Science.gov

Sample records for causation market transition

  1. Cumulative Causation, Market Transition, and Emigration from China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David; Zhuang, Guotu; Ye, Wenzhen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report findings from a recent survey of international migration from China's Fujian province to the United States. We take advantage of the ethnosurvey approach as used in the Mexican Migration Project. Surveys were done in migrant-sending communities in China as well as in destination communities of New York City. We derive hypotheses from two strands of recent studies-the international migration literature and the market transition debate. Our results are in general consistent with hypotheses derived from cumulative causation of migration. However, because of the geographical location of China as compared to Mexico, there are some differences between the two countries in terms of particular migration patterns to the United States. As expected, at the community level, migration prevalence ratio (measuring migration networks) increases the propensity of migration for other members in the community. In contrast, having a household member migrated previously does not increase the propensity of migration of other household members until debt for previous migration is paid off. Our research clearly demonstrates the value of bringing the case of China into the comparative study of international migration. With respect to market transition theory, we find that political power continues to be an important factor in the order of social stratification in the coastal Fujian province. PMID:19569396

  2. Three essays on price dynamics and causations among energy markets and macroeconomic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sung Wook

    This dissertation examines three important issues in energy markets: price dynamics, information flow, and structural change. We discuss each issue in detail, building empirical time series models, analyzing the results, and interpreting the findings. First, we examine the contemporaneous interdependencies and information flows among crude oil, natural gas, and electricity prices in the United States (US) through the multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) model, Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) for contemporaneous causal structures and Bernanke factorization for price dynamic processes. Test results show that the DAG from residuals of out-of-sample-forecast is consistent with the DAG from residuals of within-sample-fit. The result supports innovation accounting analysis based on DAGs using residuals of out-of-sample-forecast. Second, we look at the effects of the federal fund rate and/or WTI crude oil price shock on US macroeconomic and financial indicators by using a Factor Augmented Vector Autoregression (FAVAR) model and a graphical model without any deductive assumption. The results show that, in contemporaneous time, the federal fund rate shock is exogenous as the identifying assumption in the Vector Autoregression (VAR) framework of the monetary shock transmission mechanism, whereas the WTI crude oil price return is not exogenous. Third, we examine price dynamics and contemporaneous causality among the price returns of WTI crude oil, gasoline, corn, and the S&P 500. We look for structural break points and then build an econometric model to find the consistent sub-periods having stable parameters in a given VAR framework and to explain recent movements and interdependency among returns. We found strong evidence of two structural breaks and contemporaneous causal relationships among the residuals, but also significant differences between contemporaneous causal structures for each sub-period.

  3. Representing Causation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics model, which is based on L. Talmy's (1988) theory of force dynamics, characterizes causation as a pattern of forces and a position vector. In contrast to counterfactual and probabilistic models, the dynamics model naturally distinguishes between different cause-related concepts and explains the induction of causal relationships from…

  4. Narratives about Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…

  5. Essays on Neighborhood Transition and Housing Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Marcus D.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation presents new evidence on neighborhood transition and its impact on housing markets using a novel micro-level dataset on housing transactions. It focuses on three issues: the neighborhood effect, housing discrimination, and stable integration. The first essay examines the relationship between increased minority composition and…

  6. Youth Unemployment and Labour Market Transitions in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audas, Rick; Berde, Eva; Dolton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment and labour market adjustment have featured prominently in the problems of transitional economies. However, the position of young people and their transitions from school to work in these new market economies has been virtually ignored. This paper examines a new large longitudinal data set relating to young people in Hungary over the…

  7. Market Transition and Gender Gap in Earnings in Urban China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shu, Xiaoling; Bian, Yanjie

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of city-level data and national household surveys in urban China, 1988 and 1995, found no longitudinal change nor city-level variation in the gender gap in earnings. However, during this period of market transition, the gender gap in more-marketized cities became more attributable to market-related mechanisms (education and occupation)…

  8. Causative Constructions in Nepali.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horie, Kaoru

    Causative constructions have been observed to have an iconic relationship between form and meaning. In Nepali, the citation form of a verb ends in "-nu." By inserting the morpheme "-au" before "-nu," one can change the verbs into corresponding causative verbs. In addition, Nepali has several causative verbs that form periphrastic causative…

  9. Transit Economy Market Challenge and University Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiulis, Algirdas Vaclovas

    2003-01-01

    In an ever-changing labour market, university tries to make efforts to estimate the free labour market demands for university graduates. The strength of Engineering Education lies in the range and depth of fundamental knowledge the students acquire during their studies, but the abilities like: taking risk, taking initiative, teamwork,…

  10. Developing Graduate Marketing Programs for Economies in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadraba, Petr G.; O'Keefe, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes some of the authors' experiences in introducing marketing concepts to students involved in the transition from planned to market economies. It addresses critical issues involved in the translation of these concepts within languages that often have no words that are synonymous with these terms. The authors discuss methods…

  11. Teaching Marketing in a Transition Economy: Some Personal Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Brent

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the challenges faced when delivering a marketing course to international students in general, the challenges are compounded when the students have little interest in the subject and the students are located in a country in transition. This study examines the experiences of the author in teaching marketing theory to first-year…

  12. [On the origin of Yersinia pestis, a causative agent of the plague: A concept of population-genetic macroevolution in transitive environment].

    PubMed

    Suntsov, V V

    2015-01-01

    An ecological scenario is proposed for the origin of causative agent of the plague (the bacterium Yersenia pestis) from the clone of pseudotuberculous microbe of the first serotype Y. pseudotuberculosis O:1b. Disclosed are the conditions of gradual intrusion of psychrophile saprozoonosis ancestor into the blood of the primary host, Mongolian tarbagan marmot Marmota sibirica. As an inductor of speciation acted the Sartan cooling that occurred in the end of late Pleistocene under conditions of arid ultra-continental climate in Central Asia. Soil freezing down to the level of hibernating chambers in marmot burrows initiated the transition of marmot flea, Oropsylla silantiewi, larvae to optional hemophagy on the mucous coat inside the mouth cavity of sleeping marmots. In its turn, this promoted the conditions of mass traumatic intrusion of Y pseudotuberculosis into marmots bloodstream from faecal particles getting in their mouth cavity in course of building up a plug in a burrow for hibernating. In marmot populations, the selection of bacteria underwent under conditions of heterothermy with repeated changes of hibernating marmots body temperature within the range of 5-37 degrees C (torpor-euthermy). During the warm season, when pseudotuberculous microbes are totally eliminated from the bloodstream of healthy marmots with body temperature about 37 degrees C, bacteria could survive in fleas' digestive tract in the form of biofilm developing in proventriculus as a so called blockage. Final isolation between ancestral and daughter species was helped by the development of intrapopulation antagonism related with the beginning of full-scale synthesis of bacteriocin pesticin. Population-genetic processes in the "marmot-flea" system have led to a macroevolutionary event, that is, to passage of bacteria in a new ecological niche and adaptive zone that are principally different from those of the ancestor. All the present intraspecies forms of Y. pestis that appeared due to

  13. The carbon-consuming home: residential markets and energy transitions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Home heating and lighting markets have played crucial and underappreciated roles in driving energy transitions. When historians have studied the adoption of fossil fuels, they have often privileged industrial actors, markets, and technologies. My analysis of the factors that stimulated the adoption of anthracite coal and petroleum during the nineteenth century reveals that homes shaped how, when, and why Americans began to use fossil fuel energy. Moreover, a brief survey of other fossil fuel transitions shows that heating and lighting markets have been critical drivers in other times and places. Reassessing the historical patterns of energy transitions offers a revised understanding of the past for historians and suggests a new set of options for policymakers seeking to encourage the use of renewable energy in the future. PMID:22213886

  14. Model of Learning for Career and Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan; Bimrose, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The study, upon which this special issue focuses, used narrative interviews to investigate how learning can support workers' transitions in the labour market in five European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and Spain). The five countries were chosen to represent very different contexts in the way learning can support career and…

  15. Learning about the Importance of Education for Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; De Botton, Lena

    2014-01-01

    This article centres on the importance given by individuals to the process of education in labour market transitions and how they manage to overcome obstacles to achieve their goals. Many of the stories in the Spanish research were transformative and innovative despite the context of high levels of unemployment in Spain due to the global economic…

  16. Job Search, Search Intensity, and Labor Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloemen, Hans G.

    2005-01-01

    Job searches by both the unemployed and employed jobseekers are studied through an empirical structural job search model using a choice variable of search intensity. The resulting influence of search intensity on the labor market transitions is analyzed to give the estimation results of the search and the impact of the benefit level on the search…

  17. Partial information, market efficiency, and anomalous continuous phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Zheng, Wenzhi; Huang, Jiping

    2014-04-01

    It is a common belief in economics and social science that if there is more information available for agents to gather in a human system, the system can become more efficient. The belief can be easily understood according to the well-known efficient market hypothesis. In this work, we attempt to challenge this belief by investigating a complex adaptive system, which is modeled by a market-directed resource-allocation game with a directed random network. We conduct a series of controlled human experiments in the laboratory to show the reliability of the model design. As a result, we find that even under a small information concentration, the system can still almost reach the optimal (balanced) state. Furthermore, the ensemble average of the system’s fluctuation level goes through a continuous phase transition. This behavior means that in the second phase if too much information is shared among agents, the system’s stability will be harmed instead, which differs from the belief mentioned above. Also, at the transition point, the ensemble fluctuations of the fluctuation level remain at a low value. This phenomenon is in contrast to the textbook knowledge about continuous phase transitions in traditional physical systems, namely, fluctuations will rise abnormally around a transition point since the correlation length becomes infinite. Thus, this work is of potential value to a variety of fields, such as physics, economics, complexity science, and artificial intelligence.

  18. Using trading strategies to detect phase transitions in financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forró, Z.; Woodard, R.; Sornette, D.

    2015-04-01

    We show that the log-periodic power law singularity model (LPPLS), a mathematical embodiment of positive feedbacks between agents and of their hierarchical dynamical organization, has a significant predictive power in financial markets. We find that LPPLS-based strategies significantly outperform the randomized ones and that they are robust with respect to a large selection of assets and time periods. The dynamics of prices thus markedly deviate from randomness in certain pockets of predictability that can be associated with bubble market regimes. Our hybrid approach, marrying finance with the trading strategies, and critical phenomena with LPPLS, demonstrates that targeting information related to phase transitions enables the forecast of financial bubbles and crashes punctuating the dynamics of prices.

  19. Using trading strategies to detect phase transitions in financial markets.

    PubMed

    Forró, Z; Woodard, R; Sornette, D

    2015-04-01

    We show that the log-periodic power law singularity model (LPPLS), a mathematical embodiment of positive feedbacks between agents and of their hierarchical dynamical organization, has a significant predictive power in financial markets. We find that LPPLS-based strategies significantly outperform the randomized ones and that they are robust with respect to a large selection of assets and time periods. The dynamics of prices thus markedly deviate from randomness in certain pockets of predictability that can be associated with bubble market regimes. Our hybrid approach, marrying finance with the trading strategies, and critical phenomena with LPPLS, demonstrates that targeting information related to phase transitions enables the forecast of financial bubbles and crashes punctuating the dynamics of prices. PMID:25974543

  20. Healthcare transition managers make market exits easier for insurers.

    PubMed

    Resnick, L R

    1999-10-01

    Insurers have been struggling to meet and maintain their profit margins on the health insurance business they underwrite. As a result, many have exited or are contemplating exiting from the health insurance market. At the same time, managed care organizations are seeking ways to augment their enrollment base and satisfy investor expectations. Insurers that wish to transfer their health insurance business to other carriers and managed care organizations that are interested in accepting this business have turned to a new type of healthcare financing company--the healthcare transition manager--to facilitate the transaction. Part broker, part matchmaker, and part administrative coordinator, these companies make it possible for commercial insurers to exit the health insurance market without undue hardship to enrollees or the managed care plans that assume risk for their care. PMID:11066665

  1. Higher-order phase transitions on financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, A.; Kutner, R.; Perelló, J.; Masoliver, J.

    2010-08-01

    Statistical and thermodynamic properties of the anomalous multifractal structure of random interevent (or intertransaction) times were thoroughly studied by using the extended continuous-time random walk (CTRW) formalism of Montroll, Weiss, Scher, and Lax. Although this formalism is quite general (and can be applied to any interhuman communication with nontrivial priority), we consider it in the context of a financial market where heterogeneous agent activities can occur within a wide spectrum of time scales. As the main general consequence, we found (by additionally using the Saddle-Point Approximation) the scaling or power-dependent form of the partition function, Z(q'). It diverges for any negative scaling powers q' (which justifies the name anomalous) while for positive ones it shows the scaling with the general exponent τ(q'). This exponent is the nonanalytic (singular) or noninteger power of q', which is one of the pilar of higher-order phase transitions. In definition of the partition function we used the pausing-time distribution (PTD) as the central one, which takes the form of convolution (or superstatistics used, e.g. for describing turbulence as well as the financial market). Its integral kernel is given by the stretched exponential distribution (often used in disordered systems). This kernel extends both the exponential distribution assumed in the original version of the CTRW formalism (for description of the transient photocurrent measured in amorphous glassy material) as well as the Gaussian one sometimes used in this context (e.g. for diffusion of hydrogen in amorphous metals or for aging effects in glasses). Our most important finding is the third- and higher-order phase transitions, which can be roughly interpreted as transitions between the phase where high frequency trading is most visible and the phase defined by low frequency trading. The specific order of the phase transition directly depends upon the shape exponent α defining the stretched

  2. Two Causative Constructions in Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Dong-Ik

    1993-01-01

    Two types of causative constructions in Korean behave differently both syntactically and semantically. This paper presents the syntactic differences between syntactic causative constructions and morphological causative constructions in terms of merger process of argument structures, and in the Case assignment in the two constructions in terms of…

  3. Physics and Causation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfeld, Michael

    2010-10-01

    The paper makes a case for there being causation in the form of causal properties or causal structures in the domain of fundamental physics. That case is built in the first place on an interpretation of quantum theory in terms of state reductions so that there really are both entangled states and classical properties, GRW being the most elaborate physical proposal for such an interpretation. I then argue that the interpretation that goes back to Everett can also be read in a causal manner, the splitting of the world being conceivable as a causal process. Finally, I mention that the way in which general relativity theory conceives the metrical field opens up the way for a causal conception of the metrical properties as well.

  4. Labor market outcomes and the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Danziger, Sheldon; Ratner, David

    2010-01-01

    According to Sheldon Danziger and David Ratner, changes in the labor market over the past thirty-five years, such as labor-saving technological changes, increased globalization, declining unionization, and the failure of the minimum wage to keep up with inflation, have made it more difficult for young adults to attain the economic stability and self-sufficiency that are important markers of the transition to adulthood. Young men with no more than a high school degree have difficulty earning enough to support a family. Even though young women have achieved gains in earnings, employment, and schooling relative to men in recent decades, those without a college degree also struggle to achieve economic stability and self-sufficiency. The authors begin by describing trends in labor market outcomes for young adults-median annual earnings, the extent of low-wage work, employment rates, job instability, and the returns to education. Then they examine how these outcomes may contribute to delays in other markers of the transition to adulthood-completing an education, establishing independent living arrangements, and marrying and having children. They conclude that adverse changes in labor market outcomes are related to those delays but have not been shown to be the primary cause. Danziger and Ratner next consider several public policy reforms that might improve the economic outlook for young adults. They recommend policies that would increase the returns to work, especially for less-educated workers. They propose raising the federal minimum wage and adjusting it annually to maintain its value relative to the median wage. Expanding the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless low-wage workers, the authors say, could also raise the take-home pay of many young adult workers, with minimal adverse employment effects. New policies should also provide work opportunities for young adults who cannot find steady employment either because of poor economic conditions or because of physical

  5. Transitioning health care marketing into the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Rynne, T J

    1999-01-01

    With this issue, Marketing Health Services unveils an interview with an expert in health care marketing. As seen through the eyes of an industry leader, this regular feature identifies the cutting-edge developments, innovative approaches, and new ideas expected to significantly contribute to marketing in health care. In the first interview, Terrence J. Rynne, who, through his marketing consulting firm has served more than 600 hospitals nationwide, discusses the biggest trends in health care marketing and the top marketing approaches. PMID:10557749

  6. Contrasting Causatives: A Minimalist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubino Blanco, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores the mechanisms behind the linguistic expression of causation in English, Hiaki (Uto-Aztecan) and Spanish. Pylkkanen's (2002, 2008) analysis of causatives as dependent on the parameterization of the functional head v[subscript CAUSE] is chosen as a point of departure. The studies conducted in this dissertation confirm…

  7. Fluid convection, constraint and causation

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Complexity—nonlinear dynamics for my purposes in this essay—is rich with metaphysical and epistemological implications but is receiving sustained philosophical analysis only recently. I will explore some of the subtleties of causation and constraint in Rayleigh–Bénard convection as an example of a complex phenomenon, and extract some lessons for further philosophical reflection on top-down constraint and causation particularly with respect to causal foundationalism. PMID:23386955

  8. The Transition from Higher Education to the Labour Market: International Perspectives and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlert, Holger, Ed.; Cordier, Heidi, Ed.

    This book examines the transition from higher education to the labor market in 10 countries. Although the individual papers do not follow a rigid standard format, they all consider the following issues: (1) how the labor market for graduates is organized; (2) how vocational orientation is achieved in degree courses in individual countries; and (3)…

  9. Navigating Difficult Waters: Learning for Career and Labour Market Transitions. Research Paper No 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report analyses how learning supports labour market transitions and career changes of adult workers across five countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, France and Italy). To make the most of career and labour market opportunities, individuals have to rely on their own resources and their agency but also know how to navigate the institutional…

  10. Vocational Education and Training and Transitions into the Labour Market of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasching, Helga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to shed light on the following questions: to what extent are labour market policy measures accessible for women and men with ID (intellectual disabilities)? What is the reality of transition to employment for this target group? What is the success rate of women and men with ID accessing labour market policy measures…

  11. A Career and Learning Transitional Model for Those Experiencing Labour Market Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the learning and career transitions of those disadvantaged in the labour market has resulted in the development of a four-component model to enable disadvantaged groups to navigate learning and career transitions. The four components of the model include: the self-concept; learning and recognition; career and life planning;…

  12. Optimizing route-specific marketing strategies to increase public transit ridership. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.A.; Lede, N.W.

    1994-03-01

    The document reflects the responses of a portion of the university community in a large urban area regarding travel mode and marketing strategies. The regular, single occupant drivers who were questioned are likely representative of those who drive alone to work in the larger community. The findings from this analysis will provide background data for many upcoming projects in the community, including the employer trip reduction requirement (part of the Clean Air Act Amendment) and a university transit program under examination by the local transit authority. The findings can also be a beginning point for other activity centers, universities and marketing departments within transit agencies.

  13. Labor Market Outcomes and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sheldon; Ratner, David

    2010-01-01

    According to Sheldon Danziger and David Ratner, changes in the labor market over the past thirty-five years, such as labor-saving technological changes, increased globalization, declining unionization, and the failure of the minimum wage to keep up with inflation, have made it more difficult for young adults to attain the economic stability and…

  14. Improving energy efficiency: Strategies for supporting sustained market evolution in developing and transitioning countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents a framework for considering market-oriented strategies for improving energy efficiency that recognize the conditions of developing and transitioning countries, and the need to strengthen the effectiveness of market forces in delivering greater energy efficiency. It discusses policies that build markets in general, such as economic and energy pricing reforms that encourage competition and increase incentives for market actors to improve the efficiency of their energy use, and measures that reduce the barriers to energy efficiency in specific markets such that improvement evolves in a dynamic, lasting manner. The report emphasizes how different policies and measures support one another and can create a synergy in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In addressing this topic, it draws on the experience with market transformation energy efficiency programs in the US and other industrialized countries.

  15. Obstacle detectors for automated transit vehicles: A technoeconomic and market analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockerby, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    A search was conducted to identify the technical and economic characteristics of both NASA and nonNASA obstacle detectors. The findings, along with market information were compiled and analyzed for consideration by DOT and NASA in decisions about any future automated transit vehicle obstacle detector research, development, or applications project. Currently available obstacle detectors and systems under development are identified by type (sonic, capacitance, infrared/optical, guided radar, and probe contact) and compared with the three NASA devices selected as possible improvements or solutions to the problems in existing obstacle detection systems. Cost analyses and market forecasts individually for the AGT and AMTV markets are included.

  16. School-to-Work Transition in East Germany: Challenges of a Market Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabasch, Antje; Lakes, Richard D.

    2005-01-01

    This article explains factors of individualization, structure, post-industrialization, and unification related to school-to-work transitions of East German youth. We illuminate Beck's theory of risk and argue that in a market society young people are left to fend for themselves in career and technical education. Unemployment, particularly in the…

  17. The Early School Leavers: Initial Survey. Report and Summary Report. Youth Transition into the Labour Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain, William H.; Sharpe, Dennis B.

    The study of Youth Transition into the Labour Market (YTLM) began several years ago in the spring of 1987. The project consists of two parallel yet interrelated studies, one focusing on the full cohort of approximately 9000 Level III high school students in Newfoundland and Labrador at the end of the 1988-89 school year, and a second, which…

  18. Study of a Russian University's Organisational Culture in Transition from Planned to Market Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushnykh, Victor; Chemeris, Valeriy

    2006-01-01

    The transition from a planned centralist economy to a market economy over the last decade of the 20th century has presented Russian universities with many profound challenges. These challenges require universities to review and consider their organisational culture and deserve careful study. This paper describes the changes that have taken place…

  19. Youth Transition into the Labour Market. The Class of '89: Initial Survey of Level III (Grade 12) High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Dennis B.; Spain, William H.

    The Transition of Youth into the Labour Market is a developmental study of youth as they make the difficult transition into the labor market of Newfoundland and Labrador. The project consists of two parallel yet interrelated studies, one focusing on the full cohort of over 9000 Level III high school students at the end of the 1988-89 school year,…

  20. [Young rehabilitants in vocational training at the transition to the labour market].

    PubMed

    Reims, N; Gruber, S

    2014-12-01

    This study tackles the question, whether and to what extent labour market integration is achieved by young rehabilitants participating in an apprenticeship provided by the Federal Employment Agency. In order to identify salient determinants for the entry into as well as the sustainability of fi rst employment, event history analyses are applied. After a relatively short period, first integrated rehabilitants mostly fi nd unsubsidized employment. The entry into employment is determined by factors similar to those influencing the labour market transition of young adults without disabilities: higher educational achievements, a successfully completed apprenticeship at best within an establishment, high regional mobility and good structural conditions favour labour market integration. Furthermore, physically disabled graduates and those with shorter unemployment and sickness periods stay longer in fi rst employment than graduates showing other disabilities and those with longer periods in unemployment and sickness. PMID:25188207

  1. Transition from Exponential to Power Law Income Distributions in a Chaotic Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer-Lostao, Carmen; Lopez-Ruiz, Ricardo

    Economy is demanding new models, able to understand and predict the evolution of markets. To this respect, Econophysics offers models of markets as complex systems, that try to comprehend macro-, system-wide states of the economy from the interaction of many agents at micro-level. One of these models is the gas-like model for trading markets. This tries to predict money distributions in closed economies and quite simply, obtains the ones observed in real economies. However, it reveals technical hitches to explain the power law distribution, observed in individuals with high incomes. In this work, nonlinear dynamics is introduced in the gas-like model in an effort to overcomes these flaws. A particular chaotic dynamics is used to break the pairing symmetry of agents (i, j) ⇔ (j, i). The results demonstrate that a "chaotic gas-like model" can reproduce the Exponential and Power law distributions observed in real economies. Moreover, it controls the transition between them. This may give some insight of the micro-level causes that originate unfair distributions of money in a global society. Ultimately, the chaotic model makes obvious the inherent instability of asymmetric scenarios, where sinks of wealth appear and doom the market to extreme inequality.

  2. Children's rights and the MDGs: the right to health within Vietnam's transition towards a market economy.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Christian Salazar

    2006-01-01

    In Vietnam, the transition towards a market-based economy has contributed greatly to poverty reduction, but there are also signs of rising inequalities. This article discusses the consequences of internal and external economic liberalization on children's right to health. It describes how the right of the child to adequate health care is fulfilled in Vietnam and analyzes challenges health policy-makers face during the transition. Policy options are recommended, including increased public expenditures on health, introduction of health insurance, development of culturally sensitive health care programs for ethnic minority children and women, and negotiation of conditions for World Trade Organization (WTO) accession that do not jeopardize Vietnam's successes in implementation of the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs). PMID:17061770

  3. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  4. Social marketing as a tool to improve behavioral health services for underserved populations in transition countries.

    PubMed

    Szydlowski, Steven J; Chattopadhyay, Satya P; Babela, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Human development efforts continue to change the world and improve quality of life for humans. Without the struggle and drive to contemplate new ideas to improve society, the global community would be in a constant state of oppression. Although cultures and norms change as international boundaries are crossed, the universal goal is to improve standards of living to include behavioral health services for underserved populations. In recent times, pioneers and community groups have used social marketing as an instrument to change public perceptions and behaviors within societies. These efforts have transformed nations in the acceptance and understanding of community health and rehabilitation, education, service, and human rights. This article examines the justification for utilization of the concepts and tools of social marketing to bring about proactive behavior modification among segments of underserved populations. A section of this article provides an overview of the basics of social marketing for the benefit of makers of health policy in transition countries. Finally, the case of 2 underserved population segments in the Republic of Slovakia, a new member of the European Union (former socialist block member), is examined for possible implementation. PMID:15825815

  5. Abuse-deterrent formulations: transitioning the pharmaceutical market to improve public health and safety

    PubMed Central

    Worthy, Stacey L.; Barnes, Michael C.; Tarbell, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) as a method to reduce prescription drug abuse while ensuring access to vital medications for individuals with legitimate need; assesses the pros and cons of ADFs and the current state of ADF adoption in the market; and develops policy recommendations to transition the market to ADFs. Although abuse-deterrent technology is still in its nascent stages, ADFs have been proven to reduce prescription drug abuse and its consequences, and even an incremental reduction in abuse can have a significant impact on the nation by reducing the costly social, physical, mental, and public health problems resulting from abuse. Federal ADF policy does not reflect the urgency of the prescription drug abuse epidemic and does not go far enough toward changing the status quo. Policies must be implemented to encourage innovation and a market shift toward ADFs by ensuring any generic medication that references a branded ADF demonstrates that it does not have abuse-deterrent properties inferior to the branded ADF product. Policies must also require federal prescription drug benefit plans to cover ADFs to ensure consumers have access to such medications. PMID:25922655

  6. Top-down causation and social structures

    PubMed Central

    Elder-Vass, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Top-down causation has been implicit in many sociological accounts of social structure and its influence on social events, but the social sciences have struggled to provide a coherent account of top-down causation itself. This paper summarizes a critical realist view of causation and emergence, shows how it supports a plausible account of top-down causation and then applies this account to the social world. The argument is illustrated by an examination of the concept of a norm circle, a kind of social entity that, it is argued, is causally responsible for the influence of normative social institutions. Nevertheless, social entities are structured rather differently from ordinary material ones, with the result that the compositional level structure of reality implicit in the concept of top-down causation has some limitations in the social world. The paper closes by considering what might be involved in examining how top-down causation can be shown to be at work in the social domain. PMID:23386963

  7. Public transit 1997: Planning, management, marketing and new technology. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Partial Contents: Transit Service Design and Operation Practices in Western European Countries; Understanding Differences in Public Transit: Comparison of Boston and Toronto; Influence of the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority on Population and Employment Location; Integrated Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Transit and Land-Use Coordination Policies; Transit Friendliness Factor: Approach to Quantifying Transit Access Environment in a Transportation Planning Model; Pedestrian Access to Transit: Model of Walk Trips and Their Design and Urban Form Determinants Around Bay Area Rapid Transit Stations; Parking Supply Policy and Transit Use: Case Study of Atlanta, Georgia; Mobility Analysis of Transit Systems; Research on Customer Requirements for Transit Service Design and Delivery.

  8. Causation in the sciences: an inferentialist account.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Julian

    2012-12-01

    I present an alternative account of causation in the biomedical and social sciences according to which the meaning of causal claims is given by their inferential relations to other claims. Specifically, I will argue that causal claims are (typically) inferentially related to certain evidential claims as well as claims about explanation, prediction, intervention and responsibility. I explain in some detail what it means for a claim to be inferentially related to another and finally derive some implication of the proposed account for the epistemology, semantics and metaphysics of causation. PMID:22883394

  9. The Transition from University to the Labour Market for IT Graduates in the City of Cluj-Napoca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magdas, Ioana; Brad, Alexandru; Cristea, Daniela; Pop, Otilia Alexandra; Radu, Adina; Sicoe, Nicoleta

    2013-01-01

    The European Union is deeply concerned with how education responds to the needs of society. The purpose of this article is to analyze the transition from the University education to the labour market for the IT specialists in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. In order to achieve this, a survey was conducted among the recent graduates in the IT…

  10. Youth Transition into the Labour Market. Six Months after High School: Class of '89 Follow-Up Survey One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Dennis B.; Spain, William H.

    This developmental study focused on the process of youth as they make the difficult transition into the labor market of Newfoundland and Labrador. The project consists of two parallel yet interrelated studies, one focusing on the full cohort of over 9000 Level III high school students at the end of the 1988-89 school year, and a second, which…

  11. Labour Market Problems and Psychological Well-Being: A Panel Study of Canadian Youth in Transition from School to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnagel, Timothy F.; Krahn, Harvey

    1995-01-01

    Four-year panel survey data were used to examine the effects of well-being on school-to-work transition of Canadian youth. Such labor market problems as unemployment and underemployment had small, significant negative effects on self-esteem, depression, and powerlessness for high school graduates but not college graduates. Effects of education…

  12. Annual Transitions between Labour Market States for Young Australians. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddelmeyer, Hielke; Marks, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Much analysis of youth transitions focuses on the first year after education, or outcomes at a specific age. Such work looks, for example, at the effect of education on the likelihood of being employed or unemployed. This study takes a different angle by considering the effect of education on the persistence of labour market outcomes. For example,…

  13. Multiple Causation in Language Contact Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Brian D.

    Analysis of a specific language change--the loss of the Balkan infinitive--demonstrates the inadequacy of either a language-internal or a language-contact explanation in accounting for the change. A composite explanation, in which the infinitive-loss process is explained through multiple causation, seems more appropriate. Whithin the language,…

  14. Causation: the elusive grail of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Karhausen, L R

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the evolving concept of causation in epidemiology and its potential interaction with logic and scientific philosophy. Causes are contingent but the necessity which binds them to their effects relies on contrary-to-fact conditionals, i.e. conditional statements whose antecedent is false. Chance instead of determinism plays a growing role in science and, although rarely acknowledged yet, in epidemiology: causes are multiple and chancy; a prior event causes a subsequent event if the probability distribution of the subsequent event changes conditionally upon the probability of the prior event. There are no known sufficient causes in epidemiology. We merely observe tendencies toward sufficiency or tendencies toward necessity: cohort studies evaluate the first tendencies, and case-control studies the latter. In applied sciences, such as medicine and epidemiology, causes are intrinsically connected with goals and effective strategies: they are recipe which have a potential harmful or successful use; they are contrastive since they make a difference between circumstances in which they are present and those in which they are absent: causes do not explain event E but event E rather than even F. Causation is intrinsically linked with the notion of "what is pathological". Any definition of causation will inevitably collapse into the use made of epidemiologic methods. The progressive methodological sophistication of the last forty years is in perfect alignment with a gradual implicit overhaul of our concept of causation. PMID:11080970

  15. Socio-technical transition as a co-evolutionary process: Innovation and the role of niche markets in the transition to motor vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birky, Alicia K.

    2008-10-01

    Significant reductions in greenhouse emissions from personal transportation will require a transition to an alternative technology regime based on renewable energy sources. Two bodies of research, the quasi-evolutionary (QE) model and the multi-level perspective (MLP) assert that processes within niches play a fundamental role in such transitions. This research asks whether the description of transitions based on this niche hypothesis and its underlying assumptions is consistent with the historical U.S. transition to motor vehicles at the beginning of the 20th century. Unique to this dissertation is the combination of the perspective of the entrepreneur with co-evolutionary approaches to socio-technical transitions. This approach is augmented with concepts from the industry life-cycle model and with a taxonomy of mechanisms of learning. Using this analytic framework, I examine specifically the role of entrepreneurial behavior and processes within and among firms in the co-evolution of technologies and institutions during the transition to motor vehicles. I find that niche markets played an important role in the development of the technology, institutions, and the industry. However, I also find that the diffusion of the automobile is not consistent with the niche hypothesis in the following ways: (1) product improvements and cost reductions were not realized in niche markets, but were achieved simultaneously with diffusion into mass markets; (2) in addition to learning-by-doing and learning-by-interacting with users, knowledge spillovers and interacting with suppliers were critical in this process; (3) cost reductions were not automatic results of expanding markets, but rather arose from the strategies of entrepreneurs based on personal perspectives and values. This finding supports the use of a behavioral approach with a micro-focus in the analysis of socio-technical change. I also find that the emergence and diffusion of the motor vehicle can only be understood by

  16. Adverse blood transfusion outcomes: establishing causation.

    PubMed

    Isbister, James P; Shander, Aryeh; Spahn, Donat R; Erhard, Jochen; Farmer, Shannon L; Hofmann, Axel

    2011-04-01

    The transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) and other blood components is ingrained in modern medical practice. The rationale for administering transfusions is based on key assumptions that efficacy is established and risks are acceptable and minimized. Despite the cliché that, "the blood supply is safer than ever," data about risks and lack of efficacy of RBC transfusions in several clinical settings have steadily accumulated. Frequentist statisticians and clinicians demand evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs); however, causation for the recognized serious hazards of allogeneic transfusion has never been established in this manner. On the other hand, the preponderance of evidence implicating RBC transfusions in adverse clinical outcomes related to immunomodulation and the storage lesion comes from observational studies, and a broad and critical analysis to evaluate causation is overdue. It is suggested in several circumstances that this cannot wait for the design, execution, and conduct of rigorous RCTs. We begin by examining the nature and definition of causation with relevant examples from transfusion medicine. Deductive deterministic methods may be applied to most of the well-accepted and understood serious hazards of transfusion, with modified Koch's postulates being fulfilled in most circumstances. On the other hand, when several possible interacting risk factors exist and RBC transfusions are associated with adverse clinical outcomes, establishing causation requires inferential probabilistic methodology. In the latter circumstances, the case for RBC transfusions being causal for adverse clinical outcomes can be strengthened by applying modified Bradford Hill criteria to the plethora of existing observational studies. This being the case, a greater precautionary approach to RBC transfusion is necessary and equipoise that justifying RCTs may become problematic. PMID:21345639

  17. Active causation and the origin of meaning.

    PubMed

    van Hateren, J H

    2015-02-01

    Purpose and meaning are necessary concepts for understanding mind and culture, but appear to be absent from the physical world and are not part of the explanatory framework of the natural sciences. Understanding how meaning (in the broad sense of the term) could arise from a physical world has proven to be a tough problem. The basic scheme of Darwinian evolution produces adaptations that only represent apparent ("as if") goals and meaning. Here I use evolutionary models to show that a slight, evolvable extension of the basic scheme is sufficient to produce genuine goals. The extension, targeted modulation of mutation rate, is known to be generally present in biological cells and gives rise to two phenomena that are absent from the non-living world: intrinsic meaning and the ability to initiate goal-directed chains of causation (active causation). The extended scheme accomplishes this by utilizing randomness modulated by a feedback loop that is itself regulated by evolutionary pressure. The mechanism can be extended to behavioural variability as well and thus shows how freedom of behaviour is possible. A further extension to communication suggests that the active exchange of intrinsic meaning between organisms may be the origin of consciousness, which in combination with active causation can provide a physical basis for the phenomenon of free will. PMID:25056914

  18. Laws, causation and dynamics at different levels

    PubMed Central

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    I have two main aims. The first is general, and more philosophical (§2). The second is specific, and more closely related to physics (§§3 and 4). The first aim is to state my general views about laws and causation at different ‘levels’. The main task is to understand how the higher levels sustain notions of law and causation that ‘ride free’ of reductions to the lower level or levels. I endeavour to relate my views to those of other symposiasts. The second aim is to give a framework for describing dynamics at different levels, emphasizing how the various levels' dynamics can mesh or fail to mesh. This framework is essentially that of elementary dynamical systems theory. The main idea will be, for simplicity, to work with just two levels, dubbed ‘micro’ and ‘macro’, which are related by coarse-graining. I use this framework to describe, in part, the first four of Ellis' five types of top-down causation. PMID:23386965

  19. Forest Conversion, Agricultural Transitions and the Influence of Multi-scale Market Factors in Southwest Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordway, E.; Lambin, E.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The changing structure of demand for commodities associated with food security and energy has had a startling impact on land use change in tropical forests in recent decades. Yet, the composition of conversion in the Congo basin remains a major uncertainty, particularly with regards to the scale of drivers of change. Owing to rapid expansion of production globally and longstanding historical production locally in the Congo basin, oil palm offers a lens through which to evaluate local land use decisions across a spectrum of small- to large-scales of production as well as interactions with regional and global supply chains. We examined the effect of global commodity crop expansion on land use change in Southwest Cameroon using a mixed-methods approach to integrate remote sensing, field surveys and socioeconomic data. Southwest Cameroon (2.5 Mha) has a long history of large- and small-scale agriculture, ranging from mixed crop subsistence agriculture to large monocrop plantations of oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. Trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion and agricultural transitions were analyzed from 2000-2015 using satellite imagery. We used economic, demographic and field survey datasets to assess how regional and global market factors and local commodity crop decisions affect land use patterns. Our results show that oil palm is a major commodity crop expanding in this region, and that conversion is occurring primarily through expansion by medium-scale producers and local elites. Results also indicate that global and regional supply chain dynamics influence local land use decision making. This research contributes new information on land use patterns and dynamics in the Congo basin, an understudied region. More specifically, results from this research contribute information on recent trends of oil palm expansion in Cameroon that will be used in national land use planning strategies.

  20. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on transitions for individuals with disabilities contains nine papers discussing transition programs and issues. "Transition Issues for the 1990s," by Michael J. Ward and William D. Halloran, discusses self-determination, school responsibility for transition, continued educational engagement of at-risk students, and service…

  1. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  2. Temporal condensation and dynamic λ-transition within the complex network: an application to real-life market evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiliński, Mateusz; Szewczak, Bartłomiej; Gubiec, Tomasz; Kutner, Ryszard; Struzik, Zbigniew R.

    2015-02-01

    We fill a void in merging empirical and phenomenological characterisation of the dynamical phase transitions in complex networks by identifying and thoroughly characterising a triple sequence of such transitions on a real-life financial market. We extract and interpret the empirical, numerical, and analytical evidences for the existence of these dynamical phase transitions, by considering the medium size Frankfurt stock exchange (FSE), as a typical example of a financial market. By using the canonical object for the graph theory, i.e. the minimal spanning tree (MST) network, we observe: (i) the (initial) dynamical phase transition from equilibrium to non-equilibrium nucleation phase of the MST network, occurring at some critical time. Coalescence of edges on the FSE's transient leader (defined by its largest degree) is observed within the nucleation phase; (ii) subsequent acceleration of the process of nucleation and the emergence of the condensation phase (the second dynamical phase transition), forming a logarithmically diverging temporal λ-peak of the leader's degree at the second critical time; (iii) the third dynamical fragmentation phase transition (after passing the second critical time), where the λ-peak logarithmically relaxes over three quarters of the year, resulting in a few loosely connected sub-graphs. This λ-peak (comparable to that of the specific heat vs. temperature forming during the equilibrium continuous phase transition from the normal fluid I 4He to the superfluid II 4He) is considered as a prominent result of a non-equilibrium superstar-like superhub or a dragon-king's abrupt evolution over about two and a half year of market evolution. We capture and meticulously characterise a remarkable phenomenon in which a peripheral company becomes progressively promoted to become the dragon-king strongly dominating the complex network over an exceptionally long period of time containing the crash. Detailed analysis of the complete trio of the

  3. Events in the Grammar of Direct and Indirect Causation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecchiato, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the differences between two widespread types of causative constructions: the so called lexical causative as in Gianna opened the door or the corresponding Italian sentence Gianna ha aperto la porta, and the periphrastic causative, as in the Italian Gianna ha fatto aprire la porta (Gianna had the door opened/made the door…

  4. [Polvomaviruses as causative agents of diseases].

    PubMed

    Helanterä, Ilkka; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Lautenschlager, Irmeli; Hedman, Klaus; Auvinen, Eeva

    2016-01-01

    The number of polyomaviruses causing infections in humans is as high as thirteen. The BK and JC polyomaviruses and the diseases caused by them are best known. For the present, the Merkel cell polyomavirus is the only human polyomavirus considered to be a causative agent of cancer. Other disease associations of polyomaviruses are also subject to active research. All polyomavirus infections are usually harmless respiratory or intestinal infections of childhood. Polyomaviruses, remain in the body for the rest of life, i.e. they persist as part of the body microbiome. Upon weakening of cell-mediated immunity they can also become reactivated and cause clinical problems. PMID:27089617

  5. Causation, causal perception, and conservation laws.

    PubMed

    Twardy, Charles R; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2002-08-01

    We investigated the perception of causation via the ability to detect conservation violations in simple events. We showed that observers were sensitive to energy conservation violations in free-fall events. Furthermore, observers were sensitive to gradually perturbed energy dynamics in such events. However, they were more sensitive to the effect of decreasing gravity than to that of increasing gravity. Displays with decreasing gravity were the only displays in which the energy profile was dominated by (apparent) potential energy, leading to an asymmetric trajectory. PMID:12269302

  6. Occupational cervicobrachial disorder and its causative factors.

    PubMed

    Maeda, K

    1977-12-01

    Occupational cervicobrachial disorder often diagnosed as cervicobrachial syndrome, cervical syndrome, or thoracic outlet syndrome has been frequently noticed among workers of the offices and factories in Japan since about 1955. Based on the data of case reports and mass examinations, the prevalence and the causative factors of the disease are described. The factors provoking the disorder can be divided into two categories, i.e, the ways how the workers use the musculature and strain the nerous system and the conditions in which the job is organized into the work system and is controlled. Studies on bank note counting, copying-slips writing, machine sewing, and amplifier assembling work reveal that not only the high density of the task but also time factors such as long work spells and lack of voluntary rests are important in causation of the disorder. Results of health examinations of 117 female workers on a cigarette assembly line confirm a close relation between the clinical severity of the occupational disorder and the subjective complaints at work and at home. The manifestation of clinical symptoms depends on what kinds of the first category factors predominate, but the progress to severer cases is relevant to the work system hampering the recovery from chronic muscular and central fatigue. PMID:617655

  7. The Impact of Learning on Women's Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haasler, Simone R.

    2014-01-01

    Women play an increasingly important role in the labour market and as wage earners. Moreover, in many countries, young women have outperformed men in terms of educational attainment and qualification. Still, women's human capital investment does not pay off as it does for men as they are still significantly disadvantaged on the labour market.…

  8. Job-Transitions in the Administrative Labor Market in Higher Education: Some Methodological Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolansky, Bettie M.

    The question of whether the market for administrators is segmented by institutional types (i.e., region, affiliation, size, mission, and resource level) was investigated. One facet of the research was the applicability of segmentation theory to the occupational labor market for college managers. Principal data were provided by career histories of…

  9. A Theoretical Model of Segmented Youth Labor Markets and the School to Work Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrooman, John

    Recurring evidence that workers with similar skills do not necessarily earn the same wages led to the formulation of an alternative to the conventional market theory, namely, the segmented market theory. This theory posits that certain skills are distributed not among prospective employees but among jobs, in relation to the technology of those…

  10. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)

  11. Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandy, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on transition from school to adult life for persons with disabilities. Included are "success stories," brief program descriptions, and a list of resources. Individual articles include the following titles and authors: "Transition: An Energizing Concept" (Paul Bates); "Transition Issues for the 1990s" (William Halloran…

  12. Management of busbar costs and spending tradeoffs for the transition to competitive markets in electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Corio, M.R.; Boyd, G.

    1995-09-01

    Competition is changing the fundamental basis for doing business in the electricity generation market. As the market moves toward competitive market conditions, electricity will be viewed increasingly as a commodity--not only supplied to customers within a utility`s service area, but brokered and marketed outside its area as well. With movement toward retail wheeling being considered in California, Michigan, and New York, it may soon become a reality as well. This means that a utility can no longer feel secure as the monopoly supplier of electricity within its own franchise area. To remain the main supplier in its current service area and compete for customers in other service areas, utilities will need to understand and examine all the components of ``busbar costs`` at its generating units. As competition drives the market to marginal costs, generating units with costs exceeding the market clearing price for electricity may soon have a limited role in the generation market. As the industry evolves, competition in the marketplace will force uneconomic plants to reduce costs or go out of business. This paper discusses results of studies addressing the evaluation of cost effectiveness, benchmarking of cost-efficiency, and development of marginal cost curves for busbar costs based on the development and aggregation of the three key measures which determine the cost and level of output (generation): (1) reliability; (2) heat rate; and (3) planned outage factor.

  13. Self-organization and phase transition in financial markets with multiple choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Li-Xin; Xu, Wen-Juan; Huang, Ping; Qiu, Tian; He, Yun-Xin; Zhong, Chen-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Market confidence is essential for successful investing. By incorporating multi-market into the evolutionary minority game, we investigate the effects of investor beliefs on the evolution of collective behaviors and asset prices. It is found that the roles of market confidence are closely related to whether or not there exists another market. When there exists another investment opportunity, different market confidence may lead to the same price fluctuations and the same investment attainment. There are two feedback effects. Being overly optimistic about a particular asset makes an investor become insensitive to losses. A delayed strategy adjustment leads to a decline in wealth and one's runaway from the market. The withdrawal of the agents results in the optimization of the strategy distributions and an increase in wealth. Being overly pessimistic about a particular asset makes an investor over-sensitive to losses. One's too frequent strategy adjustment leads to a decline in wealth. The withdrawal of the agents results in the improvement of the market environment and an increase in wealth.

  14. 47 CFR 27.1234 - Terminating existing operations in transitioned markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs §...

  15. 47 CFR 27.1234 - Terminating existing operations in transitioned markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs §...

  16. 47 CFR 27.1234 - Terminating existing operations in transitioned markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs §...

  17. 47 CFR 27.1234 - Terminating existing operations in transitioned markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs §...

  18. 47 CFR 27.1234 - Terminating existing operations in transitioned markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs §...

