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1

Cervical Laminoplasty for Multilevel Cervical Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy can result from degenerative cervical spondylosis, herniated disk material, osteophytes, redundant ligamentum flavum, or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Surgical intervention for multi-level myelopathy aims to decompress the spinal cord and maintain stability of the cervical spine. Laminoplasty was major surgical advancement as laminectomy resulted in kyphosis and unsatisfactory outcomes. Hirabayashi popularised the expansive open door laminoplasty which was later modified several surgeons. Laminoplasty has changed the way surgeons approach multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy. PMID:21991408

Sayana, Murali Krishna; Jamil, Hassan; Poynton, Ashley

2011-01-01

2

Development of a self-administered questionnaire to screen patients for cervical myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In primary care, it is often difficult to diagnose cervical myelopathy. However, a delay in treatment could cause irreversible aftereffects. With a brief and effective self-administered questionnaire for cervical myelopathy, cervical myelopathy may be screened more easily and oversight may be avoided. As there is presently no screening tool for cervical myelopathy, the aim of this study was to

Hiroshi Kobayashi; Shin-ichi Kikuchi; Koji Otani; Miho Sekiguchi; Yasufumi Sekiguchi; Shin-ichi Konno

2010-01-01

3

Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Caused by Single-Level Vertebral Spontaneous Fusion  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the clinical features, imaging characteristics, surgical options, and clinical outcomes of patients with Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) caused by single-level vertebral spontaneous fusion (SLVSF). Methods Sixteen consecutive patients with SLVSF who underwent anterior surgery were included in this study and 38 patients with CSM caused by spinal degeneration were enrolled as a control group. Demographic features, clinical presentations, imaging characteristics, surgery strategy, Nurick grade, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, neck disability index (NDI), and complications were evaluated. Results There were significant differences between the two groups in the mean age and the average duration of neck pain. There was no significant difference between the two groups in length of cervical spine. In the SLVSF group, 13 patients had upper segment translational instability and none had rotational instability. Pre- and postoperative Nurick grades were 2.94±0.77 and 2.19±0.54 in the SLVSF group, and 2.97±0.72 and 2.16±0.64 in the control group. Pre- and postoperative JOA scores were 9.25±2.02 and 11.69±1.62 in the SLVSF group, and 9.87±2.58 and 12.53±2.69 in the control group. Pre- and postoperative NDI values were 28.5±7.75 and 15.56±5.51 in the SLVSF group, and 16±6.13 and 11.29±4.58 in the control group. Conclusions Patients with SLVSF have necks of normal lengths, which can be used to distinguish this disorder from Klippel-Feil syndrome. There are three main features of SLVSF: (1) hypoplasia at both of the spontaneously fused vertebral bodies; (2) a major pathological feature of translational instability of the upper vertebra to the fused level; and (3) severe neck pain. Anterior surgery has a good therapeutic effect for patients with cervical SLVSF. PMID:25380388

Hou, Tiesheng; Gu, Guangfei; Zhang, Hailong; Zhao, Shan; He, Shisheng

2014-01-01

4

Pathobiology of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

In this narrative review, we aim to outline what is currently known about the pathophysiology of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction. In particular, we note the unique factors that distinguish it from acute spinal cord injury. Despite its common occurrence, the reasons why some patients develop severe symptomatology while others have few or no symptoms despite radiographic evidence confirming similar degrees of compression is poorly understood. Neither is there a clear understanding of why certain patients have a stable clinical myelopathy and others present with only mild myelopathy. Moreover, the precise molecular mechanisms which contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease are incompletely understood. The current treatment method is decompression of the spinal cord but a lack of clinically relevant models of CSM have hindered the understanding of the full pathophysiology which would aid the development of new therapeutic avenues of investigation. Further elucidation of the role of ischemia, currently a source of debate, as well as the complex cascade of biomolecular events as a result of the unique pathophysiology in this disease will pave the way for further neuroprotective strategies to be developed to attenuate the physiological consequences of surgical decompression and augment its benefits. PMID:24626958

Karadimas, Spyridon K; Gatzounis, Georgios; Fehlings, Michael G

2015-04-01

5

Laminectomy for cervical myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: Cervical laminectomy with or without fusion, or laminoplasty, successfully address congenital or acquired stenosis, multilevel spondylosis, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), and ossification of the yellow ligament (OYL). To optimize surgical results, however, these procedures should be applied to carefully selected patients.Objectives: To determine the clinical, neurodiagnostic, appropriate posterior cervical approaches to be employed in patients

N E Epstein

2003-01-01

6

Acute spontaneous cervical disc herniation causing rapidly progressive myelopathy in a patient with comorbid ossified posterior longitudinal ligament: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and cervical disc herniation are commonly encountered neurosurgical conditions. Here we present an unusual case of nontraumatic rapidly progressive myelopathy due to cervical disc herniation with comorbid OPLL and conduct a literature review focusing on the frequency and management of disc herniations with OPLL. Case Description: A 52-year-old healthy female presented with a 72-h history of rapid progression of dense quadriparesis with sensory deficits, with a precedent 4-week history of nontraumatic midline neck pain. Clinical examination revealed profound motor deficits below the C5 myotome. Spinal neuroimaging revealed OPLL (computed tomography [CT]) and a cervical disc herniation spanning from C4/5 to C5/6 with significant retrovertebral disease (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]). Operative management involved an anterior cervical corpectomy and instrumented fusion, with removal of both the sequestered disc material and the locally compressive OPLL. The patient recovered full motor function and independent ambulation with no residual signs or symptoms of myelopathy at the time of discharge. Conclusion: This unique case of a spontaneous cervical disc herniation in the context of OPLL causing rapidly progressive myelopathy illustrates the complementarity of CT and MRI in diagnosing the underlying cause of a rapidly progressive neurologic deficit in the absence of antecedent trauma. Though the optimal surgical management of such pathology remains uncertain; in this case, the anterior approach was motivated by the significant retrovertebral ventrally compressive sequestrum, and provided for excellent neurologic outcome. This article also reviews the occurrence/management of such acute cervical discs with OPLL. PMID:25289163

Westwick, Harrison J.; Goldstein, Christina L.; Shamji, Mohammed F.

2014-01-01

7

Development of a self-administered questionnaire to screen patients for cervical myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background In primary care, it is often difficult to diagnose cervical myelopathy. However, a delay in treatment could cause irreversible aftereffects. With a brief and effective self-administered questionnaire for cervical myelopathy, cervical myelopathy may be screened more easily and oversight may be avoided. As there is presently no screening tool for cervical myelopathy, the aim of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire for the screening of cervical myelopathy. Methods A case-control study was performed with the following two groups at our university hospital from February 2006 to September 2008. Sixty-two patients (48 men, 14 women) with cervical myelopathy who underwent operative treatment were included in the myelopathy group. In the control group, 49 patients (20 men, 29 women) with symptoms that could be distinguished from those of cervical myelopathy, such as numbness, pain in the upper extremities, and manual clumsiness, were included. The underlying conditions were diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, diabetes mellitus neuropathy, cervical radiculopathy, and neuralgic amyotrophy. Twenty items for a questionnaire in this study were chosen from the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire, which is a new self-administered questionnaire, as an outcome measure for patients with cervical myelopathy. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis using the chi-square test and by multiple logistic regression analysis. According to the resulting odds ratio, ?-coefficients, and p value, items were chosen and assigned a score. Results Eight items were chosen by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses and assigned a score. The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic showed p = 0.805. The area under the receiver operation characteristic curve was 0.86. The developed questionnaire had a sensitivity of 93.5% and a specificity of 67.3%. Conclusions We successfully developed a simple self-administered questionnaire to screen for cervical myelopathy. PMID:21092213

2010-01-01

8

Radiculopathy and Myelopathy in Patients with Primary Cervical Dystonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a prospective series of 34 incident patients with primary cervical dystonia (CD), 6 showed clinical or radiological signs of cervical radiculopathy (RP) or myelopathy (MP) during the course of their movement disorder. Age at onset in these patients was in the range reported for pure spondylotic cervical RP without an accompanying movement disorder. Radiologically, spondylosis was mild in 1

Johann M. Hagenah; Alexandra Vieregge; Peter Vieregge

2001-01-01

9

Subacute Cervical Myelopathy in a Child with Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 12-year-old girl with a spastic dystonic tetraparesis due to cerebral palsy showed a subacute cervical myelopathy. X-ray films of the cervical spine demonstrated a subluxation of C4 on C5. Myelography and computerized tomography of the cervical spine performed under general anesthesia demonstrated only a minimal rotation of C3 with respect to C4 and a rather narrow cervical canal. In

L. Angelini; G. Broggi; N. Nardocci; M. Savoiardo

1982-01-01

10

Prevalence and Distribution of Thoracic and Lumbar Compressive Lesions in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective cross-sectional study. Purpose This study analyzed the prevalence and distribution of horacic and lumbar compressive lesions in cervical spondylotic myelopathy as well as their relationships with cervical developmental spinal canal stenosis (DCS) by using whole-spine postmyelographic computed tomography. Overview of Literature There are few studies on missed compressive lesions of the spinal cord or cauda equina at the thoracolumbar level in cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Furthermore, the relationships between DCS, and the prevalence and distribution of thoracic and lumbar compressive lesions are unknown. Methods Eighty patients with symptomatic cervical spondylotic myelopathy were evaluated. Preoperative image data were obtained. Patients were classified as DCS or non-DCS (n=40 each) if their spinal canal longitudinal diameter was <12 mm at any level or ?12 mm at all levels, respectively. Compressive lesions in the anterior and anteroposterior parts, ligamentum flavum ossification, posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, and spinal cord tumors at the thoracolumbar levels were analyzed. Results Compressive lesions in the anterior and anteroposterior parts were observed in 13 (16.3%) and 45 (56.3%) patients, respectively. Ligamentum flavum and posterior longitudinal ligament ossification were observed in 19 (23.8%) and 3 (3.8%) patients, respectively. No spinal cord tumors were observed. Thoracic and lumbar compressive lesions of various causes tended to be more common in DCS patients than non-DCS patients, although the difference was statistically insignificant. Conclusions Surveying compressive lesions and considering the thoracic and lumbar level in cervical spondylotic myelopathy in DCS patients are important for preventing unexpected neurological deterioration and predicting accurate neurological condition after cervical surgery.

Kodera, Ryuzo; Yoshiiwa, Toyomi; Kawano, Masanori; Kaku, Nobuhiro; Tsumura, Hiroshi

2015-01-01

11

Successful conservative treatment of rheumatoid subaxial subluxation resulting in improvement of myelopathy, reduction of subluxation, and stabilisation of the cervical spine. A report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo report the efficacy of conservative treatment with cervical traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest, in two consecutive rheumatoid arthritis patients with progressive cervical myelopathy caused by subaxial subluxation.METHODSDescription of neurological symptoms and signs and findings in plain radiography (PR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine before and after treatment of the subaxial subluxation by traction

Johanna C M Oostveen; Martin A F J van de Laar; Jan A G Geelen; Ron de Graaff

1999-01-01

12

Motor evoked potentials in the post-surgical follow-up of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Eighteen patients (6 female, 12 male; average age 51 years, range 37-79) with clinical and radiological evidence (MRI) of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were examined. The subjects were divided into two groups depending on whether radiology indicated single level (9 patients) or multilevel (9 patients) compression of the cervical cord. All of the patients underwent surgical decompression. Seriate exam with trans-cranial magnetic stimulation was performed in double session before surgery, and 3 and 12 months after surgery. The follow-up study of these patients revealed a statistically significant neurophysiological improvement only in those patients with single-level compression. In these cases, the cervical cord pathology revealed by MRI signal hyperintensity in T2 may at least partially consist of an edematous component and/or an initial demyelinization that has still a chance of recovery. In patients with multilevel damage, the compression may cause irreversible lesions. PMID:7591676

De Mattei, M; Paschero, B; Cocito, D; Cassano, D; Campanella, A; Rizzo, L; Morgando, E

1995-05-01

13

Anterior approaches for cervical spondylotic myelopathy: Which? When? How?  

