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Sample records for cattle sheep pigs

  1. Biosecurity on Finnish cattle, pig and sheep farms - results from a questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Sahlström, Leena; Virtanen, Terhi; Kyyrö, Jonna; Lyytikäinen, Tapani

    2014-11-01

    Biosecurity is important in order to prevent disease transmission between animals on farms as well as from farm to farm. Personal biosecurity routines such as hand washing and the use of protective clothing and footwear are measures that should be used at all farms. Other measures are for example related to purchasing new animals to the farm. A questionnaire-based survey was undertaken to study the frequency of use of different biosecurity measures on cattle, pig and sheep farms in Finland. Information about which biosecurity measures are in use is needed for contingency planning of emerging diseases or when combating endemic diseases. Knowledge about the level of biosecurity of a farm is also needed in order to assess if and where improvement is needed. Information regarding biosecurity levels may benefit future animal disease risk assessments. A total of 2242 farmers responded to the questionnaire resulting in a response rate of 45%. The implementation frequencies of different biosecurity measures are reported. The results revealed differences between species: large pig farms had a better biosecurity level than small cattle farms. There were also differences between production types such as dairy farming versus beef cattle farming, but these were not as remarkable. Sheep farming in Finland is sparse and the large number of hobby farmers keeps the biosecurity level low on sheep farms. This might represent a risk for the entire sheep farming industry. The Finnish farmers were satisfied with their on-farm biosecurity. Eighty percent of the farmers report that they were satisfied even though the biosecurity level was not particularly high. The implementation of biosecurity measures could be further improved. Even though the disease situation in Finland is good today, one must be prepared for possible epidemics of threatening diseases. PMID:25147126

  2. A critical review of fear tests used on cattle, pigs, sheep, poultry and horses.

    PubMed

    Forkman, B; Boissy, A; Meunier-Salaün, M-C; Canali, E; Jones, R B

    2007-10-22

    Fear is arguably the most commonly investigated emotion in domestic animals. In the current review we attempt to establish the level of repeatability and validity found for fear tests used on cattle, pigs, sheep and goats, poultry and horses. We focus the review on the three most common types of fear tests: the arena test (open field), the novel object test, and the restraint test. For some tests, e.g. tonic immobility in poultry, there is a good and broad literature on factors that affect the outcome of the test, the validity of the test and its age dependency. However, there are comparatively few of these well defined and validated tests and what is especially missing for most tests is information on the robustness, i.e., what aspects can be changed without affecting the validity of the tests. The relative absence of standardized tests hampers the development of applied ethology as a science. PMID:18046784

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, sheep, goats and pigs from the North of Portugal for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Dubey, J P; Neto, Francisco; Rodrigues, Alcina; Martins, Tânia; Rodrigues, Manuela; Cardoso, Luís

    2013-03-31

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and risk factors associated with infection were assessed in food animals from the North of Portugal for human consumption. Antibodies were assayed by means of the modified agglutination test with a cut-off titre of 100 for cattle, and 20 for sheep, goats, and pigs; 7.5% of 161 cattle, 33.6% of 119 sheep, 18.5% of 184 goats, and 9.8% of 254 pigs were seropositive. Among the risk factors examined animal age was an important risk factor for seropositivity to T. gondii. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat should be regarded as an important source of infection to people in the study area. PMID:23290614

  4. Acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    • Multiple cases of acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep following bumper crop • Salmonella Dublin infection causes abortions in cattle • Respiratory disease affecting different age groups of pigs on a nursery finisher unit • Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome cases diagnosed • A further case of suspect Marek's disease in turkeys. These are among matters discussed in the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (AHVLA's) disease surveillance report for November 2013 to January 2014. PMID:24578432

  5. Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep, pig and cattle red blood cell fractions using plant and fungal protease preparations.

    PubMed

    Bah, Clara S F; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A; Mros, Sonya; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2016-07-01

    Protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources were used to hydrolyze the red blood cell fractions (RBCFs) separated from deer, sheep, pig, and cattle abattoir-sourced blood. After 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained were investigated. The increase in trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was examined using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay and the hydrolysis profiles were illustrated using SDS-PAGE. Papain generated RBCF hydrolysates exhibited higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) compared to those generated with bromelain, FP400 and FPII. At certain concentrations, 24h hydrolysates of RBCF using FP400 and FPII were able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results indicated that the use of proteases from plant or fungal sources can produce animal blood hydrolysates with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. PMID:26920319

  6. Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Redondo, I; Innes, E A

    1997-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect all warm-blooded animals. Sheep and cattle show different susceptibilities to T. gondii infection. Primary infection in pregnant sheep can result in abortion or the birth of weak lambs but they are then protected against further challenge by the development of an effective immunity. Cattle on the other hand can be readily infected, but abortion or perinatal mortality have not been recorded. The evidence suggests that cattle develop a more effective immune response to T. gondii infection than sheep. Potential mechanisms to explain these differences are discussed in this paper. PMID:9208205

  7. Goats, sheep, and cattle: some basics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...

  8. Transmission of sheep-bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Carlos; Bolea, Rosa; Marín, Belén; Cobrière, Fabien; Filali, Hicham; Vazquez, Francisco; Pitarch, José Luis; Vargas, Antonia; Acín, Cristina; Moreno, Bernardino; Pumarola, Martí; Andreoletti, Olivier; Badiola, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Experimental transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent has been successfully reported in pigs inoculated via three simultaneous distinct routes (intracerebral, intraperitoneal and intravenous). Sheep derived BSE (Sh-BSE) is transmitted more efficiently than the original cattle-BSE isolate in a transgenic mouse model expressing porcine prion protein. However, the neuropathology and distribution of Sh-BSE in pigs as natural hosts, and susceptibility to this agent, is unknown. In the present study, seven pigs were intracerebrally inoculated with Sh-BSE prions. One pig was euthanized for analysis in the preclinical disease stage. The remaining six pigs developed neurological signs and histopathology revealed severe spongiform changes accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis throughout the central nervous system. Intracellular and neuropil-associated pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition was consistently observed in different brain sections and corroborated by Western blot. PrP(Sc) was detected by immunohistochemistry and enzyme immunoassay in the following tissues in at least one animal: lymphoid tissues, peripheral nerves, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle, adrenal gland and pancreas. PrP(Sc) deposition was revealed by immunohistochemistry alone in the retina, optic nerve and kidney. These results demonstrate the efficient transmission of Sh-BSE in pigs and show for the first time that in this species propagation of bovine PrP(Sc) in a wide range of peripheral tissues is possible. These results provide important insight into the distribution and detection of prions in non-ruminant animals. PMID:26742788

  9. Slaughterhouse survey of cystic echinococcosis in cattle and sheep from the Republic of Moldova.

    PubMed

    Chihai, O; Umhang, G; Erhan, D; Boué, F; Tălămbuţă, N; Rusu, Ş; Zamornea, M

    2016-05-01

    The Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm is responsible for cystic echinococcosis (CE), a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. The life cycle of the parasite is mainly domestic and takes place between dogs and livestock species. A slaughterhouse survey was conducted in 2012 in the Republic of Moldova in order to estimate the prevalence of CE. A total of 1525 cattle, 5580 sheep and 12,700 pigs were surveyed. No CE infection was observed in pigs, while prevalence was estimated at 59.3% in cattle and 61.9% in sheep. Infection was significantly higher in animals raised in private households than in those from collective farms. The frequency of infection increased with age in both species. In cattle and in sheep, infection of both the liver and lungs was the most common, while infection in the lungs only was much less frequent. Farm type appears to be an important factor in CE infection in Moldova, due to the extensive farming and the home-slaughtering undertaken in the majority private sector, despite a high prevalence of CE also recorded in the public sector. The low fertility of cysts in cattle (1.1%) compared to sheep (47.6%) confirmed the maintenance of E. granulosus sensu stricto in a dog-sheep life cycle which excludes cattle. Further studies are needed to obtain a complete overview of the parasite's epidemiology in its intermediate and definitive hosts, in order to implement control and preventive measures, with specific attention given to farms in the private sector. PMID:25727141

  10. Genotyping Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Cattle, Sheep, Goats and Swine from the North of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    LOPES, Ana Patrícia; VILARES, Anabela; NETO, Francisco; RODRIGUES, Alcina; MARTINS, Tânia; FERREIRA, Idalina; GARGATÉ, Maria João; RODRIGUES, Manuela; CARDOSO, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological investigations on Toxoplasma gondii infection have found a significant association between human toxoplasmosis and consumption of raw or undercooked meat. The present study aimed to characterize genotypes of T. gondii in 20 cattle, 40 sheep, 15 goats and 16 pigs from the North of Portugal. Methods: Nested PCR amplified the surface antigen 2 (SAG2) gene. Sequencing analysis was performed in order to assess the prevalence of SAG2 type strains (I, II and III). Results: Three and 4 strains of SAG2 type II were identified in heart samples of cattle and sheep, respectively. Three SAG2 type II strains were detected in brain, diaphragm and heart of 3 pigs. Three strains detected in heart samples of 3 goats belonged to SAG2 types I or II; with the same result being observed in heart samples from 2 sheep and in 2 brain and 1 heart samples from 3 pigs. Conclusion: SAG2 type II has been shown for the first time to infect cattle in North of Portugal. In addition, SAG2 type II has also been confirmed as the predominant strain in sheep and pigs in the same region. This is the first molecular report of T. gondii in goats from Portugal. PMID:26622302

  11. [Experience with simple ELISA test systems for Brucella serology in cattle, sheep and goats].

    PubMed

    Sting, R; Ortmann, G

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to use the ELISA technique for the serological surveillance for freedom of brucellosis of cattle, sheep and goats. By comparing 28 cattle sera taken after a brucellosis outbreak, 15 bovine sera supplied by the Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine (BgVV) and 497 serum slow agglutination test (SSAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) negative bovine sera from herds officially declared free of brucellosis, the ELISA technique not only shows higher sensitivity as compared to SSAT and CFT but also distinguishes clearly between positive and negative reactions. The serological comparison by SSAT, CFT and ELISA of 615 cattle, 624 sheep and 630 goat sera from herds acknowledged as brucellosis free showed equivalent specificities for both CFT and ELISA. The specificity of the SSAT was much lower, 81.1% in cattle and 96.2% in goat sera. The examination of 5796 cattle, 1337 calf, 5031 sheep and 1796 goat sera demonstrates the advantage of the ELISA technique as routine method. The possible application of the ELISA technique as a screening method for serological brucellosis tests in sheep, goats and possibly also in pigs is discussed. PMID:10684180

  12. Poisoning by Poiretia punctata in cattle and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poiretia punctata (Willd.) Desv. was associated with cattle and sheep poisoning on nine farms in the State of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. The animals were found dead or died later after showing clinical signs for up to 18 hours. Two sheep that ingested 40g/kg body weight (g/kg) of fresh P punctata...

  13. FimH adhesin from host unrestricted Salmonella Enteritidis binds to different glycoprotein ligands expressed by enterocytes from sheep, pig and cattle than FimH adhesins from host restricted Salmonella Abortus-ovis, Salmonella Choleraesuis and Salmonella Dublin.

    PubMed

    Grzymajło, Krzysztof; Ugorski, Maciej; Kolenda, Rafał; Kędzierska, Anna; Kuźmińska-Bajor, Marta; Wieliczko, Alina

    2013-10-25

    Adhesion to gut tissues and colonization of the alimentary tract, two important stages in the pathogenesis of Salmonella, are mediated by FimH adhesin of type 1 fimbriae. It was suggested that minor differences in the structure of FimH are most likely associated with differences in adhesion specificities, and may determine the tropism of various Salmonella serovars to different species and tissues. We investigated this hypothesis by comparing the binding properties of FimH proteins from three Salmonella enterica serovars with limited (Choleraesuis, Dublin) or restricted (Abortusovis) host ranges to FimH from broad host range S. Enteritidis and mannose inactive FimH from S. Gallinarum. Although all active variants of FimH protein were able to bind mannose-rich glycoproteins (RNase B, HRP and Man-BSA) with comparable affinity measured by surface plasmon resonance, there were significant differences in the binding profiles of the FimH proteins from host restricted serovars and host unrestricted serovar Enteritidis, to glycoproteins from enterocyte cell lines established in vitro and derived from sheep, pig and cattle. When low-binding FimH adhesin from S. Enteritidis was subjected to Western blot analysis, it bound to surface membrane protein of about 130 kDa, and high-binding FimH adhesins from S. Abortusovis, S. Choleraesuis and S. Dublin bound to surface membrane protein of about 55 kDa present in each cell line. Differential binding of FimH proteins from host-restricted and broad-host-range Salmonella to intestinal receptors was confirmed using mutant FimH adhesins obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that the low-binding variant of FimH from S. Choleraesuis with mutation Leu57Pro lost the ability to bind protein band of 55 kDa, but instead interacted with glycoprotein of about 130 kDa. On the other hand, the high-binding variant of FimH adhesin from S. Enteritids with mutation Asn101Ser did not bind to its receptor of 130 kDa, but instead it

  14. Uterine biology in pigs and sheep.

    PubMed

    Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa; Kim, Jinyoung; Dunlap, Kathrin A; Satterfield, Michael Carey; Johnson, Gregory A; Burghardt, Robert C; Wu, Guoyao

    2012-01-01

    There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes) and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL) which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species. PMID:22958877

  15. Uterine biology in pigs and sheep

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes) and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL) which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species. PMID:22958877

  16. Dietary selenate versus selenite for cattle, sheep, and horses.

    PubMed

    Podoll, K L; Bernard, J B; Ullrey, D E; DeBar, S R; Ku, P K; Magee, W T

    1992-06-01

    Food and Drug Administration regulations currently permit addition of .3 mg of Se per kilogram of diet for chickens, turkeys, ducks, swine, sheep, and cattle. However, field reports indicate that this level may not be adequate for ruminants in all situations. Because sodium selenite is the most common supplemental form and is known to be readily absorbed to particles or reduced to insoluble elemental Se or selenides in acid, anaerobic environments, studies were conducted with dairy cattle, sheep, and horses fed sodium selenate to determine whether Se from this source was more bioavailable than Se from sodium selenite. A 2-wk period of no Se supplementation was followed by 49 or 56 d of Se supplementation at .3 mg/kg of dietary DM. Serum Se concentrations and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities measured initially and periodically thereafter revealed no difference between Se forms in sheep and horses and only a small (P less than .05) advantage for selenate in supporting serum Se concentration in dairy cattle. Selenium concentrations in skeletal muscle and liver of sheep were not different between Se forms. Serum Se, but not GSHPx, increased with time, and .3 mg of supplemental Se per kilogram of dietary DM from either sodium selenate or sodium selenite supported normal serum Se concentrations in sheep, dairy cattle, and horses. PMID:1321804

  17. DETERMINATION OF RACTOPAMINE IN CATTLE AND SHEEP URINE USING BIOSENSOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biosensor method, using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) principle, was developed for the determination of ractopamine in cattle and sheep urine. A monoclonal antibody was used to compete with ractopamine in the sample and ractopamine immobilized on the sensor chip. Addition of bovine serum a...

  18. Methane production by sheep and cattle in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minson, D. J.

    1993-02-01

    Using methane production rates from Australian feeds and local estimates of the quantity of feed eaten by different classes of animal, it was estimated that sheep and cattle in Australia produce 2.66 Tg methane in 1990. This value is 43% higher than previous estimates and indicates a need to reassess the methane production of ruminants in other countries.

  19. Minimum Effective Dose of Cattle and Sheep BSE for Oral Sheep Infection

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Gillian; Martin, Stuart; Jeffrey, Martin; Dexter, Glenda; Hawkins, Steve A. C.; Bellworthy, Sue J.; Thurston, Lisa; Algar, Lynne; González, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The minimum dose required to cause infection of Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ or ARQ/ARR prion protein gene genotypes following oral inoculation with Romney or Suffolk a sheep Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-derived or cattle BSE-derived agent was investigated using doses ranging from 0.0005g to 5g. ARQ/ARQ sheep which were methionine (M) / threonine (T) heterozygous or T/T homozygous at codon 112 of the Prnp gene, dosed ARQ/ARR sheep and undosed controls did not show any evidence of infection. Within groups of susceptible sheep, the minimum effective oral dose of BSE was found to be 0.05g, with higher attack rates following inoculation with the 5g dose. Surprisingly, this study found no effect of dose on survival time suggesting a possible lack of homogeneity within the inoculum. All clinical BSE cases showed PrPd accumulation in brain; however, following cattle BSE inoculation, LRS involvement within Romney recipients was found to be significantly lower than within the Suffolk sheep inoculated group which is in agreement with previous reports. PMID:26968011

  20. Minimum Effective Dose of Cattle and Sheep BSE for Oral Sheep Infection.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Gillian; Martin, Stuart; Jeffrey, Martin; Dexter, Glenda; Hawkins, Steve A C; Bellworthy, Sue J; Thurston, Lisa; Algar, Lynne; González, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The minimum dose required to cause infection of Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ or ARQ/ARR prion protein gene genotypes following oral inoculation with Romney or Suffolk a sheep Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-derived or cattle BSE-derived agent was investigated using doses ranging from 0.0005g to 5g. ARQ/ARQ sheep which were methionine (M) / threonine (T) heterozygous or T/T homozygous at codon 112 of the Prnp gene, dosed ARQ/ARR sheep and undosed controls did not show any evidence of infection. Within groups of susceptible sheep, the minimum effective oral dose of BSE was found to be 0.05g, with higher attack rates following inoculation with the 5g dose. Surprisingly, this study found no effect of dose on survival time suggesting a possible lack of homogeneity within the inoculum. All clinical BSE cases showed PrPd accumulation in brain; however, following cattle BSE inoculation, LRS involvement within Romney recipients was found to be significantly lower than within the Suffolk sheep inoculated group which is in agreement with previous reports. PMID:26968011

  1. Prevalence of subtilase cytotoxin-encoding subAB variants among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from wild ruminants and sheep differs from that of cattle and pigs and is predominated by the new allelic variant subAB2-2.

    PubMed

    Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena T; Funk, Joschua; Cernela, Nicole; Tasara, Taurai; Klumpp, Jochen; Schmidt, Herbert; Stephan, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is an AB5 toxin produced by Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains usually lacking the eae gene product intimin. Three allelic variants of SubAB encoding genes have been described: subAB1, located on a plasmid, subAB2-1, located on the pathogenicity island SE-PAI and subAB2-2 located in an outer membrane efflux protein (OEP) region. SubAB is becoming increasingly recognized as a toxin potentially involved in human pathogenesis. Ruminants and cattle have been identified as reservoirs of subAB-positive STEC. The presence of the three subAB allelic variants was investigated by PCR for 152 STEC strains originating from chamois, ibex, red deer, roe deer, cattle, sheep and pigs. Overall, subAB genes were detected in 45.5% of the strains. Prevalence was highest for STEC originating from ibex (100%), chamois (92%) and sheep (65%). None of the STEC of bovine or of porcine origin tested positive for subAB. None of the strains tested positive for subAB1. The allelic variant subAB2-2 was detected the most commonly, with 51.4% possessing subAb2-1 together with subAB2-2. STEC of ovine origin, serotypes O91:H- and O128:H2, the saa gene, which encodes for the autoagglutinating adhesin and stx2b were significantly associated with subAB-positive STEC. Our results suggest that subAB2-1 and subAB2-2 is widespread among STEC from wild ruminants and sheep and may be important as virulence markers in STEC pathogenic to humans. PMID:25488108

  2. Prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle and sheep northeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mehdi Aghamohammad; Raoofi, Afshin; Hosseini, Arman; Mehrara, Mohammad Reza; Amininajafi, Fatemeh

    2016-09-01

    A survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of hard tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle and sheep north of Iran. The aim of study was to determine the prevalence of hard ticks on cattle and sheep in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. A total of 26 ticks were collected from 22 infested cattle and 26 ticks were collected from 12 infested sheep during activating seasons of ticks in 2013-2014. The species collected from cattle and sheep were Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The results show that these are dominant tick species in the surveyed area. PMID:27605782

  3. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this subchapter to be applied to inspected and passed carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine...

  4. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this subchapter to be applied to inspected and passed carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine...

  5. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this subchapter to be applied to inspected and passed carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine...

  6. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this subchapter to be applied to inspected and passed carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine...

  7. Vaccination of sheep and cattle against haemonchosis.

    PubMed

    Bassetto, C C; Amarante, A F T

    2015-09-01

    Vaccines against gastrointestinal nematodes are one potential option for the control of parasitic gastroenteritis in ruminants. Excretory/secretory (E/S) and hidden antigens are being studied as candidates for vaccines against Haemonchus spp., which is a major parasite in cattle and small ruminants that are raised in warm climates. Protection has been observed after vaccination with some E/S proteases, particularly cysteine proteases and with some glycans that are abundant on the surfaces and in the secretory products of helminths. However, the most promising results are being obtained with glycoprotein antigens extracted from the microvillar surfaces of the Haemonchus contortus intestinal cells. These antigens are called 'hidden' because they are not exposed to the host's immune system during infection. Thus far, recombinant forms of these antigens have not been usefully protective. However, because only 5 μg of antigen is required per dose, production of a native antigen vaccine from adult parasites has been found to be practical and commercially viable. Trials indicate that a vaccine made from one particular isolate will cross-protect against geographically distant isolates. PMID:25891536

  8. Sympatric cattle grazing and desert bighorn sheep foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Kyle R.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2015-01-01

    Foraging behavior affects animal fitness and is largely dictated by the resources available to an animal. Understanding factors that affect forage resources is important for conservation and management of wildlife. Cattle sympatry is proposed to limit desert bighorn population performance, but few studies have quantified the effect of cattle foraging on bighorn forage resources or foraging behavior by desert bighorn. We estimated forage biomass for desert bighorn sheep in 2 mountain ranges: the cattle-grazed Caballo Mountains and the ungrazed San Andres Mountains, New Mexico. We recorded foraging bout efficiency of adult females by recording feeding time/step while foraging, and activity budgets of 3 age-sex classes (i.e., adult males, adult females, yearlings). We also estimated forage biomass at sites where bighorn were observed foraging. We expected lower forage biomass in the cattle-grazed Caballo range than in the ungrazed San Andres range and lower biomass at cattle-accessible versus inaccessible areas within the Caballo range. We predicted bighorn would be less efficient foragers in the Caballo range. Groundcover forage biomass was low in both ranges throughout the study (Jun 2012–Nov 2013). Browse biomass, however, was 4.7 times lower in the Caballo range versus the San Andres range. Bighorn in the Caballo range exhibited greater overall daily travel time, presumably to locate areas of higher forage abundance. By selecting areas with greater forage abundance, adult females in the Caballo range exhibited foraging bout efficiency similar to their San Andres counterparts but lower overall daily browsing time. We did not find a significant reduction in forage biomass at cattle-accessible areas in the Caballo range. Only the most rugged areas in the Caballo range had abundant forage, potentially a result of intensive historical livestock use in less rugged areas. Forage conditions in the Caballo range apparently force bighorn to increase foraging effort by

  9. Comparative digestibility by cattle versus sheep: effect of forage quality.

    PubMed

    Soto-Navarro, S A; Lopez, R; Sankey, C; Capitan, B M; Holland, B P; Balstad, L A; Krehbiel, C R

    2014-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of forage quality on apparent total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in cattle versus sheep. Five yearling English crossbred (Hereford × Angus) steers (440.4 ± 35.6 kg of initial BW) and 5 yearling whiteface (Rambouillet × Columbia × Debouillet) wethers (44.4 ± 4.6 kg of initial BW), each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 forage sources within ruminant specie, and the study was conducted over 3 periods. For forage source, both animal and period served as the blocking factor with all forage sources represented once within each animal and all forage sources represented at least once within each period. The treatment structure was arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with ruminant species (2) and forage source (3) as the factors. Forage sources were 1) alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa; 17.5% CP and 34.1% NDF, DM basis), 2) warm-season grass hay mix (Bothriochloa ischaemum and Cynodon dactylon; 7.3% CP and 74.7% NDF, DM basis), and 3) lovegrass hay (Eragrostis curvula; 2.5% CP and 81.9% NDF, DM basis). As a percent of BW, steers and wethers consumed similar (P ≤ 0.06) amounts of forage, and intake was more influenced by forage quality (P < 0.001) than ruminant species (P = 0.35). When expressed per unit of metabolic BW, cattle consumed more (P < 0.001) DM, NDF, and N than sheep. Apparent total tract digestibility was similar among steers and wethers when alfalfa or grass hay was fed, but decreased to a greater extent in wethers when low-quality lovegrass hay was fed (ruminant species × diet interaction, P ≤ 0.01). Rate (%/h) of ruminal NDF disappearance was greater (P = 0.02) for alfalfa and grass hay than lovegrass, but was not influenced (P = 0.12) by ruminant species. In addition, ruminal DM fill was influenced more (P < 0.01) by forage than by ruminant species (P = 0.07). Steers and wethers had greater (P < 0.01) DM fill from grass hay and lovegrass hay than alfalfa before and 5 h

  10. Evaluation of clorsulon against immature Fascioloides magna in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J

    1988-07-01

    Efficacy of clorsulon was evaluated against infection with immature Fascioloides magna in 24 cattle and 12 sheep. Infections were induced by oral administration of 600 metacercariae/host. In cattle, clorsulon at dosages of 7 and 21 mg/kg of body weight was 65 and 100% effective against 8-week-old flukes, and 20 and 74% effective against 16-week-old flukes, respectively. In sheep, clorsulon at a dosage of 21 mg/kg was 92% effective against 8-week-old flukes. Significantly (P less than 0.05) more F magna were recovered from untreated sheep than from untreated cattle. PMID:3421522

  11. Detection of T. gondii in tissues of sheep and cattle following oral infection.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Redondo, I; Maley, S W; Thomson, K; Nicoll, S; Wright, S; Buxton, D; Innes, E A

    1999-10-01

    It has been reported in the literature that cattle are more resistant to toxoplasmosis than sheep. Congenital disease due to T. gondii infection is rarely reported in cattle whereas the parasite is a major cause of abortion and neonatal mortality in sheep. It is believed that sheep remain chronically infected for life. Undercooked meat from infected sheep is an important source of infection for man. In contrast cattle are thought to harbour fewer parasite tissue cysts which may not persist for the lifetime of the host. Therefore, cattle are believed to pose less of a risk for human infection. In this study we examined the presence of T. gondii within a range of tissues in sheep and cattle at 6 weeks and 6 months following oral infection with 10(3) or 10(5) sporulated oocysts of T. gondii. The presence of parasite was determined by bioassay in mice and using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results from this study show that T. gondii was more frequently and consistently detected in sheep, in particular within brain and heart tissues, whereas parasites were not detected in the samples of tissues taken from cattle. T. gondii was more frequently detected in sheep given the higher dose of T. gondii. Examination of tissues at either 6 weeks or 6 months after infection did not appear to affect the distribution of T. gondii. The polymerase chain reaction has more specificity and sensitivity when detecting the presence of T. gondii in large animals than histological detection. PMID:10511098

  12. Photosensitization in cattle and sheep caused by feeding Ammi majus (greater Ammi; Bishop's-Weed).

    PubMed

    Dollahite, J W; Younger, R L; Hoffman, G O

    1978-01-01

    Feeding Ammi majus to cattle and sheep caused photosensitization in both species. It also caused photosensitization in human beings who had dermal contact with the plant and subsequent exposure to sunlight. PMID:564649

  13. Comparison of the serum toxicokinetics of larkspur toxins in cattle, sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Welch, K D; Gardner, D R; Green, B T; Stonecipher, C A; Cook, D; Pfister, J A

    2016-09-01

    Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are a major cause of cattle losses in western North America, whereas sheep are thought to be resistant to larkspur toxicosis. Goats are often used as a small ruminant model to study poisonous plants. In this study, we compared the serum toxicokinetic profile of toxic larkspur alkaloids from Delphinium barbeyi in cattle, goats, and sheep. The results from this study indicate that kinetic differences could partially explain species differences in susceptibility to larkspur toxicosis. PMID:27374834

  14. Effect of alternate and simultaneous grazing on endoparasite infection in sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Brito, Daiana Lima; Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Louvandini, Helder; dos Santos, Viviane Rodrigues Verdolin; Torres, Sonia Emília Figueirêdo de Araújo; Gomes, Edgard Franco; do Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was carried out on 8 ha of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania pastures, with rotational grazing consisting of 7 days of occupation and 21 days of rest. Four treatments were evaluated: cattle grazing alone (BOV), sheep grazing alone (OVI), cattle and sheep grazing simultaneously (SIM) and cattle grazing followed by sheep (alternate - ALT). Twenty heifers and 30 male Santa Inês lambs were used. Fecal egg count (FEC) and fecal cultures were carried out. Blood was also collected to examine red and white cell series, total plasma protein (TPP), albumin and hemoglobin. FEC and estimated nematode pathogenicity index in sheep were lower in the SIM treatment. The Haemonchus spp. proportion was higher in isolated grazing systems. For sheep, mixed grazing was shown to reduce endoparasite infection, and SIM was better than ALT. For cattle, no difference between grazing systems was seen. Therefore, simultaneous grazing (sheep and cattle) may be a tool for reducing the need for anthelmintic treatments in sheep. PMID:24473872

  15. Differences in the lymphoproliferative response of cattle and sheep to bovine leucosis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Dimmock, C K; Rogers, R J; Chung, Y S; McKenzie, A R; Waugh, P D

    1986-04-01

    Lymphoblastic leukaemia, preceded by a significantly increasing percentage of prolymphocytes in peripheral blood smears for from 12 to 68 weeks before death was a feature of sheep which developed lymphosarcoma following inoculation with the Australian strain of bovine leucosis virus (BLV). Lymphocytosis and/or the appearance of immature cells were a reliable predictor of tumour formation in sheep, but not in cattle. There was a terminal lymphoblastic leukaemia in only 43 of 84 cattle with lymphosarcoma. Differences in the morphological appearance and glycogen content of the leukaemic lymphoblasts of sheep and cattle were observed. In spite of these differences the high frequency of lymphocytosis and lymphosarcoma in experimentally infected sheep suggests that they could be a useful model for studying the pathological and immunological responses to BLV infection. PMID:3012856

  16. Biological Parameters of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) Fed on Rabbits, Sheep, and Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ma, Miling; Chen, Ze; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Zhijie; Li, Youquan; Yin, Hong; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-06-01

    In order to determine the effect of various hosts on feeding performance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, we used 3 mammalian species as hosts, cattle (Qinchuan), sheep (T an), and rabbits (Japanese white rabbit) for infest-ing ticks. Five hundreds of R. microplus larvae were exposed to each animal (3 animals/host species). Tick recoveries were 11.0%, 0.47%, and 5.5% from cattle, sheep, and rabbits, respectively. The averages of tick feeding periods were not significantly different on cattle, sheep, and rabbits, 28.8, 25.3, and 26.7 days, respectively. The average weights of individual engorged female from cattle, sheep, and rabbits were 312.5, 219.1, and 130.2 mg, respectively and those of egg mass weights each to 85.0, 96.6, and 17.8 mg. The highest egg hatching rate was in the ticks from cattle (96.0%), fol-lowed by those from rabbits (83.0%) and sheep (19.2%). These data suggest that rabbits could be as an alternative host to cultivate R. microplus for evaluating vaccines and chemical and biological medicines against the tick in the laboratory, although the biological parameters of ticks were less than those from cattle. PMID:27417084

