that impaired expression of leukocyte CD18 has marked effects on adhering activity of mononuclear phagocytes, and significantly inhibits CL response of mononuclear phagocytes mediated by inactivated-complement 3b-dependent functions. High selective immunoglobulin concentrations indicated that lymphocytes of B-cell lineage may have normal function. PMID:7978649

  19. Restricted genetic diversity in the ubiquitous cattle parasite, Sarcocystis cruzi.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dunams, Detiger B; Pritt, Bobbi

    2008-09-01

    Although parasites of the genus Sarcocystis have likely cycled between bovine herbivores and canine carnivores for tens of millions of years, humans may have profoundly influenced the ecology and evolution of those prevalent in domesticated dogs and cattle. To preliminarily assess the possibility of such anthropogenic effects, we surveyed genetic variation in conserved (18S small subunit) and variable (ITS-1) portions of ribosomal DNA from a large sample of Sarcocystis cruzi occurring in taurine beef cattle raised in the United States and Uruguay, and compared these data to available homologues, including those reported from zebu cattle, water buffalo, and bison. For additional context, we compared the apparent diversity of cattle parasites to that reported from congeneric parasites in other hosts. We find that the S. cruzi of taurine cattle, whether derived from the Americas or Asia, are devoid of variability in the sequenced portion (80%) of the small subunit rDNA. By contrast, geographically limited samples of related parasites in other hosts, including those of wildlife, are more variable. At the adjacent ITS-1 locus, allelic distribution patterns did not indicate any regional barriers to gene flow, suggesting that the parasite may have been introduced to the Americas via a common source such as domesticated dogs or cattle. Thus, human impact on this parasite's distribution and diversification would seem to have been great. PMID:18501682

  20. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison; Katholi, Charles R.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Machang'u, Robert R.; Portaels, Françoise; Leirs, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were divided into “reacting” and “nonreacting” farms, based on tuberculin tests, and more mycobacteria were present in insectivores collected in reacting farms as compared to nonreacting farms. More mycobacteria were also present in insectivores as compared to rodents. All mycobacteria detected by culture and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely. However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania. PMID:21785686

  1. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: BEEF CATTLE FEEDLOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study of atmospheric emissions of fugitive dusts and volatile products from beef cattle feedlots. Total particulate emissions are affected by feedlot area, cattle density in pens, wind speed, and the regional precipitation-evaporation index. The predominant...

  2. Heat stress in feedlot cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress in feedlot cattle is a common summer time occurrence in cattle-producing parts of the world (United States, Australia, Brazil, etc.). The impact of heat stress on feedlot animals is quite varied--from little to no effect in a brief exposure, to causing reductions in feed intake, growth,...

  3. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  4. Time trends, environmental factors and genetic basis of semen traits collected in Holstein bulls under commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Karoui, Sofiene; Díaz, Clara; Serrano, Magdalena; Cue, Roger; Celorrio, Idoia; Carabaño, María J

    2011-03-01

    The fact that results of artificial insemination (AI) are declining in highly selected dairy cattle populations has added a renewed interest to the evaluation of male fertility. Data from 42,348 ejaculates collected from 1990 to 2007 on 502 Holstein bulls were analysed in a Bayesian framework to provide estimates of the evolution of semen traits routinely collected in AI centres throughout the last decades of intense selection for production traits and estimate genetic parameters. The traits under consideration were volume (VOL), concentration (CONC), number of spermatozoa per ejaculate (NESPZ), mass motility score (MM), individual motility (IM), and post-thawing motility (PTM). The environmental factors studied were year-season and week of collection, which account for changes in environmental and technical conditions along time, age at collection, ejaculate order, time from previous collection (TPC) and time between collection and freezing (TCF) (only for PTM). Bull's inbreeding coefficient (Fi), bull's permanent environmental and additive genetic effects were also considered. The use of reduced models was evaluated using the Bayes factor. For all the systematic effects tested, strong or very strong evidence in favour of including the effect in the model was obtained, except for Fi for motility traits and TCF for PTM. No systematic time trends for environment or bull effects were observed, except for PTM, which showed an increasing environmental trend, associated with improvements in freezing-thawing protocols. Heritability estimates were moderate (0.16-0.22), except for IM, which presented a low value (0.07). Genetic correlations among motilities and between motilities and CONC were large and positive [0.38-0.87], VOL showed a negative correlation with CONC (-0.13) but with ample HPD 95%. The magnitude of heritabilities would allow an efficient selection if required and grants the use of these traits as indicators of the sperm viability component of bulls

  5. A Meta-Assembly of Selection Signatures in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Imtiaz A. S.; Khatkar, Mehar S.; Thomson, Peter C.; Raadsma, Herman W.