PubMed

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a degenerative disorder with an unfavorable natural history. Surgical treatment options have evolved substantially over time, with both anterior and posterior methods proving successful for certain patients with specific characteristics. Anterior decompression of the spinal canal plus fusion techniques for stabilization has several advantages and some disadvantages when compared to posterior options. Understanding the pros and cons of the approaches and techniques is critical for the surgeon to select the best operative treatment strategy for any given patient to achieve the best outcome. Multiple decision-making factors are involved, such as sagittal alignment, number of levels, shape of the pathoanatomy, age and comorbidities, instability, and pre-operative pain levels. Any or all of these factors may be relevant for a given patient, and to varying degrees of importance. Choice of operative approach will therefore be dependent on patient presentation, risks of that approach for a given patient, and to some degree surgeon experience. PMID:25652554

Emery, Sanford E

2015-04-01

14

Comparisons of three anterior cervical surgeries in treating cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) was one of the preferred treatments for degenerative cervical spondylosis. However, the motion of adjacent segment was significantly increased after operation. So cervical disc arthroplasty have been suggested to keep the motion of adjacent segment. A new implant named dynamic cervical implant (DCI) has been developed to keep the motion of adjacent segment. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 91 patients treated for single level cervical spondylotic myelopathy with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), dynamic cervical implant (DCI) and cervical total disc replacement (CTDR) between sep 2009 and Mar 2011 in our hospital. They were divided into three groups by surgical methods: ACDF group (group A, 34 cases), DCI group (group B, 25 cases), CTDR group (group C, 32 cases). Operation time, intraoperative blood loss, preoperative and postoperative JOA score and JOA recovery rate were compared among the three groups. Pre-and postoperative hyperextension and hyperflexion radiograms were observed to measure range of motion (ROM) of C2–7, operative and adjacent levels. Results There was no statistical difference in operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and JOA recovery rate (P?>?0.05) among three groups. But the differences of their postoperative JOA scores and preoperative JOA scores were of statistical significance (P??0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between preoperative ROM and postoperative ROM of upper and lower levels in group B (P?>?0.05), but had statistically significance of C2–7 and operative levels (P?cervical spondylotic myelopathy. But each group has respective advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25012927

2014-01-01

15

Cervical vertebral canal endoscopy in a horse with cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

A 3-year-old Thoroughbred gelding presented with a history of neurological signs, including incoordination in his hindlimbs, of about 7 months' duration. On initial examination, the horse exhibited ataxia and paresis in all limbs with more severe deficits in the hindlimbs. Cervical radiographs displayed severe osteoarthritis of the articular processes between C5 and C6. On subsequent cervical myelography the dorsal contrast column was reduced by 90% at the level of the intervertebral space between C5 and C6. Cervical vertebral canal endoscopy, including epidural (epiduroscopy) and subarachnoid endoscopy (myeloscopy), was performed under general anaesthesia. A substantial narrowing of the subarachnoid space at the level between C6 and C7 was seen during myeloscopy, while no compression was apparent between C5 and C6. Epiduroscopy showed no abnormalities. After completion of the procedure, the horse was subjected to euthanasia and the cervical spinal cord submitted for histopathological examination. Severe myelin and axon degeneration of the white matter was diagnosed at the level of the intervertebral space between C6 and C7, with Wallerian degeneration cranially and caudally, indicating chronic spinal cord compression at this site. Myeloscopy was successfully used to identify the site of spinal cord compression in a horse with cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy, while myelography results were misleading. PMID:21696435

Prange, T; Carr, E A; Stick, J A; Garcia-Pereira, F L; Patterson, J S; Derksen, F J

2012-01-01

16

Intramedullary Sarcoidosis Presenting with Delayed Spinal Cord Swelling after Cervical Laminoplasty for Compressive Cervical Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology that may affect any organ in the body. The nervous system is involved in 5-16% of cases of sarcoidosis. Here, we report a case of intramedullary sarcoidosis presenting with delayed spinal cord swelling after laminoplasty for the treatment of compressive cervical myelopathy. A 56-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of upper extremity pain and gait disturbance. The patient had undergone laminoplasty for compressive cervical myelopathy 3 months previously. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large solitary intramedullary lesion with associated extensive cord swelling, signal changes, and heterogeneous enhancement of spinal cord from C2 to C7. Spinal cord biopsy revealed non-necrotizing granulomas with signs of chronic inflammation. The final diagnosis of sarcoidosis was based upon laboratory data, imaging findings, histological findings, and the exclusion of other diagnoses. Awareness of such presentations and a high degree of suspicion of sarcoidosis may help arrive at the correct diagnosis. PMID:25535524

Kwon, Du Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

2014-01-01

17

Aggressive vertebral hemangioma as a rare cause of myelopathy.  

PubMed

Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are common lesions in the adult population. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally on radiological imaging. New-onset back pain followed by subacute progression of thoracal myelopathy is the most common presentation in patients with neurological deficit. Differential diagnoses would include metastasis, multiple myeloma, lymphoma, Paget disease, osseous tumors such as Ewing sarcoma or hemangioblastoma and blood dyscrasia. We present a 41 year-old-male patient with thoracal VH causing myelopathy that completely improved after rehabilitation program with embolization and vertebroplasty procedures. PMID:23948851

Sari, Hidayet; Uludag, Murat; Akarirmak, Ulku; Ornek, Nurettin Irem; Gun, Kerem; Gulsen, Fatih

2014-01-01

18

Comparison of Two Reconstructive Techniques in the Surgical Management of Four-Level Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

To compare the clinical efficacy and radiological outcome of treating 4-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) with either anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) or “skip” corpectomy and fusion, 48 patients with 4-level CSM who had undergone ACDF or SCF at our hospital were analyzed retrospectively between January 2008 and June 2011. Twenty-seven patients received ACDF (Group A) and 21 patients received SCF. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, Neck Disability Index (NDI) score, and Cobb's angles of the fused segments and C2-7 segments were compared in the two groups. The minimum patient follow-up was 2 years. No significant differences between the groups were found in demographic and baseline disease characteristics, duration of surgery, or follow-up time. Our study demonstrates that there was no significant difference in the clinical efficacy of ACDF and SCF, but ACDF involves less intraoperative blood loss, better cervical spine alignment, and fewer postoperative complications than SCF. PMID:25692140

Li, FengNing; Li, ZhongHai; Huang, Xuan; Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Fan; Shen, HongXing; Kang, YiFan; Zhang, YinQuan; Cai, Bin; Hou, TieSheng

2015-01-01

19

Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

A meta-analysis was conducted to assess alterations in measures of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the patients of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), exploring the potential role of DTI as a diagnosis biomarker. A systematic search of all related studies written in English was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane comparing CSM patients with healthy controls. Key details for each study regarding participants, imaging techniques, and results were extracted. DTI measurements, such as fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and mean diffusivity (MD) were pooled to calculate the effect size (ES) by fixed or random effects meta-analysis. 14 studies involving 479 CSM patients and 278 controls were identified. Meta-analysis of the most compressed levels (MCL) of CSM patients demonstrated that FA was significantly reduced (ES -1.52, 95% CI -1.87 to -1.16, P < 0.001) and ADC was significantly increased (ES 1.09, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.28, P < 0.001). In addition, a notable ES was found for lowered FA at C2-C3 for CSM vs. controls (ES -0.83, 95% CI -1.09 to -0.570, P < 0.001). Meta-regression analysis revealed that male ratio of CSM patients had a significant effect on reduction of FA at MCL (P = 0.03). The meta-analysis of DTI studies of CSM patients clearly demonstrated a significant FA reduction and ADC increase compared with healthy subjects. This result supports the use of DTI parameters in differentiating CSM patients from health subjects. Future researches are required to investigate the diagnosis performance of DTI in cervical spondylotic myelopathy. PMID:25671624

Guan, Xiaofei; Fan, Guoxin; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Guangfei; Gu, Xin; Zhang, Hailong; He, Shisheng

2015-01-01

20

HIF-1? Polymorphism in the Susceptibility of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy and Its Outcome after Anterior Cervical Corpectomy and Fusion Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the association between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of hypoxia-inducible factor1 ? (HIF-1?) and the susceptibility to cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and its outcome after surgical treatment. Method A total of 230 CSM patients and 284 healthy controls were recruited. All patients received anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACF) and were followed for 12 months. The genotypes for two HIF-1? variants (1772C>T and 1790G>A) were determined. Results In the present study, we found that the HIF-1? polymorphism at 1790G>A significantly affects the susceptibility to CSM and its clinical features, including severity and onset age. In addition, the 1790A>G polymorphism also determines the prognosis of CSM patients after ACF treatment. The GG genotype of 1790G>A polymorphism is associated with a higher risk to develop CSM, higher severity and earlier onset age. More importantly, we found that the 1790G>A polymorphism determines the clinical outcome in CSM patients who underwent ACF treatment. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the HIF-1? 1790G>A polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to CSM and can be used as predictor for the clinical outcome in CSM patients receiving ACF treatment. PMID:25401740

Wang, Zhan-Chao; Hou, Xu-Wei; Shao, Jiang; Ji, Yong-Jing; Li, Lulu; Zhou, Qiang; Yu, Si-Ming; Mao, Yu-Lun; Zhang, Hao-Jie; Zhang, Ping-Chao; Lu, Hua

2014-01-01

21

Comparison of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Score and the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire Scores: Time-Dependent Changes in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy and Posterior Longitudinal Ligament  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective cohort study. Purpose To identify differences in time-dependent perioperative changes between the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and the JOA Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire (JOACMEQ) score in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) who underwent cervical laminoplasty. Overview of Literature The JOA score does not take into consideration patient satisfaction or quality of life. Accordingly, the JOACMEQ was designed in 2007 as a patient-centered assessment tool. Methods We studied 21 patients who underwent cervical laminoplasty. We objectively evaluated the time-dependent changes in JOACMEQ scores and JOA scores for all patients before surgery and at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Results The average total JOA score and the recovery rate improved significantly after surgery in both groups, with a slightly better recovery rate in the OPLL group. Cervical spine function improved significantly in the CSM group but not in the OPLL group. Upper- and lower-extremity functions were more stable in the CSM group than in the OPLL group. The effectiveness rate of the JOACMEQ for measuring quality of life was quite low in both groups. In both groups, the Spearman contingency coefficients were dispersed widely except for upper- and lower-extremity function. Conclusions Scores for upper- and lower-extremity function on the JOACMEQ correlated well with JOA scores. Because the JOACMEQ can also assess cervical spine function and quality of life, factors that cannot be assessed by the JOA score alone, the JOACMEQ is a more comprehensive evaluation tool. PMID:25705334

Iwasaki, Motoki; Sakaura, Hironobu; Fujimori, Takahito; Nagamoto, Yukitaka; Yoshikawa, Hideki

2015-01-01

22

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion versus anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion in the treatment of multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy: systematic review and a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background To date, the decision to treat multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) or anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively determine the efficacy of ACDF and ACCF in the treatment of multilevel CSM. Methods We searched several databases for related research articles published in English or Chinese. We extracted and assessed the data independently. We determined the pooled data, data heterogeneity, and overall effect, respectively. Results We identified 15 eligible studies with 1,368 patients. We found that blood loss and numbers of complications during surgery in ACDF were significantly less that in ACCF; however, other clinical outcomes, such as operation time, bone fusion failure, post Japanese Orthopedic Association scores, recovery rates, and visual analog scale scores between ACDF and ACCF with multilevel CSM were not significantly different. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that surgical treatments of multilevel CSM are similar in terms of most clinical outcomes using ACDF or ACCF. PMID:25673996

Wen, Zhi-qiang; Du, Jing-yu; Ling, Zhi-heng; Xu, Hai-dong; Lin, Xiang-jin

2015-01-01

23

Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging analysis correlates with surgical outcome of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Study design:Prospective study.Objectives:To investigate whether preoperative and postoperative changes of signal intensity (SI) and transverse area (TA) of the spinal cord reflect the surgical outcome in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).Setting:The Second Hospital of Tangshan, Tangshan, Hebei, China.Methods:In 45 consecutive prospective patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. The Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scale was used to quantify the neurological status at admission and of at least 12-month follow-up. Preoperative and postoperative TA of the spinal cord at the site of maximal compression and grayscale of signal intensity (GSI) were measured using the image analysis software. Ratio of transverse area (RTA) and ratio of grayscale of signal intensity (RGSI) were used to assess the extent of spinal cord re-expansion and extent of SI regression. Preoperative status and postoperative recovery were assessed in relation to MRI parameters preoperatively and postoperatively using univariate and multivariate analysis.Results:Higher baseline JOA scores were associated with larger TA. Greater recovery rate was associated with larger preoperative and postoperative TA, along with greater RTA. Recovery rate negatively correlated with RGSI and age. Higher baseline JOA score was associated with greater recovery rate. RGSI negatively correlated with RTA. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that the optimal combination of surgical outcome predictors included age, postoperative TA and RGSI.Conclusion:Quantitative MRI analysis in CSM may provide reliable information for the prediction of the postoperative outcome of CSM patients. MRI indicators of good outcome include the larger postoperative TA and greater RGSI.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 18 November 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.204. PMID:25403500

Sun, L-Q; Li, Y-M; Wang, X; Cao, H-C

2014-11-18

24

A Comparison of Computed Tomography Measures for Diagnosing Cervical Spinal Stenosis Associated with Myelopathy: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective comparative study. Purpose To assess differences in computed tomography (CT) imaging parameters between patients with cervical myelopathy and controls. Overview of Literature There is a lack of information regarding the best predictor of symptomatic stenosis based on osseous canal dimensions. We postulate that smaller osseous canal dimensions increase the risk of symptomatic central stenosis. Methods CT images and medical records of patients with cervical myelopathy (19 patients, 8 males; average age, 64.4±13.4 years) and controls (18 patients, 14 males; average age, 60.4±11.0 years) were collected. A new measure called the laminar roof pitch angle (=angle between the lamina) was conducted along with linear measures, ratios and surrogates of canal perimeter and area at each level C2-C7 (222 levels). Receiver-operator curves were used to assess the diagnostic value of each. Rater reliability was assessed for the measures. Results The medial-lateral (ML) diameter (at mid-pedicle level) and calculated canal area (=anterior-posterior.×ML diameters) were the most accurate and highly reliable. ML diameter below 23.5 mm and calculated canal area below 300 mm2 generated 82% to 84% sensitivity and 67% to 68% sensitivity. No significant correlations were identified between age, height, weight, body mass in dex and gender for each of the CT measures. Conclusions CT measures including ML dimensions were most predictive. This study is the first to identify an important role for the ML dimension in cases of slowly progressive compressive myelopathy. A ML reserve may be protective when the canal is progressively compromised in the anterior-posterior dimension. PMID:25705331