  17. Biological Parameters of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) Fed on Rabbits, Sheep, and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Miling; Chen, Ze; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Zhijie; Li, Youquan; Yin, Hong; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of various hosts on feeding performance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, we used 3 mammalian species as hosts, cattle (Qinchuan), sheep (T an), and rabbits (Japanese white rabbit) for infest-ing ticks. Five hundreds of R. microplus larvae were exposed to each animal (3 animals/host species). Tick recoveries were 11.0%, 0.47%, and 5.5% from cattle, sheep, and rabbits, respectively. The averages of tick feeding periods were not significantly different on cattle, sheep, and rabbits, 28.8, 25.3, and 26.7 days, respectively. The average weights of individual engorged female from cattle, sheep, and rabbits were 312.5, 219.1, and 130.2 mg, respectively and those of egg mass weights each to 85.0, 96.6, and 17.8 mg. The highest egg hatching rate was in the ticks from cattle (96.0%), fol-lowed by those from rabbits (83.0%) and sheep (19.2%). These data suggest that rabbits could be as an alternative host to cultivate R. microplus for evaluating vaccines and chemical and biological medicines against the tick in the laboratory, although the biological parameters of ticks were less than those from cattle. PMID:27417084

  18. Cattle and sheep develop preference for drinking water containing grape seed tannin.

    PubMed

    Kronberg, S L; Schauer, C S

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of small amounts of some types of condensed tannins (CTs) by ruminant livestock can provide nutritional, environmental and economic benefits. However, practical methods are needed to make these tannins more available to ruminant livestock. Results from previous trials with crude quebracho and black wattle tannin indicated that cattle and/or sheep would not preferentially drink water containing these tannins. Therefore, we conducted preference trials to determine if cattle and sheep would learn to prefer water containing purified grape seed tannin (GST) that provided up to 2% of their daily dry matter (DM) intake. After gradual exposure to increasing amounts of this tannin in water during a pre-trial period, five adult ewes and five yearling heifers fed lucerne (Medicago sativa) pellets (19% CP) were offered water and several concentrations of GST solutions for either 15 (sheep trial) or 20 days (cattle trial). We measured intake of all liquids daily. Concentrations of blood urea were also measured for heifers when they drank only tannin solutions or water. Both sheep and cattle developed preferences for water with GST in it over water alone (P < 0.01) although this preference appeared earlier in the trial for sheep than for cattle. For the sheep, mean daily intake of water alone and all tannin solutions (in total) was 0.6 and 6.1 l, respectively. For the cattle, mean daily intake of water and all tannin solutions in total was 21.8 and 20.6 l, respectively, in the first half of the trial and 10.8 and 26.1 l, respectively, in the second half of the trial. Compared with the other tannin solutions, both sheep and cattle drank more of the solution with the highest tannin concentration (2% of daily DM intake as GST) than of water on more trial days (P < 0.05). Ingestion of water with the highest concentration of GST reduced blood plasma urea concentration in the cattle by 9% to 14% (P ≤ 0.10) compared with ingestion of water alone. Results from the trials

  19. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth; Nejsum, Peter; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers. PMID:26210397

  20. Effects of predator fecal odors on feed selection by sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Pfister, J A; Müller-Schwarze, D; Balph, D F

    1990-02-01

    The effectiveness of predator fecal odors in modifying feeding selection by sheep and cattle was investigated in two trials. In trial 1, animals could select from feed bins contaminated with coyote, fox, cougar, or bear fecal odor, and oil of wintergreen, or select the control feed. All odors were rejected (P<0.01) by sheep and cattle, except bear odors by sheep. In trial 2, animals could select feed during 10-min periods in an open 11-m × 16-m arena. Fecal odor did not influence approaches to feed bins, or head entries into bins. Only coyote fecal odor reduced (P<0.05) the time spent feeding in the contaminated bin, and increased (P<0.05) consumption from the control bin by both cattle and sheep. Some animals on some test days refused to feed from either feed bin, although cattle and sheep closely inspected bins. Results suggest that fecal odors may not prevent livestock from entering a treated area but may reduce the time spent grazing in such an area. PMID:24263512

  1. Effect of selenium concentration on feed preferences by cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Pfister, J A; Davis, T Z; Hall, J O

    2013-12-01

    Selenium-accumulator plants are reputed to be unpalatable to livestock. The objective of this study was to determine if sheep and cattle could discriminate between forages and feeds with different concentrations of Se. In the first study, cattle and sheep preferences for intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and western aster (Symphyotrichum ascendens) of varying Se concentrations were assessed. The Se concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 50 mg/kg (DM) in grass, 1.4 to 275 mg/kg in alfalfa, and 4 to 4,455 mg/kg in aster. Selenium concentration had no influence (P > 0.05) on the initial or subsequent preferences of sheep or cattle for grass or alfalfa. Cattle developed an aversion to aster after consuming 95% of the plant material during the first brief exposure and subsequently refused to eat any aster. Sheep consumption of aster was variable, but their preference was not driven by Se concentration. In the next study, cattle and sheep were offered pellets at 1.5% of BW (as fed) that contained increasing concentrations of Se from aster (control and 5, 25, 45, and 110 mg/kg Se). In trial 1, all pellets were offered. In Trials 2 and 3, all pellets were offered with the exception of the 5 mg/kg Se pellet and the 5 and 25 mg/kg Se pellets, respectively. In trial 1, consumption of the control pellet by cattle was greater on all days compared with other Se pellets (P < 0.001). Cattle ate more (P < 0.001) of the 5 mg/kg Se pellet than the higher Se pellets on d 3, 4, and 5. Sheep ate greater amounts of the control and 5 and 110 mg/kg Se pellets compared with the 25 and 45 mg/kg Se pellets (P < 0.0001) on d 1, and sheep consumed primarily the control and 5 mg/kg Se pellets thereafter. In trial 2, cattle and sheep consumed more (P < 0.0001) of the control Se pellet than the 25, 45, and 110 mg/kg Se pellets. In trial 3, cattle consumption of the control and 45 and 110 mg/kg Se pellets differed on d 2 and 3 (P < 0.001), except there was no

  2. Serological Investigation of Akabane Virus Infection in Cattle and Sheep in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Aiki-Raji, Comfort Oluladun; Umeh, Emmanuel Chibuzor; Mustapha, Samat Odunayo; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris

    2016-01-01

    Akabane virus (AKAV) is recognized as an important pathogen that causes abortions and congenital malformations in ruminants. However, it has not received adequate attention in Nigeria. Therefore, in investigating this disease, serum samples from 184 (abattoir and farm) head of cattle and 184 intensively reared sheep from two states in southwest Nigeria were screened for antibodies against AKAV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An overall seropositivity of 70.1% (129/184) was obtained with antibodies being detectable in 73.8% of abattoir (trade) cattle and 40.0% in farm cattle, while 4.3% (8/184) seropositivity was observed in sheep. All the age groups of cattle tested had seropositive animals, 0-1 year (1/7, 14.3%), 2-3 years (17/34, 50.0%), 4-5 years (92/121, 76.0%), and >5 years (19/22, 86.4%), while in sheep only the age groups of 2-3 and 4-5 years showed seropositivity of 4.1% (4/97) and 8.2% (4/49), respectively. The detection of antibody-positive animals among unvaccinated cattle and sheep provides evidence of AKAV infection in Nigeria. These findings call for continuous monitoring of the disease among ruminants in order to ascertain the actual burden and increase awareness of the disease. This will facilitate early detection and aid the development of appropriate control measures against the disease in Nigeria. PMID:26925103

  3. Serological Investigation of Akabane Virus Infection in Cattle and Sheep in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Aiki-Raji, Comfort Oluladun; Umeh, Emmanuel Chibuzor; Mustapha, Samat Odunayo; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris

    2016-01-01

    Akabane virus (AKAV) is recognized as an important pathogen that causes abortions and congenital malformations in ruminants. However, it has not received adequate attention in Nigeria. Therefore, in investigating this disease, serum samples from 184 (abattoir and farm) head of cattle and 184 intensively reared sheep from two states in southwest Nigeria were screened for antibodies against AKAV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An overall seropositivity of 70.1% (129/184) was obtained with antibodies being detectable in 73.8% of abattoir (trade) cattle and 40.0% in farm cattle, while 4.3% (8/184) seropositivity was observed in sheep. All the age groups of cattle tested had seropositive animals, 0-1 year (1/7, 14.3%), 2-3 years (17/34, 50.0%), 4-5 years (92/121, 76.0%), and >5 years (19/22, 86.4%), while in sheep only the age groups of 2-3 and 4-5 years showed seropositivity of 4.1% (4/97) and 8.2% (4/49), respectively. The detection of antibody-positive animals among unvaccinated cattle and sheep provides evidence of AKAV infection in Nigeria. These findings call for continuous monitoring of the disease among ruminants in order to ascertain the actual burden and increase awareness of the disease. This will facilitate early detection and aid the development of appropriate control measures against the disease in Nigeria. PMID:26925103

  4. Effects of Contrast Media on Blood Rheology: Comparison in Humans, Pigs, and Sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Laurent, Alexandre; Durussel, Jean Jacques; Dufaux, Jacques; Penhouet, Laurence; Bailly, Anne Laure; Bonneau, Michel

    1999-01-15

    Purpose: To compare whole blood viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation in humans, pigs, and sheep, before and after adding water-soluble iodinated contrast medium (CM). Methods: Two CMs were studied: iopromide (nonionic) and ioxaglate (ionic). The blood-CM viscosity was measured with a Couette viscometer. Erythrocyte aggregation was measured with an erythroaggregometer. Results: The blood-CM viscosity was increased up to +20% (relative to pure blood) with a CM concentration of 0%-10%. At CM concentrations from 10% to 50%, the viscosity decreased. The disaggregation shear stress was increased (relative to pure blood) at low CM concentration (0%-10%). When the CM concentration increased from 10% to 20%, the disaggregation shear stress was decreased, except with the pig blood-ioxaglate mixture. Conclusion: At low CM concentration the blood viscosity was increased in pig, sheep, and humans and the disaggregation shear stress was increased in pig and humans. The aggregation of sheep blood was too low to be detected by the erythroaggregometer. This rise can be explained by the formation of poorly deformable echinocytes. At higher CM concentration, the viscosity and the disaggregation shear stress decreased in relation to the blood dilution. We conclude that pig blood and sheep blood can both be used to study the effect of CM injection on blood viscosity. Nevertheless, the rheologic behavior of pig blood in terms of erythrocyte aggregation is closer to that of human blood than is sheep blood when mixed with CM. Pigs could thus be more suitable than sheep for in vivo studies of CM miscibility with blood during selective cannulation procedures.

  5. Numbers of fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli in fresh and dry cattle, horse, and sheep manure.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R W; Entry, J A; Graves, Alexandria

    2005-10-01

    Livestock are known contributors to stream pollution. Numbers of fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli in manure naturally deposited by livestock in the field are needed for activities related to bacterial source tracking and determining maximum daily bacterial loading of streams. We measured populations of fecal streptococci and E. coli in fresh and dry manure from cattle (Bos taurus L.), horses (Equus caballus L.), and sheep (Ovis aires L.) on farms in southern Idaho. Populations of indicator bacteria in dry manure were often as high as that in fresh manure from horse and sheep. There was a 2 log10 drop in the population of fecal coliform numbers in dry cattle manure from cattle in pastures but not from cattle in pens. Bacterial isolates used in source tracking should include isolates from both fresh and dry manure to better represent the bacterial source loading of streams. PMID:16333344

  6. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus s.l. cysts from cattle, camels, goats and pigs in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tigre, Worku; Deresa, Benti; Haile, Adane; Gabriël, Sarah; Victor, Bjorn; Pelt, Jani Van; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-01-15

    Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a neglected helminth zoonosis affecting humans and various animal species. Human CE has been reported in almost all countries of sub-Saharan Africa but its prevalence and public health impact are subject to large geographical variations. The reasons for these differences are not well understood; among other factors, occurrence of different species/genotypes of E. granulosus s.l. has been suggested. CE is very common in all livestock species in Ethiopia; human CE is poorly documented in the country. The aim of this study was to assess the fertility and molecularly characterize hydatid cysts collected from cattle, camels, goats and pigs from different parts of the country. From the 137 samples characterized by PCR-RFLP and sequencing, 115 (83.9%) were identified as E. granulosus s.s. (G1, common sheep strain), 6 (4.4%) as Echinococcus ortleppi (G5, cattle strain) and 16 (11.7%) as Echinococcus intermedius (G6/7, camel strain). In cattle, E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi were found; in camels and goats, E. granulosus s.s. and E. intermedius; two cysts found in pigs were identified as E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi, respectively. All cysts recovered from goats and pigs were sterile, while fertility was 34% and 50% in cysts from cattle and camels, respectively. In cattle, 31% of E. granulosus s.s. cysts were fertile, showing the importance of cattle in the transmission of the "sheep strain". Next to E. granulosus s.s., E. intermedius (camel strain) was the predominant species: 34.4% of the cysts collected from camels and 62.5% from goats were identified as E. intermedius. These animals originated from the drier Central, Eastern and Southern parts of the country. For the first time, we showed the presence of CE in pigs in Ethiopia. The presence of these strains and especially the fact that the zoonotic E. granulosus s.s. and E. intermedius are dominant, make CE an important public

  7. Feeding behaviour of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on cattle and sheep in northeast Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Culicoides spp. play an important role in the transmission of several vector-borne pathogens such as Bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus in Europe. To better understand the biology of local Culicoides species, a study divided into three parts was performed in northeast Germany to elucidate the feeding activity patterns (study A), preferential landing and feeding sites (study B) and host feeding preferences (study C) of Culicoides spp. using cattle and sheep as baits. Methods In study A, the activity of Culicoides spp. was monitored over a 72 h period by collecting insects at regular intervals from the interior of drop traps with cattle or sheep standing inside. In study B, Culicoides spp. were directly aspirated from the coat and fleece of cattle and sheep during the peak activity period of Culicoides. In study C, Culicoides spp. were collected using drop traps with either cattle or sheep standing inside and located 10 m apart. Results In study A, 3,545 Culicoides midges belonging to 13 species were collected, peak activity was observed at sunset. In study B, 2,024 Culicoides midges were collected. A significantly higher number of midges was collected from the belly and flank of cattle in comparison to their head region. In study C, 3,710 Culicoides midges were collected; 3,077 (83%) originated from cattle and 633 (17%) from sheep. Nearly half (46.7%) of the midges collected from cattle were engorged, significantly more than the number of engorged midges collected from sheep (7.5%). Culicoides from the Obsoletus complex (C. obsoletus and C. scoticus) were the most common Culicoides species encountered, followed by C. punctatus. Other species identified were C. dewulfi, C. chiopterus, C. pulicaris, C. lupicaris, C. pallidicornis, C. subfascipennis, C. achrayi, C. stigma, C. griseidorsum and C. subfagineus, the last two species are reported for the first time in Germany. Engorged C. chiopterus were collected in relatively high numbers from sheep

  8. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF ANTIBODIES TO TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN SHEEP, CATTLE, AND BUFFALOES IN PUNJAB, INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sera from 186 sheep, 83 cattle, and 103 water buffaloes from Punjab, India were evaluated for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using a commercial ELISA kit. This study was planned using a 2-stage random sampling procedure employing sampling software ‘survey toolbox’. In the first step, villages were...

  9. Comparison of the serum toxicokinetics of larkspur toxins in cattle, sheep and goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are a major cause of cattle losses in western North America, whereas sheep are thought to be resistant to larkspur toxicosis. Goats are often used as a small ruminant model to study poisonous plants. In this study, we compared the serum toxicokinetic profile of toxic lark...

  10. Molecular detection of piroplasms in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Signorini, Manuela; Teshale, Sori; Tessarin, Cinzia; Duguma, Reta; Ayana, Dinka; Martini, Marco; Cassini, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia, ticks and tick-borne diseases are widely distributed and contribute to important economic losses. Several studies investigated the prevalence and species composition of ticks infesting ruminants; however, data on tick-borne pathogens are still scarce. During the study period from October 2010 to April 2011, a total of 1,246 adult ticks and 264 nymphs were collected from 267 cattle and 45 sheep in Bako District, western Oromia, Ethiopia. The study showed infestation of 228/267 (85.4 %) cattle and 35/45 (77.8 %) sheep with adult ticks. Overall, eight tick species, belonging to three genera (Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma), were identified and Amblyomma cohaerens (n = 577), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (n = 290), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (n = 287), and Amblyomma variegatum (n = 85) were the more prevalent species. A statistically significant host preference in A. cohaerens for cattle and R. evertsi evertsi for sheep was noticed. Molecular detection of piroplasms, performed only for adult ticks of two species of the genus Rhipicephalus (R. evertsi evertsi and R. decoloratus), revealed an overall prevalence of 4 % (8/202) Theileria buffeli/sergenti/orientalis, 0.5 % (1/202) Theileria velifera, and 2 % (4/202) Theileria ovis. The study showed that tick infestation prevalence is considerably high in both cattle and sheep of the area, but with a low intensity of tick burden and a moderate circulation of mildly pathogenic piroplasm species. PMID:23846769

  11. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of emergent Arcobacter spp. isolated from cattle and sheep in Iran.

    PubMed

    Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Khoshbakht, Rahem; Raeisi, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    This study is conducted to determine the occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Arcobacter spp. isolated from clinically healthy food animals. A total of 308 samples from cattle (200) and sheep (108) were collected from Shiraz slaughterhouse, southern Iran to investigate the presence of the important Arcobacter spp. using cultivation and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcobacter isolates was determined for 18 antibiotics using disk diffusion method. Among 308 samples, 27 (8.7%) and 44 (14.28%) were positive for the presence of Arcobacter species with cultivation and PCR procedures, respectively. The predominant species was A. butzleri in both cattle (58.33%) and sheep (55%). In addition, concurrent incidence of the species was observed in 25% of the positive samples. All Arcobacter isolates were resistant to rifampicin, vancomycin, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim and cephalothin. The isolates showed high susceptibility to tetracycline, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, amikacin, gentamicin and enrofloxacin. No significant difference among cattle and sheep isolates in resistance pattern was observed. The results indicate that cattle and sheep are significant intestinal carriers for Arcobacter spp. Moreover, tetracycline and aminoglycosides showed great effects on Arcobacter species in antibiogram test and can be used for treatment of human Arcobacter infections. PMID:26851593

  12. Bacteria isolated from 25 hydatid cysts in sheep, cattle and goats.

    PubMed

    Ziino, G; Giuffrida, A; Bilei, S; Panebianco, A

    2009-08-22

    Bacteria were isolated from 12 of 25 hydatid cysts collected from the lungs and livers of cattle, sheep and goats slaughtered in the province of Messina, Sicily, Italy. Citrobacter freundii was isolated from seven of the cysts, Aeromonas hydrophila from three, Staphylococcus species from two, Salmonella species from two and Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris from one. PMID:19700784

  13. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves.

    PubMed

    Bauermann, F V; Falkenberg, S M; Decaro, N; Flores, E F; Ridpath, J F

    2015-12-31

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In this study, seronegative calves, goats and pigs, and sheep harboring pestivirus antibodies (probably due to previous exposure to BVDV) were exposed to HoBi-like viruses either by direct inoculation (GIn) or by contact with calves persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses (GEx). Both GIn and GEx groups were monitored for clinical signs, lymphocyte count, virus in buffy coats and nasal swabs up to day 18 post-inoculation (pi). Evidence of transmission of HoBi-like virus by PI calves was observed in all studied species. No difference in clinical presentation was observed between animals in the GIn or GEx groups. Evidence of infection, depending on the species included lymphocyte depletion, fever, viral RNA detection, and/or seroconversion. Depletion of lymphocytes was observed in calves and goats (35% and 50%, respectively) but not in pigs. Seroconversion was observed in at least one animal of each group and for all exposed species. The rate of seroconversion was higher in animals in the GIn experimental groups. In sheep, pre-existing moderate to high neutralizing titers against BVDV did not prevent viral replication and shed. The study demonstrated that naive cattle, goats and pigs, in addition to antibody positive sheep, can be infected by HoBi-like virus via persistently infected calf and potentially transmit the virus. PMID:26525738

  14. Experimental vaccination of sheep and cattle against tick infestation using recombinant 5'-nucleotidase.

    PubMed

    Hope, M; Jiang, X; Gough, J; Cadogan, L; Josh, P; Jonsson, N; Willadsen, P

    2010-02-01

    Limited prior evidence suggests that 5'-nucleotidase, an ectoenzyme principally located in the Malpighian tubules of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, could be an effective antigen in an anti-tick vaccine. To assess this, recombinant 5'-nucleotidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in vaccination trials with both sheep and cattle. Vaccinated sheep were challenged with freshly moulted adult ticks. Those with high titres of anti-nucleotidase antibodies showed significant protection against tick infestation, although protection was less than that found with the previously characterized antigen, Bm86. Cattle were vaccinated, in separate groups, with 5'-nucleotidase, Bm86 and both antigens combined. Cattle, as the natural host, were challenged with larval ticks. Although Bm86 showed typical efficacy, no significant protection was seen in cattle vaccinated with 5'-nucleotidase. Cattle receiving a dual antigen formulation were no better protected than those receiving Bm86 alone. One possible reason for the difference between host species, namely antibody titre, was examined and shown to be an unlikely explanation. This demonstrates a limitation of using a model host like sheep in vaccine studies. PMID:20070827

  15. Experimental vaccination of sheep and cattle against tick infestation using recombinant 5′-nucleotidase

    PubMed Central

    HOPE, M; JIANG, X; GOUGH, J; CADOGAN, L; JOSH, P; JONSSON, N; WILLADSEN, P

    2010-01-01

    Limited prior evidence suggests that 5′-nucleotidase, an ectoenzyme principally located in the Malpighian tubules of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, could be an effective antigen in an anti-tick vaccine. To assess this, recombinant 5′-nucleotidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in vaccination trials with both sheep and cattle. Vaccinated sheep were challenged with freshly moulted adult ticks. Those with high titres of anti-nucleotidase antibodies showed significant protection against tick infestation, although protection was less than that found with the previously characterized antigen, Bm86. Cattle were vaccinated, in separate groups, with 5′-nucleotidase, Bm86 and both antigens combined. Cattle, as the natural host, were challenged with larval ticks. Although Bm86 showed typical efficacy, no significant protection was seen in cattle vaccinated with 5′-nucleotidase. Cattle receiving a dual antigen formulation were no better protected than those receiving Bm86 alone. One possible reason for the difference between host species, namely antibody titre, was examined and shown to be an unlikely explanation. This demonstrates a limitation of using a model host like sheep in vaccine studies. PMID:20070827

  16. Effect of sorghum grain supplementation on glucose metabolism in cattle and sheep fed temperate pasture.

    PubMed

    Aguerre, M; Carriquiry, M; Astessiano, A L; Cajarville, C; Repetto, J L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations, and hepatic mRNA concentrations of insulin receptor (INSR), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) mRNA and their association with nutrient intake, digestion and rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA) in cattle and sheep fed a fresh temperate pasture. Twelve Hereford × Aberdeen Angus heifers and 12 Corriedale × Milchschaf wethers in positive energy balance were assigned within each species to one of two treatments (n = 6 per treatment within specie): non-supplemented or supplemented with sorghum grain at 15 g/kg of their body weight (BW). Supplemented cattle had greater plasma glucose concentrations, decreased plasma glucagon concentrations and tended to have greater plasma insulin and insulin-to-glucagon ratio than non-supplemented ones. Hepatic expression of INSR and PC mRNA did not differ between treatments but PCK1 mRNA was less in supplemented than non-supplemented cattle. Supplemented sheep tended to have greater plasma glucagon concentrations than non-supplemented ones. Plasma glucose, insulin, insulin-to-glucagon ratio, and hepatic expression of INSR and PC mRNA did not differ between treatments, but PCK1 mRNA was less in supplemented than non-supplemented sheep. The inclusion of sorghum grain in the diet decreased PCK1 mRNA but did not affect PC mRNA in both species; these effects were associated with changes in glucose and endocrine profiles in cattle but not in sheep. Results would suggest that sorghum grain supplementation of animals in positive energy balance (cattle and sheep) fed a fresh temperate pasture would modify hepatic metabolism to prioritize the use of propionate as a gluconeogenic precursor. PMID:25040769

  17. Toxoplasma gondii in Ireland: seroprevalence and novel molecular detection method in sheep, pigs, deer and chickens.

    PubMed

    Halová, D; Mulcahy, G; Rafter, P; Turčeková, L; Grant, T; de Waal, T

    2013-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is among the most studied parasites worldwide but there is not much information about it published in Ireland. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in sheep, pigs, deer and chickens and the molecular detection of T. gondii DNA in muscle tissue. Serum samples were collected from these species at the time of slaughter at Irish abattoirs during 2007 and tested for anti-T. gondii antibodies using a commercial semi-quantitative latex agglutination test. Antibodies (titre ≥1 : 64) were found in 36% (105/292) sheep, 4.7% (15/317) pigs and 6.6% (23/348) deer. In chickens, 18% (65/364) had antibody titres, ranging between 1 : 5 and 1 : 1024. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) age-related differences in seroprevalence were found in adult sheep (58.1%) and pigs (23.1%). Significant gender differences in seroprevalence was also found in sheep with more females (43%) than males (22.4%) being positive. However, when adjusted for age through logistic regression gender was no longer significant. Seroprevalence was also evaluated on farm locations grouped to NUTS level 3, but the prevalence was too low to draw any statistical conclusions. Using a nested PCR, the presence of T. gondii DNA was detected in diaphragm samples from 3.6% (3/83) sheep, 13.0% (3/23) pig and 4.2% (3/71) deer. Meat digestion liquids from a Trichinella spp. survey in pigs were also used for the first time to detect T. gondii. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in 50% (10/20) of pooled samples. This is the first in depth study of T. gondii seroprevalence in animals in Ireland and a novel method, using digestion liquid from pooled diaphragm samples, for PCR detection in pigs is described. PMID:22697578

  18. A comparative study of sheep and pigs given the tremorgenic mycotoxins verruculogen and penitrem A.

    PubMed

    Peterson, D W; Penny, R H; Day, J B; Mantle, P G

    1982-09-01

    The moulds Penicillium simplicissimum and P crustosum and the tremorgenic mycotoxins, verruculogen and penitrem A, isolated from them, were given to sheep and pigs to compare their potencies. Pigs were generally less susceptible and in both species penitrem A was less potent than verruculogen. Five-month-old lambs seemed more susceptible to mycelium containing verruculogen than were 15-month-old sheep given a similar oral dose relative to bodyweight. Repeated daily dosing of lambs and sheep for five days with P simplicissimum failed to enhance the effect, indicating that verruculogen toxicity was not cumulative. Long and short acting barbiturate anaesthesia blocked the effects of lethal doses of tremorgens. Sedation with diazepam diminished, but did not block, mycotoxin-induced tremors suggesting that there was no specific action of this anticonvulsant sedative on tremorgens. PMID:7146626

  19. Shedding and seroprevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in sheep and cattle at a New Zealand Abattoir.

    PubMed

    Fang, F; Collins-Emerson, J M; Cullum, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on sheep and cattle slaughtered at a New Zealand abattoir from September to November 2010 to investigate the supplier-specific shedding rate, renal carriage rate and seroprevalence of leptospires. In the 2008/2009 season, this abattoir experienced three human leptospirosis cases from 20 staff, of which two were hospitalized. Urine, kidney and blood samples were collected from carcasses of 399 sheep (six suppliers, 17 slaughter lines) and 146 cattle (three suppliers, 22 slaughter lines). The urine and kidney samples were tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), while serum samples (from coagulated blood samples) were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In total, 27% (73/274; 95% CI: 18-37) of urine samples tested positive by qPCR. Species-specific shedding rates (prevalence of positive urine qPCR) were 31% (95% CI: 17-48) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 14-30) for cattle. For 545 kidney samples tested, 145 were qPCR positive (27%; 95% CI: 17-39). The average prevalence of kidney qPCR positivity was 29% (95% CI: 17-45) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 15-28) for cattle. Three hundred and thirty of 542 sampled sheep and cattle had antibodies against Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjobovis (Hardjobovis) and/or Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona), based on reciprocal MAT titre ≥1 : 48 (overall seroprevalence of 61%; 95% CI: 48-73). Seroprevalence was 57% (95% CI: 40-72) for sheep and 73% (95% CI: 59-83) for cattle. Among the seropositive animals, 41% (70/170; 95% CI: 30-54) were shedding (tested positive by urine qPCR) and 42% (137/330; 95% CI: 30-54) had renal carriage (tested positive by kidney qPCR). Some risk management options for abattoirs or farms to prevent human leptospirosis infections include vaccination of maintenance hosts, the use of personal protective equipment, and the application of urine qPCR to detect shedding status of stock as surveillance and as an alert. PMID:25043226

  20. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ⩾ 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (⩾ 50%) or lower (⩽ 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ⩾ 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer. PMID:26341827

  1. A gene expression estimator of intramuscular fat percentage for use in both cattle and sheep

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The expression of genes encoding proteins involved in triacyglyceride and fatty acid synthesis and storage in cattle muscle are correlated with intramuscular fat (IMF)%. Are the same genes also correlated with IMF% in sheep muscle, and can the same set of genes be used to estimate IMF% in both species? Results The correlation between gene expression (microarray) and IMF% in the longissimus muscle (LM) of twenty sheep was calculated. An integrated analysis of this dataset with an equivalent cattle correlation dataset and a cattle differential expression dataset was undertaken. A total of 30 genes were identified to be strongly correlated with IMF% in both cattle and sheep. The overlap of genes was highly significant, 8 of the 13 genes in the TAG gene set and 8 of the 13 genes in the FA gene set were in the top 100 and 500 genes respectively most correlated with IMF% in sheep, P-value = 0. Of the 30 genes, CIDEA, THRSP, ACSM1, DGAT2 and FABP4 had the highest average rank in both species. Using the data from two small groups of Brahman cattle (control and Hormone growth promotant-treated [known to decrease IMF% in muscle]) and 22 animals in total, the utility of a direct measure and different estimators of IMF% (ultrasound and gene expression) to differentiate between the two groups were examined. Directly measured IMF% and IMF% estimated from ultrasound scanning could not discriminate between the two groups. However, using gene expression to estimate IMF% discriminated between the two groups. Increasing the number of genes used to estimate IMF% from one to five significantly increased the discrimination power; but increasing the number of genes to 15 resulted in little further improvement. Conclusion We have demonstrated the utility of a comparative approach to identify robust estimators of IMF% in the LM in cattle and sheep. We have also demonstrated a number of approaches (potentially applicable to much smaller groups of animals than conventional methods

  2. Resistance of Fasciola hepatica against triclabendazole in cattle and sheep in The netherlands.

    PubMed

    Moll, L; Gaasenbeek, C P; Vellema, P; Borgsteede, F H

    2000-07-24

    In the winter of 1998/1999, sheep on a farm in the province of North Holland, The Netherlands, died from subacute and chronic liver fluke disease despite four previous treatments with triclabendazole (TCBZ). Faecal examinations of sheep and cattle on the farm showed high number of liver fluke eggs. In a randomised clinical trial, the fluke egg output was monitored weekly for 3 weeks in sheep which were treated with TCBZ or with closantel; in dairy cows treated with TCBZ or with clorsulon; and in heifers treated with TCBZ or clorsulon. The results showed a significant reduction of 99.7, 98.1 and 99.2%, respectively, in fluke egg output at 21 days in all non-TCBZ treated animals. TCBZ treatment produced percentage decreases of 15.3, 4.3 and 36.6%, respectively. These results are highly indicative of the presence of TCBZ-resistant Fasciola hepatica in sheep and cattle on this farm. PMID:10889368

  3. The gastrointestinal tract as a potential infection reservoir of digital dermatitis-associated treponemes in beef cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Carter, S D; Duncan, J S; Grove-White, D H; Angell, J W; Evans, N J