    2016-01-01

    Since domestication, significant genetic improvement has been achieved for many traits of commercial importance in cattle, including adaptation, appearance and production. In response to such intense selection pressures, the bovine genome has undergone changes at the underlying regions of functional genetic variants, which are termed “selection signatures”. This article reviews 64 recent (2009–2015) investigations testing genomic diversity for departure from neutrality in worldwide cattle populations. In particular, we constructed a meta-assembly of 16,158 selection signatures for individual breeds and their archetype groups (European, African, Zebu and composite) from 56 genome-wide scans representing 70,743 animals of 90 pure and crossbred cattle breeds. Meta-selection-scores (MSS) were computed by combining published results at every given locus, within a sliding window span. MSS were adjusted for common samples across studies and were weighted for significance thresholds across and within studies. Published selection signatures show extensive coverage across the bovine genome, however, the meta-assembly provides a consensus profile of 263 genomic regions of which 141 were unique (113 were breed-specific) and 122 were shared across cattle archetypes. The most prominent peaks of MSS represent regions under selection across multiple populations and harboured genes of known major effects (coat color, polledness and muscle hypertrophy) and genes known to influence polygenic traits (stature, adaptation, feed efficiency, immunity, behaviour, reproduction, beef and dairy production). As the first meta-assembly of selection signatures, it offers novel insights about the hotspots of selective sweeps in the bovine genome, and this method could equally be applied to other species. PMID:27045296

  6. Classic Selective Sweeps Revealed by Massive Sequencing in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Qanbari, Saber; Pausch, Hubert; Jansen, Sandra; Somel, Mehmet; Strom, Tim M.; Fries, Ruedi; Nielsen, Rasmus; Simianer, Henner

    2014-01-01

    Human driven selection during domestication and subsequent breed formation has likely left detectable signatures within the genome of modern cattle. The elucidation of these signatures of selection is of interest from the perspective of evolutionary biology, and for identifying domestication-related genes that ultimately may help to further genetically improve this economically important animal. To this end, we employed a panel of more than 15 million autosomal SNPs identified from re-sequencing of 43 Fleckvieh animals. We mainly applied two somewhat complementary statistics, the integrated Haplotype Homozygosity Score (iHS) reflecting primarily ongoing selection, and the Composite of Likelihood Ratio (CLR) having the most power to detect completed selection after fixation of the advantageous allele. We find 106 candidate selection regions, many of which are harboring genes related to phenotypes relevant in domestication, such as coat coloring pattern, neurobehavioral functioning and sensory perception including KIT, MITF, MC1R, NRG4, Erbb4, TMEM132D and TAS2R16, among others. To further investigate the relationship between genes with signatures of selection and genes identified in QTL mapping studies, we use a sample of 3062 animals to perform four genome-wide association analyses using appearance traits, body size and somatic cell count. We show that regions associated with coat coloring significantly (P<0.0001) overlap with the candidate selection regions, suggesting that the selection signals we identify are associated with traits known to be affected by selection during domestication. Results also provide further evidence regarding the complexity of the genetics underlying coat coloring in cattle. This study illustrates the potential of population genetic approaches for identifying genomic regions affecting domestication-related phenotypes and further helps to identify specific regions targeted by selection during speciation, domestication and breed formation

  7. A Meta-Assembly of Selection Signatures in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Imtiaz A S; Khatkar, Mehar S; Thomson, Peter C; Raadsma, Herman W