  19. The Role of Flexible Work in the Transition from Higher Education into the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Try, Sverre

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the Norwegian Graduate Survey from 1985 to 1999, the study investigates Norwegian graduate students' entry into the labour market. The study finds that more than half of the employed graduates enter the work force via a flexible job, that is either a temporary or a part-time job, and the proportion has increased during the period.…

  20. Correlation versus causation in multisensory perception.

    PubMed

    Mitterer, Holger; Jesse, Alexandra

    2010-06-01

    Events are often perceived in multiple modalities. The co-occurring proximal visual and auditory stimuli events are mostly also causally linked to the distal event, which makes it difficult to evaluate whether learned correlation or perceived causation guides binding in multisensory perception. Piano tones are an interesting exception: They are associated with the act of the pianist striking keys, an event that is visible to the perceiver, but directly results from hammers hitting strings, an event that typically is not visible to the perceiver. We examined the influence of seeing the hammer or the keystroke on auditory temporal order judgments (TOJs). Participants judged the temporal order of a dog bark and a piano tone, while seeing the piano stroke shifted temporally relative to its audio signal. Visual lead increased "piano-first" responses in auditory TOJ, but more so if the associated keystroke was visible than if the sound-producing hammer was visible, even though both were equally visually salient. This provides evidence for a learning account of audiovisual perception. PMID:20551354

  1. Transitioning from Marketing-Oriented Design to User-Oriented Design: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laster, Shari; Stitz, Tammy; Bove, Frank J.; Wise, Casey

    2011-01-01

    The transition to a new architecture and design for an academic library Web site does not always proceed smoothly. In this case study, a library at a large research university hired an outside Web development contractor to create a new architecture and design for the university's Web site using dotCMS, an open-source content management system. The…

  2. Economies in Transition: Command to Market. Teacher Resource Manual. EconomicsAmerica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Curt; Dick, Robert; Prager, Jeffrey; Stivers, Nolan; Ware, Judith; Burke, Francis; Keay, Thomas; Rothweiler, Deborah; Tepe, Henry; Suiter, Mary, Ed.; McCorkle, Sarapage, Ed.

    The materials in this publication were developed by nine high school teachers from St. Louis, Missouri, and a U.S. economic educator after they attended a program in Kharkiv, Ukraine, to learn about the difficulties of economic transition in that country. This book is designed to provide lessons about basic economic reform issues facing the…

  3. The Impact of Degree Programme Educational Capital on the Transition of Graduates to the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piróg, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    The article aims to empirically verify the impact of educational capital on the success or failure of higher education graduates' transitions. The paper uses the example of geography graduates in Poland who took part in a nationwide survey in 2012, six months after their graduation. This allowed the author to collect detailed data on the…

  4. The Development of the Causative Construction in Persian Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family, Neiloufar; Allen, Shanley E. M.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of systematic patterns and exceptions in different languages can be readily examined using the causative construction. Persian allows four types of causative structures, including one productive multiword structure (i.e. the light verb construction). In this study, we examine the development of all four structures in Persian child…

  5. Top-down causation and emergence: some comments on mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, George F. R.

    2012-01-01

    Both bottom-up and top-down causation occur in the hierarchy of structure and causation. A key feature is multiple realizability of higher level functions, and consequent existence of equivalence classes of lower level variables that correspond to the same higher level state. Five essentially different classes of top-down influence can be identified, and their existence demonstrated by many real-world examples. They are: algorithmic top-down causation; top-down causation via non-adaptive information control, top-down causation via adaptive selection, top-down causation via adaptive information control and intelligent top-down causation (the effect of the human mind on the physical world). Through the mind, abstract entities such as mathematical structures have causal power. The causal slack enabling top-down action to take place lies in the structuring of the system so as to attain higher level functions; in the way the nature of lower level elements is changed by context, and in micro-indeterminism combined with adaptive selection. Understanding top-down causation can have important effects on society. Two cases will be mentioned: medical/healthcare issues, and education—in particular, teaching reading and writing. In both cases, an ongoing battle between bottom-up and top-down approaches has important consequences for society. PMID:23386967

  6. Modality and Causation in Serbian Dative Anticausatives: A Crosslinguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilic, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation I provide a principled, unified account of modality and causation in Serbian dative anticausatives using a typological, cognitive approach. This analysis is set within a larger claim that the causative and modal meanings crosslinguistically arise in the same morphosyntactic environments, indicating a shared conceptual base…

  7. Models of Causation and the Semantics of Causal Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Phillip; Song, Grace

    2003-01-01

    This research examines the relationship between the concept of CAUSE as it is characterized in psychological models of causation and the meaning of causal verbs, such as the verb "cause" itself. According to focal set models of causation ([Cheng (1997]; [Cheng and Novick (1991 and Cheng and Novick (1992]), the concept of CAUSE should be more…

  8. Migraine prevalence, socioeconomic status, and social causation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Jason; Lipton, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the known higher prevalence of migraine in lower household (HH) income groups is explained by a higher incidence rate or a lower remission rate. Methods: We used data from the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study, a US national sample of 132,674 females (with a 64.3% response rate) and 124,665 males (with a 62.0% response rate) 12 years of age and older. Data were previously collected on migraine symptoms, onset age, and demographics. Previously validated methods applied to the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study data were used to simulate a cohort study. Incidence and remission rates were estimated within 3 sex-specific HH income groups (<$22,500, $22,500–$59,999, and ≥$60,000). The χ2 test was used to determine whether the incidence or remission rates differed by HH income group as an explanation for differences in migraine prevalence by HH income. Results: Migraine prevalence increased as HH income decreased for females (χ2, p < 0.01) and males (χ2, p < 0.01). Differences were not explained by race and other known confounders. Variation in prevalence was explained, in large part, by a higher incidence rate in the lower HH income groups for both females (χ2, p < 0.01) and males (χ2, p < 0.01). Migraine remission rates did not differ by HH income. Conclusions: The higher incidence of migraine in lower HH income groups is compatible with the social causation hypothesis. Once initiated, migraine remission is independent of HH income. Onset and remission may have etiologically distinct causes. PMID:23990405

  9. A neural network model of causative actions

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Hand, Jeremy; Knott, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    A common idea in models of action representation is that actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects (see e.g., Prinz, 1997; Hommel et al., 2001; Sahin et al., 2007; Umiltà et al., 2008; Hommel, 2013). In this paper we extend existing models of effect-based action representations to account for a novel distinction. Some actions bring about effects that are independent events in their own right: for instance, if John smashes a cup, he brings about the event of the cup smashing. Other actions do not bring about such effects. For instance, if John grabs a cup, this action does not cause the cup to “do” anything: a grab action has well-defined perceptual effects, but these are not registered by the perceptual system that detects independent events involving external objects in the world. In our model, effect-based actions are implemented in several distinct neural circuits, which are organized into a hierarchy based on the complexity of their associated perceptual effects. The circuit at the top of this hierarchy is responsible for actions that bring about independently perceivable events. This circuit receives input from the perceptual module that recognizes arbitrary events taking place in the world, and learns movements that reliably cause such events. We assess our model against existing experimental observations about effect-based motor representations, and make some novel experimental predictions. We also consider the possibility that the “causative actions” circuit in our model can be identified with a motor pathway reported in other work, specializing in “functional” actions on manipulable tools (Bub et al., 2008; Binkofski and Buxbaum, 2013). PMID:26175685

  10. A neural network model of causative actions.

    PubMed

    Lee-Hand, Jeremy; Knott, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    A common idea in models of action representation is that actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects (see e.g., Prinz, 1997; Hommel et al., 2001; Sahin et al., 2007; Umiltà et al., 2008; Hommel, 2013). In this paper we extend existing models of effect-based action representations to account for a novel distinction. Some actions bring about effects that are independent events in their own right: for instance, if John smashes a cup, he brings about the event of the cup smashing. Other actions do not bring about such effects. For instance, if John grabs a cup, this action does not cause the cup to "do" anything: a grab action has well-defined perceptual effects, but these are not registered by the perceptual system that detects independent events involving external objects in the world. In our model, effect-based actions are implemented in several distinct neural circuits, which are organized into a hierarchy based on the complexity of their associated perceptual effects. The circuit at the top of this hierarchy is responsible for actions that bring about independently perceivable events. This circuit receives input from the perceptual module that recognizes arbitrary events taking place in the world, and learns movements that reliably cause such events. We assess our model against existing experimental observations about effect-based motor representations, and make some novel experimental predictions. We also consider the possibility that the "causative actions" circuit in our model can be identified with a motor pathway reported in other work, specializing in "functional" actions on manipulable tools (Bub et al., 2008; Binkofski and Buxbaum, 2013). PMID:26175685

  11. Niche markets and evidence assessment in transition: a critical review of proposed drug reforms.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Shannon G; Lemmens, Trudo

    2014-01-01

    In response to rising demands and treatment costs, and the need to achieve better value for money in the face of tight fiscal constraints, both the National Health Service and the public drug reimbursement system are undergoing important reforms. Concurrently, the pharmaceutical sector itself is also alleged to be experiencing significant changes, perhaps most notably, a decline of the blockbuster model of drug development and a growing focus on niche market products. As pharmaceutical development strategies evolve and the resulting drug products become more complex, regulatory and policy responses must be able to evolve along with them. We explore how in numerous jurisdictions, including the UK, proposals for 'adaptive licensing' on the regulatory side and 'performance-based risk sharing agreements' on the funding side are shifting the focus of drug regulation and reimbursement towards more incremental access to new therapies and more post-market evidence generation. However, serious questions remain about how such reforms can be successfully implemented and whether they can balance demands for earlier access to promising new therapies with the need for robust evidence on safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:24841527

  12. Tracing the transition path between optimal strategies combinations within a competitive market of innovative industrial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In several cases, a competitive market can be simulated by a game, where each company/opponent is referred to as a player. In order to accommodate the fact that each player (alone or with alliances) is working against some others' interest, the rather conservative maximin criterion is frequently used for selecting the strategy or the combination of strategies that yield the best of the worst possible outcomes for each one of the players. Under this criterion, an optimal solution is obtained when neither player finds it beneficial to alter his strategy, which means that an equilibrium has been achieved, giving also the value of the game. If conditions change as regards a player, e.g., because of either achieving an unexpected successful result in developing an innovative industrial product or obtaining higher liquidity permitting him to increase advertisement in order to acquire a larger market share, then a new equilibrium is reached. The identification of the path between the old and the new equilibrium points may prove to be valuable for investigating the robustness of the solution by means of sensitivity analysis, since uncertainty plays a critical role in this situation, where evaluation of the payoff matrix is usually based on experts' estimates. In this work, the development of a standard methodology (including 16 activity stages and 7 decision nodes) for tracing this path is presented while a numerical implementation follows to prove its functionality.

  13. Practical aspects of treatment with target specific anticoagulants: initiation, payment and current market, transitions, and venous thromboembolism treatment.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Charles E

    2015-04-01

    Target specific anticoagulants (TSOACs) have recently been introduced to the US market for multiple indications including venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention in total hip and knee replacement surgeries, VTE treatment and reduction in the risk of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Currently, three TSOACs are available including rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran with edoxaban currently under Food and Drug Administration review for VTE treatment and stroke prevention in NVAF. The introduction of these agents has created a paradigm shift in anticoagulation by considerably simplifying treatment and anticoagulant initiation for patients by giving clinicians the opportunity to use a rapid onset, rapid offset, oral agent. The availability of these rapid onset TSOACs is allowing for outpatient treatment of low risk pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis which can greatly reduce healthcare costs by avoiding inpatient hospitalizations and treatment for the disease. Additionally with this practice, the complications of an inpatient hospitalization may also be avoided such as nosocomial infections. Single-agent approaches with TSOACs represent a paradigm shift in the treatment of VTE versus the complicated overlap of a parenteral agent with warfarin. Transitions between anticoagulants, including TSOACs, are a high-risk period for the patient, and clinicians must carefully consider patient characteristics such as renal function as well as the agents that are being transitioned. TSOAC use appears to be growing slowly with improved payment coverage throughout the US. PMID:25605686

  14. Family Life Course Transitions and Rural Household Economy During China’s Market Reform

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, FEINIAN; KORINEK, KIM

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of family life course transitions on labor allocation strategies in rural Chinese households. We highlight three types of economic activity that involve reallocation of household labor oriented toward a more diversified, nonfarm rural economy: involvement in wage employment, household entrepreneurship, and/or multiple activities that span economic sectors. With the use of data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 1997, 2000, and 2004), our longitudinal analyses of rural household economic activity point to the significance of household demography, life course transitions, and local economic structures as factors facilitating household labor reallocation. First, as expected, a relatively youthful household structure is conducive to innovative economic behavior. Second, household entrances and exits are significant, but their impacts are not equal. Life events such as births, deaths, marriage, or leaving home for school or employment affect household economy in distinctive ways. Finally, the reallocations of household labor undertaken by households are shaped by local economic structures: in particular, the extent of village-level entrepreneurial activity, off-farm employment, and out-migration. PMID:21308566

  15. Family life course transitions and rural household economy during China's market reform.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feinian; Korinek, Kim

    2010-11-01

    This article investigates the effect of family life course transitions on labor allocation strategies in rural Chinese households. We highlight three types of economic activity that involve reallocation of household labor oriented toward a more diversified, nonfarm rural economy: involvement in wage employment, household entrepreneurship, and/or multiple activities that span economic sectors. With the use of data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 1997, 2000, and 2004), our longitudinal analyses of rural household economic activity point to the significance of household demography, life course transitions, and local economic structures as factors facilitating household labor reallocation. First, as expected, a relatively youthful household structure is conducive to innovative economic behavior. Second, household entrances and exits are significant, but their impacts are not equal. Life events such as births, deaths, marriage, or leaving home for school or employment affect household economy in distinctive ways. Finally, the reallocations of household labor undertaken by households are shaped by local economic structures: in particular, the extent of village-level entrepreneurial activity, off-farm employment, and out-migration. PMID:21308566

  16. Health effects of urea formaldehyde foam insulation: evidence of causation.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, G R; Newhouse, M T

    1986-01-01

    Studies of health effects of urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) were critically reviewed by means of accepted rules for evidence of causation. Three categories of health effects were examined: reported symptoms, primarily of the upper respiratory tract, lower respiratory tract disease and cancer. Most of the studies purporting to demonstrate health effects of UFFI failed to meet minimal methodologic criteria for evidence of causation. Evidence from the adequate studies provides little support for the hypothesis of a causative role of UFFI in health problems. PMID:3512066

  17. Labor Market Advancement for Young Men: How It Differs by Educational Attainment and Race/Ethnicity during the Initial Transition to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1990 U.S. Census and the 2006-2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and a synthetic cohort method, this article examines the labor market performance of young men during their initial transition to work and how it differs by educational attainment and race. The article looks at young men between the ages of 16 to 26 in 1990 who…

  18. Education and Labour Market Transitions in Young Adulthood. Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics. Research Paper. Catalogue no. 81-595-M No. 075

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaienks, Danielle; Gluszynski, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Young adulthood is filled with major life events and pursuing higher education is one of the most common transitions. It is also the time when many young adults enter the labour market, move out of their parents' household and begin family formation. These significant events affect each other and impact the rest of their lives. Given the…

  19. Do Geography Degree Programmes Facilitate a Smooth Transition to the Job Market? Reflections of Working and Job-Seeking Graduates in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piróg, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    The article presents results of a survey conducted among Polish geography graduates. They were asked questions about the relevance of their degree to their transition from university studies to the job market. The research project revealed that less than half of them found a job. Out of working graduates, one in five geographers worked in an area…

  20. Reverse Causation and the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, John G.

    2006-10-01

    In the first part of the paper we present the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics, a method of viewing the formalism of quantum mechanics that provides a way of visualizing quantum events and experiments. In the second part, we present an EPR gedankenexperiment that appears to lead to observer-level reverse causation. A transactional analysis of the experiment is presented. It easily accounts for the reported observations but does not reveal any barriers to its modification for reverse causation.

  1. [Discussion on the causation of fake crude medicinal materials in the Ming Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Hu, Anhui

    2014-05-01

    In the Ming Dynasty, the phenomenon of fake crude medicinal materials is very common. Its fundamental reasons are the development of commodity economy and the tense relationship between supply and demand, reflecting in the stimulation of infinite demand of crude drugs initiated by the government and folk aspects, and the seeking of profits in the trade due to the expansion of the trade markets of crude medicinal materials under the commodity economy progress. To observe and study the causation of fake crude medicinal materials in the Ming Dynasty can help us, to certain extent, to take measures to prevent the overflow of fake crude medicinal materials. PMID:25208834

  2. Hierarchy, causation and explanation: ubiquity, locality and pluralism.

    PubMed

    Love, Alan C

    2012-02-01

    The ubiquity of top-down causal explanations within and across the sciences is prima facie evidence for the existence of top-down causation. Much debate has been focused on whether top-down causation is coherent or in conflict with reductionism. Less attention has been given to the question of whether these representations of hierarchical relations pick out a single, common hierarchy. A negative answer to this question undermines a commonplace view that the world is divided into stratified 'levels' of organization and suggests that attributions of causal responsibility in different hierarchical representations may not have a meaningful basis for comparison. Representations used in top-down and bottom-up explanations are primarily 'local' and tied to distinct domains of science, illustrated here by protein structure and folding. This locality suggests that no single metaphysical account of hierarchy for causal relations to obtain within emerges from the epistemology of scientific explanation. Instead, a pluralist perspective is recommended-many different kinds of top-down causation (explanation) can exist alongside many different kinds of bottom-up causation (explanation). Pluralism makes plausible why different senses of top-down causation can be coherent and not in conflict with reductionism, thereby illustrating a productive interface between philosophical analysis and scientific inquiry. PMID:23386966

  3. Discovery of the causative organism of Weil's disease: historical view.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y

    2001-03-01

    On January 20, 1915, Inada and Ido announced the discovery of the causative agent of Weil's disease. Subsequently, on February 13, 1915, they published the first paper on the discovery of the causative organism (a new species of Spirochaeta) of Weil's disease. Besides discovering the causative organism of the disease, Inada and colleagues clarified the pure culture in medium, and determined the source and route of the infection, its pathology and morbid anatomy; the distribution of the organism in various organs and tissues; the excretion of the spirochete, and its division, filterability, and morphological characteristics; and the clinical picture, laboratory findings, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of the disease. These studies were conducted by Inada, Ido, Kaneko, Hoki, and Ito, in the years 1914 to 1915. In the early investigation of leptospirosis, Inada and colleagues played a prominent part. We would like to remember these remarkably complete and definitive original achievements on leptospirosis made by Inada and colleagues. PMID:11406751

  4. A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation.

    PubMed

    Noble, Denis

    2012-02-01

    Must higher level biological processes always be derivable from lower level data and mechanisms, as assumed by the idea that an organism is completely defined by its genome? Or are higher level properties necessarily also causes of lower level behaviour, involving actions and interactions both ways? This article uses modelling of the heart, and its experimental basis, to show that downward causation is necessary and that this form of causation can be represented as the influences of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of the differential equations used to represent the lower level processes. These insights are then generalized. A priori, there is no privileged level of causation. The relations between this form of 'biological relativity' and forms of relativity in physics are discussed. Biological relativity can be seen as an extension of the relativity principle by avoiding the assumption that there is a privileged scale at which biological functions are determined. PMID:23386960

  5. A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Must higher level biological processes always be derivable from lower level data and mechanisms, as assumed by the idea that an organism is completely defined by its genome? Or are higher level properties necessarily also causes of lower level behaviour, involving actions and interactions both ways? This article uses modelling of the heart, and its experimental basis, to show that downward causation is necessary and that this form of causation can be represented as the influences of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of the differential equations used to represent the lower level processes. These insights are then generalized. A priori, there is no privileged level of causation. The relations between this form of ‘biological relativity’ and forms of relativity in physics are discussed. Biological relativity can be seen as an extension of the relativity principle by avoiding the assumption that there is a privileged scale at which biological functions are determined. PMID:23386960

  6. Roles of causation and meaning for interpreting correlations.

    PubMed

    Atmanspacher, Harald

    2014-06-01

    The essays by Tougas and Willeford address, among other things, a number of ways to understand causation, which play crucial roles in the framework of thinking proposed by Pauli and Jung. The intention of my following reply is to say a few words about how these options are related to one another within our reconstruction of the Pauli-Jung conjecture. In the tradition of the sciences, looking for causation has become a virtually innate reflex to interpret empirically observed correlations. The concept of synchronicity suggests looking for meaningful coincidences as an alternative, complementary interpretation, particularly appropriate for psychophysical correlations. PMID:24919634

  7. Diabetes Causation Beliefs Among Spanish-Speaking Patients

    PubMed Central

    Concha, Jeannie Belinda; Mayer, Sallie D.; Mezuk, Briana R.; Avula, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore how the inquiry of cultural diabetes causation beliefs can improve Hispanic/Latino patient self-management. Methods Two semistructured focus groups were conducted with 13 Hispanic/Latinos adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prior to taking part in the group discussion, participants completed a demographic survey and the Illness Perception Questionnaire–Revised. Results The top 5 diabetes causation items endorsed by participants per the questionnaire included stress or worry, behavior, hereditary, diet/eating habits, and family problems/worries. The qualitative analysis revealed stress as a recurring theme for a cause of diabetes. Work stress was specifically identified as a contributor to unhealthy eating and diabetes. Most participants were aware of and believed in susto and referred to it as coraje (anger). Participants believed that asking patients about their diabetes causation beliefs and emotional status can help health professionals (1) better understand the patient and (2) identify and prioritize diabetes treatments. Participants also indicated that the role of doctors is important and the encouragement that they give to patients is clinically and spiritually valued. Conclusions Stress was identified as a cause of diabetes in addition to unhealthy diets and heredity. Asking patients about diabetes causation beliefs and emotional status may help prioritize treatment and management goals. PMID:26568376

  8. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  9. [Causation in the court: the complex case of malignant mesothelioma].

    PubMed

    Lageard, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to carry out an analysis of the legal evolution in Italy of the assessment of causation i.e. cause and effect, in oncological diseases, a question taken into consideration by the High Court almost exclusively with reference to pleural mesothelioma. The most debated question when defining the causal association between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma is the possible role that any multiple potentially causative exposures could assume in the induction and development of the disease, and in particular the role of any asbestos exposure over the successive employment periods. Indeed, this is a subject on which, to date, no agreement has yet been reached in scientific doctrine: these divergences bear important practical significance from a legal point of view, since sustaining one thesis or another may constitute determining factors when ascertaining responsibility for individuals who, in the past, had decisional statuses in the workplace. Jurisprudence in the High Court took on an oscillating position on this question as from the early 2000s, which was divided into those who sustained the thesis of the relevance of any asbestos exposure over the successive employment periods and those who were of a different opinion, i.e. only the first exposure period has relevant causative effect. The point under discussion concerns, in particular, the adequacy of a probabilistic law only governing such a question. An important turning point was made in the year 2010 when two sentences were announced in the High Court, reiterating, in strict compliance with the principles affirmed by the United Sections in 2002, that a judge cannot, and must not, be satisfied with a general causation, but must rather reach a judgment on the basis of an individual causation. In particular, not only did the second of these two sentences recognise the multifactorial nature of mesothelioma, something which had almost always been denied in jurisprudence in the past, but it also

  10. Public views about health causation, attributions of responsibility, and inequality.

    PubMed

    Lundell, Helen; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Clarke, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Success in addressing health disparities and their social determinants will require understanding public perceptions of health causation, attributions of responsibility, and potential solutions. To explore these perceptions, the authors conducted 12 focus groups (6 with liberals, 6 conservatives; N = 93 participants) in a large U.S. Northeastern state. Participants communicated highly nuanced views about health causation and disparities, identifying layers of responsibility for health. However, individual behaviors and personal responsibility dominated the discussion and served as a counterargument to the significance of social determinants. Participants also showed limited awareness of the range of policies that could be adopted to address health disparities. As policy initiatives benefit from public support in gaining political traction, the authors suggest research paths and possible communication strategies for scholars and advocates. PMID:23679219

  11. Evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism in a hummingbird.

    PubMed

    Temeles, E J; Pan, I L; Brennan, J L; Horwitt, J N

    2000-07-21

    Unambiguous examples of ecological causes of animal sexual dimorphism are rare. Here we present evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism in the bill morphology of a hummingbird, the purple-throated carib. This hummingbird is the sole pollinator of two Heliconia species whose flowers correspond to the bills of either males or females. Each sex feeds most quickly at the flower species approximating its bill dimensions, which supports the hypothesis that floral specialization has driven the evolution of bill dimorphism. Further evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism was provided by a geographic replacement of one Heliconia species by the other and the subsequent development of a floral dimorphism, with one floral morph matching the bills of males and the other of females. PMID:10903203

  12. Proving Causation With Epidemiological Evidence in Tobacco Lawsuits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a series of lawsuits were filed in Korea claiming tort liability against tobacco companies. The Supreme Court has already issued decisions in some cases, while others are still pending. The primary issue in these cases is whether the epidemiological evidence submitted by the plaintiffs clearly proves the causal relationship between smoking and disease as required by civil law. Proving causation is difficult in tobacco lawsuits because factors other than smoking are involved in the development of a disease, and also because of the lapse of time between smoking and the manifestation of the disease. The Supreme Court (Supreme Court Decision, 2011Da22092, April 10, 2014) has imposed some limitations on using epidemiological evidence to prove causation in tobacco lawsuits filed by smokers and their family members, but these limitations should be reconsidered. First, the Court stated that a disease can be categorized as specific or non-specific, and for each disease type, causation can be proven by different types of evidence. However, the concept of specific diseases is not compatible with multifactor theory, which is generally accepted in the field of public health. Second, when the epidemiological association between the disease and the risk factor is proven to be significant, imposing additional burdens of proof on the plaintiff may considerably limit the plaintiff’s right to recovery, but the Court required the plaintiffs to provide additional information such as health condition and lifestyle. Third, the Supreme Court is not giving greater weight to the evidential value of epidemiological study results because the Court focuses on the fact that these studies were group-level, not individual-level. However, group-level studies could still offer valuable information about individual members of the group, e.g., probability of causation. PMID:27055545

  13. Proving Causation With Epidemiological Evidence in Tobacco Lawsuits.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Goo

    2016-03-01

    Recently, a series of lawsuits were filed in Korea claiming tort liability against tobacco companies. The Supreme Court has already issued decisions in some cases, while others are still pending. The primary issue in these cases is whether the epidemiological evidence submitted by the plaintiffs clearly proves the causal relationship between smoking and disease as required by civil law. Proving causation is difficult in tobacco lawsuits because factors other than smoking are involved in the development of a disease, and also because of the lapse of time between smoking and the manifestation of the disease. The Supreme Court (Supreme Court Decision, 2011Da22092, April 10, 2014) has imposed some limitations on using epidemiological evidence to prove causation in tobacco lawsuits filed by smokers and their family members, but these limitations should be reconsidered. First, the Court stated that a disease can be categorized as specific or non-specific, and for each disease type, causation can be proven by different types of evidence. However, the concept of specific diseases is not compatible with multifactor theory, which is generally accepted in the field of public health. Second, when the epidemiological association between the disease and the risk factor is proven to be significant, imposing additional burdens of proof on the plaintiff may considerably limit the plaintiff's right to recovery, but the Court required the plaintiffs to provide additional information such as health condition and lifestyle. Third, the Supreme Court is not giving greater weight to the evidential value of epidemiological study results because the Court focuses on the fact that these studies were group-level, not individual-level. However, group-level studies could still offer valuable information about individual members of the group, e.g., probability of causation. PMID:27055545

  14. Retro-causation, Minimum Contradictions and Non-locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafatos, Menas; Nassikas, Athanassios A.

    2011-11-01

    Retro-causation has been experimentally verified by Bem and proposed by Kafatos in the form of space-time non-locality in the quantum framework. Every theory includes, beyond its specific axioms, the principles of logical communication (logical language), through which it is defined. This communication obeys the Aristotelian logic (Classical Logic), the Leibniz Sufficient Reason Principle, and a hidden axiom, which basically states that there is anterior-posterior relationship everywhere in communication. By means of a theorem discussed here, it can be proved that the communication mentioned implies contradictory statements, which can only be transcended through silence, i.e. the absence of any statements. Moreover, the breaking of silence is meaningful through the claim for minimum contradictions, which implies the existence of both a logical and an illogical dimension; contradictions refer to causality, implying its opposite, namely retro-causation, and the anterior posterior axiom, implying space-time non-locality. The purpose of this paper is to outline a framework accounting for retro-causation, through both purely theoretical and reality based points of view.

  15. Probability of causation: Implications for radiological protection and dose limitation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1987-05-01

    This report on the probability of causation of radiation-induced cancer is an attempt to bring together biology, chemistry, physics and statistics to calculate a value in the form of a ratio expressed as a percentage. In involves the interactions of numerous cancer risk factors, and all are fraught with technical difficulties and uncertainties. It is a computational approach to a societal problem that should be resolved in the political arena by men and women of government and law. But, it must be examined, because at the present, we have no reasonable method to explain the complexity of the mechanism of radiation-induced cancer and the probability of injury to an individual exposed in the past to ionizing radiation, and because society does not know how to compensate such a person who may have been injured by radiation, and particularly low-level radiation. Five questions are discussed that concern probability of causation of radiation-induced cancer. First, what is it and how can we best define the concept? Second, what are the methods of estimation and cancer causation? Third, what are the uncertainties involved? Fourth, what are the strengths and limitation of the computational approach? And fifth, what are the implications for radiological protection and dose-limitation?

  16. Probability of causation: Implications for radiological protection and dose limitation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1987-05-01

    This report on the probability of causation of radiation-induced cancer is an attempt to bring together biology, chemistry, physics and statistics to calculate a value in the form of a ratio expressed as a percentage. In involves the interactions of numerous cancer risk factors, and all are fraught with technical difficulties and uncertainties. It is a computational approach to a societal problem that should be resolved in the political arena by men and women of government and law. But, it must be examined, because at the present, we have no reasonable method to explain the complexity of the mechanism of radiation-induced cancer and the probability of injury to an individual exposed in the past to ionizing radiation, and because society does not know how to compensate such a person who may have been injured by radiation, and particularly low-level radiation. Five questions are discussed that concern probability of causation of radiation-induced cancer. First, what is it and how can we best define the concept Second, what are the methods of estimation and cancer causation Third, what are the uncertainties involved Fourth, what are the strengths and limitation of the computational approach And fifth, what are the implications for radiological protection and dose-limitation

  17. Models of proximate and ultimate causation in psychology.

    PubMed

    Alessi, G

    1992-11-01

    B. F. Skinner saw behavior as a product of three levels of evolution. J. R. Kantor and Gregory Bateson noted similar relations. This article describes and applies basic evolutionary concepts to each level: (a) phylogenic, (b) ontogenic, and (c) cultural evolution. Each level is analyzed in terms of (a) units of selection, (b) variety of units required for the selection process, (c) selection pressures, (d) interactions among levels, and (e) implications for understanding and predicting behavior. Distinguishing between models of proximate and ultimate causation, as in biology, may help clarify research problems posed by, and facilitate better communication among, psychologists. PMID:1482003

  18. Pseudomonas corneal ulcer. The causative role of contaminated eye cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Reid, F R; Wood, T O

    1979-09-01

    The clinical significance of contaminated ocular cosmetics is illustrated by the case of a 47-year-old woman in whom a Pseudomonas corneal ulcer developed immediately after she sustained minor corneal trauma with a mascara applicator. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured from the corneal ulcer and the mascara. In addition to the causative role in acute corneal ulcers, contaminated eye cosmetics contribute to chronic external eye infections. Retail eye cosmetics are typically free of contamination when purchased. The inoculation of the cosmetic occurs during normal use. PMID:112953

  19. Sequence Data, Phylogenetic Inference, and Implications of Downward Causation.

    PubMed

    Fitzhugh, Kirk

    2016-06-01

    Framing systematics as a field consistent with scientific inquiry entails that inferences of phylogenetic hypotheses have the goal of producing accounts of past causal events that explain differentially shared characters among organisms. Linking observations of characters to inferences occurs by way of why-questions implied by data matrices. Because of their form, why-questions require the use of common-cause theories. Such theories in phylogenetic inferences include natural selection and genetic drift. Selection or drift can explain 'morphological' characters but selection cannot be causally applied to sequences since fitness differences cannot be directly associated with individual nucleotides or amino acids. The relation of selection to sequence data is by way of downward or top-down causation from those phenotypes upon which selection occurs. The application of phylogenetic inference to explain sequence data is thus restricted to instances where drift is the relevant theory; those nucleotides or amino acids that can be explained via downward causation are precluded from inclusion in the data matrix. The restrictions on the inclusion of sequence data in phylogenetic inferences equally apply to species hypotheses, precluding the more restrictive approach known as DNA barcoding. Not being able to discern drift and selection as relevant causal mechanisms can severely constrain the inclusion and explanations of sequence data. Implications of such exclusion are discussed in relation to the requirement of total evidence. PMID:26961079

  20. Communities, self-causation and the natural lottery.

    PubMed

    Loewy, E H

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the various notions of community, and of the 'natural lottery' as well as investigating the role that 'self-causation' plays in communal obligations. In examining community, two opposing views are juxtaposed: (1) the view that community consists merely of persons united by duties of refraining from harm one to another, resulting in autonomy based justice which makes freedom an absolute condition of mortality; and (2) a broader view which sees the concept of community as entailing obligations of beneficence, resulting in beneficence based justice and which, therefore, sees freedom as a value to be cautiously traded with other values. In examining the 'natural lottery' in the light of community, the various consequences of viewing the lottery in various ways and the impact that our view of community has on these consequences, is explored. A third option, the option that the 'natural lottery' as the cause of illness and health is a shaky concept, is offered. Self-causation of illness and its linkage to concepts of community and of the 'natural lottery' is then briefly examined. It is concluded that (1) community implies a social contract which, in order to be conceived in the first place, necessitates more than a minimalist ethic: to come about, a degree of beneficence inspiring trust is presupposed; (2) conceiving community narrowly is neither what we ordinarily do when we think of the term nor, for that matter, workable in our world.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3293233

  1. Why are educated adults slim-Causation or selection?

    PubMed

    von Hippel, Paul T; Lynch, Jamie L

    2014-03-01

    More educated adults tend to have lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower risk of overweight and obesity. We contrast two explanations for this education gradient in BMI. One explanation is selection: adolescents with high BMI are less likely to plan for, attend, and complete higher levels of education. An alternative explanation is causation: higher education confers lifelong social, economic, and psychological benefits that help adults to restrain BMI growth. We test the relative importance of selection and causation using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97), which tracks self-reported BMI from adolescence (age 15) through young adulthood (age 29). Ordinal regression models confirm the selection hypothesis that high-BMI adolescents are less likely to complete higher levels of education. Selection has primarily to do with the fact that high-BMI adolescents tend to come from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and tend to have low grades and test scores. Among high-BMI girls there is also some evidence that educational attainment is limited by bullying, poor health, and early pregnancy. About half the selection of high-BMI girls out of higher education remains unexplained. Fixed-effects models control for selection and suggest that the causal effect of education on BMI, though significant, accounts for only one-quarter of the mean BMI differences between more and less educated adults at age 29. Among young adults, it appears that most of the education gradient in BMI is due to selection. PMID:24524908

  2. Evidence-based toxicology: a comprehensive framework for causation.

    PubMed

    Guzelian, Philip S; Victoroff, Michael S; Halmes, N Christine; James, Robert C; Guzelian, Christopher P

    2005-04-01

    This paper identifies deficiencies in some current practices of causation and risk evaluation by toxicologists and formulates an evidence-based solution. The practice of toxicology focuses on adverse health events caused by physical or chemical agents. Some relations between agents and events are identified risks, meaning unwanted events known to occur at some frequency. However, other relations that are only possibilities--not known to occur (and may never be realized)--also are sometimes called risks and are even expressed quantitatively. The seemingly slight differences in connotation among various uses of the word 'risk' conceal deeply philosophic differences in the epistemology of harm. We label as 'nomological possibilities' (not as risks) all predictions of harm that are known not to be physically or logically impossible. Some of these nomological possibilities are known to be causal. We term them 'epistemic'. Epistemic possibilities are risks. The remaining nomological possibilities are called 'uncertainties'. Distinguishing risks (epistemic relationships) from among all nomological possibilities requires knowledge of causation. Causality becomes knowable when scientific experiments demonstrate, in a strong, consistent (repeatable), specific, dose-dependent, coherent, temporal and predictive manner that a change in a stimulus determines an asymmetric, directional change in the effect. Many believe that a similar set of characteristics, popularly called the 'Hill Criteria', make it possible, if knowledge is robust, to infer causation from only observational (nonexperimental) studies, where allocation of test subjects or items is not under the control of the investigator. Until the 1980s, medical decisions about diagnosis, prevention, treatment or harm were often made authoritatively. Rather than employing a rigorous evaluation of causal relationships and applying these criteria to the published knowledge, the field of medicine was dominated by authority

  3. Causation entropy from symbolic representations of dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cafaro, Carlo; Lord, Warren M.; Sun, Jie; Bollt, Erik M.

    2015-04-15

    Identification of causal structures and quantification of direct information flows in complex systems is a challenging yet important task, with practical applications in many fields. Data generated by dynamical processes or large-scale systems are often symbolized, either because of the finite resolution of the measurement apparatus, or because of the need of statistical estimation. By algorithmic application of causation entropy, we investigated the effects of symbolization on important concepts such as Markov order and causal structure of the tent map. We uncovered that these quantities depend nonmonotonically and, most of all, sensitively on the choice of symbolization. Indeed, we show that Markov order and causal structure do not necessarily converge to their original analog counterparts as the resolution of the partitioning becomes finer.

  4. Cancer "causation" by infections--individual contributions and synergistic networks.

    PubMed

    zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2014-12-01

    The search for infectious agents playing a role in human carcinogenesis and their identification remain important issues. This could provide clues for a broader spectrum of cancers preventable by vaccination and accessible to specific therapeutic regimens. Yet, the various ways of interacting among different factors functioning synergistically and their different modes of affecting individual cells should bring to question the validity of the term "causation". It also should put a word of caution into all attempts to summarize criteria for "causality" of infectious agents in cancer development. At least in the opinion of these authors, we would be much better off avoiding these terms, replacing "causal factor" by "risk factor" and grading them according to their contribution to an individual's cancer risk. PMID:25499643

  5. Social factors and health: the causation-selection issue revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, N

    1994-01-01

    Since social scientists rarely have access to experimental data, they rely heavily upon observational studies. As a consequence, their attempts to make causal inferences about the effects of social factors--such as occupation or marital status--on health are plagued by potential selection problems. Some researchers have addressed this selection-causation problem on the basis of the presence or absence of a particular aggregate pattern of health status. The rationale underlying this approach derives from the investigators' hypotheses that the presence of selection would lead to a particular type of pattern that is distinct from the pattern that would result in the absence of selection. Although intuitively appealing, this strategy appears to be seriously flawed. The essential weakness is that the range of patterns that can result from selection is often much broader than researchers have speculated. PMID:8108396

  6. Causation entropy from symbolic representations of dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Cafaro, Carlo; Lord, Warren M; Sun, Jie; Bollt, Erik M

    2015-04-01

    Identification of causal structures and quantification of direct information flows in complex systems is a challenging yet important task, with practical applications in many fields. Data generated by dynamical processes or large-scale systems are often symbolized, either because of the finite resolution of the measurement apparatus, or because of the need of statistical estimation. By algorithmic application of causation entropy, we investigated the effects of symbolization on important concepts such as Markov order and causal structure of the tent map. We uncovered that these quantities depend nonmonotonically and, most of all, sensitively on the choice of symbolization. Indeed, we show that Markov order and causal structure do not necessarily converge to their original analog counterparts as the resolution of the partitioning becomes finer. PMID:25933654

  7. Causation entropy from symbolic representations of dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafaro, Carlo; Lord, Warren M.; Sun, Jie; Bollt, Erik M.

    2015-04-01

    Identification of causal structures and quantification of direct information flows in complex systems is a challenging yet important task, with practical applications in many fields. Data generated by dynamical processes or large-scale systems are often symbolized, either because of the finite resolution of the measurement apparatus, or because of the need of statistical estimation. By algorithmic application of causation entropy, we investigated the effects of symbolization on important concepts such as Markov order and causal structure of the tent map. We uncovered that these quantities depend nonmonotonically and, most of all, sensitively on the choice of symbolization. Indeed, we show that Markov order and causal structure do not necessarily converge to their original analog counterparts as the resolution of the partitioning becomes finer.

  8. Scaling analysis of time series of daily prices from stock markets of transitional economies in the Western Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvan, Darko; Stratimirović, Djordje; Blesić, Suzana; Miljković, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we have analyzed scaling properties of time series of stock market indices (SMIs) of developing economies of Western Balkans, and have compared the results we have obtained with the results from more developed economies. We have used three different techniques of data analysis to obtain and verify our findings: detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, detrended moving average (DMA) method, and wavelet transformation (WT) analysis. We have found scaling behavior in all SMI data sets that we have analyzed. The scaling of our SMI series changes from long-range correlated to slightly anti-correlated behavior with the change in growth or maturity of the economy the stock market is embedded in. We also report the presence of effects of potential periodic-like influences on the SMI data that we have analyzed. One such influence is visible in all our SMI series, and appears at a period Tp ≈ 90 days. We propose that the existence of various periodic-like influences on SMI data may partially explain the observed difference in types of correlated behavior of corresponding scaling functions.

  9. From causation to correlation: the story of Psychosomatic Medicine 1939-1979.

    PubMed

    Mizrachi, N

    2001-09-01

    This study focuses on the first four decades in the history of the pioneering journal Psychosomatic Medicine. The goal of the journal as stated by its founders was to reform medicine by scientifically reintegrating the "mind" into medicine. However, from its inception, the editorial members were haunted by internal ambiguity regarding the nature of psychosomatic knowledge. This led to recurrent identity crises. This study tells the story of the complex interplay between internal and external forces shaping Psychosomatic Medicine's institutional transitions and epistemological transformations. It demonstrates how, despite this continuous internal confusion, the level of consistency necessary for gaining legitimacy increased during the process of evaluating papers. The increased level of standardization coincided with a transition in the psychosomatic movement's epistemological approach: from causation to correlation. The initial attempt to search for causal mechanisms linking the psyche and the soma were replaced by correlational models measuring various manifestations of psychological and biological phenomena in a way that presupposed and reduplicated the split the founders ironically sought to supersede. PMID:11680478

  10. Detecting causation mechanisms of soil moisture patterns in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Zink, Matthias; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2013-04-01

    Detecting trends, feedbacks, and causation mechanisms in hydrometeorologic variables such as soil moisture is a challenging task because of the nonlinear dynamics of the atmosphere-land-vegetation system, the assimilation of noisy observations, and the structural and parametric uncertainty of land surface models (LSM). Quite often, wrong conclusions can be drawn because uncorrelated variables may be assumed to have no causal relationship with presupposed predictors. The main goal of this study is to test whether a significant "Granger causality" (Granger 1969) exist between monthly soil moisture fields over Germany and large-scale circulation patterns, characterized by anomalies of sea level pressure over the Northern Hemisphere or geopotential height and atmospheric humidity over Europe. The advantage of this testing framework stems from the fact that it is based on predictability instead of correlation to identify causation, as it is the case with standard correlation-based approaches. Two contrasting modeling paradigms, the land surface NOAH model and the process-based hydrologic model mHM (Samaniego et al. 2012) are employed to estimate daily soil moisture over Germany during the period from 1989 to 2009. WRF/NOAH was forced with ERA-Interim data at the boundary of the EURO-CORDEX Region (www.meteo.unican.es/wiki/cordexwrf) with a spatial resolution of 0.11°. To ease comparison, mHM was also forced with daily precipitation and temperature fields generated by WRF during the same period at 4×4 km resolution. Main physiographic characteristics in NOAH such as land cover and soil texture are represented with a 1×1 km MODIS data set and a single horizon, coarse resolution FAO soil map with 16 soil texture classes, respectively. The multiscale parameter regionalization technique (MPR, Samaniego et al. 2010) embedded in mHM allows to estimate effective model parameters based on detailed input data (100×100 m) obtained from Corine land cover and soil texture fields

  11. Human factors in the causation of road traffic crashes.

    PubMed

    Petridou, E; Moustaki, M

    2000-01-01

    Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are responsible for a substantial fraction of morbidity and mortality and are responsible for more years of life lost than most of human diseases. In this review, we have tried to delineate behavioral factors that collectively represent the principal cause of three out of five RTCs and contribute to the causation of most of the remaining. Although sharp distinctions are not always possible, a classification of behavioral factors is both necessary and feasible. Thus, behavioral factors can be distinguished as (i) those that reduce capability on a long-term basis (inexperience, aging, disease and disability, alcoholism, drug abuse), (ii) those that reduce capability on a short-term basis (drowsiness, fatigue, acute alcohol intoxication, short term drug effects, binge eating, acute psychological stress, temporary distraction), (iii) those that promote risk taking behavior with long-term impact (overestimation of capabilities, macho attitude, habitual speeding, habitual disregard of traffic regulations, indecent driving behavior, non-use of seat belt or helmet, inappropriate sitting while driving, accident proneness) and (iv) those that promote risk taking behavior with short-term impact (moderate ethanol intake, psychotropic drugs, motor vehicle crime, suicidal behavior, compulsive acts). The classification aims to assist in the conceptualization of the problem that may also contribute to behavior modification-based efforts. PMID:11297224

  12. NONDERMATOPHYTIC MOULDS AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF ONYCHOMYCOSIS IN TEHRAN

    PubMed Central

    Bassiri-Jahromi, Shahindokht; Khaksar, Ali Asgar

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the last few years the number of cases of nondermatophytic onychomycosis has greatly increased. Aim: To evaluate the incidence, the clinic characteristics, and predisposing factors of nondermatophytic onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: All collected specimens were analyzed by direct microscopy and culture. Microscopic examination of these specimens was carried out in potassium hydroxide solution (20%) with dimethyl sulfoxide (4%). These specimens were cultured on sabouraud's glucose agar with chloramphenicol and sabouraud's glucose agar with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. Cultures were incubated at 25°C for up to 28 days and checked twice weekly for growth. Results: Nondermatophytic onychomycosis were 11.5% of all onychomycosis. We found that Aspergillus spp. were the more responsible etiologic agents of nondermatophytic onychomycosis, resulting in a total of 28 patients (59.6%). In our study other causative agents were Acremonium spp. (17%), Fusarium spp. (12.7%), Geotrichum spp. (4.2%), Trichosporun spp., (4.2%) and Scopulariopsis spp (2.1%). In our patients moulds onychomycosis developed mainly in toenails (74.5%). Conclusion: Knowing the exact pathogen is important and has implications in therapy and prognosis. PMID:20606881

  13. Gastric reflux is a significant causative factor of tooth erosion.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, W P; Furuholm, J; Gudmundsson, K; Theodórs, A; Meurman, J H

    2009-05-01

    Dental erosion is caused by dietary or gastric acid. This study aimed to examine the location and severity of tooth erosion with respect to causative factors, and to determine whether the clinical pattern of erosion reflected the dominant etiological factor. The study involved 249 Icelandic individuals and included: a detailed medical history; clinical oral examination; salivary sampling, and analysis for flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. Reflux was assessed in 91 individuals by gastroscopy, esophageal manometry, and 24-hour esophageal-pH monitoring. Reflux symptoms were reported by 36.5% individuals. Manometry results were abnormal in 8% of study participants, abnormal esophageal pH in 17.7%, and a pathological 24-hour pH recording in 21.3%. 3.6% were positive for Helicobacter pylori. Normal salivary flow was found in 92%, but low salivary buffering (10.4%) was associated with erosion into dentin (P < 0.05). Significant associations were found between erosion and diagnosed reflux disease (OR 2.772; P < 0.005) and daily consumption of acidic drinks (OR 2.232; P < 0.005). PMID:19493884

  14. An overview of fruit allergy and the causative allergens.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A K G; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-11-01

    Plant allergens, being one of the most widespread allergenic substances, are hard to avoid. Hence, their identification and characterization are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy. The reported allergies to fruits mainly evoke oral allergy syndrome caused by the presence of cross-reactive IgE to certain pollens and thus, allergy to fruits has also been linked to particular pollens. Many fruit allergies are being studied for their causative allergens, and are being characterized. Some tropical or exotic fruits are responsible for region-specific allergies for which only limited information is available, and generally lack allergen characterization. From a survey of the literature on fruit allergy, it is clear that some common fruits (apple, peach, musk melon, kiwi fruit, cherry, grape, strawberry, banana, custard apple, mango and pomegranate) and their allergens appear to be at the center of current research on food allergy. The present review focuses on common fruits reported as allergenic and their identified allergens; a brief description of allergens from six rare/tropical fruits is also covered. PMID:26549334

  15. The Role of Selected Health Problems in the Causation of Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Maurice J.