    2015-11-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an important cause of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. It has now been reported in beef cattle and also sheep (contagious ovine digital dermatitis [CODD]). Three Treponema phylogroups are consistently isolated from lesions, Treponema medium-like, Treponema phagedenis-like, and Treponema pedis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces are suggested sites of treponemal infection in dairy cattle; however, isolation of DD-associated treponemes from these areas has previously failed. This study surveyed gingival tissues, rectal tissues, and feces of beef cattle and sheep for the molecular presence (PCR) and isolation of the three cultivable DD-treponeme phylogroups. Of the sheep gingival (n = 40) and rectal (n = 40) tissues, 1/40 gingival tissues was positive for DD-associated treponemes (T. pedis), as were 3/40 rectal tissues (one containing T. medium-like and two containing T. pedis). No DD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef cattle rectal tissues (n = 40); however, 4/40 beef gingival tissues were positive for DD-associated treponemes (all containing T. phagedenis-like). A T. phagedenis-like DD-associated treponeme was isolated from the rectal tissue of a CODD symptomatic sheep. Beef cattle (n = 41) and sheep (n = 79) feces failed to amplify DD-associated Treponema DNA. Twenty-two treponemes were isolated from sheep feces; however, upon phylogenetic analysis, these clustered with the considered nonpathogenic treponemes. This study detected DD-associated treponemes in the GI tract tissues of sheep and beef cattle and successfully isolated a DD-associated treponeme from ruminant rectal tissue. This gives evidence that the GI tract is an important infection reservoir of DD-associated treponemes in multiple DD-infected species. PMID:26276110

  4. The Gastrointestinal Tract as a Potential Infection Reservoir of Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponemes in Beef Cattle and Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S. D.; Duncan, J. S.; Grove-White, D. H.; Angell, J. W.; Evans, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an important cause of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. It has now been reported in beef cattle and also sheep (contagious ovine digital dermatitis [CODD]). Three Treponema phylogroups are consistently isolated from lesions, Treponema medium-like, Treponema phagedenis-like, and Treponema pedis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces are suggested sites of treponemal infection in dairy cattle; however, isolation of DD-associated treponemes from these areas has previously failed. This study surveyed gingival tissues, rectal tissues, and feces of beef cattle and sheep for the molecular presence (PCR) and isolation of the three cultivable DD-treponeme phylogroups. Of the sheep gingival (n = 40) and rectal (n = 40) tissues, 1/40 gingival tissues was positive for DD-associated treponemes (T. pedis), as were 3/40 rectal tissues (one containing T. medium-like and two containing T. pedis). No DD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef cattle rectal tissues (n = 40); however, 4/40 beef gingival tissues were positive for DD-associated treponemes (all containing T. phagedenis-like). A T. phagedenis-like DD-associated treponeme was isolated from the rectal tissue of a CODD symptomatic sheep. Beef cattle (n = 41) and sheep (n = 79) feces failed to amplify DD-associated Treponema DNA. Twenty-two treponemes were isolated from sheep feces; however, upon phylogenetic analysis, these clustered with the considered nonpathogenic treponemes. This study detected DD-associated treponemes in the GI tract tissues of sheep and beef cattle and successfully isolated a DD-associated treponeme from ruminant rectal tissue. This gives evidence that the GI tract is an important infection reservoir of DD-associated treponemes in multiple DD-infected species. PMID:26276110

  5. A systematic review on the global occurrence of Taenia hydatigena in pigs and cattle.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Man Thi Thuy; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-08-15

    Taenia hydatigena, a non-zoonotic tapeworm species shares the same intermediate hosts with other Taenia zoonotic species, such as Taenia solium in pigs and Taenia saginata in cattle. The occurrence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle may cause cross-reactions in immunodiagnostic tests and therefore, complicate the diagnosis of the zoonotic species. This study was conducted to systematically review the data on the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle, with the aim to assess the potential interference in serological diagnosis of zoonotic Taenia spp. due to T. hydatigena infection. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Africa Journal Online, website http://www.google.com and article reference lists in English, French and Vietnamese with no restriction on research time and publication status. Eligible studies included observational studies that showed the occurrence of T. hydatigena. Twenty-six studies, divided into two animal groups, i.e. pigs and cattle, met the eligibility criteria for qualitative synthesis and 17 studies were included for the meta-analysis in three continents. T. hydatigena was found by necropsy in all included studies, which mostly were abattoir surveys. Overall, results showed the worldwide occurrence of T. hydatigena cysticercosis in pigs and cattle. In pigs, there was a marked higher prevalence in Asia and South America that was 17.2% (95% CI: 10.6-26.8%) and 27.5% (CI: 20.8-35.3%), respectively, compared to a low prevalence of 3.9% (95% CI: 1.9-7.9%) in Africa. Overall, the prevalence of T. hydatigena in cattle was low with a mean of 1.1% (95% CI: 0.2-5.2%). These results show that interpretation of results of sero-diagnostic tests for zoonotic Taenia species in pigs and cattle has to take into account the prevalence of T. hydatigena infections in different settings. PMID:27514893

  6. The lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney from Finnish pigs and cattle during 1987-1988.

    PubMed

    Niemi, A; Venäläinen, E R; Hirvi, T; Hirn, J; Karppanen, E

    1991-05-01

    The lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney from Finnish pigs and cattle were determined. The average wet weight lead concentrations in pig muscle, liver and kidney were 15 micrograms/kg, 38 micrograms/kg and 40 micrograms/kg, respectively. The corresponding concentrations for cattle were 13 micrograms/kg, 57 micrograms/kg and 110 micrograms/kg. The average wet weight cadmium concentrations were 1.5 micrograms/kg, 28 micrograms/kg and 170 micrograms/kg (pigs) and 1.3 micrograms/kg, 61 micrograms/kg and 350 micrograms/kg (cattle). The corresponding mercury concentrations were 11 micrograms/kg, 12 micrograms/kg and 14 micrograms/kg (pigs) and 11 micrograms/kg, 12 micrograms/kg and 15 micrograms/kg (cattle). The average concentrations were at or above the detection limit of the metal in question. According to the results obtained by the National Veterinary Institute, the cadmium concentration in pigs and cattle has decreased during the period 1973-1988. The provisional tolerable daily intake of lead/person (60 kg), recommended by GEMS/Food, is 0.43 mg. According to the results for lead levels in these products in Finland, a daily intake of 29 kg pig muscle, 33 kg cattle muscle, 11 kg pig liver, 8 kg cattle liver, 11 kg pig kidney or 4 kg cattle kidney would be required to reach this norm. The corresponding provisional tolerable daily intake of cadmium/person (60 kg) is 0.06 mg and is equivalent to 40 kg pig muscle, 46 kg cattle muscle, 2 kg pig liver, 1 kg cattle liver, 0.4 kg pig kidney and 0.2 kg cattle kidney. The validity of the methods was tested four times a year using spiked check samples. PMID:2058312

  7. Effects of feeding ponderosa pine needles during pregnancy: comparative studies with bison, cattle, goats, and sheep.

    PubMed

    Short, R E; James, L F; Panter, K E; Staigmiller, R B; Bellows, R A; Malcolm, J; Ford, S P

    1992-11-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feeding dried pine needles (Pinus ponderosa; PN) on the abortion rate of ruminants. In Exp. 1, cattle were fed 5.4 kg of PN daily for 21 d starting at 116, 167, 215, or 254 d of pregnancy. The PN did not cause abortions when started at 116 d; thereafter, the percentage of cows that aborted increased linearly, and the interval to abortion decreased linearly (both P < .01); all cows fed PN beginning at 254 d aborted. In Exp. 2, cattle were fed .7, 1.4, or 2.7 kg of PN for 21 d or 2.7 kg for 1 or 3 d. Sheep and goats were fed .8 and .5 kg of PN, respectively, starting at 121 d of pregnancy. The PN induced some abortions in cattle when fed for 1 (11%) or 3 (30%) d, but the abortion rate was greater (P < .01) when the PN were fed for longer periods of time (80, 90, and 100% aborted in 19, 17, and 10 d for .7-, 1.4-, and 2.7-kg doses, respectively). No goats or sheep aborted in response to PN feeding. Pregnancy rates during the next breeding season for cows that aborted in response to the PN were slightly higher than rates for control cows (94 vs 87%). In Exp. 3, buffalo (Bison bison) and cattle were fed 2.25 kg of PN from the same collection. Abortions were induced in all buffalo and cattle that were fed PN.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1459912

  8. Foot-and-mouth disease in British deer: transmission of virus to cattle, sheep and deer.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, E P; Herniman, K A; Lawman, M J; Sellers, R F

    1975-06-28

    After exposure for two hours to cattle with foot-and-mouth disease, each of the five species of deer found in the British countryside became infected. Clinical disease was typical and severe in the roe and muntjac deer, with some animals dying, less severe in the sika deer and usually subclinical in the fallow and red deer. Each species transmitted disease to its own species and to cattle and sheep. The amounts of virus present in the blood, and in oesophageal/pharyngeal samples and excreted as an aerosol during the course of the infection in the deer were similar to those recorded for the sheep and cattle in the same experiment. The fallow and sika deer commonly carried virus in the pharynx beyond 28 days after exposure; some red deer also became carriers. In epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease in the UK, it is likely that deer would have such intimate contact with farm animals as occurred in this study. The natural behavior of free-living deer in the UK suggests that, although the five species are susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease, they are unlikely to be an important factor in the maintenance and transmission of the virus during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in domestic livestock. PMID:167503

  9. Effects of ractopamine HCl on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in vitro and on intestinal populations and fecal shedding in experimentally infected sheep and pigs.

    PubMed

    Edrington, Thomas S; Callaway, Todd R; Smith, David J; Genovese, Ken J; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2006-07-01

    The effects of the beta-agonist ractopamine, approved for use in finishing swine and cattle to improve carcass quality and performance, were examined on two important foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Ractopamine, administered to sheep before and after oral inoculation with E. coli O157:H7, increased (P < 0.01) fecal shedding and tended to increase (P = 0.08) cecal populations of the challenge strain. Pigs receiving ractopamine in the diet and then experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium, had decreased (P < 0.05) fecal shedding and fewer (P = 0.05) liver samples positive for the challenge strain of Salmonella. Pure cultures of E. coli O157:H7 (used in the present sheep study), E. coli O157:H19 (isolated from pigs with postweaning diarrhea), Salmonella Typhimurium (used in the present pig study), and Salmonella Choleraesuis were incubated with varying concentrations of ractopamine to determine if ractopamine has a direct effect on bacterial growth. No differences in growth rate were observed for either strain of E. coli or for Salmonella Typhimurium when incubated with increasing concentrations of ractopamine. The growth rate for Salmonella Choleraesuis was increased with the addition of 2.0 mug ractopamine/ml compared with the other concentrations examined. Collectively, these results indicate that ractopamine may influence gut populations and fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Because ractopamine is currently approved to be fed to finishing cattle and swine immediately before slaughter, any potential for decreasing foodborne pathogens has exciting food safety implications. PMID:16775793

  10. Evaluation and development of spinosyns to control ectoparasites on cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Kirst, Herbert A; Creemer, Lawrence C; Naylor, Sharon A; Pugh, Paul T; Snyder, Daniel E; Winkle, Joseph R; Lowe, L Barry; Rothwell, James T; Sparks, Thomas C; Worden, Thomas V

    2002-07-01

    The spinosyns are a novel family of fermentation-derived natural products that exhibit potent insecticidal activities. Spinosad, a naturally-occurring mixture of spinosyn A and spinosyn D, has successfully established its utility for crop protective applications in the agrochemical field. Potential applications of this unique chemical family of macrolides also have been investigated in the field of animal health. Applications for the control of blowfly strike and lice on sheep have now been commercially developed and registered in Australia and potential applications for the control of ectoparasites on cattle are being studied. PMID:12052185

  11. Capripoxviruses: an emerging worldwide threat to sheep, goats and cattle.

    PubMed

    Babiuk, S; Bowden, T R; Boyle, D B; Wallace, D B; Kitching, R P

    2008-09-01

    Capripoxviruses are the cause of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpy skin disease (LSD) of cattle. These diseases are of great economic significance to farmers in regions in which they are endemic and are a major constraint to international trade in livestock and their products. Although the distribution of capripoxviruses is considerably reduced from what it was even 50 years ago, they are now expanding their territory, with recent outbreaks of sheeppox or goatpox in Vietnam, Mongolia and Greece, and outbreaks of LSD in Ethiopia, Egypt and Israel. Increased legal and illegal trade in live animals provides the potential for further spread, with, for instance, the possibility of LSD becoming firmly established in Asia. This review briefly summarizes what is known about capripoxviruses, including their impact on livestock production, their geographic range, host-specificity, clinical disease, transmission and genomics, and considers current developments in diagnostic tests and vaccines. Capripoxviruses have the potential to become emerging disease threats because of global climate change and changes in patterns of trade in animals and animal products. They also could be used as economic bioterrorism agents. PMID:18774991

  12. Nutritional requirements of sheep, goats and cattle in warm climates: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Salah, N; Sauvant, D; Archimède, H

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to update energy and protein requirements of growing sheep, goats and cattle in warm areas through a meta-analysis study of 590 publications. Requirements were expressed on metabolic live weight (MLW=LW0.75) and LW1 basis. The maintenance requirements for energy were 542.64 and 631.26 kJ ME/kg LW0.75 for small ruminants and cattle, respectively, and the difference was significant (P<0.01). The corresponding requirement for 1 g gain was 24.3 kJ ME without any significant effect of species. Relative to LW0.75, there was no difference among genotypes intra-species in terms of ME requirement for maintenance and gain. However, small ruminants of warm and tropical climate appeared to have higher ME requirements for maintenance relative to live weight (LW) compared with temperate climate ones and cattle. Maintenance requirements for protein were estimated via two approaches. For these two methods, the data in which retained nitrogen (RN) was used cover the same range of variability of observations. The regression of digestible CP intake (DCPI, g/kg LW0.75) against RN (g/kg LW0.75) indicated that DCP requirements are significantly higher in sheep (3.36 g/kg LW0.75) than in goats (2.38 g/kg LW0.75), with cattle intermediate (2.81 g/kg LW0.75), without any significant difference in the quantity of DCPI/g retained CP (RCP) (40.43). Regressing metabolisable protein (MP) or minimal digestible protein in the intestine (PDImin) against RCP showed that there was no difference between species and genotypes, neither for the intercept (maintenance=3.51 g/kg LW0.75 for sheep and goat v. 4.35 for cattle) nor for the slope (growth=0.60 g MP/g RCP). The regression of DCP against ADG showed that DCP requirements did not differ among species or genotypes. These new feeding standards are derived from a wider range of nutritional conditions compared with existing feeding standards as they are based on a larger database. The standards seem to be more appropriate

  13. Close genotypic relationship between Enterocytozoon bieneusi from humans and pigs and first detection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Rinder, H; Thomschke, A; Dengjel, B; Gothe, R; Löscher, T; Zahler, M

    2000-02-01

    The reservoirs and the routes of transmission of Enterocytozoon bieneusi are still unknown. In humans, it is the most commonly found microsporidial species. It has also been found repeatedly in pigs, too. The first detection of E. bieneusi in cattle is reported herein. Two distinct genotypes were characterized and compared with 4 other genotypes from humans, 6 from pigs, and 1 from a cat. From these 13 E. bieneusi genotypes known to date, 25 polymorphic sites could be identified in the internal transcribed spacer of the rRNA gene. The spectrum of polymorphisms within and between each of the 4 host species indicates a close relationship between E. bieneusi strains from humans and pigs, whereas those from cattle are more distantly related. The data suggest the absence of a transmission barrier between pigs and humans for this pathogen. PMID:10701590

  14. Airborne Salmonella and Listeria associated with Irish commercial beef, sheep and pig plants.

    PubMed

    Okraszewska-Lasica, Wioletta; Bolton, D J; Sheridan, J J; McDowell, D A

    2014-06-01

    Air samples from lairage, hide/fleece pulling or dehairing/scraping, evisceration and chilling areas in commercial beef, sheep and pig plants were examined for Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, by impaction or sedimentation onto selective (Brilliant Green Agar, BSA; Listeria Selective Agar, LSA) and non-selective (Plate Count Agar, PCA) media. Both pathogens were frequently detected in all three plants. Improved recoveries were achieved by combining sedimentation, and broth based resuscitation, suggesting cell injury. Salmonella were recovered from all three plants, with the highest counts on BGA in the pig plant. The most common serotypes were S. Typhimurium in the beef/sheep plants and S. Derby in the pig plant. Very low counts of L. monocytogenes (e.g. 2.6CFUm(2)) were detected at hide removal on LSA sedimentation plates in the beef plant. These included serogroup 1/2a-3a and 1/2b-3b-7. Pathogen counts in the three plants were generally very low, suggesting that air is unlikely to be a significant source of carcass or plant surface contamination. PMID:24598073

  15. Absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion of tritium-labeled ivermectin in cattle, sheep, and rat

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shuething Lee; Green, M.L.; Baylis, F.P.; Eline, D.; Rosegay, A.; Meriwether, H.; Jacob, T.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Tritium-labeled ivermectin was studied in cattle, sheep, and rat for absorption, tissue residue distribution, and excretion at doses of 0.3 mg/kg of body weight. The drug was absorbed by various dosing routes. By intraruminal and subcutaneous dosing routes, highest tissue residues were present in fat and liver of cattle, with half-lives of 6-8 and 4-5 days, respectively. Shorter half-lives (1-2 days) were observed in sheep and rat. The tissue residue distribution pattern was essentially the same for all species studied and similar in male and female rats. With doses of tritium-labeled avermectin B{sub 1a} ranging from 0.06 to 7.5 mg/kg of body weight, plasma and tissue residue concentrations increased proportionally with the dose. When ivermectin was administered by various routes (ip, sc, iv, oral, and intraruminal), blood residue levels converged to 20-50 ppb 4 h after dosing and then depleted at similar rate regardless of the dosing route. Ivermectin was excreted primarily in the feces, with only less than 2% of the doses being eliminated in the urine in all three species studied.

  16. Comparative tick counts on game, cattle and sheep on a working game ranch in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wesonga, F D; Orinda, G O; Ngae, G N; Grootenhuis, J

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to determine the possible influence of host species on the maintenance of ticks in the field by determining the relative contribution of game animals compared to domestic animals. The study was carried out on a game ranch 32 km south-east of Nairobi. Tick counts were carried out on 30 Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) aged 1 to 3 years and 20 red Maasai sheep (Ovis aries) aged 6 months to 1 year grazing with game animals in a common area for a period of 2 years and these counts were compared with those on eland and Thomson's gazelle. Half-body counts were carried out on the cattle and sheep once every week. To avoid excessive stress, the animals were dipped in amitraz whenever the half body counts exceeded 50 fully engorged female ticks of any species. Tick counts on two wild animal species (eland (Taurotragus oryx) and Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii)) were carried out during the weekly culling of the herbivores. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the number ticks per square metre between the wild ungulates and the domestic animals. PMID:17405627

  17. [Effectiveness of Nilzan and Dovenix in the treatment of fascioliasis in cattle and sheep].

    PubMed

    Vyhnálek, J; Kocman, J; Skaloud, J

    1976-07-01

    The authors tested the effectivity of the foreign preparations Nilzan (tetramisole ++ oxyclozanide) and Dovenix (nitroxynil) in the treatment of cattle and sheep naturally invaded by Fasciola hepatica. The effectiveness of the two preparations was evaluated on the basis of the results of coprological examination in the test and control animals prior to treatment and in two intervals after treatment. In slightly invaded cattle (the average egg number in 3 g of faeces in 28 test cows was 1.46 per animal) the last examination (4 weeks after treatment) showed 100-per-cent extenseffectiveness and intenseffectiveness of both preparations. When the test was finished in sheep (average number of eggs in 3 g of faeces in 45 test ewes--5.40 per animal) six weeks after treatment, the EE of Nilzan was 86.7% and IE 97.4%; in Dovenix EE was 93.4% and IE 99.0%. Both preparations were accepted well, without any side-effects or unfavourable phenomena related to their application. PMID:827048

  18. Farmers' attitudes to disease risk management in England: a comparative analysis of sheep and pig farmers.

    PubMed

    Garforth, C J; Bailey, A P; Tranter, R B

    2013-07-01

    The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) identified practices to reduce the risk of animal disease outbreaks. We report on the response of sheep and pig farmers in England to promotion of these practices. A conceptual framework was established from research on factors influencing adoption of animal health practices, linking knowledge, attitudes, social influences and perceived constraints to the implementation of specific practices. Qualitative data were collected from nine sheep and six pig enterprises in 2011. Thematic analysis explored attitudes and responses to the proposed practices, and factors influencing the likelihood of implementation. Most feel they are doing all they can reasonably do to minimise disease risk and that practices not being implemented are either not relevant or ineffective. There is little awareness and concern about risk from unseen threats. Pig farmers place more emphasis than sheep farmers on controlling wildlife, staff and visitor management and staff training. The main factors that influence livestock farmers' decision on whether or not to implement a specific disease risk measure are: attitudes to, and perceptions of, disease risk; attitudes towards the specific measure and its efficacy; characteristics of the enterprise which they perceive as making a measure impractical; previous experience of a disease or of the measure; and the credibility of information and advice. Great importance is placed on access to authoritative information with most seeing vets as the prime source to interpret generic advice from national bodies in the local context. Uptake of disease risk measures could be increased by: improved risk communication through the farming press and vets to encourage farmers to recognise hidden threats; dissemination of credible early warning information to sharpen farmers' assessment of risk; and targeted information through training events, farming press, vets and other advisers, and farmer groups

  19. Prevalence of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella in camel, cattle, goat and sheep harvested for meat in Riyadh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are significant foodborne pathogens that can be found in the feces and on the hides of meat animals. When hides are removed during the harvest process, the carcass and subsequent meat products can become contaminated. Camels, cattle, sheep and goats are harve...

  20. Age-Specificity of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Sheep, Goats and Cattle on Subsistence Farms in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    RAHMAN, Moizur; AZAD, Md. Thoufic Anam; NAHAR, Lovely; ROUF, Shah Md. Abdur; OHYA, Kenji; CHIOU, Shih-Pin; BABA, Minami; KITOH, Katsuya; TAKASHIMA, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects humans and domestic animals. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was investigated using serum samples collected from 83 sheep, 146 goats and 37 cattle from a dozen subsistence farms in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight out of 83 sheep (69.9%), 89 out of 146 goats (61.0%) and 10 out of 37 cattle (27.0%) were seropositive for the parasite. Seroprevalence in young goats (<1 year old) was significantly lower than that of the adult goats (>1 year old). In contrast, seroprevalence for young and adult sheep was similar. These results indicate that acquired infection with T. gondii occurs in this region of Bangladesh, at least among goats. PMID:24849051

  1. Border disease in sheep caused by transmission of virus from cattle persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, U

    1991-02-16

    Two outbreaks of border disease occurred on farms with sheep flocks and breeding cattle. The infection of the pregnant sheep was probably caused by transmission of virus from calves persistently infected with non-cytopathic bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) which were kept in close confinement with the ewes during mid-pregnancy. Border disease was also induced experimentally in eight lambs by exposing their dams at 38 to 78 days of gestation to a heifer persistently infected with BVDV. Both the natural and the experimental infections were characterised by typical signs such as 'hairy-shaker' lambs and high lamb mortality. The diagnosis was confirmed by virus isolations from live-born lambs, seroconversion and pathology. The study supports the assertion that cattle persistently infected with BVDV and in close contact with pregnant sheep, are an important source of strains of virus capable of causing border disease. PMID:1851350

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from sick cattle and pigs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Asai, Tetsuo; Kojima, Akemi; Oda, Chitose; Ishihara, Kanako; Takahashi, Toshio

    2005-10-01

    We examined the 12 antimicrobial susceptibilities of 175 E. coli isolates from sick cattle and pigs by an agar dilution method. Resistance was found in 78.3% of isolates for oxytetracycline, 70.3% of isolates for dihydrostreptomycin, and 49.1% of isolates for ampicillin. When compared with healthy animals reported by Kijima-Tanaka et al., resistance rates for 11 antimicrobial agents were higher in sick cattle than in healthy cattle, and resistance rates for all antimicrobial agents were higher in sick pigs than in healthy pigs. Comparing cattle and pigs, resistance rates to colistin was higher in porcine isolates than in bovine isolates, but was lower in porcine isolates than in bovine isolates for cefazolin. With regard to the association of virulence factors, higher resistance rates to colistin and enrofloxacin were observed in STEC (61 strains) than in non-STEC (57 strains) among porcine isolates, while there were no significant differences in bovine isolates. In conclusion, these results can be considered helpful for adequate selection and prudent use of antimicrobial agents for several types of colibacillosis. PMID:16276055

  3. Efficacy of two cyclooctadepsipeptides, PF1022A and emodepside, against anthelmintic-resistant nematodes in sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G; Harder, A; Sangster, N C; Coles, G C

    2005-03-01

    Resistance against the major currently available anthelmintics has reached a critical level in many small ruminant herds world-wide, and is increasingly becoming a problem in horses and cattle. Therefore, new products with different modes of action are urgently needed. Recently, such a new class of compounds, the anthelmintically active cyclooctadepsipeptides, was described. Here, the effects of cyclooctadepsipeptides on benzimidazole-, levamisole- and ivermectin-resistant populations of Haemonchus contortus in sheep as well as an ivermectin-resistant Cooperia oncophora population in cattle were studied. Experimentally infected sheep and cattle were used. Animals were treated orally, subcutaneously, or intravenously with cyclooctadepsipeptides. The anthelmintic effects were assessed by means of fecal egg count reductions and/or worm count reductions. Both, PF1022A and emodepside were found to be fully effective against these parasite populations. These findings confirm that this new class of compounds acts by a different mode of action compared to the above-mentioned anthelmintics. PMID:15796017

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, horses, pigs and chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kayoko; Kamai, Rika; Uetsu, Hirona; Goto, Hanyu; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2014-08-01

    The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in livestock and poultry was investigated by latex agglutination tests; samples that agglutinated at dilutions of 1:64 or higher were regarded as positive. Sera were collected from fattening beef cattle (102 Japanese black, 105 crossbreeds and 114 castrated Holstein), culled dairy cattle (101 Holstein), 100 horses, 115 fattening pigs and 235 chickens (163 free-range and 72 broilers) at abattoirs in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, from August 2012 to August 2013. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 7.3% (31/422) in cattle, 5.2% (8/155) in pigs, but not in horses or chickens. These results suggest that toxoplasmosis may be transmitted to humans via consumption of T. gondii-infected raw beef in Japan. PMID:24780140

  5. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Søren O; Olsen, Anne B; Elsgaard, Lars; Triolo, Jin Mi; Sommer, Sven G

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source. Fractions of degradable volatile solids (VSd, kg kg-1 VS) were estimated using an aerobic biodegradability assay and total organic C analyses. The VSd in pig and cattle slurry averaged 0.51 and 0.33 kg kg-1 VS, and it was estimated that on average 43 and 28% of VSd in fresh excreta from pigs and cattle, respectively, had been lost at the time of sampling. An empirical model of CH4 emissions from slurry was reparameterised based on experimental results. A sensitivity analysis indicated that predicted CH4 emissions were highly sensitive to uncertainties in the value of lnA of the Arrhenius equation, but much less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential of treatments such as anaerobic digestion, are discussed. PMID:27529692

  6. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anne B.; Elsgaard, Lars; Triolo, Jin Mi; Sommer, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source. Fractions of degradable volatile solids (VSd, kg kg-1 VS) were estimated using an aerobic biodegradability assay and total organic C analyses. The VSd in pig and cattle slurry averaged 0.51 and 0.33 kg kg-1 VS, and it was estimated that on average 43 and 28% of VSd in fresh excreta from pigs and cattle, respectively, had been lost at the time of sampling. An empirical model of CH4 emissions from slurry was reparameterised based on experimental results. A sensitivity analysis indicated that predicted CH4 emissions were highly sensitive to uncertainties in the value of lnA of the Arrhenius equation, but much less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential of treatments such as anaerobic digestion, are discussed. PMID:27529692

  7. Comparison of oocyst shedding and the serum immune response to Cryptosporidium parvum in cattle and pigs.

    PubMed

    Quílez, J; Ares-Mazás, E; Sánchez-Acedo, C; del Cacho, E; Clavel, A; Causapé, A C

    1996-01-01

    A comparison was made between oocyst shedding and the presence of specific serum IgG antibodies to Cryptosporidium parvum in 108 bovines and 90 pigs. Oocysts were detected by a commercial immunofluorescence assay in feces from 26.8% of bovines and 34.4% of pigs, whereas positive titers as determined by an indirect fluorescent antibody method were found in sera from 12.9% and 48.9% of the respective animals. Infection was significantly most frequent in suckling calves (82.7%) and weaned piglets (87.5%). By contrast, the numbers of seropositives were highest in weaned calves (17.1%) and fattening pigs (76.6%). The results of coprological and serological analysis corresponded in 65.7% of bovines and 56.7% of pigs. When used to diagnose the shedding of cryptosporidial oocysts, the detection of specific IgG antibodies had a sensitivity ranging from 10.3% (cattle) to 58.1% (pigs) and a specificity of 86.1% (cattle) and 55.9% (pigs). PMID:8832734

  8. Solanum malacoxylon poisoning in pigs.

    PubMed

    Done, S H; Tokarina, C H; Dämmrich, K; Döbereiner, J

    1976-03-01

    Solanum malacoxylon was given orally to four pigs. The animals were examined clinically and subjected to post mortem examination. Macroscopic lesions were not seen with the exception of a small calcified plaque in the endocardium of one animal. Microscopic examinations revealed slight calcification of elastic fibres in the soft tissues. The pathological changes in the bones were extensive and are described in detail. The pigs showed minimal lesions at dose levels which cause considerable systemic calcification in cattle and sheep. PMID:1265362

  9. Migrating mast cells in the gallbladder epithelium of cattle and sheep. A comparative morphologic and histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Toledo, O M; Morales, C R; Pereyra, L A; Jordão, T; Montes, G S

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports the existence of mast cells in an epithelial location in the gallbladders of both cattle and sheep. The histochemical studies performed on these cells showed that their cytoplasmic granules contain heparin and biogenic amines in both species. Optical- and electron microscopic observations demonstrated that, in both species, mast cells from the connective tissue of the gallbladder diapedese across the basal lamina and migrate through the epithelium all the way to the luminal surface, and that a degranulation process takes place during this migration. The biochemical results showed a correlation between the number of mast cells present in the epithelium and the amount of heparin detected in the different regions of the gallbladders of the species studied. Unusually high contents of heparin were found in both cattle and sheep gallbladders, suggesting that they should be studied as possible commercial sources of this polimer. PMID:7298384

  10. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-01-01

    Enteric methane (CH ₄ ) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288), beef cattle ( n = 71) and dairy cows ( n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH ₄ emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH ₄ emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal's CH ₄ yield (g CH ₄ /kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH ₄ yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH ₄ (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD - 0.113 (±0.023) × EE - 2.47 (±0.29) × (feeding level - 1), with concordance correlation coefficient ( CCC ) = 0.655 and RMSPE = 14.0%. The predictive ability of the model developed was as reliable as other models assessed from the literature. These components can be used to predict effects of diet composition on enteric CH ₄ yield from sheep, beef and dairy cattle from feed analysis information. PMID:27618107

  11. Bacteriophage for prophylaxis and therapy in cattle, poultry, and pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The successful use of virulent (lytic) bacteriophages (phages) in preventing and treating neonatal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in calves, lambs and pigs has prompted investigation of other applications phage therapy in food animals. While results have been very variable, some indica...