Hoffler, C Edward; Cameron, Brian M; Rhee, John M; Bawa, Maneesh; Malone, David G; Bent, Melissa; Yoon, Tim S

2015-01-01

25

Cervical Myelopathy Secondary to Atlanto-occipital Assimilation: The Usefulness of the Simple Decompressive Surgery  

PubMed Central

Atlanto-occipital assimilation is one of the most common osseous anomalies observed at the craniocervical junction. Most patients with atlas assimilation show no symptom, but some have neurological problems such as myelopathy that may require surgical treatment. Occipitocervical fusion may be required if atlato-occipital assimilation is accompanied by occipito-axial instability. However, in cases of symptomatic atlas assimilation with minor cord compression without instability, simple decompressive surgery may be the treatment modality. This report describes a case of successful treatment of a patient with myelopathy secondary to atlanto-occipital assimilation without instability, using posterior simple decompressive surgery. PMID:24757486

Kim, Kang Rae; Kim, Young Zoon; Cho, Yong Woon; Kim, Joon Soo; Kim, Kyu Hong; Lee, In Chang

2013-01-01

26

Anterior versus posterior surgery for multilevel cervical myelopathy, which one is better? A systematic review  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study is to perform a systematic review to compare the clinical outcomes and complications of anterior surgery with posterior surgery for multilevel cervical myelopathy (MCM). MEDLINE, EMBASE databases and other databases were searched for all the relevant original articles published from January 1991 to November 2009 comparing anterior with posterior surgery for MCM. Subgroup analysis was performed according to the follow-up years. The following end points were mainly evaluated: final follow-up JOA (Japanese Orthopaedic Association) scale, recovery rate and complication outcomes. Ten articles fulfilled all inclusion criteria. For multilevel CSM patients, the final follow-up JOA score for the anterior group was significantly higher than the posterior group (p < 0.05, WMD 0.83 [0.24, 1.43]) in the ‘follow-up time ?5 years’ subgroup, but had no significant differences in the ‘follow-up time >5 years’ subgroup (p > 0.05). The recovery rate for the anterior group was significantly higher than the posterior group (p < 0.05, WMD 10.08 [1.39, 18.78]) in the ‘follow-up time ?5 years’ subgroup. No study reported the recovery rate for the follow-up time >5 years. For multilevel OPLL patients, the final follow-up JOA score and recovery rate for the anterior group were both significantly higher than the posterior group in the ‘follow-up time ?5 years’ subgroup (p < 0.05, WMD 2.50 [0.16, 4.85]; p < 0.05, WMD 29.48 [29.09, 29.87], respectively). One study [31] which mean follow-up time was 6 years was enrolled in the ‘follow-up time >5 years’ subgroup. The results showed there was no significant difference in final follow-up JOA score and recovery rate between anterior and posterior group for patients with occupying ratio of OPLL <60% (p > 0.05), while in patients with occupying ratio ?60%, the final follow-up JOA score and recovery rate of anterior surgery were both superior to that of posterior surgery (p < 0.05). For both multilevel CSM and OPLL patients, the complications for the anterior group were significantly more than the posterior group in the ‘follow-up time ?5 years’ subgroup (p < 0.05, OR 7.33 [2.96, 18.20] for CSM patients; p < 0.05, OR 4.44 [1.80, 10.98] for OPLL patients), but were similar to the posterior group in the ‘follow-up time >5 years’ subgroup (p > 0.05). In conclusion, anterior surgery had better clinical outcomes and more complications at the early stage after operation for both multilevel CSM and OPLL patients. At the late stage, posterior surgery had similar clinical outcomes and complications to anterior surgery for CSM patients, and OPLL patients with occupying ratio of OPLL <60%. While for OPLL patients with occupying ratio ?60%, anterior surgery had superior clinical outcome to posterior surgery. PMID:20582710

Liu, Tao; Xu, Wen; Cheng, Tao

2010-01-01

27

Do intramedullary spinal cord changes in signal intensity on MRI affect surgical opportunity and approach for cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some controversy still exists over the optimal treatment time and the surgical approach for cervical myelopathy due to ossification\\u000a of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). The aim of the current study was first to analyze the effect of intramedullary\\u000a spinal cord changes in signal intensity (hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging and hypointensity on T1-weighted imaging) on\\u000a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on

Qizhi SunHongwei; Hongwei Hu; Ying Zhang; Yang Li; Linwei Chen; Huajiang Chen; Wen Yuan

28

Comparison of two anterior fusion methods in two-level cervical spondylosis myelopathy: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for treating two-adjacent-level cervical spondylosis myelopathy (CSM). Design A meta-analysis of the two anterior fusion methods was conducted. The electronic databases of PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ScienceDirect, CNKI, WANFANG DATA and CQVIP were searched. Quality assessment of the included studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and the Methodological Index for Non-Randomised Studies criteria. Pooled risk ratios of dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) of continuous outcomes were generated. Using the ?2 and I2 tests, the statistical heterogeneity was assessed. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were also performed. Participants Nine eligible trials with a total of 631 patients and a male-to-female ratio of 1.38:1 were included in this meta-analysis. Inclusion criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised controlled trials that adopted ACCF and ACDF to treat two-adjacent-level CSM were included. Results No significant differences were identified between the two groups regarding hospital stay, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for neck and arm pain, total cervical range of motion (ROM), fusion ROM, fusion rate, adjacent-level ossification and complications, while ACDF had significantly less bleeding (SMD=1.14, 95% CI (0.74 to 1.53)); a shorter operation time (SMD=1.13, 95% CI (0.82 to 1.45)); greater cervical lordosis, total cervical (SMD=?2.95, 95% CI (?4.79 to ?1.12)) and fused segment (SMD=?2.24, 95% CI (?3.31 to ?1.17)); higher segmental height (SMD=?0.68, 95% CI (?1.03 to ?0.34)) and less graft subsidence (SMD=0.40, 95% CI (0.06 to 0.75)) compared to ACCF. Conclusions The results suggested that ACDF has more advantages compared to ACCF. However, additional high-quality RCTs and a longer follow-up duration are needed. PMID:25031189

Huang, Zhe-Yu; Wu, Ai-Min; Li, Qing-Long; Lei, Tao; Wang, Kang-Yi; Xu, Hua-Zi; Ni, Wen-Fei

2014-01-01

29

[Cervical myelopathy after low grade distortion of the cervical spine : Possible association with pre-existing spondylosis of the cervical spine].  

PubMed

A patient with spondylosis deformans of the cervical spine with no neurological deficits developed rapidly progressive tetraparesis 1 day after a whiplash injury due to a car accident (rear end collision), although initially there were no clinical symptoms. Surgical decompression and spondylodesis led to relief of the neurological deficits. This case demonstrates that even a low grade whiplash injury (grade 1) can cause severe neurological symptoms later and that a degenerative disease of the spine is a predisposing factor. PMID:25336350

Aurich, M; Hofmann, G O; Gras, F M

2015-04-01

30

A role for motor and somatosensory evoked potentials during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for patients without myelopathy: Analysis of 57 consecutive cases  

PubMed Central

Background: Although the usage of combined motor and sensory intraoperative monitoring has been shown to improve the surgical outcome of patients with cervical myelopathy, the role of transcranial electric motor evoked potentials (tceMEP) used in conjunction with somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) in patients presenting with radiculopathy but without myelopathy has been less clear. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients (n = 57) with radiculopathy but without myelopathy, undergoing anterior cervical decompression and fusion at a single institution over the past 3 years, who had intraoperative monitoring with both tceMEPs and SSEPs. Results: Fifty-seven (100%) patients presented with radiculopathy, 53 (93.0%) with mechanical neck pain, 35 (61.4%) with motor dysfunction, and 29 (50.9%) with sensory deficits. Intraoperatively, 3 (5.3%) patients experienced decreases in SSEP signal amplitudes and 4 (6.9%) had tceMEP signal changes. There were three instances where a change in neuromonitoring signal required intraoperative alteration of the surgical procedure: these were deemed clinically significant events/true positives. SSEP monitoring showed two false positives and two false negatives, whereas tceMEP monitoring only had one false positive and no false negatives. Thus, tceMEP monitoring exhibited higher sensitivity (33.3% vs. 100%), specificity (95.6% vs. 98.1%), positive predictive value (33.3% vs. 75.0%), negative predictive value (97.7% vs. 100%), and efficiency (91.7% vs. 98.2%) compared to SSEP monitoring alone. Conclusions: Here, we present a retrospective series of 57 patients where tceMEP/SSEP monitoring likely prevented irreversible neurologic damage. Though further prospective studies are needed, there may be a role for combined tceMEP/SSEP monitoring for patients undergoing anterior cervical decompression without myelopathy. PMID:22059128

Xu, Risheng; Ritzl, Eva K.; Sait, Mohammed; Sciubba, Daniel M.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Witham, Timothy F.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Bydon, Ali

2011-01-01

31

Tropical myelopathies.  

PubMed

A large number of causal agents produce spinal cord lesions in the tropics. Most etiologies found in temperate regions also occur in the tropics including trauma, herniated discs, tumors, epidural abscess, and congenital malformations. However, infectious and nutritional disorders occur with higher prevalence in tropical regions. Among the most common infectious etiologies are tuberculous Pott's disease, brucellosis, and neuroborreliosis. Parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis, neurocysticercosis, and eosinophilic meningitis are frequent causes of nontraumatic paraplegia. The retrovirus HTLV-1 is a cause of tropical spastic paraparesis. Nutritional causes of paraparesis include deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate; endemic clusters of konzo and tropical ataxic myeloneuropathy are associated in Africa with malnutrition and excessive consumption of cyanide-containing bitter cassava. Other toxic etiologies of tropical paraplegia include lathyrism and fluorosis. Nutritional forms of myelopathy are associated often with optic and sensory neuropathy, hence the name tropical myeloneuropathies. Acute transverse myelopathy is seen in association with vaccination, infections, and fibrocartilaginous embolism of the nucleus pulposus. Multiple sclerosis and optic myelopathy occur in the tropics but with lesser prevalence than in temperate regions. The advent of modern imaging in the tropics, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, has allowed better diagnosis and treatment of these conditions that are a frequent cause of death and disability. PMID:24365434

Román, Gustavo C

2014-01-01

32

Biomechanical analysis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy: The influence of dynamic factors and morphometry of the spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Objective Patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) have the same clinical symptoms that vary according to the degree of spinal cord compression and the cross-sectional cord shape. We used a three-dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM) to analyze the stress distributions of the spinal cord with neck extension under three cross-sectional cord shapes. Methods Experimental condition for the 3D-FEM spinal cord, ligamentum flavum, and anterior compression shape (central, lateral, and diffuse types) was established. To simulate neck extension, the spinal cord was extended by 20° and the ligamentum flavum was shifted distally according to movement of the cephalad lamina. Results The stress distribution in the spinal cord increased due to invagination of the ligamentum flavum into the neck extension. The range of stress distribution observed for the diffuse type was wider than for the central and lateral types. In addition, the stress distribution in the spinal cord was increased by the pincer movement of the ligamentum flavum and by the anterior compression of the spinal cord. The range of stress distribution observed for the diffuse type under antero-posterior compression was also wider than for the central and lateral types. Conclusion This simulation model showed that the clinical symptoms of CSM due to compression of the diffuse type may be stronger than for the central and lateral types. Therefore, careful follow-up is recommended for anterior compression of the spinal cord of diffuse type. PMID:22925752

Nishida, Norihiro; Kato, Yoshihiko; Imajo, Yasuaki; Kawano, Syunichi; Taguchi, Toshihiko

2012-01-01

33

Neck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES  

E-print Network

Neck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES: Neck pain may be triggered by a specific event discomfort. Long term neck problems are more likely when pain develops gradually or discomfort is recurrent over a period of time. Chronic neck pain is often triggered by prior injuries, especially if original

Virginia Tech

34

Alternative Procedures for the Treatment of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: Arthroplasty, Oblique Corpectomy, Skip Laminectomy: Evaluation of Comparative Effectiveness and Safety.  