    1982-01-01

    Considers sociological theories of delinquency causation in order to attempt to integrate research from the fields of optometry, audiology, neurology, and pediatric medicine into the mainstream of sociological theories of delinquency causation. Found strong and consistent relationships between the presence of these health problems and delinquency.…

  16. Time, space and form: Necessary for causation in health, disease and intervention?

    PubMed

    Evans, David W; Lucas, Nicholas; Kerry, Roger

    2016-06-01

    Sir Austin Bradford Hill's 'aspects of causation' represent some of the most influential thoughts on the subject of proximate causation in health and disease. Hill compiled a list of features that, when present and known, indicate an increasing likelihood that exposure to a factor causes-or contributes to the causation of-a disease. The items of Hill's list were not labelled 'criteria', as this would have inferred every item being necessary for causation. Hence, criteria that are necessary for causation in health, disease and intervention processes, whether known, knowable, or not, remain undetermined and deserve exploration. To move beyond this position, this paper aims to explore factors that are necessary in the constitution of causative relationships between health, disease processes, and intervention. To this end, disease is viewed as a causative pathway through the often overlapping stages of aetiology, pathology and patho-physiology. Intervention is viewed as a second, independent causative pathway, capable of causing changes in health for benefit or harm. For the natural course of a disease pathway to change, we argue that intervention must not only occupy the same time and space, but must also share a common form; the point at which the two pathways converge and interact. This improved conceptualisation may be used to facilitate the interpretation of clinical observations and inform future research, particularly enabling predictions of the mechanistic relationship between health, disease and intervention. PMID:26351062

  17. Polymicrobial endophthalmitis: prevalence, causative organisms, and visual outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence, causative organisms, and visual acuity outcome in patients with culture-proven polymicrobial endophthalmitis. The method used in this study is the non-comparative, consecutive case series using a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with polymicrobial endophthalmitis for the period 2000 to 2010. Results Polymicrobial endophthalmitis was identified in 43/1,107 (3.88%) patients. Forty-two patients had two isolates, and one patient had grown three isolates, yielding a total of 87 isolates. Gram-positive cocci were the most common isolate (n = 53; 60.9%) including Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 14/53; 16.1%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 13/53; 13.8%). The etiologies included posttraumatic (n = 31/43; 72.1%) and postoperative (n = 9/43; 20.9%) endophthalmitis. Antibiotic susceptibilities among Gram-positive bacteria were vancomycin (100%) and chloramphenicol (96%). Susceptibilities among Gram-negative bacteria were ciprofloxacin (86.4%) and ofloxacin (81.2%). A maximum number of secondary interventions were done in traumatic cases (38.7%) and cases having coinfection with Gram-negative bacteria and fungus (66.7%). Visual acuity (VA) < 20/200 was more frequently observed in posttraumatic cases (n = 27/31; 87.1%) as compared with postoperative cases (n = 4/9; 44.4%). Of the 43 patients, only 9 patients (20.9%) achieved a VA ≥ 20/200 on final follow-up. Four out of twelve patients (33.3%), with fungus as one of the isolates, had a VA ≥ 20/200. Conclusions Although polymicrobial infection in endophthalmitis is uncommon, it is generally associated with poor visual acuity outcomes especially in eyes with open-globe injuries. Coinfection with Gram-negative bacteria or fungi was associated with most unfavorable visual outcome. PMID:23514425

  18. Mycetoma in Iran: Causative Agents and Geographic Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Bassiri-Jahromi, Shahindokht

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by true fungi (eumycetoma) or filamentous bacteria (actinomycetoma). It usually involves the subcutaneous tissue after a traumatic inoculation of the causative organism. We reviewed retrospectively 13 patients with mycetoma. Materials and Methods: This study reports the etiologic agents and distribution of mycetoma in 35 cases from 1994 to2009 in Iran. The diagnostic of mycetoma were confirmed by histopathology and direct preparation, culture techniques, and histopathology of granules and surgical biopsies, radiological examination of the affected site. Results: Mycetoma was identified in 35 patients of 168 suspected patients (20.8%). They occurred in 22 male and 13 females. Their ages ranged from 14 to 80 years. The duration of the disease ranged from two months to 38 years. Sixteen patients had eumycetoma, and 19 patients had actinomycetoma, one of them had mix infections by eumycetoma and actinomycetoma. The majority of the patients were from central and states in south and north of Iran. The feet were most affected site (65.7%) of the cases, followed by hands (25.7%), face (2.8%), and trunk (2.8%), and buttock (2.8%). Most patients (68.5%) were more than 40 year-old. The male to female ratio was 5:3. The disease was abundant among housewife in urban and farmer in rural area of Iran. The most common prevalent mycetoma agents in this study were Actinomyces sp. There was a history of risk factors in 28.6% of patients in this study. Conclusion: Mycetoma occasionally occurs particularly in the South, Central, and North of Iran, and seen most often in persons, who live in hot, humid climates. If there are risk factors for invasive fungal infections traumatic inoculation with any fungus may result in rapid local spread and systemic disease, often with fatal outcome. PMID:25284877

  19. Traditional ecological knowledge trends in the transition to a market economy: empirical study in the Doñana natural areas.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Mingorría, Sara; Reyes-García, Victoria; Calvet, Laura; Montes, Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Researchers and conservation managers largely agree on the relevance of traditional ecological knowledge for natural resource management in indigenous communities, but its prevalence and role as societies modernize are contested. We analyzed the transmission of traditional knowledge among rural local people in communities linked to protected areas in Doñana, southwestern Spain. We studied changes in knowledge related to local practices in agriculture and livestock farming among 198 informants from three generations that cover the period in which the area transited from an economy strongly dependent on local ecosystem services to a market economy with intensified production systems. Our results suggest an abrupt loss of traditional agricultural knowledge related to rapid transformations and intensification of agricultural systems, but maintenance of knowledge of traditional livestock farming, an activity allowed in the protected areas that maintains strong links with local cultural identity. Our results demonstrate the potential of protected areas in protecting remaining bodies of traditional ecological knowledge in developed country settings. Nevertheless, we note that strict protection in cultural-landscape-dominated areas can disrupt transmission of traditional knowledge if local resource users and related practices are excluded from ecosystem management. PMID:20067484

  20. A compendium of causative agents of occupational asthma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective is to provide an evidence-based compendium of allergenic and irritant agents that are known to cause occupational asthma in order to improve diagnostics and disease management. Methods Two previously published reviews from our group utilized database searches to identify studies which were then rated according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) grading system. The evidence level for each causative agent or worksite was graded using the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) three-star system. Results Approximately 3,000 relevant papers were identified, which covered 372 different causes of allergic and 184 different causes of irritant occupational asthma. The highest level achieved using the SIGN grading system was 2++, indicating a high quality study with a very low risk of confounding or bias and a high probability of a causal relationship. Using the modified RCGP three-star grading system, the strongest evidence of association with an individual agent or worksite ('***') was found for exposure to laboratory animals. Associations with moderate evidence level (‘**’) were obtained for a) the allergenic agents or worksites: alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae, various enzymes from Bacillus subtilis, papain, bakeries, western red cedar, latex, psyllium, storage mites, rat, carmine, egg proteins, Atlantic salmon, fishmeal, Norway lobster, prawn, snow crab, seafood, trout and turbot, reactive dyes, b) the irritant agents or worksites: benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid, 1,2- anhydride [trimellitic anhydride], chlorine, cobalt, cement, environmental tobacco smoke, grain, welding fumes, construction work, swine confinement, World Trade Center disaster 2001, and c) agents or worksites causing allergic as well as irritant occupational asthma, included farming, poultry confinement, various isocyanates and platinum salts. A low evidence level (RCGP) was obtained for 84 agents or worksites (42 from each group

  1. Pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories: the role of catastrophic events.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Lindsey; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    People affected by substance use disorders often experience sub-optimal employment outcomes. The role of drug use in processes that produce and entrench labour market precarity among people who inject drugs (PWID) have not, however, been fully described. We recruited 22 PWID from ongoing prospective cohort studies in Vancouver, Canada, with whom we conducted semi-structured retrospective interviews and then employed a thematic analysis that drew on concepts from life course theory to explore the mechanisms and pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories. The participants' narratives identified processes corresponding to causation, whereby suboptimal employment outcomes led to harmful drug use; direct selection, where impairment, health complications or drug-seeking activities selected individuals out of employment; and indirect selection, where external factors, such as catastrophic events, marked the initiation or intensification of substance use concurrent with sudden changes in capacities for employment. Catastrophic events linking negative transitions in both drug use and labour market trajectories were of primary importance, demarcating critical initiation and transitional events in individual risk trajectories. These results challenge conventional assumptions about the primacy of drug use in determining employment outcomes among PWID and suggest the importance of multidimensional support to mitigate the initiation, accumulation and entrenchment of labour market and drug-related disadvantage. PMID:26358407

  2. Caring for medically unexplained physical symptoms after toxic environmental exposures: effects of contested causation.

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Charles C; Adkins, Joyce A; Cowan, David N

    2002-01-01

    Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are persistent idiopathic symptoms that drive patients to seek medical care. MUPS syndromes include chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia syndrome, and multiple chemical sensitivities. When MUPS occur after an environmental exposure or injury, an adversarial social context that we call "contested causation" may ensue. Contested causation may occur publicly and involve media controversy, scientific disagreement, political debate, and legal struggles. This adversarial social context may diminish the effectiveness of the provider-patient relationship. Contested causation also may occur privately, when disagreement over the causes of MUPS takes place in the patient-provider context. These patient-provider disagreements over causation often occur because of the enigmatic nature of MUPS. We suggest that a context of contested causation may have serious negative effects on healthcare for individuals with MUPS. Context plays a larger role in MUPS care than it does for most medical care because of the uncertain nature of MUPS, the reliance of standard MUPS therapies on a potentially tenuous patient-provider partnership, and the clinical need to rely routinely on subjective MUPS assessments that often yield discordant patient and provider conclusions. Contested causation may erode patient-provider trust, test the provider's self-assurance and capacity to share power with the patient, and raise problematic issues of compensation, reparation, and blame. These issues may distract patients and providers from therapeutic goals. In occupational and military settings, the adverse impact of contested causation on the patient-provider partnership may diminish therapeutic effectiveness to a greater degree than it does in other medical settings. Contested causation therefore raises questions regarding generalizability of standard therapies for MUPS and related syndromes to these settings. Future research is needed to learn whether

  3. Trends in cancer patient survival in Estonia before and after the transition from a Soviet republic to an open-market economy.

    PubMed

    Aareleid, Tiiu; Brenner, Hermann

    2002-11-01

    Cancer patients' survival is strongly dependent on socioeconomic factors, including access to and quality of medical care. During the past decade, Estonia has undergone a major political and economic change from a Soviet republic to an open-market economy country, and the health care system was transformed from a centralised state-controlled system into a decentralised health insurance-based one. Using data from the population-based Estonian Cancer Registry, we assessed trends in cancer patient survival before and after this transition by application of period analysis, a new method of survival analysis, which allows more timely disclosure of time trends than traditional survival analysis. Our study included 83,138 patients diagnosed with 1 of the 11 most frequent malignancies in Estonia from 1969-1998. Patients were followed up to the end of 1998. Despite a moderate increase in 5- and 10-year relative survival over time, prognosis for many common forms of cancer, such as stomach, colorectal, breast and ovarian cancer, remained considerably worse than the survival rates achieved in more affluent European countries many years ago. By contrast, a very steep increase in survival rates was observed for common urologic cancers, including prostate, kidney and bladder cancer, which went along with a rise in incidence rates of these cancers over time. For prostate cancer, similar survival rates as in other European countries have now been achieved. The most likely explanation for these trends is enhanced availability and utilization of laboratory and technical diagnostic equipment. Despite recent improvement, major efforts in delivering modern cancer care to the population of Estonia will be required to close the gap that continues to exist between prognosis of cancer patients in this country and other European countries. PMID:12353233

  4. Correlation versus Causation? Pharmacovigilance of the Analgesic Flupirtine Exemplifies the Need for Refined Spontaneous ADR Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nora; Borlak, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Annually, adverse drug reactions result in more than 2,000,000 hospitalizations and rank among the top 10 causes of death in the United States. Consequently, there is a need to continuously monitor and to improve the safety assessment of marketed drugs. Nonetheless, pharmacovigilance practice frequently lacks causality assessment. Here, we report the case of flupirtine, a centrally acting non-opioid analgesic. We re-evaluated the plausibility and causality of 226 unselected, spontaneously reported hepatobiliary adverse drug reactions according to the adapted Bradford-Hill criteria, CIOMS score and WHO-UMC scales. Thorough re-evaluation showed that only about 20% of the reported cases were probable or likely for flupirtine treatment, suggesting an incidence of flupirtine-related liver injury of 1∶ 100,000 when estimated prescription data are considered, or 0.8 in 10,000 on the basis of all 226 reported adverse drug reactions. Neither daily or cumulative dose nor duration of treatment correlated with markers of liver injury. In the majority of cases (151/226), an average of 3 co-medications with drugs known for their liver liability was observed that may well be causative for adverse drug reactions, but were reported under a suspected flupirtine ADR. Our study highlights the need to improve the quality and standards of ADR reporting. This should be done with utmost care taking into account contributing factors such as concomitant medications including over-the-counter drugs, the medical history and current health conditions, in order to avoid unjustified flagging and drug warnings that may erroneously cause uncertainty among healthcare professionals and patients, and may eventually lead to unjustified safety signals of useful drugs with a reasonable risk to benefit ratio. PMID:22022383

  5. "Isn't the Trigger the Thing that Sets the Rest of It on Fire?" Causation Maps: Emphasising Chronology in Causation Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Analogies for teaching about causation abound. Rick Rogers is alert, however, to the risks inherent in drawing on everyday ideas to explain historical processes. What most often gets lost is the importance of the chronological dimension; both the length of time during which some contributory causes may have been present, and the ways in which they…

  6. Borrelia burgdorferi, the Causative Agent of Lyme Disease, Forms Drug-Tolerant Persister Cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bijaya; Brown, Autumn V; Matluck, Nicole E; Hu, Linden T; Lewis, Kim

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, which affects an estimated 300,000 people annually in the United States. When treated early, the disease usually resolves, but when left untreated, it can result in symptoms such as arthritis and encephalopathy. Treatment of the late-stage disease may require multiple courses of antibiotic therapy. Given that antibiotic resistance has not been observed for B. burgdorferi, the reason for the recalcitrance of late-stage disease to antibiotics is unclear. In other chronic infections, the presence of drug-tolerant persisters has been linked to recalcitrance of the disease. In this study, we examined the ability of B. burgdorferi to form persisters. Killing growing cultures of B. burgdorferi with antibiotics used to treat the disease was distinctly biphasic, with a small subpopulation of surviving cells. Upon regrowth, these cells formed a new subpopulation of antibiotic-tolerant cells, indicating that these are persisters rather than resistant mutants. The level of persisters increased sharply as the culture transitioned from the exponential to stationary phase. Combinations of antibiotics did not improve killing. Daptomycin, a membrane-active bactericidal antibiotic, killed stationary-phase cells but not persisters. Mitomycin C, an anticancer agent that forms adducts with DNA, killed persisters and eradicated growing and stationary cultures of B. burgdorferi. Finally, we examined the ability of pulse dosing an antibiotic to eliminate persisters. After addition of ceftriaxone, the antibiotic was washed away, surviving persisters were allowed to resuscitate, and the antibiotic was added again. Four pulse doses of ceftriaxone killed persisters, eradicating all live bacteria in the culture. PMID:26014929

  7. Borrelia burgdorferi, the Causative Agent of Lyme Disease, Forms Drug-Tolerant Persister Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bijaya; Brown, Autumn V.; Matluck, Nicole E.; Hu, Linden T.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, which affects an estimated 300,000 people annually in the United States. When treated early, the disease usually resolves, but when left untreated, it can result in symptoms such as arthritis and encephalopathy. Treatment of the late-stage disease may require multiple courses of antibiotic therapy. Given that antibiotic resistance has not been observed for B. burgdorferi, the reason for the recalcitrance of late-stage disease to antibiotics is unclear. In other chronic infections, the presence of drug-tolerant persisters has been linked to recalcitrance of the disease. In this study, we examined the ability of B. burgdorferi to form persisters. Killing growing cultures of B. burgdorferi with antibiotics used to treat the disease was distinctly biphasic, with a small subpopulation of surviving cells. Upon regrowth, these cells formed a new subpopulation of antibiotic-tolerant cells, indicating that these are persisters rather than resistant mutants. The level of persisters increased sharply as the culture transitioned from the exponential to stationary phase. Combinations of antibiotics did not improve killing. Daptomycin, a membrane-active bactericidal antibiotic, killed stationary-phase cells but not persisters. Mitomycin C, an anticancer agent that forms adducts with DNA, killed persisters and eradicated growing and stationary cultures of B. burgdorferi. Finally, we examined the ability of pulse dosing an antibiotic to eliminate persisters. After addition of ceftriaxone, the antibiotic was washed away, surviving persisters were allowed to resuscitate, and the antibiotic was added again. Four pulse doses of ceftriaxone killed persisters, eradicating all live bacteria in the culture. PMID:26014929

  8. Misalignment between Post-Secondary Education Demand and Labour Market Supply: Preliminary Insight from Young Adults on the Evolving School to Work Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, John R.; Shier, Micheal L.; Eisenstat, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Most research on labour market outcomes and higher education finds a positive relationship. This qualitative research sought to better understand how higher educational attainment contributes to employment outcomes from a subsample (n = 15) of a larger study (N = 36) on youth labour market attachment among minority, low socioeconomic status young…

  9. An evaluation of applied biomechanics as an adjunct to systematic specific causation in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael D; Kohles, Sean S

    2011-10-01

    Biomechanical tests of post hoc probability have been proposed by prior authors as reliable tests of causation in forensic settings. Biomechanical assessment of injury kinetics and kinematics is a potentially important tool in forensic medicine, but there is also the potential for misapplication. The most reliable application is when biomechanical analysis is used to explain injury mechanisms, such as how an injury may have occurred. When a biomechanical analysis is used as a means of determining whether, rather than how an injury has resulted from a traumatic exposure, then a lack of reliability of the methodology limits its application in forensic medicine. Herein, we describe a systematic assessment of causation by adapting established general causation principles to specific causation scenarios, and how biomechanical analysis of injury mechanics is properly used to augment such an approach in conjunction with the principles of forensic epidemiology. An example calculation of relative risk associated with cervical spine injury is provided as a representative probabilistic metric for assessing causation. The statistical benefits and limitations of biomechanical analysis are discussed as an adjunct to forensic medicine. PMID:21792525

  10. A Cognitive Account of Mood in Complements of Causative Predicates in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejías-Bikandi, Errapel

    2014-01-01

    Complements of causative predicates such as "hacer" in Spanish present a problem for analyses of mood that are based on semantic or pragmatic notions of assertion. The problem results from the fact that information expressed by these complements is presented both as true and new, and yet the complement verb appears in the subjunctive…

  11. Analytic Causative Constructions in Medieval Spanish: The Origins of a Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanaphre Villanueva, Monica

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to provide an inventory of the Analytic Causative constructions that were in use in Peninsular Spanish from the 12th to the 16th centuries from the constructional perspective of Cognitive Grammar. A detailed profile of each construction was made including its constructional schema along with relevant semantic, syntactic,…

  12. Genome Sequence of Taylorella equigenitalis MCE9, the Causative Agent of Contagious Equine Metritis▿

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Laurent; Moumen, Bouziane; Duquesne, Fabien; Breuil, Marie-France; Laugier, Claire; Batto, Jean-Michel; Renault, Pierre; Petry, Sandrine

    2011-01-01

    Taylorella equigenitalis is the causative agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM), a sexually transmitted infection of horses. We herein report the genome sequence of T. equigenitalis strain MCE9, isolated in 2005 from the urethral fossa of a 4-year-old stallion in France. PMID:21278298

  13. [Paradigm shift in health: forecasting and causation as a basis for risk management].

    PubMed

    Denisov, E I; Prokopenko, L V; Golovaneva, G V; Stepanian, I V

    2012-01-01

    The problem of occupational risk management (ORM) is discussed using the evidence-based medicine approach and bio- and IT-technologies. The prognosis and causation of work-related health disorders are analyzed as components of ORM system. The Web-based handbook "Occupational risk assessment" with software and information materials as practical tool is presented. PMID:23243725

  14. Contemporary Thinking about Causation in Evaluation: A Dialogue with Tom Cook and Michael Scriven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas D.; Scriven, Michael; Coryn, Chris L. S.; Evergreen, Stephanie D. H.

    2010-01-01

    Legitimate knowledge claims about causation have been a central concern among evaluators and applied researchers for several decades and often have been the subject of heated debates. In recent years these debates have resurfaced with a renewed intensity, due in part to the priority currently being given to randomized experiments by many funders…

  15. 6.9 Sikkim Earthquake and Modeling of Ground Motions to Determine Causative Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Sumer; Sharma, Jyoti; Sutar, Anup; Bansal, B. K.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, source parameters of the September 18, 2011 M w 6.9, Sikkim earthquake were determined using acceleration records. These parameters were then used to generate strong motion at a number of sites using the stochastic finite fault modeling technique to constrain the causative fault plane for this earthquake. The average values of corner frequency, seismic moment, stress drop and source radius were 0.12 Hz, 3.07 × 1026 dyne-cm, 115 bars and 9.68 km, respectively. The fault plane solution showed strike-slip movement with two nodal planes oriented along two prominent lineaments in the region, the NE-oriented Kanchendzonga and NW-oriented Tista lineaments. The ground motions were estimated considering both the nodal planes as causative faults and the results in terms of the peak ground accelerations (PGA) and Fourier spectra were then compared with the actual recordings. We found that the NW-SE striking nodal plane along the Tista lineament may have been the causative fault for the Sikkim earthquake, as PGA estimates are comparable with the observed recordings. We also observed that the Fourier spectrum is not a good parameter in deciding the causative fault plane.

  16. Critical Issues in Causation and Treatment of Autism: Why Fads Continue to Flourish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Mary E.; Pace, Darra; Blue, Elfreda; Schwartz, Diane

    2012-01-01

    The increasing incidence of autism and the lack of specific answers regarding causation have given rise to unproven educational interventions and medical treatments. Parents of a newly diagnosed child can easily fall prey to interventions that promise cures. These interventions may be harmful and, thus, pose one of the critical issues in special…

  17. Genome sequence of Taylorella equigenitalis MCE9, the causative agent of contagious equine metritis.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Laurent; Moumen, Bouziane; Duquesne, Fabien; Breuil, Marie-France; Laugier, Claire; Batto, Jean-Michel; Renault, Pierre; Petry, Sandrine

    2011-04-01

    Taylorella equigenitalis is the causative agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM), a sexually transmitted infection of horses. We herein report the genome sequence of T. equigenitalis strain MCE9, isolated in 2005 from the urethral fossa of a 4-year-old stallion in France. PMID:21278298

  18. Negative Affect and Job Search: Further Examination of the Reverse Causation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Craig D.; Stanton, Jeffrey M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined a longitudinal model of state and trait negative affect as predictors of job-search success. Job-search self-efficacy and job-search intensity were also examined as mediators of the negative affect--job-search success relation. Overall the model offered mixed support for Kasl's (1982) Reverse Causation Hypothesis.…

  19. Depression and Poverty among Rural Women: A Relationship of Social Causation or Social Selection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Leigh A.; Braun, Bonnie; Charnigo, Richard; Havens, Jennifer R.; Wright, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Depression among rural women is a major public health concern. The purpose of this study was to test the competing theories of social causation and social selection to assess the relationship between depression and economic status for a sample of rural, low-income women in the United States. Methods: Structural equation…

  20. 50 CFR 296.7 - Burden of proof and presumption of causation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Burden of proof and presumption of causation. 296.7 Section 296.7 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY...

  1. To Market, to Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    The institution is part of a national market and its presidential options are dictated by that market, the reputation, the challenges of the position, and the relative compensation for the opportunity to lead the organization. Many in academe are uncomfortable with the idea that hiring in higher education should be governed by the laws of supply…

  2. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  3. Perestroika and Its Impact on the Soviet Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Horst

    1991-01-01

    Discusses two books, "Restructuring the Soviet Economy: In Search of the Market" and "In Search of Flexibility: The New Soviet Labour Market," that assess the success of perestroika and the transition to a market-based economy. (JOW)

  4. Survival tactics for managing the hospital marketing effort.

    PubMed

    Schaupp, D L; Ponzurick, T G; Schaupp, F W

    1994-01-01

    Hospital marketing is an intricate and complex process. Especially difficult is the transition the hospital marketer must make from designing marketing strategies to implementing those strategies. This transition usually causes the marketer to call upon a different set of skills. These skills involve managing the personnel needed to implement the designed marketing strategy. Unfortunately, little in the way of formal training is provided the marketer for developing these management skills. Therefore, the authors have comprised a series of tactical procedures designed to assist the hospital marketer to survive this transition. Using these tactics for decision-making guidelines may help to improve the management of the hospital's marketing effort. PMID:10137161

  5. Conducting a Labor Market Trend Analysis: Process and Results. Working Paper 85-3. COMPETE: Community-Based Model for Public-School Exit and Transition to Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitlington, Patricia L.; Easterday, Joseph R.

    The purpose of Project COMPETE is to use previous research and exemplary practices to develop and validate a model and training sequence to assist retarded youth to make the transition from school to employment in the most competitive environment possible. This project working paper describes the process of using existing information sources to…

  6. Trends in Gender Disparities at the Transition from School to Work: Labour Market Entries of Young Men and Women between 1984 and 2005 in West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita; Kleinert, Corinna; Kuhhirt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines trends in school-to-work transitions of young men and women with lower and higher secondary education in West Germany between 1984 and 2005. This period was marked by an increase in young women's educational attainment and a continuous growth of the service sector. We assume that both developments have benefited women more…

  7. Top-down causation by information control: from a philosophical problem to a scientific research programme

    PubMed Central

    Auletta, G; Ellis, G.F.R; Jaeger, L

    2008-01-01

    It has been claimed that different types of causes must be considered in biological systems, including top-down as well as same-level and bottom-up causation, thus enabling the top levels to be causally efficacious in their own right. To clarify this issue, the important distinctions between information and signs are introduced here and the concepts of information control and functional equivalence classes in those systems are rigorously defined and used to characterize when top-down causation by feedback control happens, in a way that is testable. The causally significant elements we consider are equivalence classes of lower level processes, realized in biological systems through different operations having the same outcome within the context of information control and networks. PMID:18319208

  8. Geophysical evidence for a causative process for fragmentation in western Gondwana

    SciTech Connect

    Antoine, L.A.G.; Moyes, A.B. )

    1992-07-01

    The existence and subsequent fragmentation of the Gondwana supercontinent are well established in the geological literature. Debate continues, however, on the exact prefragmentation geometry and the causative process of breakup. The easter Walvis Ridge and the Agulhas and the Mozambique plateaus, which surround southern Africa, exhibit geophysically anomalous oceanic crust and lithosphere. In the vicinity of these aseismic bathymetry highs, the crust is considerably thicker than normal, and the uppermost mantle has lower than normal densities and seismic velocities. Within a Gondwana framework, these anomalies coincide with a highly fragmented region at the triple junction of the three major plates (Africa, South America, and Antarctica). This anomalous oceanic crust and lithosphere, the ubiquitous and contemporaneous magmatism, and the basin and range-type tectonism of the region are consonant with a hot-mantle-upflow tectonic framework as the causative process for fragmentation.

  9. Analyzing the causation of a railway accident based on a complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xin; Li, Ke-Ping; Luo, Zi-Yan; Zhou, Jin

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a new model is constructed for the causation analysis of railway accident based on the complex network theory. In the model, the nodes are defined as various manifest or latent accident causal factors. By employing the complex network theory, especially its statistical indicators, the railway accident as well as its key causations can be analyzed from the overall perspective. As a case, the “7.23” China—Yongwen railway accident is illustrated based on this model. The results show that the inspection of signals and the checking of line conditions before trains run played an important role in this railway accident. In conclusion, the constructed model gives a theoretical clue for railway accident prediction and, hence, greatly reduces the occurrence of railway accidents.

  10. Exome sequencing identifies NBEAL2 as the causative gene for Gray Platelet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Cornelis A; Cvejic, Ana; Favier, Rémi; Bouwmans, Evelien E; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Bertone, Paul; Jordan, Gregory; Kettleborough, Ross NW; Kiddle, Graham; Kostadima, Myrto; Read, Randy J; Sipos, Botond; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Smethurst, Peter A; Stephens, Jonathan; Voss, Katrin; Nurden, Alan; Rendon, Augusto; Nurden, Paquita; Ouwehand, Willem H

    2012-01-01

    Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is a predominantly recessive platelet disorder characterized by a mild thrombocytopenia with large platelets and a paucity of α-granules; these abnormalities cause mostly moderate but in rare cases severe bleeding. We sequenced the exomes of four unrelated cases and identified as the causative gene NBEAL2, a gene with previously unknown function but a member of a gene family involved in granule development. Silencing of nbeal2 in zebrafish abrogated thrombocyte formation. PMID:21765411

  11. 76 FR 15268 - Guidelines for Determining Probability of Causation Under the Energy Employees Occupational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... ``probability of causation'' guidelines on May 2, 2002 (67 FR 22296) under 42 CFR part 81. The HHS probability... relationship.\\8\\ \\3\\ 67 FR 22296, 22302 (May 2, 2002) (codified at 42 CFR part 81). \\4\\ Darby SC, Doll R, Gill... part 81 continues to read as follows: Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7384n; E.O. 13179, 65 FR 77487, 3 CFR,...

  12. Chrysomya bezziana as a Causative Agent of Human Myiasis in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, A; Rasekhi, AR; Kalantari, M; Hatam, GR

    2009-01-01

    Myiasis is the invasion of body tissues of humans or animals by the larvae of the Diptera or two-winged flies. The various forms of myiasis may be classified from clinical or entomological point. This study describes the existence of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) cases as a causative agent of myiasis in 18 and 87 year-old men in two different regions in Fars Province. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of mentioned species in this province. PMID:22808374

  13. From Correlation to Causation: What Do We Need in the Historical Sciences?

    PubMed

    Ebach, Malte C; Michael, Michaelis S

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the methodology of the historical sciences make them more vulnerable to unjustifiable speculations being passed off as scientific results. The integrity of historical science is in peril due the way speculative and often unexamined causal assumptions are being used to generate data and underpin the identification of correlations in such data. A step toward a solution is to distinguish between plausible and speculative assumptions that facilitate the inference from measured and observed data to causal claims. One way to do that is by comparing these assumptions against a well-attested set of aspects of causation, such as the so-called "Bradford Hill Criteria" (BHC). The BHC do not provide a test for causation or necessary and sufficient conditions for causation but do indicate grounds for further investigation. By revising the BHC to reflect the needs and focus of historical sciences, it will be possible to assess the cogency of methods of investigation. These will be the Historical Sciences Bradford Hill Criteria (HSBHC). An application to one area in historical science is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the HSBHC, namely biogeography. Four methods are assessed in order to show how the HSBHC can be used to examine the assumptions between our data and the causal biogeographical processes we infer. PMID:27364751

  14. 2013 Thomas Willis Award Lecture: Causation and collaboration for stroke research.

    PubMed

    Lo, Eng H

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of stroke is complex. Adaptive and maladaptive signalling occurs between multiple cell types in the brain. There is crosstalk between central and systemic responses. And there are overlapping pathways during initial injury and subsequent repair. These numerous feed-forward and feed-back interactions have made it difficult to translate experimental discoveries into clinical applications. An emerging hypothesis in biomedical research now suggests that contrary to a traditional model, translation may not be efficiently obtained without a rigorous understanding of mechanisms. Hence, to optimize diagnostics and therapeutics for stroke patients, it is necessary to identify and define causal mechanisms. Mirroring the multi-compartment interactions in stroke pathophysiology, bench-to-bedside, and bedside-back-to-bench advances in stroke may be best achieved with inter-disciplinary collaborations between basic research, neuroimaging, and broadly based clinical science. Causation can then be two-fold, ie, dissecting mechanisms and targets, as well as developing future scientists who can blur the boundaries between basic, translational, and clinical research. In systems theory, a critical goal is to distinguish causation from correlation. In stroke research, causation may perhaps be found through a collaborative search for mechanisms. PMID:24203848

  15. Firm-Specific Marketing Capital and Job Satisfaction of Marketers: Evidence from Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tho D.; Nguyen, Trang T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the resource-based view of the firm, this study aims to examine antecedents and outcomes of firm-specific marketing capital pool invested by marketers in a transition market, Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 528 marketers in Ho Chi Minh City was surveyed to test the theoretical model. Structural equation…

  16. Measuring market performance in restructured electricity markets: An empirical analysis of the PJM energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Russell Jay

    2002-09-01

    Today the electric industry in the U.S. is transitioning to competitive markets for wholesale electricity. Independent system operators (ISOs) now manage broad regional markets for electrical energy in several areas of the U.S. A recent rulemaking by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) encourages the development of regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and restructured competitive wholesale electricity markets nationwide. To date, the transition to competitive wholesale markets has not been easy. The increased reliance on market forces coupled with unusually high electricity demand for some periods have created conditions amenable to market power abuse in many regions throughout the U.S. In the summer of 1999, hot and humid summer conditions in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia pushed peak demand in the PJM Interconnection to record levels. These demand conditions coincided with the introduction of market-based pricing in the wholesale electricity market. Prices for electricity increased on average by 55 percent, and reached the $1,000/MWh range. This study examines the extent to which generator market power raised prices above competitive levels in the PJM Interconnection during the summer of 1999. It simulates hourly market-clearing prices assuming competitive market behavior and compares these prices with observed market prices in computing price markups over the April 1-August 31, 1999 period. The results of the simulation analysis are supported with an examination of actual generator bid data of incumbent generators. Price markups averaged 14.7 percent above expected marginal cost over the 5-month period for all non-transmission-constrained hours. The evidence presented suggests that the June and July monthly markups were strongly influenced by generator market power as price inelastic peak demand approached the electricity generation capacity constraint of the market. While this analysis of the

  17. Communication impacting financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitting Andersen, Jørgen; Vrontos, Ioannis; Dellaportas, Petros; Galam, Serge

    2014-10-01

    Since the attribution of the Nobel prize in 2002 to Kahneman for prospect theory, behavioral finance has become an increasingly important subfield of finance. However the main parts of behavioral finance, prospect theory included, understand financial markets through individual investment behavior. Behavioral finance thereby ignores any interaction between participants. We introduce a socio-financial model (Vitting Andersen J. and Nowak A., An Introduction to Socio-Finance (Springer, Berlin) 2013) that studies the impact of communication on the pricing in financial markets. Considering the simplest possible case where each market participant has either a positive (bullish) or negative (bearish) sentiment with respect to the market, we model the evolution of the sentiment in the population due to communication in subgroups of different sizes. Nonlinear feedback effects between the market performance and changes in sentiments are taken into account by assuming that the market performance is dependent on changes in sentiments (e.g., a large sudden positive change in bullishness would lead to more buying). The market performance in turn has an impact on the sentiment through the transition probabilities to change an opinion in a group of a given size. The idea is that if for example the market has observed a recent downturn, it will be easier for even a bearish minority to convince a bullish majority to change opinion compared to the case where the meeting takes place in a bullish upturn of the market. Within the framework of our proposed model, financial markets stylized facts such as volatility clustering and extreme events may be perceived as arising due to abrupt sentiment changes via ongoing communication of the market participants. The model introduces a new volatility measure which is apt of capturing volatility clustering and from maximum-likelihood analysis we are able to apply the model to real data and give additional long term insight into where a market is

  18. Nonwork and off-peak trips by transit, walk and bicycle modes: An understanding of existing and potential markets. Final report, 1 August 1996--28 February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Soeoet, S.; Sen, A.; Yang, D.; Dirks, L.; Sternberg, T.

    1999-03-01

    The study identifies the characteristics of neighborhoods that contribute to off-peak transit, walk or bike use. The emphasis is on off-peak and nonwork trips and how to promote modes other than the automobile. By producing thirty maps illustrating socioeconomic and travel behavior patterns in the Chicago area, the potential for stabilizing and then increasing the utilization of these modes is examined. Substantial amounts of data were processed and reported. For example, off-peak trips, accounting for 48% of daily travel, are shorter than trips during the peak (in miles and minutes) for travel by both public transit and by private vehicle. Regionally, walking trips vary from 42% of all trips made by Chicago CBD residents (mainly to shop and work), 17% in the rest of the city and less than 5% in suburban Chicago. Bicycle ownership is related to the number of vehicles in the household, household income, household size and distance from the Chicago CBD. These data and field observations of three case-study neighborhoods revealed that differences in modes used are related to the land-use patterns and the socioeconomic characteristics of the resident population. While areas with low automobile ownership rates might suggest walking and bicycling, these nonmotorized modes are more common in affluent neighborhoods with a large number of nearby commercial and recreational destinations.

  19. Growing a market economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  20. Using Sequence Variants in Linkage Disequilibrium with Causative Mutations to Improve Across-Breed Prediction in Dairy Cattle: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Irene; Boichard, Didier; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S

    2016-01-01

    Sequence data are expected to increase the reliability of genomic prediction by containing causative mutations directly, especially in cases where low linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations limits prediction reliability, such as across-breed prediction in dairy cattle. In practice, the causative mutations are unknown, and prediction with only variants in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the causative mutations is not realistic, leading to a reduced reliability compared to knowing the causative variants. Our objective was to use sequence data to investigate the potential benefits of sequence data for the prediction of genomic relationships, and consequently reliability of genomic breeding values. We used sequence data from five dairy cattle breeds, and a larger number of imputed sequences for two of the five breeds. We focused on the influence of linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations, and assumed that a fraction of the causative mutations was shared across breeds and had the same effect across breeds. By comparing the loss in reliability of different scenarios, varying the distance between markers and causative mutations, using either all genome wide markers from commercial SNP chips, or only the markers closest to the causative mutations, we demonstrate the importance of using only variants very close to the causative mutations, especially for across-breed prediction. Rare variants improved prediction only if they were very close to rare causative mutations, and all causative mutations were rare. Our results show that sequence data can potentially improve genomic prediction, but careful selection of markers is essential. PMID:27317779

  1. Using Sequence Variants in Linkage Disequilibrium with Causative Mutations to Improve Across-Breed Prediction in Dairy Cattle: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Irene; Boichard, Didier; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S.

    2016-01-01

    Sequence data are expected to increase the reliability of genomic prediction by containing causative mutations directly, especially in cases where low linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations limits prediction reliability, such as across-breed prediction in dairy cattle. In practice, the causative mutations are unknown, and prediction with only variants in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the causative mutations is not realistic, leading to a reduced reliability compared to knowing the causative variants. Our objective was to use sequence data to investigate the potential benefits of sequence data for the prediction of genomic relationships, and consequently reliability of genomic breeding values. We used sequence data from five dairy cattle breeds, and a larger number of imputed sequences for two of the five breeds. We focused on the influence of linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations, and assumed that a fraction of the causative mutations was shared across breeds and had the same effect across breeds. By comparing the loss in reliability of different scenarios, varying the distance between markers and causative mutations, using either all genome wide markers from commercial SNP chips, or only the markers closest to the causative mutations, we demonstrate the importance of using only variants very close to the causative mutations, especially for across-breed prediction. Rare variants improved prediction only if they were very close to rare causative mutations, and all causative mutations were rare. Our results show that sequence data can potentially improve genomic prediction, but careful selection of markers is essential. PMID:27317779

  2. No causative DLL4 mutations in periodic catatonia patients from 15q15 linked families.

    PubMed

    McKeane, D P; Meyer, J; Dobrin, S E; Melmed, K M; Ekawardhani, S; Tracy, N A; Lesch, K P; Stephan, D A

    2005-06-01

    Two well-supported theories of schizophrenia pathogenesis are the neurotransmitter theory and the neurodevelopmental theory, suggesting, respectively, that dysregulation of neurotransmitter signaling and abnormal brain development are causative in this disease. The strongest evidence of neurotransmitter involvement are suggestions of abnormal dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex and one of the strongest indications of developmental abnormalities contributing to this disease is an inverse layering of the prefrontal cortex. These two theories of schizophrenia pathogenesis can be united by their involvement of the prefrontal cortex, where structural abnormalities could lead to neurochemical abnormalities. Accordingly, any gene expressed in the prefrontal cortex of developing brains is a functional candidate for schizophrenia. We have previously reported strong linkage to 15q15 (LOD = 3. 57; P = 2.6 x 10(-5)) in a collection of German multiplex families segregating the periodic catatonia subtype of schizophrenia in a nearly Mendelian fashion. A gene within our 15q15 linkage region, DLL4, is expressed in developing forebrain and produces a NOTCH4 ligand. Variants of NOTCH4 are associated with schizophrenia, thus DLL4 is both a functional as well as a positional candidate for schizophrenia. We screened this gene for mutations in three affected individuals and two unrelated controls and found two previously unreported SNPs, one non-synonymous polymorphism that changed an arganine to a histadine in Exon 7 and one synonymous polymorphism in exons. The non-synonymous SNP is a rare variant in that it was not found in 100 control chromosomes; however, it did not cosegregate with the disease in the extended family so it is not causative in this pedigree. It is unlikely that mutations in DLL4 are causative in this collection of families with linkage to 15q15. PMID:15820317

  3. Causative Mechanisms of Tropical (10°N-15°N) Mesospheric Inversion Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Karanam; Sundararajan, Sridharan; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.

    2016-07-01

    The inversion of temperature gradient from negative to positive superimposed upon the characteristically decreasing mesospheric thermal structure is known as Mesospheric Inversion Layer (MIL). Gravity wave breaking, planetary wave critical level interaction and the chemical heating have been suggested as potential causative mechanisms for the occurrence of the MILs. Although the morphological characteristics of MIL have been studied in detail at different sites using various instrumental techniques, their causative mechanisms are still unknown. In the present study, nearly all these major causative mechanisms have been addressed through a few case studies observed from Rayleigh lidar and TIMED-SABER (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics - Sounding of Atmosphere by Broadband Emission Radiometry) nightly temperatures over a tropical site, Gadanki (13.5°N,79.2°E). A few large MILs are observed above ˜80 km with amplitude and thickness of ˜50 K and ˜5 km respectively in 2007 and 2011 which are found to be predominantly due to gravity wave breaking and large chemical heating rate (˜15 K/day) by the exothermic reaction, H+O _{3}->OH+O _{2} respectively. It is also found that the SABER shows larger ozone (O _{3}) mixing ratios at the inversion heights (˜80-85 km) during the MIL events in 2011. In another special case study, a triple layered MIL event with three inversion layers at ˜70 km (˜11 K), 80 km (˜44 K), 90 km (˜109 K) has been observed in September 2011 over Gadanki region. It is found that these three inversion layers are respectively due to planetary wave breaking, gravity wave tidal interaction and chemical heating by the reaction, O+O+M->O _{2}+M.