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Brucella abortus Strains Isolated from Cattle and Pig

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Narinder Singh; Sunita, Thakhur; Arora, A K; Mudit, Chandra; Kaur, Paviter; Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Vishnu, Udayakumar S; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of two Brucella abortus strains LMN1 and LMN2 isolated from cattle and pig. The LMN1 and LMN2 have the genome size of 3,395,952 bp and 3,334,792 bp, respectively. In addition to the conserved genes of Brucella, few novel regions showing similarity to the phages were identified in both strains. PMID:26816552

  13. Sequence characterization of river buffalo Toll-like receptor genes 1-10 reveals distinct relationship with cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Dubey, P K; Goyal, S; Kathiravan, P; Mishra, B P; Gahlawat, S K; Kataria, R S

    2013-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the full-length transcripts of Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes 1-10 of river buffalo. The conceptualized amino acid identity of bubaline TLRs ranged between 86% to 100% with ruminants, while it ranged between 45% to 91% with other vertebrate species. Simple modular architecture tool (SMART) analysis revealed the presence of TIR domains and varying numbers of leucine-rich repeat motifs in all the buffalo TLRs. With respect to TIR domains, TLRs 1, 2 and 3 of river buffalo were found to have 99.3% identity with cattle and 100% identity of TLRs 4, 6 and 10 with sheep. Phylogenetic analysis of TLRs of buffalo and different vertebrate species revealed the clustering of major TLR gene subfamilies with high bootstrap values. The evolutionary relationship between buffalo and other ruminant species was found to vary among different TLRs. In order to understand the relationship between TLRs of different ruminant species, multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of pairwise amino acid differences between different species within each TLR was performed. Buffalo and cattle were found to be closely related only with respect to TLRs 1, 2 and 7, while buffalo and sheep were found to be clustering together with respect to TLRs 3, 6, 8 and 10. The distinct relationship of bubaline TLRs with cattle and sheep revealed the possible differences in the pathogen recognition receptor systems in these animals and consequently the differences in their susceptibility/resistance to various invading organisms. PMID:22694123

  14. Serological Evidence of Henipavirus Exposure in Cattle, Goats and Pigs in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sukanta; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Broder, Christopher C.; Islam, Ausraful; Peel, Alison J.; Barr, Jennifer; Daszak, Peter; Wang, Lin-Fa; Luby, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging disease that causes severe encephalitis and respiratory illness in humans. Pigs were identified as an intermediate host for NiV transmission in Malaysia. In Bangladesh, NiV has caused recognized human outbreaks since 2001 and three outbreak investigations identified an epidemiological association between close contact with sick or dead animals and human illness. Methodology We examined cattle and goats reared around Pteropus bat roosts in human NiV outbreak areas. We also tested pig sera collected under another study focused on Japanese encephalitis. Principal Findings We detected antibodies against NiV glycoprotein in 26 (6.5%) cattle, 17 (4.3%) goats and 138 (44.2%) pigs by a Luminex-based multiplexed microsphere assay; however, these antibodies did not neutralize NiV. Cattle and goats with NiVsG antibodies were more likely to have a history of feeding on fruits partially eaten by bats or birds (PR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.6–5.7) and drinking palmyra palm juice (PR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.5–10.2). Conclusions This difference in test results may be due to the exposure of animals to one or more novel viruses with antigenic similarity to NiV. Further research may identify a novel organism of public health importance. PMID:25412358

  15. Use of a percutaneous transabdominal catheter for management of obstructive urolithiasis in goats, sheep, and potbellied pigs: 69 cases (2000-2014).

    PubMed

    Chigerwe, Munashe; Heller, Meera C; Balcomb, Christie C; Angelos, John A

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the use of a percutaneous transabdominal catheter (PTC) for urinary bladder drainage in goats, sheep, and potbellied pigs with obstructive urolithiasis. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 43 goats, 10 sheep, and 16 potbellied pigs (all males) with obstructive urolithiasis evaluated at the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital. PROCEDURES Medical records of goats, sheep, and potbellied pigs examined because of obstructive urolithiasis from January 2000 through December 2014 were reviewed. Records of animals for which a standard PTC had been placed into the urinary bladder as part of disease management were selected. Data were collected regarding signalment, complications associated with PTC placement, and duration of PTC placement prior to removal. RESULTS 42 of 43 goats, 5 of 10 sheep, and all potbellied pigs were castrated. Median (range) duration of PTC placement was 2 (1 to 4) days for goats, 1 (1 to 4) day for sheep, and 1 (1 to 3) day for potbellied pigs. Complications associated with PTC placement included blockage of the catheter by urine sediment, perforation of the cecum, and migration of the catheter out of the urinary bladder. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Placement of a PTC into the urinary bladder allowed for effective stabilization of goats, sheep, and potbellied pigs with obstructive urolithiasis while acid-base and electrolyte imbalances were corrected. Use of a PTC should be considered for urinary bladder drainage during medical management or prior to surgical management of obstructive urolithiasis for these species. PMID:27172346

  16. Determination of tilmicosin residues in chicken, cattle, swine, and sheep tissues by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Stobba-Wiley, C M; Chang, J P; Elsbury, D T; Moran, J W; Turner, J M; Readnour, R S; Stobba-Wiley, C M; Chang, J P; Elsbury, D T; Moran, J W; Turner, J M; Readnour, R S

    2000-01-01

    A method was developed and validated for determination and quantitation of tilmicosin residues in swine, cattle, and sheep edible tissues, as well as chicken fat, skin, and muscle over a concentration range of 0.025 microg/g-20 microg/g. For chicken kidney and liver, the method was validated over a range of 0.060 microg/g-20 microg/g. The tissue sample was extracted with methanol and a C18 cartridge was used for solid-phase extraction cleanup. A reversed-phase gradient liquid chromatographic method with detection at 280 nm was used to separate the tilmicosin from matrix components in 30 min run time. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the method was 0.025 microg/g for all tested tissues except chicken kidney and liver, for which the LOQ was 0.06 microg/g. Average recoveries for tissue samples ranged from 73 to 98%. Relative standard deviation values ranged from 0.6 to 14.7%. PMID:10995110

  17. Sperm sexing in sheep and cattle: the exception and the rule.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, S P; Beilby, K H; Underwood, S L; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2009-01-01

    Flow cytometric sorting for the preselection of sex has progressed considerably in the 20 years since its inception. This technique has allowed the production of pre-sexed offspring in a multitude of species and become a commercial success in cattle around the world. However, due to the stress inherent to the sex-sorting process, sex-sorted spermatozoa are widely recognized as functionally compromised in terms of their fertilizing lifespan within the female reproductive tract as a result of reduced motility and viability and changed functional state. These characteristics, when compared to non-sorted controls, are manifest in vivo as lower fertility. However, improvements to the technology and a greater understanding of its biological impact have facilitated recent developments in sheep, showing sex-sorting is capable of selecting a functionally superior population in terms of both in vitro and in vivo function. These results are reviewed in the context of recent developments in other species and the reasons for success after artificial insemination with sex-sorted ram spermatozoa are discussed. PMID:18977523

  18. Correlation of Lung Collapse and Gas Exchange - A Computer Tomographic Study in Sheep and Pigs with Atelectasis in Otherwise Normal Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Hammermüller, Sören; Costa, Eduardo L. V.; Spieth, Peter M.; Hepp, Pierre; Carvalho, Alysson R.; Kraßler, Jens; Wrigge, Hermann; Amato, Marcelo B. P.; Reske, Andreas W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Atelectasis can provoke pulmonary and non-pulmonary complications after general anaesthesia. Unfortunately, there is no instrument to estimate atelectasis and prompt changes of mechanical ventilation during general anaesthesia. Although arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and intrapulmonary shunt have both been suggested to correlate with atelectasis, studies yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we investigated these correlations. Methods Shunt, PaO2 and atelectasis were measured in 11 sheep and 23 pigs with otherwise normal lungs. In pigs, contrasting measurements were available 12 hours after induction of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Atelectasis was calculated by computed tomography relative to total lung mass (Mtotal). We logarithmically transformed PaO2 (lnPaO2) to linearize its relationships with shunt and atelectasis. Data are given as median (interquartile range). Results Mtotal was 768 (715–884) g in sheep and 543 (503–583) g in pigs. Atelectasis was 26 (16–47) % in sheep and 18 (13–23) % in pigs. PaO2 (FiO2 = 1.0) was 242 (106–414) mmHg in sheep and 480 (437–514) mmHg in pigs. Shunt was 39 (29–51) % in sheep and 15 (11–20) % in pigs. Atelectasis correlated closely with lnPaO2 (R2 = 0.78) and shunt (R2 = 0.79) in sheep (P-values<0.0001). The correlation of atelectasis with lnPaO2 (R2 = 0.63) and shunt (R2 = 0.34) was weaker in pigs, but R2 increased to 0.71 for lnPaO2 and 0.72 for shunt 12 hours after induction of ARDS. In both, sheep and pigs, changes in atelectasis correlated strongly with corresponding changes in lnPaO2 and shunt. Discussion and Conclusion In lung-healthy sheep, atelectasis correlates closely with lnPaO2 and shunt, when blood gases are measured during ventilation with pure oxygen. In lung-healthy pigs, these correlations were significantly weaker, likely because pigs have stronger hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) than sheep and humans. Nevertheless, correlations improved also

  19. Screening of different sample types associated with sheep and cattle for the presence of nematophagous fungi in China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kui-Zheng; Liu, Jun-Lin; Liu, Wei; Wang, Bo-Bo; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Long-Jie; Chen, Ming-Yue; Zhao, Ming-Wang; Wu, Jia-Yan; Li, Xiao-Shan; Yang, Jing; Wei, Shuan; Chen, Chun-Rong; Ma, Zhong-Ren; Xu, Chun-Lan; Wang, Feng; Hu, Qian-Lin; Fang, Wen-Xiu; Zheng, Tian-Hui; Wang, Yue-Ying; Zhu, Wen-Long; Li, Dan; Li, Qing; Zhang, Chao; Cai, Bing; Wang, Fan; Yang, Zai-Yun; Liu, Yan-Qiu

    2016-03-01

    A total of 1502 samples, including feces of sheep (793) and cattle (348), pasture soil (118), dung compost (147) and barn soil (96), were examined between October 2012 and August 2014 to discover potential strains of nematophagous fungi for the biological control of livestock-parasitic nematodes. These samples were collected from 87 sites located in 48 counties of 20 provinces (autonomous regions/municipalities) of China. Fungi were identified down to a species level. Four hundred and seventy-seven isolates, which were distributed in 8 genera and 28 taxa, were identified as nematophagous fungi. Nematode-trapping fungi included 17 species and one unidentified species of Arthrobotrys, two of Dactylella, Drechslerella dactyloides, and Duddingtonia flagrans. Five identified species and two unidentified species of endoparasitic fungi were isolated. The predominant species from all regions were Arthrobotrys oligospora, followed by Arthrobotrys musiformis, Arthrobotrys (Monacrosporium) thaumasiun, and Arthrobotrys (Monacrosporium) microscaphoides. Species with adhesive networks were the most frequently isolated. Among the endoparasitic fungi, Podocrella harposporifera (Harposporium anguillulae) was the most common species, followed by Harposporium lilliputanum and Harposporium arcuatum. Based on Shannon diversity index, the diversity levels of nematophagous fungi were relatively higher in samples associated with cattle, barn soil, and subtropical monsoon climate zone. Three species isolated from this study, namely, Duddingtonia flagrans, Arthrobotrys salina (Monacrosporium salinum), and Arthrobotrys oligospora var. sarmatica, are newly recorded in China, and 20 species (including one unidentified species) are newly recorded in sheep and cattle barn soils worldwide. PMID:26344826

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kassem, Issmat I.; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  2. Bacteriophages Carrying Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Fecal Waste from Cattle, Pigs, and Poultry▿

    PubMed Central

    Colomer-Lluch, Marta; Imamovic, Lejla; Jofre, Juan; Muniesa, Maite

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the occurrence of bacteriophages carrying antibiotic resistance genes in animal environments. blaTEM, blaCTX-M (clusters 1 and 9), and mecA were quantified by quantitative PCR in 71 phage DNA samples from pigs, poultry, and cattle fecal wastes. Densities of 3 to 4 log10 gene copies (GC) of blaTEM, 2 to 3 log10 GC of blaCTX-M, and 1 to 3 log10 GC of mecA per milliliter or gram of sample were detected, suggesting that bacteriophages can be environmental vectors for the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:21807968

  3. Exploratory trial to determine the efficacy of the PYthon and the PYthon Magnum slow-release insecticide ear tags for the control of midges (Culicoides spp.), attacking sheep and cattle and flies attacking cattle.

    PubMed

    Goosen, H; de Vries, P J T; Fletcher, M G

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the prophylactic action of the chemical combination zeta-cypermethrin and piperonyl butoxide, administered by means of slow-release insecticide-impregnated ear tags, against biting midges (Culicoides spp) attacking sheep and against midges, horn flies (Haematobia irritant), stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), and houseflies (Musca domestica) attacking cattle. Treated sheep and cattle were protected 100 percent against blood-feeding midges for two months and there was a clear reduction in the number of midges collected from treated animals. Three days after the ear tags were attached to cattle, the number of horn flies on the cattle was reduced to practically zero and remained at a low level until the end of the trial (day 85). There was also a strong reduction in the numbers of stable flies and houseflies counted. PMID:22930983

  4. Nutritional evaluation of the white-rot fungus Sporotrichum pulverulentum as a feedstuff to rats, pigs, and sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Thomke, S.; Rundgren, M.; Eriksson, S.

    1980-11-01

    The production of single-cell protein (SCP) based on cheap carbon sources such as spent liquor from paper mills is of interest for different reasons. The white-rot fungus (Sporotrichum pulverulentum) has earlier been shown to degrade cellulose and lignin. The nutritive value of this fungus was investigated with rats, pigs, and sheep. The effect of different drying processes was evaluated on rats. Experiments with piglets, growing pigs, and sheep were aimed at getting primary information on nutritive parameters with domestic animal species. Chemical analysis of S. pulverulentum showed that the sum of the amino acids corresponded to 70% and ammonia, GABA, and glucosamine to 20% of its crude protein content. Differences between drying treatments in their effect on protein digestibility were not noted. From a protein quality viewpoint, a tendency toward superiority was noted for two of the drying processes. The amino acid digestibility of S. pulverulentum was inferior to values for soybean oil meal given in textbooks. The piglet experiment confirmed the lower nutritive value of S. pulverulentum compared with soybean oil meal. In the piglet stage a content of metabolizable energy of S. pulverulentum was found which corresponded to 60% of that for soybean oil meal. With increasing age the ability of pigs to utilize the fungus increased. The limited nutritive value for monogastric animals is most certainly caused by the cell-wall structure of S. pulverulentum with poor digestibility of the carbohydrates. The experiment with sheep showed more satisfactory results than with monogastric species, with digestibility of crude protein of 82% and a content of metabolizable energy of 70% of soybean oil meal.

  5. Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and Hammondia spp. microcysts in esophagus tissue of sheep and cattle, emphasized on their morphological differences.

    PubMed

    Rassouli, Maryam; Ahmadpanahi, Javad; Alvandi, Ayda

    2014-10-01

    Sarcocystis and Hammondia are two obligatory protozoan parasites. These genera belong to cyst-forming coccidia group of the phylum Apicomplexa. They both need two different hosts to complete their life cycles. Felids and canids can act as definitive hosts, while herbivores, such as sheep and cattle, are the most important intermediate hosts. Reports verify that no important disease has been caused by Hammondia spp.; on the other hand, Sarcocystis spp. can cause some severe infectious disease in livestock industry such as abortion. Economic losses are another concern due to carcass condemnation during meat inspection in abattoirs and decrease in the quality and quantity of milk and wool production. Due to the Sarcocystis and Hammondia tissue cysts being similar, the distinction between these different genera is so important. In this study, the prevalence of Sarcocystis and Hammondia in the esophagus tissue of sheep and cattle slaughtered in one of the industrial abattoir in Iran was reported and an easy and rapid method for accurate diagnosing of Sarcocystis and Hammondia bradyzoites was explained. PMID:25082016

  6. Complement Fixation Test To Assess Humoral Immunity in Cattle and Sheep Vaccinated with Brucella abortus RB51

    PubMed Central

    Adone, Rosanna; Ciuchini, Franco

    1999-01-01

    The live attenuated Brucella abortus strain RB51 is a rifampin-resistant, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-chain-deficient mutant of virulent B. abortus 2308. The reduced O-chain content in RB51 prevents this bacterium from inducing antibodies detectable by the conventional serologic tests for bovine brucellosis diagnosis that mainly identify antibodies to LPS. The absence of available serologic tests for RB51 also complicates the diagnosis of possible RB51 infections in humans exposed to this strain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a complement fixation (CF) test performed with the rough strain B. abortus RB51, previously deprived of anticomplementary activity, in detecting anti-B. abortus RB51 antibodies in cattle and sheep experimentally vaccinated with this strain. The results of this study showed that a CF test with RB51 as the antigen is able to specifically detect antibodies following RB51 vaccination in cattle and sheep. In addition, this method could be a useful tool for detecting B. abortus RB51 infection in humans. PMID:10548564

  7. Effects of nitrogen and sulfur on digestion and nutritive quality of warm-season grass hays for cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Puoli, J R; Jung, G A; Reid, R L

    1991-02-01

    The influence of N and S on the usage of warm-season grasses was examined in two metabolism trials with cattle and sheep. Effects of N fertilization (75 kg N from urea/ha) on digestibility, intake, and ruminal mineral solubilization of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.; SWG) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitm.; BB) hays were determined in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment with mature steers. Effects of N and S applied as urea and sodium sulfate in spray form to SWG hay were estimated in a 2 x 3 factorial experiment using sheep. Dry matter and NDF digestibility was greater (P less than .03) for BB than for SWG, and intake of SWG was 10% greater (P less than .06) than that of BB. Fertilizer N increased DMI (P less than .02) of SWG and BB by cattle by 11.4 and 16.1%, respectively. Fertilization decreased (P less than .04) ruminal turnover times by 9.3 and 18.5% for SWG and BB, respectively. In situ DM degradation rates were faster (P less than .02) for fertilized than for unfertilized forages and were faster (P less than .06) for BB than for SWG. In the sheep trials, levels of CP in SWG diets were 7.2 and 9.5%: levels of S were .12, .20, and .29%, respectively. Urea supplementation increased (P less than .01) hay intake by 9.4% and also increased (P less than .01) digestibility of DM and NDF. Supplemental S had no effect (P greater than .05) on any measurement. There was no effect (P greater than .05) of supplemental N on ruminal retention times, rates of passage, or apparent retention of N and S. The provision of extra N by fertilization or dietary supplementation improved the nutritional quality of the low-protein, warm-season grass hays studied in this experiment, whereas no response to dietary S was detected. PMID:1849882

  8. Comparison of cattle and sheep colonic permeabilities to horseradish peroxidase and hamster scrapie prion protein in vitro

    PubMed Central

    McKie, A; Zammit, P; Naftalin, R

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Paracellular permeability to solutes across the descending colon is much higher in cattle than sheep. This is a possible route for transmission of infective materials, such as scrapie prion.
AIMS—To compare the permeabilities of labelled scrapie prion protein and other macromolecules in bovine and ovine descending colons in vitro.
METHODS—Using fresh slaughterhouse material, transepithelial fluxes of macromolecules across colonic mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers were measured by monitoring transport of either enzyme activity or radioactivity.
RESULTS—The comparative bovine to ovine permeability ratio of the probes increased with molecular weight: from 3.1 (0.13) for PEG400 to 10.67 (0.20) (p<0.001) for PEG4000; and from 1.64 (0.17) for microperoxidase to 7.03 (0.20) (p<0.001) for horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The permeability of 125I-labelled inactivated Syrian hamster scrapie prion protein (ShaPrPsc) was 7.02 (0.33)-fold higher in bovine than ovine colon (p<0.0025). In each species, the probe permeabilities decreased according to the formula: P = Po.exp(−K.ra). The "ideal" permeabilities, Po are similar, however, K(ovine) = 2.46 (0.20) cm/h/nm exceeds K(bovine) = 0.85 (0.15) cm/h/nm (p<0.001) indicating that bovine colon has a higher proportion of wide pores than ovine. Image analysis confirmed that HRP permeated through the bovine mucosal layer via a pericryptal paracellular route much more rapidly than in sheep.
CONCLUSIONS—These data may imply that scrapie prion is transmitted in vivo more easily across the low resistance bovine colonic barrier than in other species.


Keywords: cattle; sheep; colon; paracellular permeability; horseradish peroxidase; hamster scrapie prion protein PMID:10562587

  9. Molecular cloning, sequence identification and tissue expression profile of three novel genes Sfxn1, Snai2 and Cno from Black-boned sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Xi, Dongmei; He, Yiduo; Sun, Yongke; Gou, Xiao; Yang, Shuli; Mao, Huaming; Deng, Weidong

    2011-03-01

    The complete coding sequences of three of Black-boned sheep (Ovis aries) genes Sfxn1, Snai2 and Cno were amplified using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) according to the conserved sequence information of the cattle or other mammals and known highly homologous sheep ESTs. Black-boned sheep Sfxn1 gene encodes a protein of 322 amino acids which has high homology with the Sfxn1 proteins of five species--cattle 98%, pig 95%, human 95%, rat 93%, and mouse 93%. Black-boned sheep Snai2 gene encodes a protein of 268 amino acids that has high identity with the Snai2 proteins of six species--cattle 99%, pig 94%, human 93%, dog 93%, rat 91%, and mouse 90%. Black-boned sheep Cno gene encodes a protein of 214 amino acids that has high homology with the Cno proteins of four species--cattle 97%, human 75%, mouse 67%, and rat 65%. The phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated that Black-boned sheep Sfxn1, Snai2 and Cno proteins have close relationship with cattle Sfxn1, Snai2 and Cno proteins. The tissue expression analysis indicated that Black-boned sheep Sfxn1, Snai2 and Cno genes were expressed in a range of tissues including leg muscle, kidney, skin, longissimus dorsi muscle, spleen, heart and liver. Our experiment is the first to provide the primary foundation for further insight into these three sheep genes. PMID:20853147

  10. A molecular epidemiology of treponemes in beef cattle digital dermatitis lesions and comparative analyses with sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis and dairy cattle digital dermatitis lesions.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Evans, N J; Blowey, R W; Grove-White, D H; Clegg, S R; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D

    2015-07-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an infective foot disease commonly reported in dairy cattle where Treponema are considered as the primary causative infectious agents. There still remains little definitive information on the etiology of BDD in beef cattle suggesting further investigations are warranted. Beef BDD lesions (n=34) and healthy beef foot tissues (n=38) were analysed by PCR for three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and also for Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was attempted on all BDD lesion samples. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of beef BDD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like", "Treponema phagedenis-like" and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 27/34 (79%), 31/34 (91%) and 24/34 (71%) of BDD lesions, respectively. No BDD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef healthy foot tissues. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 24/34 (71%) and 15/34 (44%) of lesions and 10/38 (26%) and 12/38 (32%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Twenty spirochetes were isolated from beef BDD lesions; 19 were representatives of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups. One spirochete isolate shared less than 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity to the three cultivable BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and therefore may represent a novel taxa of Treponema. Upon comparison, sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD), dairy cattle and beef cattle BDD lesions appear to have extremely similar bacteriological data and therefore provides evidence of a shared etiopathogenesis posing concerns for cross-species transmission. PMID:25937315

  11. DETERMINATION OF RACTOPAMINE IN CATTLE AND SHEEP URINE SAMPLES USING AN OPTICAL BIOSENSOR ANALYSIS:COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH HPLC AND ELISA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biosensor method, using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) principle, was developed for the determination of ractopamine in cattle and sheep urine. A monoclonal antibody was used to compete with ractopamine in the sample and ractopamine immobilized on the sensor chip. Addition of bovine serum a...

  12. Comparison of the diurnal pattern and magnitude of velocities of goats (Capra Hircus), sheep (Ovis Aries), horses (Equus Caballus) and cattle (Bos Taurus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ungulates were bred over the last four thousand years to provide man with food, fiber and motive power. Cattle, horses, sheep and goats arose from different animal ancestors and serve different purposes based upon their unique characteristics. We hypothesized that each species would have ...

  13. Composite selection signals can localize the trait specific genomic regions in multi-breed populations of cattle and sheep

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discerning the traits evolving under neutral conditions from those traits evolving rapidly because of various selection pressures is a great challenge. We propose a new method, composite selection signals (CSS), which unifies the multiple pieces of selection evidence from the rank distribution of its diverse constituent tests. The extreme CSS scores capture highly differentiated loci and underlying common variants hauling excess haplotype homozygosity in the samples of a target population. Results The data on high-density genotypes were analyzed for evidence of an association with either polledness or double muscling in various cohorts of cattle and sheep. In cattle, extreme CSS scores were found in the candidate regions on autosome BTA-1 and BTA-2, flanking the POLL locus and MSTN gene, for polledness and double muscling, respectively. In sheep, the regions with extreme scores were localized on autosome OAR-2 harbouring the MSTN gene for double muscling and on OAR-10 harbouring the RXFP2 gene for polledness. In comparison to the constituent tests, there was a partial agreement between the signals at the four candidate loci; however, they consistently identified additional genomic regions harbouring no known genes. Persuasively, our list of all the additional significant CSS regions contains genes that have been successfully implicated to secondary phenotypic diversity among several subpopulations in our data. For example, the method identified a strong selection signature for stature in cattle capturing selective sweeps harbouring UQCC-GDF5 and PLAG1-CHCHD7 gene regions on BTA-13 and BTA-14, respectively. Both gene pairs have been previously associated with height in humans, while PLAG1-CHCHD7 has also been reported for stature in cattle. In the additional analysis, CSS identified significant regions harbouring multiple genes for various traits under selection in European cattle including polledness, adaptation, metabolism, growth rate, stature

  14. A comparative study on irritation and residue aspects of five oxytetracycline formulations administered intramuscularly to calves, pigs and sheep.

    PubMed

    Nouws, J F; Smulders, A; Rappalini, M

    1990-07-01

    After intramuscular (IM) administration (dose 20 mg/kg) of three 20% (Terramycin/LA (product A), Alamycin LA (product B) and Terralon 20% LA (product C) and two 10% oxytetracycline (OTC) formulations (Engemycin 10% (product D) and Oxyject 10% (product E)), to calves, pigs and sheep, the OTC residue concentrations were determined in organs, muscle, fat, plasma, urine and at the injection sites at 10 days post injection (p.i.). At that time the irritation at the injection site was studied, too. The three 20%-formulations (products A, B, C) and one 10%-formulation (product E) induced considerable local irritation in and between the muscles. This was most pronounced in calves and pigs; in sheep the extent of irritation was limited. Ten days after administration of formulations A, B, C and E, OTC residues were found in organs and the OTC recovery at the injection sites varied widely among the three species. Following IM injection of product D minimal tissue irritation and no OTC residues could be detected at the injection site at 10 days p.i. The differences in local tissue irritation and the residue state of the carcass (including injection site) are related to the various solvent systems used in the formulations. PMID:2219655

  15. Oxidation of 13C-labeled methane in surface crusts of pig- and cattle slurry.

    PubMed

    Ambus, Per; Petersen, Søren O

    2005-06-01

    Storage tanks for slurry from animal production constitute important point sources for emission of CH4 into the atmosphere. Recent investigations have demonstrated that surface crust formed on top of animal slurry provides a habitat for CH4 oxidation activity, a finding which may open for new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during storage of animal wastes. In this work, 13C-labeled CH4 was used as a tracer to examine the absolute rates of CH4 oxidation and production in intact crust materials, collected from six different pig- and cattle slurry tanks in late autumn. Methane concentrations were generally reduced in the presence of surface crust samples, with the exception of a LECA-based (light expanded clay aggregates) crust from a pig slurry tank. In four samples, CH4 consumption was induced following a 2-4 days lag phase, whereas one cattle slurry crust consumed CH4 immediately and showed a 92% decline in CH4 concentration within the first week. Consumption of 13C-labeled CH4 was paralleled by the production of 13C-labeled CO2, thus providing direct evidence that microbial oxidation of CH4 to CO2 was taking place. Between 23% and 36% of the CH4-13C consumed in the active samples was accounted for in the gas phase CO2 indicating incomplete conversion of CH4 to CO2; however, comparable amounts of 13C was immobilized in the crust samples. Overall, the results showed that significant CH4 oxidation to CO2 in slurry crust samples occurs immediately or is inducible upon exposure to CH4. PMID:16191764

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe: the VetPath study.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Anno; Thomas, Valérie; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Maher, Kirsty; Morrissey, Ian; Butty, Pascal; Klein, Ulrich; Marion, Hervé; Rigaut, Delphine; Vallé, Michel

    2014-08-01

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased antimicrobial non-treated cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 1001 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 11 countries during 2002-2006. Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MICs of 16 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI recommendations. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. P. multocida (231) and M. haemolytica (138) isolates were all susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to florfenicol and spectinomycin was 0.4% and 3.5% in P. multocida, respectively, and absent in M. haemolytica isolates. Tetracycline resistance was 5.7% and 14.6% for P. multocida and M. haemolytica. In pigs, 230 P. multocida, 220 A. pleuropneumoniae and 182 S. suis isolates were recovered. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <1%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance was 3-6% and tetracycline resistance varied from 14.7% in A. pleuropneumoniae to 81.8% in S. suis. In conclusion, low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from cattle and pigs. Since for approximately half of the antibiotics in this panel no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available, setting of the missing veterinary breakpoints is important. PMID:24837878

  17. Control of tick infestations and pathogen prevalence in cattle and sheep farms vaccinated with the recombinant Subolesin-Major Surface Protein 1a chimeric antigen

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the use of chemical acaricides, tick infestations continue to affect animal health and production worldwide. Tick vaccines have been proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative for tick control. Vaccination with the candidate tick protective antigen, Subolesin (SUB), has been shown experimentally to be effective in controlling vector infestations and pathogen infection. Furthermore, Escherichia coli membranes containing the chimeric antigen composed of SUB fused to Anaplasma marginale Major Surface Protein 1a (MSP1a) (SUB-MSP1a) were produced using a simple low-cost process and proved to be effective for the control of cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus infestations in pen trials. In this research, field trials were conducted to characterize the effect of vaccination with SUB-MSP1a on tick infestations and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in a randomized controlled prospective study. Methods Two cattle and two sheep farms with similar geographical locations and production characteristics were randomly assigned to control and vaccinated groups. Ticks were collected, counted, weighed and classified and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens at the DNA and serological levels were followed for one year prior to and 9 months after vaccination. Results Both cattle and sheep developed antibodies against SUB in response to vaccination. The main effect of the vaccine in cattle was the 8-fold reduction in the percent of infested animals while vaccination in sheep reduced tick infestations by 63%. Female tick weight was 32-55% lower in ticks collected from both vaccinated cattle and sheep when compared to controls. The seroprevalence of Babesia bigemina was lower by 30% in vaccinated cattle, suggesting a possible role for the vaccine in decreasing the prevalence of this tick-borne pathogen. The effect of the vaccine in reducing the frequency of one A. marginale msp4 genotype probably reflected

  18. Molecular study on infection rates of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Noaman, Vahid; Bastani, Davood

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the presence and frequency of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and dairy cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran. A total number of 200 blood samples were randomly collected via the jugular vein from apparently healthy cattle (100) and sheep (100). The extracted DNA from blood cells was screened using genus-specific (Anaplasma spp.) nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on 16S rRNA gene primer sets. Species-specific PCR was set up using major surface protein 4 (MSP4) gene primer set. None of cattle blood samples were positive for Anaplasma spp. by the first nested PCR. Five samples among the 100 sheep blood samples were both positive in the first nested PCR and A. ovis -specific PCR, based on MSP4 gene. In total, 5.00% of animals were A. ovis positive. This study identified a low prevalence of A. ovis in the blood of apparently healthy sheep in West Azerbaijan province. PMID:27482362

  19. Molecular study on infection rates of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Noaman, Vahid; Bastani, Davood

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the presence and frequency of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and dairy cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran. A total number of 200 blood samples were randomly collected via the jugular vein from apparently healthy cattle (100) and sheep (100). The extracted DNA from blood cells was screened using genus-specific (Anaplasma spp.) nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on 16S rRNA gene primer sets. Species-specific PCR was set up using major surface protein 4 (MSP4) gene primer set. None of cattle blood samples were positive for Anaplasma spp. by the first nested PCR. Five samples among the 100 sheep blood samples were both positive in the first nested PCR and A. ovis -specific PCR, based on MSP4 gene. In total, 5.00% of animals were A. ovis positive. This study identified a low prevalence of A. ovis in the blood of apparently healthy sheep in West Azerbaijan province. PMID:27482362

  20. Efficacy of deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against nymphs and adults of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) in treated hair of cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schumacher, Bärbel; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Klimpel, Sven; Pohle, Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Ticks are known to be able to transmit a broad spectrum of agents of diseases in cattle or sheep. Therefore, measurements are needed to keep ticks away from the body of any ruminant belonging to the agricultural life stock. The present study dealt with investigations to measure the efficacy of the insecticide deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against specimens of two important species (Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Four sheep and four young cattle were treated lege arte along the vertebral column with 10 ml Butox® (deltamethrin) per sheep or 30 ml Butox® per cattle. Day 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the treatment, hair was shaved off from the head, ears, the back, belly, and the feet being collected in separate, suitable plastic bags, and transported to the institute, where these hair were brought into close contact with either adult and/or nymph stages of I. ricinus and R. sanguineus. As results, strong, acaricidal effects were seen, which varied according to the parasite species, the origin of the hair (e.g., head, leg, etc.) and according to the period after the treatment. In sheep, the acaricidal effect was noted for the whole period of 28 days along the whole body with respect to adults and nymphs of I. ricinus, while the acaricidal effects of deltamethrin were reduced for R. sanguineus stages beginning at day 21 after treatment. In cattle, the full acaricidal effect was seen for 21 days in I. ricinus stages and for 14 days in R. sanguineus, while the acaricidal efficacy became reduced after these periods of full action-beginning at the hair taken from the legs. Only R. sanguineus adults did not show any reaction on day 28 after treatment. Besides these acaricidal effects, repellent effects were also noted. Full repellency for both species was seen during the first 14 days in sheep and cattle against Ixodes and Rhipicephalus, while the repellency was later reduced, especially in contact with hair from the legs. As conclusion, deltamethrin, besides

  1. Efficacy of clorsulon against mature, naturally acquired Fasciola hepatica infections in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, G L; Wallace, D H; Schons, D J; Hoberg, E P

    1986-08-01

    Clorsulon (3.5 or 7 mg/kg of body weight) was given orally to mature cows (dairy or beef) and to mature mixed-breed sheep harboring patent infections of Fasciola hepatica. Eighteen animals of each species were assigned to a control group (drug vehicle) or to 1 of 2 treatment (3.5 or 7.0 mg/kg) groups of 6 animals each. On posttreatment days 8 (cows) or 14 (sheep), the animals were slaughtered for recovery of flukes. In cows, the efficacy (P values for treatment groups vs control) of clorsulon against infections of mature F hepatica was 99.21% (P less than or equal to 0.0065) at 3.5 mg/kg and was 100% (P less than or equal to 0.0039) at 7 mg/kg. In sheep, the efficacy was 93.33% (P less than or equal to 0.0104) at 3.5 mg/kg and was 100% (P less than or equal to 0.0039) at 7 mg/kg. These results indicate that clorsulon is a highly effective compound for the treatment of mature F hepatica in cows and sheep. PMID:3752673

  2. Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep and pig plasma using plant and fungal protease preparations.