    2016-01-01

    Since domestication, significant genetic improvement has been achieved for many traits of commercial importance in cattle, including adaptation, appearance and production. In response to such intense selection pressures, the bovine genome has undergone changes at the underlying regions of functional genetic variants, which are termed "selection signatures". This article reviews 64 recent (2009-2015) investigations testing genomic diversity for departure from neutrality in worldwide cattle populations. In particular, we constructed a meta-assembly of 16,158 selection signatures for individual breeds and their archetype groups (European, African, Zebu and composite) from 56 genome-wide scans representing 70,743 animals of 90 pure and crossbred cattle breeds. Meta-selection-scores (MSS) were computed by combining published results at every given locus, within a sliding window span. MSS were adjusted for common samples across studies and were weighted for significance thresholds across and within studies. Published selection signatures show extensive coverage across the bovine genome, however, the meta-assembly provides a consensus profile of 263 genomic regions of which 141 were unique (113 were breed-specific) and 122 were shared across cattle archetypes. The most prominent peaks of MSS represent regions under selection across multiple populations and harboured genes of known major effects (coat color, polledness and muscle hypertrophy) and genes known to influence polygenic traits (stature, adaptation, feed efficiency, immunity, behaviour, reproduction, beef and dairy production). As the first meta-assembly of selection signatures, it offers novel insights about the hotspots of selective sweeps in the bovine genome, and this method could equally be applied to other species. PMID:27045296

  8. Biological and ecological traits of marine species

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Simon; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Vandepitte, Leen; Tuama, Éamonn Ó; Lear, Dan; Tyler-Walters, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the ‘status’ of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of a species and/or population, a species status may vary geographically and over time. Criteria for selecting traits were that they could be applied to most taxa, were easily available, and their inclusion would result in new research and/or management applications. Numerical traits were favoured over categorical. Habitat was excluded as it can be derived from a selection of these traits. Ten traits were prioritized for inclusion in the most comprehensive open access database on marine species (World Register of Marine Species), namely taxonomic classification, environment, geography, depth, substratum, mobility, skeleton, diet, body size and reproduction. These traits and statuses are being added to the database and new use cases may further subdivide and expand upon them. PMID:26312188

  9. Production, reproduction, health, and growth traits in backcross holstein x jersey cows and their holstein contemporaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 648 purebred Holstein and 319 backcross Holstein × Jersey dairy cattle were compared for production, reproduction, health, linear type, and growth traits. Animals were born between 2003 and 2009 and were housed in the University of Wisconsin–Madison Integrated Dairy Facility. All animals ...

  10. Genetic effects of GDF8 and CAPN1 for carcass and meat traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to improve genetic marker effect estimates of SNP previously associated with muscle traits in beef cattle (F94L marker in GDF8 and 316 marker of CAPN1). Multiyear selection in a composite population segregating both SNP increased minor allele frequency (MAF) to intermediate levels...

  11. Stimultaneous prediction of multiple traits using dense genome-wide SNP markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most human whole genome association studies currently under consideration are attempting to fine-map a given complex trait from multi-stage case-control studies with the final goal of being able to use a small marker dataset for detecting disease associations. In livestock species such as cattle ne...

  12. Whole-Genome Analyses of Korean Native and Holstein Cattle Breeds by Massively Parallel Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Stothard, Paul; Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeon, Heoyn-Jeong; Miller, Stephen P.; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Jeong-Koo; Yang, Bokyoung; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Han, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Jeong, Dongkee; Oh, Jae-Don; Kim, Namshin; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Lee, Sung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    A main goal of cattle genomics is to identify DNA differences that account for variations in economically important traits. In this study, we performed whole-genome analyses of three important cattle breeds in Korea—Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein—using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. We achieved 25.5-, 29.6-, and 29.5-fold coverage of the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein genomes, respectively, and identified a total of 10.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 54.12% were found to be novel. We also detected 1,063,267 insertions–deletions (InDels) across the genomes (78.92% novel). Annotations of the datasets identified a total of 31,503 nonsynonymous SNPs and 859 frameshift InDels that could affect phenotypic variations in traits of interest. Furthermore, genome-wide copy number variation regions (CNVRs) were detected by comparing the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and previously published Chikso genomes against that of Korean Holstein. A total of 992, 284, and 1881 CNVRs, respectively, were detected throughout the genome. Moreover, 53, 65, 45, and 82 putative regions of homozygosity (ROH) were identified in Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, Chikso, and Korean Holstein respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable foundation for further investigations to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in economically important traits in cattle and to develop genetic markers for use in cattle breeding. PMID:24992012