  4. Causation mechanisms in car-to-vulnerable road user crashes: implications for active safety systems.

    PubMed

    Habibovic, Azra; Davidsson, Johan

    2012-11-01

    Vulnerable road users (VRUs), such as pedestrians and bicyclists, are often involved in crashes with passenger cars. One way to prevent these crashes is to deploy active safety systems that support the car drivers and/or VRUs. However, to develop such systems, a thorough understanding of crash causation mechanisms is required. The aim of this study is to identify crash causation mechanisms from the perspective of the VRUs, and to explore the implications of these mechanisms for the development of active safety systems. Data originate from the European project SafetyNet, where 995 crashes were in-depth investigated using the SafetyNet Accident Causation System (SNACS). To limit the scope, this study analyzed only intersection crashes involving VRUs. A total of 56 VRU crashes were aggregated. Results suggest that, while 30% of the VRUs did not see the conflict car due to visual obstructions in the traffic environment, 70% of the VRUs saw the car before the collision, but still misunderstood the traffic situation and/or made an inadequate plan of action. An important implication that follows from this is that, while detection of cars is clearly an issue that needs to be addressed, it is even more important to help the VRUs to correctly understand traffic situation (e.g., does the driver intend to slow down, and if s/he does, is it to let the VRU cross or for some other reason?). The former issue suggests a role for various cooperative active safety systems, as the obstacles are generally impenetrable with regular sensors. The latter issue is less straightforward. While various systems can be proposed, such as providing gap size estimation and reducing the car speed variability, the functional merits of each such a system need to be further investigated. PMID:23036427

  5. Specific Oligonucleotide Primers for Identification of Cladophialophora carrionii, a Causative Agent of Chromoblastomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Abliz, Paride; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Takizawa, Kayoko; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2004-01-01

    Cladophialophora carrionii is one of the relatively common causative agents of chromoblastomycosis. We have developed the specific oligonucleotide primer set based on the internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA for the rapid identification of this pathogen. PCR with this primer set amplified a 362-bp amplicon from C. carrionii strains. From other relevant dematiaceous species, including medically important dematiaceous fungi, such as Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Phialophora verrucosa, and Exophiala dermatitidis, and eight species of medically important yeasts, such as Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans, the primer set did not produce any amplicon. PCR with this primer set may be a useful tool for the identification of C. carrionii. PMID:14715791

  6. Direct interaction between causative genes of DYT1 and DYT6 primary dystonia.

    PubMed

    Gavarini, Sophie; Cayrol, Corinne; Fuchs, Tania; Lyons, Natalia; Ehrlich, Michelle E; Girard, Jean-Philippe; Ozelius, Laurie J

    2010-10-01

    Primary dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions and in which dystonia is the only or predominant clinical feature. TOR1A(DYT1) and the transcription factor THAP1(DYT6) are the only genes identified thus far for primary dystonia. Using electromobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we demonstrate a physical interaction between THAP1 and the TOR1A promoter that is abolished by pathophysiologic mutations. Our findings provide the first evidence that causative genes for primary dystonia intersect in a common pathway and raise the possibility of developing novel therapies targeting this pathway. PMID:20865765

  7. Cultural bases of images of causation in psychological disorder: a Colombian survey.

    PubMed

    Micklin, M; Leon, C A

    1978-01-01

    This study examines the influence of participation in differing socio-cultural contexts on beliefs about the causes of psychological disorder. Data were obtained through interviews with 794 laymen and 333 health workers, all residing in a single Colombian city. Results indicate an emphasis on organic causes among lay respondents and nearly equal emphasis on organic and social causes among medical-paramedical personnel. Futher variations are evident, between as well as within the two samples, when background characteristics are considered. Differences in these images of causation are explained in terms of the socio-cultural organization of Colombian society as well as that of the medical occupational subculture. PMID:659069

  8. Outcome Standards for Secondary Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James R., III

    A national panel consisting of marketing education advisory committee members, former marketing education students, and marketing education teacher-coordinators reacted to a list of 34 outcome standards developed through a literature review. The 34 standards focused on program quality, program relevance, individual transition to and growth in the…

  9. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Müller, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ˜273 800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus-Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and biodiversity

  10. Environmentalist thinking and the question of disease causation in late Spanish Philippines.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Raquel A G

    2014-10-01

    The scientific understanding of disease causation was crucial to the ways in which the Spanish colonial state addressed epidemic diseases which periodically struck nineteenth-century Philippines. Scholars have often described Spanish colonial responses in terms of ineptitude and failure, and have often glossed over the multiple and competing scientific theories that preoccupied Spanish and Filipino physicians. This article examines the work and ideas of nineteenth-century Spanish colonial and patriotic Filipino physicians regarding disease causation in the tropical environment of the Philippines. It will focus on two key developments-Spanish environmentalist thinking and the emerging fields of microscopy and bacteriology. Much like the British and French colonialists, Spaniards viewed tropical climates as insalubrious and conducive to disease, perceiving themselves as constitutionally at risk in hot places, ill-suited, exposed, and vulnerable to so-called native diseases. By the 1880s, however, young Filipino researchers, some of whom had trained in Spain and France, were undertaking new research on polluted water, malaria, and cells. Influenced by the revolutionary new discoveries being made in bacteriology, these researchers questioned prevailing environmentalist explanations and focused, for the first time, on the nature of pathogens and microbial pathogenesis in disease development and transmission. But germ theory remained an idea among many. This article argues that although late nineteenth-century studies in microscopy by Filipinos slowly began to challenge Spanish colonial ideas, different streams of thinking overlapped and no single scientific explanation came to predominate. PMID:23920487

  11. Prenatal SNP array testing in 1000 fetuses with ultrasound anomalies: causative, unexpected and susceptibility CNVs.

    PubMed

    Srebniak, Malgorzata I; Diderich, Karin Em; Joosten, Marieke; Govaerts, Lutgarde Cp; Knijnenburg, Jeroen; de Vries, Femke At; Boter, Marjan; Lont, Debora; Knapen, Maarten Fcm; de Wit, Merel C; Go, Attie Tji; Galjaard, Robert-Jan H; Van Opstal, Diane

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array testing in 1033 fetuses with ultrasound anomalies we investigated the prevalence and genetic nature of pathogenic findings. We reclassified all pathogenic findings into three categories: causative findings; unexpected diagnoses (UD); and susceptibility loci (SL) for neurodevelopmental disorders. After exclusion of trisomy 13, 18, 21, sex-chromosomal aneuploidy and triploidies, in 76/1033 (7.4%) fetuses a pathogenic chromosome abnormality was detected by genomic SNP array: in 19/1033 cases (1.8%) a microscopically detectable abnormality was found and in 57/1033 (5.5%) fetuses a pathogenic submicroscopic chromosome abnormality was detected. 58% (n=44) of all these pathogenic chromosome abnormalities involved a causative finding, 35% (n=27) a SL for neurodevelopmental disorder, and 6% (n=5) a UD of an early-onset untreatable disease. In 0.3% of parental samples an incidental pathogenic finding was encountered. Our results confirm that a genomic array should be the preferred first-tier technique in fetuses with ultrasound anomalies. All UDs involved early-onset diseases, which is beneficial for the patients to know. It also seems that UDs occur at a comparable frequency among microscopic and submicroscopic pathogenic findings. SL were more often detected than in pregnancies without ultrasound anomalies. PMID:26328504

  12. GPR41 and GPR43 in Obesity and Inflammation - Protective or Causative?

    PubMed

    Ang, Zhiwei; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2016-01-01

    GPR41 and GPR43 are a pair of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed in human adipocytes, colon epithelial cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These receptors are activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate - which are produced during dietary fiber fermentation by resident gut bacteria. This unique ligand specificity suggests that GPR41 and GPR43 may mediate the interaction between the human host and the gut microbiome. Indeed, studies on knockout mice implicate GPR41 and GPR43 in chronic inflammatory disorders such as obesity, colitis, asthma and arthritis. However, whether GPR41 and GPR43 are protective or causative is inconsistent between studies. This discrepancy may be due to differences in the disease models used, the inbred mouse strains, or non-specific knockout effects. Here, we review the latest findings on GPR41 and GPR43, highlighting contradictory observations. With GPR41 and GPR43 being considered as drug targets, it is pertinent that their role is fully elucidated. We propose that future studies on human tissues, ex vivo, may allow us to confirm the role of GPR41 and GPR43 in humans, be it protective or causative. PMID:26870043

  13. Determination of Causative fault for 2011 Sikkim-Nepal border earthquake using GPS baseline observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, S. K.; Pradhan, R.; Kumar, A.; Chopra, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Mw 6.9 Sikkim earthquake occurred on Sikkim-Nepal border at 12:40:48 UTC (epicenter 27.72°N, 88.06°E, depth 20.7 km. ~68 km NW of the Capital city Gangtok) on September 18th 2011. The recent earthquake that struck in Sikkim Himalaya is the strongest earthquake since the instrumentally recorded history. As a result, it is a good opportunity to study the earthquake. The fault plane solution of the earthquake indicates a strike-slip fault motion on either NE-SW or NW-SE nodal plane. The seismological and geological studies so far carried out after Sikkim earthquake could not confirm the causative fault plane. In present study GPS observation are used to ascertain the role of tectonics structure in the generation of the earthquake and its correlation with the seismicity of the region. The coseismic displacements recorded by GPS show maximal displacement of about 1 cm at Tapeljung, near the epicenter. We employ a simple rigid cross fault model with GPS baseline observations to figure out the causative source fault and seismological behavior of the earthquake. It has been observed that the movement represents of the kinematic adjustment of the subsidiary fault as a result of the displacement along the principal fault. In addition, a significant part of the measured deformation across the surface fault zone for this earthquake can be attributed to postseismic creep.

  14. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined. PMID:11401791

  15. Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statfeld, Jenna L.

    2011-01-01

    Post-school transition is the movement of a child with disabilities from school to activities that occur after the completion of school. This paper provides information about: (1) post-school transition; (2) transition plan; (3) transition services; (4) transition planning; (5) vocational rehabilitation services; (6) services that are available…

  16. Marketing 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  17. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it. PMID:15260028

  18. Non-Reflective Thinkers Are Predisposed to Attribute Supernatural Causation to Uncanny Experiences.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Romain; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2015-07-01

    For unknown reasons, individuals who are confident in their intuitions are more likely to hold supernatural beliefs. How does an intuitive cognitive style lead one to believe in faith healing, astrology, or extrasensory perception (ESP)? We hypothesize that cognitive style is critically important after one experiences an uncanny event that seems to invite a supernatural explanation. In three studies, we show that irrespective of their prior beliefs in the supernatural, non-reflective thinkers are more likely than reflective thinkers to accept supernatural causation after an uncanny encounter with astrology and ESP. This is the first time that controlled experiments demonstrate the negative dynamics of reflection and supernatural causality attribution. We consider the possible generalization of our findings to religious beliefs and their implications for the social vulnerability of non-reflective individuals. PMID:25948700

  19. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Martínez, Marcus Enrique; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific broad tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus (syn. Diphyllobothrium pacificum) is the causative agent of the third most common fish-borne cestodosis among humans. Although most of the nearly 1,000 cases among humans have been reported in South America (Peru, Chile, and Ecuador), cases recently imported to Europe demonstrate the potential for spread of this tapeworm throughout the world as a result of global trade of fresh or chilled marine fish and travel or migration of humans. We provide a comprehensive survey of human cases of infection with this zoonotic parasite, summarize the history of this re-emerging disease, and identify marine fish species that may serve as a source of human infection when eaten raw or undercooked. PMID:26402440

  20. Reprint of: cancer "causation" by infections--individual contributions and synergistic networks.

    PubMed

    Zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2015-04-01

    The search for infectious agents playing a role in human carcinogenesis and their identification remain important issues. This could provide clues for a broader spectrum of cancers preventable by vaccination and accessible to specific therapeutic regimens. Yet, the various ways of interacting among different factors functioning synergistically and their different modes of affecting individual cells should bring to question the validity of the term "causation". It also should put a word of caution into all attempts to summarize criteria for "causality" of infectious agents in cancer development. At least in the opinion of these authors, we would be much better off avoiding these terms, replacing "causal factor" by "risk factor" and grading them according to their contribution to an individual's cancer risk. PMID:25843727

  1. Depth Estimation of Simple Causative Sources from Gravity Gradient Tensor Invariants and Vertical Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oruç, Bülent

    2010-10-01

    The gravity gradient tensor (GGT) is deduced from products of second-order derivatives of the gravitational potential. A new method based on the invariants of the GGT has been proposed in this research to interpret gravity data due to sphere, infinite horizontal cylinder and semi-infinite vertical cylinder. The method estimates the depth of these simple causative sources from the multiplication of the maximum of the gravity vertical component by the maximum value of the invariants I 1 to I 2 ratio. To show the reliability and correctness of the estimated depths on 3-D models, the method has been tested using theoretical data with and without random noise. In addition, I have applied the method to a field-data example in Texas, USA and the depth obtained by the present method is compared with those published in the literature.

  2. Rapid Identification of Black Grain Eumycetoma Causative Agents Using Rolling Circle Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sarah A.; van den Ende, Bert H. G. Gerrits; Fahal, Ahmed H.; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; de Hoog, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate identification of mycetoma causative agent is a priority for treatment. However, current identification tools are far from being satisfactory for both reliable diagnosis and epidemiological investigations. A rapid, simple, and highly efficient molecular based method for identification of agents of black grain eumycetoma is introduced, aiming to improve diagnostic in endemic areas. Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) uses species-specific padlock probes and isothermal DNA amplification. The tests were based on ITS sequences and developed for Falciformispora senegalensis, F. tompkinsii, Madurella fahalii, M. mycetomatis, M. pseudomycetomatis, M. tropicana, Medicopsis romeroi, and Trematosphaeria grisea. With the isothermal RCA assay, 62 isolates were successfully identified with 100% specificity and no cross reactivity or false results. The main advantage of this technique is the low-cost, high specificity, and simplicity. In addition, it is highly reproducible and can be performed within a single day. PMID:25474355

  3. Case-control study of possible causative factors in mycosis fungoides

    SciTech Connect

    Tuyp, E.; Burgoyne, A.; Aitchison, T.; MacKie, R.

    1987-02-01

    A detailed case control study was carried out on 53 patients (33 males and 20 females) with histologically proven mycosis fungoides and on an age- and sex-matched control population. Possible causative factors investigated included occupation, recreation, and exposure to petrochemicals, pesticides, insecticides, and potential carcinogens. Exposure to plants of the Compositae family, tanning history, and chronic sun exposure were also investigated, as were smoking history, drug ingestion history, and other skin disease. Personal and family histories of other malignancies were also investigated. The only statistically significant difference to emerge was that the patients with mycosis fungoides had significantly more family history of atopic dermatitis. In view of the absence of any significant difference between patients and controls with regard to personal history of atopic dermatitis, this difference may be the result of multiple statistical testing rather than a phenomenon of true biological significance.

  4. Causal diagrams for empirical legal research: a methodology for identifying causation, avoiding bias and interpreting results

    PubMed Central

    VanderWeele, Tyler J.; Staudt, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce methodology—causal directed acyclic graphs—that empirical researchers can use to identify causation, avoid bias, and interpret empirical results. This methodology has become popular in a number of disciplines, including statistics, biostatistics, epidemiology and computer science, but has yet to appear in the empirical legal literature. Accordingly we outline the rules and principles underlying this new methodology and then show how it can assist empirical researchers through both hypothetical and real-world examples found in the extant literature. While causal directed acyclic graphs are certainly not a panacea for all empirical problems, we show they have potential to make the most basic and fundamental tasks, such as selecting covariate controls, relatively easy and straightforward. PMID:25685055

  5. Potential factors involved in the causation of rhabdomyolysis following status asthmaticus.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hongmei; Cheng, Huanji; Liu, Li; Yin, Jianing

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare but potentially fatal complication of status asthmaticus. Since the first case was reported in 1978, only a few dozen cases have been described till date. We performed a literature review with the aim to characterize the pathophysiological basis of the occurrence of rhabdomyolysis in patients with status asthmaticus. Excessive exertion of respiratory muscles, hypoxia and acidosis, electrolyte imbalance, infections, some drugs used for asthma control, use of mechanical ventilation, prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation, higher age of the patient and some underlying diseases or genetic factors appear to be involved in its causation. In patients with status asthmaticus, it is important to pay more attention to these factors and to closely monitor creatine kinase levels in blood so as to ensure early detection of rhabdomyolysis. PMID:27555875

  6. Correlation not Causation: The Relationship between Personality Traits and Political Ideologies

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, Brad; Eaves, Lindon J.; Hatemi, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    The assumption in the personality and politics literature is that a person's personality motivates them to develop certain political attitudes later in life. This assumption is founded on the simple correlation between the two constructs and the observation that personality traits are genetically influenced and develop in infancy, whereas political preferences develop later in life. Work in psychology, behavioral genetics, and recently political science, however, has demonstrated that political preferences also develop in childhood and are equally influenced by genetic factors. These findings cast doubt on the assumed causal relationship between personality and politics. Here we test the causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes using a direction of causation structural model on a genetically informative sample. The results suggest that personality traits do not cause people to develop political attitudes; rather, the correlation between the two is a function of an innate common underlying genetic factor. PMID:22400142

  7. Everyday magical powers: the role of apparent mental causation in the overestimation of personal influence.

    PubMed

    Pronin, Emily; Wegner, Daniel M; McCarthy, Kimberly; Rodriguez, Sylvia

    2006-08-01

    These studies examined whether having thoughts related to an event before it occurs leads people to infer that they caused the event--even when such causation might otherwise seem magical. In Study 1, people perceived that they had harmed another person via a voodoo hex. These perceptions were more likely among those who had first been induced to harbor evil thoughts about their victim. In Study 2, spectators of a peer's basketball-shooting performance were more likely to perceive that they had influenced his success if they had first generated positive visualizations consistent with that success. Observers privy to those spectators' visualizations made similar attributions about the spectators' influence. Finally, additional studies suggested that these results occur even when the thought-about outcome is viewed as unwanted by the thinker and even in field settings where the relevant outcome is occurring as part of a live athletic competition. PMID:16881760

  8. Causative Agent of Pogosta Disease Isolated from Blood and Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Manni, Tytti; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2004-01-01

    Pogosta disease is a mosquito-borne viral disease in Finland, which is clinically manifested by rash and arthritis; larger outbreaks occur in 7-year intervals. The causative agent of the disease has been suspected of being closely related to Sindbis virus (SINV). We isolated SINV from five patients with acute Pogosta disease during an outbreak in fall 2002 in Finland. One virus strain was recovered from a whole blood sample and four other strains from skin lesions. The etiology of Pogosta disease was confirmed by these first Finnish SINV strains, which also represent the first human SINV isolates from Europe. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Finnish SINV strains are closely related to the viral agents isolated from mosquitoes and that cause clinically similar diseases in nearby geographic areas. PMID:15200824

  9. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Roman; Serrano-Martínez, Marcus Enrique; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-10-01

    The Pacific broad tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus (syn. Diphyllobothrium pacificum) is the causative agent of the third most common fish-borne cestodosis among humans. Although most of the nearly 1,000 cases among humans have been reported in South America (Peru, Chile, and Ecuador), cases recently imported to Europe demonstrate the potential for spread of this tapeworm throughout the world as a result of global trade of fresh or chilled marine fish and travel or migration of humans. We provide a comprehensive survey of human cases of infection with this zoonotic parasite, summarize the history of this re-emerging disease, and identify marine fish species that may serve as a source of human infection when eaten raw or undercooked. PMID:26402440

  10. Mycology - an update. Part 1: Dermatomycoses: causative agents, epidemiology and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, Pietro; Krüger, Constanze; Ginter-Hanselmayer, Gabriele; Tietz, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-03-01

    Dermatomycoses are caused most commonly by dermatophytes. The anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is still the most frequent causative agent worldwide. Keratinolytic enzymes, e.g. hydrolases and keratinases, are important virulence factors of T. rubrum. Recently, the cysteine dioxygenase was found as new virulence factor. Predisposing host factors play a similarly important role for the development of dermatophytosis of the skin and nails. Chronic venous insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, disorders of cellular immunity, and genetic predisposition should be considered as risk factors for onychomycosis. A new alarming trend is the increasing number of cases of onychomycosis - mostly due to T. rubrum - in infancy. In Germany, tinea capitis is mostly caused by zoophilic dermatophytes, in particular Microsporum canis. New zoophilic fungi, primarily Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae, should be taken into differential diagnostic considerations of tinea capitis, tinea faciei, and tinea corporis. Source of infection are small household pets, particularly rodents, like guinea pigs. Anthropophilic dermatophytes may be introduced by families which immigrate from Africa or Asia to Europe. The anthropophilic dermatophytes T. violaceum, T. tonsurans (infections occurring in fighting sports clubs as "tinea gladiatorum capitis et corporis") and M. audouinii are causing outbreaks of small epidemics of tinea corporis and tinea capitis in kindergartens and schools. Superficial infections of the skin and mucous membranes due to yeasts are caused by Candida species. Also common are infections due to the lipophilic yeast fungus Malassezia. Today, within the genus Malassezia more than 10 different species are known. Malassezia globosa seems to play the crucial role in pityriasis versicolor. Molds (also designated non-dermatophyte molds, NDM) are increasingly found as causative agents in onychomycosis. Besides Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, several species of

  11. Causation model of autism: Audiovisual brain specialization in infancy competes with social brain networks.

    PubMed

    Heffler, Karen Frankel; Oestreicher, Leonard M

    2016-06-01

    Earliest identifiable findings in autism indicate that the autistic brain develops differently from the typical brain in the first year of life, after a period of typical development. Twin studies suggest that autism has an environmental component contributing to causation. Increased availability of audiovisual (AV) materials and viewing practices of infants parallel the time frame of the rise in prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies have shown an association between ASD and increased TV/cable screen exposure in infancy, suggesting AV exposure in infancy as a possible contributing cause of ASD. Infants are attracted to the saliency of AV materials, yet do not have the experience to recognize these stimuli as socially relevant. The authors present a developmental model of autism in which exposure to screen-based AV input in genetically susceptible infants stimulates specialization of non-social sensory processing in the brain. Through a process of neuroplasticity, the autistic infant develops the skills that are driven by the AV viewing. The AV developed neuronal pathways compete with preference for social processing, negatively affecting development of social brain pathways and causing global developmental delay. This model explains atypical face and speech processing, as well as preference for AV synchrony over biological motion in ASD. Neural hyper-connectivity, enlarged brain size and special abilities in visual, auditory and motion processing in ASD are also explained by the model. Positive effects of early intervention are predicted by the model. Researchers studying causation of autism have largely overlooked AV exposure in infancy as a potential contributing factor. The authors call for increased public awareness of the association between early screen viewing and ASD, and a concerted research effort to determine the extent of causal relationship. PMID:26146132

  12. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and related occupational causative factors among electricity linemen: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Padmanathan, Vinothini; Joseph, Leonard; Omar, Baharudin; Nawawi, Roslizawati

    2016-01-01

    Occupational tasks of linemen are highly associated with the development of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs). Although linemen are prone to develop WRMDs, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of WRMDs and related occupational causative factors. Therefore, the present review was conducted to report on the prevalence of WRMDs and to outline causative risk factors within occupational tasks in the lineman profession. Literature search was conducted in various databases such as Scopus, PubMed and ScienceDirect for articles published between 1996-2013. The articles were analyzed, selected and retrieved based on predetermined objectives, inclusion criteria and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). In the review process only articles published in English were considered. The review identified moderate to high prevalence of WRMDs among the linemen population. Back and shoulder regions were highly affected compared to the other body regions. The review also reported occupational tasks such as bar installation, insulator fixation and manual handling of tools as high risk tasks that lead to the development of WRMDs. In addition, occupational tools such as ladders, manual cutters and manual presses were also identified as a potential ergonomic hazard. In conclusion, the current review identified that WRMDs are common in the back and shoulder regions among linemen. Also, a number of occupational risk factors were identified to be associated with WRMDs among the linemen. Hence, future research on prevention and intervention studies concerning lineman profession population in order to develop a good job practice are recommended. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5):725-734. PMID:27518883

  13. Analysis of survival curve configuration is relevant for determining pathogenesis and causation.

    PubMed

    Klinge, U; Fiebeler, A

    2009-05-01

    Improving technology helps us to identify more and more defects at the level of genes or proteins (event) as potential sources of a disease (effect), hopefully allowing more targeted cures with a "magic bullet". However, the complex interference of genes by the environment hinders the detection of strict causal relationships between defect and disease. We consider causality as temporal relationship between event and effect, thus causation is reflected by the configuration of "survival" curves. This is indicated by several survival curves of diseases with known causal relation. Furthermore, we discuss three theoretical models: a causal chain model, a causal field concept and a causal chain model with variable order, and present three assumptions about the specific consequences for configuration of outcome curves. Clinical examples of diseases that are caused by single hits reveal an S-shaped curve of cumulative incidence. In contrast, for diseases with numerous interacting pathogenetic effectors the superposition of all contributions results in widely linear cumulative incidence curves. The rare S-shaped deformation in the survival curves in patients with recurrent cancer is in conflict with our current view of recurrent cancer as mainly being a consequence of residual tumour cell load. The assumption of a "web of causation" instead of a "causal chain" reflects a more real situation for many clinical problems and can explain the widely seen absence of decisive, causally relevant conditions. As consequences for our current treatment of cancer is not insignificant, a careful analysis of the configuration of outcome curves with recognition of an S-shape may either help to identify causal therapies or may encourage more comprehensive approaches that consider the complexity of the disease. PMID:19201546

  14. Causative factors for formation of toxic islet amyloid polypeptide oligomer in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hye Rin; An, Seong Soo A

    2015-01-01

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (h-IAPP) is a peptide hormone that is synthesized and cosecreted with insulin from insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells. Recently, h-IAPP was proposed to be the main component responsible for the cytotoxic pancreatic amyloid deposits in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Since the causative factors of IAPP (or amylin) oligomer aggregation are not fully understood, this review will discuss the various forms of h-IAPP aggregation. Not all forms of IAPP aggregates trigger the destruction of β-cell function and loss of β-cell mass; however, toxic oligomers do trigger these events. Once these toxic oligomers form under abnormal metabolic conditions in T2DM, they can lead to cell disruption by inducing cell membrane destabilization. In this review, the various factors that have been shown to induce toxic IAPP oligomer formation will be presented, as well as the potential mechanism of oligomer and fibril formation from pro-IAPPs. Initially, pro-IAPPs undergo enzymatic reactions to produce the IAPP monomers, which can then develop into oligomers and fibrils. By this mechanism, toxic oligomers could be generated by diverse pathway components. Thus, the interconnections between factors that influence amyloid aggregation (eg, absence of PC2 enzyme, deamidation, reduction of disulfide bonds, environmental factors in the cell, genetic mutations, copper metal ions, and heparin) will be presented. Hence, this review will aid in understanding the fundamental causative factors contributing to IAPP oligomer formation and support studies for investigating novel T2DM therapeutic approaches, such as the development of inhibitory agents for preventing oligomerization at the early stages of diabetic pathology. PMID:26604727

  15. Causative factors for formation of toxic islet amyloid polypeptide oligomer in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hye Rin; An, Seong Soo A

    2015-01-01

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (h-IAPP) is a peptide hormone that is synthesized and cosecreted with insulin from insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells. Recently, h-IAPP was proposed to be the main component responsible for the cytotoxic pancreatic amyloid deposits in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Since the causative factors of IAPP (or amylin) oligomer aggregation are not fully understood, this review will discuss the various forms of h-IAPP aggregation. Not all forms of IAPP aggregates trigger the destruction of β-cell function and loss of β-cell mass; however, toxic oligomers do trigger these events. Once these toxic oligomers form under abnormal metabolic conditions in T2DM, they can lead to cell disruption by inducing cell membrane destabilization. In this review, the various factors that have been shown to induce toxic IAPP oligomer formation will be presented, as well as the potential mechanism of oligomer and fibril formation from pro-IAPPs. Initially, pro-IAPPs undergo enzymatic reactions to produce the IAPP monomers, which can then develop into oligomers and fibrils. By this mechanism, toxic oligomers could be generated by diverse pathway components. Thus, the interconnections between factors that influence amyloid aggregation (eg, absence of PC2 enzyme, deamidation, reduction of disulfide bonds, environmental factors in the cell, genetic mutations, copper metal ions, and heparin) will be presented. Hence, this review will aid in understanding the fundamental causative factors contributing to IAPP oligomer formation and support studies for investigating novel T2DM therapeutic approaches, such as the development of inhibitory agents for preventing oligomerization at the early stages of diabetic pathology. PMID:26604727

  16. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  17. Determination of causative fault parameters for some recent Iranian earthquakes using near field SH-wave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzehloo, H.

    2005-07-01

    A method based on a point source representation and non-linear least square formulation, which estimates the strike, dip and rake of the causative fault, has been used to infer the causative fault plane parameters using strong ground motion data for the some recent earthquakes in Iran. This study indicates that the analysis of SH-Waves of near field accelerographs can distinguish the fault plane from the auxiliary plane. This method is especially helpful, when lack of information such as surface rupture, aftershock data and isoseismal maps makes it difficult to identify causative fault plane in the fault plane solution. The estimated fault plane parameters from inversion of the near field data based on the point source model for these earthquakes are in fair agreement with solutions given by HRV and NEIC.

  18. Alternative fuel transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

  19. Motor Vehicle Crash–Related Injury Causation Scenarios for Spinal Injuries in Restrained Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    ZONFRILLO, MARK R.; LOCEY, CAITLIN M.; SCARFONE, STEVEN R.; ARBOGAST, KRISTY B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Motor vehicle crash (MVC)-related spinal injuries result in significant morbidity and mortality in children. The objective was to identify MVC-related injury causation scenarios for spinal injuries in restrained children. Methods This was a case series of occupants in MVCs from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) data set. Occupants aged 0–17 years old with at least one Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ severity spinal injury in vehicles model year 1990+ that did not experience a rollover were included. Unrestrained occupants, those not using the shoulder portion of the belt restraint, and those with child restraint gross misuse were excluded. Occupants with preexisting comorbidities contributing to spinal injury and occupants with limited injury information were also excluded. A multidisciplinary team retrospectively reviewed each case to determine injury causation scenarios (ICSs). Crash conditions, occupant and restraint characteristics, and injuries were qualitatively summarized. Results Fifty-nine cases met the study inclusion criteria and 17 were excluded. The 42 occupants included sustained 97 distinct AIS 2+ spinal injuries (27 cervical, 22 thoracic, and 48 lumbar; 80 AIS-2, 15 AIS-3, 1 AIS-5, and 1 AIS-6), with fracture as the most common injury type (80%). Spinal-injured occupants were most frequently in passenger cars (64%), and crash direction was most often frontal (62%). Mean delta-V was 51.3 km/h ± 19.4 km/h. The average occupant age was 12.4 ± 5.3 years old, and 48% were 16- to 17-year-olds. Thirty-six percent were right front passengers and 26% were drivers. Most occupants were lap and shoulder belt restrained (88%). Non-spinal AIS 2+ injuries included those of the lower extremity and pelvis (n = 56), head (n = 43), abdomen (n = 39), and thorax (n = 36). Spinal injury causation was typically due to flexion or lateral bending over the lap and or shoulder belt or child restraint harness, compression by occupant

  20. Understanding Financial Market States Using an Artificial Double Auction Market

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate value of theories describing the fundamental mechanisms behind asset prices in financial systems is reflected in the capacity of such theories to understand these systems. Although the models that explain the various states of financial markets offer substantial evidence from the fields of finance, mathematics, and even physics, previous theories that attempt to address the complexities of financial markets in full have been inadequate. We propose an artificial double auction market as an agent-based model to study the origin of complex states in financial markets by characterizing important parameters with an investment strategy that can cover the dynamics of the financial market. The investment strategies of chartist traders in response to new market information should reduce market stability based on the price fluctuations of risky assets. However, fundamentalist traders strategically submit orders based on fundamental value and, thereby stabilize the market. We construct a continuous double auction market and find that the market is controlled by the proportion of chartists, Pc. We show that mimicking the real state of financial markets, which emerges in real financial systems, is given within the range Pc = 0.40 to Pc = 0.85; however, we show that mimicking the efficient market hypothesis state can be generated with values less than Pc = 0.40. In particular, we observe that mimicking a market collapse state is created with values greater than Pc = 0.85, at which point a liquidity shortage occurs, and the phase transition behavior is described at Pc = 0.85. PMID:27031110

  1. Understanding Financial Market States Using an Artificial Double Auction Market.

    PubMed

    Yim, Kyubin; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate value of theories describing the fundamental mechanisms behind asset prices in financial systems is reflected in the capacity of such theories to understand these systems. Although the models that explain the various states of financial markets offer substantial evidence from the fields of finance, mathematics, and even physics, previous theories that attempt to address the complexities of financial markets in full have been inadequate. We propose an artificial double auction market as an agent-based model to study the origin of complex states in financial markets by characterizing important parameters with an investment strategy that can cover the dynamics of the financial market. The investment strategies of chartist traders in response to new market information should reduce market stability based on the price fluctuations of risky assets. However, fundamentalist traders strategically submit orders based on fundamental value and, thereby stabilize the market. We construct a continuous double auction market and find that the market is controlled by the proportion of chartists, Pc. We show that mimicking the real state of financial markets, which emerges in real financial systems, is given within the range Pc = 0.40 to Pc = 0.85; however, we show that mimicking the efficient market hypothesis state can be generated with values less than Pc = 0.40. In particular, we observe that mimicking a market collapse state is created with values greater than Pc = 0.85, at which point a liquidity shortage occurs, and the phase transition behavior is described at Pc = 0.85. PMID:27031110

  2. A Multicenter Evaluation of Blood Culture Practices, Contamination Rates, and the Distribution of Causative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Altindis, Mustafa; Koroglu, Mehmet; Demiray, Tayfur; Dal, Tuba; Ozdemir, Mehmet; Sengil, Ahmet Zeki; Atasoy, Ali Riza; Doğan, Metin; Cicek, Aysegul Copur; Ece, Gulfem; Kaya, Selcuk; Iraz, Meryem; Gultepe, Bilge Sumbul; Temiz, Hakan; Kandemir, Idris; Aksaray, Sebahat; Cetinkol, Yeliz; Sahin, Idris; Guducuoglu, Huseyin; Kilic, Abdullah; Kocoglu, Esra; Gulhan, Baris; Karabay, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prognostic value of blood culture testing in the diagnosis of bacteremia is limited by contamination. Objectives: In this multicenter study, the aim was to evaluate the contamination rates of blood cultures as well as the parameters that affect the culture results. Materials and Methods: Sample collection practices and culture data obtained from 16 university/research hospitals were retrospectively evaluated. A total of 214,340 blood samples from 43,254 patients admitted to the centers in 2013 were included in this study. The blood culture results were evaluated based on the three phases of laboratory testing: the pre-analytic, the analytic, and the post-analytic phase. Results: Blood samples were obtained from the patients through either the peripheral venous route (64%) or an intravascular catheter (36%). Povidone-iodine (60%) or alcohol (40%) was applied to disinfect the skin. Of the 16 centers, 62.5% have no dedicated phlebotomy team, 68.7% employed a blood culture system, 86.7% conducted additional studies with pediatric bottles, and 43.7% with anaerobic bottles. One center maintained a blood culture quality control study. The average growth rate in the bottles of blood cultures during the defined period (1259 - 26,400/year) was 32.3%. Of the growing microorganisms, 67% were causative agents, while 33% were contaminants. The contamination rates of the centers ranged from 1% to 17%. The average growth time for the causative bacteria was 21.4 hours, while it was 36.3 hours for the contaminant bacteria. The most commonly isolated pathogens were Escherichia coli (22.45%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (20.11%). Further, the most frequently identified contaminant bacteria were CoNS (44.04%). Conclusions: The high contamination rates were remarkable in this study. We suggest that the hospitals’ staff should be better trained in blood sample collection and processing. Sterile glove usage, alcohol usage for disinfection, the presence of

  3. Cumulative Causation, Coethnic Settlement Maturity and Mexican Immigration to U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1995-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachmeier, James D.

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the tenets of Massey's (1999) cumulative causation theory of migration to explain variation in aggregate patterns of Mexican migration to U.S. metropolitan destinations during the late 1990s. Analogous to sending contexts, results suggest that the dynamics of migration vary substantially with the maturity of the Mexican…

  4. An ERP Study of Causative Cleft Construction in Japanese: Evidence for the Preference of Shorter Linear Distance in Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yano, Masataka; Sakamoto, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the processing of two types of Japanese causative cleft constructions (subject-gap vs. object-gap) by conducting an event-related brain potential experiment to clarify the processing mechanism of long-distance dependencies. The results demonstrated that the subject-gap constructions elicited larger P600 effects than the…

  5. Evidence of Lexical Transfer in Learner Syntax: The Acquisition of English Causatives by Speakers of Hindi-Urdu and Vietnamese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms-Park, Rena

    2001-01-01

    Reports the findings of a study in which transfer of verb properties was investigated via syntactic data elicited from second language learners. The performance of Hindi-Urdu speakers on tests of English causatives was compared with that of Vietnamese speakers, because there are five significant differences between causativization patterns in…

  6. Integrated BSR-seq and Exome-seq pipeline to discover causative deletions in B73 maize kernel mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand maize endosperm filling and maturation, we developed a novel functional genomics platform that combined Bulked Segregant RNA and Exome sequencing (BSREx-seq) to map causative mutations and identify candidate genes within mapping intervals. Using gamma-irradiation of B73 maize to...

  7. Complete Genome Sequences of Nine Phages Capable of Infecting Paenibacillus larvae, the Causative Agent of American Foulbrood Disease in Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Yost, Diane G.; Krohn, Andrew; LeBlanc, Lucy; Zhang, Anna; Stamereilers, Casey; Amy, Penny S.

    2015-01-01

    We present here the complete genome sequences of nine phages that infect Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood disease in honeybees. The phages were isolated from soil, propolis, and infected bees from three U.S. states. This is the largest number of P. larvae phage genomes sequenced in a single publication to date. PMID:26472825

  8. Complete Genome Sequences of Nine Phages Capable of Infecting Paenibacillus larvae, the Causative Agent of American Foulbrood Disease in Honeybees.

    PubMed

    Tsourkas, Philippos K; Yost, Diane G; Krohn, Andrew; LeBlanc, Lucy; Zhang, Anna; Stamereilers, Casey; Amy, Penny S

    2015-01-01

    We present here the complete genome sequences of nine phages that infect Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood disease in honeybees. The phages were isolated from soil, propolis, and infected bees from three U.S. states. This is the largest number of P. larvae phage genomes sequenced in a single publication to date. PMID:26472825

  9. Survival of the Causative Agent of Johne’s Disease (Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis) in Biofilms on Trough Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continued global increase in the number of cases of Johne’s disease among dairy cattle suggests that there remain hidden sources of contamination in the farm environment where susceptible animals may be routinely exposed to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent o...

  10. 20 CFR 718.204 - Total disability and disability causation defined; criteria for determining total disability and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Total disability and disability causation defined; criteria for determining total disability and total disability due to pneumoconiosis. 718.204... DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.204 Total disability...

  11. 20 CFR 718.204 - Total disability and disability causation defined; criteria for determining total disability and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Total disability and disability causation defined; criteria for determining total disability and total disability due to pneumoconiosis. 718.204... DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.204 Total disability...

  12. Cumulative Causation of Rural Migration and Initial Peri-Urbanization in China*

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lingxin

    2014-01-01

    This paper posits that rural migration feeds the high demand for cheap labor in peri-urbanization, which is driven by globalization, flows of foreign capital, and entrepreneurial local governments. While the gravity model and push/pull perspective ignore the dynamics of migratory course, we use the cumulative causation of migration theory to conceptualize social expectations for outmigration and social resources from migrant networks in destinations. Four major findings are drawn from this demographic analysis based on micro data from China’s 2000 Census. First, the expectation of outmigration significantly increases outmigration, and this effect is independent of push factors. Second, foreign direct investment (FDI) contributes to attracting rural labor migrants from other provinces to peri-urban areas as it does to cities. Third, social resources from migrant networks play an important role in attracting rural labor migrants to both city and noncity destinations. Fourth, the importance of wage differentials declines in gravitating rural labor migrants to peri-urban areas. These findings provide tentative evidence that rural labor migration is indispensable during initial peri-urbanization. Infused with flows of FDI and entrepreneurial local governments, rural migration has created a favorable initial condition for peri-urbanization. PMID:25525564

  13. Acanthamoeba genotypes T3 and T4 as causative agents of amoebic keratitis in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Vanzzini-Zago, Virginia; Hernandez-Martinez, Dolores; Gonzalez-Robles, Arturo; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Ramirez-Flores, Elizabeth; Oregon-Miranda, Eric; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martinez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2016-02-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed worldwide. Some genera included in this group act as opportunistic pathogens causing fatal encephalitis and Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), a sight-threatening infection of the cornea associated with the use of soft contact lenses that could even end in blindness if an early diagnosis and treatment are not achieved. Furthermore, the numbers of AK cases keep rising worldwide mainly due to an increase of contact lens wearers and lack of hygiene in the maintenance of lenses and their cases. In Mexico, no cases of AK have been described so far although the isolation of other pathogenic FLA such as Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris from both clinical and environmental sources has been reported. The present study reports two cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis diagnosed in two patients admitted to the Hospital "Luis Sánchez Bulnes" for Blindness Prevention in Mexico City, Mexico. Corneal scrapes and contact lenses were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba strains in both patients. Strains were axenized after initial isolation to classify at the genotype level. After sequencing the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region located on the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene of Acanthamoeba, genotype T3 and genotype T4 were identified in clinical case 1 and 2, respectively. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of AK in Mexico in the literature and the first description of Acanthamoeba genotypes T3 and T4 as causative agents of amoebic infection. PMID:26581373

  14. [EPIDEMIOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF OUTBREAKS OF DISEASES CAUSED BY AMERICAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS CAUSATIVE AGENTS IN ENDEMIC REGIONS].

    PubMed

    Petrov, A A; Lebedev, V N; Kulish, V S; Pyshnaya, N S; Stovba, L F; Borisevich, S V

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic analysis of epidemic outbreaks caused by American equine encephalitis causative agents is carried out in the review. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and Venezuela equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) viruses are etiologic agents of dangerous transmissive diseases that are usually accompanied by fever and neurologic symptoms. Among the New World alphaviruses, VEE virus has the most potential danger for humans and domestic animals. Currently, enzootic strains of VEE play an increasing role as etiologic agents of human diseases. Most of the VEE cases in humans in endemic regions during inter-epidemic period are caused by infection with VEE subtype ID virus. A possibility of emergence of novel epidemic outbreaks of VEE is determined by mutations of ID subtype strains into IC subtype, and those currently pose a potential threat as an etiologic agent of the disease. Despite low morbidity, EEE and WEE are a problem for healthcare due to a relatively high frequency of lethal outcomes of the disease. PMID:26829861

  15. Estimating the time and temperature relationship for causation of deep-partial thickness skin burns.

    PubMed

    Abraham, John P; Plourde, Brian; Vallez, Lauren; Stark, John; Diller, Kenneth R

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and present a simple procedure for evaluating the temperature and exposure-time conditions that lead to causation of a deep-partial thickness burn and the effect that the immediate post-burn thermal environment can have on the process. A computational model has been designed and applied to predict the time required for skin burns to reach a deep-partial thickness level of injury. The model includes multiple tissue layers including the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, and subcutaneous tissue. Simulated exposure temperatures ranged from 62.8 to 87.8°C (145-190°F). Two scenarios were investigated. The first and worst case scenario was a direct exposure to water (characterized by a large convection coefficient) with the clothing left on the skin following the exposure. A second case consisted of a scald insult followed immediately by the skin being washed with cool water (20°C). For both cases, an Arrhenius injury model was applied whereby the extent and depth of injury were calculated and compared for the different post-burn treatments. In addition, injury values were compared with experiment data from the literature to assess verification of the numerical methodology. It was found that the clinical observations of injury extent agreed with the calculated values. Furthermore, inundation with cool water decreased skin temperatures more quickly than the clothing insulating case and led to a modest decrease in the burn extent. PMID:26188899

  16. Identification of CHIP as a novel causative gene for autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuting; Wang, Junling; Li, Jia-Da; Ren, Haigang; Guan, Wenjuan; He, Miao; Yan, Weiqian; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhengmao; Zhang, Jianguo; Xiao, Jingjing; Su, Zheng; Dai, Meizhi; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Hong; Guo, Jifeng; Zhou, Yafang; Zhang, Fufeng; Li, Nan; Du, Juan; Xu, Qian; Hu, Yacen; Pan, Qian; Shen, Lu; Wang, Guanghui; Xia, Kun; Zhang, Zhuohua; Tang, Beisha

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias are a group of neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by complex clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Although more than 20 disease-causing genes have been identified, many patients are still currently without a molecular diagnosis. In a two-generation autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia family, we mapped a linkage to a minimal candidate region on chromosome 16p13.3 flanked by single-nucleotide polymorphism markers rs11248850 and rs1218762. By combining the defined linkage region with the whole-exome sequencing results, we identified a homozygous mutation (c.493CT) in CHIP (NM_005861) in this family. Using Sanger sequencing, we also identified two compound heterozygous mutations (c.389AT/c.441GT; c.621C>G/c.707GC) in CHIP gene in two additional kindreds. These mutations co-segregated exactly with the disease in these families and were not observed in 500 control subjects with matched ancestry. CHIP colocalized with NR2A, a subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, in the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Wild-type, but not disease-associated mutant CHIPs promoted the degradation of NR2A, which may underlie the pathogenesis of ataxia. In conclusion, using a combination of whole-exome sequencing and linkage analysis, we identified CHIP, encoding a U-box containing ubiquitin E3 ligase, as a novel causative gene for autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia. PMID:24312598

  17. New Levels of Language Processing Complexity and Organization Revealed by Granger Causation

    PubMed Central

    Gow, David W.; Caplan, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Granger causation analysis of high spatiotemporal resolution reconstructions of brain activation offers a new window on the dynamic interactions between brain areas that support language processing. Premised on the observation that causes both precede and uniquely predict their effects, this approach provides an intuitive, model-free means of identifying directed causal interactions in the brain. It requires the analysis of all non-redundant potentially interacting signals, and has shown that even “early” processes such as speech perception involve interactions of many areas in a strikingly large network that extends well beyond traditional left hemisphere perisylvian cortex that play out over hundreds of milliseconds. In this paper we describe this technique and review several general findings that reframe the way we think about language processing and brain function in general. These include the extent and complexity of language processing networks, the central role of interactive processing dynamics, the role of processing hubs where the input from many distinct brain regions are integrated, and the degree to which task requirements and stimulus properties influence processing dynamics and inform our understanding of “language-specific” localized processes. PMID:23293611

  18. Isolation, experimental transmission, and characterization of causative agent of Potomac horse fever.

    PubMed

    Holland, C J; Ristic, M; Cole, A I; Johnson, P; Baker, G; Goetz, T

    1985-02-01

    Potomac horse fever, a disease characterized by fever, anorexia, leukopenia, and occasional diarrhea, is fatal in approximately 30 percent of affected animals. The seasonal occurrence of the disease (June to October) and evidence of antibodies to the rickettsia Ehrlichia sennetsu in the serum of convalescing horses suggested that a related rickettsia might be the causative agent. Such an agent was isolated in cultured blood monocytes from an experimentally infected pony. This intracytoplasmic organism was adapted to growth in primary cultures of canine blood monocytes. A healthy pony inoculated with these infected monocytes also developed the disease. The organism was reisolated from this animal which, at autopsy, had pathological manifestations typical of Potomac horse fever. Cross serologic reactions between the newly isolated agent and antisera to 15 rickettsiae revealed that it is related to certain members of the genus Ehrlichia, particularly to Ehrlichia sennetsu. Since the disease occurs in other parts of the United States as well as in the vicinity of the Potomac River, and since it has also been reported in Europe, the name equine monocytic ehrlichiosis is proposed as being more descriptive. PMID:3880925

  19. Metal-dependent gene regulation in the causative agent of Lyme disease

    PubMed Central

    Troxell, Bryan; Yang, X. Frank

    2013-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) is the causative agent of Lyme disease transmitted to humans by ticks of the Ixodes spp. Bb is a unique bacterial pathogen because it does not require iron (Fe2+) for its metabolism. Bb encodes a ferritin-like Dps homolog called NapA (also called BicA), which can bind Fe or copper (Cu2+), and a manganese (Mn2+) transport protein, Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA); both proteins are required for colonization of the tick vector, but BmtA is also required for the murine host. This demonstrates that Bb's metal homeostasis is a critical facet of the complex enzootic life cycle between the arthropod and murine hosts. Although metals are known to influence the expression of virulence determinants during infection, it is unknown how or if metals regulate virulence in Bb. Recent evidence demonstrates that Bb modulates the intracellular Mn2+ and zinc (Zn2+) content and, in turn, these metals regulate gene expression through influencing the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) homolog Borrelia Oxidative Stress Regulator (BosR). This mini-review focuses on the burgeoning study of metal-dependent gene regulation within Bb. PMID:24298449

  20. Eumycetoma and actinomycetoma--an update on causative agents, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics and therapy.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; van de Sande, W W J; Fahal, A H; Reinel, D; Schöfer, H

    2015-10-01

    Mycetoma is a chronic putrid infection of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue concerning predominantly the feet, and more rarely other body parts. Mycetoma can be caused by both fungi (eumycetoma) and bacteria (actinomycetoma). Mode of infection is an inoculation of the causative microorganism via small injuries of the skin. The clinical correlate of both forms of mycetoma is tumescence with abscesses, painless nodules, sinuses and discharge. The latter is commonly serous-purulent and contains grains (filamentous granules) which can be expressed for diagnostic purposes. Distinctive for both eumycetoma and actinomycetoma, are the formation of grains. Grains represent microcolonies of the microorganism in vivo in the vital tissue. The most successful treatment option for eumycetomas offers itraconazole in a dosage of 200 mg twice daily. This triazole antifungal is considered as 'gold standard' for eumycetomas. Alternatively, the cheaper ketoconazole was widely used, however, it was currently stopped by the FDA. Actinomycetomas should be treated by the combination of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole 80/400 to 160/800 mg per day) and amikacin 15 mg/kg body weight per day. Mycetomas are neglected infections of the poor. They are more than a medical challenge. In rural areas of Africa, Asia and South America mycetomas lead to socio-economic consequences involving the affected patients, their families and the society in general. PMID:25726758

  1. A method for modeling and analysis of directed weighted accident causation network (DWACN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jin; Xu, Weixiang; Guo, Xin; Ding, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Using complex network theory to analyze accidents is effective to understand the causes of accidents in complex systems. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to establish directed weighted accident causation network (DWACN) for the Rail Accident Investigation Branch (RAIB) in the UK, which is based on complex network and using event chains of accidents. DWACN is composed of 109 nodes which denote causal factors and 260 directed weighted edges which represent complex interrelationships among factors. The statistical properties of directed weighted complex network are applied to reveal the critical factors, the key event chains and the important classes in DWACN. Analysis results demonstrate that DWACN has characteristics of small-world networks with short average path length and high weighted clustering coefficient, and display the properties of scale-free networks captured by that the cumulative degree distribution follows an exponential function. This modeling and analysis method can assist us to discover the latent rules of accidents and feature of faults propagation to reduce accidents. This paper is further development on the research of accident analysis methods using complex network.

  2. Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.