PubMed

Study Design. Systematic Review.Objective. To perform an evidence synthesis of the literature assessing the efficacy of arthroplasty, oblique corpectomy without fusion, and skip laminectomy to treat symptomatic cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).Summary of Background Data. Traditionally, patients with symptomatic cervical spinal cord compression due to degenerative disease have been treated with anterior or posterior approaches or both. Recent reports suggest that there are several non-traditional management strategies which merit attention. The anterior procedures include decompression and anterior reconstruction with an artificial disc, and oblique corpectomy without fusion. A posterior option is decompression, utilizing the skip laminectomy technique.Methods. We conducted a systematic search in Medline and the Cochrane Collaboration Library for literature published through October 15, 2012 on human studies published in the English language containing abstracts to answer the following key questions: (1) Is there evidence that artificial disc replacement (ADR) following neural decompression results in equal or improved outcomes compared to anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) for CSM? (2) Describe the outcomes of oblique corpectomy without fusion for CSM. (3) Is there evidence that skip laminectomy results in equal or improved outcomes compared to laminoplasty for CSM?Results. The initial literature search yielded 141 unique, potentially relevant citations, which were evaluated against the inclusion/exclusion criteria set a priori. A total of 10 studies were selected for inclusion. For question one, two studies suggested that neurologic outcomes favored ADR compared to ACDF, while functional and pain outcomes were inconsistently reported. For question two, five reported case series suggested favorable neurologic, functional and pain outcomes associated with oblique corpectomy in subjects with CSM, compared to the pretreatment condition. For question three, three studies comparing laminoplasty to skip laminectomy suggested similar neurologic outcomes between treatment groups, although functional and pain outcomes were inconsistently reported.Conclusion. A paucity of high-quality literature exists regarding treatment outcomes associated with arthroplasty, oblique corpectomy without fusion, and skip laminectomy for symptomatic CSM. Comparative prospective studies with long-term follow-up and standardized outcome measures are needed to appropriately assess treatment outcomes associated with these alternative techniques.Recommendation #1. No recommendation can be made from comparative literature regarding treatment outcomes comparing ADR to ACDF for CSM.Overall Strength of Evidence. InsufficientStrength of Recommendation. StrongRecommendation #2. No recommendation can be made from comparative literature regarding treatment outcomes comparing laminoplasty to skip laminectomy for CSM.Overall Strength of Evidence. LowStrength of Recommendation. StrongSummary Statement. Oblique corpectomy is an option in selected cases of CSM. It should not be considered a first line treatment strategy due to the relatively high morbidity associated with this procedure. PMID:24026161

Traynelis, Vincent C; Arnold, Paul M; Fourney, Daryl R; Bransford, Richard J; Fischer, Dena J; Skelly, Andrea C

2013-09-10

35

Atlantoaxial subluxation-induced myelopathy in cleidocranial dysplasia. Case report.  

PubMed

The authors describe the clinical course and treatment of a patient with cleidocranial dysplasia in whom spastic myelopathy developed due to atlantoaxial subluxation. This 27-year-old woman with cleidocranial dysplasia and a history of atlantoaxial subluxation presented with spastic myelopathy. Surgery was performed twice for cervical myelopathy and atlantoaxial subluxation, including laminectomy at the atlas and cervicooccipital fusion in which the Luque rod system was used, as well as C1-2 fusion via the transpharyngeal route. Solid bone fusion was achieved by 7 months postsurgery. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated that spinal cord compression was relieved, but atrophy persisted. At 2 years postsurgery there was no neurological disease progression, but spasticity persisted. The patient could walk with a cane. Cleidocranial dysplasia is an extremely rare cause of myelopathy in patients with atlantoaxial subluxation; the authors know of only two reports of this condition. When managing cleidocranial dysplasia, the practitioner should always be aware that atlantoaxial subluxation may be the cause of cervical myelopathy. PMID:17688067

Kobayashi, Shigeru; Uchida, Kenzo; Baba, Hisatoshi; Takeno, Kenichi; Yayama, Takasi; Nakajima, Hideaki; Nomura, Eiki; Yoshizawa, Hidezo

2007-08-01

36

Comparison of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Score and Modified JOA (mJOA) Score for the Assessment of Cervical Myelopathy: A Multicenter Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score is widely used to assess the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with cervical compressive myelopathy, particularly in East Asian countries. In contrast, modified versions of the JOA score are currently accepted as the standard tool for assessment in Western countries. The objective of the present study is to compare these scales and clarify their differences and interchangeability and verify their validity by comparing them to other outcome measures. Materials and Methods Five institutions participated in this prospective multicenter observational study. The JOA and modified JOA (mJOA) proposed by Benzel were recorded preoperatively and at three months postoperatively in patients with cervical compressive myelopathy who underwent decompression surgery. Patient reported outcome (PRO) measures, including Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire (JOACMEQ), the Short Form-12 (SF-12) and the Neck Disability Index (NDI), were also recorded. The preoperative JOA score and mJOA score were compared to each other and the PRO values. A Bland-Altman analysis was performed to investigate their limits of agreement. Results A total of ninety-two patients were included. The correlation coefficient (Spearman’s rho) between the JOA and mJOA was 0.87. In contrast, the correlations between JOA/mJOA and the other PRO values were moderate (|rho| = 0.03 – 0.51). The correlation coefficient of the recovery rate between the JOA and mJOA was 0.75. The Bland-Altman analyses showed that limits of agreement were 3.6 to -1.2 for the total score, and 55.1% to -68.8% for the recovery rates. Conclusions In the present study, the JOA score and the mJOA score showed good correlation with each other in terms of their total scores and recovery rates. Previous studies using the JOA can be interpreted based on the mJOA; however it is not ideal to use them interchangeably. The validity of both scores was demonstrated by comparing these values to the PRO values. PMID:25837285

Kato, So; Oshima, Yasushi; Oka, Hiroyuki; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Takeshita, Yujiro; Miyoshi, Kota; Kawamura, Naohiro; Masuda, Kazuhiro; Kunogi, Junichi; Okazaki, Rentaro; Azuma, Seiichi; Hara, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Sakae; Takeshita, Katsushi

2015-01-01

37

Biomechanical analysis of cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: Effects of posterior decompression and kyphosis following decompression  

PubMed Central

Cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) results in myelopathy. Conservative treatment is usually ineffective, thus, surgical treatment is required. One of the reasons for the poor surgical outcome following laminoplasty for cervical OPLL is kyphosis. In the present study, a 3-dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM) was used to analyze the stress distribution in preoperative, posterior decompression and kyphosis models of OPLL. The 3D-FEM spinal cord model established in this study consisted of gray and white matter, as well as pia mater. For the preoperative model, 30% anterior static compression was applied to OPLL. For the posterior decompression model, the lamina was shifted backwards and for the kyphosis model, the spinal cord was studied at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50° kyphosis. In the preoperative model, high stress distributions were observed in the spinal cord. In the posterior decompression model, stresses were lower than those observed in the preoperative model. In the kyphosis model, an increase in the angle of kyphosis resulted in augmented stress on the spinal cord. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that posterior decompression was effective, but stress distribution increased with the progression of kyphosis. In cases where kyphosis progresses following surgery, detailed follow-ups are required in case the symptoms worsen. PMID:24940393

NISHIDA, NORIHIRO; KANCHIKU, TSUKASA; KATO, YOSHIHIKO; IMAJO, YASUAKI; YOSHIDA, YUICHIRO; KAWANO, SYUNICHI; TAGUCHI, TOSHIHIKO

2014-01-01

38

Over-shunting associated myelopathy.  

PubMed

Intracranial hypotension typically presents following cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, but can be induced by CSF diversion. Classically, patients present with positional headache, but less common symptoms include neck pain and cranial nerve palsies. To our knowledge, the neurosurgical literature contains six reports of patients with symptomatic cervical, epidural venous plexus engorgement as the result of CSF shunting. The patient presented herein is a 26-year-old woman with shunt-dependent, congenital hydrocephalus. She presented with rapidly progressive cervical myelopathy following ventriculoperitoneal shunt revision. Imaging revealed engorgement of the cervical epidural venous plexus and mass effect on the cervical spinal cord. "Over-shunting associated myelopathy" is a rare complication of CSF diversion that should be familiar to physicians who routinely evaluate patients with intracranial shunts. PMID:25070631

Howard, Brian M; Sribnick, Eric A; Dhall, Sanjay S

2014-12-01

39

HEREDITARY MYELOPATHIES  

PubMed Central

Hereditary myelopathies are a diverse group of disorders in which major aspects of the clinical syndrome involve spinal cord structures. Hereditary myelopathic syndromes can be recognized as four clinical paradigms: (1) spinocerebellar ataxia, (2) motor neuron disorder, (3) leukodystrophy, and (4) distal motor-sensory axonopathy. This review illustrates these hereditary myelopathy paradigms with clinical examples with an emphasis on clinical recognition and differential diagnosis. PMID:20148180

Fink, John K.

2009-01-01

40

Positive feedback loop via astrocytes causes chronic inflammation in virus-associated myelopathy.  

PubMed

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the spinal cord. We hypothesized that a positive feedback loop driven by chemokines may be responsible for the chronic inflammation in HAM/TSP. We aimed to determine the identity of these chemokines, where they are produced, and how they drive chronic inflammation in HAM/TSP. We found that patients with HAM/TSP have extraordinarily high levels of the chemokine CXCL10 (also known as IP-10) and an abundance of cells expressing the CXCL10-binding receptor CXCR3 in the cerebrospinal fluid. Histological analysis revealed that astrocytes are the main producers of CXCL10 in the spinal cords of patients with HAM/TSP. Co-culture of human astrocytoma cells with CD4+ T cells from patients with HAM/TSP revealed that astrocytes produce CXCL10 in response to IFN-? secreted by CD4+ T cells. Chemotaxis assays results suggest that CXCL10 induces migration of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to the central nervous system and that anti-CXCL10 neutralizing antibody can disrupt this migration. In short, we inferred that human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-infected cells in the central nervous system produce IFN-? that induces astrocytes to secrete CXCL10, which recruits more infected cells to the area via CXCR3, constituting a T helper type 1-centric positive feedback loop that results in chronic inflammation. PMID:23892452

Ando, Hitoshi; Sato, Tomoo; Tomaru, Utano; Yoshida, Mari; Utsunomiya, Atae; Yamauchi, Junji; Araya, Natsumi; Yagishita, Naoko; Coler-Reilly, Ariella; Shimizu, Yukiko; Yudoh, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Nishioka, Kusuki; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Jacobson, Steven; Yamano, Yoshihisa

2013-09-01

41

Cervical Symmetric Dumbbell Ganglioneuromas Causing Severe Paresis  

PubMed Central

We report an extremely rare case with bilateral and symmetric dumbbell ganglioneuromas of the cervical spine in an elderly patient. A 72-year-old man came by ambulance to our hospital due to progressive incomplete paraplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated bilateral symmetric dumbbell tumors at the C1/2 level. We performed total resection of the intracanalar tumor, aiming at complete decompression of the spinal cord, and partial and subtotal resection of foraminal outside portions. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen indicated the tumor cells to be spindle cells with the presence of ganglion cells and no cellular pleomorphism, suggesting a diagnosis of ganglioneuroma. Although the surgery was not curative, the postoperative course was uneventful and provided a satisfactory outcome. This is the fourth known case of cervical ganglioneuromas of the bilateral symmetric dumbbell type. PMID:24596609

Miyamoto, Kei; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Kito, Yusuke; Fushimi, Kazunari; Shimizu, Katsuji

2014-01-01

42

Cervical symmetric dumbbell ganglioneuromas causing severe paresis.  

PubMed

We report an extremely rare case with bilateral and symmetric dumbbell ganglioneuromas of the cervical spine in an elderly patient. A 72-year-old man came by ambulance to our hospital due to progressive incomplete paraplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated bilateral symmetric dumbbell tumors at the C1/2 level. We performed total resection of the intracanalar tumor, aiming at complete decompression of the spinal cord, and partial and subtotal resection of foraminal outside portions. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen indicated the tumor cells to be spindle cells with the presence of ganglion cells and no cellular pleomorphism, suggesting a diagnosis of ganglioneuroma. Although the surgery was not curative, the postoperative course was uneventful and provided a satisfactory outcome. This is the fourth known case of cervical ganglioneuromas of the bilateral symmetric dumbbell type. PMID:24596609

Hioki, Akira; Miyamoto, Kei; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Kito, Yusuke; Fushimi, Kazunari; Shimizu, Katsuji

2014-02-01

43

[Cervical abscess caused by Capnocytophaga ochracea].  

PubMed

Capnocytophaga is a gram-negative capnophilic bacterium which is part of the normal oral flora of humans (C. ochracea, C. gingivalis, C. sputigena) and mammals such as canines, cats, and rodents (C. animorsus and C. cynodegmi). Its role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease is not well defined, and normally it represents an opportunistic germ of low pathogenicity. Threatening and fulminant infections have been observed in immunodeficient patients, and lately in immunocompetent hosts. We describe an otherwise healthy woman who developed a cervical abscess due to C. ochracea. Recurrent aphthous lesions are suspected to be the port of entrance for the germs. Bacteriological, clinical, epidemiological, and therapeutic aspects of Capnocytophaga infection are discussed. PMID:8322052

Henzen, C; Streit, E

1993-06-01

44

Acute myelopathy with normal imaging  

PubMed Central

A 17-year old girl presented with rapidly progressive quadriparesis and ventilatorary failure. The clinical findings indicated a spinal level, but the diagnosis of myelopathy was not supported by her initial spinal imaging and cerebrospinal fluid studies. She had completed treatment for Guillain-Barre syndrome before a follow-up spinal imaging study showed interval expansion and enhancement of the cervical cord. PMID:22752484

Holland, Neil R.