    PubMed

    Bah, Clara S F; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A

    2015-06-01

    Plasma separated from deer, sheep and pig blood, obtained from abattoirs, was hydrolysed using protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained after 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, were investigated. The release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was monitored using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay, while the hydrolysis profiles were visualised using SDS-PAGE. The major plasma proteins in the animal plasmas were identified using MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Hydrolysates of plasma generated with fungal proteases exhibited higher DPPH radical-scavenging, oxygen radical-scavenging capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) than those generated with plant proteases for all three animal plasmas. No antimicrobial activity was detected in the hydrolysates. The results indicated that proteolytic hydrolysis of animal blood plasmas, using fungal protease preparations in particular, produces hydrolysates with high antioxidant properties. PMID:25624206

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of pig, cow and sheep MAdCAM-1 cDNA and the demonstration of cross-reactive epitopes amongst mammalian homologues.

    PubMed

    Tachedjian, M; Yu, M; Lew, A M; Rockman, S; Boyle, J S; Andrew, M E; Wang, L

    2006-05-01

    Full-length cDNA clones for the pig, cow and sheep mucosal addressin cellular adhesion molecule (MAdCAM)-1 homologues were isolated from Peyer's patches by a combination of reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction and 5' and 3' RACE strategies. Degenerate primers based on conserved amino acid (aa) sequences within the N-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains of the human and rodent MAdCAM-1 molecules were used for initial sequencing of the Ig-like domains. MAdCAM-1 transcripts of 1425 bp, 1525 bp and 1510 bp obtained for the pig, cow and sheep contained an open-reading frame for proteins of 390, 424 and 418 aa, respectively. The pig and ruminant MAdCAM-1 had two N-terminal Ig-like domains, a mucin-like region and a third Ig-like domain found in rodent but not human MAdCAM-1. Antibodies raised against bacterially expressed N-terminal Ig-like domains of pig, human and sheep MAdCAM-1 demonstrated the existence of cross-reactive epitopes, raising the possibility of producing monoclonal antibodies which can be used as multi-species MAdCAM-1-targeting reagent for the development of mucosal vaccines. PMID:16671951

  4. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in camels, cattle, goats, and sheep harvested for meat in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Gassem, Mustafa A; Al Sheddy, Ibraheem A; Almaiman, Salah A; Al-Mohizea, Ibrahim S; Alowaimer, Abdullah; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are significant foodborne pathogens that can be found in the feces and on the hides of meat animals. When hides are removed during the harvest process, the carcass and subsequent meat products can become contaminated. Camels, cattle, sheep, and goats are harvested for meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are unknown in these animals, and it is assumed that if the animals carry the pathogens in their feces or on their hides, meat products are likely to become contaminated. To this end, a minimum of 206 samples each from hides and feces of camels, cattle, goats, and sheep were collected over the course of 8 months and tested for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 was present in feces (10.7, 1.4, 2.4, and 2.4%) and on hides (17.9, 8.2, 2.9, and 9.2%) of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of Salmonella was 11.2, 13.5, 23.2, and 18.8% in feces and 80.2, 51.2 67.6, and 60.2% on hides of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of E coli O157:H7 was nearly zero in all samples collected in June and July, while Salmonella did not exhibit any seasonal variation. These results constitute the first comprehensive study of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella prevalence in Saudi Arabian meat animals at harvest. PMID:25581182

  5. Productive and income contributions of sheep, goat, and cattle, and different diversification schemes in smallholder production systems of Northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Villagra, Edgar Sebastián; Easdale, Marcos Horacio; Giraudo, Celso Gabriel; Bonvissuto, Griselda Luz

    2015-10-01

    Wool production oriented sheep keeping is the most important rural activity in Patagonia, Argentina, followed by goat and at a lower extent cattle production. The existing perception on the smallholder production systems from most decision makers (e.g., policy) is that they are marginal, with low productivity and have negative returns. Since the Argentinean economic scenario has changed drastically in the last decade, the aim of this study was to analyze the economic and productive contribution of different livestock species in smallholdings. The results showed that the post-1990's economic scenario turned most smallholder livestock systems to have positive economic performance, but there were still productive restrictions that limited to fully benefit from these favorable circumstances. Goats were the most profitable livestock due to their higher productive performance, followed by sheep and cattle, with poorer performances. A strong cooperation between the intervention programs and research institutions is recommended to overcome the current production bottlenecks, by focusing on cattle and sheep production systems. PMID:26089256

  6. Effects of alcohol ethoxylate and pluronic detergents on the development of pasture bloat in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Stanford, K; Wang, Y; Berg, B P; Majak, W; McCartney, D H; Baron, V; McAllister, T A

    2001-01-01

    A series of studies was conducted to determine the efficacy and possible modes of action of a water-soluble mixture of alcohol ethoxylate and pluronic detergents (AEPD; Blocare 4511, ANCARE, Auckland, NZ) in preventing pasture bloat in ruminants grazing or fed freshly harvested alfalfa. Ten cannulated Suffolk wethers were offered freshly harvested alfalfa; five were given a daily intraruminal dose of 40 ml of 50% AEPD (vol/vol) 1 h before feeding, and five (controls) were dosed with water. Viscosity of ruminal fluid was reduced (P < 0.001) in AEPD-treated wethers, relative to the controls, for the first 2 h after feeding but not at 4 h after feeding and beyond. Treatment with AEPD did not affect dry matter (DM) intake, digestibility of DM, acid detergent fiber, or neutral detergent fiber, or N digestion and retention, implying that AEPD likely would not affect milk production. In a crossover grazing study, five of the wethers were given AEPD in drinking water (0.1%, vol/vol); treatment with AEPD was 100% effective for preventing bloat in sheep grazing early-bloom alfalfa for 4 h daily. Replicate grazing studies were conducted with cattle in Lethbridge, AB; Lacombe, AB; and Kamloops, BC. Treated animals received AEPD in the water (0.06%, vol/vol) and grazed vegetative alfalfa for 6 h daily. As it did with sheep, AEPD treatment effectively precluded the bloat observed in control animals. Consequently, AEPD may be a valuable tool for alfalfa pasture-based dairy production although further study is required to develop an integrated model for optimal administration under a variety of climatic conditions. PMID:11210030

  7. Experimental infection of cattle, sheep and pigs with 'Hobi'-like pestivirus.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Sciarretta, Rossana; Moreno, Ana; Armenise, Carlo; Losurdo, Michele; Camero, Michele; Lorusso, Eleonora; Cordioli, Paolo; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-03-23

    To date, limited information is available on the ability of 'Hobi'-like pestiviruses (putative bovine viral diarrhoea 3) to infect and cause disease in animal species traditionally affected by pestiviruses. In order to obtain new insights into host range and pathogenic potential of this atypical pestivirus, BVDV-seronegative calves (n=5), lambs (n=5) and piglets (n=5) were experimentally infected with the European 'Hobi'-like strain Italy-1/10-1, whereas two animals per species served as uninfected controls. Appearance of clinical signs, leukopenia, viremia, viral shedding and seroconversion were monitored for 28 days post-infection. Calves and lambs were successfully infected, displaying respiratory signs (nasal discharge), moderate hyperthermia and leukopenia, viremia and viral shedding through the nasal and faecal routes. Antibody responses were observed in both animal species by ELISA and virus neutralisation assays. In contrast, inoculated piglets did not display any clinical signs nor leukopenia and viral RNA was not detected in any biological samples. Nevertheless, the presence of detectable antibodies by virus neutralisation accounted for a successful, albeit limited infection of these animals. PMID:21955447

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs, sheep, goats, and cattle from Grenada and Carriacou, West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Grenada is considered high. Little is known of the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in Caribbean Islands. Serum samples of 750 food animals in Grenada and Carriacou were tested for antibodies to T. gondii using th...

  9. Lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury in meat, liver and kidney of Swedish pigs and cattle in 1984-88.

    PubMed

    Jorhem, L; Slorach, S; Sundström, B; Ohlin, B

    1991-01-01

    During the period 1984-88 several hundred samples of meat, liver and kidney from Swedish pigs and cattle were analysed for lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury. Analysis was performed by AAS and extensive quality assurance was carried out. The mean lead levels in pig meat, liver and kidney were less than 0.005, 0.019 and 0.016 mg/kg, respectively: the mean levels in the corresponding bovine tissues were less than 0.005, 0.047 and 0.097 mg/kg. The mean cadmium levels in pig meat, liver and kidney were 0.001, 0.019 and 0.11 mg/kg, whilst those in the corresponding bovine tissues were 0.001, 0.070 and 0.39 mg/kg. The mean arsenic levels in pig meat, liver and kidney were 0.024, 0.023 and 0.019, respectively and those in the corresponding bovine tissues were lower, none exceeding 0.015 mg/kg. The mean mercury levels in pig meat, liver and kidney were 0.009, 0.015 and 0.019 mg/kg respectively, while those in the corresponding bovine tissues were 0.005, 0.006 and 0.010 mg/kg. A decrease in the levels of both arsenic and mercury in pig tissues was found during the period studied, which may be due to a decrease in the use of fish meal in pig feed. PMID:1868931

  10. The physiological and metabolic impacts on sheep and cattle of feed and water deprivation before and during transport.

    PubMed

    Hogan, James P; Petherick, J Carol; Phillips, Clive J C

    2007-06-01

    Sheep and cattle are frequently subjected to feed and water deprivation (FWD) for about 12 h before, and then during, transport to reduce digesta load in the gastrointestinal tract. This FWD is marked by weight loss as urine and faeces mainly in the first 24 h but continuing at a reduced rate subsequently. The weight of rumen contents falls although water loss is to some extent masked by saliva inflow. FWD is associated with some stress, particularly when transportation is added. This is indicated by increased levels of plasma cortisol that may be partly responsible for an observed increase in the output of water and N in urine and faeces. Loss of body water induces dehydration that may induce feelings of thirst by effects on the hypothalamus structures through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. There are suggestions that elevated cortisol levels depress angiotensin activity and prevent sensations of thirst in dehydrated animals, but further research in this area is needed. Dehydration coupled with the discharge of Na in urine challenges the maintenance of homeostasis. In FWD, Na excretion in urine is reduced and, with the reduction in digesta load, Na is gradually returned from the digestive tract to the extracellular fluid space. Control of enteropathogenic bacteria by normal rumen microbes is weakened by FWD and resulting infections may threaten animal health and meat safety. Recovery time is required after transport to restore full feed intake and to ensure that adequate glycogen is present in muscle pre-slaughter to maintain meat quality. PMID:19079858

  11. Molecular characterization, occurrence, and immunogenicity in infected sheep and cattle of two minor outer membrane proteins of Brucella abortus.

    PubMed Central

    Tibor, A; Saman, E; de Wergifosse, P; Cloeckaert, A; Limet, J N; Letesson, J J

    1996-01-01

    Screening of a Brucella abortus genomic library with two sets of monoclonal antibodies allowed the isolation of the genes corresponding to two minor outer membrane proteins (OMP10 and OMP19) found in this bacterial species. Sequence analysis of the omp10 gene revealed an open reading frame capable of encoding a protein of 126 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence of the insert producing the OMP19 protein contains two overlapping open reading frames, the largest of which (177 codons) was shown to encode the protein of interest. Analysis of the N-terminal sequences of both putative proteins revealed features of a bacterial signal peptide, and homology to the bacterial lipoprotein processing sequence was also observed. Immunoblotting with monoclonal antibodies specific for OMP10 or OMP19 showed that both proteins are present in the 34 Brucella strains tested, representing all six Brucella species and all their biovars. The OMP19 detected in the five Brucella ovis strains examined migrated at an apparent molecular weight that is slightly higher than those of the other Brucella species, confirming the divergence of B. ovis from these species. OMP10 and OMP19 were produced in recombinant Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity for serological analysis. A large fraction of sera from sheep naturally infected with Brucella melitensis were reactive with these proteins in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas sera from B. abortus-infected cattle were almost completely unreactive in this assay. PMID:8557326

  12. Comparative analysis of Brucella serotype A and M and Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 polysaccharides for serological diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Aparicio, E; Aragón, V; Marín, C; Alonso, B; Font, M; Moreno, E; Pérez-Ortiz, S; Blasco, J M; Díaz, R; Moriyón, I

    1993-01-01

    Hapten polysaccharides of Brucella smooth M and A serotypes were prepared from Brucella sp. and Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 by previously described hydrolytic (O chain) or nonhydrolytic (native hapten [NH]) procedures. The purified polysaccharides differed only in the presence (O chain) or absence (NH) of lipopolysaccharide core sugars. The polysaccharides were compared by reverse radial immunodiffusion for the diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle (Brucella abortus biotype 1 [A serotype] and Brucella melitensis biotype 3 [AM serotype]), sheep (B. melitensis biotypes 1 [M serotype] and 3), and goats (B. melitensis biotype 1). The reverse radial immunodiffusion test with the NH from B. melitensis 16 M (serotype M) showed the highest sensitivity (89.6 to 97.3%), regardless of the host species and the serotype of the infecting Brucella sp. Y. enterocolitica O:9 NH (A serotype) was useful for diagnosing disease in cattle infected with B. abortus biotype 1, but not in cattle infected with B. melitensis biotype 3, sheep, or goats. The different results obtained with the serotype M and A polysaccharides and the sera from animals infected with M, A, and AM serotypes of Brucella spp. showed that in naturally infected animals, a large proportion of the antibodies are directed to or react with a previously defined common epitope(s) (J. T. Douglas and D. A. Palmer, J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:1353-1356, 1988) different from the A or M epitopes. By using the radial immunodiffusion test with B. melitensis 16M NH, it was possible to differentiate infected from vaccinated cattle, sheep, and goats with a sensitivity and specificity similar to that of the complement fixation test. PMID:8308104

  13. Arcobacter lanthieri sp. nov., isolated from pig and dairy cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Whiteduck-Léveillée, Kerri; Whiteduck-Léveillée, Jenni; Cloutier, Michel; Tambong, James T; Xu, Renlin; Topp, Edward; Arts, Michael T; Chao, Jerry; Adam, Zaky; André Lévesque, C; Lapen, David R; Villemur, Richard; Talbot, Guylaine; Khan, Izhar U H

    2015-08-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and diversity of species of the genus Arcobacter in pig and dairy cattle manure, which led to the identification of strains AF1440T, AF1430 and AF1581. Initially identified as Arcobacter butzleri based on colony morphology and initial PCR-confirmation tests, analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences of these strains confirmed that they belonged to the genus Arcobacter and were different from all known species of the genus. The isolates formed a distinct group within the genus Arcobacter based on their 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB, cpn60, gyrA and atpA gene sequences and fatty acid profiles. Their unique species status was further supported by physiological properties and DNA-DNA hybridization that allowed phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of the strains from other species of the genus Arcobacter. The isolates were found to be oxidase, catalase and esterase positive and urease negative; they grew well at 30 °C under microaerophilic conditions and produced nitrite and acetoin. Based on their common origin and various physiological properties, it is proposed that the isolates are classified as members of a novel species with the name Arcobacter lanthieri sp. nov. The type strain is AF1440T ( = LMG 28516T = CCUG 66485T); strains AF1430 ( = LMG 28515 = CCUG 66486) and AF1581 ( = LMG 28517 = CCUG 66487) are reference strains. PMID:25977280

  14. Comparison of an acid-fast stain and a monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorescence reagent for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal specimens from cattle and pigs.

    PubMed

    Quílez, J; Sánchez-Acedo, C; Clavel, A; del Cacho, E; López-Bernad, F

    1996-12-01

    A commercially available direct immunofluorescence (IF) assay with monoclonal antibodies (Monofluo Kit Cryptosporidium, Diagnostics Pasteur, France) was compared with the modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) acid-fast technique for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples from cattle and pigs. Stool specimens individually collected from 108 bovines and 90 pigs were examined in a blind test. The results of the two procedures corresponded (both positive or negative) in 102 (94.4%) cattle samples and 80 (88.9%) pig faecal samples. However, the remaining six (5.5%) cattle specimens and 10 (11.1%) pig stool samples, all of them harboring few oocysts (0-1 oocysts per 20 x field), were negative by MZN and positive by IF. False-negative results of the acid-fast stain occurred in suckling (17.2% of discrepant results) and weaned calves (2.9%) as well as weaned piglets (43.7%) and fattening pigs (10%). Stool specimens from the remaining age groups were negative by both techniques. The MacNemar's chi-square test showed that differences between both methods were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Compared with immunofluorescence procedure, the sensitivity of MZN technique in samples from cattle and pigs was 79.3% and 67.7% and the negative predictive value was 92.9% and 85.5% respectively. The specificity and positive predictive values of the acid-fast stain were 100% in both animal species. It is concluded that the monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorescence reagent evaluated is more efficient that the MZN technique, especially for detecting a low number of Cryptosporidium oocysts, in faecal specimens from both cattle and pigs. PMID:9011016

  15. Analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus integrin receptor expression in tissues from naive and infected cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals principally affecting cattle, pigs and sheep. FMD virus (FMDV) uses the alphaVbeta1, alphaVbeta3, alphaVbeta6 and alphaVbeta8 integrins as receptors in vitro via a highly conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic ac...

  16. Two Closely Related Novel Picornaviruses in Cattle and Sheep in Hungary from 2008 to 2009, Proposed as Members of a New Genus in the Family Picornaviridae

    PubMed Central

    Pankovics, Péter; Knowles, Nick J.; Boros, Ákos

    2012-01-01

    Two novel picornaviruses were serendipitously identified in apparently healthy young domestic animals—cattle (Bos taurus) and, subsequently, sheep (Ovis aries)—in Hungary during 2008 and 2009. Complete genome sequencing and comparative analysis showed that the two viruses are related to each other and have identical genome organizations, VPg + 5′ UTRIRES-II[L/1A-1B-1C-1D-2ANPG↓P/2B-2C/3A-3BVPg-3Cpro-3Dpol] 3′ UTR-poly(A). We suggest that they form two novel viral genotypes/serotypes, bovine hungarovirus 1 (BHuV-1; GenBank accession number JQ941880) and ovine hungarovirus 1 (OHuV-1; GenBank accession number HM153767), which may belong to a potential novel picornavirus genus in the family Picornaviridae. The genome lengths of BHuV-1 and OHuV-1 are 7,583 and 7,588 nucleotides, each comprising a single open reading frame encoding 2,243 and 2,252 amino acids, respectively. In the 5′ untranslated regions (5′ UTRs), both hungaroviruses are predicted to have a type II internal ribosome entry site (IRES). The nucleotide sequence and the secondary RNA structure of the hungarovirus IRES core domains H-I-J-K-L are highly similar to that of human parechovirus (HPeV) (genus Parechovirus), especially HPeV-3. However, in the polyprotein coding region, the amino acid sequences are more closely related to those of porcine teschoviruses (genus Teschovirus). Hungaroviruses were detected in 15% (4/26) and 25% (4/16) of the fecal samples from cattle and sheep, respectively. This report describes the discovery of two novel picornaviruses in farm animals, cattle and sheep. The mosaic genetic pattern raises the possibility that hungaroviruses, human parechoviruses, and porcine teschoviruses may be linked to each other by modular recombination of functional noncoding RNA elements. PMID:23015712

  17. Risk Factors for Human Salmonellosis Originating from Pigs, Cattle, Broiler Chickens and Egg Laying Hens: A Combined Case-Control and Source Attribution Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Enserink, Remko; Friesema, Ingrid; Heck, Max; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs) in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (∼90%) were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes). Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products) were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of classical case

  18. Risk factors for human salmonellosis originating from pigs, cattle, broiler chickens and egg laying hens: a combined case-control and source attribution analysis.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Enserink, Remko; Friesema, Ingrid; Heck, Max; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs) in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (∼ 90%) were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes). Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products) were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of classical case

  19. Inhibitor-free DNA for real-time PCR analysis of synovial fluid from horses, cattle and pigs.

    PubMed

    Schneeweiss, Wilfried; Stanek, Christian; Wagner, Martin; Hein, Ingeborg

    2007-03-31

    The potential of five different commercial DNA isolation methods to remove real-time PCR inhibitors from the synovial fluid of horses, cattle and pigs was investigated. All kits with the exception of one included a silica column-based purification of the DNA. With the fifth kit, DNA purification is achieved by removing contaminating macromolecules by a desalting process. We used a recently developed method based on comparison of the real-time PCR signal of an artificial target incorporated into each PCR reaction in the presence of the isolated DNA from the sample, and in control samples containing water instead of isolated DNA. This was followed by statistical analysis of the data. Inhibition and subsequent reduction of the endpoint fluorescence in the real-time PCR reaction was encountered in many cases. Less frequently, the target copy number in the samples was underestimated. However, we found no experimental evidence of a negative influence of the reduced endpoint fluorescence signal on the detection limit of the real-time PCR assay. All kits tested were useful for analyzing pelleted synovial fluid from horses, cattle and pigs. When analyzing non-pelleted synovial fluid, three kits - two based on silica columns and one employing a desalting process - yielded inhibitor-free DNA for real-time PCR analysis. PMID:17222992

  20. Seasonal prevalence of some zoonotic trematode infections in cattle and pigs in the north-east montane zone in India.

    PubMed

    Roy, B; Tandon, V

    1992-02-01

    Seasonal variations in the prevalence of Fasciola gigantica and Eurytrema pancreaticum in cattle, and Opisthorchis noverca, Artyfechinostomum malayanum, Fasciolopsis buski and Gastrodiscoides hominis in pigs, were studied post-necropsy over a 1 year period in a humid, subtropical north-east hilly region in India. The overall prevalence rate was 53.02% in cattle (n = 960) and 12.92% in pigs (n = 960). Fasciola gigantica and E. pancreaticum occurred throughout the year with peaks during cold winter months. Both species showed a high intensity of infection in winter and a low intensity during summer and autumn. The rate of infection due to A. malayanum, Fasciolopsis buski and G. hominis rose to a peak during June-September and thereafter declined to a low level (November-March). Except for the month of February, O. noverca occurred throughout the year, with the highest rate of infection in late autumn and winter. The abundance of infection due to A. malayanum, Fasciolopsis buski and G. hominis was high during late summer and early autumn. Opisthorchis noverca showed a higher density during late autumn and winter. PMID:1561763

  1. Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus from Cattle and Pigs Slaughtered in Abattoirs in Vhembe District, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tanih, Nicoline F.; Sekwadi, Eunice; Ndip, Roland N.; Bessong, Pascal O.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic food-borne bacteria have been associated with severe morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli present in cattle and pigs slaughtered in selected abattoirs in Vhembe District and at determining the susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics. A total of 176 swab samples (28 cattle and 16 pigs) of the rump, flank, brisket, and neck of the animals were analyzed using standard microbiological methods. E. coli isolates were genotyped to detect pathogenic strains. Of the 176 samples, 104 (67.5%) were positive for E. coli and 50 (32.5%) for S. aureus. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in the isolation rate from the different animal parts or abattoirs. Overall, 14/104 (13.46%) of the E. coli isolates were pathogenic strains which included enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (bfpA) 1.9%, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (LT) 3.8%, and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (aaiC) 7.6%. E. coli isolates were resistant (100%) to vancomycin and bacitracin. S. aureus (100%) were resistant to oxacillin and nalidixic acid. The presence of resistant strains of these bacteria in food of animal origin could serve as important vehicles transmitting these bacteria to humans. This finding is of epidemiological significance. PMID:25811040

  2. Traditional breeding objectives and practices of goat, sheep and cattle smallholders in The Gambia and implications in relation to the design of breeding interventions.

    PubMed

    Ejlertsen, Maria; Poole, Jane; Marshall, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the traditional breeding objectives and practices of West African Dwarf goat, Djallonke sheep, and N'dama cattle keepers in The Gambia and discusses the implications of these on the design of breeding-related interventions to improve livestock productivity. Data were collected via surveys implemented within three study sites in The Gambia, where traditional mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming predominates. The surveys comprised a participatory rural appraisal conducted in nine communities and a household questionnaire targeting 238 households. Livestock-keeping households were classified as 'poorer' or 'wealthier' based on the number of cattle owned. The most important objectives for keeping all species of livestock for the poorer groups (0 to 10 cattle) was 'savings and insurance', followed by 'income' and 'ceremonial/dowry' for the small ruminants and 'manure' and 'draught' for both cows and bulls. In contrast, for the wealthier group (more than 10 cattle), savings and insurance was the fourth to seventh ranked production objective (depending on species), with the most important production objectives being ceremonial/dowry for goats, income for sheep and manure for cows and bulls. An analysis of breeding practices indicated that breeding animals are selected on criteria which partially align to the breeding objectives, animals are rarely purchased for the purpose of breed improvement, knowledge of the cause and consequence of inbreeding is low and breeding decision makers may not necessarily be the livestock owner, particularly if the livestock owner is a women. Given this, it is suggested that capacity building on breeding-related issues, particularly in relation to the selection of breeding animals and specifically targeted at the different socioeconomic groups of livestock keepers, may be an appropriate, effective and relatively low-cost breeding intervention. PMID:22706889

  3. Chlamydia pecorum infections in sheep and cattle: A common and under-recognised infectious disease with significant impact on animal health.