  13. Genetic parameters of cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery or whey loss traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Ferragina, A; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    to exert only limited effects on the REC traits. Instead, breeders may be able to exploit genetic variations in the %CY, particularly RECFAT and RECPROTEIN. This last component is not explained by the milk protein content, suggesting that its direct selection could be beneficial for cheese production aptitude. Collectively, our findings indicate that breeding strategies aimed at enhancing CY and REC could be easily and rapidly implemented for dairy cattle populations in which FTIR spectra are routinely acquired from individual milk samples. PMID:25958274

  14. Estimates of genetic parameters for stayability and their associations with traits of economic interest in Gir dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Silva, R M O; Boligon, A A; Fernandes, A R; Vercesi Filho, A E; El Faro, L; Tonhati, H; Albuquerque, L G; Fraga, A B

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for stayability at 60 months of age (STAY60) and its association with first lactation cumulative milk yield (P305), age at first calving (AFC), and first calving interval (FCI), in order to adopt these traits as selection criteria for longevity in Gir dairy cattle. Records for 2770 cows born between 1982 and 2008 from six herds in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Paraíba were analyzed. The (co)variance components were estimated by a Bayesian approach using bivariate animal models. The heritability estimates were 0.37 ± 0.09, 0.23 ± 0.04, 0.26 ± 0.06, and 0.07 ± 0.03 for STAY60, P305, AFC, and FCI, respectively. The genetic correlations of STAY60 with P305, AFC, and FCI were moderate to high, with values of 0.61 (0.17), -0.44 (0.23), and 0.88 (0.13), respectively. STAY60, P305, and AFC exhibited additive genetic variability, and these traits should be considered in selection indices. The indirect selection for longevity through the correlated responses of early-expression traits, such as milk production at first lactation, could be used to improve the ability of animals to remain in the herd. PMID:26909978

  15. Fermented ammoniated condensed whey as a crude protein source for feedlot cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Crickenberger, R.G.; Henderson, H.E.; Reddy, C.A.

    1981-04-01

    Four feeding trials were conducted to evaluate fermented ammoniated condensed whey as a crude protein supplement for finishing cattle fed corn silage or corn - corn silage diets. Feed efficiencies and daily gains with protein treatments were noted. The trials indicate that fermented ammoniated condensed whey is comparable to soybean meal as a crude protein source for feedlot cattle. (Refs. 18).

  16. A genetic investigation of isle of Jersey cattle, the foundation of the Jersey breed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jersey, one of the oldest dairy breeds, was founded nearly 200 years ago on the Channel Island of Jersey. As early as 1763, legislation banned cattle importation to the island, leading to the development of the Jersey breed. Records indicate considerable cattle exportation from Jersey Island from t...

  17. Characterization of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 strains isolated from supershedding cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports have indicated that a small proportion of cattle shedding high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the main source for transmission of this organism between animals. Cattle achieving a fecal shedding status of 10**4 CFU of E. coli O157: H7/gram or greater are now referred to as su...

  18. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed

    Kendall, N R; Holmes-Pavord, H R; Bone, P A; Ander, E L; Young, S D

    2015-11-14

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and 'other' dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000 µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  19. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, N. R.; Holmes-Pavord, H. R.; Bone, P. A.; Ander, E. L.; Young, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and ‘other’ dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000 µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  20. Dominance and parent-of-origin effects of coding and non-coding alleles at the acylCoA-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase (DGAT1) gene on milk production traits in German Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Christa; Edel, Christian; Weikard, Rosemarie; Thaller, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Background Substantial gene substitution effects on milk production traits have formerly been reported for alleles at the K232A and the promoter VNTR loci in the bovine acylCoA-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene by using data sets including sires with accumulated phenotypic observations of daughters (breeding values, daughter yield deviations). However, these data sets prevented analyses with respect to dominance or parent-of-origin effects, although an increasing number of reports in the literature outlined the relevance of non-additive gene effects on quantitative traits. Results Based on a data set comprising German Holstein cows with direct trait measurements, we first confirmed the previously reported association of DGAT1 promoter VNTR alleles with milk production traits. We detected a dominant mode of effects for the DGAT1 K232A and promoter VNTR alleles. Namely, the contrasts between the effects of heterozygous individuals at the DGAT1 loci differed significantly from the midpoint between the effects for the two homozygous genotypes for several milk production traits, thus indicating the presence of dominance. Furthermore, we identified differences in the magnitude of effects between paternally and maternally inherited DGAT1 promoter VNTR – K232A haplotypes indicating parent-of-origin effects on milk production traits. Conclusion Non-additive effects like those identified at the bovine DGAT1 locus have to be accounted for in more specific QTL detection models as well as in marker assisted selection schemes. The DGAT1 alleles in cattle will be a useful model for further investigations on the biological background of non-additive effects in mammals due to the magnitude and consistency of their effects on milk production traits. PMID:17892573