    2006-06-01

    Conference paper discussing the integration cost of wind. Although specific tariffs for wind generation for ancillary services are uncommon, we anticipate that balancing authorities (control areas) and other entities will move toward such tariffs. Tariffs for regulation and imbalance services should be cost-based, recognize the relevant time scales that correspond with utility operational cycles, and properly allocate those costs to those entities that cause the balancing authority to incur the costs. In this paper, we present methods for separating wind's impact into regulation and load following (imbalance) time scales. We show that approximating these impacts with simpler methods can significantly distort cost causation and even cause confusion between the relevant time scales. We present results from NREL's wind data collection program to illustrate the dangers of linearly scaling wind resource data from small wind plants to approximate the wind resource data from large wind plants. Finally, we provide a framework for developing regulation and imbalance tariffs, we outline methods to begin examining contingency reserve requirements for wind plants, we provide guidance on the important characteristics to consider, and we provide hypothetical cases that the tariff can be tested against to determine whether the results are desired.

  3. Exploring the influential factors in incident clearance time: Disentangling causation from self-selection bias.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chuan; Ma, Xiaolei; Wang, Yinhai; Wang, Yunpeng

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the relationships between influential factors and incident clearance time is crucial to make effective countermeasures for incident management agencies. Although there have been a certain number of achievements on incident clearance time modeling, limited effort is made to investigate the relative role of incident response time and its self-selection in influencing the clearance time. To fill this gap, this study uses the endogenous switching model to explore the influential factors in incident clearance time, and aims to disentangle causation from self-selection bias caused by response process. Under the joint two-stage model framework, the binary probit model and switching regression model are formulated for both incident response time and clearance time, respectively. Based on the freeway incident data collected in Washington State, full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method is utilized to estimate the endogenous switching model parameters. Significant factors affecting incident response time and clearance time can be identified, including incident, temporal, geographical, environmental, traffic and operational attributes. The estimate results reveal the influential effects of incident, temporal, geographical, environmental, traffic and operational factors on incident response time and clearance time. In addition, the causality of incident response time itself and its self-selection correction on incident clearance time are found to be indispensable. These findings suggest that the causal effect of response time on incident clearance time will be overestimated if the self-selection bias is not considered. PMID:26373988

  4. Identification of causative compounds and microorganisms for musty odor occurrence in the Huangpu River, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Daolin; Yu, Jianwei; An, Wei; Yang, Min; Chen, Guoguang; Zhang, Shujun

    2013-03-01

    There are regular problems of musty odor in the Huangpu River, a major source of drinking water for Shanghai, China. In this study, the musty odor and its main causative compounds in the Huangpu River source water were confirmed through a yearly investigation using flavor profile analysis combined with HSPME-GC-MS analysis. The investigation showed that 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) with a concentration level between 28.6 and 71.0 ng/L was responsible for the musty odor in summer from July to September. Microscopic observation confirmed with the cloning results showed that Phormidium spp., which accounted for 80%-95% of the algal cell density, was the microorganisms responsible for the production of 2-MIB and the estimated 2-MIB yield was 0.022 pg/cell. Results from a wide-area sampling campaign in the Huangpu River watershed showed that, other than the large tributaries receiving water from Tai Lake, several small creeks close to the intake may have contributed most of the 2-MIB and the Phormidium spp. to the Huangpu River source water. This study provides methodology for the investigation of odor causing compounds and microorganisms in river-type source water, and the result will be useful for water quality control in both source water and drinking water. PMID:23923417

  5. Cholesterol as a causative factor in Alzheimer's disease: a debatable hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Wood, W Gibson; Li, Ling; Müller, Walter E; Eckert, Gunter P

    2014-05-01

    High serum/plasma cholesterol levels have been suggested as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some reports, mostly retrospective epidemiological studies, have observed a decreased prevalence of AD in patients taking the cholesterol lowering drugs, statins. The strongest evidence causally linking cholesterol to AD is provided by experimental studies showing that adding/reducing cholesterol alters amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta-protein (Ab) levels. However, there are problems with the cholesterol-AD hypothesis. Cholesterol levels in serum/plasma and brain of AD patients do not support cholesterol as a causative factor in AD.Prospective studies on statins and AD have largely failed to show efficacy. Even the experimental data are open to interpretation given that it is well-established that modification of cholesterol levels has effects on multiple proteins, not only amyloid precursor protein and Ab. The purpose of this review, therefore, was to examine the above-mentioned issues, discuss the pros and cons of the cholesterol-AD hypothesis, involvement of other lipids in the mevalonate pathway, and consider that AD may impact cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:24329875

  6. Corroboration of in vivo cartilage pressures with implications for synovial joint tribology and osteoarthritis causation

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Kjirste C.; Hodge, W. Andrew; Krebs, David E.; Mann, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    Pressures on normal human acetabular cartilage have been collected from two implanted instrumented femoral head hemipros-theses. Despite significant differences in subjects' gender, morphology, mobility, and coordination, in vivo pressure measurements from both subjects covered similar ranges, with maximums of 5-6 MPa in gait, and as high as 18 MPa in other movements. Normalized for subject weight and height (nMPa), for free-speed walking the maximum pressure values were 25.2 for the female subject and 24.5 for the male subject. The overall maximum nMPa values were 76.2 for the female subject during rising from a chair at 11 months postoperative and 82.3 for the male subject while descending steps at 9 months postoperative. These unique in vivo data are consistent with corresponding cadaver experiments and model analyses. The collective results, in vitro data, model studies, and now corroborating in vivo data support the self-pressurizing “weeping” theory of synovial joint lubrication and provide unique information to evaluate the influence of in vivo pressure regimes on osteoarthritis causation and the efficacy of augmentations to, and substitutions for, natural cartilage. PMID:16203974

  7. The Complex Relationship of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Acute Kidney Injury: Causation or Association?

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Daniel J.; Shekar, Kiran; Fraser, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a modified cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit capable of providing prolonged cardiorespiratory support. Recent advancement in ECMO technology has resulted in increased utilisation and clinical application. It can be used as a bridge-to-recovery, bridge-to-bridge, bridge-to-transplant, or bridge-to-decision. ECMO can restitute physiology in critically ill patients, which may minimise the risk of progressive multiorgan dysfunction. Alternatively, iatrogenic complications of ECMO clearly contribute to worse outcomes. These factors affect the risk : benefit ratio of ECMO which ultimately influence commencement/timing of ECMO. The complex interplay of pre-ECMO, ECMO, and post-ECMO pathophysiological processes are responsible for the substantial increased incidence of ECMO-associated acute kidney injury (EAKI). The development of EAKI significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality; however, there is a lack of evidence defining a potential benefit or causative link between ECMO and AKI. This area warrants investigation as further research will delineate the mechanisms involved and subsequent strategies to minimise the risk of EAKI. This review summarizes the current literature of ECMO and AKI, considers the possible benefits and risks of ECMO on renal function, outlines the related pathophysiology, highlights relevant investigative tools, and ultimately suggests an approach for future research into this under investigated area of critical care. PMID:27006941

  8. Identification of CHIP as a Novel Causative Gene for Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuting; Wang, Junling; Li, Jia-Da; Ren, Haigang; Guan, Wenjuan; He, Miao; Yan, Weiqian; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhengmao; Zhang, Jianguo; Xiao, Jingjing; Su, Zheng; Dai, Meizhi; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Hong; Guo, Jifeng; Zhou, Yafang; Zhang, Fufeng; Li, Nan; Du, Juan; Xu, Qian; Hu, Yacen; Pan, Qian; Shen, Lu; Wang, Guanghui; Xia, Kun; Zhang, Zhuohua; Tang, Beisha

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias are a group of neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by complex clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Although more than 20 disease-causing genes have been identified, many patients are still currently without a molecular diagnosis. In a two-generation autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia family, we mapped a linkage to a minimal candidate region on chromosome 16p13.3 flanked by single-nucleotide polymorphism markers rs11248850 and rs1218762. By combining the defined linkage region with the whole-exome sequencing results, we identified a homozygous mutation (c.493CT) in CHIP (NM_005861) in this family. Using Sanger sequencing, we also identified two compound heterozygous mutations (c.389AT/c.441GT; c.621C>G/c.707GC) in CHIP gene in two additional kindreds. These mutations co-segregated exactly with the disease in these families and were not observed in 500 control subjects with matched ancestry. CHIP colocalized with NR2A, a subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, in the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Wild-type, but not disease-associated mutant CHIPs promoted the degradation of NR2A, which may underlie the pathogenesis of ataxia. In conclusion, using a combination of whole-exome sequencing and linkage analysis, we identified CHIP, encoding a U-box containing ubiquitin E3 ligase, as a novel causative gene for autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia. PMID:24312598

  9. [Diagnosis of syringomyelia and its classification on the basis of symptoms, radiological appearance, and causative disorders].

    PubMed

    Terae, Satoshi; Hida, Kazutoshi; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2011-09-01

    Although it is easier to accurately diagnose syringomyelia with the advent of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, syringomyelia still poses challenges to clinicians because of its complex symptomatology, uncertain pathogenesis and multiple treatment options. Here, we propose criteria for classification of syringomyelia not related to those associated with spinal intramedullary tumors. The classification aims to distinguish between the presyrinx state and syringomyelia, between asymptomatic and symptomatic syringomyelia and to clarify the associated disorders such as Chiari malformations, spinal arachnoiditis and spinal cord trauma. Diagnostic criteria for Chiari I and II malformations with MR imaging were also defined. Several hypotheses proposed to explain the pathogenesis of syringomyelia associated with Chiari I malformation were reviewed. A questionnaire survey on syringomyelia based on the proposed criteria conducted between November 2009 and April 2010 in Japan revealed that 160 (22.6%) of the 708 patients were asymptomatic. Chiari I malformation was the most frequent causative disorder (48.3%), followed by spinal arachnoiditis (15.8%). The proposed criteria for classification of syringomyelia will facilitate a nationwide survey of syringomyelia in Japan. Such a survey will inform us of its prevalence and prognosis more precisely, and enable us to build a reliable database that may help determine the optimal treatment for the disease in the future. PMID:21878699

  10. The naeglerial causation of rheumatoid disease and many human cancers. A new concept in medicine.

    PubMed

    Wyburn-Mason, R

    1979-11-01

    Man and terrestrial animals live in an environment containing free-living amoebae on the surface soil, in pools, fresh water lakes, rivers and streams. They form cysts, which float in the air and which are continually inhaled and found in the nasopharynx and their trophozoites are present in human and animal faeces. Amoebae of the genus, Naegleria, have been demonstrate; in all human tissues, both healthy and in larger numbers in those taken from cases of rheumatoid disease, in all human cancers and in the unaffected tissues of cancer patients. They can be killed in vitro by a series of different anti-amoebic substances and treatment of active cases of rheumatoid disease by any of these, either causes cessation of disease activity or a temporary exaggeration of symptoms followed by their lessening or disappearance (Herxheimer reaction), indicating the presence of an amoeba in the affected tissues as the causative organism of the inflammation in this disease in subjects genetically sensitive to the organism. Every internal organ may be involved in the inflammatory response in cases of rheumatoid disease and this also ceases with the above treatments. Many of these internal lesions are premalignant, so that infection with the organism either in sensitive subjects or with pathogenic species, appears to be the primary cause of cancer in many cases. The presence in the body of Naegleria represents the source of the constant antigenic stimulation thought to be responsible both for rheumatoid disease and for the development of lymphomata and myelomatosis. PMID:537542

  11. Nutrition marketing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  12. Tourism Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  13. Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  14. Marketing Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Eric

    1998-01-01

    All of our ideas have been field tested and have proven effective in our environment. Our objectives are: We will share our ideas about marketing training and what we've implemented at Michoud Space Systems. You will go away with at least one new idea or insight about how to more effectively market your training.

  15. Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  16. Compressed television transmission: A market survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizak, R. M.; Cagan, L. Q.

    1981-01-01

    NASA's compressed television transmission technology is described, and its potential market is considered; a market that encompasses teleconferencing, remote medical diagnosis, patient monitoring, transit station surveillance, as well as traffic management and control. In addition, current and potential television transmission systems and their costs and potential manufacturers are considered.

  17. Orthostatic hypotension and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: Causation or association?

    PubMed

    McDonald, Claire; Newton, Julia L; Burn, David J

    2016-07-01

    Orthostatic hypotension and cognitive impairment are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and significantly impair quality of life. Orthostatic hypotension and cognitive impairment appear to be interrelated. Whether the relationship is causative or associative remains unclear. The vascular hypothesis proposes that recurrent episodic hypotension results in cerebral hypoperfusion, in turn causing anoxic damage to vulnerable areas of the brain and impaired cognitive function. Support for this hypothesis has come from brain MRI studies showing an association between white matter hyperintensities and a postural drop in blood pressure among PD patients. Alternatively, the association between orthostatic hypotension and cognitive decline in PD may reflect shared underlying synuclein-related pathology affecting common neuroanatomical and neurochemical substrates. Cardiac imaging studies demonstrate noradrenergic denervation early in PD, and cardiac denervation has been associated with poorer cognition. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension occurs as a result of defective norepinephrine release from sympathetic terminals upon standing. Neuropathological studies have also demonstrated Lewy body pathology in the locus coeruleus; the main source of noradrenaline in the brain. Locus coeruleus norepinephrine levels are reduced in PD patients with dementia when compared with PD patients without. In this review, we examine the evidence for an association between orthostatic hypotension and cognitive impairment in PD. We evaluate the literature supporting the hypothesis that progressive noradrenergic denervation underlies both orthostatic hypotension and cognitive impairment, and we examine studies suggesting that recurrent cerebral hypoperfusion results in cognitive decline in PD. Finally, we explore how modulation of blood pressure and the noradrenergic nervous system may improve cognition in PD. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27091624

  18. Pharmacodynamics of Antimicrobials against Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides Small Colony, the Causative Agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John D.; McKellar, Quintin A.; McKeever, Declan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC) is the causative agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a disease of substantial economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Failure of vaccination to curtail spread of this disease has led to calls for evaluation of the role of antimicrobials in CBPP control. Three major classes of antimicrobial are effective against mycoplasmas, namely tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and macrolides. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effector kinetics of oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against two MmmSC field strains in artificial medium and adult bovine serum. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against MmmSC strains B237 and Tan8 using a macrodilution technique, and time-kill curves were constructed for various multiples of the MIC over a 24 hour period in artificial medium and serum. Data were fitted to sigmoid Emax models to obtain 24 hour-area under curve/MIC ratios for mycoplasmastasis and, where appropriate, for mycoplasmacidal activity and virtual mycoplasmal elimination. Results Minimum inhibitory concentrations against B237 were 20-fold higher, 2-fold higher and approximately 330-fold lower in serum than in artificial medium for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin, respectively. Such differences were mirrored in experiments using Tan8. Oxytetracycline was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in both matrices. Danofloxacin elicited mycoplasmacidal activity against B237 and virtual elimination of Tan8; similar maximum antimycoplasmal effects were observed in artificial medium and serum. Tulathromycin effected virtual elimination of B237 but was mycoplasmastatic against Tan8 in artificial medium. However, this drug was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in the more physiologically relevant matrix of serum. Conclusions Oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and

  19. The aqueous humor outflow pathways in glaucoma: A unifying concept of disease mechanisms and causative treatment.

    PubMed

    Braunger, Barbara M; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Tamm, Ernst R

    2015-09-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the critical risk factor for glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease and frequent cause of blindness worldwide. As of today, all effective strategies to treat glaucoma aim at lowering IOP. IOP is generated and maintained via the aqueous humor circulation system in the anterior eye. Aqueous humor is secreted by the ciliary processes and exits the eye through the trabecular meshwork (TM) or the uveoscleral outflow pathways. The TM outflow pathways provide resistance to aqueous humor outflow and IOP builds up in response to it. In the normal eye, the resistance is localized in the inner wall region, which comprises the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) and the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC). Outflow resistance in the inner wall region is lowered through the contraction of the ciliary muscle or the relaxation of contractile myofibroblasts in the posterior part of the TM and the adjacent scleral spur. Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most frequent form of glaucoma, typically suffer from an abnormally high outflow resistance of the inner wall region. There is increasing evidence that the increase in TM outflow resistance in POAG is the result of a characteristic change in the biological properties of the resident cells in the JCT, which increasingly acquire the phenotype of contractile myofibroblasts. This scenario strengthens simultaneously both their actin cytoskeleton and their directly associated extracellular matrix fibrils, leads to overall stiffening of the tissue, and is modulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) signaling. Essentially comparable changes appear to occur in SC endothelial cells in glaucoma. Causative therapy concepts targeting the aqueous outflow pathways in glaucoma should aim at interfering with this process either by attenuating TM or SC stiffness, and/or by modulating TGF-β/CTGF signaling. PMID:25957840

  20. Differences in Thoracic Injury Causation Patterns Between Seat Belt Restrained Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Locey, Caitlin M.; Zonfrillo, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to delineate age-based differences in specific thoracic injury diagnoses for seat belt restrained rear seat occupants and describe the associated injury causation in order to provide insight into how the load of the seat belt is transferred to occupants of various sizes. Using data from the Crash Investigation Research and Engineering Network (CIREN), 20 cases of rear seated, lap and shoulder belt restrained occupants with AIS2+ thoracic injuries in frontal crashes were reviewed. Seven were children and adolescents age 8–15 years, 5 were 16–24 years, 3 were 25–54 years, and 5 were 55+ years. Six of the seven 8–15 year olds sustained injuries to the lung in the form of pulmonary contusion or pneumothorax. Only three of the seven sustained a skeletal (sternum or rib) fracture; only one of these three involved multiple ribs bilaterally. In contrast, four of the five 16–24 year olds sustained at least one rib fracture - often multiple and bilateral. The adult cohort (25+ years) was involved in predominantly more minor crashes; however they all sustained complex rib fractures – seven of the eight involved multiple ribs, four of the eight were also bilateral. Belt compression – either from the shoulder belt or the lap belt – was identified as the primary cause of the thoracic injuries. Often, there was clear evidence of the location of belt loading from AIS 1 chest contusions or abrasions. These findings have implications for age-based thoracic injury criteria suggesting that that different metrics may be needed for different age groups. PMID:23169131

  1. The causative agents in infective endocarditis: a systematic review comprising 33,214 cases.

    PubMed

    Vogkou, Christiana T; Vlachogiannis, Nikolaos I; Palaiodimos, Leonidas; Kousoulis, Antonis A

    2016-08-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) incidence remains high with considerable fatality rates; guidelines for prophylaxis against IE are currently under review in some settings which highlights the importance of maintaining up-to-date epidemiological estimates about the most common microbial causes. The objective of this systematic review, following PRISMA guidelines, was to identify the most common microbial causes of IE in recent years. Medline was searched from January 1, 2003 to March 31, 2013 for all articles containing the term "infective endocarditis". All relevant studies reporting diagnostic results were included. Special patient subpopulations were assessed separately. A total of 105 studies were included, from 36 countries, with available data on a total of 33,214 cases. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most common microorganism, being the most frequent in 54.3 % of studies (N = 57) (and in 55.4 % of studies using Duke's criteria for diagnosis [N = 51]). Viridans group streptococci (VGS), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Enterococcus spp and Streptococcus bovis were among the most common causes. S. aureus was the most common pathogen in almost all population subgroups; however, this was not the case in patients with implantable devices, prosthetic valves, or immunocompromised non-HIV, as well as in the sub-group from Asia, emphasizing that a global one-size-fits-all approach to the management of suspected IE is not appropriate. This review provides an evidence-based map of the most common causative agents of IE, highlighting S. aureus as the leading cause in the 21st century. The changing epidemiology of IE in some patient sub-groups in the last decade and the very high number of microbiologically undiagnosed cases (26.6 %) suggest the need to revisit IE prophylaxis and diagnostic strategies. PMID:27170145

  2. Clioquinol-zinc chelate: a candidate causative agent of subacute myelo-optic neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Arbiser, J. L.; Kraeft, S. K.; van Leeuwen, R.; Hurwitz, S. J.; Selig, M.; Dickersin, G. R.; Flint, A.; Byers, H. R.; Chen, L. B.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline (clioquinol) was used clinically three decades ago as an oral antiparasitic agent and to increase intestinal absorption of zinc in patients with acrodermatitis enteropathica, a genetic disorder of zinc absorption. Use of clioquinol was epidemiologically linked to subacute myelo-optic neuropathy (SMON), characterized by peripheral neuropathy and blindness, which affected 10,000 patients in Japan. Discontinuation of oral clioquinol use led to elimination of SMON, however, the mechanism of how clioquinol induces neurotoxicity is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested the effect of clioquinol-metal chelates on neural crest-derived melanoma cells. The effect of clioquinol chelates on cells was further studied by electron microscopy and by a mitochondrial potential-sensitive fluorescent dye. RESULTS: Of the ions tested, only clioquinol-zinc chelate demonstrated cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of clioquinol-zinc chelate was extremely rapid, suggesting that its primary effect was on the mitochondria. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that clioquinol-zinc chelate caused mitochondrial damage. This finding was further confirmed by the observation that clioquinol-zinc chelate caused a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that clioquinol, in the presence of zinc, is converted to a potent mitochondrial toxin. The phenomenon of clioquinol mediated toxicity appears to be specific to zinc and is not seen with other metals tested. Since clioquinol has been shown to cause increased systemic absorption of zinc in humans, it is likely that clioquinol-zinc chelate was present in appreciable levels in patients with SMON and may be the ultimate causative toxin of SMON. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:9848083

  3. Causation's nuclear future: applying proportional liability to the Price-Anderson Act.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, William D

    2014-11-01

    For more than a quarter century, public discourse has pushed the nuclear-power industry in the direction of heavier regulation and greater scrutiny, effectively halting construction of new reactors. By focusing on contemporary fear of significant accidents, such discourse begs the question of what the nation's court system would actually do should a major nuclear incident cause radiation-induced cancers. Congress's attempt to answer that question is the Price-Anderson Act, a broad statute addressing claims by the victims of a major nuclear accident. Lower courts interpreting the Act have repeatedly encountered a major stumbling block: it declares that judges must apply the antediluvian preponderance-of-the-evidence logic of state tort law, even though radiation science insists that the causes of radiation-induced cancers are more complex. After a major nuclear accident, the Act's paradoxically outdated rules for adjudicating "causation" would make post-incident compensation unworkable. This Note urges that nuclear-power-plant liability should not turn on eighteenth-century tort law. Drawing on modern scientific conclusions regarding the invariably "statistical" nature of cancer, this Note suggests a unitary federal standard for the Price-Anderson Act--that a defendant be deemed to have "caused" a plaintiff's injury in direct proportion to the increased risk of harm the defendant has imposed. This "proportional liability" rule would not only fairly evaluate the costs borne by injured plaintiffs and protect a reawakening nuclear industry from the prospect of bank-breaking litigation, but would prove workable with only minor changes to the Price-Anderson Act's standards of "injury" and "fault." PMID:25507406

  4. Causation's nuclear future: applying proportional liability to the Price-Anderson Act.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, William D

    2014-11-01

    For more than a quarter century, public discourse has pushed the nuclear-power industry in the direction of heavier regulation and greater scrutiny, effectively halting construction of new reactors. By focusing on contemporary fear of significant accidents, such discourse begs the question of what the nation's court system would actually do should a major nuclear incident cause radiation-induced cancers. Congress's attempt to answer that question is the Price-Anderson Act, a broad statute addressing claims by the victims of a major nuclear accident. Lower courts interpreting the Act have repeatedly encountered a major stumbling block: it declares that judges must apply the antediluvian preponderance-of-the-evidence logic of state tort law, even though radiation science insists that the causes of radiation-induced cancers are more complex. After a major nuclear accident, the Act's paradoxically outdated rules for adjudicating "causation" would make post-incident compensation unworkable. This Note urges that nuclear-power-plant liability should not turn on eighteenth-century tort law. Drawing on modern scientific conclusions regarding the invariably "statistical" nature of cancer, this Note suggests a unitary federal standard for the Price-Anderson Act--that a defendant be deemed to have "caused" a plaintiff's injury in direct proportion to the increased risk of harm the defendant has imposed. This "proportional liability" rule would not only fairly evaluate the costs borne by injured plaintiffs and protect a reawakening nuclear industry from the prospect of bank-breaking litigation, but would prove workable with only minor changes to the Price-Anderson Act's standards of "injury" and "fault." PMID:25423683

  5. Identification of the Causative Organism of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in Ethiopia by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kidane, Dawit; Olobo, Joseph O.; Habte, Abebe; Negesse, Yohannes; Aseffa, Abraham; Abate, Getahun; Yassin, Mohammed A.; Bereda, Kiflu; Harboe, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) is a common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis with multiple differential diagnoses. Demonstration of the etiologic agent by smear microscopy or culture of fine needle aspirate (FNA) specimens is often unsuccessful. FNA specimens from 40 patients presenting at a rural health center in South Ethiopia and diagnosed as positive for TBLN on the basis of clinical and cytological criteria were analyzed for mycobacterial DNA by PCR. Thirty (75%) had cervical lymphadenitis and 11 (27.5%) were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Three primer sets were initially used to identify the causative agent at the genus (antigen 85 complex), complex (IS6110 insertion sequence), and species (pncA gene and allelic variation) levels. Among the forty TBLN cases, 35 (87.5%) were positive by PCR at the genus and complex levels. Based on PCR for detection of allelic variation at position 169, 24 (68.6%) of the 35 were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 6 (17.1%) were positive for M. bovis. These six were positive in additional PCR assays using the JB21-JB22 primer set, which is highly specific for M. bovis. Five (14.1%) showed amplification for both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis with the allele-specific primer set. Cooccurrence of pyrazinamide (PZA)-sensitive and -resistant M. tuberculosis in those five cases was indicated, since all were negative in assays with the JB21-JB22 primer set. This feature was seen in 3 of 11 HIV-positive and 2 of 29 HIV-negative individuals (P < 0.001). Conclusion: among 35 PCR-positive cases of TBLN from southern Ethiopia, 29 (82.9%) were caused by M. tuberculosis and six (17.1%) were caused by M. bovis. PMID:12409403

  6. Peroxides with antiplasmodial activity inhibit proliferation of Perkinsus olseni, the causative agent of Perkinsosis in bivalves.

    PubMed

    Araujo, N C P; Afonso, R; Bringela, A; Cancela, M L; Cristiano, M L S; Leite, R B

    2013-12-01

    Perkinsus olseni, the causative agent of Perkinsosis, can drastically affect the survival of target marine mollusks, with dramatic economic consequences for aquaculture. P. olseni is a member of the Alveolata group, which also comprises parasites that are highly relevant for medical and veterinary sciences such as Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma. P. olseni shares several unique metabolic pathways with those pathological parasites but is not toxic to humans. In this work, six antimalarially active peroxides, derived from the natural product artemisinin or synthetic trioxolanes, were synthesized and tested on P. olseni proliferation and survival. All peroxides tested revealed an inhibitory effect on P. olseni proliferation at micromolar concentrations. The relevance of the peroxide functionality on toxicity and the effect of Fe(II)-intracellular concentration on activity were also evaluated. Results demonstrated that the peroxide functionality is the toxofore and intracellular iron concentration also proved to be a crucial co-factor on the activation of peroxides in P. olseni. These data points to a mechanism of bioactivation in P. olseni sharing similarities with the one proposed in P. falciparum parasites. Preliminary studies on bioaccumulation were conducted using fluorescent-labeled peroxides. Results show that synthetic trioxolanes tend to accumulate on a vacuole while the labeled artemisinin accumulates in the cytoplasm. Preliminary experiments on differential genes expression associated to Fe(II) transport protein (Nramp) and calcium transport protein (ATP6/SERCA) were also conducted by qPCR. Results point to a fourfold increase in expression of both genes upon exposure to trioxolanes and approximately twofold upon exposure to artemisinin derivatives. Data obtained in this investigation is relevant for better understanding of the biology of Perkinsus and may also be important in the development of new strategies for Perkinsosis prevention and control

  7. Pathology of Camel Tuberculosis and Molecular Characterization of Its Causative Agents in Pastoral Regions of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Gezahegne; Bayleyegn, Gizachew; Sisay Tessema, Tesfaye; Legesse, Mengistu; Medhin, Girmay; Bjune, Gunnar; Abebe, Fekadu; Ameni, Gobena

    2011-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted on 906 apparently healthy camels slaughtered at Akaki and Metehara abattoirs to investigate the pathology of camel tuberculosis (TB) and characterize its causative agents using postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culturing, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), region of difference-4 (RD4)-based PCR and spoligotyping. The prevalence of camel TB was 10.04% (91/906) on the basis of pathology and it was significantly higher in females (χ2 = 4.789; P = 0.029). The tropism of TB lesions was significantly different among the lymph nodes (χ2 = 22.697; P = 0.002) and lung lobes (χ2 = 17.901; P = 0.006). Mycobacterial growth was observed in 34% (31/91) of camels with grossly suspicious TB lesions. Upon further molecular characterization using multiplex PCR, 68% (21/31) of the colonies showed a positive signal for the genus Mycobacterium, of which two were confirmed Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) by RD4 deletion typing. Further characterization of the two M. bovis at strains level revealed that one of the strains was SB0133 while the other strain was new and had not been reported to the M. bovis database prior to this study. Hence, it has now been reported to the database, and designated as SB1953. In conclusion, the results of the present study have shown that the majority of camel TB lesions are caused by mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. And hence further identification and characterization of these species would be useful towards the efforts made to control TB in camels. PMID:21283668

  8. Market trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A very large segment of the over water, long haul passenger market, 31% of the passengers who provide 42% of the passenger revenue, offers a significant market for an advanced supersonic transport. This is for both the first class and full-fare economy passenger markets. The supersonic transport may be more competitive here in spite of lower costs of subsonic transports, as passenger preference is a more powerful variable than DOC. This latter fact was amply demonstrated in the late fifties when the jets completely replaced the reciprocating engine transports on most world routes, in spite of slightly higher fares.

  9. Climate change impacts: The challenge of quantifying multi-factor causation, multi-component responses, and leveraging from extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    Modeling climate change impacts is challenging for a variety of reasons. Some of these are related to causation. A weather or climate event is rarely the sole cause of an impact, and, for many impacts, social, economic, cultural, or ecological factors may play a larger role than climate. Other challenges are related to outcomes. Consequences of an event are often most severe when several kinds of responses interact, typically in unexpected ways. Many kinds of consequences are difficult to quantify, especially when they include a mix of market, cultural, personal, and ecological values. In addition, scale can be tremendously important. Modest impacts over large areas present very different challenges than severe but very local impacts. Finally, impacts may respond non-linearly to forcing, with behavior that changes qualitatively at one or more thresholds and with unexpected outcomes in extremes. Modeling these potentially complex interactions between drivers and impacts presents one set of challenges. Evaluating the models presents another. At least five kinds of approaches can contribute to the evaluation of impact models designed to provide insights in multi-driver, multi-responder, multi-scale, and extreme-driven contexts, even though none of these approaches is a complete or "silver-bullet" solution. The starting point for much of the evaluation in this space is case studies. Case studies can help illustrate links between processes and scales. They can highlight factors that amplify or suppress sensitivity to climate drivers, and they can suggest the consequences of intervening at different points. While case studies rarely provide concrete evidence about mechanisms, they can help move a mechanistic case from circumstantial to sound. Novel approaches to data collection, including crowd sourcing, can potentially provide tools and the number of relevant examples to develop case studies as statistically robust data sources. A critical condition for progress in this

  10. Accounting for the physical and mental health benefits of entry into marriage: a genetically informed study of selection and causation.

    PubMed

    Horn, Erin E; Xu, Yishan; Beam, Christopher R; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E

    2013-02-01

    Married adults show better psychological adjustment and physical health than their separated/divorced or never-married counterparts. However, this apparent "marriage benefit" may be due to social selection, social causation, or both processes. Genetically informed research designs offer critical advantages for helping to disentangle selection from causation by controlling for measured and unmeasured genetic and shared environmental selection. Using young-adult twin and sibling pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Harris, 2009), we conducted genetically informed analyses of the association between entry into marriage, cohabitation, or singlehood and multiple indices of psychological and physical health. The relation between physical health and marriage was completely explained by nonrandom selection. For internalizing behaviors, selection did not fully explain the benefits of marriage or cohabitation relative to being single, whereas for externalizing symptoms, marriage predicted benefits over cohabitation. The genetically informed approach provides perhaps the strongest nonexperimental evidence that these observed effects are causal. PMID:23088795

  11. Identification of a Mycobacterium sp. as the causative agent of orange nodular lesions in the Atlantic sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Catherine; Huntsberger, Carl; Markey, Kathryn; Inglis, Susan; Smolowitz, Roxanna

    2016-03-30

    The Atlantic sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus is an economically important species in the offshore fisheries on the east coast of the USA. Recently, animals collected from waters ranging from Massachusetts to Maryland have shown variably sized (up to 1 cm in diameter) orange nodular foci, predominantly in the adductor muscle tissue, but also in other organs. Histological evaluation of the nodular lesions showed rod-shaped bacteria that stain acid-fast positive and Gram-positive. PCR methodology was employed to identify the causative organism of the nodules as a Mycobacterium sp. using analysis of the partial 16S gene and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region. Based upon genotypic findings, the causative bacterium fits well into the genus Mycobacterium. PMID:27025312

  12. Targeted Exon Sequencing Successfully Discovers Rare Causative Genes and Clarifies the Molecular Epidemiology of Japanese Deafness Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kamatani, Naoyuki; Usami, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Target exon resequencing using Massively Parallel DNA Sequencing (MPS) is a new powerful strategy to discover causative genes in rare Mendelian disorders such as deafness. We attempted to identify genomic variations responsible for deafness by massive sequencing of the exons of 112 target candidate genes. By the analysis of 216randomly selected Japanese deafness patients (120 early-onset and 96 late-detected), who had already been evaluated for common genes/mutations by Invader assay and of which 48 had already been diagnosed, we efficiently identified causative mutations and/or mutation candidates in 57 genes. Approximately 86.6% (187/216) of the patients had at least one mutation. Of the 187 patients, in 69 the etiology of the hearing loss was completely explained. To determine which genes have the greatest impact on deafness etiology, the number of mutations was counted, showing that those in GJB2 were exceptionally higher, followed by mutations in SLC26A4, USH2A, GPR98, MYO15A, COL4A5 and CDH23. The present data suggested that targeted exon sequencing of selected genes using the MPS technology followed by the appropriate filtering algorithm will be able to identify rare responsible genes including new candidate genes for individual patients with deafness, and improve molecular diagnosis. In addition, using a large number of patients, the present study clarified the molecular epidemiology of deafness in Japanese. GJB2 is the most prevalent causative gene, and the major (commonly found) gene mutations cause 30–40% of deafness while the remainder of hearing loss is the result of various rare genes/mutations that have been difficult to diagnose by the conventional one-by-one approach. In conclusion, target exon resequencing using MPS technology is a suitable method to discover common and rare causative genes for a highly heterogeneous monogenic disease like hearing loss. PMID:23967202

  13. Relation of probability of causation to relative risk and doubling dose: a methodologic error that has become a social problem.

    PubMed Central

    Greenland, S

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologists, biostatisticians, and health physicists frequently serve as expert consultants to lawyers, courts, and administrators. One of the most common errors committed by experts is to equate, without qualification, the attributable fraction estimated from epidemiologic data to the probability of causation requested by courts and administrators. This error has become so pervasive that it has been incorporated into judicial precedents and legislation. This commentary provides a brief overview of the error and the context in which it arises. PMID:10432900

  14. D117N in Cypher/ZASP may not be a causative mutation for dilated cardiomyopathy and ventricular arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Levitas, Aviva; Konstantino, Yuval; Muhammad, Emad; Afawi, Zaid; Marc Weinstein, Jean; Amit, Guy; Etzion, Yoram; Parvari, Ruti

    2016-05-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and malignant ventricular arrhythmias are important causes of congestive heart failure, heart transplantation, and sudden cardiac death in young patients. Cypher/ZASP is a cytoskeletal protein localized in the sarcomeric Z-line that has a pivotal role in maintaining adult cardiac structure and function. The putative mutation p.(D117N) in Cypher/ZASP has been suggested to cause systolic dysfunction, dilated left ventricle with hypertrabeculated myocardium, and intraventricular conduction disturbance, based on two reported sporadic cases. In two unrelated Bedouin families, one with pediatric DCM and the other with DCM and ventricular arrhythmias at young adulthood searching for the causative mutation by exome sequencing we identified the p.(D117N) variant in Cypher/ZASP. However, p.(D117N) did not segregate as the causative mutation in these families, i.e. it was not present in some patients and was found in several individuals who had no clinical manifestations. Furthermore, the carrier frequency in the Bedouin population of origin is estimated to be 5.2%, which is much higher than the incidence of idiopathic DCM in this population. Thus, our data support the notion that the p.(D117N) variant in Cypher/ZASP is not a causative mutation in the families tested by us. The results also indicates that at least in some cases, the p.(D117N) in Cypher/ZASP is not a causative mutation and the role of D117N in Cypher/ZASP in cardiac pathologies should be further clarified and re-evaluated. PMID:26419279

  15. Refinements on the inferred causative faults of the great 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revathy, P. M.; Rajendran, K.

    2014-12-01

    As the largest known intra-plate strike-slip events, the pair of 2012 earthquakes in the Wharton Basin is a rarity. Separated in time by 2 hours these events rouse interest also because of their short inter-event duration, complex rupture mechanism, and spatial-temporal proximity to the great 2004 Sumatra plate boundary earthquake. Reactivation of fossil ridge-transform pairs is a favoured mechanism for large oceanic plate earthquakes and their inherent geometry triggers earthquakes on conjugate fault systems, as observed previously in the Wharton Basin. The current debate is whether the ruptures occurred on the WNW-ESE paleo ridges or the NNE-SSW paleo transforms. Back-projection models give a complex rupture pattern that favours the WNW-ESE fault [1]. However, the static stress changes due to the 2004 Sumatra earthquake and 2005 Nias earthquake favour the N15°E fault [2]. We use the Teleseismic Body-Wave Inversion Program [3] and waveform data from Global Seismic Network, to obtain the best fit solutions using P and S-wave synthetic modelling. The preliminary P-wave analysis of both earthquakes gives source parameters that are consistent with the Harvard CMT solutions. The obtained slip distribution complies with the NNE-SSW transforms. Both these earthquakes triggered small tsunamis which appear as two distinctive pulses on 13 Indian Ocean tide gauges and buoys. Frequency spectra of the tsunami recordings from various azimuths provide additional constraint for the choice of the causative faults. References: [1] Yue, H., T. Lay, and K. D. Koper (2012), En echelon and orthogonal fault ruptures of the 11 April 2012 great intraplate earthquakes, Nature, 490, 245-249, doi:10.1038/nature11492 [2] Delescluse, M., N. Chamot-Rooke, R. Cattin, L. Fleitout, O. Trubienko and C. Vigny April 2012 intra-oceanic seismicity off Sumatra boosted by the Banda-Aceh megathrust, Nature, 490(2012), pp. 240-244, doi:10.1038/nature11520 [3] M. Kikuchi and H. Kanamori, Note on

  16. Holocene Changes in Land Cover and Greenhouse-gas Concentrations: Rethinking Natural vs Anthropogenic Causation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Holocene has witnessed a switch from a nature-dominated to a human-dominated Earth system. Although globally-significant human impacts (wildfire, megafaunal extinctions) occurred during the late Pleistocene, it was the advent of agriculture that led to the progressive transformation of land cover, and which distinguishes the Holocene from previous interglacial periods. A wide array of data provide clear evidence of local-to-regional human disturbance from ~5 ka BP, in some cases earlier. There is more uncertainty about when the anthropogenic "footprint" became detectable at a global scale, and there has consequently been debate about how much of the pre-industrial increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations is attributable to human causation, linked to processes such as deforestation (CO2) and wet rice cultivation (CH4). Although there has been recent progress in developing quantitative methods for translating pollen data into palaeo-land cover, such as the REVEALS model of Sugita (Holocene 2007) coupled to GIS, this has yet to be widely applied to existing data bases, and most pollen-based land-use reconstructions remain qualitative or semi-quantitative. Lake trophic status, sediment flux / soil erosion, and microcharcoal records of biomass burning provide alternative proxies that integrate regional-scale landscape disturbance. These proxy data along with documentary sources imply that globally-significant changes in land cover occurred prior to ~250 BP which must have altered atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations by this time. The polarised debate for and against early anthropogenic impact on global carbon cycling mirrors our industrial-era division between nature and society, both conceptually (e.g. Cartesian dualism) and on the ground (e.g. demarcating land between monoculture agriculture and wilderness). However, for the period before ~1750 AD, this likely represents a false dichotomy, because pre-industrial societies more often formed part

  17. Cystatin A, a Potential Common Link for Mutant Myocilin Causative Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, K. David; AnithaChristy, S. A.; Buie, LaKisha K.; Borrás, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Myocilin (MYOC) is a 504 aa secreted glycoprotein induced by stress factors in the trabecular meshwork tissue of the eye, where it was discovered. Mutations in MYOC are linked to glaucoma. The glaucoma phenotype of each of the different MYOC mutation varies, but all of them cause elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). In cells, forty percent of wild-type MYOC is cleaved by calpain II, a cysteine protease. This proteolytic process is inhibited by MYOC mutants. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which MYOC mutants cause glaucoma. We constructed adenoviral vectors with variants Q368X, R342K, D380N, K423E, and overexpressed them in human trabecular meshwork cells. We analyzed expression profiles with Affymetrix U133Plus2 GeneChips using wild-type and null viruses as controls. Analysis of trabecular meshwork relevant mechanisms showed that the unfolded protein response (UPR) was the most affected. Search for individual candidate genes revealed that genes that have been historically connected to trabecular meshwork physiology and pathology were altered by the MYOC mutants. Some of those had known MYOC associations (MMP1, PDIA4, CALR, SFPR1) while others did not (EDN1, MGP, IGF1, TAC1). Some, were top-changed in only one mutant (LOXL1, CYP1B1, FBN1), others followed a mutant group pattern. Some of the genes were new (RAB39B, STC1, CXCL12, CSTA). In particular, one selected gene, the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin A (CSTA), was commonly induced by all mutants and not by the wild-type. Subsequent functional analysis of the selected gene showed that CSTA was able to reduce wild-type MYOC cleavage in primary trabecular meshwork cells while an inactive mutated CSTA was not. These findings provide a new molecular understanding of the mechanisms of MYOC-causative glaucoma and reveal CSTA, a serum biomarker for cancer, as a potential biomarker and drug for the treatment of MYOC-induced glaucoma. PMID:22615763

  18. Five-year assessment of causative agents and antibiotic resistances in urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Çoban, Bayram; Ülkü, Nesrin; Kaplan, Halit; Topal, Burhan; Erdoğan, Haluk; Baskın, Esra

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To show the distribution and changes of causative agents of urinary tract infections in children and resistance rates by years and select the most appropriate antibiotics. Material and Methods: In this study, the Başkent University Alanya Research and Application Hospital automation system microbiology recording book was screened retrospectively. Growth of a single microorganism above 105 colonies (cfu/mL) was included in the assessment. Throughout the study, 10 691 urinary cultures were studies and growth was found in 392 (3.7%). Results: Three hundred and nine (78.8%) of the samples with growth belonged to girls. Growth was found in the neonatal period in 32 patients (8.2%). The most commonly isolated microorganism was Escherichia coli (E. coli) which was found in 68.4% of the patients. Klebsiella spp. were found with a rate of 12.0%; Enterobacter spp. were found with a rate of 10.7% and proteus spp. were found with a rate of 5.1%. Resistance to cefalotin (62.1%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole (43.1%), amoxycillin-clavulanate (34.8%), ampicillin (30.4%), cefixim (26.3%) and nitrofurantoin (3.6%) was found in E. coli species. The antibiotic which had the highest resistance rate was ampicillin with a rate of 93.2% for klebsiella and 83.4% for enterobacter. Klebsiella spp. were the most commonly grown pathogens in newborns (40.6%). In a follow-up period of 5 years, the resistance of E. coli to amoxycillin-clavulanate regressed from 40.3% to 31.3%, while the resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole (TMP-SMX) regressed from 45.6% to 34.7%. Conclusions: A high resistance against first-generation cephalosporins, ampicillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate and TMP-SMX which are the first-line antibiotics in childhood urinary tract infections was found. Carbapenem (meropenem, imipenem) resistance was not found in our center. Nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides and cefixime can be recommended for empirical treatment in our hospital because of low resistance. Antibiotic

  19. Minocycline-treatment of diabetic rats normalizes skin collagen production and mass: possible causative mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Schneir, M; Ramamurthy, N; Golub, L

    1990-05-01

    Daily minocycline-treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats not only prevented a diabetes-caused atrophy of skin collagen mass (10-mos old rats), but also normalized skin collagen mass to match that of growing (ca. 1%/d) non-diabetic controls (4- and 5-mos old rats). The causative mechanism by which minocycline-treatment normalizes skin collagen mass must, in part, be related to a general anabolic effect on growth (body weight) because the effect on skin collagen mass correlates strongly to that on body weight. Consequently, a minocycline-stimulated increase of a systemic factor (such as insulin-like growth factor) is not unlikely. The anabolic effect of minocycline-treatment of diabetic rats is also expressed as a normalized cellular ribosome mass (an index of total protein synthetic capacity) and a normalized absolute rate of collagen production. (Calculation of an absolute rate was justified by an apparent maximum saturation of the prolyl-tRNA pool(s) of skin, maximum saturation obtained by the pool-flooding approach). The normalized skin ribosome amount does not, however, explain a selective effect of minocycline-treatment on collagen production as opposed to that for non-collagen protein, this selective effect measured as relative collagen production. To explain such selectivity, the inhibition of diabetes-induced excess skin collagenase activity seems unlikely. (This inference is based on results from a preliminary study indicating that recently [less than 2 h] synthesized collagen is not degraded by the excess collagenase in skin of diabetic rats). Thus, the principal collagen fraction acted on by pathologically excess collagenase might be collagen at a later stage (greater than 2 h after synthesis) in its life cycle. (Another possibility for the selective effect of minocycline on collagen production, as yet untested, is reduced intracellular procollagen degradation.) Overall, this is the first study aimed at discerning the mechanism(s) by which

  20. An efficient hybrid causative event-based approach for deriving the annual flood frequency distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyer, Mark; Li, Jing; Lambert, Martin; Kuczera, George; Metcalfe, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Flood extremes are driven by highly variable and complex climatic and hydrological processes. Derived flood frequency methods are often used to predict the flood frequency distribution (FFD) because they can provide predictions in ungauged catchments and evaluate the impact of land-use or climate change. This study presents recent work on development of a new derived flood frequency method called the hybrid causative events (HCE) approach. The advantage of the HCE approach is that it combines the accuracy of the continuous simulation approach with the computational efficiency of the event-based approaches. Derived flood frequency methods, can be divided into two classes. Event-based approaches provide fast estimation, but can also lead to prediction bias due to limitations of inherent assumptions required for obtaining input information (rainfall and catchment wetness) for events that cause large floods. Continuous simulation produces more accurate predictions, however, at the cost of massive computational time. The HCE method uses a short continuous simulation to provide inputs for a rainfall-runoff model running in an event-based fashion. A proof-of-concept pilot study that the HCE produces estimates of the flood frequency distribution with similar accuracy as the continuous simulation, but with dramatically reduced computation time. Recent work incorporated seasonality into the HCE approach and evaluated with a more realistic set of eight sites from a wide range of climate zones, typical of Australia, using a virtual catchment approach. The seasonal hybrid-CE provided accurate predictions of the FFD for all sites. Comparison with the existing non-seasonal hybrid-CE showed that for some sites the non-seasonal hybrid-CE significantly over-predicted the FFD. Analysis of the underlying cause of whether a site had a high, low or no need to use seasonality found it was based on a combination of reasons, that were difficult to predict apriori. Hence it is recommended

  1. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  2. Poland's Transition in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leven, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Prior to Poland's transition from central planning to a market system, which began in 1990, schools of business were non-existent in that country. Instead, university level instruction on economics during the socialist period was closely tied to ideological priorities, and limited to imparting skills suitable for planned economy. All universities…

  3. 39 CFR 3010.29 - Transition rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transition rule. 3010.29 Section 3010.29 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL REGULATION OF RATES FOR MARKET DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Applying the Price Cap § 3010.29 Transition rule. If the Postal Service initial exercise of its...