2013-01-01

45

Evaluation of Anterior Cervical Reconstruction with Titanium Mesh Cages versus Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Polyamide66 Cages after 1- or 2-Level Corpectomy for Multilevel Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Retrospective Study of 117 Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To retrospectively compare the efficacy of the titanium mesh cage (TMC) and the nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 cage (n-HA/PA66 cage) for 1- or 2-level anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) to treat multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM). Methods A total of 117 consecutive patients with MCSM who underwent 1- or 2-level ACCF using a TMC or an n-HA/PA66 cage were studied retrospectively at a mean follow-up of 45.28±12.83 months. The patients were divided into four groups according to the level of corpectomy (1- or 2-level corpectomy) and cage type used (TMC or n-HA/PA66 cage). Clinical and radiological parameters were used to evaluate outcomes. Results At the one-year follow-up, the fusion rate in the n-HA/PA66 group was higher, albeit non-significantly, than that in the TMC group for both 1- and 2-level ACCF, but the fusion rates of the procedures were almost equal at the final follow-up. The incidence of cage subsidence at the final follow-up was significantly higher in the TMC group than in the n-HA/PA66 group for the 1-level ACCF (24% vs. 4%, p?=?0.01), and the difference was greater for the 2-level ACCF between the TMC group and the n-HA/PA66 group (38% vs. 5%, p?=?0.01). Meanwhile, a much greater loss of fused height was observed in the TMC group compared with the n-HA/PA66 group for both the 1- and 2-level ACCF. All four groups demonstrated increases in C2-C7 Cobb angle and JOA scores and decreases in VAS at the final follow-up compared with preoperative values. Conclusion The lower incidence of cage subsidence, better maintenance of the height of the fused segment and similar excellent bony fusion indicate that the n-HA/PA66 cage may be a superior alternative to the TMC for cervical reconstruction after cervical corpectomy, in particular for 2-level ACCF. PMID:24789144

Zhang, Yuan; Quan, Zhengxue; Zhao, Zenghui; Luo, Xiaoji; Tang, Ke; Li, Jie; Zhou, Xu; Jiang, Dianming

2014-01-01

46

The Prevalence and Phenotype of Activated Microglia/Macrophages within the Spinal Cord of the Hyperostotic Mouse (twy/twy) Changes in Response to Chronic Progressive Spinal Cord Compression: Implications for Human Cervical Compressive Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical compressive myelopathy, e.g. due to spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament is a common cause of spinal cord dysfunction. Although human pathological studies have reported neuronal loss and demyelination in the chronically compressed spinal cord, little is known about the mechanisms involved. In particular, the neuroinflammatory processes that are thought to underlie the condition are poorly understood. The present study assessed the localized prevalence of activated M1 and M2 microglia/macrophages in twy/twy mice that develop spontaneous cervical spinal cord compression, as a model of human disease. Methods Inflammatory cells and cytokines were assessed in compressed lesions of the spinal cords in 12-, 18- and 24-weeks old twy/twy mice by immunohistochemical, immunoblot and flow cytometric analysis. Computed tomography and standard histology confirmed a progressive spinal cord compression through the spontaneously development of an impinging calcified mass. Results The prevalence of CD11b-positive cells, in the compressed spinal cord increased over time with a concurrent decrease in neurons. The CD11b-positive cell population was initially formed of arginase-1- and CD206-positive M2 microglia/macrophages, which later shifted towards iNOS- and CD16/32-positive M1 microglia/macrophages. There was a transient increase in levels of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines at 18 weeks, whereas levels of Th1 cytokines as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and macrophage antigen (Mac) ?2 progressively increased. Conclusions Spinal cord compression was associated with a temporal M2 microglia/macrophage response, which may act as a possible repair or neuroprotective mechanism. However, the persistence of the neural insult also associated with persistent expression of Th1 cytokines and increased prevalence of activated M1 microglia/macrophages, which may lead to neuronal loss and demyelination despite the presence of neurotrophic factors. This understanding of the aetiopathology of chronic spinal cord compression is of importance in the development of new treatment targets in human disease. PMID:23717624

Hirai, Takayuki; Uchida, Kenzo; Nakajima, Hideaki; Guerrero, Alexander Rodriguez; Takeura, Naoto; Watanabe, Shuji; Sugita, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ai; Johnson, William E. B.; Baba, Hisatoshi

2013-01-01

47

Scheie syndrome: Enzyme replacement therapy does not prevent progression of cervical myelopathy due to spinal cord compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Hurler–Scheie syndrome is caused by alpha-l-iduronidase deficiency. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) can improve physical\\u000a capacity and reduces organomegaly. However, the effect on bradytrophic connective tissue is limited. As intravenously administered\\u000a enzyme cannot cross the blood–brain barrier, the therapy of choice for the more severe Hurler syndrome is haematopoietic stem\\u000a cell transplantation (HCT). In the more attenuated Scheie syndrome, neurological impairment

S. Illsinger; T. Lücke; H. Hartmann; E. Mengel; W. Müller-Forell; F. Donnerstag; A. M. Das

48

Reversible hepatic myelopathy: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of reversible hepatic myelopathy. A 42-year-old female patient with 3-year history of alcoholic liver cirrhosis developed spastic gait, hyperreflexia and mild somatosensory disturbance in her lower extremities. The increased level of serum ammonia and the deficits of N30 and P38 in the tibial somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) in conjunction with exclusion of the other known causes of myelopathy supported the diagnosis of her hepatic myelopathy. The ammonia lowering therapy by the oral administration of lactulose successfully improved the spastic gait accompanied with the emergence of N30 and P38 in the tibial SEP. Although liver transplantation was known to be the only therapy for hepatic myelopathy in the literatures, our case showed that the ammonia lowering therapy can be effective for the early stage of hepatic myelopathy. PMID:24705837

Hirozawa, Daisuke; Fukada, Kei; Yaegaki, Takahide; Hoshi, Taku; Sawada, Jinichi; Hazama, Takanori

2014-01-01

49

Intermittent cervical traction for cervical radiculopathy caused by large-volume herniated disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the use of intermittent cervical traction in managing 4 patients with cervical radiculopathy and large-volume herniated disks. Clinical Features: Four patients had neck pain radiating to the arm. The clinical examination was typical in all cases for radiculopathy of cervical origin. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine revealed large-volume herniated disks in all patients. Intervention

Constantine Constantoyannis; Demetres Konstantinou; Harry Kourtopoulos; Nicolas Papadakis

2002-01-01

50

Latent period in clinical radiation myelopathy  

SciTech Connect

Seventy-seven papers containing data on more than 300 cases of radiation myelopathy have been analyzed. The data suggest that the latent periods are similar in the cervical and thoracic levels of the spinal cord and are bimodally distributed. Myelopathy of lumbar cord apparently has a shorter latent period. As in controlled animal experiments, the latent period decreases with increasing dose. Furthermore, the variation in latent periods also decreases with dose. It is also seen that retreated patients and pediatric or adolescent patients have greatly reduced latent periods. The implications of these findings as they compare with the animal data are discussed.

Schultheiss, T.E.; Higgins, E.M.; El-Mahdi, A.M.

1984-07-01

51

Motor conduction measurement in myelopathy hand  

PubMed Central

Summary We studied the relationship between intramedullary high signal intensity (IMHSI) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images and motor conduction in the spinal cords of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients. There was no significant difference between the biceps or triceps central motor conduction times (CMCTs) of the patients who did and did not exhibit IMHSI, whereas the abductor pollicis brevis CMCT was significantly longer in the patients who exhibited IMHSI (p<0.05) than in those who did not. The CMCT of the abductor pollicis brevis is sensitive to the degree of damage in the cervical spinal cord. Hand dysfunction is a characteristic of CSM regardless of the cervical level affected by the condition. The motor fibers innervating the intrinsic muscles of the hand in the long tract of the cervical spinal cord are more sensitive than other motor fibers. For this reason, we consider that myelopathy hand is a characteristic impairment of CSM. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the hand motor cortex is useful for the evaluation of cervical myelopathy. PMID:25473737

Shibuya, Ryoichi; Wada, Eiji; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yonenobu, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Hideki

2014-01-01

52

A rare presentation of subacute progressive ascending myelopathy secondary to cement leakage in percutaneous vertebroplasty.  

PubMed

Percutaneous vertebroplasty is used to manage osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures. Although it is relatively safe, complications after vertebroplasty ranging from minor to devastatingly major ones have been described. Cement leakage into the spinal canal is one such complication. Subacute progressive ascending myelopathy is an infrequent neurologic complication after spinal cord injury, typically presenting as ascending neurologic deficit within weeks after the initial insult. The precise cause of subacute progressive ascending myelopathy still remains an enigma, considering the rarity of this disorder. The authors present the case of a 62-yr-old woman with osteoporotic vertebral fracture who underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty and developed T6 complete paraplegia because of cement leakage. A few weeks later, the neurologic level ascended to higher cervical level (C3). To date, no case of subacute progressive ascending myelopathy secondary to cement leakage after percutaneous vertebroplasty has been reported. Literature is reviewed regarding subacute progressive ascending myelopathy, and the rehabilitation challenges in the management of this patient are discussed. PMID:24322431

Bhide, Rohit Prakash; Barman, Apurba; Varghese, Shiela Mary; Chatterjee, Ahana; Mammen, Suraj; George, Jacob; Thomas, Raji

2014-05-01

53

[Progressive myelopathy caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) in 3 patients in The Netherlands].  

PubMed

One man and two women (aged 30, 44 and 46, respectively) were seen between 1987 and 1992 with a myelopathy caused by the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). The first symptoms were impaired gait in the man and micturition disorders in the women. Diagnosing took 2 to 4 years, possibly due to the fact that many Dutch physicians are unfamiliar with the disease. The diagnosis was based on originating from an endemic area (i.e. Surinam and the Caribbean basin), the clinical picture and the presence of antibodies against HTLV-I in blood and CSF. The disease in a number of years leads to spastic paraparesis, incontinence for urine and dependence on a wheelchair. PMID:9557001

Makdoembaks, A M

1998-01-10

54

Whiplash causes increased laxity of cervical capsular ligament  

PubMed Central

Background Previous clinical studies have identified the cervical facet joint, including the capsular ligaments, as sources of pain in whiplash patients. The goal of this study was to determine whether whiplash caused increased capsular ligament laxity by applying quasi-static loading to whiplash-exposed and control capsular ligaments. Methods A total of 66 capsular ligament specimens (C2/3 to C7/T1) were prepared from 12 cervical spines (6 whiplash-exposed and 6 control). The whiplash-exposed spines had been previously rear impacted at a maximum peak T1 horizontal acceleration of 8 g. Capsular ligaments were elongated at 1 mm/s in increments of 0.05 mm until a tensile force of 5 N was achieved and subsequently returned to neutral position. Four pre-conditioning cycles were performed and data from the load phase of the fifth cycle were used for subsequent analyses. Ligament elongation was computed at tensile forces of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 N. Two factor, non-repeated measures ANOVA (P<0.05) was performed to determine significant differences in the average ligament elongation at tensile forces of 0 and 5 N between the whiplash-exposed and control groups and between spinal levels. Findings Average elongation of the whiplash-exposed capsular ligaments was significantly greater than that of the control ligaments at tensile forces of 0 and 5 N. No significant differences between spinal levels were observed. Interpretation Capsular ligament injuries, in the form of increased laxity, may be one component perpetuating chronic pain and clinical instability in whiplash patients. PMID:17959284

Ivancic, Paul C.; Ito, Shigeki; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Rubin, Wolfgang; Coe, Marcus P.; Ndu, Anthony B.; Carlson, Erik J.; Panjabi, Manohar M.

2009-01-01

55

Hyperthyroidism caused by a toxic intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland  

SciTech Connect

The rare presentation of hyperthyroidism caused by an intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland is described. The toxic intrathoracic goiter demonstrated avid uptake of (/sup 131/I) and (99mTc)pertechnetate, with comparatively faint isotopic accumulation seen in the cervical thyroid. A chest roentgenogram and radioisotope scan should be mandatory in cases of hyperthyroidism having no cervical thyroid enlargement to explore the possibility of a toxic intrathoracic goiter.

Prakash, R.; Lakshmipathi, N.; Jena, A.; Behari, V.; Chopra, M.K.

1986-09-01

56

Cervical Lymphadenitis Caused by Group D Non-typhoidal Salmonella Associated with Concomitant Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Non-typhoidal Salmonella species are important foodborne pathogens that can cause gastroenteritis, bacteremia, and subsequent focal infections. Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is problematic, particularly in immunocompromised hosts. Any anatomical site can be affected by this pathogen via hematogenous seeding and may develop local infections. However, cervical lymphadenitis caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella species is rarely reported. Herein, we have reported a case of cervical lymphadenitis caused by group D non-typhoidal Salmonella associated with lymphoma. PMID:24265973

Lim, Seungjin; Cho, Sun Young; Kim, Jungok; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon; Park, Kyung Sun; Lee, Nam Yong; Kim, Seok Jin

2013-01-01

57

HPV types and cofactors causing cervical cancer in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Peru of 198 women with histologically confirmed cervical cancer (173 squamous cell carcinomas and 25 cases of adenocarcinoma\\/adenosquamous carcinoma) and 196 control women. Information on risk factors was obtained by personal interview. Using PCR-based assays on exfoliated cervical cells and biopsy specimens, HPV DNA was detected in 95.3% of women with squamous cell

C Santos; N Muñoz; S Klug; M Almonte; I Guerrero; M Alvarez; C Velarde; O Galdos; M Castillo; J Walboomers; C Meijer; E Caceres

2001-01-01

58

Chronic active VZV infection manifesting as zoster sine herpete, zoster paresis and myelopathy.  