  1. Improved cellular thermotolerance in cloned Holstein cattle derived with cytoplasts from a thermotolerant breed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jai-Wei; Li, Hung; Wu, Hung-Yi; Liu, Shyh-Shyan; Shen, Perng-Chin

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the thermotolerance of ear fibroblasts derived from various SCNT cattle. Specimens were produced from cloned embryos that had been reconstructed using donor cells (d) from the same Holstein cow (Hd) and the ooplasm (o) from Holstein cattle (Ho) or Taiwan yellow cattle (Yo). Polymorphism in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed with the Y ooplasm and H donor cells (SCNT-Yo-Hd) indicates that the cytoplasm originated from Bos indicus. The rates of apoptosis in heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle (1.9%) and purebred Y cattle (1.5%) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of cells derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed with the H ooplasm (SCNT-Ho-Hd: 3.4%), donor cells (4.0%), and purebred Holstein (4.1%) cattle. At the protein level, the relative abundances of apoptosis-inducing factor, B cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, endonuclease G, cytochrome c, cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinases 3, 8 and 9 in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of cells derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle after heat shock. In contrast, the relative abundances of heat shock proteins 27, 70 and B cell lymphoma 2 in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle were higher (P < 0.05) than those of fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle. Moreover, heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle have a significantly (P < 0.05) lower percentage of apoptosis-inducing factor-positive nuclei than do heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle (11.1% vs. 18.5%). Taken together, these results report that ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed using the Y ooplasm are more thermotolerant than ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed using the H ooplasm. This is an indication that the cytoplasm may be a major determinant of thermal sensitivity in bovine

  2. Genome-wide association mapping and pathway analysis of leukosis incidence in a US Holstein cattle population.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, E A; Peñagaricano, F; Byrem, T M; Weigel, K A; Rosa, G J M

    2016-08-01

    Bovine leukosis virus is an oncogenic virus that infects B cells, causing bovine leukosis disease. This disease is known to have a negative impact on dairy cattle production and, because no treatment or vaccine is available, finding a possible genetic solution is important. Our objective was to perform a comprehensive genetic analysis of leukosis incidence in dairy cattle. Data on leukosis occurrence, pedigree and molecular information were combined into multitrait GBLUP models with milk yield (MY) and somatic cell score (SCS) to estimate genetic parameters and to perform whole-genome scans and pathway analysis. Leukosis data were available for 11 554 Holsteins daughters of 3002 sires from 112 herds in 16 US states. Genotypes from a 60K SNP panel were available for 961 of those bulls as well as for 2039 additional bulls. Heritability for leukosis incidence was estimated at about 8%, and the genetic correlations of leukosis disease incidence with MY and SCS were moderate at 0.18 and 0.20 respectively. The genome-wide scan indicated that leukosis is a complex trait, possibly modulated by many genes. The gene set analysis identified many functional terms that showed significant enrichment of genes associated with leukosis. Many of these terms, such as G-Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling Pathway, Regulation of Nucleotide Metabolic Process and different calcium-related processes, are known to be related to retrovirus infection. Overall, our findings contribute to a better understanding of the genetic architecture of this complex disease. The functional categories associated with leukosis may be useful in future studies on fine mapping of genes and development of dairy cattle breeding strategies. PMID:27090879

  3. Quantitative trait loci markers derived from whole genome sequence data increases the reliability of genomic prediction.