  4. 39 CFR 3010.29 - Transition rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transition rule. 3010.29 Section 3010.29 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL REGULATION OF RATES FOR MARKET DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Applying the Price Cap § 3010.29 Transition rule. If the Postal Service initial exercise of its...

  5. 39 CFR 3010.29 - Transition rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transition rule. 3010.29 Section 3010.29 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL REGULATION OF RATES FOR MARKET DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Applying the Price Cap § 3010.29 Transition rule. If the Postal Service initial exercise of its...

  6. 39 CFR 3010.29 - Transition rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transition rule. 3010.29 Section 3010.29 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL REGULATION OF RATES FOR MARKET DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Applying the Price Cap § 3010.29 Transition rule. If the Postal Service initial exercise of its...

  7. Structure and Agency in Transition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Walter R.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the results of transition studies in the UK, Germany, USA and Canada, the virtues of analysing the structural contexts, institutional arrangements and the young peoples' action orientations are presented. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, school and the labour market have become more and more decoupled and transition routes…

  8. Alert for an epidemic of oral cancer due to use of the betel quid substitutes gutkha and pan masala: a review of agents and causative mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nair, Urmila; Bartsch, Helmut; Nair, Jagadeesan

    2004-07-01

    In south-east Asia, Taiwan and Papua New Guinea, smoking, alcohol consumption and chewing of betel quid with or without tobacco or areca nut with or without tobacco are the predominant causes of oral cancer. In most areas, betel quid consists of a mixture of areca nut, slaked lime, catechu and several condiments according to taste, wrapped in a betel leaf. Almost all habitual chewers use tobacco with or without the betel quid. In the last few decades, small, attractive and inexpensive sachets of betel quid substitutes have become widely available. Aggressively advertised and marketed, often claimed to be safer products, they are consumed by the very young and old alike, particularly in India, but also among migrant populations from these areas world wide. The product is basically a flavoured and sweetened dry mixture of areca nut, catechu and slaked lime with tobacco (gutkha) or without tobacco (pan masala). These products have been strongly implicated in the recent increase in the incidence of oral submucous fibrosis, especially in the very young, even after a short period of use. This precancerous lesion, which has a high rate of malignant transformation, is extremely debilitating and has no known cure. The use of tobacco with lime, betel quid with tobacco, betel quid without tobacco and areca nut have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As gutkha and pan masala are mixtures of several of these ingredients, their carcinogenic affect can be surmised. We review evidence that strongly supports causative mechanisms for genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of these substitute products. Although some recent curbs have been put on the manufacture and sale of these products, urgent action is needed to permanently ban gutkha and pan masala, together with the other established oral cancer-causing tobacco products. Further, education to reduce or eliminate home-made preparations needs to be accelerated. PMID:15215323

  9. Sports Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  10. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  11. Transition-cost issues for a restructuring US electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Utilities regulators can use a variety of approaches to calculate transition costs. We categorized these approaches along three dimensions. The first dimension is the use of administrative vs. market procedures to value the assets in question. Administrative approaches use analytical techniques to estimate transition costs. Market valuation relies on the purchase price of particular assets to determine their market values. The second dimension concerns when the valuation is done, either before or after the restructuring of the electricity industry. The third dimension concerns the level of detail involved in the valuation, what is often called top-down vs. bottom-up valuation. This paper discusses estimation approaches, criteria to assess estimation methods, specific approaches to estimating transition costs, factors that affect transition-cost estimates, strategies to address transition costs, who should pay transition costs, and the integration of cost recovery with competitive markets.

  12. Phase transition phenomenon: A compound measure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Bo Soo; Park, Chanhi; Ryu, Doojin; Song, Wonho

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the well-documented phenomenon of phase transition in financial markets using combined information from both return and volume changes within short time intervals. We suggest a new measure for the phase transition behaviour of markets, calculated as a return distribution conditional on local variance in volume imbalance, and show that this measure successfully captures phase transition behaviour under various conditions. We analyse the intraday trade and quote dataset from the KOSPI 200 index futures, which includes detailed information on the original order size and the type of each initiating investor. We find that among these two competing factors, the submitted order size yields more explanatory power on the phenomenon of market phase transition than the investor type.

  13. Whole Genome SNP Genotyping and Exome Sequencing Reveal Novel Genetic Variants and Putative Causative Genes in Congenital Hyperinsulinism

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Maria Carla; Mangano, Eleonora; Gessi, Alessandra; Bordoni, Roberta; Spinelli, Roberta; Asselta, Rosanna; Valin, Paola Sogno; Di Candia, Stefania; Zamproni, Ilaria; Diceglie, Cecilia; Mora, Stefano; Caruso-Nicoletti, Manuela; Salvatoni, Alessandro; De Bellis, Gianluca; Battaglia, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Congenital hyperinsulinism of infancy (CHI) is a rare disorder characterized by severe hypoglycemia due to inappropriate insulin secretion. The genetic causes of CHI have been found in genes regulating insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells; recessive inactivating mutations in the ABCC8 and KCNJ11 genes represent the most common events. Despite the advances in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of CHI, specific genetic determinants in about 50 % of the CHI patients remain unknown, suggesting additional locus heterogeneity. In order to search for novel loci contributing to the pathogenesis of CHI, we combined a family-based association study, using the transmission disequilibrium test on 17 CHI patients lacking mutations in ABCC8/KCNJ11, with a whole-exome sequencing analysis performed on 10 probands. This strategy allowed the identification of the potential causative mutations in genes implicated in the regulation of insulin secretion such as transmembrane proteins (CACNA1A, KCNH6, KCNJ10, NOTCH2, RYR3, SCN8A, TRPV3, TRPC5), cytosolic (ACACB, CAMK2D, CDKAL1, GNAS, NOS2, PDE4C, PIK3R3) and mitochondrial enzymes (PC, SLC24A6), and in four genes (CSMD1, SLC37A3, SULF1, TLL1) suggested by TDT family-based association study. Moreover, the exome-sequencing approach resulted to be an efficient diagnostic tool for CHI, allowing the identification of mutations in three causative CHI genes (ABCC8, GLUD1, and HNF1A) in four out of 10 patients. Overall, the present study should be considered as a starting point to design further investigations: our results might indeed contribute to meta-analysis studies, aimed at the identification/confirmation of novel causative or modifier genes. PMID:23869231

  14. Financial symmetry and moods in the market.

    PubMed

    Savona, Roberto; Soumare, Maxence; Andersen, Jørgen Vitting

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies how certain speculative transitions in financial markets can be ascribed to a symmetry break that happens in the collective decision making. Investors are assumed to be bounded rational, using a limited set of information including past price history and expectation on future dividends. Investment strategies are dynamically changed based on realized returns within a game theoretical scheme with Nash equilibria. In such a setting, markets behave as complex systems whose payoff reflect an intrinsic financial symmetry that guarantees equilibrium in price dynamics (fundamentalist state) until the symmetry is broken leading to bubble or anti-bubble scenarios (speculative state). We model such two-phase transition in a micro-to-macro scheme through a Ginzburg-Landau-based power expansion leading to a market temperature parameter which modulates the state transitions in the market. Via simulations we prove that transitions in the market price dynamics can be phenomenologically explained by the number of traders, the number of strategies and amount of information used by agents, all included in our market temperature parameter. PMID:25856392

  15. Financial Symmetry and Moods in the Market

    PubMed Central

    Savona, Roberto; Soumare, Maxence; Andersen, Jørgen Vitting

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies how certain speculative transitions in financial markets can be ascribed to a symmetry break that happens in the collective decision making. Investors are assumed to be bounded rational, using a limited set of information including past price history and expectation on future dividends. Investment strategies are dynamically changed based on realized returns within a game theoretical scheme with Nash equilibria. In such a setting, markets behave as complex systems whose payoff reflect an intrinsic financial symmetry that guarantees equilibrium in price dynamics (fundamentalist state) until the symmetry is broken leading to bubble or anti-bubble scenarios (speculative state). We model such two-phase transition in a micro-to-macro scheme through a Ginzburg-Landau-based power expansion leading to a market temperature parameter which modulates the state transitions in the market. Via simulations we prove that transitions in the market price dynamics can be phenomenologically explained by the number of traders, the number of strategies and amount of information used by agents, all included in our market temperature parameter. PMID:25856392

  16. Pulseless electrical activity in a pediatric patient: a case report and review of causative factors and treatment.

    PubMed

    Newman, Johanna

    2013-12-01

    Pulseless electrical activity, an arrhythmia that leads to cardiac arrest, is defined as the presence of organized electrical activity without a palpable pulse or arterial blood pressure. When this arrhythmia presents during anesthesia, it has become routine practice to initiate advanced cardiac life support according to the American Heart Association guidelines. This arrhythmia is usually associated with a poor prognosis unless a reversible cause is investigated and treated immediately. The purpose of this article is to summarize the causative factors of pulseless electrical activity and its treatment modalities. This case report describes the successful resuscitation of a pediatric patient who presented with pulseless electrical activity during anesthesia for a rigid bronchoscopy. PMID:24597008

  17. Reform of China's Technical and Vocational Education in the Transition from a Planned Economy System to a Socialist Market Economy System--A Case Study. Case Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Zuguang; Zeng, Zida

    Since the early 1990s, China's government has followed a socialist market economy system. Accordingly, the technical and vocational education (TVE) should be restructured to meet its needs. Reform of the TVE system has four aspects. First, reform of the planning system includes a move from a central plan of enrollment to planning according to…

  18. Market maturity

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, B.; Bowden, S.; Ellis, M

    1995-02-01

    The power sector in the Philipines provides one of the most mature independent power markets in Asia. Over the past five years, National Power Corp. (NPC), the government owned utility, has actively invited the power sector into power generation. Distribution has remained in the hands of private and rural cooperative utilities. Private utilities have been operating as full requirements customers of NPC while the growth in capacity additions by independent power producers (IPPs) has outpaced NPC`s for the second year in a row. With a recovering economy and regulatory reform proceeding, the outlook for independent power remains strong through the end of the decade. The Philipine Congress is now reviewing draft legislation that will decentralize NPC and begin the process of privatization and market-based reforms throughout the country`s power sector.

  19. 42 CFR 403.813 - Marketing limitations and record retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marketing limitations and record retention... Discount Card and Transitional Assistance Program § 403.813 Marketing limitations and record retention requirements. (a) Marketing limitations. (1) An endorsed sponsor may only market the following: (i)...

  20. 42 CFR 403.813 - Marketing limitations and record retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marketing limitations and record retention... Discount Card and Transitional Assistance Program § 403.813 Marketing limitations and record retention requirements. (a) Marketing limitations. (1) An endorsed sponsor may only market the following: (i)...

  1. 42 CFR 403.813 - Marketing limitations and record retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marketing limitations and record retention... Discount Card and Transitional Assistance Program § 403.813 Marketing limitations and record retention requirements. (a) Marketing limitations. (1) An endorsed sponsor may only market the following: (i)...

  2. 42 CFR 403.813 - Marketing limitations and record retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marketing limitations and record retention... Discount Card and Transitional Assistance Program § 403.813 Marketing limitations and record retention requirements. (a) Marketing limitations. (1) An endorsed sponsor may only market the following: (i)...

  3. 42 CFR 403.813 - Marketing limitations and record retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing limitations and record retention... Discount Card and Transitional Assistance Program § 403.813 Marketing limitations and record retention requirements. (a) Marketing limitations. (1) An endorsed sponsor may only market the following: (i)...

  4. Selection in the Making: A Worldwide Survey of Haplotypic Diversity Around a Causative Mutation in Porcine IGF2

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, A.; Huang, L.-S.; Ren, J.; Angiolillo, A.; Cho, I.-C.; Soto, H.; Lemús-Flores, C.; Makuza, S. M.; Folch, J. M.; Pérez-Enciso, M.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic species allow us to study dramatic evolutionary changes at an accelerated rate due to the effectiveness of modern breeding techniques and the availability of breeds that have undergone distinct selection pressures. We present a worldwide survey of haplotype variability around a known causative mutation in porcine gene IGF2, which increases lean content. We genotyped 34 SNPs spanning 27 kb in 237 domestic pigs and 162 wild boars. Although the selective process had wiped out variability for at least 27 kb in the haplotypes carrying the mutation, there was no indication of an overall reduction in genetic variability of international vs. European local breeds; there was also no evidence of a reduction in variability caused by domestication. The haplotype structure and a plot of Tajima's D against the frequency of the causative mutation across breeds suggested a temporal pattern, where each breed corresponded to a different selective stage. This was observed comparing the haplotype neighbor-joining (NJ) trees of breeds that have undergone increasing selection pressures for leanness, e.g., European local breeds vs. Pietrain. These results anticipate that comparing current domestic breeds will decisively help to recover the genetic history of domestication and contemporary selective processes. PMID:18245828

  5. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in bill size and shape of hermit hummingbirds (Phaethornithinae): a role for ecological causation

    PubMed Central

    Temeles, Ethan J.; Miller, Jill S.; Rifkin, Joanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Unambiguous examples of ecological causation of sexual dimorphism are rare, and the best evidence involves sexual differences in trophic morphology. We show that moderate female-biased sexual dimorphism in bill curvature is the ancestral condition in hermit hummingbirds (Phaethornithinae), and that it is greatly amplified in species such as Glaucis hirsutus and Phaethornis guy, where bills of females are 60 per cent more curved than bills of males. In contrast, bill curvature dimorphism is lost or reduced in a lineage of short-billed hermit species and in specialist Eutoxeres sicklebill hermits. In the hermits, males tend to be larger than females in the majority of species, although size dimorphism is typically small. Consistent with earlier studies of hummingbird feeding performance, both raw regressions of traits and phylogenetic independent contrasts supported the prediction that dimorphism in bill curvature of hermits is associated with longer bills. Some evidence indicates that differences between sexes of hermit hummingbirds are associated with differences in the use of food plants. We suggest that some hermit hummingbirds provide model organisms for studies of ecological causation of sexual dimorphism because their sexual dimorphism in bill curvature provides a diagnostic clue for the food plants that need to be monitored for studies of sexual differences in resource use. PMID:20194168

  6. Can a microwave heat up coffee? How English- and Japanese-speaking children choose subjects in lexical causative sentences.

    PubMed

    Kanero, Junko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Michnick Golinkoff, Roberta

    2016-09-01

    Languages differ greatly in how they express causal events. In languages like Japanese, the subjects of causative sentences, or causers, are generally animate and intentional, whereas in other languages like English, causers range widely from animate beings to inanimate objects (e.g. Wolff, Jeon & Li, 2009). This paper explores when children learn to represent cause in their native tongue and how this learning occurs over the course of development. English- and Japanese-speaking preschoolers watched animations that were caused by (i) humans acting intentionally, (ii) humans acting accidentally, (iii) objects that generate energy (e.g. a machine), and (iv) objects that do not generate energy (e.g. a tool). Children were then asked to choose a good description of the event between two options. At age three, English- and Japanese-speaking children performed the task in similar ways, attending only to the intention of causal agents; however, at age four, speakers of the two languages diverged. English speakers were more likely to accept energy-generating objects such as machines as the subject of a lexical causative sentence than Japanese speakers. PMID:26174162

  7. [Intraspecies diversity of Trichosporon asahii as the causative agent of opportunistic fungal infection and summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis].

    PubMed

    Sugita, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Trichosporon asahii is the major causative agent of the opportunistic infection trichosporonosis, and also causes summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis (SHP). Random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis was used to determine the intraspecies diversity of T. asahii isolates from clinical specimens,the houses of SHP patients, and environmental material. Clinical isolates formed a cluster, characterized by a 90% matching coefficient, but they did not cluster with strains isolated from SHP patients houses or environmental sources. The biochemical characteristics of T. asahii isolates from the three sources were compared, and a phenogram was constructed. One of the two clusters included most of the clinical isolates and strains isolated from the houses, and the other cluster included most of the environmental isolates. There was a remarkable difference in the abilities of the strains belonging to these clusters to utilize several compounds. These results suggest that the genetic diversity and biochemical characteristics of T. asahii are related to the source of the isolates. In addition, based on the IGS1 sequence, which is located between the 26S and 5S rRNA genes, we identified five genotypes of T. asahii, which is a major causative agent of deep-seated trichosporonosis. Of the five genotypes, three were isolates that originated in Japan, whereas two were American isolates. IGS sequence analysis shows great potential as a new epidemiological tool. PMID:12590253

  8. Development and evaluation of a Naïve Bayesian model for coding causation of workers’ compensation claims☆

    PubMed Central

    Bertke, S. J.; Meyers, A. R.; Wurzelbacher, S. J.; Bell, J.; Lampl, M. L.; Robins, D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tracking and trending rates of injuries and illnesses classified as musculoskeletal disorders caused by ergonomic risk factors such as overexertion and repetitive motion (MSDs) and slips, trips, or falls (STFs) in different industry sectors is of high interest to many researchers. Unfortunately, identifying the cause of injuries and illnesses in large datasets such as workers’ compensation systems often requires reading and coding the free form accident text narrative for potentially millions of records. Method To alleviate the need for manual coding, this paper describes and evaluates a computer auto-coding algorithm that demonstrated the ability to code millions of claims quickly and accurately by learning from a set of previously manually coded claims. Conclusions The auto-coding program was able to code claims as a musculoskeletal disorders, STF or other with approximately 90% accuracy. Impact on industry The program developed and discussed in this paper provides an accurate and efficient method for identifying the causation of workers’ compensation claims as a STF or MSD in a large database based on the unstructured text narrative and resulting injury diagnoses. The program coded thousands of claims in minutes. The method described in this paper can be used by researchers and practitioners to relieve the manual burden of reading and identifying the causation of claims as a STF or MSD. Furthermore, the method can be easily generalized to code/classify other unstructured text narratives. PMID:23206504

  9. Causation mechanism analysis for haze pollution related to vehicle emission in Guangzhou, China by employing the fault tree approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiqing; Fan, Hongbo; Qiu, Yongfu; Cheng, Zhiyu; Xu, Pingru; Qian, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Recently, China has frequently experienced large-scale, severe and persistent haze pollution due to surging urbanization and industrialization and a rapid growth in the number of motor vehicles and energy consumption. The vehicle emission due to the consumption of a large number of fossil fuels is no doubt a critical factor of the haze pollution. This work is focused on the causation mechanism of haze pollution related to the vehicle emission for Guangzhou city by employing the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) method for the first time. With the establishment of the fault tree system of "Haze weather-Vehicle exhausts explosive emission", all of the important risk factors are discussed and identified by using this deductive FTA method. The qualitative and quantitative assessments of the fault tree system are carried out based on the structure, probability and critical importance degree analysis of the risk factors. The study may provide a new simple and effective tool/strategy for the causation mechanism analysis and risk management of haze pollution in China. PMID:26923237

  10. The migration transition in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, L L

    1996-01-01

    "Exploring the unique experience of migration transition in Malaysia, this paper identifies the turning points in relation to the level and nature of economic and labor market developments in Malaysia. Examining the development dynamics that mark the passage from exporting labor to depending on foreign labor, the paper concludes that such dynamics are influenced not only by economic but also sociocultural, demographic and policy factors. Several lessons from the Malaysian experience are drawn at the end to be utilized by other countries that still have to reach the turning points of the migration transition." PMID:12320775

  11. Marketing Maps: Illustrating How Marketing Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyure, James F.; Arnold, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Today's colleges and universities may tolerate the "idea" of marketing more easily, but marketers must continue to educate campus communities about marketing theories and practice. To promote a useful appreciation of how theories translate into initiatives, we propose incorporating "marketing maps"-user-friendly graphic representations of how…

  12. Metric transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes NASA's metric transition in terms of seven major program elements. Six are technical areas involving research, technology development, and operations; they are managed by specific Program Offices at NASA Headquarters. The final program element, Institutional Management, covers both NASA-wide functional management under control of NASA Headquarters and metric capability development at the individual NASA Field Installations. This area addresses issues common to all NASA program elements, including: Federal, state, and local coordination; standards; private industry initiatives; public-awareness initiatives; and employee training. The concluding section identifies current barriers and impediments to metric transition; NASA has no specific recommendations for consideration by the Congress.

  13. A novel antiamoebic agent against Acanthamoeba sp. - A causative agent for eye keratitis infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusrini, Eny; Hashim, Fatimah; Azmi, Wan Nor Nadhirah Wan Noor; Amin, Nakisah Mat; Estuningtyas, Ari

    2016-01-01

    The terbium trinitrate.trihydrate.18-crown ether-6, Tb(NO3)3(OH2)3.(18C6) complex has been characterized by elemental analysis, photoluminescence and single X-ray diffraction. The IC50 values were determined based on MTT assay while light and fluorescence microscopy imaging were employed to evaluate the cellular morphological changes. Alkaline comet assay was performed to analyze the DNA damage. The photoluminescence spectrum of the Tb complex excited at 325 nm displayed seven luminescence peaks corresponding to the 5D4 → 7F0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 transitions. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies indicated that the Tb(NO3)3(OH2)3.(18C6) complex and its salt form as well as the 18C6 molecule have excellent anti-amoebic activity with very low IC50 values are 7, 2.6 and 1.2 μg/mL, respectively, with significant decrease (p < 0.05) in Acanthamoeba viability when the concentration was increased from 0 to 30 μg/mL. The mode of cell death in Acanthamoeba cells following treatment with the Tb complex was apoptosis. This is in contrast to the Tb(NO3)3.6H2O salt- and 18C6 molecule-treated Acanthamoeba, which exhibited necrotic type cells. The percentage of DNA damage following treatment with all the compounds at the IC25 values showed high percentage of type 1 with the % nuclei damage are 14.15 ± 2.4; 46.00 ± 4.2; 36.36 ± 2.4; 45.16 ± 0.6%, respectively for untreated, treated with Tb complex, Tb salt and 18C6 molecule. The work features promising potential of Tb(NO3)3(OH2)3.(18C6) complex as anti-amoebic agent, representing a therapeutic option for Acanthamoeba keratitis infection.

  14. A novel antiamoebic agent against Acanthamoeba sp.--A causative agent for eye keratitis infection.

    PubMed

    Kusrini, Eny; Hashim, Fatimah; Azmi, Wan Nor Nadhirah Wan Noor; Amin, Nakisah Mat; Estuningtyas, Ari

    2016-01-15

    The terbium trinitrate.trihydrate.18-crown ether-6, Tb(NO3)3(OH2)3.(18C6) complex has been characterized by elemental analysis, photoluminescence and single X-ray diffraction. The IC50 values were determined based on MTT assay while light and fluorescence microscopy imaging were employed to evaluate the cellular morphological changes. Alkaline comet assay was performed to analyze the DNA damage. The photoluminescence spectrum of the Tb complex excited at 325 nm displayed seven luminescence peaks corresponding to the (5)D4→(7)F(0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) transitions. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies indicated that the Tb(NO3)3(OH2)3.(18C6) complex and its salt form as well as the 18C6 molecule have excellent anti-amoebic activity with very low IC50 values are 7, 2.6 and 1.2 μg/mL, respectively, with significant decrease (p<0.05) in Acanthamoeba viability when the concentration was increased from 0 to 30 μg/mL. The mode of cell death in Acanthamoeba cells following treatment with the Tb complex was apoptosis. This is in contrast to the Tb(NO3)3.6H2O salt- and 18C6 molecule-treated Acanthamoeba, which exhibited necrotic type cells. The percentage of DNA damage following treatment with all the compounds at the IC25 values showed high percentage of type 1 with the % nuclei damage are 14.15±2.4; 46.00±4.2; 36.36±2.4; 45.16±0.6%, respectively for untreated, treated with Tb complex, Tb salt and 18C6 molecule. The work features promising potential of Tb(NO3)3(OH2)3.(18C6) complex as anti-amoebic agent, representing a therapeutic option for Acanthamoeba keratitis infection. PMID:26474244

  15. Ultra-rapid real-time PCR for the detection of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB).

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Do-Bu; Lee, Dong-Woo; Kim, Eul-Hwan; Yoon, Byoung-Su

    2008-09-01

    A novel micro-PCR-based detection method, termed ultra-rapid real-time PCR, was applied to the development of a rapid detection for Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) which is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB). This method was designed to detect the 16S rRNA gene of P. larvae with a micro-scale chip-based real-time PCR system, GenSpector TMC-1000, which has uncommonly fast heating and cooling rates (10 degrees C per second) and small reaction volume (6microl). In the application of ultra-rapid real-time PCR detection to an AFB-infected larva, the minimum detection time was 7 min and 54s total reaction time (30 cycles), including the melting temperature analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this novel detection method is one of the most rapid real-time PCR-based detection tools. PMID:18571197

  16. Putative lipoproteins identified by bioinformatic genome analysis of Leifsonia xyli ssp. xyli, the causative agent of sugarcane ratoon stunting disease.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Iain C; Hutchings, Matthew I

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Leifsonia xyli ssp. xyli is the causative agent of ratoon stunting disease, a major cause of economic loss in sugarcane crops. Understanding of the biology of this pathogen has been hampered by its fastidious growth characteristics in vitro. However, the recent release of a genome sequence for this organism has allowed significant novel insights. Further to this, we have performed a bioinformatic analysis of the lipoproteins encoded in the L. xyli genome. These analyses suggest that lipoproteins represent c. 2.0% of the L. xyli predicted proteome. Functional analyses suggest that lipoproteins make an important contribution to the physiology of the pathogen and may influence its ability to cause disease in planta. PMID:20507484

  17. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the causative agent of Valsa canker of apple tree Valsa mali var. mali.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Dai, Qingqing; Liu, Yangyang; Yang, Zhe; Song, Na; Gao, Xiaoning; Voegele, Ralf Thomas; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2014-06-01

    Valsa mali var. mali (Vmm), which is the causative agent of Valsa canker of apple tree, causes heavy damage to apple production in eastern Asia. In this article, we report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) of Vmm and expression of gfp (green fluorescent protein) in this fungus. The transformation system was optimized to a transformation efficiency of approximately 150 transformants/10(6) conidia, and a library containing over 4,000 transformants was generated. The tested transformants were mitotically stable. One hundred percent hph (hygromycin B phosphotransferase) integration into Vmm was identified by PCR and five single-copy integration of T-DNA was detected in the eighteen transformants by Southern blot. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ATMT of Vmm. Furthermore, this library has been used to identify genes involved in the virulence of the pathogen, and the transformation system may also be useful to the transformation of other species of the genus Valsa. PMID:24554343

  18. Periorbital Hyperpigmentation: A Study of its Prevalence, Common Causative Factors and its Association with Personal Habits and Other Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Pratik B; Shah, Hiral A; Dave, Jayendra N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periorbital hyperpigmentation (POH) is one of the most commonly encountered conditions in routine dermatology practice. There are only few published studies about its prevalence, classification, and pathogenesis but none showing its association with habits, and other medical conditions in Indian patients. Aims: To determine prevalence and type of POH, common causative factors, and its association with personal habits and other disorders within various age and sex groups. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients attending the dermatology OPD were included in study and were subjected to detailed history, careful clinical and Wood's lamp examination, eyelid stretch test and laboratory investigations. Clinical photographs of all patients were taken. Results: POH was most prevalent in 16-25 years age group (47.50%) and in females (81%) of which majority were housewives (45.50%). Commonest form of POH was constitutional (51.50%) followed by post inflammatory (22.50%). Lower eyelids were involved in 72.50%. Grade 2 POH was seen in 58%. Wood's lamp examination showed POH to be dermal in 60.50%. Faulty habits were observed viz. lack of adequate sleep (40%), frequent cosmetic use (36.50%), frequent eye rubbing (32.50%), and lack of correction for errors of refraction like myopia in 12% patients. Strong association of POH with stress (71%), atopy (33%) and family history (63%) was noted. Conclusions: Periorbital hyperpigmentation is a multi-factorial entity. It is absolutely essential to classify the type of POH and determine underlying causative factors in order to direct appropriate measures for better and successful outcome in future. PMID:24700933

  19. Optimization of Causative Factors for Landslide Susceptibility Evaluation Using Remote Sensing and GIS Data in Parts of Niigata, Japan.

    PubMed

    Dou, Jie; Tien Bui, Dieu; Yunus, Ali P; Jia, Kun; Song, Xuan; Revhaug, Inge; Xia, Huan; Zhu, Zhongfan

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the potentiality of certainty factor models (CF) for the best suitable causative factors extraction for landslide susceptibility mapping in the Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. To test the applicability of CF, a landslide inventory map provided by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) was split into two subsets: (i) 70% of the landslides in the inventory to be used for building the CF based model; (ii) 30% of the landslides to be used for the validation purpose. A spatial database with fifteen landslide causative factors was then constructed by processing ALOS satellite images, aerial photos, topographical and geological maps. CF model was then applied to select the best subset from the fifteen factors. Using all fifteen factors and the best subset factors, landslide susceptibility maps were produced using statistical index (SI) and logistic regression (LR) models. The susceptibility maps were validated and compared using landslide locations in the validation data. The prediction performance of two susceptibility maps was estimated using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC). The result shows that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the LR model (AUC = 0.817) is slightly higher than those obtained from the SI model (AUC = 0.801). Further, it is noted that the SI and LR models using the best subset outperform the models using the fifteen original factors. Therefore, we conclude that the optimized factor model using CF is more accurate in predicting landslide susceptibility and obtaining a more homogeneous classification map. Our findings acknowledge that in the mountainous regions suffering from data scarcity, it is possible to select key factors related to landslide occurrence based on the CF models in a GIS platform. Hence, the development of a scenario for future planning of risk mitigation is achieved in an efficient manner. PMID:26214691

  20. Optimization of Causative Factors for Landslide Susceptibility Evaluation Using Remote Sensing and GIS Data in Parts of Niigata, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Jie; Tien Bui, Dieu; P. Yunus, Ali; Jia, Kun; Song, Xuan; Revhaug, Inge; Xia, Huan; Zhu, Zhongfan

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the potentiality of certainty factor models (CF) for the best suitable causative factors extraction for landslide susceptibility mapping in the Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. To test the applicability of CF, a landslide inventory map provided by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) was split into two subsets: (i) 70% of the landslides in the inventory to be used for building the CF based model; (ii) 30% of the landslides to be used for the validation purpose. A spatial database with fifteen landslide causative factors was then constructed by processing ALOS satellite images, aerial photos, topographical and geological maps. CF model was then applied to select the best subset from the fifteen factors. Using all fifteen factors and the best subset factors, landslide susceptibility maps were produced using statistical index (SI) and logistic regression (LR) models. The susceptibility maps were validated and compared using landslide locations in the validation data. The prediction performance of two susceptibility maps was estimated using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC). The result shows that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the LR model (AUC = 0.817) is slightly higher than those obtained from the SI model (AUC = 0.801). Further, it is noted that the SI and LR models using the best subset outperform the models using the fifteen original factors. Therefore, we conclude that the optimized factor model using CF is more accurate in predicting landslide susceptibility and obtaining a more homogeneous classification map. Our findings acknowledge that in the mountainous regions suffering from data scarcity, it is possible to select key factors related to landslide occurrence based on the CF models in a GIS platform. Hence, the development of a scenario for future planning of risk mitigation is achieved in an efficient manner. PMID:26214691

  1. Incidence, Causative Mechanisms, and Anatomic Localization of Stroke in Pituitary Adenoma Patients Treated With Postoperative Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery Alone

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, Margriet G.A.; Vroomen, Patrick C.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Schers, Henk J.; Berg, Gerrit van den; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Bergh, Alphons C.M. van den; Beek, André P. van

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To assess and compare the incidence of stroke and stroke subtype in pituitary adenoma patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) and surgery alone. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 462 pituitary adenoma patients treated between 1959 and 2008 at the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands was studied. Radiation therapy was administered in 236 patients. The TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) and the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification methods were used to determine causative mechanism and anatomic localization of stroke. Stroke incidences in patients treated with RT were compared with that observed after surgery alone. Risk factors for stroke incidence were studied by log–rank test, without and with stratification for other significant risk factors. In addition, the stroke incidence was compared with the incidence rate in the general Dutch population. Results: Thirteen RT patients were diagnosed with stroke, compared with 12 surgery-alone patients. The relative risk (RR) for stroke in patients treated with postoperative RT was not significantly different compared with surgery-alone patients (univariate RR 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-1.35, P=.23). Stroke risk factors were coronary or peripheral artery disease (univariate and multivariate RR 10.4, 95% CI 4.7-22.8, P<.001) and hypertension (univariate RR 3.9, 95% CI 1.6-9.8, P=.002). There was no difference in TOAST and Oxfordshire classification of stroke. In this pituitary adenoma cohort 25 strokes were observed, compared with 16.91 expected (standard incidence ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.00-1.96, P=.049). Conclusions: In pituitary adenoma patients, an increased incidence of stroke was observed compared with the general population. However, postoperative RT was not associated with an increased incidence of stroke or differences in causative mechanism or anatomic localization of stroke compared with surgery alone. The primary stroke risk

  2. Causation of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema by p-benzoquinone and its prevention by vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arunava; Ganguly, Shinjini; Dey, Neekkan; Banerjee, Santanu; Das, Archita; Chattopadhyay, Dhruba J; Chatterjee, Indu B

    2015-03-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is the strongest risk factor for emphysema. However, the mechanism of the disease is not clear. One reason is that each puff of CS is a complex mixture of approximately 4,000 chemicals, and it is yet to be known which of these chemical(s) are directly involved in the pathogenesis of lung injury in emphysema. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) produced in the lungs of CS-exposed guinea pigs is a causative factor for destruction of alveolar cells resulting in emphysema that is prevented by vitamin C. Vitamin C-restricted guinea pigs were subjected to whole-body CS exposure from five Kentucky research cigarettes (3R4F) per day or intramuscular injection of p-BQ in amounts approximately produced in the lung from CS exposure with and without oral supplementation of vitamin C. Progressive exposure of CS or p-BQ treatment caused progressive accumulation of p-BQ in the lung that was accompanied by destruction of alveolar cells and emphysema. The pathogenesis involved was arylation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Vitamin C (30 mg/kg body weight/d), a potential antagonist of p-BQ, prevented accumulation of p-BQ in the lung and the pathogenesis of emphysema. Our study provides the first proof that inactivation of p-BQ, a causative factor of emphysema in CS-exposed lung, could constitute a novel and effective approach in the prevention of emphysema. We consider that a moderately high dose of vitamin C may be a simple preventive therapy for emphysema in chronic smokers. PMID:25057895

  3. Incorporating seasonality into event-based joint probability methods for predicting flood frequency: A hybrid causative event approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Thyer, Mark; Lambert, Martin; Kuzera, George; Metcalfe, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Flood extremes are driven by highly variable and complex climatic and hydrological processes. Observational evidence has identified that seasonality of climate variables has a major impact on flood peaks. However, event-based joint probability approaches for predicting the flood frequency distribution (FFD), which are commonly used in practice, do not commonly incorporate climate seasonality. This study presents an advance in event-based joint probability approaches by incorporating seasonality using the hybrid causative events (HCE) approach. The HCE was chosen because it uses the true causative events of the floods of interest and is able to combine the accuracy of continuous simulation with the computational efficiency of event-based approaches. The incorporation of seasonality is evaluated using a virtual catchment approach at eight sites over a wide range of Australian climate zones, including tropical, temperature, Mediterranean and desert climates (virtual catchment data for the eight sites is freely available via digital repository). The seasonal HCE provided accurate predictions of the FFD at all sites. In contrast, the non-seasonal HCE significantly over-predicted the FFD at some sites. The need to include seasonality was influenced by the magnitude of the seasonal variation in soil moisture and its coherence with the seasonal variation in extreme rainfall. For sites with a low seasonal variation in soil moisture the non-seasonal HCE provided reliable estimates of the FFD. For the remaining sites, it was found difficult to predict a priori whether ignoring seasonality provided a reliable estimate of the FFD, hence it is recommended that the seasonal HCE always be used. The practical implications of this study are that the HCE approach with seasonality is an accurate and efficient event-based joint probability approach to derive the flood frequency distribution across a wide range of climatologies.

  4. The Market Linkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Victor E.

    The Market Linkage Project (ML) for Special Education and the Basic Skills Validation and Marketing Program are two federally sponsored marketing projects developed under contract by LINC Resources, Inc., a professional marketing organization, for the U.S. Department of Education. LINC developed the marketing programs to provide the option for the…

  5. Marketing the College Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoef, Ted; Howe, Nanci

    Theory underlying marketing in the public sector is presented in combination with specific examples of marketing strategies and techniques used in college unions and student activities programs across the country. The subject of marketing is discussed under six major subject headings: (1) why marketing? (2) analyzing marketing opportunities; (3)…

  6. Marketing Manual: Workplace Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanshawe Coll., Strathroy (Ontario).

    This manual applies marketing concepts and methods, selling techniques and principles to the workplace literacy program for the purpose of assisting individuals involved in promoting and selling these programs. Part I provides a rationale for marketing and discusses the following: the role of the sponsor in marketing, market versus marketing,…

  7. Markets for compost

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Table of Contents: Introduction; Characteristics and Benefits of Compost and Competing/Complementary Products; Compost Uses and Markets; Factors Pertinent to Developing Compost Markets; Compost Specifications; Compost Testing Requirements; Compost Distribution; Compost Policies; Economic and Noneconomic Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; Strategies to Mitigate/Overcome Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; and Examples of Existing Programs and Markets (as of 1989).

  8. Marketing II Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Cheryl

    This combination curriculum and workbook, which was originally developed for use in a training workshop, is intended to assist adult educators in learning to market their adult literacy programs. The first chapter reviews basic marketing concepts (the definition of marketing, 10 truths about marketing, marketing versus promotion, steps in…

  9. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  10. [Humanitarian transition].

    PubMed

    Mattei, Jean-François; Troit, Virginie

    2016-02-01

    In two centuries, modern humanitarian action has experienced several fractures often linked to crises. Although its professionalism and intervention force remain indisputable, it faces, since the 2000s, a new context that limits its ability to act and confronts it with new dilemmas, even though it must deal with needs for aid of unprecedented scale. These difficulties reveal a humanitarian transition period that was not anticipated. This transition period reflects the change from a dominant paradigm of North-South solidarity of Western origin to a much more complex model. This article provides a summary of the current mutations that are dominated by the States' assertion of sovereignty. Among the possible solutions, it argues for an ethical approach and a better integration of the research carried out in the Global South, prerequisites for building a true partnership and placing the victims at the heart of the operations which involve them. PMID:26936180

  11. Eliminating Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallick, Barb; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Adults often find themselves transitioning from one activity to another in a short time span. Most of the time, they do not feel they have a lot of control over their schedules, but wish that they could carve out extended time to relax and focus on one project. Picture a group of children in the block area who have spent 15 or 20 minutes building…

  12. Marketing Data Warehouse

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, C.V.

    1994-11-01

    In January 1993 the New Products and Services (NP&S) department of Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Marketing Organization embarked on a project to provide greater access and sharing of market data. This project is the Marketing Data Warehouse (MDW). The goal of the MDW is to provide for the integration and access of market relevant data collected by TVA internally or purchased from external sources. The MDW is a repository of secondary information, allowing marketing analysts to answer market questions in a matter of minutes rather hours or days. The application of the data warehouse approach allows marketing groups to take full advantage of new market data sources, market analysis software and marketing techniques. Marketers can perform impact analysis of market relevant legislation, business trends and technology breakthroughs much quicker with greater confinence in the results.

  13. Marketing is everything.

    PubMed

    McKenna, R

    1991-01-01

    Technology is creating customer choice, and choice is altering the marketplace. Gone are the days of the marketer as salesperson. Gone as well is marketing that tries to trick the customer into buying whatever the company makes. There is a new paradigm for marketing, a model that depends on the marketer's knowledge, experience, and ability to integrate the customer and the company. Six principles are at the heart of the new marketing. The first, "Marketing is everything and everything is marketing," suggests that marketing is like quality. It is not a function but an all-pervasive way of doing business. The second, "The goal of marketing is to own the market, not just to sell the product," is a remedy for companies that adopt a limiting "market-share mentality." When you own a market, you lead the market. The third principle says that "marketing evolves as technology evolves." Programmable technology means that companies can promise customers "any thing, any way, any time." Now marketing is evolving to deliver on that promise. The fourth principle, "Marketing moves from monologue to dialogue," argues that advertising is obsolete. Talking at customers is no longer useful. The new marketing requires a feedback loop--a dialogue between company and customer. The fifth principle says that "marketing a product is marketing a service is marketing a product." The line between the categories is fast eroding: the best manufacturing companies provide great service, the best service companies think of themselves as offering high-quality products. The sixth principle, "Technology markets technology," points out the inevitable marriage of marketing and technology and predicts the emergence of marketing workstations, a marketing counterpart to engineers' CAD/CAM systems. PMID:10109473

  14. Market review - Market values summary/July market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This article is the July 1995 uranium market review. Data for current uranium market is presented, and a summary of recent transactions is also given. During this reporting period, there was one concentrate deal, two transactions in the long-term natural uranium market and conversion market, and three spot market transactions in the enrichment market. Active uranium supply fell, as did demand, and prices in all sectors were relatively stable.

  15. Transitioning to Biofuels: A System-of-Systems Perspective; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, C.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    Using the existing fuel supply chain infrastructure as a framework, this paper discusses a vision for transitioning to a larger biofuels industry and the challenges associated with a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  16. Freshmen Marketing: A First-Year Experience with Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Henry

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an experiential learning activity designed for a New England university freshmen course, BUS101-Marketing First-Year Experience (FYE). The purpose of the activity is to teach basic principles of marketing, develop a general perspective of business, and provide FYE activities that facilitate the college transition. The specific…

  17. Marketing Online Services: Product, Market and Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudell, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the online marketplace. Topics discussed include technology barriers; data ownership; markets for online services, including libraries and end users; marketing and promotion tactics, including exhibits and conferences, advertising, direct mail, and user groups; international marketing and service; strategic marketing…

  18. The Development of Competent Marketing Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Ian; Tsarenko, Yelena; Wagstaff, Peter; Powell, Irene; Steel, Marion; Brace-Govan, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The process of transition from university undergraduate to business professional is a crucial stage in the development of a business career. This study examines both graduate and employer perspectives on the essential skills and knowledge needed by marketing professionals to successfully perform their roles. From in-depth interviews with 14…

  19. Natural gas marketing II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing.

  20. Mining Marketing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MarketMiner(R) Products, a line of automated marketing analysis tools manufactured by MarketMiner, Inc., can benefit organizations that perform significant amounts of direct marketing. MarketMiner received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from NASA's Johnson Space Center to develop the software as a data modeling tool for space mission applications. The technology was then built into the company current products to provide decision support for business and marketing applications. With the tool, users gain valuable information about customers and prospects from existing data in order to increase sales and profitability. MarketMiner(R) is a registered trademark of MarketMiner, Inc.

  1. The Mongolia experience: transitioning within transition.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Richard G

    2009-12-01

    Although Mongolia has a long and distinguished history, as a new and emerging democracy it is experiencing the pains of transition-one that is moving the country from its pastoral and nomadic past into the 21st century. Confounded by its previous dependence on socialist Soviet Russia, the concept of a market economy seems opportunistic for some, while for those living within the traditional lifestyle of the herdsman in the countryside it is confusing and threatening to family structure and values. Adolescents and young adults are caught at the interface-not only of their own development, but by the disparities between tradition and Western values, new technology, and freedoms granted by the emerging democracy, and by the civic practice of democracy itself. Conceptually the new belongs to the young, and yet limited health and educational resources are available to modulate and focus both threats and opportunities. Using the analogy of the spirit banner of the warrior, it is the young as the warriors of the 21st century who have the energy and investment in the future that will be needed to shepherd this change. Both personal and public health, within the context of development, the psychobiological model, and the political and social ecology will be strong determinants of success. It is a parallel investment in both youth and the ideals they represent that will ensure success for the new Mongolia. PMID:20653216

  2. Dynamo Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, M. K.; Yadav, R.; Chandra, M.; Paul, S.; Wahi, P.

    2010-11-23

    In this article we review the experimental and numerical results related to the dynamo transitions. Recent experiments of Von Karman Sodium (VKS) exhibit various dynamo states including constant, time-periodic, and chaotic magnetic fields. Similarly pseudospectral simulations of dynamo show constant, time-periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic magnetic field configurations. One of the windows for the magnetic Prandtl number of unity shows period doubling route to chaos. Quasiperiodic route to chaos has been reported for the Prandtl number of 0.5. The dynamo simulations also reveal coexisting multiple attractors that were obtained for different initial conditions.

  3. Sepsis Patients with First and Second-Hit Infections Show Different Outcomes Depending on the Causative Organism

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Matt P.; Szakmany, Tamas; Power, Sarah G.; Olaniyi, Patrick; Hall, Judith E.; Rowan, Kathy; Eberl, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Objective: With improving rates of initial survival in severe sepsis, second-hit infections that occur following resolution of the primary insult carry an increasing burden of morbidity. However, despite the clinical relevance of these infections, no data are available on differential outcomes in patients with first and second-hit infections depending on the nature of the causative organism. This study aims to explore any differences in these subgroups. Design: In a retrospective, observational cohort study, the United Kingdom Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) database was used to explore the outcomes of patient with first-hit infections leading to sepsis, and sepsis patients with second-hit infections grouped according to the Gram status of the causative organism. Setting: General critical care units in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland participating in the ICNARC programme between 1 January, 2007 and 30 June, 2012. Patients: Patient groups analyzed included 2119 patients with and 1319 patients without sepsis who developed an intensive care unit acquired infection in blood. Subgroups included patients with trauma, emergency neurosurgery, elective surgery, and cardiogenic shock. Measurements and main results: Gram-negative organisms were associated with poorer outcomes in first-hit infections. The 90-day mortality of patients who developed a Gram-negative infection was 43.6% following elective surgery and 27.9% following trauma. This compared with a mortality of 25.6 and 20.6%, respectively, in Gram-positive infections. Unexpectedly, an inverse relationship between Gram status and mortality was observed in second-hit infections. Patients with an initial diagnosis of sepsis who developed secondary infections caused by Gram-negative organisms had a 90-day mortality of 40.4%, compared with 43.6% in Gram-positive infections. Conclusions: Our study identifies a fundamental difference in patient outcomes between first-hit and second

  4. Causation or only correlation? Application of causal inference graphs for evaluating causality in nano-QSAR models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizochenko, Natalia; Gajewicz, Agnieszka; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Puzyn, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we suggest that causal inference methods could be efficiently used in Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) modeling as additional validation criteria within quality evaluation of the model. Verification of the relationships between descriptors and toxicity or other activity in the QSAR model has a vital role in understanding the mechanisms of action. The well-known phrase ``correlation does not imply causation'' reflects insight statistically correlated with the endpoint descriptor may not cause the emergence of this endpoint. Hence, paradigmatic shifts must be undertaken when moving from traditional statistical correlation analysis to causal analysis of multivariate data. Methods of causal discovery have been applied for broader physical insight into mechanisms of action and interpretation of the developed nano-QSAR models. Previously developed nano-QSAR models for toxicity of 17 nano-sized metal oxides towards E. coli bacteria have been validated by means of the causality criteria. Using the descriptors confirmed by the causal technique, we have developed new models consistent with the straightforward causal-reasoning account. It was proven that causal inference methods are able to provide a more robust mechanistic interpretation of the developed nano-QSAR models.In this paper, we suggest that causal inference methods could be efficiently used in Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) modeling as additional validation criteria within quality evaluation of the model. Verification of the relationships between descriptors and toxicity or other activity in the QSAR model has a vital role in understanding the mechanisms of action. The well-known phrase ``correlation does not imply causation'' reflects insight statistically correlated with the endpoint descriptor may not cause the emergence of this endpoint. Hence, paradigmatic shifts must be undertaken when moving from traditional statistical correlation analysis to causal

  5. Students' Big Three Personality Traits, Perceptions of Teacher Interpersonal Behavior, and Mathematics Achievement: An Application of the Model of Reciprocal Causation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charalampous, Kyriakos; Kokkinos, Constantinos M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the application of the Model of Reciprocal Causation (MRC) in examining the relationship between student personality (personal factors), student-perceived teacher interpersonal behavior (environment), and Mathematics achievement (behavior), with the simultaneous investigation of mediating effects…

  6. An Updated Typology of Causative Constructions: Form-Function Mappings in Hupa (California Athabaskan), Chungli Ao (Tibeto-Burman) and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escamilla, Ramon Matthew, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Taking up analytical issues raised primarily in Dixon (2000) and Dixon & Aikhenvald (2000), this dissertation combines descriptive work with a medium-sized (50-language) typological study. Chapter 1 situates the dissertation against a concise survey of typological-functional work on causative constructions from the last few decades, and…

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312, the Causative Agent of Roseovarius Oyster Disease (Formerly Juvenile Oyster Disease).