    PubMed

    Walker, Evelyn; Lee, Effie J; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing recognition that infections of livestock by the obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia pecorum, are more widespread than was previously thought. A range of diseases have been associated with this pathogen, with the most important manifestations including infectious arthritis, infertility, enteritis, reduced growth rates, mastitis, and pneumonia. C. pecorum infections have also been associated with sub-clinical disease, highlighting our lack of knowledge about its true economic impact on livestock producers. Diagnosis of C. pecorum infection is based on clinical findings, serology and histopathology, which are not necessarily implemented in subclinical or early stages of infection, thus potentially contributing to under-diagnosis and under-reporting of infections associated with this bacterium. Recent molecular epidemiology studies have revealed that C. pecorum is genetically diverse and that there may be an association between certain strains and disease in sheep and cattle. Antimicrobial treatment of affected animals has questionable efficacy, justifying development of chlamydia vaccines for livestock. This review summarises current knowledge of the prevalence and impact of C. pecorum infections in sheep and cattle and provides an update on attempts to improve detection, management and treatment of infections by this important obligate intracellular pathogen. PMID:26586214

  4. Humoral immune responses of Brucella-infected cattle, sheep, and goats to eight purified recombinant Brucella proteins in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Letesson, J J; Tibor, A; van Eynde, G; Wansard, V; Weynants, V; Denoel, P; Saman, E

    1997-01-01

    Brucellosis research is currently focused on the identification of nonlipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens which could potentially be useful for the specific serologic diagnosis of brucellosis as well as for vaccinal prophylaxis. On the basis of previous reports, we selected eight Brucella proteins (OMP36, OMP25, OMP19, OMP16, OMP10, p17, p15, and p39) as candidate antigens to be further evaluated. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins were purified with a polyhistidine tag and metal chelate affinity chromatography and evaluated in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). The specificity of the iELISA was determined with sera from healthy cattle, sheep, and goats and ranged from 95 to 99%, depending on the recombinant antigen and the species tested. Sera from experimentally infected, and from naturally infected, animals were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the iELISA. The antiprotein antibody response was often delayed when compared to the anti-smooth LPS (S-LPS) response and was limited to animals which developed an active brucellosis infection (experimentally infected pregnant animals and sheep and goats from areas where brucellosis is still endemic). Among the recombinant antigens, the three cytoplasmic proteins (p17, p15, and p39) gave the most useful results. More than 80% of the animals positive in S-LPS serology were also positive with one of these cytoplasmic proteins alone or a combination of two of them. None of the recombinant antigens detected experimentally infected nonpregnant cows and sheep or naturally infected cattle. This study is a first step towards the development of a multiprotein diagnostic reagent for brucellosis. PMID:9302205

  5. High-Throughput Direct Fecal PCR Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Sheep and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Anna M.; Galea, Francesca; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Saunders, Vanessa F.; Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteric disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis that affects ruminants. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route. A commonly used antemortem diagnostic test for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces is liquid culture; however, a major constraint is the 2- to 3-month incubation period needed for this method. Rapid methods for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis based on PCR have been reported, but comprehensive validation data are lacking. We describe here a new test, the high-throughput-Johnes (HT-J), to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces. Its diagnostic accuracy was compared with that of liquid radiometric (Bactec) fecal culture using samples from cattle (1,330 samples from 23 herds) and sheep (596 samples from 16 flocks). The multistage protocol involves the recovery of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells from a fecal suspension, cell rupture by bead beating, extraction of DNA using magnetic beads, and IS900 quantitative PCR. The limit of detection of the assay was 0.0005 pg, and the limit of quantification was 0.005 pg M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genomic DNA. Only M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected from a panel of 51 mycobacterial isolates, including 10 with IS900-like sequences. Of the 549 culture-negative fecal samples from unexposed herds and flocks, 99% were negative in the HT-J test, while 60% of the bovine- and 84% of the ovine-culture-positive samples were positive in the HT-J test. As similar total numbers of samples from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-exposed animals were positive in culture and HT-J tests in both species, and as the results of a McNemar's test were not significant, these methods probably have similar sensitivities, but the true diagnostic sensitivities of these tests are unknown. These validation data meet the consensus-based reporting standards for diagnostic test accuracy studies for paratuberculosis and

  6. Resistance of Fasciola hepatica against Triclabendazole in cattle in Cajamarca (Peru): a clinical trial and an in vivo efficacy test in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, P; Scarcella, S; Cerna, C; Rosales, C; Cabrera, M; Guzmán, M; Lamenza, P; Solana, H

    2013-07-01

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica, is the most prevalent parasitic disease in dairy cattle from the northern region of Cajamarca, Peru. The control of this parasite is based on the use of Triclabendazole (TCBZ), a drug that has been used for more than fifteen years in this area. Recent studies, however, have reported a lack of clinical efficacy after treating dairy cattle. This research was aimed to determine the efficacy of TCBZ in a clinical trial. Eleven dairy cows all positive to F. hepatica identified by presence of eggs in feces, were treated with TCBZ (Fasinex(®) 10%) at 12 mg/kg body weight. Fourteen and thirty days after treatment, the animals were analyzed for F. hepatica eggs in their feces by the fecal egg count reduction test. The results found show an overall efficacy of 31.05% and 13. 63% (14 and 30 days post treatment, respectively). Furthermore, an in vivo efficacy test was conducted in sheep with metacercariae obtained from eggs isolated from a cow clinically resistant to TCBZ. Eleven sheep divided in two groups, a control group with no treatment (n=5) and a treated group (n=6) were all infected with two hundred metacercariae. One hundred and six days after infection all the animals demonstrated F. hepatica eggs in their feces, confirming the presence of adult parasites in their livers. The animals were then treated with TCBZ (Fasinex(®) 10%) at 10mg/kg body weight. Fifteen days later, the animals were sacrificed and the number of F. hepatica in their livers counted. The results of this experiment showed an efficacy of the flukicide of 25.2% confirming the resistance to TCBZ of the F. hepatica isolated from dairy cattle in Cajamarca, Peru. PMID:23352107

  7. Bloat in sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Colvin, H W; Backus, R C

    1988-01-01

    1. Most of the field studies on bloat are conducted with cattle and most of the laboratory experiments seeking to explain the various parameters associated with bloat are done with sheep. 2. Based on grazing behaviour, it would be expected that sheep might bloat more severely than cattle because they selectively choose to eat leaves over stems and chew what they ingest more frequently than cattle. Furthermore, sheep appear to select legumes over grasses because the legumes can be eaten more rapidly. However, because they are selective, sheep eat more slowly than cattle. Despite a higher bloat expectation, bloating in sheep is reported to be less of a problem than in cattle. 3. Although frothing of rumen ingesta was described earlier in cattle as the cause of acute legume bloat, experiments with frothy bloat in sheep preceded those in cattle. 4. Anti-frothing agents were used in sheep before cattle to treat acute legume bloat. 5. Experiments devoted to the study of eructation in ruminants were carried out on sheep, then cattle. 6. Convincing evidence that rumen motility does not cease during acute legume bloat was gathered using sheep. 7. Although the transected tracheal technique for the determination of the volume of eructated gas was developed with cattle, the pathway of eructated gas was confirmed with sheep. 8. All the current evidence accumulated from experiments with sheep supports the hypothesis that death due to legume bloat is caused by acute neural, respiratory, and cardiovascular insult resulting from the effect of the distended rumen on thoracic viscera, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and the abdominal vena cava. 9. Experiments with sheep and cattle being fed scabrous and nonscabrous diets similar in chemical composition show that sheep are more resistant than cattle to the increase in intrarumen pressure, decline in rumen contraction amplitude, and decrease in rumen contraction frequency caused by nonscabrous diets. 10. The sequence of events in the

  8. A Determination and Comparison of Urease Activity in Feces and Fresh Manure from Pig and Cattle in Relation to Ammonia Production and pH Changes

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaorong; Karring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia emission from animal production is a major environmental problem and has impacts on the animal health and working environment inside production houses. Ammonia is formed in manure by the enzymatic degradation of urinary urea and catalyzed by urease that is present in feces. We have determined and compared the urease activity in feces and manure (a urine and feces mixture) from pigs and cattle at 25°C by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. To obtain accurate estimates of kinetic parameters Vmax and K'm, we used a 5 min reaction time to determine the initial reaction velocities based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. The resulting Vmax value (mmol urea hydrolyzed per kg wet feces per min) was 2.06±0.08 mmol urea/kg/min and 0.80±0.04 mmol urea/kg/min for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. The K'm values were 32.59±5.65 mmol urea/l and 15.43±2.94 mmol urea/l for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. Thus, our results reveal that both the Vmax and K'm values of the urease activity for pig feces are more than 2-fold higher than those for cattle feces. The difference in urea hydrolysis rates between animal species is even more significant in fresh manure. The initial velocities of TAN formation are 1.53 mM/min and 0.33 mM/min for pig and cattle manure, respectively. Furthermore, our investigation shows that the maximum urease activity for pig feces occurs at approximately pH 7, and in cattle feces it is closer to pH 8, indicating that the predominant fecal ureolytic bacteria species differ between animal species. We believe that our study contributes to a better understanding of the urea hydrolysis process in manure and provides a basis for more accurate and animal-specific prediction models for urea hydrolysis rates and ammonia concentration in manures and thus can be used to predict ammonia volatilization rates from animal production. PMID:25397404

  9. Relationship among eye and muzzle temperatures measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    George, W D; Godfrey, R W; Ketring, R C; Vinson, M C; Willard, S T

    2014-11-01

    Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of these experiments was to compare the temperature of the eye (EYE) or muzzle (MUZ) measured using DITI to vaginal (VT) and rectal temperature (RT) as measures of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle. In Exp.1 EYE, VT and RT were measured in lactating, multiparous hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White, n = 10, and Dorper × St. Croix White, n = 10) in a non-febrile state 5 times over a 48-h period. Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.95), EYE and RT (r = 0.76) and EYE and VT (r = 0.77). In Exp. 2 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, lactating ewes (St. Croix White, n = 2, and Barbados Blackbelly, n = 12) at -12, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after being administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n = 7; 0.2 µg/kg BW, i.v.) or saline (n = 7; 0.5 mL, i.v.). Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. When data were combined across treatments (LPS and saline) there was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.96), EYE and RT (r = 0.82), MUZ and RT (r = 0.72), and EYE and VT (r = 0.93). In Exp. 3 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, non-lactating, pregnant Senepol cattle (n = 44) between 0900 and 1200 h on a single day. A digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure both VT and RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.78), a moderate correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and EYE (r = 0.52), RT and EYE (r = 0.58) and EYE and MUZ (r = 0.48). There was no correlation (P > 0.10) between RT or VT and MUZ. The

  10. Epidemiological aspects of field intoxication by Amorimia pubiflora (Malpighiaceae) in cattle in Mato Grosso and experimental reproduction of intoxication in cattle and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the county of Colniza, Mato Grosso, the main limitation for livestock production is the occurrence of "sudden death" in cattle, which affects in some farms up to 50% of the herd. In visits to some of the farms where the problem occurred, in 2004, 2011 and 2012, the presence of Amorimia pubiflora ...

  11. 76 FR 31977 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Domestic Sheep Grazing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... sheep grazing permits on 12 allotments and 1 cattle grazing allotment in the southern San Luis Valley.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Term permits on 12 sheep grazing and 1 cattle grazing allotments located in...

  12. Pig, cattle and poultry farmers with a known interest in research have comparable perspectives on disease prevention and on-farm biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Laanen, M; Maes, D; Hendriksen, C; Gelaude, P; De Vliegher, S; Rosseel, Y; Dewulf, J

    2014-07-01

    To motivate farmers for the implementation of preventive measures for animal health, it is crucial to understand their perspective on disease prevention and on-farm biosecurity. To study this, an online questionnaire was conducted in which 218 pig, 279 cattle and 61 poultry farmers in Flanders, Belgium have participated. The participants are farmers known for their interest in research and are therefore probably better informed on these topics. Although approximately half of the respondents in all three sectors are convinced of the positive effect of biosecurity on reduction of diseases at their farms, the farmers estimated their own level of knowledge on biosecurity as being rather low. Less than 10% of the farmers in all three sectors were able to give a correct explanation of the term 'biosecurity', even though the participants are likely to be better informed than the average farmer. In general, pig, cattle and poultry farmers share comparable ideas on disease prevention and biosecurity. Cattle farmers perceived animal welfare as more important. Pig farmers indicated stability of the farm more important than farmers in the other sectors. Farmers indicate that little to no barriers are present for taking preventive measures. The often observed absence or limited implementation of biosecurity and disease prevention measures is therefore likely due to insufficient motivation. Across the species, farmers indicate that insufficient information on costs and especially revenues is a major holdback for investments in preventive measures. Not surprisingly, more information on the economic benefits of measures is indicated as the primary interest for taking measures in disease prevention. The veterinarian is seen as the main source of information concerning disease prevention and biosecurity, so it is important that veterinarians have sufficient knowledge on these topics and are able to communicate this to farmers. Especially since farmers indicate that receiving more

  13. Survey on the risk awareness of german pig and cattle farmers in relation to dealing with MRSA and antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Schulze-Geisthövel, Sophia Veronika; Tappe, Elisa-Valerie; Schmithausen, Ricarda Maria; Lepkojis, Jan; Röttgen, Katharina; Petersen, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The danger surrounding methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been well known for decades. Although MRSA was initially only associated with hospitals, livestock-associated MRSA is being increasingly connected to the way food-supplying animals are treated. However, little is yet known about farmers’ risk awareness and their knowledge of MRSA. Hence, the goal of this study was to discover farmers’ perceptions of MRSA. Materials and methods Two successive studies were performed. Study I analysed the connection between the attitudes of cattle and pig farmers towards MRSA complications and characteristics such as age and vocational training. Study II dealt with the connection between contact frequency with livestock and the risk of MRSA colonisation. Results For Study I, 101 questionnaires were completed. Analysis showed that the participants’ education level (p=0.042, α=0.05) and the animal species kept on their farm (p=0.045, α=0.05) significantly influenced their perceptions. Screening results from 157 participants within Study II showed that contact frequency and the participants’ particular profession were significantly decisive for MRSA prevalence (contact frequency: p=0.000, professional branch: p=0.000, OR=11.966, α=0.05). Discussion The results show a high degree of risk consciousness and responsibility among farmers. However, it is assumed that most farmers who took part in the studies were interested parties. Thus, the study results are valid only for the chosen livestock holdings. Ultimately, educational work is still needed. Joint projects between economics and science offer a good platform to spark farmers’ interest in the MRSA problem, as well as to inform and enlighten them about dangers and connections. Interdisciplinary research will contribute to a better understanding of drug resistance and to reducing the long-term use of antibiotics. PMID:26847732

  14. A critical analysis of disease-associated DNA polymorphisms in the genes of cattle, goat, sheep, and pig

    PubMed Central

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M.; Kgwatalala, Patrick; Ibeagha, Aloysius E.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variations through their effects on gene expression and protein function underlie disease susceptibility in farm animal species. The variations are in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms, deletions/insertions of nucleotides or whole genes, gene or whole chromosomal rearrangements, gene duplications, and copy number polymorphisms or variants. They exert varying degrees of effects on gene action, such as substitution of an amino acid for another, shift in reading frame and premature termination of translation, and complete deletion of entire exon(s) or gene(s) in diseased individuals. These factors influence gene function by affecting mRNA splicing pattern or by altering/eliminating protein function. Elucidating the genetic bases of diseases under the control of many genes is very challenging, and it is compounded by several factors, including host × pathogen × environment interactions. In this review, the genetic variations that underlie several diseases of livestock (under monogenic and polygenic control) are analyzed. Also, factors hampering research efforts toward identification of genetic influences on animal disease identification and control are highlighted. A better understanding of the factors analyzed could be better harnessed to effectively identify and control, genetically, livestock diseases. Finally, genetic control of animal diseases can reduce the costs associated with diseases, improve animal welfare, and provide healthy animal products to consumers, and should be given more attention. PMID:18350334

  15. NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs that occasionally causes clinical infections in horses, goats, sheep, and deer. The domestic dog is the only known definitive host for N. caninum. In cattle N. caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion in many countries and is one of the mo...

  16. A Livestock-Associated, Multidrug-Resistant, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 97 Lineage Spreading in Dairy Cattle and Pigs in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Feltrin, Fabiola; Alba, Patricia; Kraushaar, Britta; Ianzano, Angela; Argudín, María Angeles; Di Matteo, Paola; Porrero, María Concepción; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Pandemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 97 (CC97) lineages originated from livestock-to-human host jumps. In recent years, CC97 has become one of the major MRSA lineages detected in Italian farmed animals. The aim of this study was to characterize and analyze differences in MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) mainly of swine and bovine origins. Forty-seven CC97 isolates, 35 MRSA isolates, and 6 MSSA isolates from different Italian pig and cattle holdings; 5 pig MRSA isolates from Germany; and 1 human MSSA isolate from Spain were characterized by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and antimicrobial resistance pattern analysis. Virulence and resistance genes were investigated by PCR and microarray analysis. Most of the isolates were of SCCmec type V (SCCmec V), except for two German MRSA isolates (SCCmec III). Five main clusters were identified by PFGE, with the German isolates (clusters I and II) showing 60.5% similarity with the Italian isolates, most of which (68.1%) grouped into cluster V. All CC97 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative, and a few (n = 7) tested positive for sak or scn. All MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and the main features were erm(B)- or erm(C)-mediated (n = 18) macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, vga(A)-mediated (n = 37) pleuromutilin resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance (n = 33), tet(K) in 32/37 tet(M)-positive isolates, and blaZ in almost all MRSA isolates. Few host-associated differences were detected among CC97 MRSA isolates: their extensive MDR nature in both pigs and dairy cattle may be a consequence of a spillback from pigs of a MRSA lineage that originated in cattle as MSSA and needs further investigation. Measures should be implemented at the farm level to prevent spillover to humans in intensive farming

  17. A microbiological assay to estimate the antimicrobial activity of parenteral tildipirosin against foodborne pathogens and commensals in the colon of beef cattle and pigs.

    PubMed

    Rose, M; Pridmore, A; Shaw, A; Wilhelm, C; Menge, M; Kilp, S; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M

    2016-06-01

    Tildipirosin (TIP) is a novel 16-membered-ring macrolide authorized for the treatment of bovine and swine respiratory disease. The pH dependency of macrolide antimicrobial activity is well known. Considering that the pH in the colon contents of growing beef cattle and pigs is usually below pH 7.0, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of TIP against foodborne bacterial pathogens such as Campylobacter (C.) coli, C. jejuni and Salmonella enterica and commensal species including Enterococcus (E.) faecalis, E. faecium and Escherichia coli were determined under standard (pH 7.3 ± 1) or neutral as well as slightly acidic conditions. A decrease in pH from 7.3 to 6.7 resulted in an increase in MICs of TIP. Except for the MICs > 256 μg/mL observed in the resistant subpopulation of the C. coli and the Enterococcus species, the MIC ranges increased from 2-8 μg/mL to 64-> 256 μg/mL for Salmonella enterica and E. coli, from 8-16 μg/mL to 32-128 μg/mL for the two Campylobacter species, and from 4-32 μg/mL to 128-> 256 μg/mL for both Enterococcus species. To estimate the antimicrobial activity of TIP in the colon contents of livestock during recommended usage of the parenterally administered TIP (Zuprevo(®) ), and to compare this with the increased MICs at the slightly acidic colonic pH, we developed and validated a microbiological assay for TIP and used this to test incurred faecal samples collected from cattle and pigs. Microbiological activity of luminal TIP was determined in aqueous supernatants from diluted faeces, using standard curves produced from TIP-spiked faecal supernatants. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for TIP was 1 μg/mL (ppm). In a cattle study (n = 14), 3 of 28 faecal samples collected 24 and 48 h post-treatment were found to contain TIP above the LOQ (concentrations of 1.3-1.8 ppm). In another cattle study (n = 12) with faecal samples collected at 8, 24 and 48 h post-treatment, TIP concentrations were above the LOQ in 4

  18. POLYMORPHISM IN THE CODING REGION SEQUENCE OF GDF8 GENE IN INDIAN SHEEP.

    PubMed

    Pothuraju, M; Mishra, S K; Kumar, S N; Mohamed, N F; Kataria, R S; Yadav, D K; Arora, R

    2015-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify polymorphism in the coding sequence of GDF8gene across indigenous meat type sheep breeds. A 1647 bp sequence was generated, encompassing 208 bp of the 5'UTR, 1128 bp of coding region (exon1, 2 and 3) as well as 311 bp of 3'UTR. The sheep and goat GDF8 gene sequences were observed to be highly conserved as compared to cattle, buffalo, horse and pig. Several nucleotide variations were observed across coding sequence of GDF8 gene in Indian sheep. Three polymorphic sites were identified in the 5'UTR, one in exon 1 and one in the exon 2 regions. Both SNPs in the exonic region were found to be non-synonymous. The mutations c.539T > G and c.821T > A discovered in this study in the exon 1 and exon 2, respectively, have not been previously reported. The information generated provides preliminary indication of the functional diversity present in Indian sheep at the coding region of GDF8gene. The novel as well as the previously reported SNPs discovered in the Indian sheep warrant further analysis to see whether they affect the phenotype. Future studies will need to establish the affect of reported SNPs in the expression of the GDF8 gene in Indian sheep population. PMID:26845859

  19. Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors for Brucella Spp. Infection in Traditional Cattle, Sheep and Goats Reared in Urban, Periurban and Rural Areas of Niger

    PubMed Central

    Boukary, Abdou Razac; Saegerman, Claude; Abatih, Emmanuel; Fretin, David; Alambédji Bada, Rianatou; De Deken, Reginald; Harouna, Halimatou Adamou; Yenikoye, Alhassane; Thys, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In Niamey, Niger, interactions within the interface between animals, humans and the environment induce a potential risk of brucellosis transmission between animals and from animals to humans. Currently, little is known about the transmission of Brucella in this context. Results 5,192 animals from 681 herds were included in the study. Serum samples and hygroma fluids were collected. A household survey enabled to identify the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis. The true adjusted herd-level prevalence of brucellosis ranged between 11.2% and 17.2% and the true adjusted animal-population level prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 0.9–1.8%) based on indirect ELISA test for Brucella antibodies. Animals aged of 1–4 years were found to be more susceptible than animals less than 1 year old (Odds ratio [OR] of 2.7; 95% CI: 1.43–5.28). For cattle, the odds of brucellosis seropositivity were higher in rural compared to the periurban areas (OR of 2.8; 95% CI: 1.48–5.17) whereas for small ruminants the risk of seropositivity appeared to be higher in urban compared to periurban areas (OR of 5.5; 95% CI: 1.48–20.38). At herd level, the risk of transmission was increased by transhumance (OR of 5.4; 95% CI: 2.84–10.41), the occurrence of abortions (OR of 3.0; 95% CI: 1.40–6.41), and for herds having more than 50 animals (OR of 11.0; 95% CI: 3.75–32.46). Brucella abortus biovar 3 was isolated from the hygromas. Conclusion brucellosis in Niger is a serious problem among cattle especially in the rural areas around Niamey and among sheep in the urban areas of Niamey. The seroprevalence varies across strata and animal species with important risk factors including herd size, abortion and transhumance at herd level and age at animal population level. For effective control of brucellosis, an integrated approach seems appropriate involving all stakeholders working in public and animal health. PMID:24358261

  20. Zoonotic and Potentially Host-Adapted Enterocytozoon bieneusi Genotypes in Sheep and Cattle in Northeast China and an Increasing Concern about the Zoonotic Importance of Previously Considered Ruminant-Adapted Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanxue; Tao, Wei; Wan, Qiang; Li, Qiao; Yang, Yuqi; Lin, Yongchao; Zhang, Siwen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated fecal specimens from 489 sheep and 537 cattle in multiple cities in northeast China for the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Enterocytozoon bieneusi by PCR and sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer. Sixty-eight sheep specimens (13.9%) and 32 cattle specimens (6.0%) were positive for E. bieneusi. Sequence polymorphisms enabled the identification of 9 known genotypes (BEB4, BEB6, CM7, CS-4, EbpC, G, I, J, and OEB1) and 11 new genotypes (NESH1 to NESH6 and NECA1 to NECA5). The genotypes formed two genetic clusters in a phylogenetic analysis, with CS-4, EbpC, G, NESH1 to NESH3, and NECA1 to NECA5 distributed in zoonotic group 1 and BEB4, BEB6, CM7, EbpI, J, OEB1, and NESH4 to NESH6 distributed in potentially host-adapted group 2. Nearly 70% of cases of E. bieneusi infections in sheep were contributed by human-pathogenic genotypes BEB6, CS-4, and EbpC, and over 80% of those in cattle were by genotypes BEB4, CS-4, EbpC, I, and J. The cooccurrence of genotypes BEB4, CS-4, EbpC, I, and J in domestic ruminants and children in northeast China and the identification of BEB6 and EbpC in humans and water in central China imply the possibility of zoonotic transmission. This study also summarizes E. bieneusi genotypes obtained from ruminants worldwide and displays their host ranges, geographical distributions, and phylogenetic relationships. The data suggest a host range expansion in some group 2 genotypes (notably BEB4, BEB6, I, and J) that were previously considered to be adapted to ruminants. We should be concerned about the increasing zoonotic importance of group 2 genotypes with low host specificity. PMID:25746997

  1. Zoonotic and Potentially Host-Adapted Enterocytozoon bieneusi Genotypes in Sheep and Cattle in Northeast China and an Increasing Concern about the Zoonotic Importance of Previously Considered Ruminant-Adapted Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanxue; Tao, Wei; Wan, Qiang; Li, Qiao; Yang, Yuqi; Lin, Yongchao; Zhang, Siwen; Li, Wei

    2015-05-15

    This study investigated fecal specimens from 489 sheep and 537 cattle in multiple cities in northeast China for the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Enterocytozoon bieneusi by PCR and sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer. Sixty-eight sheep specimens (13.9%) and 32 cattle specimens (6.0%) were positive for E. bieneusi. Sequence polymorphisms enabled the identification of 9 known genotypes (BEB4, BEB6, CM7, CS-4, EbpC, G, I, J, and OEB1) and 11 new genotypes (NESH1 to NESH6 and NECA1 to NECA5). The genotypes formed two genetic clusters in a phylogenetic analysis, with CS-4, EbpC, G, NESH1 to NESH3, and NECA1 to NECA5 distributed in zoonotic group 1 and BEB4, BEB6, CM7, EbpI, J, OEB1, and NESH4 to NESH6 distributed in potentially host-adapted group 2. Nearly 70% of cases of E. bieneusi infections in sheep were contributed by human-pathogenic genotypes BEB6, CS-4, and EbpC, and over 80% of those in cattle were by genotypes BEB4, CS-4, EbpC, I, and J. The cooccurrence of genotypes BEB4, CS-4, EbpC, I, and J in domestic ruminants and children in northeast China and the identification of BEB6 and EbpC in humans and water in central China imply the possibility of zoonotic transmission. This study also summarizes E. bieneusi genotypes obtained from ruminants worldwide and displays their host ranges, geographical distributions, and phylogenetic relationships. The data suggest a host range expansion in some group 2 genotypes (notably BEB4, BEB6, I, and J) that were previously considered to be adapted to ruminants. We should be concerned about the increasing zoonotic importance of group 2 genotypes with low host specificity. PMID:25746997

  2. Comparative method validation for closantel determination in cattle and sheep milk according to European Union Volume 8 and Veterinary International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.

    PubMed

    Devreese, Mathias; Maes, An; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2014-08-01

    A specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for quantitative determination of closantel in bovine and ovine colostrum and tank milk. Sample preparation consisted of extracting milk samples with acetonitrile/acetone (80/20, v/v) followed by SPE clean-up with Oasis mixed anion exchange columns. After elution with 5% formic acid in acetonitrile and evaporation to dryness, the residue was reconstituted in acetonitrile and water. HPLC separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column and a gradient elution program with 1mM ammonium acetate in water and acetonitrile. For closantel determination in bovine milk, the method was validated according to EU Volume 8 guidelines whereas for ovine milk both EU Volume 8 and VICH GL49 criteria were applied. The linear range of the method is between 10 and 2000 μg/kg, the limit of quantification 10 μg/kg and limit of detection is 0.63 and 0.32 μg/kg for sheep colostrum and tank milk and 1.27 and 1.24 μg/kg for cattle colostrum and tank milk, respectively. Both guidelines cover a similar set of parameters (linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification), although the acceptance criteria might differ (accuracy and precision) or no specific acceptability ranges are specified in neither guidelines (LOD and LOQ). For some parameters, only one of the guidelines indicates acceptance criteria: EU Volume 8 for applicability, practicability and susceptibility and VICH GL 49 for linearity, specificity and analyte stability. PMID:24656540

  3. Handmade Cloned Transgenic Sheep Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z.

    2013-01-01

    Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n−3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n−6) into n−3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  = 925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n−3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n−6/n−3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01) and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation. PMID:23437077

  4. Targeted mutations in myostatin by zinc-finger nucleases result in double-muscled phenotype in Meishan pigs

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Lili; Tang, Maoxue; Yang, Jinzeng; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Jiang, Shengwang; Li, Hegang; Jiang, Ke; Gao, Pengfei; Ma, Dezun; Chen, Yaoxing; An, Xiaorong; Li, Kui; Cui, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a dominant inhibitor of skeletal muscle development and growth. Mutations in MSTN gene can lead to muscle hypertrophy or double-muscled (DM) phenotype in cattle, sheep, dog and human. However, there has not been reported significant muscle phenotypes in pigs in association with MSTN mutations. Pigs are an important source of meat production, as well as serve as a preferred animal model for the studies of human disease. To study the impacts of MSTN mutations on skeletal muscle growth in pigs, we generated MSTN-mutant Meishan pigs with no marker gene via zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) technology. The MSTN-mutant pigs developed and grew normally, had increased muscle mass with decreased fat accumulation compared with wild type pigs, and homozygote MSTN mutant (MSTN−/−) pigs had apparent DM phenotype, and individual muscle mass increased by 100% over their wild-type controls (MSTN+/+) at eight months of age as a result of myofiber hyperplasia. Interestingly, 20% MSTN-mutant pigs had one extra thoracic vertebra. The MSTN-mutant pigs will not only offer a way of fast genetic improvement of lean meat for local fat-type indigenous pig breeds, but also serve as an important large animal model for biomedical studies of musculoskeletal formation, development and diseases. PMID:26400270

  5. Consumption of Low Larkspur (Delphinium nuttallianum) by Grazing Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low larkspur (Delphinium nuttallianum Pritz.) poisoning causes serious economic loss to livestock producers that graze cattle on foothill and mountain ranges in western North America. In general, all Delphinium spp. are five times less toxic to sheep than to cattle. Because sheep are less suscepti...

  6. Detection and isolation of digital dermatitis treponemes from skin and tail lesions in pigs.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Simon R; Sullivan, Leigh E; Bell, Jennifer; Blowey, Roger W; Carter, Stuart D; Evans, Nicholas J

    2016-02-01

    Pig skin lesions are common significant welfare issues, and can cause large economic losses, due to culling of severely affected animals or carcass condemnation at slaughter. It was considered that the treponemal bacteria associated with digital dermatitis (DD) lesions in cattle, sheep and goats may have a role in these pig lesions. Specific diagnostic PCR assays for three cultivable DD Treponema phylogroups were used to survey relevant porcine lesion samples. Using these assays, DD treponemes were detected in 88% (22/25), 72% (8/11) and 82% (14/17) of tail, ear and flank lesions, respectively. Mouth swabs from animals kept in enclosures with high prevalence of skin lesions were positive for the DD treponemes, but not in enclosures with low lesion prevalence. Culture of treponemes from skin lesions resulted in pure isolates of all three DD-associated phylogroups. This study shows a strong association of DD treponemes with a range of pig skin lesions. PMID:26850539

  7. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In t...

  8. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles produced by a SUMO fusion protein system in Escherichia coli induce potent protective immune responses in guinea pigs, swine and cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. The format of FMD virus-like particles (VLP) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative to conventional inactivated FMDV vaccines. In this study, we explored a prokaryotic system to express and assemble the FMD VLP and validated the potential of VLP as an FMDV vaccine candidate. VLP composed entirely of FMDV (Asia1/Jiangsu/China/2005) capsid proteins (VP0, VP1 and VP3) were simultaneously produced as SUMO fusion proteins by an improved SUMO fusion protein system in E. coli. Proteolytic removal of the SUMO moiety from the fusion proteins resulted in the assembly of VLP with size and shape resembling the authentic FMDV. Immunization of guinea pigs, swine and cattle with FMD VLP by intramuscular inoculation stimulated the FMDV-specific antibody response, neutralizing antibody response, T-cell proliferation response and secretion of cytokine IFN-γ. In addition, immunization with one dose of the VLP resulted in complete protection of these animals from homologous FMDV challenge. The 50% protection dose (PD50) of FMD VLP in cattle is up to 6.34. These results suggest that FMD VLP expressed in E. coli are an effective vaccine in guinea pigs, swine and cattle and support further development of these VLP as a vaccine candidate for protection against FMDV. PMID:23826638

  9. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sheep strains isolated from Cyprus sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Liapi, M; Botsaris, G; Slana, I; Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Avraam, M; Di Provvido, A; Georgiadou, S; Pavlik, I

    2015-04-01

    Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. Molecular characterization of Map isolates classifies them into two major groups, 'Cattle' or Type II and 'Sheep' or Type I/III with a different phenotype, epidemiology, virulence and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine 192 Map ELISA-positive sheep and goats from Cyprus using faecal culture and genotype Map isolates using IS1311 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (IS1311 PCR-REA) with HinfI restriction enzyme. Map was isolated from only four (4.6%) faecal samples out of 88 sheep and 15 (14.4%) faecal samples out of 104 goats. Genotyping of the isolates using IS1311 PCR-REA revealed that sheep and goat populations on the island are infected primarily by 'Sheep' strains. Only three Map isolates from goats originated from one farm were characterized as 'Cattle' strains. PMID:23683358

  10. Genomic Diversity in Pig (Sus scrofa) and its Comparison with Human and other Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyan; Plastow, Graham

    2011-01-01

    We have reviewed the current pig (Sus scrofa) genomic diversity within and between sites and compared them with human and other livestock. The current Porcine 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel has an average SNP distance in a range of 30 - 40 kb. Most of genetic variation was distributed within populations, and only a small proportion of them existed between populations. The average heterozygosity was lower in pig than in human and other livestock. Genetic inbreeding coefficient (FIS), population differentiation (FST), and Nei’s genetic distance between populations were much larger in pig than in human and other livestock. Higher average genetic distance existed between European and Asian populations than between European or between Asian populations. Asian breeds harboured much larger variability and higher average heterozygosity than European breeds. The samples of wild boar that have been analyzed displayed more extensive genetic variation than domestic breeds. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) in improved pig breeds extended to 1 - 3 cM, much larger than that in human (~ 30 kb) and cattle (~ 100 kb), but smaller than that in sheep (~ 10 cM). European breeds showed greater LD that decayed more slowly than Asian breeds. We briefly discuss some processes for maintaining genomic diversity in pig, including migration, introgression, selection, and drift. We conclude that, due to the long time of domestication, the pig possesses lower heterozygosity, higher FIS, and larger LD compared with human and cattle. This implies that a smaller effective population size and less informative markers are needed in pig for genome wide association studies. PMID:21966252

  11. An outbreak of perirenal oedema syndrome in cattle associated with ingestion of pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.).