    PubMed

    Brøndum, R F; Su, G; Janss, L; Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Boichard, D; Lund, M S

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effect on the reliability of genomic prediction when a small number of significant variants from single marker analysis based on whole genome sequence data were added to the regular 54k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data. The extra markers were selected with the aim of augmenting the custom low-density Illumina BovineLD SNP chip (San Diego, CA) used in the Nordic countries. The single-marker analysis was done breed-wise on all 16 index traits included in the breeding goals for Nordic Holstein, Danish Jersey, and Nordic Red cattle plus the total merit index itself. Depending on the trait's economic weight, 15, 10, or 5 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were selected per trait per breed and 3 to 5 markers were selected to tag each QTL. After removing duplicate markers (same marker selected for more than one trait or breed) and filtering for high pairwise linkage disequilibrium and assaying performance on the array, a total of 1,623 QTL markers were selected for inclusion on the custom chip. Genomic prediction analyses were performed for Nordic and French Holstein and Nordic Red animals using either a genomic BLUP or a Bayesian variable selection model. When using the genomic BLUP model including the QTL markers in the analysis, reliability was increased by up to 4 percentage points for production traits in Nordic Holstein animals, up to 3 percentage points for Nordic Reds, and up to 5 percentage points for French Holstein. Smaller gains of up to 1 percentage point was observed for mastitis, but only a 0.5 percentage point increase was seen for fertility. When using a Bayesian model accuracies were generally higher with only 54k data compared with the genomic BLUP approach, but increases in reliability were relatively smaller when QTL markers were included. Results from this study indicate that the reliability of genomic prediction can be increased by including markers significant in genome-wide association studies on whole genome

  4. Testing for cattle allergy: modified diagnostic cutoff levels improve sensitivity in symptomatic claw trimmers

    PubMed Central

    Dik, Natalja; Hallier, Ernst; Zuberbier, Torsten; Bergmann, Karl-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of cattle-related sensitization is complicated by the variability and complexity of cattle allergen extracts. Objective To evaluate a modified diagnostic procedure leading to more accurate results especially in the early phase of sensitization. Methods We tested 27 claw trimmers with and 65 without cattle-related symptoms using two commercially available cattle allergen extracts. We also used a self-prepared cattle allergen mix designed to represent the full spectrum of cattle allergens from a typical agricultural workplace. Results More than 50% of symptomatic claw trimmers showed negative test results with commercial extracts and a sensitization cutoff point of 0.35 kU/l. In contrast, with the self-prepared cattle allergen mix, positive results were observed for almost all of them. Evaluating the results of the commercial test kits at different cutoff levels, we found an ideal cutoff point to improve the sensitivity at 0.2 kU/l. Conclusion Additional tests with self-made cattle hair extracts can help to bridge the diagnostic gap seen in patients showing cattle-related symptoms, but negative results in commercially available tests. For early-stage sensitization screening, we propose to lower the cutoff level indicating sensitization to 0.2 kU/l. PMID:20658147

  5. Traits as dimensions or categories? Developmental change in the understanding of trait terms.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Celia M; Zosuls, Kristina M; Ruble, Diane N

    2010-09-01

    Recent research has suggested that young children have relatively well-developed trait concepts. However, this literature overlooks potential age-related differences in children's appreciation of the fundamentally dimensional nature of traits. In Study 1, we presented 4-, 5-, and 7-year-old children and adults with sets of characters and asked them to indicate the preferences of a target character who shared appearance attributes with one character (appearance match) and shared a common trait with the other character (trait match). Traits were presented in a way that emphasized either their categorical or their dimensional nature. When the dimensional nature of trait terms was emphasized, the youngest children made fewer trait-based inferences, and the use of traits increased with age. In Study 2, we gave 4-year-old children and adults the same task except that the extent to which appearance cues could serve as a meaningful basis of judgment was varied. Results were consistent with the findings of Study 1, although children were more likely to rely on dimensional presentations of traits in the absence of strong appearance cues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:20822224

  6. Development and evaluation of a regression equation of prediction for fat-free soft tissue in heterogenous populations of cattle.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T G; Leymaster, K A; MacNeil, M D