    PubMed

    Kessner, Linda; Spinard, Edward; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Rowley, David C; Nelson, David R

    2016-01-01

    Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312 is a marine alphaproteobacterium and the causative agent of Roseovarius oyster disease. We announce here the draft genome sequence of A. crassostreae CV919-312 and identify potential virulence genes involved in pathogenicity. PMID:26988054

  8. Application of fault tree approach for the causation mechanism of urban haze in Beijing--Considering the risk events related with exhausts of coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiqing; Fan, Hongbo; Qiu, Yongfu; Cheng, Zhiyu; Qian, Yu

    2016-02-15

    Haze weather has become a serious environmental pollution problem which occurs in many Chinese cities. One of the most critical factors for the formation of haze weather is the exhausts of coal combustion, thus it is meaningful to figure out the causation mechanism between urban haze and the exhausts of coal combustion. Based on above considerations, the fault tree analysis (FAT) approach was employed for the causation mechanism of urban haze in Beijing by considering the risk events related with the exhausts of coal combustion for the first time. Using this approach, firstly the fault tree of the urban haze causation system connecting with coal combustion exhausts was established; consequently the risk events were discussed and identified; then, the minimal cut sets were successfully determined using Boolean algebra; finally, the structure, probability and critical importance degree analysis of the risk events were completed for the qualitative and quantitative assessment. The study results proved that the FTA was an effective and simple tool for the causation mechanism analysis and risk management of urban haze in China. PMID:26493345

  9. Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc? Using Causation Diagrams to Empower Sixth-Form Students in Their Historical Thinking about Cause and Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcoe, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Alex Alcoe was concerned that mastery of certain keywords and question formulae at GCSE perhaps obscured fundamental gaps in his students' understanding of the nature of causation. These gaps were revealed when he invited Year 12 students to make explicit, by annotating a diagram, their understanding of the relationship between particular causal…

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312, the Causative Agent of Roseovarius Oyster Disease (Formerly Juvenile Oyster Disease)

    PubMed Central

    Kessner, Linda; Spinard, Edward; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Rowley, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312 is a marine alphaproteobacterium and the causative agent of Roseovarius oyster disease. We announce here the draft genome sequence of A. crassostreae CV919-312 and identify potential virulence genes involved in pathogenicity. PMID:26988054

  11. Criticality and punctuated equilibrium in a spin system model of a financial market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponzi, A.; Aizawa, Y.

    2000-09-01

    We describe a financial market model which shows a non-equilibrium phase transition. Near the transition punctuated equilibrium behaviour is seen, with avalanches occuring on all scales. This scaling is described by an exponent very near 1. This system shows intermittent time development with bursts of global synchronization reminiscent of a market rollercoaster.

  12. From Higher Education to Work Patterns of Labor Market Entry in Germany and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita; Weiss, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Comparative studies describing the transition from higher education to work have often simplified the complex transition processes involved. In this paper we extend previous research by taking into account several steps that comprise labor market entry, e.g., recurrent education leading to more than one instance of labor market entry. By comparing…

  13. Biogeography of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood, using a new multilocus sequence typing scheme.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Barbara J; Helgason, Thorunn; Poppinga, Lena; Fünfhaus, Anne; Genersch, Elke; Budge, Giles E

    2015-04-01

    American foulbrood is the most destructive brood disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera) globally. The absence of a repeatable, universal typing scheme for the causative bacterium Paenibacillus larvae has restricted our understanding of disease epidemiology. We have created the first multilocus sequence typing scheme (MLST) for P. larvae, which largely confirms the previous enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based typing scheme's divisions while providing added resolution and improved repeatability. We have used the new scheme to determine the distribution and biogeography of 294 samples of P. larvae from across six continents. We found that of the two most epidemiologically important ERIC types, ERIC I was more diverse than ERIC II. Analysis of the fixation index (FST ) by distance suggested a significant relationship between genetic and geographic distance, suggesting that population structure exists in populations of P. larvae. Interestingly, this effect was only observed within the native range of the host and was absent in areas where international trade has moved honeybees and their disease. Correspondence analysis demonstrated similar sequence type (ST) distributions between native and non-native countries and that ERIC I and II STs mainly have differing distributions. The new typing scheme facilitates epidemiological study of this costly disease of a key pollinator. PMID:25244044

  14. Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa), the causative agent of whirling disease, reduces fecundity and feeding activity of Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta).

    PubMed

    Shirakashi, S; El-Matbouli, M

    2009-05-01

    Myxobolus cerebralis is the causative agent of whirling disease that has significant economical and ecological impacts on trout populations. Although intensive studies have been conducted to understand its effects on and interactions with its fish host, only limited information is available about how and to what extent M. cerebralis affects its oligochaete host, Tubifex tubifex. We investigated the effects of M. cerebralis on survival, growth, reproduction, and feeding activity of T. tubifex. Mature, immature and juvenile worms were exposed to myxospores and their infection prevalence, mortality, sexual development, reproduction and spore production were compared with unexposed worms. The parasite affected neither survival nor growth but inhibited clitellar development and reduced cocoon production by over 80%. Numbers of actinospores released from mature worms were nearly 9-fold higher than that of immature worms. When non-clitellated infected worms were kept at 30 degrees C for 4 days, spore release ceased and they re-developed a clitellum. These results suggest parasite-induced castration. Comparative monitoring of defecation rate revealed that M. cerebralis reduced feeding activity of T. tubifex by approximately 40%. Low energy intake and impaired energetic allocation may be the underlying mechanism behind reduced fecundity of infected T. tubifex. PMID:19284888

  15. Identification of a novel pathogenic OTOF variant causative of nonsyndromic hearing loss with high frequency in the Ashkenazi Jewish population.

    PubMed

    Fedick, Anastasia M; Jalas, Chaim; Swaroop, Ananya; Smouha, Eric E; Webb, Bryn D

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the OTOF gene have previously been shown to cause nonsyndromic prelingual deafness (DFNB9, OMIM 601071) as well as auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony. In this study, the OTOF NM_194248.2 c.5332G>T, p.Val1778Phe variant was identified in a large Ashkenazi Jewish family as the causative variant in four siblings with hearing loss. Our analysis reveals a carrier frequency of the OTOF c.5332G>T, p.Val1778Phe variant of 1.27% in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, suggesting that this variant may be a significant contributor to nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss and should be considered for inclusion in targeted hearing loss panels for this population. Of note, the degree of hearing loss associated with this phenotype ranged from mild to moderately severe, with two of the four siblings not known to have hearing loss until they were genotyped and underwent pure tone audiometry and auditory brainstem response testing. The phenotypic variability along with the auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony, which allows for the production of otoacoustic emissions, supports that nonsyndromic hearing loss caused by OTOF mutations may be much more common in the Ashkenazi Jewish population than currently appreciated due to a lack of diagnosis. PMID:27621663

  16. KCNC3R420H, a K+ Channel Mutation Causative in Spinocerebellar Ataxia 13 Displays Aberrant Intracellular Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Iradi, Carolina; Bickford, Justin S.; Khare, Swati; Hall, Alexis; Nick, Jerelyn A.; Salmasinia, Donya; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Bannykh, Serguei; Huynh, Duong P.; Rincon-Limas, Diego E.; Pulst, Stefan M.; Nick, Harry S.; Fernandez-Funez, Pedro; Waters, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia 13 (SCA13) is an autosomal dominant disease resulting from mutations in KCNC3 (Kv3.3), a voltage-gated potassium channel. The KCNC3R420H mutation was first identified as causative for SCA13 in a four-generation Filipino kindred with over 20 affected individuals. Electrophysiological analyses in oocytes previously showed that this mutation did not lead to a functional channel and displayed a dominant negative phenotype. In an effort to identify the molecular basis of this allelic form of SCA13, we first determined that human KCNC3WT and KCNC3R420H display disparate posttranslational modifications, and the mutant protein has reduced complex glycan adducts. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that KCNC3R420H was not properly trafficking to the plasma membrane and surface biotinylation demonstrated that KCNC3R420H exhibited only 24% as much surface expression as KCNC3WT. KCNC3R420H trafficked through the ER but was retained in the Golgi. KCNC3R420H expression results in altered Golgi and cellular morphology. Electron microscopy of KCNC3R420H localization further supports retention in the Golgi. These results are specific to the KCNC3R420H allele and provide new insight into the molecular basis of disease manifestation in SCA13. PMID:25152487

  17. Biogeography of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood, using a new multilocus sequence typing scheme

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Barbara J; Helgason, Thorunn; Poppinga, Lena; Fünfhaus, Anne; Genersch, Elke; Budge, Giles E

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood is the most destructive brood disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera) globally. The absence of a repeatable, universal typing scheme for the causative bacterium Paenibacillus larvae has restricted our understanding of disease epidemiology. We have created the first multilocus sequence typing scheme (MLST) for P. larvae, which largely confirms the previous enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)–polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based typing scheme's divisions while providing added resolution and improved repeatability. We have used the new scheme to determine the distribution and biogeography of 294 samples of P. larvae from across six continents. We found that of the two most epidemiologically important ERIC types, ERIC I was more diverse than ERIC II. Analysis of the fixation index (FST) by distance suggested a significant relationship between genetic and geographic distance, suggesting that population structure exists in populations of P. larvae. Interestingly, this effect was only observed within the native range of the host and was absent in areas where international trade has moved honeybees and their disease. Correspondence analysis demonstrated similar sequence type (ST) distributions between native and non-native countries and that ERIC I and II STs mainly have differing distributions. The new typing scheme facilitates epidemiological study of this costly disease of a key pollinator. PMID:25244044

  18. Probability of Causation for Space Radiation Carcinogenesis Following International Space Station, Near Earth Asteroid, and Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Chappell, Lori J.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer risk is an important concern for International Space Station (ISS) missions and future exploration missions. An important question concerns the likelihood of a causal association between a crew members radiation exposure and the occurrence of cancer. The probability of causation (PC), also denoted as attributable risk, is used to make such an estimate. This report summarizes the NASA model of space radiation cancer risks and uncertainties, including improvements to represent uncertainties in tissue-specific cancer incidence models for never-smokers and the U.S. average population. We report on tissue-specific cancer incidence estimates and PC for different post-mission times for ISS and exploration missions. An important conclusion from our analysis is that the NASA policy to limit the risk of exposure-induced death to 3% at the 95% confidence level largely ensures that estimates of the PC for most cancer types would not reach a level of significance. Reducing uncertainties through radiobiological research remains the most efficient method to extend mission length and establish effective mitigators for cancer risks. Efforts to establish biomarkers of space radiation-induced tumors and to estimate PC for rarer tumor types are briefly discussed.

  19. Identification of a novel pathogenic OTOF variant causative of nonsyndromic hearing loss with high frequency in the Ashkenazi Jewish population

    PubMed Central

    Fedick, Anastasia M; Jalas, Chaim; Swaroop, Ananya; Smouha, Eric E; Webb, Bryn D

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the OTOF gene have previously been shown to cause nonsyndromic prelingual deafness (DFNB9, OMIM 601071) as well as auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony. In this study, the OTOF NM_194248.2 c.5332G>T, p.Val1778Phe variant was identified in a large Ashkenazi Jewish family as the causative variant in four siblings with hearing loss. Our analysis reveals a carrier frequency of the OTOF c.5332G>T, p.Val1778Phe variant of 1.27% in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, suggesting that this variant may be a significant contributor to nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss and should be considered for inclusion in targeted hearing loss panels for this population. Of note, the degree of hearing loss associated with this phenotype ranged from mild to moderately severe, with two of the four siblings not known to have hearing loss until they were genotyped and underwent pure tone audiometry and auditory brainstem response testing. The phenotypic variability along with the auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony, which allows for the production of otoacoustic emissions, supports that nonsyndromic hearing loss caused by OTOF mutations may be much more common in the Ashkenazi Jewish population than currently appreciated due to a lack of diagnosis. PMID:27621663

  20. Destructin-1 is a collagen-degrading endopeptidase secreted by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome

    PubMed Central

    O’Donoghue, Anthony J.; Knudsen, Giselle M.; Beekman, Chapman; Perry, Jenna A.; Johnson, Alexander D.; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Craik, Charles S.; Bennett, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, a disease that has caused the deaths of millions of bats in North America. This psychrophilic fungus proliferates at low temperatures and targets hibernating bats, resulting in their premature arousal from stupor with catastrophic consequences. Despite the impact of white-nose syndrome, little is known about the fungus itself or how it infects its mammalian host. P. destructans is not amenable to genetic manipulation, and therefore understanding the proteins involved in infection requires alternative approaches. Here, we identify hydrolytic enzymes secreted by P. destructans, and use a novel and unbiased substrate profiling technique to define active peptidases. These experiments revealed that endopeptidases are the major proteolytic activities secreted by P. destructans, and that collagen, the major structural protein in mammals, is actively degraded by the secretome. A serine endopeptidase, hereby-named Destructin-1, was subsequently identified, and a recombinant form overexpressed and purified. Biochemical analysis of Destructin-1 showed that it mediated collagen degradation, and a potent inhibitor of peptidase activity was identified. Treatment of P. destructans-conditioned media with this antagonist blocked collagen degradation and facilitated the detection of additional secreted proteolytic activities, including aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases. These results provide molecular insights into the secretome of P. destructans, and identify serine endopeptidases that have the clear potential to facilitate tissue invasion and pathogenesis in the mammalian host. PMID:25944934

  1. Destructin-1 is a collagen-degrading endopeptidase secreted by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Anthony J; Knudsen, Giselle M; Beekman, Chapman; Perry, Jenna A; Johnson, Alexander D; DeRisi, Joseph L; Craik, Charles S; Bennett, Richard J

    2015-06-16

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, a disease that has caused the deaths of millions of bats in North America. This psychrophilic fungus proliferates at low temperatures and targets hibernating bats, resulting in their premature arousal from stupor with catastrophic consequences. Despite the impact of white-nose syndrome, little is known about the fungus itself or how it infects its mammalian host. P. destructans is not amenable to genetic manipulation, and therefore understanding the proteins involved in infection requires alternative approaches. Here, we identify hydrolytic enzymes secreted by P. destructans, and use a novel and unbiased substrate profiling technique to define active peptidases. These experiments revealed that endopeptidases are the major proteolytic activities secreted by P. destructans, and that collagen, the major structural protein in mammals, is actively degraded by the secretome. A serine endopeptidase, hereby-named Destructin-1, was subsequently identified, and a recombinant form overexpressed and purified. Biochemical analysis of Destructin-1 showed that it mediated collagen degradation, and a potent inhibitor of peptidase activity was identified. Treatment of P. destructans-conditioned media with this antagonist blocked collagen degradation and facilitated the detection of additional secreted proteolytic activities, including aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases. These results provide molecular insights into the secretome of P. destructans, and identify serine endopeptidases that have the clear potential to facilitate tissue invasion and pathogenesis in the mammalian host. PMID:25944934

  2. "Dual causation accident": a third type of work-related accident and its importance for occupational health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Lenz Alberto Alves; Soler, Zaida Aurora Sperli Geraldes; Lopes, José Carlos

    2014-12-01

    The scope of this study is to contribute to the improvement of Occupational Health Surveillance in the Unified Health System (UHS), through the recognition and inclusion of a third type of work-related accident in the current Brazilian legislation classification: the dual causation accident. This classification aims at facilitating the establishment of a causal connection, thus broadening the understanding of the relationship between work process and the production of diseases. It also aims at improving legal rules to protect the health of workers. This approach, besides enabling the identification of sentinel events (starting point of surveillance activities), might contribute not only to a decrease in underreporting of work-related accidents, but also to the uniformity of concepts and the implementation of integrated actions of the National Social Security Institute (NISS), the UHS, the Ministry of Labor (MLE) and the Judiciary for the protection of workers. To propose a third type of occupational accident, a study of occupational accidents and causes of underreporting was conducted, with reference to the Brazilian labor legislation in the context of the National Policy on Occupational Health and the UHS. PMID:25388178

  3. Clinicoepidemiologic pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis and molecular characterization of its causative agent in Hajjah governorate, northwest of Yemen.

    PubMed

    Mogalli, Nabil M; El Hossary, Shabaan S; Khatri, Mishri Lal; Mukred, Abdualdaim M; Kassem, Hala A; El Sawaf, Bahira M; Ramadan, Nadia F

    2016-11-01

    The clinicoepidemiologic profile of 143 cases (93 males and 50 females) with cutaneous leishmaniasis from 18 villages of Hajjah governorate, Yemen was studied. Dry-type lesions were seen in 98.6% and wet-type lesions in 1.4% of patients. Lesions were localized in all cases with different morphological patterns. Microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained slit smears revealed amastigotes in 74.1% of patients with dry-type lesions and 0% in patients with wet-type lesions. The burden of the parasites in the lesions was high indicating active transmission of the disease. Most cases were from villages with moderate altitude range (8001-1600m). All age groups were affected, but most cases were seen in ages from 5 to 15 years. Leishmania species identification was done for all cases by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The biopsic material was scraped from both Giemsa-stained and methanol-fixed smears. The molecular characterization of Leishmania species revealed Leishmania tropica as the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Hajjah, Yemen. The risk factors associated with the transmission of the disease and recommendations for improving case detection were discussed. PMID:27515810

  4. Identification of 3-methylbutanoyl glycosides in green Coffea arabica beans as causative determinants for the quality of coffee flavors.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Keiko; Setoyama, Daiki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Seta, Harumichi; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Chifumi; Nakahara, Koichi

    2015-04-15

    The quality of coffee green beans is generally evaluated by the sensory cupping test, rather than by chemical compound-based criteria. In this study, we examined the relationship between metabolites and cupping scores for 36 varieties of beans, using a nontargeted LC-MS-based metabolic profiling technique. The cupping score was precisely predicted with the metabolic information measured using LC-MS. Two markers that strongly correlated with high cupping scores were determined to be isomers of 3-methylbutanoyl disaccharides (3MDs; 0.01-0.035 g/kg of beans) by spectroscopic analyses after purification, and one of them was a novel structure. Further, both the 3MDs were determined to be precursors of 3-methylbutanoic acid that enhance the quality of coffee. The applicability of 3MDs as universal quality indicators was validated with another sample set. It was concluded that 3MDs are the causative metabolites determining beverage quality and can be utilized for green bean selection and as key compounds for improving the beverage quality. PMID:25837668

  5. Identification, antifungal susceptibility and scanning electron microscopy of a keratinolytic strain of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa: a primary causative agent of onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Marcel M L; dos Santos, Luana P B; Dornelas-Ribeiro, Marcos; Vermelho, Alane B; Rozental, Sonia

    2009-04-01

    Onychomycosis is a dermatological problem of high prevalence that mainly affects the hallux toenail. Onychomycosis caused by the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was identified using colony morphology, light microscopy, urease and carbohydrate metabolism in a 57-year-old immunocompetent patient from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy of nail fragments, processed by a noncoating method, led to the observation with fine detail of the structures of both nail and fungus involved in the infection. Yeasts were mainly found inside grooves in the nail. Budding yeasts presented a spiral pattern of growth and blastoconidia were found in the nail groove region. Keratinase assays and keratin enzymography revealed that this isolate was highly capable of degrading keratin. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed that the fungus was susceptible to low concentrations of amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine and resistant to high concentrations of fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and terbinafine. These findings showed data for the first time concerning the interaction of R. mucilaginosa in toenail infection and suggest that this emerging yeast should also be considered an opportunistic primary causative agent of onychomycosis. PMID:19170752

  6. Aeromonas hydrophila as a causative organism in peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Liakopoulos, V; Arampatzis, S; Kourti, P; Tsolkas, T; Zarogiannis, S; Eleftheriadis, T; Giannopoulou, M; Stefanidis, I

    2011-02-01

    Most episodes of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis could be attributed to a single organism, but in almost 10% of peritonitis episodes multiple organisms are identified. Polymicrobial peritonitis is often related to intra-abdominal pathology, and the prognosis may be poor. Aeromonas spp. have rarely been identified as the causative pathogen in PD-related peritonitis, and a very small number of cases has been reported in the literature. These rod-shaped, gram-negative microorganisms have been isolated from wastewater drainage systems, food, vegetables, and soil. Herein we report a case of polymicrobial peritonitis in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), due to a combination of Streptococcus viridans and Aeromonas hydrophila infection. The patient was involved in gardening and was not compliant with her technique protocol. She did not wear a mask and omitted thorough hand washing. The patient was treated with i.p. vancomycin and ceftazidime and peritonitis was resolved. The patient's technique was reassessed, and she was retrained by our PD nurses. PMID:21269597

  7. Distinct Expression Patterns Of Causative Genes Responsible For Hereditary Progressive Hearing Loss In Non-Human Primate Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Hosoya, Makoto; Fujioka, Masato; Ogawa, Kaoru; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Hearing impairment is the most frequent sensory deficit in humans. Deafness genes, which harbor pathogenic mutations that have been identified in families with hereditary hearing loss, are commonly expressed in the auditory end organ or the cochlea and may contribute to normal hearing function, yet some of the mouse models carrying these mutations fail to recapitulate the hearing loss phenotype. In this study, we find that distinct expression patterns of those deafness genes in the cochlea of a non-human primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). We examined 20 genes whose expression in the cochlea has already been reported. The deafness genes GJB3, CRYM, GRHL2, DFNA5, and ATP6B1 were expressed in marmoset cochleae in patterns different from those in mouse cochleae. Of note, all those genes are causative for progressive hearing loss in humans, but not in mice. The other tested genes, including the deafness gene COCH, in which mutation recapitulates deafness in mice, were expressed in a similar manner in both species. The result suggests that the discrepancy in the expression between rodents and primates may account for the phenotypic difference. This limitation of the rodent models can be bypassed by using non-human primate models such as the marmoset. PMID:26915689

  8. Nature of hydrodynamic causation of Marangoni instabilities for the case of drop rising in a channel: visualisation and statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanwale, Makrand; Khadamkar, Hrushikesh; Mathpati, Channamallikarjun

    2015-11-01

    The physics of drop rise with continuous transfer of interfacial tension depressant (acetone), is mainly influenced by the coupling of mass transfer of interfacial depressent fluid, relative motion of two phases, and interface deformation. We present a investigation which focuses on the nature of hydrodynamic causation of aforementioned mass transfer process, which arise due to non-uniform shear at the interface, also known as the Marangoni instabilities. The effects of relative motion of two phases, and interface deformation are eliminated by operating in the spherical shape range (Eötvös number, Eo = 1 . 95 , and Morton number, M = 78 . 20) with creeping flow particle Reynolds number (Rep = 0 . 053). A improved technique for measurement and processing of data acquired from simultaneous planar PIV-PLIF is used to obtain velocity and concentration fields around the drop. A progressive non-Gaussian behaviour from large scales to small scales is seen, in scale wise wavelet energy decomposition of vorticity and concentration fields. This suggests similarity with high Schmidt and Reynolds number intermittent turbulence, even in the creeping flow region. Fourier spectra of concentration and velocity shows the plethora of length scales generated by the Marangoni instabilities. financial support by DAE-India, and TEQIP-India (COE-PI).

  9. Pseudoalteromonas bacteriolytica sp. nov., a marine bacterium that is the causative agent of red spot disease of Laminaria japonica.

    PubMed

    Sawabe, T; Makino, H; Tatsumi, M; Nakano, K; Tajima, K; Iqbal, M M; Yumoto, I; Ezura, Y; Christen, R

    1998-07-01

    An aerobic, polarly flagellated marine bacterium that produces a prodigiosin-like pigment was isolated from the red-spotted culture beds of Laminaria japonica. Five isolates had unique bacteriolytic activity for both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, which had never been observed among Alteromonas or related species. The isolates were identified as the causative agent of red spot disease of L. japonica seeds. The phenotypic features of the isolates were similar to these of Pseudoalteromonas rubra ATCC 29570T, but they could be differentiated using 10 traits (growth at 37 degrees C, requirement for organic growth factors, bacteriolytic activity, utilization of sucrose, N-acetylglucosamine, fumarate, succinate, D-galactose, L-proline and acetate). The G+C content of DNAs from the isolates was 44-46 mol%. The isolates constitute a new species, distinct from the other Alteromonas and Pseudoalteromonas species, as shown by DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phylogenetic clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences, for which the name Pseudoalteromonas bacteriolytica sp. nov. (type strain = IAM 14595T) is proposed. A set of phenotypic features which differentiate this new species from closely related Pseudoalteromonas and Alteromonas species is provided. PMID:9734030

  10. Interaction of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease, with host proteins in the kidney of Salmo trutta.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Gotesman, Michael; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-05-01

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in various species of salmonids which are found in Europe and North America. Less information about the interactions of T. bryosalmonae proteins with salmonid proteins during parasite development is known. In this study, anti-T. bryosalmonae monoclonal antibody-linked to N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated spin columns were used to purify parasite and host proteins from the kidneys of infected and non-infected brown trout (Salmo trutta) Linnaeus, 1758. The samples were next analyzed by electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry to identify proteins that may be involved in the infection and proliferation of T. bryosalmonae within the brown trout host. A total of 6 parasite proteins and 40 different host proteins were identified in this analysis. The identified host proteins function in various processes, which include host defense, enzymatic, and structural components. In conjunction with modern molecular based tools, such siRNA, gene replacement, or gene disruption, this data can ultimately be used to develop novel control methods for T. bryosalmonae, based on the proteins or pathways identified in this study. PMID:25663070

  11. Mid-Thoracic Spinal Injuries during Horse Racing: Report of 3 Cases and Review of Causative Factors and Prevention Measurements.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllopoulos, Ioannis; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Sapkas, George

    2013-01-01

    We report three cases of a rare pattern of mid-thoracic spine injuries after horse racing falls and discuss possible causative factors and prevention measurements to reduce injury rates in professional riding and racing. Three patients, 2 male and 1 female with a mean age of 28 years old, underwent surgical treatment for mid-thoracic fractures after professional equestrian activities. The ASIA scale was E in one patient, B in the other one and A in the third. Multilevel posterior fusion was used in two patients and somatectomy plus fusion in the other. Follow up evaluation included changing of the ASIA scale, functional outcome and participation in equestrian activities. One patient fully recovered after surgery. Two patients remained paraplegic despite early surgical treatment and prolonged rehabilitation therapy. All patients had ended their professional equestrian career. This report analyzes possible mechanisms of injury and the pattern of mid-thoracic spine fractures after professional horse riding injuries. Despite skill improvements and continued safety education for horse riding, prophylactic measures for both the head and the spine should be refined. According to our study, additional mid-thoracic spinal protection should be added. PMID:23841001

  12. Cooperative Market Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carels, Peter; McCullough, Lynette

    A pilot project was developed in which the Advertising and Market Research Center of the Vienna School of Economics and Business in Austria and the German Department as well as the Marketing Department of Miami University in Ohio are working together to collect market research data and formulate a market entry strategy for Roemerquelle, an…

  13. Market review - Market values summary/August market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This article is the August 1995 uranium market review. During this reporting period, there were three transactions in the long-term concentrates sector, no transactions in the UF6 market, and limited activity in the spot conversion market and the enrichment services market. Active supply rose, as did active demand. Prices were stable to slightly increasing.

  14. Veterinary practice marketeer.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Justin

    2015-01-24

    Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care. PMID:25614552

  15. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  16. Strategic Marketing for Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The steps for strategic market planning are discussed including: (1) assessing the situation with market conditions, customers, competitors, and your firm; and (2) crafting a strategy to prioritize target markets, develop a core strategy, and create a marketing mix. Examples of agribusiness successes are presented. The booklet concludes with a…

  17. Marketing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalili, Farid

    The use of marketing activities by educational institutions and the transfer of marketing activities from business to higher education are considered. Market analysis helps colleges and universities determine what programs, scheduling, or services are strong and to which student market the institution should appeal. It is suggested that the…

  18. Hospital marketing revisited.

    PubMed

    Costello, M M

    1987-05-01

    With more hospitals embracing the marketing function in their organizational management over the past decade, hospital marketing can no longer be considered a fad. However, a review of hospital marketing efforts as reported in the professional literature indicates that hospitals must pay greater attention to the marketing mix elements of service, price and distribution channels as their programs mature. PMID:10283019

  19. Causation in Psychoanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Axmacher, Nikolai

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that psychoanalytic and biological theories cannot be integrated because they rely on different epistemological grounds, namely on hermeneutic versus causal explanations, that are inconsistent with each other. Such inconsistency would seriously question the general possibility of neuropsychoanalytic research. Here, I review three important arguments that have been raised in favor of this inconsistency: first, that psychoanalytic attempts to overcome repression aim to go beyond causal relationships; second, that hermeneutic explanations are retrospective and context-dependent and therefore follow a different logic than causal explanations; and third, that only causal hypotheses are falsifiable, while the introspective reasons for one’s own behavior are not. I present arguments against each of these statements and show that actually, causal and hermeneutic explanations are, at least in principle, consistent with each other. The challenge for neuropsychoanalytic research remains to find indeed empirical examples of theories which are causal and hermeneutic at the same time. PMID:23443984

  20. Marketing the pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace. PMID:7625911

  1. A Marketing Case History Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weirick, Margaret C.

    1978-01-01

    A current marketing plan from Temple University illustrates many marketing techniques, including those dealing with enrollment objectives, market objectives, demographic characteristics of Temple students, market share analysis, and the marketing plan. Specific guidelines are provided. (LBH)

  2. Market structure explained by pairwise interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bury, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Financial markets are a typical example of complex systems where interactions between constituents lead to many remarkable features. Here we give empirical evidence, by making as few assumptions as possible, that the market microstructure capturing almost all of the available information in the data of stock markets does not involve higher order than pairwise interactions. We give an economic interpretation of this pairwise model. We show that it accurately recovers the empirical correlation coefficients; thus the collective behaviors are quantitatively described by models that capture the observed pairwise correlations but no higher-order interactions. Furthermore, we show that an order-disorder transition occurs, as predicted by the pairwise model. Last, we make the link with the graph-theoretic description of stock markets recovering the non-random and scale-free topology, shrinking length during crashes and meaningful clustering features, as expected.

  3. Identifying states of a financial market.

    PubMed

    Münnix, Michael C; Shimada, Takashi; Schäfer, Rudi; Leyvraz, Francois; Seligman, Thomas H; Guhr, Thomas; Stanley, H Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of complex systems has become a central issue because such systems exist in a wide range of scientific disciplines. We here focus on financial markets as an example of a complex system. In particular we analyze financial data from the S&P 500 stocks in the 19-year period 1992-2010. We propose a definition of state for a financial market and use it to identify points of drastic change in the correlation structure. These points are mapped to occurrences of financial crises. We find that a wide variety of characteristic correlation structure patterns exist in the observation time window, and that these characteristic correlation structure patterns can be classified into several typical "market states". Using this classification we recognize transitions between different market states. A similarity measure we develop thus affords means of understanding changes in states and of recognizing developments not previously seen. PMID:22966419

  4. Identifying States of a Financial Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münnix, Michael C.; Shimada, Takashi; Schäfer, Rudi; Leyvraz, Francois; Seligman, Thomas H.; Guhr, Thomas; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-09-01

    The understanding of complex systems has become a central issue because such systems exist in a wide range of scientific disciplines. We here focus on financial markets as an example of a complex system. In particular we analyze financial data from the S&P 500 stocks in the 19-year period 1992-2010. We propose a definition of state for a financial market and use it to identify points of drastic change in the correlation structure. These points are mapped to occurrences of financial crises. We find that a wide variety of characteristic correlation structure patterns exist in the observation time window, and that these characteristic correlation structure patterns can be classified into several typical ``market states''. Using this classification we recognize transitions between different market states. A similarity measure we develop thus affords means of understanding changes in states and of recognizing developments not previously seen.

  5. Identifying States of a Financial Market

    PubMed Central

    Münnix, Michael C.; Shimada, Takashi; Schäfer, Rudi; Leyvraz, Francois; Seligman, Thomas H.; Guhr, Thomas; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of complex systems has become a central issue because such systems exist in a wide range of scientific disciplines. We here focus on financial markets as an example of a complex system. In particular we analyze financial data from the S&P 500 stocks in the 19-year period 1992–2010. We propose a definition of state for a financial market and use it to identify points of drastic change in the correlation structure. These points are mapped to occurrences of financial crises. We find that a wide variety of characteristic correlation structure patterns exist in the observation time window, and that these characteristic correlation structure patterns can be classified into several typical “market states”. Using this classification we recognize transitions between different market states. A similarity measure we develop thus affords means of understanding changes in states and of recognizing developments not previously seen. PMID:22966419

  6. Coupled effects of market impact and asymmetric sensitivity in financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Li-Xin; Xu, Wen-Juan; Ren, Fei; Shi, Yong-Dong

    2013-05-01

    By incorporating market impact and asymmetric sensitivity into the evolutionary minority game, we study the coevolutionary dynamics of stock prices and investment strategies in financial markets. Both the stock price movement and the investors’ global behavior are found to be closely related to the phase region they fall into. Within the region where the market impact is small, investors’ asymmetric response to gains and losses leads to the occurrence of herd behavior, when all the investors are prone to behave similarly in an extreme way and large price fluctuations occur. A linear relation between the standard deviation of stock price changes and the mean value of strategies is found. With full market impact, the investors tend to self-segregate into opposing groups and the introduction of asymmetric sensitivity leads to the disappearance of dominant strategies. Compared with the situations in the stock market with little market impact, the stock price fluctuations are suppressed and an efficient market occurs. Theoretical analyses indicate that the mechanism of phase transition from clustering to self-segregation in the present model is similar to that in the majority-minority game and the occurrence and disappearance of efficient markets are related to the competition between the trend-following and the trend-aversion forces. The clustering of the strategies in the present model results from the majority-wins effect and the wealth-driven mechanism makes the market become predictable.

  7. Labor Market Performance of Non-College-Bound Youths. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Masanori; Miller, Ross A.

    A study investigated the labor market transition of youths over the first 8-14 postschooling years using the 1992 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Its primary objective was to develop an understanding of youth labor markets by examining the effects of training and early labor market experiences on economic well-being over a long span of…

  8. Phase-Adequate Engagement at the Post-School Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Julia; Parker, Philip; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2012-01-01

    The transition from general education (e.g., high school) to vocational and tertiary education (e.g., college, vocational school) or to the labor market presents a number of developmental challenges. These challenges include making career choices and, more broadly, managing the transition. Coping with these challenges depends on the individual,…

  9. School-to-Work Transition: Alternatives for Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.; Rojewski, Jay W.

    Schools do a very poor job of preparing noncollege-bound youth to make the transition from high school to employment and adult life. A lack of formalized transition systems compounds the problems that many noncollege-bound youth encounter as they try to obtain meaningful, career-sustaining employment in primary labor markets. Various instructional…

  10. Hidden Challenges to Education Systems in Transition Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Sue E.

    This book, published by the World Bank, sounds the alarm for education in Europe and Central Asia (ECA). It describes how the transition from communism to free-market economies has left many countries' educational systems in disarray. At the start of transition, ECA education systems had solved problems that plagued other regions of the world,…

  11. Career Competencies for Managing Cross-Cultural Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    The changing world of work requires that employees possess a repertoire of cultural competencies for managing their career development. Key demographic and market trends that have impacted the cross-cultural nature of work, a framework for understanding cross-cultural transitions, and core competencies for managing transitions are discussed.…

  12. E-laboratories : agent-based modeling of electricity markets.

    SciTech Connect

    North, M.; Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Macal, C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.

    2002-05-03

    Electricity markets are complex adaptive systems that operate under a wide range of rules that span a variety of time scales. These rules are imposed both from above by society and below by physics. Many electricity markets are undergoing or are about to undergo a transition from centrally regulated systems to decentralized markets. Furthermore, several electricity markets have recently undergone this transition with extremely unsatisfactory results, most notably in California. These high stakes transitions require the introduction of largely untested regulatory structures. Suitable laboratories that can be used to test regulatory structures before they are applied to real systems are needed. Agent-based models can provide such electronic laboratories or ''e-laboratories.'' To better understand the requirements of an electricity market e-laboratory, a live electricity market simulation was created. This experience helped to shape the development of the Electricity Market Complex Adaptive Systems (EMCAS) model. To explore EMCAS' potential as an e-laboratory, several variations of the live simulation were created. These variations probed the possible effects of changing power plant outages and price setting rules on electricity market prices.

  13. Medical management of the traumatic consequences of civil unrest incidents: causation, clinical approaches, needs and advanced planning criteria.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    In the context of this review, civil unrest is defined as disharmony, expressive dissatisfaction and/or disagreement between members of a community, which leads to a situation of competitive aggression that may find expression as disruption of organisation, conflicts, damage to property and injuries. Such a breakdown of harmonious relationships, which may result in property damage and human injuries that may be threatening to life, varies in magnitude from participation of a very few individuals up to the involvement of large crowds of people, which may evolve into a full-scale riot. It is the latter situation often involving demonstrators, opposing groups and law enforcement personnel that can result in multiple casualties and present a very significant challenge to the resources of local healthcare institutions. The causation of civil unrest incidents is multifactorial and has generic, specific and potentiating elements. With the current national and international societal, political and discriminatory problems, it is likely that civil unrest incidents on both small and large scales will continue to occur at a high and possibly increasing rate on a worldwide basis, and for these not infrequent incidents, the medical community should be in a state of informed preparation. The circumstances of civil unrest incidents are very variable with respect to causation, overall magnitude, frequency, timing, geographical location, numbers of persons involved, demographics of participants, influence of extremists, confrontation with opposing groups and control measures used by law enforcement agencies. Methods used by police and security forces for the control of civil unrest incidents, if advanced negotiations with organisers and verbal warnings have failed, fall basically into two categories: physical and chemical measures. Physical methods include restraint holds, truncheons, batons, mounted horses, projectiles (such as bean bags, plastic and rubber bullets), water cannons

  14. Mitochondrial D310 mutations in colorectal adenomas: an early but not causative genetic event during colorectal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Legras, Antoine; Lièvre, Astrid; Bonaiti-Pellié, Catherine; Cottet, Vanessa; Pariente, Alexandre; Nalet, Bernard; Lafon, Jacques; Faivre, Jean; Bonithon-Kopp, Claire; Goasguen, Nicolas; Penna, Christophe; Olschwang, Sylviane; Laurent-Puig, Pierre

    2008-05-15

    Somatic mutations of the D310 sequence of the mitochondrial DNA are reported in human cancers, including colorectal cancers (CRC). The presence of these mutations at early or late steps of colorectal carcinogenesis is unknown. Their prevalence increased significantly with the number of cytosines in the D310 sequence of the matched normal tissue (D310 polymorphism), suggesting that this polymorphism could be a risk factor for CRC. The aim of this study was (i) to investigate the prevalence of D310 mutations in 64 colorectal adenomas and 36 liver metastases from 15 CRC patients, (ii) to assess the relation between D310 polymorphism and the risk of colorectal adenoma in a case-control study including 613 cases with colorectal adenoma and 572 polyp-free (PF) controls. D310 mutations were found in colorectal adenomas and liver metastases from CRC patients in 27 and 33%, respectively and so are an early genetic event in colorectal carcinogenesis. The frequency of the mutations increased significantly with the number of cytosines in the matched normal tissue D310 sequence (p < 0.001) but the distribution of D310 polymorphisms was not significantly different between adenoma cases (large (>9 mm) and small (<5 mm) adenomas) and PF controls (C(4)-C(7)TC(6): 47, 52 and 49%; C(8)TC(6): 44, 39 and 41%; C(9)-C(10)TC(6): 9, 9 and 10%, respectively; p > 0.05), suggesting that germline D310 polymorphism is not a risk factor for colorectal adenomas. Considering their high frequency in colorectal adenomas, mitochondrial D310 mutations could represent a biomarker for early detection of CRC although their causative role in colorectal carcinogenesis remains uncertain. PMID:18224678

  15. The in vitro antifungal activity of sudanese medicinal plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the eumycetoma major causative agent.

    PubMed

    Elfadil, Hassabelrasoul; Fahal, Ahmed; Kloezen, Wendy; Ahmed, Elhadi M; van de Sande, Wendy

    2015-03-01

    Eumycetoma is a debilitating chronic inflammatory fungal infection that exists worldwide but it is endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions. The major causative organism is the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. The current treatment of eumycetoma is suboptimal and characterized by low cure rate and high recurrence rates. Hence, an alternative therapy is needed to address this. Here we determined the antifungal activity of seven Sudanese medicinal plant species against Madurella mycetomatis. Of these, only three species; Boswellia papyrifera, Acacia nubica and Nigella sativa, showed some antifungal activity against M. mycetomatis and were further studied. Crude methanol, hexane and defatted methanol extracts of these species were tested for their antifungal activity. B. papyrifera had the highest antifungal activity (MIC50 of 1 ug/ml) and it was further fractionated. The crude methanol and the soluble ethyl acetate fractions of B. papyrifera showed some antifungal activity. The Gas-Liquid-Chromatography hybrid Mass-Spectrophotometer analysis of these two fractions showed the existence of beta-amyrin, beta-amyrone, beta-Sitosterol and stigmatriene. Stigmatriene had the best antifungal activity, compared to other three phytoconstituents, with an MIC-50 of 32 μg/ml. Although the antifungal activity of the identified phytoconstituents was only limited, the antifungal activity of the complete extracts is more promising, indicating synergism. Furthermore these plant extracts are also known to have anti-inflammatory activity and can stimulate wound-healing; characteristics which might also be of great value in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for this chronic inflammatory disease. Therefore further exploration of these plant species in the treatment of mycetoma is encouraging. PMID:25768115

  16. The In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Sudanese Medicinal Plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the Eumycetoma Major Causative Agent

    PubMed Central

    Elfadil, Hassabelrasoul; Fahal, Ahmed; Kloezen, Wendy; Ahmed, Elhadi M.; van de Sande, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a debilitating chronic inflammatory fungal infection that exists worldwide but it is endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions. The major causative organism is the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. The current treatment of eumycetoma is suboptimal and characterized by low cure rate and high recurrence rates. Hence, an alternative therapy is needed to address this. Here we determined the antifungal activity of seven Sudanese medicinal plant species against Madurella mycetomatis. Of these, only three species; Boswellia papyrifera, Acacia nubica and Nigella sativa, showed some antifungal activity against M. mycetomatis and were further studied. Crude methanol, hexane and defatted methanol extracts of these species were tested for their antifungal activity. B. papyrifera had the highest antifungal activity (MIC50 of 1 ug/ml) and it was further fractionated. The crude methanol and the soluble ethyl acetate fractions of B. papyrifera showed some antifungal activity. The Gas-Liquid-Chromatography hybrid Mass-Spectrophotometer analysis of these two fractions showed the existence of beta-amyrin, beta-amyrone, beta-Sitosterol and stigmatriene. Stigmatriene had the best antifungal activity, compared to other three phytoconstituents, with an MIC-50 of 32 μg/ml. Although the antifungal activity of the identified phytoconstituents was only limited, the antifungal activity of the complete extracts is more promising, indicating synergism. Furthermore these plant extracts are also known to have anti-inflammatory activity and can stimulate wound-healing; characteristics which might also be of great value in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for this chronic inflammatory disease. Therefore further exploration of these plant species in the treatment of mycetoma is encouraging. PMID:25768115

  17. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Other Pathogens are Key Causative Factors in Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Steven A.; Harris, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This review focuses on research in epidemiology, neuropathology, molecular biology, and genetics regarding the hypothesis that pathogens interact with susceptibility genes and are causative in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Sporadic AD is a complex multifactorial neurodegenerative disease with evidence indicating coexisting multi-pathogen and inflammatory etiologies. There are significant associations between AD and various pathogens, including Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Cytomegalovirus, and other Herpesviridae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, spirochetes, Helicobacter pylori, and various periodontal pathogens. These pathogens are able to evade destruction by the host immune system, leading to persistent infection. Bacterial and viral DNA and RNA and bacterial ligands increase the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules and activate the innate and adaptive immune systems. Evidence demonstrates that pathogens directly and indirectly induce AD pathology, including amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, phosphorylation of tau protein, neuronal injury, and apoptosis. Chronic brain infection with HSV-1, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and spirochetes results in complex processes that interact to cause a vicious cycle of uncontrolled neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Infections such as Cytomegalovirus, Helicobacter pylori, and periodontal pathogens induce production of systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines that may cross the blood-brain barrier to promote neurodegeneration. Pathogen-induced inflammation and central nervous system accumulation of Aβ damages the blood-brain barrier, which contributes to the pathophysiology of AD. Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) enhances brain infiltration by pathogens including HSV-1 and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. ApoE4 is also associated with an increased pro-inflammatory response by the immune system. Potential antimicrobial treatments for AD are discussed, including the rationale for antiviral and antibiotic clinical trials. PMID

  18. Impaired Esophageal Mucosal Integrity May Play a Causative Role in Patients With Nongastroesophageal Reflux Disease–Related Noncardiac Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Min, Yang Won; Choi, Kyu; Pyo, Jeung Hui; Son, Hee Jung; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Baseline impedance (BI) measurement can be used to evaluate the status of the esophageal mucosa integrity. We hypothesized that impaired esophageal mucosal integrity may play a causative role in patients with nongastroesophageal reflux disease (non-GERD)–related noncardiac chest pain (NCCP). This retrospective study analyzed 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH testing data from 77 patients with NCCP and 5 healthy volunteers. BI was calculated at 3 cm (distal esophagus) and 17 cm (proximal esophagus) above the lower esophageal sphincter. GERD was defined by the presence of pathologic acid exposure or reflux esophagitis. Among the 77 patients with NCCP, 16 (20.8%) were classified into the GERD-related NCCP group and 61 (79.2%) into the non-GERD-related NCCP group. BI (median, interquartile range) of the non-GERD-related NCCP group was lower than the control group at the proximal esophagus (2507 Ω, 2156–3217 vs 3855 Ω, 3238–4182, P = 0.001) but was similar at the distal esophagus. The GERD-related NCCP group showed lower BI than the control group at both the distal and proximal esophagus (2024 Ω, 1619–2308 vs 3203 Ω, 2366–3774, P = 0.007 and 2272 Ω, 1896–2908 vs 3855 Ω, 3238–4182, P = 0.003, respectively). At the distal esophagus, BI was lower in the GERD-related NCCP group than the non-GERD-related NCCP group (P = 0.002), whereas it did not differ between the 2 groups at the proximal esophagus. In conclusion, the mucosal integrity is impaired at the proximal esophagus in patients with non-GERD-related NCCP, which might be the pathogenic mechanism of NCCP. PMID:26705212

  19. A Strategy for the Proliferation of Ulva prolifera, Main Causative Species of Green Tides, with Formation of Sporangia by Fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Yi, Qianqian; Wang, Guangce; Pan, Guanghua; Lin, Apeng; Peng, Guang

    2010-01-01

    Ulva prolifera, a common green seaweed, is one of the causative species of green tides that occurred frequently along the shores of Qingdao in 2008 and had detrimental effects on the preparations for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games sailing competition, since more than 30 percent of the area of the games was invaded. In view of the rapid accumulation of the vast biomass of floating U. prolifera in green tides, we investigated the formation of sporangia in disks of different diameters excised from U. prolifera, changes of the photosynthetic properties of cells during sporangia formation, and development of spores. The results suggested that disks less than 1.00 mm in diameter were optimal for the formation of sporangia, but there was a small amount of spore release in these. The highest percentage of area of spore release occurred in disks that were 2.50 mm in diameter. In contrast, sporangia were formed only at the cut edges of larger disks (3.00 mm, 3.50 mm, and 4.00 mm in diameter). Additionally, the majority of spores liberated from the disks appeared vigorous and developed successfully into new individuals. These results implied that fragments of the appropriate size from the U. prolifera thalli broken by a variety of factors via producing spores gave rise to the rapid proliferation of the seaweed under field conditions, which may be one of the most important factors to the rapid accumulation of the vast biomass of U. prolifera in the green tide that occurred in Qingdao, 2008. PMID:20052408

  20. Reciprocal causation models of cognitive vs volumetric cerebral intermediate phenotypes for schizophrenia in a pan-European twin cohort.