    PubMed

    Last, R D; Hill, J H; Theron, G

    2007-09-01

    Forty seven of 150, 15-month-old long weaners died of an acute renal disease syndrome following introduction into an old maize field with a heavy stand of Amaranthus spp. The clinical syndrome was characterised by sudden onset neurological disease with ataxia and recumbency. Subcutaneous oedema, ascites and perirenal oedema with urine odour were the major gross necropsy findings. Renal histopathology revealed marked coagulative renal tubular necrosis of the proximal and distal straight tubules with intertubular haemorrhage. Acute renal failure and perirenal oedema has been described in cattle, pigs, horses and sheep associated with the ingestion of A. hybridus L. and A. retroflexus L. This perirenal oedema syndrome has been widely reported in the Americas, while in South Africa intoxication with the amaranths has only previously been associated with nitrate and possibly oxalate poisoning in cattle. PMID:18237043

  12. Regulation of Genes Involved in Carnitine Homeostasis by PPARα across Different Species (Rat, Mouse, Pig, Cattle, Chicken, and Human)

    PubMed Central

    Ringseis, Robert; Wen, Gaiping; Eder, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies in rodents convincingly demonstrated that PPARα is a key regulator of genes involved in carnitine homeostasis, which serves as a reasonable explanation for the phenomenon that energy deprivation and fibrate treatment, both of which cause activation of hepatic PPARα, causes a strong increase of hepatic carnitine concentration in rats. The present paper aimed to comprehensively analyse available data from genetic and animal studies with mice, rats, pigs, cows, and laying hens and from human studies in order to compare the regulation of genes involved in carnitine homeostasis by PPARα across different species. Overall, our comparative analysis indicates that the role of PPARα as a regulator of carnitine homeostasis is well conserved across different species. However, despite demonstrating a well-conserved role of PPARα as a key regulator of carnitine homeostasis in general, our comprehensive analysis shows that this assumption particularly applies to the regulation by PPARα of carnitine uptake which is obviously highly conserved across species, whereas regulation by PPARα of carnitine biosynthesis appears less well conserved across species. PMID:23150726

  13. Ribosomal RNA and nucleolar proteins from the oocyte are to some degree used for embryonic nucleolar formation in cattle and pig.

    PubMed

    Maddox-Hyttel, P; Svarcova, O; Laurincik, J

    2007-09-01

    The nucleolus is the site of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and ribosome production. In the bovine primordial follicle oocyte, this organelle is inactive, but in the secondary follicle an active fibrillo-granular nucleolus develops and proteins involved in rDNA transcription (topoisomerase I, RNA polymerase I and upstream binding factor) and early (fibrillarin) or late rRNA processing (nucleolin and nucleophosmin) localize to it. At the end of the oocyte growth phase, the nucleolus is inactivated again and transforms into a solid remnant. The nucleolar remnant is dissolved when meiosis is resumed. Upon fertilization, structures resembling the nucleolar remnant, now referred to as nucleolus precursor bodies (NPBs), are established in the pronuclei. These entities are engaged in the re-establishment of fibrillo-granular nucleoli at the major activation of the embryonic genome. This nucleolar formation can be classified into two different modes: one where nucleolus development occurs inside NPBs (internal; e.g. cattle) and the other where it occurs on the surface of NPBs (external; e.g. pig). Oocyte derived proteins engaged in late rRNA processing (nucleolin and nucleophosmin) may to some degree be re-used for nucleolar formation in the embryo, while the other nucleolar proteins require de novo embryonic transcription in order to be allocated to the developing nucleoli. Moreover, unprocessed rRNA inherited from the oocyte targets to the developing embryonic nucleoli. In conclusion, the nucleolus is important for the development of oocytes and embryos and may serve as a marker for the completion of oocyte growth and the normality of activation of the embryonic genome. PMID:17466364

  14. Immunization of guinea-pigs and cattle against adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks using semipurified nymphal homogenates and adult gut homogenate.

    PubMed Central

    Rechav, Y; Spickett, A M; Dauth, J; Tembo, S D; Clarke, F C; Heller-Haupt, A; Trinder, P K

    1992-01-01

    Guinea-pigs inoculated with crude homogenate of unfed nymphs of the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and with three semipurified fractions of the homogenate obtained by gel permeation chromatography, acquired a significant degree of immunity to infestation with adults of this tick. Fraction 2 induced the highest reduction (66%) in mean weight of engorged females followed by crude homogenate and fractions 1 and 3. Calves immunized with crude homogenates of unfed nymphs, fraction 2 of nymphal homogenate, and gut homogenate of unfed females also acquired immunity against adults of R. appendiculatus. The mean weight of engorged females fed on calves inoculated with nymphal fraction 2 was the lowest of all five groups of calves on which females fed. The reduction in weight (38%) was not significantly different from that observed for females fed on calves inoculated with crude nymphal homogenate (31%) or females from third infestation of adult ticks. No differences in the weight and hatchability of egg batches produced by engorged females collected from the five groups of calves were observed. Analysis of sera collected from the five groups of calves showed that the concentration of albumin, alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta-globulins fluctuated and no significant differences between the treated groups were observed. The levels of gamma-globulin increased in treated groups including the group inoculated with adjuvant only, but unlike previous reports no increase in gamma-globulin or a correlation between the level of gamma-globulin and the degree of resistance acquired were observed in calves exposed to repeated tick infestations. However, the increase in the concentration of gamma-globulin in calves inoculated with fraction 2 or crude nymphal homogenate was higher than that observed in the other groups. PMID:1375584

  15. An experimental subunit vaccine based on Bluetongue virus 4 VP2 protein fused to an antigen-presenting cells single chain antibody elicits cellular and humoral immune responses in cattle, guinea pigs and IFNAR(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Legisa, D M; Perez Aguirreburualde, M S; Gonzalez, F N; Marin-Lopez, A; Ruiz, V; Wigdorovitz, A; Martinez-Escribano, J A; Ortego, J; Dus Santos, M J

    2015-05-21

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), the causative agent of bluetongue disease (BT) in domestic and wild ruminants, is worldwide distributed. A total of 27 serotypes have been described so far, and several outbreaks have been reported. Vaccination is critical for controlling the spread of BTV. In the last years, subunit vaccines, viral vector vaccines and reverse genetic-based vaccines have emerged as new alternatives to conventional ones. In this study, we developed an experimental subunit vaccine against BTV4, with the benefit of targeting the recombinant protein to antigen-presenting cells. The VP2 protein from an Argentine BTV4 isolate was expressed alone or fused to the antigen presenting cell homing (APCH) molecule, in the baculovirus insect cell expression system. The immunogenicity of both proteins was evaluated in guinea pigs and cattle. Titers of specific neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs and cattle immunized with VP2 or APCH-VP2 were high and similar to those induced by a conventional inactivated vaccine. The immunogenicity of recombinant proteins was further studied in the IFNAR(-/-) mouse model where the fusion of VP2 to APCH enhanced the cellular immune response and the neutralizing activity induced by VP2. PMID:25858859

  16. Ethylene glycol poisoning in sheep.

    PubMed

    2015-05-16

    Oxalate toxicity in sheep as a consequence of exposure to ethylene glycol. Chlamydophila abortus infection in a dairy cow. Neosporosis diagnosed in a newborn lamb with deformities. Yersiniosis affecting a 1000-strong goat herd. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome causing blue ears in 14-week-old pigs. Avian tuberculosis diagnosed in an adult Mandarin duck. These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for January and February 2015. PMID:25977491

  17. Dioxins, DL-PCB and NDL-PCB accumulation profiles in livers from sheep and cattle reared in North-western Italy.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, A; Brizio, P; Guaraldo, P; Stella, C; Cappa, C; Baioni, E; Spalenza, V; Nebbia, C; Abete, M C

    2016-06-01

    Products of animal origin represent the main route of human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-compounds). Recently, concerns have been raised about ovine products, particularly the liver, in which relatively high levels of DL-compounds have been reported. We surveyed ovine and bovine livers in areas with no known sources of dioxin or DL-PCB contamination, in order to assess accumulation patterns for both DL-compounds and non-DL (NDL-) PCBs. None of the ovine and bovine samples exceeded the current Maximum Limits (MLs) for DL-compounds. Liver DL-compound TEQ concentrations were up to 5-fold higher in sheep than in cows. No statistically significant differences in total NDL-PCBs levels were found. The main contributors to TEQ levels were the Penta- and Hexa-chlorinated PCDFs and PCB 126. The results confirm the increased bioaccumulation in ovine liver towards specific DL-compounds even in ewes reared in areas with no known sources of PCDD/Fs or DL-PCBs contamination. PMID:26963240

  18. Pasture management for sheep and goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant producers in Appalachia have many questions about forage management. Forage management decisions need to be keyed to the specific needs of the small ruminant t species to be grazed. Sheep and goats are different from each other and both are very different from cattle. Important con...

  19. Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of glucocorticoid residues in edible tissues of swine, cattle, sheep, and chicken.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhaoying; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2010-10-01

    A confirmatory and quantitative method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine the presence of eight glucocorticoids (prednisone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, betamethasone, beclomethasone, and fludrocortisone) in the muscles and livers of swine, cattle, and sheep and the muscle of chicken is described. After deconjugation in alkali media, samples were extracted with ethyl acetate for glucocorticoids followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up and reconstitution in the LC mobile phase. The hydrolysis procedure with sodium hydroxide was used to reduce handling time. A single-step solid-phase extraction method was optimized which is suitable for the clean-up of the compounds of interest in many diverse tissue matrices. LC separations were performed on a C(18) column with gradient elution using acetonitrile and water (containing 0.2% formic acid) and the two epimers betamethasone and dexamethasone were successfully separated. LC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS in negative mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was performed to improve method sensitivity and reduce matrix interference. Two SRM transitions were used for each compound. The recovery of glucocorticoids spiked at levels of 0.5-16 microg kg(-1) ranged from 55% to 107%; the between-day relative standard deviations were no more than 15%. The limits of quantification were 0.5-2.0 microg kg(-1) in muscle and 1-4 microg kg(-1) in liver. The optimized procedure was successfully applied to monitor the food at the 2008 Summer Olympics Games in Beijing, China, demonstrating the method to be simple, fast, robust, and suitable for identification and quantification of glucocorticoids residues in foods of animal origin. PMID:20658401

  20. Fasciola hepatica: Specificity of a coproantigen ELISA test for diagnosis of fasciolosis in faecal samples from cattle and sheep concurrently infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidians and/or rumen flukes (paramphistomes), under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; McMahon, C; Cooper, M; Gordon, A; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-09-15

    Chronic fasciolosis is often diagnosed by faecal egg counting (FEC), following concentration of the eggs in the sample by a zinc sulphate floatation method. However, concentration by a sedimentation technique gives improved sensitivity. Interpretation of FEC results for fasciolosis is complicated by factors such as the long pre-patent period and irregular egg shedding. Thus, FEC reduction tests (FECRT), when used alone, are not completely reliable for diagnosis of anthelmintic susceptibility or resistance in local fluke populations, especially when parasite burdens are small. A Fasciola hepatica coproantigen ELISA test has been introduced which more accurately reflects the presence of flukes in the host bile ducts in late pre-patent infections, and absence of flukes following successful chemotherapeutic intervention. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the specificity of the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA technique, particularly regarding potential cross-reactivity with rumen fluke (paramphistome), gastrointestinal nematode and coccidian infections. The method involved parallel testing of a large battery of faecal samples from field-infected cattle and sheep using floatation and sedimentation FECs and coproantigen analysis. No evidence was found for significant false positivity in the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA due to paramphistome, coccidian and/or gastrointestinal nematode co-infections. With sedimentation FECs less than 10 F. hepatica eggs per gram (epg), the likelihood of a positive coproantigen result for the sample progressively decreased. Diagnosis of fasciolosis should be based on consideration of both FEC and coproantigen ELISA findings, to ensure optimum sensitivity for pre-patent and low-level infections. PMID:26234898

  1. Complete genome sequence of Peptoniphilus sp. strain ING2-D1G isolated from a mesophilic lab-scale completely stirred tank reactor utilizing maize silage in co-digestion with pig and cattle manure for biomethanation.

    PubMed

    Tomazetto, Geizecler; Hahnke, Sarah; Maus, Irena; Wibberg, Daniel; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas; Klocke, Michael

    2014-12-20

    The bacterium Peptoniphilus sp. strain ING2-D1G (DSM 28672), a mesophilic and obligate anaerobic bacterium belonging to the order Clostridiales was isolated from a biogas-producing lab-scale completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) optimized for anaerobic digestion of maize silage in co-fermentation with pig and cattle manure. In this study, the whole genome sequence of Peptoniphilus sp. strain ING2-D1G, a new isolate potentially involved in protein breakdown and acidogenesis during biomass degradation, is reported. The chromosome of this strain is 1.6Mb in size and encodes genes predicted to be involved in the production of acetate, lactate and butyrate specifying the acidogenic metabolism of the isolate. PMID:25242663

  2. Cases of parasitic pneumonia in Scottish cattle.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Parasitic pneumonia in cattleNutritional osteodystrophy in cattleWhite liver disease in lambsErysipelas in pigsLead poisoning and atherosclerosis in an eagle These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for October 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:26851101

  3. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel; Bøtner, Anette; Ponsart, Claire; Zientara, Stéphan; Lohse, Louise; Pozzi, Nathalie; Viarouge, Cyril; Sarradin, Pierre; Leroux-Barc, Céline; Riou, Mickael; Laloy, Eve; Breithaupt, Angele; Beer, Martin

    2013-10-25

    Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited. In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy. Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3-5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10-14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation. In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period. PMID:23972950

  4. Evaluation of Lactobacillus sobrius/L. amylovorus as a New Microbial Marker of Pig Manure▿

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Romain; Dabert, Patrick; Ziebal, Christine; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Based on a comparison of the dominant microbial populations in 17 pig manure samples and using a molecular typing method, we identified a species, Lactobacillus sobrius and Lactobacillus amylovorus (which now are considered a single species and are designated L. sobrius/amylovorus here), that was consistently found in manure. The aim of the present study was to confirm by real-time PCR the relevance of this species as a marker of pig fecal contamination. The specificity of L. sobrius/amylovorus was evaluated in human and animal DNA extracted from feces. The real-time PCR assay then was applied to water samples, including effluents from urban wastewater treatment plants, runoff water, and rivers. L. sobrius/amylovorus was consistently present in all samples of swine origin: 48 fecal samples, 18 from raw manure and 10 from biologically treated manure at mean concentrations of 7.2, 5.9, and 5.0 log10 cells/g, respectively. The species was not detected in any of the other livestock feces (38 samples from cattle and 16 from sheep), in the 27 human fecal samples, or in the 13 effluent samples from urban wastewater treatment plants. Finally, L. sobrius/amylovorus was not detected in runoff water contaminated by cattle slurry, but it was quantified at concentrations ranging from 3.7 to 6.5 log10 cells/100 ml in runoff water collected after pig manure was spread on soil. Among the stream water samples in which cultured Escherichia coli was detected, 23% tested positive for L. sobrius/amylovorus. The results of this study indicate that the quantification of L. sobrius/amylovorus using real-time PCR will be useful for identifying pig fecal contamination in surface waters. PMID:20038684

  5. Evaluation of Lactobacillus sobrius/L. amylovorus as a new microbial marker of pig manure.

    PubMed

    Marti, Romain; Dabert, Patrick; Ziebal, Christine; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2010-03-01

    Based on a comparison of the dominant microbial populations in 17 pig manure samples and using a molecular typing method, we identified a species, Lactobacillus sobrius and Lactobacillus amylovorus (which now are considered a single species and are designated L. sobrius/amylovorus here), that was consistently found in manure. The aim of the present study was to confirm by real-time PCR the relevance of this species as a marker of pig fecal contamination. The specificity of L. sobrius/amylovorus was evaluated in human and animal DNA extracted from feces. The real-time PCR assay then was applied to water samples, including effluents from urban wastewater treatment plants, runoff water, and rivers. L. sobrius/amylovorus was consistently present in all samples of swine origin: 48 fecal samples, 18 from raw manure and 10 from biologically treated manure at mean concentrations of 7.2, 5.9, and 5.0 log(10) cells/g, respectively. The species was not detected in any of the other livestock feces (38 samples from cattle and 16 from sheep), in the 27 human fecal samples, or in the 13 effluent samples from urban wastewater treatment plants. Finally, L. sobrius/amylovorus was not detected in runoff water contaminated by cattle slurry, but it was quantified at concentrations ranging from 3.7 to 6.5 log(10) cells/100 ml in runoff water collected after pig manure was spread on soil. Among the stream water samples in which cultured Escherichia coli was detected, 23% tested positive for L. sobrius/amylovorus. The results of this study indicate that the quantification of L. sobrius/amylovorus using real-time PCR will be useful for identifying pig fecal contamination in surface waters. PMID:20038684

  6. The Prey Pathway: A Regional History of Cattle (Bos taurus) and Pig (Sus scrofa) Domestication in the Northern Jordan Valley, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9th-8th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored. PMID:23405240

  7. Expressional Analysis of Immunoglobulin D in Cattle (Bos taurus), a Large Domesticated Ungulate

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Beilei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Ping; Wei, Zhiguo; Sun, Yi; Tao, Qiqing; Ren, Liming; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Guo, Ying; Fei, Jing; Zhang, Lei; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2012-01-01

    For decades, it has remained unknown whether artiodactyls, such as cattle, pigs, and sheep, express immunoglobulin D (IgD), although the δ gene was identified in these species nearly 10 years ago. By developing a mouse anti-bovine IgD heavy chain monoclonal antibody (13C2), we show that secreted bovine IgD was present mainly as a monomer in serum and was heavily glycosylated by N-linked saccharides. Nonetheless, IgD was detectable in some but not all of the Holstein cattle examined. Membrane-bound IgD was detected in the spleen by western blotting. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that IgD-positive B cells constituted a much lower percentage of B cells in the bovine spleen (∼6.8% of total B cells), jejunal Peyer's patches (∼0.8%), and peripheral blood leukocytes (∼1.2%) than in humans and mice. Furthermore, IgD-positive B cells were almost undetectable in bovine bone marrow and ileal Peyer's patches. We also demonstrated that the bovine δ gene can be expressed via class switch recombination. Accordingly, bovine δ germline transcription, which involves an Iδ exon and is highly homologous to Iμ, was confirmed. However, we could not identify an Iδ promoter, despite bovine Eμ demonstrating both enhancer and promoter activity. This study has answered a long-standing question in cattle B cell biology and significantly contributes to our understanding of B cell development in this species. PMID:23028592

  8. Choosing appropriate space allowances for slaughter pigs transported by road: a review.

    PubMed

    Warriss, P D

    1998-04-25

    In the United Kingdom pigs can spend up to 11 hours in transit to slaughter but on average travel for two to three hours. In the past, international journeys have lasted up to 40 hours and have been over 900 miles long. There is evidence that pigs, like calves and sheep, but unlike adult cattle, prefer to lie down if provided with suitable conditions, particularly bedding, on the vehicle. They will, however, sometimes stand during short journeys, possibly when excessive vibration or uncomfortable flooring, particularly a lack of sufficient bedding, cause discomfort. Current UK legislation and EU Directive 95/29/EC specify that, in general, pigs must have sufficient space to lie down during transit. Measurements of the space needed for sternal recumbency, and direct observations of pigs at different stocking densities, suggest that the minimum space required is equivalent to about 250 kg/m2 for normal slaughter pigs of 90 to 100 kg liveweight. This figure may not be appropriate for very small or very large pigs. In the UK at present, more than half of all slaughter pigs are transported at densities greater than that prescribed (235 kg/m2) in the EU Directive. At stocking densities above about 250 kg/m2 there may not be enough room available for all the pigs to lie down, leading to continual disturbance of recumbent animals by those seeking a place to rest. A stocking density of 322 kg/m2 leads to clear evidence of physical stress. During long journeys (> or = 25 hours) meat quality is reduced by high stocking densities, implying muscle glycogen depletion and possibly fatigue. Higher stocking densities are also associated with higher mortality. There is evidence of wide variations in air temperature inside transporters, particularly for international journeys. Although there are small variations within vehicles, the temperature of the air inside is closely related to the outside temperature. It has been recommended that the temperature within the vehicle should not

  9. Validation of an Anaplasma marginale cELISA for use in the diagnosis of A. ovis infections in domestic sheep and Anaplasma spp. in wild ungulates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commercially available cELISA kit for diagnosing Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle was validated for diagnosing A. ovis infection in sheep using bovine serum controls as supplied by the manufacturer (BcELISA) and sheep serum controls from hand-raised pathogen free sheep (OcELISA). ROC analy...

  10. Prevalence of bovine virus diarrhoea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis antibodies in Nigerian sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Taylor, W P; Okeke, A N; Shidali, N N

    1977-08-01

    Neutralising antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus were commoner in Nigerian sheep than goats while precipitating antibodies offered an alternative but less reliable indicator of previous infection. In contrast, neutralising antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus were more common in goats than sheep. These findings are discussed in relation to infectivity rates in cattle and general husbandry practices. PMID:410130

  11. Solanum malacoxylon toxicity to pigs.

    PubMed

    Rucksan, B E; Wells, G A; Lewis, G

    1978-08-19

    Newly weaned pigs were given Solanum malacoxylon at dose rates of 0.2 and 1.0 g per kg body-weight per week for eight weeks. The Solanum malacoxylon was given either as an aqueous extract (SM) or as an aqueous extract incubated with fresh rumen liquor (SMLR). Tubulonephrosis, dose related in severity, was evident in all treated pigs and focal calcification in kidney and lung occurred in pigs receiving the higher dose rate. There was a marked hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia over the trial period; the latter feature was in contrast with the hyperphosphataemia produced in sheep. Incubation of SM with rumen liquor enhanced hypophosphataemia at both dose levels in the pig but its effect on serum calcium was equivocal. PMID:695263

  12. An autosomal genetic linkage map of the sheep genome

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, A.M.; Ede, A.J.; Pierson, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    We report the first extensive ovine genetic linkage map covering 2070 cM of the sheep genome. The map was generated from the linkage analysis of 246 polymorphic markers, in nine three-generation full-sib pedigrees, which make up the AgResearch International Mapping Flock. We have exploited many markers from cattle so that valuable comparisons between these two ruminant linkage maps can be made. The markers, used in the segregation analyses, comprised 86 anonymous microsatellite markers derived from the sheep genome, 126 anonymous microsatellites from cattle, one from deer, and 33 polymorphic markers of various types associated with known genes. The maximum number of informative meioses within the mapping flock was 22. The average number of informative meioses per marker was 140 (range 18-209). Linkage groups have been assigned to all 26 sheep autosomes. 102 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Toxicological and Pathological Review of Concurrent Occurrence of Nitrite Toxicity and Swine Fever in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Pritam Kaur; Mahajan, Vishal; Verma, Sunil; Ashuma; Gupta, Mohinder Partap

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plant associated nitrate/nitrite poisoning in buffalo, cattle, goat and sheep had been reported from various parts of the world. Horses and pigs are considered less susceptible to nitrate poisoning. In this study epidemiology of rare outbreak of nitrate poisoning in combination with classical swine fever in a small pig farm was investigated for development of strategies to control and prevent such incidents in future. Materials and Methods: Concurrent infection of nitrate toxicity and classical swine fever were recorded in district Nawanshahar, Punjab. Eight pigs suddenly fell sick and died 2 days after feeding barseem + oats and marriage waste food. Twelve pigs were sick exhibiting symptoms of anorexia, fever (104-105oF), depression, constipation followed by diarrhea, respiratory difficulty, tremors and staggering gait with recumbency in four completely off-feed pigs. Blotchy discolorations of the skin of extremities (ears and snout) were observed in three pigs. Results: Hematological examination revealed marked leucopenia. Postmortem examination revealed dark brown colored blood evident on opening the carcass and presence of barseem, oats in stomach and intestines. Lymph nodes were swollen and hemorrhagic. Serosal surface of spleen show various infarcts and button ulcers were recorded in cecum and colon, pathognomic lesion of classical swine fever. Nitrate toxicity was confirmed on the basis of quantitative determination of nitrate in the biological material of sick and dead animals. Fodder samples were (barseem + oats) positive for diphenylamine blue (DPB) test, Nitrate concentration in offended barseem and oats were found to be 2612 ppm and 3344 ppm as nitrate nitrogen (No3-N), respectively. Excessive amount of nitrate in stomach contents (924-1365 ppm), liver (22-48 ppm) and kidney (17-22 ppm) of dead animals (n = 8) confirmed that death of pigs was due to toxicity induced by nitrate/nitrite. Conclusion: The green fodder should be used cautiously

  14. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  15. Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic pigs in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Suzanne S; Crawshaw, Timothy R; Smith, Noel H; Palgrave, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), infects a wide range of wild and domestic mammals. Despite a control programme spanning decades, M. bovis infection levels in cattle in Great Britain (GB) have continued to rise over recent years. As the incidence of infection in cattle and wildlife may be linked to that in swine, data relating to infection of pigs identified at slaughter were examined in this study. Between 2007 and 2011, almost all M. bovis-infected pigs originated from farms in the South-West and West-Midland regions of England. The data suggest that pigs raised outdoors or on holdings with poor biosecurity may be more vulnerable to infection with M. bovis. In the majority of cases, the same strains of M. bovis were found in pigs and cattle, despite that fact that direct contact between these species was rarely observed. Genotyping and geographical mapping data indicated that some strains found in pigs may correlate better with those present in badgers, rather than cattle. In consequence, it is proposed that pigs may represent a useful sentinel for M. bovis infection in wildlife in GB. Given the potential implications of this infection for the pig industry, and for the on-going effort to control bovine TB, the importance of understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of M. bovis infection, as well as monitoring its prevalence, in pigs should not be underestimated. PMID:24095608

  16. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Ontario sheep flocks

    PubMed Central

    Waltner-Toews, David; Mondesire, Roy; Menzies, Paula

    1991-01-01

    In a random sample of 103 sheep farms in Ontario, 99% of the farms had some sheep serologically positive for Toxoplasma gondii, based on an enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The percent of sheep affected within farms ranged from 3.8% to 97.8%, with an average flock prevalence of 57.6%. When farm management variables were considered in a multivariate analysis, significantly lower rates of serologically positive sheep were associated with neutering of female cats and clipping of ewes' perineums before lambing; significantly higher prevalence rates were found on farms where sheep were purchased from other flocks, pigs were raised on the same farm, sheep shared pasture with other animals, flowing water was available at pasture, and pastured replacements had access to housing. As well, in univariate analyses, higher prevalence was positively associated with an increasing number of cat litters born over the previous two years and offering creep feed or forage to lambs, and inversely with the amount of labor expended on sheep rearing. PMID:17423914

  17. Chemotherapy of infection with Fasciola hepatica in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kendall, S B; Parfitt, J W

    1975-07-01

    Diamphenethide and a mixture of nitroxynil and hexachlorophane, which are effective against Fasciola hepatica in sheep, are effective in cattle if allowance is made for the slower rate of development and the more intense liver reaction which is associated with resistance. Adult parasites are mostly rejected around the time of maturity so that therapy in cattle must be directed against the early developmental stage using an appropriate drug. PMID:1146190

  18. Susceptibility of cattle to first-passage intracerebral inoculation with chronic wasting disease agent from white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare clinicopathological findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from white-tailed deer (CWD**wtd) with other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), prion diseases) that have been shown to be experimentally transmissible to cattle [sheep scr...

  19. Sheep Pox: Experimental Studies with a West African Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, A.; Bundza, A.; Myers, D. J.; Dulac, G. C.; Thomas, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    Under conditions of a maximum security laboratory, four cross-bred sheep were inoculated intradermally only or intradermally and intratracheally with a West African isolate of sheep pox virus. All sheep had increased temperature and depression by the fourth or fifth day after infection. Nasal and lacrimal discharge and coughing occurred in all sheep but were more severe in sheep receiving the virus via the tracheal route. From the fifth day after infection, numerous papular erythematous skin lesions developed at the inoculation sites. These were 3-7 mm in diameter and gradually became nodular. Some of these lesions healed and others coalesced to form tumorlike masses. In one sheep, euthanized 14 days after intradermal and intratracheal inoculation, nodular lesions were found in the skin around the eyes, nostrils, oral and perianal regions, the mucosa of the rumen and throughout the lungs. Histologically, skin nodules were characterized by ischemic necrosis, vasculitis, microvesicualtion, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions in the dermal epithelial cells and vacuolar nuclear degeneration. The pulmonary lesion was that of proliferative alveolitis with occasional cytoplasmic inclusions in the alveolar cells and macrophages. Ultrastructurally, large cuboidal virus particles were found both in the skin lesion and inoculated tissue cultures. The sheep pox virus structure was easily distinguished from contagious ecthyma virus, a parapoxvirus which causes sporadic disease in Canada. Serum neutralizing antibodies developed in all the sheep by 14 days postinfection. The clinical and pathological characteristics of experimental sheep pox produced with this West African isolate were similar to those caused by Neethling virus of lumpy skin disease in cattle. ImagesFigure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4., Figure 5., Figure 6.Figure 7., Figure 8., Figure 9., Figure 10.Figure 12.Figure 13. PMID:17422683

  20. Potential environmental consequences of administration of ectoparasiticides to sheep.

    PubMed

    Beynon, S A

    2012-09-30

    Sheep ectoparasiticides, which include the synthetic pyrethroids, the organophosphates, the 'insect'-growth regulators, the formamidines and the spinocyns, enter into the environment primarily through disposal of dip or fleece scours, as well as with contaminated faeces and urine. Due to the large quantities of spent dip, risks associated with environmental contamination are high. Synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphates pose risks to dung, soil and aquatic fauna; concerns over potential ecotoxicity to vertebrates and invertebrates have resulted in the cessation of their use in many countries. There is very little information regarding the ecotoxicity of 'insect'-growth regulators, formamidines or spinocyns, with no studies focussing on sheep. Here, the impact of sheep ectoparasiticides is discussed in terms of their potential to enter into the environment, their toxicity and their impact on ecosystem functioning. Where there are no data for excretion or toxicity of the ectoparasiticides used in sheep production, examples to demonstrate potential impacts are taken from laboratory ecotoxicity tests and the cattle literature, as well on work with foliar insecticides. Future research priorities are suggested to allow assessment of the environmental consequences of sheep ectoparasiticide treatments, which are essential for future sustainable sheep production. PMID:22538092

  1. Experimental Interspecies Transmission Studies of the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies to Cattle: Comparison to Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of animals include scrapie of sheep and goats; transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME); chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk and moose; and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle. Since the emergence of BSE and its pr...