    1995-12-01

    Regression equations to predict kilograms of fat-free soft tissue (the sum of water and protein from chemical analyses) were developed from data collected on 526 steers and heifers. Straightbred animals representing Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, and Simmental breeds of cattle contributed to the data set. Cattle ranged in slaughter weight and age from approximately 350 to 575 kg and from 13 to 23 mo, respectively. Diets (100% ground alfalfa, 67% ground alfalfa and 33% ground corn or 33% ground alfalfa and 67% ground corn) were cross-classified with breed and sex. Estimative traits included in the equation were warm carcass weight, fat depth at the 12th rib, and body impedance. Carcass soft-tissue samples were taken for determination of chemical constituents. The prediction equation accounted for 94% of the variation in fat-free soft tissue of the carcass. Adjusting for breed-sex-diet contemporary groups increased the R2 value by 2% units. The prediction model was evaluated using data collected on 65 steers sired by Charolais or by Hereford bulls at the Ft Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory (Miles City, MT). Postweaning feeding strategies and slaughter ages varied among these animals. Carcass weight, back fat depth, and resistive impedance measures were recorded. Carcass soft-tissue samples were taken for determination of chemical constituents. Values of estimator variables recorded at Ft. Keogh were used in the regression equation to predict fat-free soft tissue for each animal. The values for kilogram of fat-free soft tissue determined from chemical analysis were regressed on predicted fat-free soft tissue. the results indicate that fat-free soft tissue of carcasses can be accurately predicted using estimative traits that do not diminish carcass value. PMID:8655437

  7. Integrating Genomics with Nutrition Models to Improve the Prediction of Cattle Performance and Carcass Composition under Feedlot Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tedeschi, Luis O.

    2015-01-01

    Cattle body composition is difficult to model because several factors affect the composition of the average daily gain (ADG) of growing animals. The objective of this study was to identify commercial single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels that could improve the predictability of days on feed (DOF) to reach a target United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) grade given animal, diet, and environmental information under feedyard conditions. The data for this study was comprised of crossbred heifers (n = 681) and steers (n = 836) from commercial feedyards. Eleven molecular breeding value (MBV) scores derived from SNP panels of candidate gene polymorphisms and two-leptin gene SNP (UASMS2 and E2FB) were evaluated. The empty body fat (EBF) and the shrunk body weight (SBW) at 28% EBF (AFSBW) were computed by the Cattle Value Discovery System (CVDS) model using hip height (EBFHH and AFSBWHH) or carcass traits (EBFCT and AFSBWCT) of the animals. The DOFHH was calculated when AFSBWHH and ADGHH were used and DOFCT was calculated when AFSBWCT and ADGCT were used. The CVDS estimates dry matter required (DMR) by individuals fed in groups when observed ADG and AFSBW are provided. The AFSBWCT was assumed more accurate than the AFSBWHH because it was computed using carcass traits. The difference between AFSBWCT and AFSBWHH, DOFCT and DOFHH, and DMR and dry matter intake (DMI) were regressed on the MBV scores and leptin gene SNP to explain the variation. Our results indicate quite a large range of correlations among MBV scores and model input and output variables, but MBV ribeye area was the most strongly correlated with the differences in DOF, AFSBW, and DMI by explaining 8, 13.2 and 6.5%, respectively, of the variation. This suggests that specific MBV scores might explain additional variation of input and output variables used by nutritional models in predicting individual animal performance. PMID:26599759

  8. Integrating Genomics with Nutrition Models to Improve the Prediction of Cattle Performance and Carcass Composition under Feedlot Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Luis O

    2015-01-01

    Cattle body composition is difficult to model because several factors affect the composition of the average daily gain (ADG) of growing animals. The objective of this study was to identify commercial single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels that could improve the predictability of days on feed (DOF) to reach a target United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) grade given animal, diet, and environmental information under feedyard conditions. The data for this study was comprised of crossbred heifers (n = 681) and steers (n = 836) from commercial feedyards. Eleven molecular breeding value (MBV) scores derived from SNP panels of candidate gene polymorphisms and two-leptin gene SNP (UASMS2 and E2FB) were evaluated. The empty body fat (EBF) and the shrunk body weight (SBW) at 28% EBF (AFSBW) were computed by the Cattle Value Discovery System (CVDS) model using hip height (EBFHH and AFSBWHH) or carcass traits (EBFCT and AFSBWCT) of the animals. The DOFHH was calculated when AFSBWHH and ADGHH were used and DOFCT was calculated when AFSBWCT and ADGCT were used. The CVDS estimates dry matter required (DMR) by individuals fed in groups when observed ADG and AFSBW are provided. The AFSBWCT was assumed more accurate than the AFSBWHH because it was computed using carcass traits. The difference between AFSBWCT and AFSBWHH, DOFCT and DOFHH, and DMR and dry matter intake (DMI) were regressed on the MBV scores and leptin gene SNP to explain the variation. Our results indicate quite a large range of correlations among MBV scores and model input and output variables, but MBV ribeye area was the most strongly correlated with the differences in DOF, AFSBW, and DMI by explaining 8, 13.2 and 6.5%, respectively, of the variation. This suggests that specific MBV scores might explain additional variation of input and output variables used by nutritional models in predicting individual animal performance. PMID:26599759