    PubMed

    Toulopoulou, T; van Haren, N; Zhang, X; Sham, P C; Cherny, S S; Campbell, D D; Picchioni, M; Murray, R; Boomsma, D I; Hulshoff Pol, H E; Pol, H H; Brouwer, R; Schnack, H; Fañanás, L; Sauer, H; Nenadic, I; Weisbrod, M; Cannon, T D; Kahn, R S

    2015-11-01

    In aetiologically complex illnesses such as schizophrenia, there is no direct link between genotype and phenotype. Intermediate phenotypes could help clarify the underlying biology and assist in the hunt for genetic vulnerability variants. We have previously shown that cognition shares substantial genetic variance with schizophrenia; however, it is unknown if this reflects pleiotropic effects, direct causality or some shared third factor that links both, for example, brain volume (BV) changes. We quantified the degree of net genetic overlap and tested the direction of causation between schizophrenia liability, brain structure and cognition in a pan-European schizophrenia twin cohort consisting of 1243 members from 626 pairs. Cognitive deficits lie upstream of the liability for schizophrenia with about a quarter of the variance in liability to schizophrenia explained by variation in cognitive function. BV changes lay downstream of schizophrenia liability, with 4% of BV variation explained directly by variation in liability. However, our power to determine the nature of the relationship between BV deviation and schizophrenia liability was more limited. Thus, while there was strong evidence that cognitive impairment is causal to schizophrenia liability, we are not in a position to make a similar statement about the relationship between liability and BV. This is the first study to demonstrate that schizophrenia liability is expressed partially through cognitive deficits. One prediction of the finding that BV changes lie downstream of the disease liability is that the risk loci that influence schizophrenia liability will thereafter influence BV and to a lesser extent. By way of contrast, cognitive function lies upstream of schizophrenia, thus the relevant loci will actually have a larger effect size on cognitive function than on schizophrenia. These are testable predictions. PMID:25450228

  1. Impaired Esophageal Mucosal Integrity May Play a Causative Role in Patients With Nongastroesophageal Reflux Disease-Related Noncardiac Chest Pain.

    PubMed

    Min, Yang Won; Choi, Kyu; Pyo, Jeung Hui; Son, Hee Jung; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2015-12-01

    Baseline impedance (BI) measurement can be used to evaluate the status of the esophageal mucosa integrity. We hypothesized that impaired esophageal mucosal integrity may play a causative role in patients with nongastroesophageal reflux disease (non-GERD)-related noncardiac chest pain (NCCP). This retrospective study analyzed 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH testing data from 77 patients with NCCP and 5 healthy volunteers. BI was calculated at 3 cm (distal esophagus) and 17 cm (proximal esophagus) above the lower esophageal sphincter. GERD was defined by the presence of pathologic acid exposure or reflux esophagitis. Among the 77 patients with NCCP, 16 (20.8%) were classified into the GERD-related NCCP group and 61 (79.2%) into the non-GERD-related NCCP group. BI (median, interquartile range) of the non-GERD-related NCCP group was lower than the control group at the proximal esophagus (2507 Ω, 2156-3217 vs 3855 Ω, 3238-4182, P = 0.001) but was similar at the distal esophagus. The GERD-related NCCP group showed lower BI than the control group at both the distal and proximal esophagus (2024 Ω, 1619-2308 vs 3203 Ω, 2366-3774, P = 0.007 and 2272 Ω, 1896-2908 vs 3855 Ω, 3238-4182, P = 0.003, respectively). At the distal esophagus, BI was lower in the GERD-related NCCP group than the non-GERD-related NCCP group (P = 0.002), whereas it did not differ between the 2 groups at the proximal esophagus. In conclusion, the mucosal integrity is impaired at the proximal esophagus in patients with non-GERD-related NCCP, which might be the pathogenic mechanism of NCCP. PMID:26705212

  2. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel...

  3. 7 CFR 1208.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1208.12 Section 1208.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1208.12 Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of processed...

  4. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel...

  5. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel...

  6. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel...

  7. 7 CFR 1208.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1208.12 Section 1208.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1208.12 Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of processed...

  8. Market assessment overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib-Agahi, H.

    1981-01-01

    Market assessment, refined with analysis disaggregated from a national level to the regional level and to specific market applications, resulted in more accurate and detailed market estimates. The development of an integrated set of computer simulations, coupled with refined market data, allowed progress in the ability to evaluate the worth of solar thermal parabolic dish systems. In-depth analyses of both electric and thermal market applications of these systems are described. The following market assessment studies were undertaken: (1) regional analysis of the near term market for parabolic dish systems; (2) potential early market estimate for electric applications; (3) potential early market estimate for industrial process heat/cogeneration applications; and (4) selection of thermal and electric application case studies for fiscal year 1981.

  9. Constraints and efficiency of cattle marketing in semiarid pastoral system in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Onono, Joshua Orungo; Amimo, Joshua Oluoch; Rushton, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Livestock keeping is regarded as a store of wealth for pastoralists in Kenya, besides their social and cultural functions. The objective of this study was to prioritize constraints to cattle marketing in a semiarid pastoral area of Narok in Kenya and to analyze efficiency of cattle marketing in transit markets located in Garissa, Kajiado and Narok counties. Primary data collection from traders was done through participatory interviews and market surveys, while time series market price data were obtained from secondary sources. Five focus group interviews were organized with a total of 61 traders in markets from Narok County, while a total of 187 traders who purchased cattle from transit markets provided data on a number of cattle purchased, purpose of purchase, buying prices and mode of transport. Market performance was analyzed through trader's market share, gross margins, Gini coefficient and coefficient of correlation between time series price data. The marketing constraints which were ranked high included lack of market for meat, trekking of cattle to markets, lack of price information and occurrence of diseases. About 10 % of traders purchased over 50 % of cattle which were supplied in markets, revealing a high concentration index. Further, a gross marketing margin per cattle purchased was positive in all markets revealing profitability. Moderate correlation coefficients existed between time series market price data for cattle purchased from Ewaso Ngiro and Mulot markets (r = 0.5; p < 0.05), while those between Dagoretti and Garissa markets were weak (r = 0.2; p > 0.05). The integration of markets, occurrence of diseases and trekking of cattle to markets are factors which may increase a risk of infectious disease spread. These results call for support of disease surveillance activities within markets in pastoral areas so that farms and systems which are connected are protected from threats of infectious diseases. PMID:25700674

  10. Program the Market, Market the Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ellen

    1993-01-01

    In an interview, Dorothy A. Durkin, a successful marketing specialist at a major university's school of continuing education, discusses her approach to marketing, specific strategies, and techniques for using and storing information. She offers five guiding principles for reaching prospects personally and persuasively. (MSE)

  11. Whole Exome Sequencing in Dominant Cataract Identifies a New Causative Factor, CRYBA2, and a Variety of Novel Alleles in Known Genes

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Linda M.; Tyler, Rebecca C.; Muheisen, Sanaa; Raggio, Victor; Salviati, Leonardo; Han, Dennis P.; Costakos, Deborah; Yonath, Hagith; Hall, Sarah; Power, Patricia; Semina, Elena V.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric cataracts are observed in 1–15 per 10,000 births with 10–25% of cases attributed to genetic causes; autosomal dominant inheritance is the most commonly observed pattern. Since the specific cataract phenotype is not sufficient to predict which gene is mutated, whole exome sequencing (WES) was utilized to concurrently screen all known cataract genes and to examine novel candidate factors for a disease-causing mutation in probands from 23 pedigrees affected with familial dominant cataract. Review of WES data for 36 known cataract genes identified causative mutations in nine pedigrees (39%) in CRYAA, CRYBB1, CRYBB3, CRYGC (2), CRYGD, GJA8 (2), and MIP and an additional likely causative mutation in EYA1; the CRYBB3 mutation represents the first dominant allele in this gene and demonstrates incomplete penetrance. Examination of crystallin genes not yet linked to human disease identified a novel cataract gene, CRYBA2, a member of the βγ-crystallin superfamily. The p.(Val50Met) mutation in CRYBA2 cosegregated with disease phenotype in a four-generation pedigree with autosomal dominant congenital cataracts with incomplete penetrance. Expression studies detected cryba2 transcripts during early lens development in zebrafish, supporting its role in congenital disease. Our data highlight the extreme genetic heterogeneity of dominant cataract as the eleven causative/likely causative mutations affected nine different genes and the majority of mutant alleles were novel. Furthermore, these data suggest that less than half of dominant cataract can be explained by mutations in currently known genes. PMID:23508780

  12. The President As Marketer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickford, Robert I.

    1978-01-01

    Advocates a marketing orientation to community college management as demonstrated by the successful implementation of four-state (service, promotion, delivery, and evaluation) marketing plan at Prince George's Community College in Washington D.C. (TP)

  13. Going to Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topor, Robert S.

    1985-01-01

    Ways to create and implement a master marketing plan for college campuses are described. The best marketing plans describe both objectives and methods for all appropriate areas within the institution. (MLW)

  14. Marketing Youth Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimick, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Marketing techniques in youth services are useful for designing programs, collections, and services and for determining customer needs. The marketing mix--product, place, price, and practice--provides a framework for service analysis. (AEF)

  15. Marketing to maximize profitability.

    PubMed

    Duboff, R S

    1992-01-01

    An effective marketing strategy should focus on serving profitable customers, not just adding new ones. The author offers five steps that marketers can follow to ensure that their efforts provide the greatest boost to the bottom line. PMID:10122965

  16. Marketing Your Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Jewell R.

    1978-01-01

    In this conference presentation, the author, contrary to traditional views, offers a marketing definition that is compatible with continuing education goals. She then points out five reasons why continuing education activities for nurses should be marketed. (EM)

  17. Why We Need Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    An interview with Philip Kotler, the Harold T. Martin Professor of Marketing at Northwestern University, is presented. Three approaches to marketing are identified: product-oriented, hard-sell, and building satisfaction in a long-term clientele. (MLW)

  18. Supply options. [hydrogen market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of captive hydrogen (produced and consumed on site) and merchant hydrogen (externally supplied) is considered. A low-merchant-captive ratio market and a high-merchant-captive ratio market are described and compared.

  19. Marketing Your Advising Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flickinger, Jan

    1989-01-01

    A tour of centralized university advising centers revealed that the busiest centers had done an excellent job of marketing themselves to their campus clientele. Factors affecting successful marketing include image, location, service, advertising, and innovative problem-solving. (MSE)

  20. Association study between Van der Woude Syndrome causative gene GRHL3 and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in a Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yirui; Sun, Yimin; Huang, Yongqing; Pan, Yongchu; Jia, Zhonglin; Ma, Lijuan; Ma, Lan; Lan, Feifei; Zhou, Yuxi; Shi, Jiayu; Yang, Xiong; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Hongbing; Jiang, Min; Yin, Aihua; Cheng, Jing; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yinxue; Shi, Bing

    2016-08-15

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is one of the most common birth defects worldwide and is characterized by abnormalities of the orofacial structure. Syndromic CL/P is mainly caused by Mendelian disorders such as Van der Woude Syndrome (VWS). However, >70% of CL/P cases are nonsyndromic, characterized by isolated orofacial cleft without any known syndrome. The etiology of nonsyndromic CL/P (NSCL/P) remains elusive, but it has been suggested that causative genes of syndromic CL/P might also contribute to NSCL/P. As such, the VWS causative gene IRF6 has been extensively studied in NSCL/P. Recently, GRHL3 was identified as another VWS causative gene. Thus, it may be a novel candidate gene for NSCL/P. In the present study, we genotyped 10 tag SNPs covering GRHL3 and performed association analysis with NSCL/P in 504 cases and 455 healthy controls. Our preliminary results identified rs10903078, rs4638975, and a haplotype rs10903078-rs6659209 of GRHL3 that exceeded the significance threshold (p<0.05), though none survived Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. As the first study between GRHL3 and NSCL/P, the contribution of this gene to NSCL/P etiology should be interpreted with caution based on existing evidence. Further, the robustness of association between GRHL3 and NSCL/P should be further validated in expanded cohorts. PMID:27129939

  1. ALS-causative mutations in FUS/TLS confer gain and loss of function by altered association with SMN and U1-snRNP.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuying; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Qiu, Jinsong; Albuquerque, Claudio P; Zhou, Yu; Tokunaga, Seiya; Li, Hairi; Qiu, Haiyan; Bui, Anh; Yeo, Gene W; Huang, Eric J; Eggan, Kevin; Zhou, Huilin; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Cleveland, Don W

    2015-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein FUS/TLS, mutation in which is causative of the fatal motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is demonstrated to directly bind to the U1-snRNP and SMN complexes. ALS-causative mutations in FUS/TLS are shown to abnormally enhance their interaction with SMN and dysregulate its function, including loss of Gems and altered levels of small nuclear RNAs. The same mutants are found to have reduced association with U1-snRNP. Correspondingly, global RNA analysis reveals a mutant-dependent loss of splicing activity, with ALS-linked mutants failing to reverse changes caused by loss of wild-type FUS/TLS. Furthermore, a common FUS/TLS mutant-associated RNA splicing signature is identified in ALS patient fibroblasts. Taken together, these studies establish potentially converging disease mechanisms in ALS and spinal muscular atrophy, with ALS-causative mutants acquiring properties representing both gain (dysregulation of SMN) and loss (reduced RNA processing mediated by U1-snRNP) of function. PMID:25625564

  2. Infectious disease during hospitalization is the major causative factor for prolonged hospitalization: multivariate analysis of diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) data of 20,876 cases in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Susumu; Hara, Megumi; Nonaka, Sayuri; Ishikawa, Shinichiro; Aoki, Yosuke; Anzai, Keizo; Morita, Shigeki; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate causative factors for prolonged hospitalization based on hospitalization status, type of hospital ward, and comorbidities, specifically diabetes mellitus and infectious diseases, in 20,876 patients hospitalized in Saga University Hospital from April 1, 2012, to February 28, 2015. Prolonged hospitalization was defined as hospital days exceeding period 3 in the diagnosis procedure combination system. Among all factors, causative (risk) factors for prolonged hospitalization were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Multivariate analysis indicated causative factors for prolonged hospitalization were aging, comorbid diabetes mellitus, time spent in the intensive care unit, and infectious diseases contracted during hospitalization. The risk factors for contracting infectious diseases during hospitalization were aging, male sex, comorbid diabetes mellitus, and increased number of days spent in period 3 in the diagnosis procedure combination code. These data indicated that critical factors for discharge from hospital within an appropriate time frame were prevention of infectious diseases during hospitalization, and a fast and effective therapeutic approach to patients in the intensive care unit. PMID:27499579

  3. The kinetoplastid parasite Azumiobodo hoyamushi, the causative agent of soft tunic syndrome of the sea squirt Halocynthia roretzi, resides in the East Sea of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoun-Joong; Park, Jong Soo; Park, Kwan Ha; Shin, Yun-Kyung; Park, Kyung-Il

    2014-02-01

    Mass mortality of the edible sea squirt Halocynthia roretzi since the 1990s in the southern and eastern seas of Korea has caused large economic losses. The disease is characterized by symptoms of initially softened and thinned tunics that eventually rupture. Thus, the disease is called soft tunic syndrome (STS); however, the causative agent in these regions is unknown. In the present study, two kinetoplastid organisms were isolated from STS sea squirts collected from culture farms in Tongyeong located in the East Sea of Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences identified these organisms as Azumiobodo hoyamushi and Procryptobia sorokini. These kinetoplastids were injected into healthy sea squirts and cultured at 15°C for 13days. Sea squirts injected with A. hoyamushi showed 100% STS whereas, P. sorokini did not induce disease, thereby confirming A. hoyamushi as the causative agent of STS. A. hoyamushi flourishes in vitro at 10-15°C, and dies at temperatures below 5°C or above 20°C. The optimum salinity level for growth is 30-35psu, and death occurs below 25psu. These optima coincide with marine temperature and salinity levels between March and June on the southern coasts of Korea, the period when the syndrome occurs at the highest frequency. The identification here of A. hoyamushi as the causative agent of STS and our findings regarding its optimum growth conditions should lead to methods for reducing the incidence of STS. PMID:24389332

  4. Dynamics of Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    2004-06-01

    Standard texts and research in economics and finance ignore the absence of evidence from the analysis of real, unmassaged market data to support the notion of Adam Smith's stabilizing Invisible Hand. In stark contrast, this text introduces a new empirically-based model of financial market dynamics that explains the volatility of prices options correctly and clarifies the instability of financial markets. The emphasis is on understanding how real markets behave, not how they hypothetically 'should' behave.

  5. Transitions: A Personal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Ann Stace

    1995-01-01

    Distinguishes between unchosen transitions (children maturing and leaving, parents aging, companies downsizing) and chosen ones (moving, divorce, marriage, career changes). Describes the steps one goes through: uneasiness, renewed energy, complaining, exploration, partial transition, and the completed transition. (JOW)

  6. Colony Failure Linked to Low Sperm Viability in Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queens and an Exploration of Potential Causative Factors.

    PubMed

    Pettis, Jeffery S; Rice, Nathan; Joselow, Katie; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Chaimanee, Veeranan

    2016-01-01

    to colony performance and laboratory and field data provide evidence that temperature extremes are a potential causative factor. PMID:26863438

  7. Identification of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soils with inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum spp., the causative agent of anthracnose disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Colletotrichum is one of the most widespread and important genus of plant pathogenic fungi worldwide. Various species of Colletotrichum are the causative agents of anthracnose disease in plants, which is a severe problem to agricultural crops particularly in Thailand. These phytopathogens are usually controlled using chemicals; however, the use of these agents can lead to environmental pollution. Potential non-chemical control strategies for anthracnose disease include the use of bacteria capable of producing anti-fungal compounds such as actinomycetes spp., that comprise a large group of filamentous, Gram positive bacteria from soil. The aim of this study was to isolate actinomycetes capable of inhibiting the growth of Colletotrichum spp, and to analyze the diversity of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soil. Results A total of 304 actinomycetes were isolated and tested for their inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides strains DoA d0762 and DoA c1060 and Colletotrichum capsici strain DoA c1511 which cause anthracnose disease as well as the non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain IFO 10217. Most isolates (222 out of 304, 73.0%) were active against at least one indicator fungus or yeast. Fifty four (17.8%) were active against three anthracnose fungi and 17 (5.6%) could inhibit the growth of all three fungi and S. cerevisiae used in the test. Detailed analysis on 30 selected isolates from an orchard at Chanthaburi using the comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most of the isolates (87%) belong to the genus Streptomyces sp., while one each belongs to Saccharopolyspora (strain SB-2) and Nocardiopsis (strain CM-2) and two to Nocardia (strains BP-3 and LK-1). Strains LC-1, LC-4, JF-1, SC-1 and MG-1 exerted high inhibitory activity against all three anthracnose fungi and yeast. In addition, the organic solvent extracts prepared from these five strains inhibited conidial growth of the three indicator fungi

  8. Colony Failure Linked to Low Sperm Viability in Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queens and an Exploration of Potential Causative Factors

    PubMed Central

    Pettis, Jeffery S.; Rice, Nathan; Joselow, Katie; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Chaimanee, Veeranan

    2016-01-01

    linked to colony performance and laboratory and field data provide evidence that temperature extremes are a potential causative factor. PMID:26863438

  9. Marketing for Camp Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    To effectively market a camp, current trends and issues must be considered: specialty programming, the Americans With Disabilities Act, competing recreational programs, changes in the school year, programming for seniors, and accountability. Camps should have a marketing strategy that includes public relations, a marketing plan, a pricing…

  10. Marketing Farm Grain Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Harlan E.

    This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

  11. Creating a Marketing Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A guide to developing a college marketing plan defines key marketing terms, outlines the development of a plan (including institutional analysis, market research, strategy formation and execution, and program evaluation), and provides a list of important principles with which to operate a program. (MSE)

  12. Marketing University Outreach Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Ralph S., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 12 essays and model program descriptions addresses issues in the marketing of university extension, outreach, and distance education programs. They include: (1) "Marketing and University Outreach: Parallel Processes" (William I. Sauser, Jr. and others); (2) "Segmenting and Targeting the Organizational Market" (Vaughan C. Judd); (3)…

  13. Entering the Corporate Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenshields, Garry W.

    This seminar guide was designed for use with a series of slides in training administrators to market an educational program or service to corporations. The seminar explains the following eight stages in planning entry into the corporate market: identifying appropriate publics; researching the market (analyzing supply and demand, collecting data,…

  14. Marketing Across the Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Larry D.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines an eight-step approach to launching an integrated college or university marketing/fund-raising program: finding a visionary campus leader; getting presidential support; assembling a three-tier marketing structure; considering new ways of defining quality; developing a marketing "blueprint"; selling the program on campus; embracing…

  15. Plugging into Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunkenheimer, Gary; Swift, Teri

    This text contains activities that allow marketing education instructors to integrate their curriculum with word-processing, spreadsheet, and presentation software. Their students can gain experience with technology, fulfill marketing education learner outcomes, and meet the demands of a marketing job. The instructor provides an outline for…

  16. Marketing occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, K

    1987-05-01

    Marketing is emerging as an important aspect of the delivery of health care services, including occupational therapy. An understanding of marketing and a knowledge of how to apply its principles will permit therapists to keep pace with the changing health care environment. This article introduces terminology, strategies, and applications of marketing. PMID:3688145

  17. Marketing home care services.

    PubMed

    Moore, S T

    1987-08-01

    With the decline in inpatients, hospital administrators and marketers are seeking revenue opportunities in meeting the needs of a new market, home care patients. The challenge for managers in the home care arena is to target their marketing efforts towards the important decision makers. Managers who can best meet the goal of patients, families and professionals will be most successful. PMID:10301949

  18. Strategic Marketing for Presidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Richard J., Ed.

    Designed to inform the marketing efforts of community college presidents, this document describes the importance of marketing, presents a targeted approach, and outlines the specific roles and skills needed by the president to ensure successful efforts and effective institutions. The first chapter, "Developing a Marketing-Strategic Plan," by…

  19. Rewards for Good Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Many professional library associations and affiliates "strongly encourage" the marketing of libraries and their wares. These organizations present awards, certificates, and monetary enticements to honor outstanding marketing programs. For most individuals or teams who are already working on and implementing marketing programs, the added effort of…

  20. Introduction to Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the importance of forecasting in order for a farm family to develop marketing plans. It describes sources of information and includes a glossary of marketing terms and exercises using both fundamental and technical methods to predict prices in order to improve forecasting ability. The unit is organized in the…

  1. Connecticut Marketing Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Haven Board of Education, CT.

    This revised marketing education handbook is intended to assist marketing education teachers and administrators in Connecticut in preparing students to enter meaningful careers in marketing, merchandising, and management positions. The 17 units of this reference guide cover the following topics: introduction; mission and scope of marketing…

  2. The New Learning Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mager, Caroline; Robinson, Peter; Fletcher, Mick; Stanton, Geoff; Perry, Adrian; Westwood, Andy

    This document contains seven papers examining the implications of proposed major reforms to the United Kingdom's post-16 sector. "The New Learning Market--Overview" (Caroline Mager) argues for balancing market-driven and planning-driven approaches to planning post-16 education. "Education and Training as a Learning Market" (Peter Robinson)…

  3. Market segmentation strategy in internet market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yawei; Yang, Deli; Diao, Xinjun

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a model to describe the competitive dynamics of web sites on the WWW market and analyze the stability of the model which is composed of one powerful site and two small sites. One of the most important results that emerge from this simple model is that strong competition among websites does not necessarily lead to the demise of the small website on the WWW market. From the stability analysis of the model, we obtain a series of conditions in which small sites can obtain competitive advantages by using the market segmentation strategy.

  4. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing....

  5. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing....

  6. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing....

  7. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing....

  8. UK Higher Education Viewed through the Marketization and Marketing Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedbalová, Eva; Greenacre, Luke; Schulz, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the Economic Market mechanisms and the 4P Marketing Mix as lenses to review the context of UK higher education (HE) and to explore the relationship between the market and marketing disciplines and practice. Four Economic Market mechanisms--autonomy, competition, price and information--are contrasted with the four Ps of marketing:…

  9. PyTransit: Transit light curve modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parviainen, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    PyTransit implements optimized versions of the Giménez and Mandel & Agol transit models for exoplanet transit light-curves. The two models are implemented natively in Fortran with OpenMP parallelization, and are accessed by an object-oriented python interface. PyTransit facilitates the analysis of photometric time series of exoplanet transits consisting of hundreds of thousands of data points, and of multipassband transit light curves from spectrophotometric observations. It offers efficient model evaluation for multicolour observations and transmission spectroscopy, built-in supersampling to account for extended exposure times, and routines to calculate the projected planet-to-star distance for circular and eccentric orbits, transit durations, and more.

  10. The issue of applying marketing on the pharmaceutical market in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Dickov, V; Dickov, A; Martinović-Mitrović, S

    2011-03-01

    The issue of applying marketing on the pharmaceutical market has the features of subject-based approach, with the intention to appreciate the specific nature of the products, as well as the special characteristics of the complexly formed demand. The relevance of the issue is related to the above-average performance of the pharmaceutical industry, its role in the generation of humanity's demographic transition, and specific development routes of marketing as a scientific and practical discipline. The sensitive nature of a pharmaceutical product on the one hand generates the intense legislation on this market, whereas on the other, the circumstances of its use generate a specific environment in which the production/consumption of the products of pharmaceutical industry is intensively reflected as a specific medical, cultural, economic and even political phenomenon. PMID:21528773

  11. Market review - Market values summary/October market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This article is the October 1995 uranium market summary. In this reporting period, there were four transactions in the natural uranium market, no activity in the spot UF6 market, no activity in the spot conversion market, and only a single activity in the enrichment services market. Spot uranium volume dropped sharply, and active uranium supply rose. The rise in demand, however, more than offset this increase. Unrestricted exchange prices rose slightly, as did the unrestricted UF6 value. All other prices remained steady.

  12. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions. PMID:24777920

  13. Marketing the hospital library.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Many librarians do not see themselves as marketers, but marketing is an essential role for hospital librarians. Library work involves education, and there are parallels between marketing and education as described in this article. It is incumbent upon hospital librarians actively to pursue ways of reminding their customers about library services. This article reinforces the idea that marketing is an element in many of the things that librarians already do, and includes a list of suggested marketing strategies intended to remind administrators, physicians, and other customers that they have libraries in their organizations. PMID:15982957

  14. Practice transition with intelligence and grace.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Marcia A

    2014-01-01

    Viable practices change with the professional and personal needs of dentists and with trends in society. There is no single way for transitioning out of practice--concluding a direct sale, remaining as an associate, and even purchasing a new practice to better match one's more mature lifestyle and practiced preferences. Changing ratios of dentists to patients currently favor a seller's market and emergence of corporate models provide new options. An analysis is given of the Canadian practice market. Planning advice is also offered. PMID:25975121

  15. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments. PMID:10107959

  16. Lobbying as Marketing. Marketing Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phylis A. W.

    1990-01-01

    The secret of marketing community education effectively at various government levels is unification, both of people and purpose. Although lobbying for community education may constitute a lengthy political process, the benefits derived may far exceed the labor expended. (Author)

  17. [Community marketing of contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Urrutia, J M

    1987-09-01

    The 5-year-old community contraceptive distribution program developed by PROFAMILIA, Colombia's private family planning organization, has given excellent results, but several cost-effectiveness comparisons with social marketing programs have suggested that commercial distribution programs are superior. The community contraceptive distribution program has a high content of information and education activities, which produced significant increases in knowledge and use of contraception in the communities covered. It has been a fundamental support for the social marketing program, creating much of the demand for contraceptive products that the social marketing program has filled. The social marketing program has given good results in terms of volume of sales and in cost-effectiveness since 1976, prompting calls for replacement of the community contraceptive distribution program by the social marketing program in those sectors where knowledge and use of contraception have achieved acceptable levels. An experiment in the Department of Santander in 1984 and 1985 gave very favorable results, suggesting that community contraceptive distribution programs should be replaced by social marketing programs in all more developed markets. But economic problems in 1985 and the decision of manufacturers to decrease the profit margin for PROFAMILIA jeopardized the social marketing program. The community distribution program covered about 20% of the market. Reduced profits in the social marketing program threatened its continued expansion, at the same time that potential demand was growing because of increases in the fertile aged population and increased use of contraception. To meet the need, PROFAMILIA combined the community contraceptive distribution and social marketing programs into a new entity to be called community marketing. The strategy of the community marketing program will be to maintain PROFAMILIA's participation in the market and aid the growth of demand for

  18. Line managers as marketers.

    PubMed

    Rynne, T J

    1986-09-01

    Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications. PMID:10277616

  19. Overview of escalator applications in rail transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, G.; Rubenstein, L.

    1980-01-01

    The difference in operating environment and in construction between escalators in transit and nontransit use, the impact of recent escalator innovations, and areas which could benefit from urban mass transportation administration sponsored research and development are determined. Several factors causing a more severe transit escalator operating environment are identified. There are no significant design differences between transit and nontransit escalators. Recent innovations that have affected performance and cost include outdoor escalators, extra flat steps at both landings, and modular escalators. Data were collected by interviews at transit agencies. Long term, unscheduled, escalator maintenance records were available for analysis from one property. A description of escalator operating principles is provided. Transit represents less than 5% of the U.S. escalator market. Transit agencies have limited leverage on escalator industry practices. A substantial impact on transit escalator cost and performance can be achieved by research identifying when and how to apply and specify several of the more recent innovations. Purchase of escalators under long term (25 year) maintenance contracts is one method that has been used to promote escalators manufactured for minimum life cycle cost.

  20. Trust transitivity in social networks.

    PubMed

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected "fringe" nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its "fringe" peers. PMID:21483683

  1. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers. PMID:21483683

  2. On emissions trading, toxic debt and the Australian power market

    SciTech Connect

    Simshauser, Paul

    2009-03-15

    Implementation of emissions trading will have profound effects on the financial stability of coal generators. While the impact on equity capital is well understood, the potential fallout in the market for project finance is not. During the current global financial crisis, the form and quantum of transitional assistance to coal generators will be crucial to ensure ongoing participation of domestic and foreign project banks in the power markets. (author)

  3. Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements, March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L.; Leiby, Paul N.; James, Brian; Perez, Julie; Melendez, Margo; Milbrandt, Anelia; Unnash, Stefan; Rutherford, Daniel; Hooks, Matthew

    2008-03-14

    Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and retailers, consumers, and governments. The interaction of these agents in the marketplace will determine the real costs and benefits of early market transformation policies, and ultimately the success of the transition itself.

  4. Transition from the labor market: older workers and retirement.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Chris L; Murphy, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The new millennium has seen the projected growth of older populations as a source of many problems, not the least of which is how to sustain this increasingly aging population. Some decades ago, early retirement from work posed few problems for governments, but most nations are now trying to ensure that workers remain in the workforce longer. In this context, the role played by older employees can be affected by at least two factors: their productivity (or perceived productivity) and their acceptance by younger workers and management. If the goal of maintaining employees into older age is to be achieved and sustained, opportunities must be provided, for example, for more flexible work arrangements and more possibilities to pursue bridge employment (work after formal retirement). The retirement experience varies, depending on people's circumstances. Some people, for example, have retirement forced upon them by illness or injury at work, by ill-health (such as chronic illnesses), or by downsizing and associated redundancies. This article focuses on the problems and opportunities associated with working to an older age or leaving the workforce early, particularly due to factors beyond one's control. PMID:21058534

  5. Evolution of microbial markets

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Strassmann, Joan E.; Ivens, Aniek B. F.; Engelmoer, Daniel J. P.; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C.; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E. Toby

    2014-01-01

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions. PMID:24474743

  6. Morals and markets.

    PubMed

    Falk, Armin; Szech, Nora

    2013-05-10

    The possibility that market interaction may erode moral values is a long-standing, but controversial, hypothesis in the social sciences, ethics, and philosophy. To date, empirical evidence on decay of moral values through market interaction has been scarce. We present controlled experimental evidence on how market interaction changes how human subjects value harm and damage done to third parties. In the experiment, subjects decide between either saving the life of a mouse or receiving money. We compare individual decisions to those made in a bilateral and a multilateral market. In both markets, the willingness to kill the mouse is substantially higher than in individual decisions. Furthermore, in the multilateral market, prices for life deteriorate tremendously. In contrast, for morally neutral consumption choices, differences between institutions are small. PMID:23661753

  7. Evolution of microbial markets.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Strassmann, Joan E; Ivens, Aniek B F; Engelmoer, Daniel J P; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E Toby

    2014-01-28

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions. PMID:24474743

  8. Historical market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Historical financial data is provided for the uranium market in graphic and tabular form. Market data includes restricted and unrestricted uranium price ranges; exchange, transaction, uranium hexafluoride, conversion, and separative work values; and annual world uranium production and requirements. Selected historical economic indicators are listed for Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United States. Natural uranium deliveries to the European Union and U.S. uranium marketing data are provided.

  9. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  10. Marketing pastoral counseling.

    PubMed

    Lageman, A G

    1984-12-01

    Identifies, suggests understandings, and illustrates applications of marketing principles as they relate to pastoral counseling services. Describes four approaches to marketing pastoral counseling--traditional, educational, marketing, and fund raising--and gives illustrations of each. A director of an established pastoral counseling center responds to the article in terms of "high density" and "low density" principles and suggests that strategies which emulate the medical model may need to be re-examined by contemporary pastoral counselors. PMID:10269463

  11. Targeting biodefense markets.

    PubMed

    Olinger, Gene Garrard

    2009-10-01

    The "World Vaccine Congress 2009" held in Washington D.C. (April 20-23, 2009) sponsored several sessions focused on the vaccine market targeting biodefense. On day one of the congress, a panel discussion outlined the federal progress in medical countermeasure preparedness that included emerging infections, influenza, and biodefense focuses. The second day, a session focused on the biodefense vaccine market with both government and industry members discussing the opportunities and challenges associated with the budding market. PMID:19855169

  12. Sensitivities of major causative organisms isolated from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis against various antibacterial agents: results of subanalysis based on the presence of menopause.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Hayami, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazushi; Muratani, Tetsuro; Monden, Koichi; Arakawa, Soichi; Yamamoto, Shingo

    2012-08-01

    We investigated whether the presence of menopause influenced the species and distribution of causative bacteria isolated from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis (the most common urinary tract infection), and we also investigated the sensitivity of the isolated species to antibacterial agents. Using multivariate analysis, we also investigated risk factors for infection with quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli, because its frequency has increased and it is now a clinical problem in Japan. Six hundred and thirty-four strains were isolated from 489 premenopausal patients (mean age 32.3 ± 10.1 years). Major causative bacteria detected were Escherichia coli (65.0 %), Enterococcus faecalis (12.0 %), Streptococcus agalactiae (5.5 %), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.6 %). From 501 postmenopausal patients (mean age 68.7 ± 10.29 years), 657 strains were isolated, and the major causative bacteria detected were E. coli (61.5 %), E. faecalis (13.7 %), K. pneumoniae (5.2 %), and S. agalactiae (4.0 %). The sensitivities to fluoroquinolones (FQs) and cephems of E. coli isolated from premenopausal patients were both ≥90 %, while the sensitivities to FQs of E. coli isolated from postmenopausal patients were about 5 % lower. In regard to infection with quinolone-resistant E. coli (minimal inhibitory concentration of levofloxacin [LVFX] ≥4 μg/mL), significant risk factors were observed in patients with more than two episodes of cystitis within a year (p = 0.0002), patients to whom antibacterial agents were used previously for this episode of cystitis (p = 0.0175), and patients who had a history of FQ administration within 1 month. Although the species and distribution of causative bacteria of acute uncomplicated cystitis were the same regardless of the presence of menopause, the sensitivities to FQs of E. coli detected in postmenopausal patients were significantly lower than those in the premenopausal women. The major risk factors for infection with quinolone-resistant E

  13. Non-invasive evaluation of culprit lesions by PET imaging: shifting the clinical paradigm away from resultant anatomy toward causative physiology

    PubMed Central

    Bengel, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Although coronary angiography is the gold standard for assessing coronary artery disease (CAD), there is at best a weak correlation between degree of stenosis and the risk of developing cardiac events. Plaque rupture is the most common type of plaque complication, accounting for about 70% of fatal acute myocardial infarctions or sudden coronary deaths. Recently, the feasibility of 18F-fluoride PET/CT in the evaluation of atherosclerotic lesions was assessed. Radionuclide techniques allow non-invasive biologic assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. This may help to further shift the clinical paradigm in coronary disease away from anatomy toward causative physiology and biology. PMID:25610799

  14. Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish, detected by nested reverse transcription-PCR of 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Magnússon, H B; Fridjónsson, O H; Andrésson, O S; Benediktsdóttir, E; Gudmundsdóttir, S; Andrésdóttir, V

    1994-01-01

    An assay based on reverse transcription and nested PCR amplification of hypervariable regions within the 16S rRNA sequence was used to specifically detect Renibacterium salmoninarum, the slowly growing causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish. This assay detected 1 to 10 bacteria per sample and took 1 to 2 days to perform. The assay was used to detect R. salmoninarum in ovarian fluid obtained from naturally infected fish. The assay was unreliable when it was used to examine kidney tissue. Images PMID:7529017

  15. Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish, detected by nested reverse transcription-PCR of 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Magnússon, H B; Fridjónsson, O H; Andrésson, O S; Benediktsdóttir, E; Gudmundsdóttir, S; Andrésdóttir, V

    1994-12-01

    An assay based on reverse transcription and nested PCR amplification of hypervariable regions within the 16S rRNA sequence was used to specifically detect Renibacterium salmoninarum, the slowly growing causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish. This assay detected 1 to 10 bacteria per sample and took 1 to 2 days to perform. The assay was used to detect R. salmoninarum in ovarian fluid obtained from naturally infected fish. The assay was unreliable when it was used to examine kidney tissue. PMID:7529017

  16. Market Review: Market values summary/April market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This article is the April 1996 Uranium transactions summary. Data is presented on the supply, demand, and prices of U3O8, conversion services, and separative work units. During this period, market activity slowed, with only four transactions in the spot market. Prices strengthened slightly. There were five deals in the long-term U3O8 market and one deal in the conversion market. Active demand increased to 1.1 million pounds U3O8, while active supply increased to 4.8 million pounds U3O8.

  17. Market review: Market values summary July market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market is provided. Recent transactions are tabulated, including uranium sales, natural uranium loans, conversion sales, and enrichment sales. A market values summary and long-term price indicators are also provided. The July 1996 market review data includes summaries of near-term uranium sales, near-term supply/demand, NUEXCO values, USEC prices, and calculated worth of enriched uranium. Active projects in uranium, conversion, and separative work supply and demand are listed. International market values are tabulated for 22 selected currencies.

  18. Marketing veterinary services.

    PubMed

    Lee, David E

    2006-03-01

    Marketing is a holistic process that goes far beyond a Yellow Page advertisement or a glossy brochure. A thorough evaluation of a market before entry, including best and worst case scenarios, is critical to mak-ing good investments. Veterinarians are fortunate to have a market that is largely protected by barriers to entry and characterized by reasonably high rates of return given minimal risk. Our market base continues to expand and, overall, remains fairly price insensitive. The extent to which a practice can align its capabilities with a product mix that ideally meets its clients' needs will ultimately determine its success. PMID:16442443

  19. World helicopter market study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, B.; Pearson, R. W.; Greenwood, S. W.; Kaplan, L.

    1978-01-01

    The extent of the threat to the US helicopter industry posed by a determined effort by foreign manufacturers, European companies in particular, to supply their own domestic markets and also to penetrate export markets, including the USA is assessed. Available data on US and world markets for civil and military uses are collated and presented in both graphic and tabular form showing the past history of production and markets and, where forecasts are available, anticipated future trends. The data are discussed on an item-by-item basis and inferences are drawn in as much depth as appears justified.

  20. Practical approaches to marketing.

    PubMed

    Chaney, H S

    1986-09-01

    Marketing in health care is the process of developing, promoting, and administrating health care services to a client for the benefit of both. The success of a nurse executive in the area of marketing is dependent on the appropriate application of marketing principles, including assessment and/or awareness of needs, development of new services, promotion of current and new services, and target market development. The author discusses how the nurse executive can aggressively promote services based on consumer demand states and effectively use advertising, publicity, and personal promotion strategies. PMID:3638339

  1. Statistical Mechanics of Labor Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, He; Inoue, Jun-ichi

    We introduce a probabilistic model of labor markets for university graduates, in particular, in Japan. To make a model of the market efficiently, we take into account several hypotheses. Namely, each company fixes the (business year independent) number of opening positions for newcomers. The ability of gathering newcomers depends on the result of job matching process in past business years. This fact means that the ability of the company is weaken if the company did not make their quota or the company gathered applicants too much over the quota. All university graduates who are looking for their jobs can access the public information about the ranking of companies. Assuming the above essential key points, we construct the local energy function of each company and describe the probability that an arbitrary company gets students at each business year by a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. We evaluate the relevant physical quantities such as the employment rate. We find that the system undergoes a sort of `phase transition' from the `good employment phase' to `poor employment phase' when one controls the degree of importance for the ranking.

  2. The Marketing Plan: An Integrative Device for Teaching Marketing Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdine, W. R.; Petersen, James C.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of the marketing plan is stressed as an integrative device for teaching marketing management, and a structure is presented to assist students in designing a marketing plan. Components of this plan include marketing objectives, targeting market and buying motives, external environment and competition, product, price, and promotion.…

  3. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or marketing... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  4. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or...

  5. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or...

  6. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or...

  8. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, Billy Joe; Whidden, Graydon Lane

    1999-01-01

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  9. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  10. Emissions markets, power markets and market power: A study of the interactions between contemporary emissions markets and deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormady, Noah Christopher

    Chapter 1: A Monte Carlo Approach. The use of auctions to distribute tradeable property rights to firms in already heavily concentrated markets may further exacerbate the problems of market power that exist within those markets. This chapter provides a model of a two-stage emissions market modeled after a contemporary regional permit trading market in the United States, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Inc. (RGGI). It then introduces Oligopsony 1.0, a C# software package constructed in the .NET environment that simulates uniform-price auctions using stochastic Monte Carlo simulation for modeling market power in tradeable property rights auctions. Monte Carlo methods add a probabilistic element to standard auction theoretic equilibria. The results of these simulations indicate that there can be significant non-linearities between profit and market power as exercised through strategic demand reduction. This analysis finds the optimum point of strategic demand reduction that enables the firm to exploit these non-linearities, and it determines the probability distributions of these optima using kernel density analysis. Chapter 2: An Experimental Approach. How will emerging auction-based emissions markets function within the context of today's deregulated auction-based electricity markets? This chapter provides an experimental analysis of a joint energy-emissions market. The impact of market power and collusion among dominant firms is evaluated to determine the extent to which an auction-based tradeable permit market influences performance in an adjacent electricity market. The experimental treatment design controls for a variety of real-world institutional features, including variable demand, permit banking, inter-temporal (multi-round) dynamics, a tightening cap, and resale. Results suggest that the exercise of market power significantly increases electricity auction clearing prices, without significantly increasing emissions

  11. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  12. Data-Based Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Ernest R.

    The discipline of marketing, applied to higher education, has the potential for increasing enrollments, reducing attrition, and making college services more responsive to the needs of consumers. Faced with enrollments that were below projections, Prince George's Community College devised a four-stage marketing plan that focused on service,…

  13. Marketing Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A marketing plan outlines the specific actions a person intends to carry out to interest potential customers in his/her service and to persuade them to buy the services he/she offers. In other words, a marketing plan defines what his/her organization will do to interest new families in his/her facility and encourage them to enroll their children…

  14. The Marketing of Margaret.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elebash, Camille

    The 1983 British general election saw greater use than ever before in that country of sophisticated marketing research and techniques in the promotion of a party (the Conservatives) and a personality (Margaret Thatcher). With the help of an outside advertising agency, the Conservative Central Office had more marketing expertise than ever before,…

  15. Coping with Marketing Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Ralph E.; Ross, Herbert L.

    1975-01-01

    The effective teacher-coordinator is actively aware of changes occurring in marketing today: impact of ethnic group purchasing power, retailing response to variables, marketing of services, and using data processing in decision-making. Teaching strategies and instructional materials should be chosen accordingly. (BP)

  16. Marketing Schools for Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Raven

    2007-01-01

    Principals desiring recognition in the community have added marketing to their job description. Faced with falling enrollments and more school choice for parents, they create strategies to market and brand their schools to potential parents and students, from promoting programs in school newsletters and websites to direct mailings and ads in real…

  17. Postmodernism and Educational Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Francis

    2001-01-01

    Explains two problems of the postmodern era-fragmentation (disintegration of social, economic, and political institutions) and symbolic consumption. Discusses two postmodernist epistemological challenges to educational marketers-anti-foundationalism and poststructuralism. Transactional views of marketing must yield to relational and interactive…

  18. The Engineering Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryoo, Jaewoo; Rosen, Sherwin

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic supply and demand model of occupational choice and applies it to the engineering profession. The model is largely successful in understanding data in the U.S. engineering labor market. The engineering market responds strongly to economic forces. The demand for engineers responds to the price of engineering services…

  19. Market Madness: Condition Critical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Playfair, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    For over a quarter of a century there has been a creeping marketization of the English education system. No part of the system remains unscathed. In this article the consequences of marketization are set out clearly and alternative models of the future are presented. The author calls for another "Great Debate"--but one that mobilises…

  20. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.