PubMed

After lumbar-distribution zoster, an HTLV-1-seropositive woman developed chronic radicular sacral-distribution pain (zoster sine herpete), cervical-distribution zoster paresis and thoracic-distribution myelopathy. Detection of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgM and VZV IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with reduced serum/CSF ratios of anti-VZV IgG compared to normal serum/CSF ratios for albumin and total IgG, proved that VZV caused the protracted neurological complications. Diagnosis by antibody testing led to aggressive antiviral treatment and a favorable outcome. PMID:12809993

Morita, Y; Osaki, Y; Doi, Y; Forghani, B; Gilden, D H

2003-08-15

59

Chronic active VZV infection manifesting as zoster sine herpete, zoster paresis and myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

After lumbar-distribution zoster, an HTLV-1-seropositive woman developed chronic radicular sacral-distribution pain (zoster sine herpete), cervical-distribution zoster paresis and thoracic-distribution myelopathy. Detection of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgM and VZV IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with reduced serum\\/CSF ratios of anti-VZV IgG compared to normal serum\\/CSF ratios for albumin and total IgG, proved that VZV caused the protracted neurological complications.

Y. Morita; Y. Osaki; Y. Doi; B. Forghani; D. H. Gilden

2003-01-01

60

Multilevel decompressive laminectomy and transpedicular instrumented fusion for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy: A minimum follow-up of 3 years  

PubMed Central

Objective: Cervical laminectomies with transpedicular insertion technique is known to be a biomechanically stronger method in cervical pathologies. However, its frequency of use is low in the routine practice, as the pedicle is thin and risk of neurovascular damage is high. In this study, we emphasize the results of cervical laminectomies with transpedicular fixation using fluoroscopy in degenerative cervical spine disorder. Materials and Methods: Postoperative malposition of the transpedicular screws of the 70 pedicles of the 10 patients we operated due to degenerative stenosis in the cervical region, were investigated. Fixation was performed between C3 and C7, and we used resected lamina bone chips for fusion. Clinical indicators included age, gender, neurologic status, surgical indication, and number of levels stabilized. Dominant vertebral artery of all the patients was evaluated with Doppler ultrasonography. Preoperative and postoperative Nurick grade of each patient was documented. Results: No patients experienced neurovascular injury as a result of pedicle screw placement. Two patients had screw malposition, which did not require reoperation due to minor breaking. Most patients had 32-mm screws placed. Postoperative computed tomography scanning showed no compromise of the foramen transversarium. A total of 70 pedicle screws were placed. Good bony fusion was observed in all patients. At follow-up, 9/10 (90%) patients had improved in their Nurick grades. The cases were followed-up for an average of 35.7 months (30–37 months). Conclusions: Use of the cervical pedicular fixation (CPF) provides a very strong three-column stabilization but also carries vascular injury without nerve damage. Laminectomies technique may reduce the risk of malposition due to visualization of the spinal canal. CPF can be performed in a one-stage posterior procedure. This technique yielded good fusion rate without complications and can be considered as a good alternative compared other techniques. PMID:22013372

Kotil, Kadir; Ozyuvaci, Emine

2011-01-01

61

Stent-Graft Repair of a Large Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm Causing Dysphagia  

SciTech Connect

Pseudoaneurysms of the cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) are rare and most frequently result from trauma, infection, or sometimes spontaneously. They have the potential to cause life-threatening hemorrhage; thus, their immediate management is necessary. Endovascular treatment by stent graft placement in the affected artery appears to be a safe and effective treatment option. We present a case of a child who presented with neck swelling and dysphagia caused by a ruptured cervical ICA pseudoaneurysm which was managed by stent graft placement.

Gupta, Vivek, E-mail: drvivekgupta.pgi@gmail.com; Niranjan, Khandelwal; Rawat, Lokesh [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging (India); Gupta, A. K. [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Department of Otolaryngology (India)

2009-05-15

62

Cervical spine disease in rheumatoid arthritis: incidence, manifestations, and therapy.  

PubMed

Cervical spine involvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory arthropathies is common. While the radiographic features can be dramatic in untreated disease, patients may remain asymptomatic making treatment decisions challenging. Further, subtle clinical presentations can belie serious myelopathy because peripheral joint involvement can make interpreting the physical exam difficult. While new pharmacologic therapies have drastically reduced the morbidity of the widespread joint destruction that occurs in RA, patients remain at risk for symptomatic occipitocervical, atlantoaxial, or subaxial instability causing myelopathy, deformity, and premature death. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation of RA patients with cervical spine disease as well as the indications and outcomes of surgical treatment. PMID:25663179

Kim, Han Jo; Nemani, Venu M; Riew, K Daniel; Brasington, Richard

2015-02-01

63

Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Cervical Cancer Definition of cervical cancer : Cancer that forms in tissues of the ... the cervix and looked at under a microscope). Cervical cancer is almost always caused by human papillomavirus ( ...

64

Some Novel Adenosine Mimics: Synthesis and Anticancer Potential against Cervical Cancer caused by Human Papilloma Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel adenosine analogs, viz. 9-(1?-?-D-arabinofuranosyl)-6-nitro-1,3-dideazapurine or Ara-NDDP (1) and 9-(5?-deoxy-5?-S-(propionic acid) (1?-?-D-ribofuranosyl) adenine or SAH analog (2), indigenously synthesized, have been found to be potential anticancer agents against cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus.

Sarika Sinha; Richa Srivastava; Bhupesh Prusty; B. C. Das; Ramendra K. Singh

2007-01-01

65

Effects on the maxilla and cranial base caused by cervical headgear: A longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study is to test the possible orthopedic effects of cervical headgear on the cranial base and maxilla. Study design: a sample consisting of 79 subjects with skeletal class II malocclusion was divided into two groups. The experimental group was made up of 41 patients all treated with cervical headgear. The control group included a total of 38 non-treated patients. Each one of these groups was then subdivided according to age into one of three groups: prepubescent, pubescent or post-pubescent. Cephalometric parameters were compared in both groups in order to measure the cranial base angle and the vertical and sagittal position of the maxilla. Additionally, cephalometric superimpositions taken at the beginning and end of the study were compared. Results: results revealed significant differences in the cranial base angle and in the SNA angle (p<0.05). However, no differences were observed in the variables that measure the maxillomandibular relationship. While no changes were noted in the palatal plane slope, a flattening of the cranial base was found caused by the cervical headgear, in addition to a retrusion of point A that does not mean there was a reduction in the maxillomandibular relationship. Conclusions: cervical headgear treatment induces cephalometric flattening of the cranial base and a decrease of the SNA angle. Key words:Orthodontics, cervical headgear, class II treatment, cephalometry, superimposition. PMID:22322499

Iglesias-Conde, Carmen; Lorenzo-Pernía, José; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción; Solano-Reina, Enrique

2012-01-01

66

Spontaneous CSF Collection in the Cervical Spine may Cause Neurological Deficit and Intra-cranial Hypotension  

PubMed Central

Objective: a case is described of a spontaneously occurring cerebrospinal fluid collection in the ventral cervical spine which caused radiculopathy and spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Case: a sixty eight year old Caucasian man presented with a 2 year history of proximal upper limb weakness with a his-tory of trivial cervical trauma many years previously. Methods: the patient was investigated with blood tests for causes of peripheral neuropathy, nerve conduction and electro-myography studies, lumbar puncture and MRI of the brain and spine with contrast. Results: a cerebrospinal fluid collection was identified in the ventral cervical spinal cord causing mass effect associated with cord atrophy and there were signs of spontaneous intracranial hypotension on the MRI brain including subdural cere-brospinal fluid collections, meningeal enhancement and slumped posterior fossa. Conclusions: this is the first description of a spontaneous spinal fluid collection causing direct compression and cord sig-nal change, manifest as a motor deficit, with intracranial signs of spontaneous hypotension. Spinal imaging is recom-mended in cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and cerebrospinal fluid collections in the spine may rarely be a cause of radiculopathy in such cases. PMID:23407592

Zakaria, Rasheed; Wilby, Martin; Fletcher, Nicholas A

2013-01-01

67

The Natural History and Clinical Syndromes of Degenerative Cervical Spondylosis  

PubMed Central

Cervical spondylosis is a broad term which describes the age related chronic disc degeneration, which can also affect the cervical vertebrae, the facet and other joints and their associated soft tissue supports. Evidence of spondylitic change is frequently found in many asymptomatic adults. Radiculopathy is a result of intervertebral foramina narrowing. Narrowing of the spinal canal can result in spinal cord compression, ultimately resulting in cervical spondylosis myelopathy. This review article examines the current literature in relation to the cervical spondylosis and describes the three clinical syndromes of axial neck pain, cervical radiculopathy and cervical myelopathy PMID:22162812

Kelly, John C.; Groarke, Patrick J.; Butler, Joseph S.; Poynton, Ashley R.; O'Byrne, John M.

2012-01-01

68

Cervical radiculomyelopathy caused by deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in the ligamenta flava. Case report.  

PubMed

A case of cervical radiculomyelopathy caused by multiple calcified nodules in the ligamenta flava is presented. Roentgenological examination of the cervical spine showed radiopaque nodular lesions, 7 x 7 x 5 mm in size, located in the paramedian portion of the posterior spinal canal. The nodules were removed surgically and they were confirmed to be calcifications of ligamenta flava. Microscopic examination of the nodules with the polarized light revealed extensive deposition of crystals. By x-ray diffraction study, the crystal was determined as calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD: Ca2P2O7 . 2H2O). Although CPPD deposition in the cartilage has been known as pseudo-gout syndrome, deposition in the ligament has been reported only in a few cases. This is the first case with radiopaque calcified nodules in the ligamenta flava causing spinal cord compression, the composition of which proved to be CPPD. PMID:6243349

Kawano, N; Yoshida, S; Ohwada, T; Yada, K; Sasaki, K; Matsuno, T

1980-02-01

69

Airway obstruction due to tracheomalacia caused by innominate artery compression and a kyphotic cervical spine.  

PubMed

Tracheomalacia can cause variable degrees of intrathoracic airway obstruction and is an easily overlooked cause of respiratory distress in adults. Here, we report a case of acute respiratory failure in which subglottic stenosis was accidentally identified during endotracheal intubation. Subsequent bronchoscopy and computed tomography of the thorax and neck revealed tracheal compression with tracheomalacia caused by a tortuous innominate artery and a kyphotic cervical spine. The patient underwent rigid bronchoscopy with metal stent implantation, and her symptoms were alleviated. These findings outline the importance of precise diagnosis and interventions for preventing recurrent life-threatening respiratory failure in such cases. PMID:25639407

Liu, Chia-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Hong-Hau; Wu, Chin-Pyng; Chian, Chih-Feng; Perng, Wann-Cherng; Tsai, Chen-Liang

2015-02-01

70

Diagnostic Accuracy of High Resolution Ultrasound to Differentiate Neoplastic and Non Neoplastic Causes of Cervical Lymphadenopathy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Lymph nodes are normal structures distributed throughout the human body and are enlarged in various disease entities. Identifying the relevant lymph nodes is important in treating these patients. High resolution sonography (HRSG) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) play crucial role in planning the treatment. Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of HRSG differentiate neoplastic and non neoplastic causes of enlarged cervical lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: HRSG evaluation of enlarged cervical lymph nodes were performed to differentiate neoplastic from non neoplastic lymph nodes followed by FNAC correlation and the accuracy of HRSG was studied. Results: One hundred and fourteen lymph nodes of 106 patients were analysed to accomplish the study objective. In our study, HRSG had 96% sensitivity and 90.6% specificity for differentiating between neoplatic and non-neoplastic cervical lymphadenopathy. Similarly positive and negative predictive values were 88.9% and 96.7% respectively. Overall accuracy of HRSG was 93%. Conclusion: Owing to high sensitivity and negative predictive value, HRSG with Doppler is an excellent first line investigating tool for enlarged lymph nodes and avoids invasive procedures like FNAC in cases of reactive/ inflammatory (non-neoplastic) lymph nodes. However, neoplastic diagnosis of HRSG needs further confirmation by FNAC. PMID:25386501

Shivalli, Siddharudha; Rai, Sheethal; Haris, Arafat; Madhurkar, Rohit; Hemraj, Sandhya

2014-01-01

71

Progressive myelopathy, a consequence of intra-thecal chemotherapy: Case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Intra-thecal chemotherapy is a recognized therapy for hematological malignancies such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Despite the advantage of these drugs in treating or preventing central nervous system disease, they are not without complications. The authors describe a 12-year-old girl with ALL, who developed progressive myelopathy following intra-thecal administration of cytosine arabinoside. Initial presentation was urine and fecal retention that progressed to paraplegia, and finally encephalopathy. magnetic resonance imaging of the neuroaxis showed T2-weighted foci of increased signal intensity within the substance of the cervical cord indicative of myelopathy. Physicians should be wary of this rare complication of intra-thecal chemotherapy. PMID:25772933

Chukwu, B F; Ukekwe, I F; Ezenwosu, O U; Ani, C O; Ikefuna, A N; Emodi, I J

2015-01-01

72

In vitro low-speed side collisions cause injury to the lower cervical spine but do not damage alar ligaments.  