  9. Trait Values, Not Trait Plasticity, Best Explain Invasive Species' Performance in a Changing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Matzek, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The question of why some introduced species become invasive and others do not is the central puzzle of invasion biology. Two of the principal explanations for this phenomenon concern functional traits: invasive species may have higher values of competitively advantageous traits than non-invasive species, or they may have greater phenotypic plasticity in traits that permits them to survive the colonization period and spread to a broad range of environments. Although there is a large body of evidence for superiority in particular traits among invasive plants, when compared to phylogenetically related non-invasive plants, it is less clear if invasive plants are more phenotypically plastic, and whether this plasticity confers a fitness advantage. In this study, I used a model group of 10 closely related Pinus species whose invader or non-invader status has been reliably characterized to test the relative contribution of high trait values and high trait plasticity to relative growth rate, a performance measure standing in as a proxy for fitness. When grown at higher nitrogen supply, invaders had a plastic RGR response, increasing their RGR to a much greater extent than non-invaders. However, invasive species did not exhibit significantly more phenotypic plasticity than non-invasive species for any of 17 functional traits, and trait plasticity indices were generally weakly correlated with RGR. Conversely, invasive species had higher values than non-invaders for 13 of the 17 traits, including higher leaf area ratio, photosynthetic capacity, photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiency, and nutrient uptake rates, and these traits were also strongly correlated with performance. I conclude that, in responding to higher N supply, superior trait values coupled with a moderate degree of trait variation explain invasive species' superior performance better than plasticity per se. PMID:23119098

  10. Genetic analysis on accumulated productivity and calving intervals in Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Daniela do Amaral; Berton, Mariana Piatto; Buzanskas, Marcos Eli; Chud, Tatiane Cristina Seleguim; Grupioni, Natália Vinhal; de Paz, Claudia Cristina Paro; Lôbo, Raysildo Barbosa; Munari, Danísio Prado

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for accumulated productivity (ACP), first calving interval (CI1), second calving interval (CI2), and mean calving interval (MCI) in Nelore beef cattle. The ACP trait is a reproduction index and comprises the total number of calves born per dam, weight of weaned calves, and age of the dam at calving. Genetic parameters were estimated by the average information restricted maximum likelihood method in two-trait analyses. The average heritability estimate for ACP was 0.17 (0.03). For CI1, CI2, and MCI, the heritability estimates were 0.02, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively. Genetic correlations between ACP with CI1, CI2, and MCI were -0.16 ± 0.47, -0.29 ± 0.53, and -0.40 ± 0.27, respectively. Despite of the low heritability estimates obtained in our study, reproduction traits should be further studied and their inclusion in the selection criteria must be evaluated in order to improve the performance of females because these traits are of great economic importance in beef cattle. Accumulated productivity could contribute to decrease the mean calving interval in Nelore cattle. PMID:26387093

  11. Differential Gene Expression Segregates Cattle Confirmed Positive for Bovine Tuberculosis from Antemortem Tuberculosis Test-False Positive Cattle Originating from Herds Free of Bovine Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ailam; Steibel, Juan P.; Coussens, Paul M.; Grooms, Daniel L.; Bolin, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Antemortem tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) currently used in the US measure cell-mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium bovis. Postmortem tests for bTB rely on observation of gross and histologic lesions of bTB, followed by bacterial isolation or molecular diagnostics. Cumulative data from the state of Michigan indicates that 98 to 99% of cattle that react positively in antemortem tests are not confirmed positive for bTB at postmortem examination. Understanding the fundamental differences in gene regulation between antemortem test-false positive cattle and cattle that have bTB may allow identification of molecular markers that can be exploited to better separate infected from noninfected cattle. An immunospecific cDNA microarray was used to identify altered gene expression (P ≤ 0.01) of 122 gene features between antemortem test-false positive cattle and bTB-infected cattle following a 4-hour stimulation of whole blood with tuberculin. Further analysis using quantitative real-time PCR assays validated altered expression of 8 genes that had differential power (adj  P ≤ 0.05) to segregate cattle confirmed positive for bovine tuberculosis from antemortem tuberculosis test-false positive cattle