  2. Breeding practices, growth, and carcass potential of fat-tailed Washera sheep breed in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, Tesfaye; Gizaw, Solomon; Lemma, Sisay; Taye, Mengistie

    2011-10-01

    On-farm survey of farmers' breeding practices, breeding objectives, and selection criteria and on-station feedlot performance evaluation of Washera sheep were undertaken in Ethiopia. The survey revealed that most (79.8%) of the farmers had no breeding ram. The mating system was predominantly uncontrolled. A majority (75.5%) of the sheep owners reported that they herded their sheep flock by mixing with other livestock species mainly with cattle. During grazing, 44.6% of the farmers mix their sheep flock with neighboring sheep flocks. The major sheep production objective was to generate income from the sale of live sheep. Fast growth, appearance, coat color, and pedigree performance were important ram selection criteria, respectively. Ability to breed at early age, pedigree information, mothering ability, and lambing interval were important selection criteria for ewe, respectively. The on-station performance study involved evaluation of feedlot gains and carcass production under five levels of feeding regimes (300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 g day(-1) of concentrate feed) for a period of 93 days. The results indicated that the feedlot growth and carcass performance of Washera sheep were very high, with average daily weight gains of up to 126 g and carcass weight of 16 kg, with the optimal level of supplementation for Washera sheep being at 500 g of concentrate per day for a period of 93 days. PMID:21523493

  3. Genetics of Prion Disease in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Brenda M; Murdoch, Gordon K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. As a transmissible disease of livestock, it has impacted food safety, production practices, global trade, and profitability. Genetic polymorphisms that alter the prion protein in humans and sheep are associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility or resistance. In contrast, there is no strong evidence that nonsynonymous mutations in the bovine prion gene (PRNP) are associated with classical BSE (C-BSE) disease susceptibility, though two bovine PRNP insertion/deletion polymorphisms, in the putative region, are associated with susceptibility to C-BSE. However, these associations do not explain the full extent of BSE susceptibility, and loci outside of PRNP appear to be associated with disease incidence in some cattle populations. This article provides a review of the current state of genetic knowledge regarding prion diseases in cattle. PMID:26462233

  4. Genetics of Prion Disease in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Brenda M.; Murdoch, Gordon K.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. As a transmissible disease of livestock, it has impacted food safety, production practices, global trade, and profitability. Genetic polymorphisms that alter the prion protein in humans and sheep are associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility or resistance. In contrast, there is no strong evidence that nonsynonymous mutations in the bovine prion gene (PRNP) are associated with classical BSE (C-BSE) disease susceptibility, though two bovine PRNP insertion/deletion polymorphisms, in the putative region, are associated with susceptibility to C-BSE. However, these associations do not explain the full extent of BSE susceptibility, and loci outside of PRNP appear to be associated with disease incidence in some cattle populations. This article provides a review of the current state of genetic knowledge regarding prion diseases in cattle. PMID:26462233

  5. The impact of infection with Schmallenberg virus on weaning rate in Irish sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Damien; O'Neill, Ronan; Sammin, Donal; Clegg, Tracy A; More, Simon J

    2015-12-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) disease emerged in Europe in 2011, with the virus initially identified in Germany, and the first confirmed case of SBV infection in Ireland diagnosed in a dairy calf in October 2012. SBV was subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR in 49 cattle herds and 39 sheep flocks. While these studies provide a good representation of the spatial distribution of SBV in Ireland, they do not quantify the impact of SBV on productivity. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of SBV on weaning rate in Irish sheep flocks, based on data reported by Irish sheep farmers, and to evaluate weaning rate in sheep flocks as an indicator to be used in emerging disease surveillance systems. A questionnaire on productivity and management practices in sheep flocks was developed to gather data from sheep farmers. Valid responses from 267 sheep farmers were received. Negative binomial regression indicated that flocks with a confirmed SBV diagnosis had a weaning rate 0.9 times that of flocks free of SBV. The 10% reduction in weaning rates as a result of SBV is a justifiable concern for farmers and should be considered in formulating flock breeding policy. This study shows the value of a production database as an indicator of an emerging disease and the economic impact of that disease in Irish sheep flocks. PMID:26547824

  6. Uterine leiomyoma in a sheep.

    PubMed

    Corpa, J M; Martínez, C M

    2010-08-01

    Leiomyomas are benign tumours, which are frequently found in animal species. However, the presence of leiomyomas in domestic ruminants has been rarely reported, especially in sheep. This report describes the pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of a leiomyoma in the uterine body of a sheep and discusses the different aetiological causes. This is the first description of a leiomyoma in sheep in Spain. PMID:19210663

  7. Maize 27 kDa gamma zein is a potential allergen for early weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean and maize are extensively used in animal feed, primarily in poultry, swine, and cattle diets. Soybean meal can affect pig performance in the first few weeks following weaning and elicit specific antibodies in weaned piglets. Though maize is a major component of pig feed it is not known if an...

  8. Haematologic alterations caused by Ipomoea carnea in experimental poisoning of guinea pig.

    PubMed

    García, Enrique N; Aguirre, María V; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Rios, Elvio E; Acosta, Ofelia C; Cholich, Luciana A

    2015-10-01

    Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae) causes poisoning of goats, sheep and cattle in many tropical and subtropical countries. The pathophysiology of this poisoning mainly involves an abnormal glycoprotein metabolism. The aim of this study was to describe the potential toxicity of I. carnea in a guinea pig model through its effect on hematopoiesis in a time course study of 40 days. Experimental poisoning was achieved by feeding animals with "small balls" prepared with milled leaves of I. carnea mixed with commercial crushed pellets for rodents. Hematologic and biochemical parameters, bone marrow and spleencellularities, histopathologic evaluations and lectin-histochemistrywere performed during the scheduled time of the study.The treatment with "small balls" caused significant changes in the weight of spleen, a notable decrease in peripheral red blood cells, and concomitantwith morphological and histopathologicalalterationsin hematopoietic tissues. Overall, the present study suggested that 20 days ofthis treatmentcouldbe enough to develop bone marrow hypoplasia and vacuolation of white cells of spleen, blood and lymph nodes with a transient erythropoietic contribution of the splenic niche.Moreover, this work provides a cheap and simple method for detecting preclinical cases of intoxication by I. carnea in livestock. PMID:26208869

  9. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  10. Experimental poisoning of guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) with Indigofera suffruticosa.

    PubMed

    Salvador, I S; Medeiros, R M T; Pessoa, C R M; Oliveira, D M; Duarte, A L A; Fighera, R A; Riet-Correa, F

    2011-05-01

    Indigofera suffruticosa causes hemolytic anemia and hemoglobinuria in cattle. The plant was administered to six groups of two guinea pigs each, at the daily dose of 10 g/kg body weight, for periods of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 15 days. The guinea pigs progressively developed reduced hematocrits and hemoglobin concentrations, and finally presented anemia, without hemoglobinuria. Urine passed by guinea pigs that had ingested the plant for more than 24 h acquired a turquoise blue pigmentation 8-10 h after urination. It is suggested that the anemia is caused by the aniline contained in I. suffruticosa. PMID:21396390

  11. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Roest, H I J; van der Hoek, W; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations. PMID:26315774

  12. The pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The greatest segment of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies that are specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental invest...

  13. Pruritus is a common feature in sheep infected with the BSE agent

    PubMed Central

    Konold, Timm; Bone, Gemma; Vidal-Diez, Alberto; Tortosa, Raul; Davis, Andrew; Dexter, Glenda; Hill, Peter; Jeffrey, Martin; Simmons, Marion M; Chaplin, Melanie J; Bellworthy, Susan J; Berthelin-Baker, Christine

    2008-01-01

    , affected genotype, dose, route of inoculation and whether BSE was passed into sheep from cattle or from other sheep, suggesting that the clinical phenotype of BSE is influenced by the TSE strain more than by other factors. The clinical phenotype of BSE in the genotypes and breed studied was indistinguishable from that described for classical scrapie cases. PMID:18445253

  14. OVINE HERPESVIRUS-2 GLYCOPROTEIN B SEQUENCES FROM TISSUES OF RUMINANT MALIGNANT CATARRHAL FEVER AND HEALTHY SHEEP ARE HIGHLY CONSERVED.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2) infection has been associated with malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in susceptible ruminants. In order to further investigate whether OHV-2 is an aetiological agent for sheep-associated (SA) MCF in cattle and bison, the entire sequences of OHV-2 glycoprotein B (gB) from di...

  15. Feeding preferences of experienced and naïve goats and sheep for the toxic plant Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant that grazing goats and cattle may learn to ingest with repeated exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding preferences of experienced and non-experienced (naïve) goats and sheep for I. carnea. The study used 3 groups of 5 goats (Group 1, experi...

  16. Can SHEEP prevent wildfires?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    yoder, M. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Wildfires have been shown to exhibit power law frequency-magnitude statistics with non-cumulative slope, or scaling exponent, b between approximately 1.3 < b < 2.0. Land management practice appear to have increased the rate of large fires (shallower slopes, smaller b values) in some regions. Ironically, aggressive wildfire suppression may be one of the most pernicious culprits. In order to study this problem, we present an agent based variation to the venerable Drossel-Schwabl forest-fire model. In addition to conventional fires, we introduce a number of simulated herbivorous endemic and environmental process (SHEEP) agents to the lattice. SHEEP fracture and trim large clusters to produce steeper frequency-size distributions of fuel clusters and model fires. We discuss the role of cluster shape, or fractal dimension, in the model, and we propose several interpretations of the SHEEP agent. Of particular interest, we discuss the effects of fire suppression as well as wildlife and livestock populations with respect to wildfire hazard.

  17. Serial passage of sheep scrapie inoculum in Suffolk sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. Susceptibility to the disease is partly dependent upon the genetic makeup of the host. In a recent study, it was shown that sheep intracerebrally inoculated with a US scrapie agent (No. 13-7) developed scrapie and s...

  18. 9 CFR 311.10 - Anaplasmosis, anthrax, babesiosis, bacillary hemoglobinuria in cattle, blackleg, bluetongue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anaplasmosis, anthrax, babesiosis, bacillary hemoglobinuria in cattle, blackleg, bluetongue, hemorrhagic septicemia, icterohematuria in sheep, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, leptospirosis, malignant epizootic catarrh, strangles, purpura hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious...

  19. Conditioned aversion induced by Baccharis coridifolia in sheep and cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Southern Brazil Baccharis coridifolia is an important toxic plant. The poisoning occurs when animals raised in areas without the plant are transported to, and allowed to graze in, pastures infested by B. coridifolia. Intoxication risk increases considerably when recently transported animals are s...

  20. A review of pig pathology in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard Trevor; Swai, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The approximately 1.58 million pigs in Tanzania represent 3.7% of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Pigs are kept mainly by small producers who own 99.5% of the national stock in units that average 3.04 animals (range 2-48). Government policy has had little practical application. African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Cysticercosis are important diseases. The first two are notifiable diseases under Tanzania legislation; the last has widespread distribution and relevance as a major zoonosis. Ascariasis (Ascaris suum), hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus), leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) and thermophilic Campylobacter are other zoonoses associated with pigs. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites, especially Sarcoptes scabiei, are common. Risk factors associated with cysticercosis for humans working with pigs or eating their meat include the free-range or semi-confined management systems, the use of rivers or ponds as a source of water, lack of household sanitation, informal home slaughter, pork not being inspected at slaughter slabs and undercooked and barbecued meat. Pigs are a minor component of Tanzania's livestock sector but there is potential for increasing their contribution to human welfare. Prospects are enhanced by the shorter life cycle, greater number of young produced per year and the possibility of producing high-quality animal protein at a lower cost than meat produced by cattle and small ruminants. PMID:23733144

  1. Scrapie resistance in ARQ sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation in the ovine prion protein amino acid sequence influences scrapie progression, with sheep homozygous for A**136 R**154 Q**171 considered susceptible. This study examined the association of survival time of scrapie-exposed ARQ sheep with variation elsewhere in ovine prion gene. Four single ...

  2. Scrapie resistance in ARQ sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of sheep to classical scrapie is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the ovine prion gene (PRNP), especially at amino acid residues 136, 154 and 171. Sheep with the A136R154R171 haplotype are considered resistant, while those homozygous for A136R154Q171 are susceptible. How...

  3. Simazine toxicosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Allender, W J; Glastonbury, J W

    1992-10-01

    A case of simazine toxicosis in sheep was investigated. Affected animals exhibited generalized muscle tremors which progressed to mild tetany followed by collapse of the hind legs. Other signs included a short prancing gait with head tucked in a similar manner to that of a show pony. Death occurred within 2 to 3 d of the appearance of clinical signs. Mild to acute myocardial degeneration was evident; the livers had mild to acute hepatic fatty change. The levels of simazine found in livers varied from less than 0.2 mg/kg to almost 2 mg/kg in the worst affected animals. PMID:1455610

  4. An outbreak of tuberculosis in Lleyn sheep in the UK associated with clinical signs.

    PubMed

    van der Burgt, G M; Drummond, F; Crawshaw, T; Morris, S

    2013-01-19

    This case report describes an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection a Lleyn sheep flock associated with clinical signs of illthrift. There was no known direct contact with tuberculous cattle although bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in the area. The spoligotype isolated from the diseased sheep was the local spoligotype. The repeated use of the comparative intradermal tuberculin test, and the subsequent removal of reactor animals, resulted in apparent elimination of bTB from the flock. Lesions caused by M bovis in sheep may contain very few acid-fast bacilli, and gross lesions may resemble those found in cases of Caseous Lymphadenitis. Routine meat inspection may, therefore, not always easily detect this notifiable disease. PMID:23118053

  5. Immunohistochemical distinction between preclinical bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Thuring, C M A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M; Vromans, M E W; van Zijderveld, F G; Sweeney, T

    2005-01-01

    Sheep are susceptible experimentally to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the clinical signs being indistinguishable from those of scrapie. Because of the possibility of natural ovine BSE infection, laboratory tests are needed to distinguish between scrapie and BSE infection. The objectives of this study were to determine whether (1) PrPSc accumulates in biopsy samples of the tonsil or third eyelid, or both, of BSE-infected sheep before the appearance of clinical disease, and (2) such samples from BSE- and scrapie-infected sheep differ in respect of PrPSc accumulations. Homozygous ARQ sheep (n = 10) were dosed orally at 4-5 months of age with a brain homogenate from BSE-infected cattle. Third eyelid and tonsillar biopsy samples were taken at < or = 6 monthly intervals post-infection and examined immunohistochemically for PrPSc. Third eyelid protuberances were difficult to identify, resulting in many unsuitable samples; however, third eyelid samples shown to contain lymphoid follicles were invariably negative for PrPSc. In contrast, tonsillar biopsy samples became positive for PrPSc from 11 to 20 months post-infection. Consistent differences in the morphology of PrPSc granules in tingible body macrophages (TBMs) between BSE- and scrapie-infected sheep were detected with anti-peptide antibodies directed towards amino acids 93-106 of the ovine prion protein: thus, PrPSc appeared as single granules in TBMs of tonsillar sections from BSE-infected sheep, whereas clusters of PrPSc granules were observed within TBMs in the tonsils of scrapie-infected sheep. In contrast, antibodies against epitopes situated N- and C-terminally from the 93-106 region of the ovine prion protein revealed no differences between BSE- and scrapie-infected sheep in terms of PrPSc granules in TBMs. PMID:15629480

  6. Experimental induction of malignant catarrhal fever in pigs with ovine herpesvirus 2 by intranasal nebulization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a frequently fatal herpesviral disease, has been sporadically reported in pigs. All cases of naturally-occurring porcine MCF reported to date have been linked to ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Macavirus carried by sheep. Experimental in...

  7. Brucellosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Animals that are most commonly infected include sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, and dogs, among others. Transmission How ... Veterinarians Host Animals for Brucella Species Vaccination of Cattle Exposure to RB51: Laboratory Setting Exposure to RB51: ...

  8. Pharmacokinetics of albendazole in sheep.

    PubMed

    Marriner, S E; Bogan, J A

    1980-07-01

    The concentrations of albendazole and its two major metabolites, the sulfoxide and sulfone, were measured in plasma and in ruminal and abomasal fluid of three sheep (surgically prepared with permanent ruminal and abomasal cannulae) orally given albendazole as a suspension at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg. Albendazole was not detectable in plasma at any time in one sheep (detection limit, 0.02 micrograms/ml) and in the other sheep, only transiently detectable. Albendazole sulfoxide was detectable in plasma and in abomasal fluid at mean peak concentrations of 3.2 and 26.2 micrograms/ml, respectively, 20 hours after administration. It is probable that much of the anthelmintic activity of albendazole in sheep is due to the metabolically formed sulfoxide and sulfone. PMID:7436109

  9. Evaluation of efficacy, potential for vector transmission and duration of immunity testing of MP-12, an attenuated Rift Valley fever virus vaccine candidate, in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes serious disease in ruminants and humans in Africa. There are currently no fully licensed vaccines for this arthropod-borne virus in the US. Studies in sheep and cattle have found an attenuated strain of RVFV, MP-12, to be both safe and efficacious, and a conditi...

  10. Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia pubiflora in sheep with non-toxic doses of the plant and ruminal content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amorimia pubiflora (Malpighiaceae), which contains sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA) is the main cause of “sudden death” in cattle in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. This research investigated the induction of resistance to the poisoning in sheep by the continuous administration of non-toxic doses ...

  11. Characterizing foraging patterns among cattle and bonded and non-bonded small ruminants using spatial point process techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two mixed-species livestock groups were monitored while foraging on 410 ha of brush-infested Southern New Mexico rangeland during July and August 1988. The groups consisted of crossbred Bos taurus and Bos indicus beef cattle with white-faced sheep (Ovis aries) and mohair goats (Capra hircus). The b...

  12. Characterizing foraging patterns among cattle and bonded and non- bonded small ruminants using spatial point process techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two mixed-species livestock groups were monitored while foraging on 410 ha of brush-infested Southern New Mexico rangeland during July and August 1988. The groups consisted of crossbred Bos taurus and Bos indicus beef cattle with white-faced sheep (Ovis aries) and mohair goats (Capra hircus). The b...

  13. A 2cM Genome-Wide Scan of European Holstein Cattle Affected by Classical BSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. Polymorphisms that alter the prion protein of sheep or humans have been associated with variations in transmissibl...

  14. A serosurvey for ruminant pestivirus exposure conducted using cattle sera collected for brucellosis surveillance in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of ruminant pestivirus are currently circulating in the United States (U.S.): Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 (predominant host cattle), Border disease virus (BDV) (predominant host sheep) and the Pronghorn virus (sporadically detected in wild ruminants). A third bovin...

  15. Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L.E.

    2013-01-01

    A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers’ perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n = 45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (≤50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to

  16. Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L E

    2013-11-01

    A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers' perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n=45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (≤50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to

  17. Detection of foot-and-mouth disease by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation in contact sheep without clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Callens, M; De Clercq, K; Gruia, M; Danes, M

    1998-05-01

    Summary Two non-vaccinated sheep were experimentally, infected with FMDV and one day later 4 other sheep were brought in contact. Although the contact sheep showed no clinical signs, serology indicated that all sheep became infected. Various secretion samples, taken over a period of at least one month, and various tissue samples were examined for the presence of FMDV by RT-PCR and by virus isolation. FMDV was most often found in saliva (mouth swabs), followed by nasal secretion and sera. Faecal material, wool and milk were less suitable. The period of detection with the highest frequency of positive isolations was between 2 to 4 days pi for the infected sheep and between 5 to 10 days pc for the contact animals. It was established that in subclinically infected sheep, with a very low amount of virus present, FMD viral RNA could be detected by a sensitive RT-PCR-ELISA although virus isolation and standard RT-PCR remained negative. Moreover there was some evidence of active spreading of FMDV from the contact sheep to two sentinel pigs. This indicates that serologically positive contact sheep without clinical signs may be considered as a danger for the transmission of FMDV. PMID:22077296

  18. Detection of foot-and-mouth disease by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation in contact sheep without clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Callens, M; De Clercq, K; Gruia, M; Danes, M

    1998-01-01

    Two non-vaccinated sheep were experimentally infected with FMDV and one day later 4 other sheep were brought in contact. Although the contact sheep showed no clinical signs, serology indicated that all sheep became infected. Various secretion samples, taken over a period of at least one month, and various tissue samples were examined for the presence of FMDV by RT-PCR and by virus isolation. FMDV was most often found in saliva (mouth swabs), followed by nasal secretion and sera. Faecal material, wool and milk were less suitable. The period of detection with the highest frequency of positive isolations was between 2 to 4 days pi for the infected sheep and between 5 to 10 days pc for the contact animals. It was established that in subclinically infected sheep, with a very low amount of virus present, FMD viral RNA could be detected by a sensitive RT-PCR-ELISA although virus isolation and standard RT-PCR remained negative. Moreover there was some evidence of active spreading of FMDV from the contact sheep to two sentinel pigs. This indicates that serologically positive contact sheep without clinical signs may be considered as a danger for the transmission of FMDV. PMID:9652065

  19. Sequence analysis of attachment gene of lumpy skin disease and sheep poxviruses.

    PubMed

    El-Kenawy, A A; El-Tholoth, M S

    2010-12-01

    In Egypt, protection of cattle against lumpy skin disease (LSD) was carried out using a sheep poxvirus (Kenyan strain) vaccination strategy. In the present study 15 skin nodules from LSD suspected cows and 5 scab samples from sheep pox (SP) suspected sheep were collected. Hyperimmune rabbit sera to Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV)/Ismailyia88 strain and sheep pox virus (SPV)/ Kenyan vaccinal strain were prepared. The causative agent in the collected samples was identified using immunoflourescence (IF) and immunoperoxidase techniques. Of the 15 skin nodules suspected of LSD, 10 showed a positive reaction and 3 out of 5 skin scabs suspected of sheeppox were found to be positive. An antigenic correlation between field skin isolate of LSDV, tissue culture adapted LSDV/Ismailyia88 strain, field skin isolate of SPV and SPV/Kenyan vaccinal strain was studied using prepared hyperimmune sera. Also, nucleotide sequence of the PCR amplified attachment gene fragments of field skin isolate of LSDV, tissue culture adapted LSDV/Ismailyia88 strain, field skin isolate of SPV and SPV /Kenyan vaccinal strain were compared. The results revealed that the four used viruses were antigenically identical. Sequence analysis indicated that field skin LSDV isolate is more related to tissue culture adapted LSDV/Ismailyia88 strain than to vaccinal SPV/ Kenyan strain and the skin isolate of SPV is more closely related to field skin isolate of LSDV than to SPV/Kenyan vaccinal strain. Thus, further study should be applied on the advantage of a LSD vaccine prepared from LSDV in protection of cattle against LSD compared to the commonly used sheep pox vaccine. PMID:21221919

  20. High prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus 'bovine genotype' in faecal samples from domestic pigs at a farm where bovine trichomonosis has not been reported for over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kai; Morin-Adeline, Victoria; Gilchrist, Katrina; Brown, Graeme; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-09-15

    Bovine venereal trichomonosis caused by the flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus is a notifiable disease in Australia. While, T. foetus is pathogenic in both cattle and cats, it has long been established that the same T. foetus colonises the stomach, caecum and nasal cavity of pigs without apparent clinical significance. Multi-locus genotyping grouped the non-pathogenic porcine T. foetus with the pathogenic 'bovine genotype', rather than with the 'feline genotype' T. foetus. Bovine trichomonosis is now uncommon due to wide-spread use of artificial insemination, however, whether T. foetus remains prevalent in pigs where bovine trichomonosis has been eradicated remains unknown. We surveyed faecal samples from pigs farmed in close proximity with T. foetus-negative cattle. The Modified Diamond's Medium assay used were 77.4% (24/31) positive for trichomonads and 64.50% (20/31) were T. foetus-positive based on real-time PCR and conventional PCR. An axenic reference strain of T. foetus, designated PIG30/1 was established. In addition, a novel trichomonad ITS rDNA, PIG12, closely related to sequences from Trichomitus spp is reported. Multi-locus genotyping at nine loci matched PIG30/1 to the 'bovine genotype' T. foetus. In conclusion, cross-species transmission of T. foetus between pigs and cows from environmental exposure of T. foetus-contaminated pig faeces is unlikely. Domestic T. foetus-positive pigs possess a negligible risk of a successful T. foetus transmission event to cattle. PMID:26315128

  1. Heart Xenograft Survival With Chimeric Pig Donors and Modest Immune Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Beschorner, William E.; Sudan, Debra L.; Radio, Stanley J.; Yang, Tianyu; Franco, Kenneth L.; Hill, Arthur C.; Shearon, C. Carson; Thompson, Scott C.; Dixon, Robert S.; Johnson, Noel D.; Kuszynski, Charles A.; Rubocki, Ronald J.; Lechtenberg, Kelly F.; Matamoros, Aurelio; Goertzen, Timothy C.; Fox, Ira J.; Langnas, Alan N.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the use of donor pigs with cellular chimerism for prevention of acute rejection with modest immune suppression. The clinical use of pig organ xenografts is currently precluded by severe acute rejection, which resists standard immune suppression. Summary Background Data For long-term survival of pig organ xenografts, immune suppression significantly greater than used with allografts would currently be necessary, leaving the recipient immune deficient and at increased risk for infections. Induction of immune tolerance and tissue accommodation could enhance xenograft survival but would lead to complications and frequent graft failure. Induction of cellular chimerism within the donor pigs, however, could accomplish these goals before transplantation, significantly reducing the risk. Methods Marrow cells from sheep were infused into fetal pigs. Heart xenografts from chimeric or nonchimeric pigs were transplanted heterotopically into recipient sheep, simultaneous with infusion of splenocytes. Posttransplant suppression consisted of cyclosporine and tapered corticosteroids, comparable with allotransplants. Results All of the control grafts (n = 12) were rejected by acute vascular rejection in 4 to 8 days. In contrast, only one episode of vascular rejection was observed in the experimental group (n = 13). Four experimental recipients had an episode of moderate diffuse cellular rejection (grade 3) and one had moderate focal cellular rejection (grade 2). Each episode responded to pulse steroids. Seven grafts showed no significant rejection. There was little evidence of immune deficiency, infection, or toxicity. Conclusions Acute vascular rejection was prevented in a large animal model without the need for severe immune suppression. PMID:12560785

  2. Sheep Production Occupations. Skills and Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabol, Joe

    This report summarizes the findings of a national study to determine what skills and competencies are needed by beginning employees on sheep ranches and farms, lamb feedlots, and in the sheep shearing industry. The research procedure, which involved determining from the sheep industry the competencies needed by beginning employees in the thirteen…

  3. Evaluation of the pathogenicity and virulence of three strains of Salmonella organisms in calves and pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective—Using swine as a host, to assess the pathogenicity and virulence of three strains of Salmonella capable of causing atypical salmonelloses in cattle. Animals—36 Holstein calves and 72 pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella spp. Procedures—Three new Salmonella disease phenotypes (proto...

  4. Nelson's big horn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) trample Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) burrow at a California wind energy facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Agha, Mickey; Delaney, David F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on interactions between Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and ungulates has focused exclusively on the effects of livestock grazing on tortoises and their habitat (Oldemeyer, 1994). For example, during a 1980 study in San Bernardino County, California, 164 desert tortoise burrows were assessed for vulnerability to trampling by domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Herds of grazing sheep damaged 10% and destroyed 4% of the burrows (Nicholson and Humphreys 1981). In addition, a juvenile desert tortoise was trapped and an adult male was blocked from entering a burrow due to trampling by domestic sheep. Another study found that domestic cattle (Bos taurus) trampled active desert tortoise burrows and vegetation surrounding burrows (Avery and Neibergs 1997). Trampling also has negative impacts on diversity of vegetation and intershrub soil crusts in the desert southwest (Webb and Stielstra 1979). Trampling of important food plants and overgrazing has the potential to create competition between desert tortoises and domestic livestock (Berry 1978; Coombs 1979; Webb and Stielstra 1979).

  5. A spatial risk assessment of bighorn sheep extirpation by grazing domestic sheep on public lands.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep. PMID:24507886

  6. Cleaning pipelines: a pigging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Kipin, P.

    1985-02-04

    The ''pig'', a cleaning device currently used to clear out pipes, is discussed here. Types of pigs are described and include styrofoam, rubber, and soft foam. The limitations to the use of pigs are discussed. Unless all valves are fully open, a pig can get stuck. Ball-type tees may cause a short pig to drop and bypass. Generally, no pig is able to traverse a one-cut miter.

  7. Genetic Identification of Orientobilharzia turkestanicum from Sheep Isolates in Iran

    PubMed Central

    TABARIPOUR, Reza; YOUSSEFI, Mohammad Reza; TABARIPOUR, Rabeeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adult worms of Orientobilharzia turkestanicum live in the portal veins, or intestinal veins of cattle, sheep, goat and many other mammals causing orientobilharziasis. Orientobilharziasis causes significant economic losses to livestock industry of Iran. However, there is limited information about genotypes of O. turkestanicum in Iran. Methods: In this study, 30 isolates of O. turkestanicum obtained from sheep were characterized by sequencing mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene. The mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then sequenced and compared with O. turkestanicum and that of other members of the Schistosomatidae available in Gen-Bank™. Results: Phylogenetic relationships between them were re-constructed using the maximum parsimony method. Phylogenetic analyses done in present study placed O. turkestanicum within the Schistosoma genus, and indicates that O. turkestanicum was phylogenetically closer to the African schistosome group than to the Asian schistosome group. Conclusion: Comparison of nad1 and cox1 sequences of O. turkestanicum obtained in this study with corresponding sequences available in Genbank™ revealed some sequence variations and provided evidence for presence of microvarients in Iran. PMID:25904947

  8. Intensive sheep and beef production from pasture--a New Zealand perspective of concerns, opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Morris, S T; Kenyon, P R

    2014-11-01

    This paper details current production trends for sheep and beef cattle production in New Zealand and gives some insight into the opportunities for improvement based on New Zealand research at Massey University. Further it outlines some of the challenges the industries face in the near future. The New Zealand climate favours pasture growth and this is the key to sheep and beef cattle production with over 95% of the diet being grazed pasture or crop. Exports are the focus of the industry with 95% of sheep meat and wool, and 80% of beef exported. There have been considerable gains in production over the last 20 years but there still remains a huge opportunity for further intensification through breeding sheep at an earlier age, increasing the weight of lambs weaned per ewe per year and improving beef production systems. These improvements need to occur within a framework of minimal environmental footprint and produce products that are in demand in the high end international markets. PMID:24998778

  9. Number Crunching: A Sheep's Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Chris Lam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about an allegorical tale which he has written as a message for teachers of mathematics. The story is about Gordon, who led a flock of small sheep. Gordon was a mathematics genius; however, his flock criticized his teaching of numbers and his boring lectures. His furry-god-farmer advised him to share his…

  10. Acute selenium toxicosis in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Blodgett, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The toxicity, toxicokinetics, and progressive pathological changes produced by sodium selenite in sheep following parenteral administration were evaluated. In the intramuscular study, the LD/sub 50/ for sodium selenite was 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight. In the continuous intravenous infusion study, a gradient of tissue selenium/kg body weight with a standard error of 0.035 over a 192 hour observation period. The most evident clinical signs were dyspnea and depression . At necropsy, the most consistent lesions were edematous lungs and pale mottled hearts. Highest tissue selenium concentrations in declining order were found in the liver, kidney, and heart. Four sheep injected intravenously with 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight survived the 192 hour post-injection observation period. Semilogarithmic plots of blood selenium concentration versus time were triphasic. The ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. rate constants of sheep administered a single dose of selenium intravenously were significantly greater than those obtained when sheep were injected intramuscularly with 0.7 mg selenium concentrations was attained with 4, 8, and 12 hour infusions at steady state concentrations of 2500, 3000, and 3500 ppb selenium in the blood. The heart was the target organ of acute selenium toxicosis. A dose-response relationship was observed in the heart with degeneration evident in all hearts and necrosis present in the 2 hearts with the highest concentrations of selenium.