PubMed

Whether injuries to the alar ligaments could be responsible for complaints of patients having whiplash injury in the upper cervical spine is still controversially discussed. It is known that these ligaments protect the upper cervical spine against excessive lateral bending and axial rotation movements. The objective of the present in vitro study was therefore to examine whether the alar ligaments or any other structures of the cervical spine are damaged in side collisions. In a specially designed acceleration apparatus, six human osteoligamentous cervical spine specimens were subjected to incremental 90 degrees side collisions from the right (1 g, 2 g, 3 g, etc.) until structural failure occurred. A damped pivot table accounted for the passive movements of the trunk during collision, and a dummy head (4.5 kg) ensured almost physiological loading of the specimens. For quantification of functional injuries, the three-dimensional flexibility of the specimens was tested in a spine tester before and after each acceleration. In all six specimens, structural failure always occurred in the lower cervical spine and always affected the facet joint capsules and the intervertebral discs. In four specimens, this damage occurred during the 2 g collision, while in the other two it occurred during the 3 g and 4 g collision, respectively. The flexibility mainly increased in the lower cervical spine (especially in lateral bending to both sides) and, to a minor extent, in axial rotation. In vitro low-speed side collisions caused functional and structural injury to discoligamentous structures of the lower cervical spine, but did not damage the alar ligaments. Since the effects of muscle forces were not taken into account, the present in vitro study reflects a worst-case scenario. Injury thresholds should therefore not be transferred to reality. PMID:15221568

Hartwig, E; Kettler, A; Schultheiss, M; Kinzl, L; Claes, L; Wilke, H-J

2004-11-01

73

Attributing Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Genotypes to High-grade Cervical Neoplasia: Which Type Causes the Lesion?  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in most women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 in cervical cytology and biopsies. Multiple high-risk HPV (hrHPV) genotypes are present in 15% to 50% of cytology samples. We have shown by laser-capture microscopy (LCM)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that each lesion is associated with a single hrHPV type. Attribution of hrHPV types to CIN2/3 is important to understand the oncogenic role of different types and the limitations of cytologic typing. We studied hrHPV genotypes in 257 women with histologic CIN2/3 referred on the basis of abnormal cytology. HPV typing was done on cytology and CIN2/3 biopsies. If the whole-tissue section of the biopsy was positive for multiple hrHPV types, LCM-PCR was performed. We found 181 (70%) single and 71 (28%) multiple hrHPV infections in cytology, with 5 (2%) cases HPV-positive only on whole-tissue section PCR. Of cases with multiple cytologic hrHPV infections, 47/71 (66%) showed a single type in CIN2/3 lesions. In total, in 232 of 257 (90%) women with CIN2/3, a single hrHPV type caused CIN2/3. One was nonattributable on the LCM level. The remaining 24 women had 2 or more contiguous or separated lesions, each associated with a single hrHPV infection. The probability of HPV16 being present in CIN2/3, if detected in cytology, was 0.96 (95% confidence interval=0.90-0.98). LCM-PCR confirms that only 9% of histologic CIN2/3 is associated with multiple hrHPV types, much less than cytology would indicate, and each lesion was associated with a single hrHPV infection. PMID:25353286

van der Marel, Jacolien; Berkhof, Johannes; Ordi, Jaume; Torné, Aureli; Del Pino, Marta; van Baars, Romy; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Jenkins, David; Quint, Wim G V

2015-04-01

74

Cervical Angina  

PubMed Central

Cervical angina has been widely reported as a cause of chest pain but remains underrecognized. This series demonstrates the varied clinical presentation of patients with cervical angina, the delay in diagnosis, and the extensive cardiac examinations patients with this condition typically undergo prior to a definitive diagnosis. Recognition of this condition in patients with acute chest pain requires a high index of suspicion and an awareness of the common presenting features and clinical findings of cervical angina. PMID:25553225

Sussman, Walter I.; Makovitch, Steven A.; Merchant, Shabbir Hussain I.

2015-01-01

75

Spinal cord injury secondary to cervical disc herniation in ambulatory patients with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early onset of degeneration of the cervical spine and instability due to sustained abnormal tonicity or abnormal movement of the neck are found in patients with cerebral palsy. An unexplained change or deterioration of neurological function in patients with cerebral palsy should merit the consideration of the possibility of cervical myelopathy due to early degeneration or instability of the cervical

Hyun-Yoon Ko; Insun Park-Ko

1998-01-01

76

Unusual cause of neuropathy: extensive dural spread of primary cervical osteosarcoma.  

PubMed

We report a very rare case of a high grade osteosarcoma of the cervical spine in a 62-year-old woman. She presented with a relatively short history of a swelling in the posterior neck and cervical lymphadenopathy. This was associated with hoarseness of the voice, significant weight loss, and right upper arm radicular symptoms initially, progressing to paraplegia. Based on MR and CT imaging of the neck and an excision biopsy of an enlarged right supraclavicular lymph node, the histology revealed a high grade primary osteosarcoma of the cervical spine. PMID:23986826

Ponnampalam, Stephen N; Tan, Wilkinson Yj; Wazir, Nayyer Naveed; George, John

2012-01-01

77

Unusual cause of neuropathy: extensive dural spread of primary cervical osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

We report a very rare case of a high grade osteosarcoma of the cervical spine in a 62-year-old woman. She presented with a relatively short history of a swelling in the posterior neck and cervical lymphadenopathy. This was associated with hoarseness of the voice, significant weight loss, and right upper arm radicular symptoms initially, progressing to paraplegia. Based on MR and CT imaging of the neck and an excision biopsy of an enlarged right supraclavicular lymph node, the histology revealed a high grade primary osteosarcoma of the cervical spine. PMID:23986826

Ponnampalam, Stephen N; Tan, Wilkinson YJ; Wazir, Nayyer Naveed; George, John

2012-01-01

78

Longitudinally extensive myelopathy in children.  

PubMed

When children present with acute myelopathy manifested by sensory, motor, or bowel and bladder symptoms, MRI of the neuraxis with contrast agent is the most important imaging study to obtain. Although occasionally normal, MRI often demonstrates signal abnormality within the spinal cord. Classically, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (?3 vertebral bodies in length) has been described with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), but alternative diagnoses should be considered. This pictorial essay reviews the differential diagnoses that may present with longitudinally extensive spinal cord signal abnormalities. Multiple inflammatory, infectious, vascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative etiologies can present with a myelopathy. Thus, radiologists can assist in the diagnosis by familiarizing themselves with the spectrum of diseases in childhood that result in longitudinally extensive signal abnormalities in the absence of trauma. PMID:25636706

Sorte, Danielle Eckart; Poretti, Andrea; Newsome, Scott D; Boltshauser, Eugen; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Izbudak, Izlem

2015-02-01

79

Intracranial Hypotension Caused by Cervical Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak: Treatment with Epidural Blood Patch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes treatment with cervical epidural blood patch of low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache resulting from spontaneous CSF leak via a tear in a cervical dural cuff. The leak was diagnosed by a dynamic computed tomography (CT)-myelography study followed by gadolinium enhanced magnetic res- onance imaging(MRI)-scan. The epidural needle was inserted with the aid of image intensifier and

Michael J. Cousins; David Brazier; Raymond Cook

2004-01-01

80

Cervical neuroblastoma.  

PubMed

Cervical neuroblastoma is relatively uncommon. It present, most often as a firm mass in the lateral neck. Primary neuroblastomas of the neck usually arise in the cervical sympathetic ganglia. They are the sixth most common head and neck extracranial neoplasms. Neuroblastoma is the most common malignancy in children under 1 year of age. No known cause of Neuroblastoma has been reported. PMID:23120455

Singh, Harjitpal; Mohan, C; Mohindroo, N K; Sharma, D R

2007-09-01

81

Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... in the United States get cervical cancer. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV is a common virus that is passed from one person to another during sex. At least half of sexually active people will ...

82

Surgical treatment for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine.  

PubMed

Although classically associated with patients of East Asian origin, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) may cause myelopathy in patients of any ethnic origin. Degeneration of the PLL is followed by endochondral ossification, resulting in spinal cord compression. Specific genetic polymorphisms and medical comorbidities have been implicated in the development of OPLL. Patients should be evaluated with a full history and neurologic examination, along with cervical radiographs. Advanced imaging with CT and MRI allows three-dimensional evaluation of OPLL. Minimally symptomatic patients can be treated nonsurgically, but patients with myelopathy or severe stenosis are best treated with surgical decompression. OPLL can be treated via an anterior (ie, corpectomy and fusion) or posterior (ie, laminectomy and fusion or laminoplasty) approach, or both. The optimal approach is dictated by the classification and extent of OPLL, cervical spine sagittal alignment, severity of stenosis, and history of previous surgery. Anterior surgery is associated with superior outcomes when OPLL occupies >50% to 60% of the canal, despite increased technical difficulty and higher complication rates. Posterior surgery is technically easier and allows decompression of the entire cervical spine, but patients may experience late deterioration because of disease progression. PMID:24966248

An, Howard S; Al-Shihabi, Laith; Kurd, Mark

2014-07-01

83

Oesophageal perforation caused by screw displacement 16?months following anterior cervical spine fixation.  

PubMed

Anterior cervical spine plating is a standard procedure for fixing unstable vertebral fractures. Following surgery, oesophageal perforation has an incidence of 0.25% and this is usually hours following surgery, due to over prominent screws or friction between the oesophagus and the plate. Instrumentation failure of these plates months or years following surgery is very rare but potentially life-threatening. We report a case of microcytic anaemia which was investigated by oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, and subsequently found that a screw from the anterior plate had lifted off and perforated the oesophagus. This is very rare, but emphasises an important lesson. Anyone presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding or infectious signs, with a history of cervical spine plating should be investigated immediately for instrumentation failure as it brings a high mortality. PMID:25796082

Leaver, Nicholas; Colby, Alexandra; Appleton, Nathan; Vimalachandran, Dale

2015-01-01

84

Relaxin deficiency in the placenta as possible cause of cervical dystocia. A case report.  

PubMed

In a case of cervical dystocia which had to be delivered by caesarean section, the placenta was examined for relaxin content. The placenta was processed by acidic acetone extraction and separation of the raw extract on a carboxymethylcellulose column. The activity of relaxin was estimated by means of heterologous porcine radioimmunoassay. The elution profile of the placenta extract showed significant differences to that of the placenta in normal deliveries i.e. there was no evidence of typical protein peaks with relaxin activity. It is suggested that there is possibly a causal relationship between the lack of placental relaxin and the pathological behaviour of the cervix during delivery. PMID:3359639

Entenmann, A H; Seeger, H; Voelter, W; Lippert, T H

1988-01-01

85

[Cervical disc herniation].  

PubMed

The cervical disc herniation is characterized by prolapsed nucleus pulposus material through the annulus into the spinal canal. The local mechanical or chemical irritation of neural structures typically leads to symptoms of radiculopathy, cervicocephalgia or myelopathy. Pronounced sensorimotor deficits or intractable pain constitute surgical treatment. In all other cases conservative treatment is indicated, including pain medication, active and passive physiotherapy, and local injections, respectively. Anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion (ACDF) is still the surgical treatment of choice. Predominantly, cages with or without plates are in use to obtain solid fusion. The implantation of a total disc replacement is a viable alternative, if no contraindications exist. Other surgical techniques may be performed in proper selected cases. The overall clinical and radiological results of both surgical and conservative treatment are good. PMID:23296562

Schnake, K J; Hoffmann, C-H; Kandziora, F

2012-12-01

86

Cervical Subarachnoid Hematoma of Unknown Origin: Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ?Objective and Importance. Spontaneous spinal subarachnoid hematoma is rare, having been reported in the English literature in only seven other cases.\\u000a We describe the first case of spontaneous subarachnoid hematoma located in the cervical spinal cord of a 43-year-old man.\\u000a The pathologic examination showed no apparent source of bleeding, but there was evidence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.\\u000a \\u000a ?Clinical Presentation. The

A. Romano; M. Marsella; N. Swamy; G. de Courten-Myers; M. Zuccarello

1999-01-01

87

Spinal cord injury secondary to cervical disc herniation in ambulatory patients with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Early onset of degeneration of the cervical spine and instability due to sustained abnormal tonicity or abnormal movement of the neck are found in patients with cerebral palsy. An unexplained change or deterioration of neurological function in patients with cerebral palsy should merit the consideration of the possibility of cervical myelopathy due to early degeneration or instability of the cervical spine. We describe two patients who had a spinal cord injury due to a cervical disc herniation, one patient was athetoid and the second had spastic diplegia, they both had cerebral palsy. It is not easy to determine whether new neurological symptoms are as a result of the cervical spinal cord disorder. These cases suggest that consideration of a cervical spine disorder with myelopathy is required in the evaluation of patients with cerebral palsy who develop deterioration of neurological function or activities over a short period of time. PMID:9589531

Ko, H Y; Park-Ko, I

1998-04-01

88

Mycobacteria causing human cervical lymphadenitis in pastoral communities in the Karamoja region of Uganda.  

PubMed

Mycobacteria from lymph node biopsies of patients with cervical lymphadenitis reporting for tuberculosis treatment in Matany and Moroto Hospitals in the transhumant areas of Karamoja, Uganda were isolated and characterized. The AccuProbe culture identification kits for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), M. avium complex (MAC) and M. avium were used to identify the isolates. Spoligotyping, IS901 PCR and IS1311 and IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were used to characterize the isolates. Of the 43 biopsies, ten M. avium, seven M. tuberculosis, three M. bovis, and two M. intracellulare were isolated. Two isolates could not be identified with AccuProbe and from 19 samples no mycobacteria could be isolated. Three isolates with the Beijing spoligotype were identified from the seven M. tuberculosis isolates. The spoligopatterns of the M. bovis isolates had previously been detected in cattle in Uganda. Isolation of members of the MAC group reflects the complex interaction between the transhumant communities, water sources and their cattle. None of the M. avium isolates harboured IS901, and all showed several bands on IS1311 and IS1245 RFLP, in accordance with M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Composite dendrograms of IS1311 and IS1245 RFLP showed that the isolates were similar and identical patterns were found. The isolation of M. bovis confirms the human infection with zoonotic mycobacteria in areas where consumption of raw milk and meat is routine. Isolation of environmental mycobacteria also confirms their increasing role in human disease and the occupational risk of infection in the transhumant ecosystem in the absence of safe drinking water and environmental contamination. PMID:17599779

Oloya, J; Opuda-Asibo, J; Kazwala, R; Demelash, A B; Skjerve, E; Lund, A; Johansen, T B; Djonne, B

2008-05-01

89

[Surgical aspects of the cervical spine in rheumatoid arthritis].  

PubMed

Approximately 20% percent of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis show pathology in the cervical spine. The translational instability between axis and atlas might be painful and leads in the long term to myelopathic changes due to chronic traumatization of the myelon. Ongoing osseous resorption of the lateral masses of the atlas cause upward migration of the dens into the foramen magnum. In the subaxial cervical spine, the inflammatory process causes instability and deformity. Neck pain is the most common indication for surgery, but neurological symptoms with myelopathy or radicular deficits might be the primary cause for surgery. Neurophysiological investigation is suitable to obtain objective results. Stabilization of the atlantoaxial segment is the most common procedure for treatment of atlantoaxial instability. It is performed by screw fixation technique from a posterior approach. In case of severe occipitocervical dislocation, the fixation has to be extended to the occiput. Persistent dislocation or compression by the dislocated dens has to be treated by transoral decompression. In the subaxial spine, instabilities may be treated by posterior plate fixation with lateral mass screws or pedicle screws. Concomitant nar-rowing of the spinal canal should be approached by anterior decompression with corpectomy and/or posterior laminectomy. The timing of surgery in rheumatoid patients is crucial to obtain satisfactory clinical results. PMID:15375655

Grob, D

2004-10-01

90

Research on the effectiveness of intermittent cervical traction therapy, using short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) were measured before and after intermittent cervical traction therapy\\u000a to serve as objective indicators of therapy effectiveness. The subjects were 29 patients with myelopathy, 23 with cervical\\u000a radiculopathy, 28 with cervical sprain, and 26 healthy individuals. SSEPs were recorded by stimulating the median nerve, and\\u000a the negative potentials elicited from the brachial plexus (N9),

Mikihiko Hattori; Yasumasa Shirai; Takafumi Aoki

2002-01-01

91

Implantation of a distractible titanium cage after cervical corpectomy: technical experience in 20 consecutive cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background. This prospective observational study was undertaken to investigate the advantages, the safety, and the drawbacks of reconstructing\\u000a a cervical corpectomy with a distractible corpectomy cage. According to the author’s literature search, this is the second clinical report on a distractible cervical corpectomy cage.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method. 20 consecutive patients underwent a single- or multi-level cervical corpectomy for spondylotic myelopathy, traumatic

M. Payer

2006-01-01

92

Cervical Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... the tissues in the cervix thin (atrophy) Cervical stenosis may result in an accumulation of blood in the uterus (hematometra). In women who are still menstruating, menstrual blood mixed with cells from the uterus may flow backward into the pelvis, possibly causing endometriosis (see ...

93

In vitro low-speed side collisions cause injury to the lower cervical spine but do not damage alar ligaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether injuries to the alar ligaments could be responsible for complaints of patients having whiplash injury in the upper cervical spine is still controversially discussed. It is known that these ligaments protect the upper cervical spine against excessive lateral bending and axial rotation movements. The objective of the present in vitro study was therefore to examine whether the alar ligaments

E. Hartwig; A. Kettler; M. Schultheiß; L. Kinzl; L. Claes; H.-J. Wilke

2004-01-01

94

Flexitouch® Home Maintenance Therapy or Standard Home Maintenance Therapy in Treating Patients With Lower-Extremity Lymphedema Caused by Treatment for Cervical Cancer, Vulvar Cancer, or Endometrial Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Lymphedema; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

2014-12-29

95

Phosphorylated neurofilament subunit NF-H becomes elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acutely worsening symptoms of compression myelopathy.  

PubMed

It is known that the severity of compression myelopathy sometimes worsens rapidly and results in poor functional recovery because of limited axonal regeneration. Levels of phosphorylated neurofilament subunit NF-H (pNF-H), which indicate axonal degeneration, are elevated in other neurological disorders. To our knowledge, there has been no examination of pNF-H levels in compression myelopathy. Therefore, we conducted a pilot cross-sectional study to evaluate pNF-H levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with worsening symptoms of cervical compression myelopathy. From January 2011 to March 2013, 51 samples of CSF were collected from patients at the time of myelography before spinal surgery. The indications for surgery were acutely worsening compression myelopathy (AM) in eight, chronic compression myelopathy (CM) in six, and lumbar canal stenosis (LCS) in 37 patients. The pNF-H levels were measured using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean ± standard deviation pNF-H value was 2127.1 ± 556.8 pg/ml in AM patients, 175.8 ± 67.38 pg/ml in CM patients and 518.7 ± 665.7 pg/ml in LCS patients. A significant increase in pNF-H levels was detected in the CSF of patients with AM compared with those with either CM or LCS. The clinical outcome of surgical treatment for patients with cervical myelopathy was satisfactory in both AM and CM patients. Despite the limitations of small sample size and lack of healthy CSF control data due to ethical considerations, our results suggest that pNF-H in CSF can act as a biomarker that reflects the severity of AM. PMID:25065845

Takahashi, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakajima, Arata; Sonobe, Masato; Terajima, Fumiaki; Saito, Masahiko; Taniguchi, Shinji; Yamada, Manabu; Watanabe, Fusako; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Yamazaki, Masashi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Nakagawa, Koichi

2014-12-01

96

Cervical extramedullary mass lesion due to chronic CSF overshunting: case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Several emerging clinical and neuroimaging conditions due to CSF intracranial hypotension have been documented. Recently,\\u000a a few instances of a severe form of cervical myelopathy due to CSF overshunting have also been reported. Patients with this\\u000a type of cervical myelopathy usually evolve with marked clinical manifestations of spinal cord involvement.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  In this article, we report a 20-year-old girl,

Juan F. Martínez-Lage; Fernando Alarcón; Raúl Alfaro; Antonio Ruíz-Espejo; Antonio López López-Guerrero; José Hernández-Abenza

2009-01-01

97

Pure traumatic upper cervical disc herniation causing spinal cord injury: a case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Abstract: One third of all spinal injuries involve cervical vertebrae, and the impact of injury to the cervical spinal cord is profound and requires systemic treatment. The role and timing of surgical decompression after an acute spinal cord injury (SCI) remains one of the most controversial topics pertaining to spinal surgery. Lack of controlled, prospective, multicenter clinical studies has contributed to confusion in optimal treatment methods for patients with injuries of the cervical spinal cord. Clinically, the question of whether surgical decompression improves motor recovery following SCI remains surrounded by controversy. Case: Two cases with a 32-year-old man who developed right -sided Brown-Séquard Syndrome Following a motor to car accident with the large right paramedian C3–C4 disc herniation, and ipsilateral spinal cord compression and a 30-year-old man with the syndrome of acute central cervical spinal cord injury with motor impairment involving only upper extremities due to central C2–C3 disc herniation following a pedestrian accident are reported. Discectomy and anterior cervical fusion with the polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage were performed. A complete motor deficit recovery and a marked sensitive deficit improvement were obtained. The need for and timing of surgical decompression in post traumatic spinal cord injury is controversial. Surgery may expedite neurological recovery in some patients and may provide additional neurological recovery when clinical improvement has plateaued or worsened. In our patient a complete motor deficit recovery was observed. Keywords: Cervical, Disc herniation, Spinal cord injury

Sharifi, Guive; Mosavi, Seyed Ali; Shafieezad, Misagh; Asgari Nosari, Massoud

2012-01-01

98

MRI morphometric characterisation of the paediatric cervical spine and spinal cord in children with MPS IVA (Morquio-Brailsford syndrome).  

PubMed

Nearly all children with MPS IVA develop skeletal deformities affecting the spine. At the atlanto-axial spine, odontoid hypoplasia occurs. GAG deposition around the dens, leads to peri-odontoid infiltration. Transverse/alar ligament incompetence causes instability. Atlanto-axial instability is associated with cord compression and myelopathy, leading to major morbidity and mortality. Intervention is often required. Does the presence of widened bullet shaped vertebra in platyspondily encroach on the spinal canal and cause spinal stenosis in MPS IVA? So far, there have been no standardised morphometric measurements of the paediatric MPS IVA cervical spine to evaluate whether there is pre-existing spinal stenosis predisposing to compressive myelopathy or whether this is purely an acquired process secondary to instability and compression. This study provides the first radiological quantitative analysis of the cervical spine and spinal cord in a series of affected children. MRI morphometry indicates that the MPS IVA spine is narrower at C1-2 level giving an inverted funnel shape. There is no evidence of a reduction in the Torg ratio (canal-body ratio) in the cervical spine. The spinal canal does not exceed 11 mm at any level, significantly smaller than normal historical cohorts (14 mm). The sagittal diameter and axial surface area of both spinal canal and cord are reduced. C1-2 level cord compression was evident in the canal-cord ratio but the Torg ratio was not predictive of cord compression. In MPS IVA the reduction in the space available for the cord (SAC) is multifactorial rather than due to congenital spinal stenosis. PMID:23404316

Solanki, Guirish A; Lo, William B; Hendriksz, Christian J

2013-03-01

99

[Cervical spondylosis].  

PubMed

Japan has now become an aging society. In 2014, people aged more than 65 years old accounted for 25.1% of Japan's entire population. Aging is associated with an increased risk of problems related to the locomotive organs. Deterioration of locomotive ability causes falls or tumbles, which would be a threat to good health and longevity of aged people. To maintain the locomotive ability of the elderly, therefore, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association starts a campaign to promote awareness and prevention of "locomotive syndrome". Cervical spondylosis is a disorder for age-related wear affecting the disks and vertebrae of cervical spine. It would also be a cause of "locomotive syndrome". Here, we give an outline of this disease and introduce its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25509798

Iwanami, Akio; Toyama, Yoshiaki

2014-10-01

100

Intracranial subdural hematoma as a cause of postoperative delirium and headache in cervical laminoplasty: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe a rare case of acute intracranial subdural hematoma as a cause of postoperative delirium and headache following cervical spine surgery. Summary of Background Data Headache is uncommon following spinal surgery, but can be observed in cases of accidental tearing of the dura during surgery. The causes of headache after surgery are thought to include dural tear and CSF leakage. On the other hand, intracranial subdural hematoma can be a cause of headache and cognitive dysfunction. However, only 4 cases as a postoperative complication of spinal surgery have been reported in the literature. Methods A 55-year-old man underwent re-explorative surgery due to postoperative hematoma causing hemiplegia following cervical laminoplasty. During this operation, accidental dural tear occurred and induced CSF leakage. On the following day, headache and delirium were noted. CSF leakage continued despite intraoperative repair of the dural laceration. Cranial CT at that time clearly demonstrated subdural hematoma. Results We reexplored the surgical site and attempted to stop the CSF leakage with meticulous suturing of the dural sac under microscopic observation. The intracranial subdural hematoma was carefully observed under consultation with a specialist neurosurgeon. Following this reexploration, the headache and delirium gradually improved, with spontaneous resolution of intracranial hematoma over a two-month period of observation. Conclusions We have reported a rare case of acute intracranial subdural hematoma caused by CSF leakage following cervical spine surgery. This report demonstrates the possibility of intracranial hematoma as a cause of postoperative cognitive dysfunction or headache, especially when accidental tearing of the dura has occurred in spinal surgery.

Habunaga, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hiroaki

2011-01-01

101

Box-Shape Cervical Expansive Laminoplasty: Clinical and Radiological Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective Box-shape cervical expansive laminoplasty is a procedure that utilizes a Miniplate® or Maxpacer® to achieve maximal canal expansion. This method is expected to show much larger canal expansion and good clinical outcome. So we investigated the clinical and radiological outcome of Box-shape cervical expansive laminoplasty. Methods Between June 2008 and July 2013, we performed cervical expansive laminoplasty in 87 and 48 patients using the Box-shape cervical expansive laminoplasty, respectively. We analyzed the clinical results of these operations using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system and by assessing the position of intralaminar screws with postoperative computed tomography (CT) at POD-6 months. Results A total of 48 patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) (36 pts), cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) (12 pts) were enrolled. Overall JOA scores improved from 11.49 to 14.22 at POD-6 months (OPLL: 11.32 -->14.3; CSM: 12-->14). Postoperative CT scans were performed in 39 patients at 177 levels for a total of 354 screws. The malpositioning rate of intralaminar screws was 3.4% and hardware-related neurologic complications did not occur. Conclusion Box-shape cervical expansive laminoplasty creates maximal spinal canal expansion and leads to improved cervical myelopathy. The use of intralaminar screws to fix the remodeled lamina-facet does not represent a significant difficulty. PMID:25346761

Park, Hae Gi; Zhang, Ho Yeol

2014-01-01

102

The optimized acupuncture treatment for neck pain caused by cervical spondylosis: a study protocol of a multicentre randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Neck pain is one of the chief symptoms of cervical spondylosis (CS). Acupuncture is a well-accepted and widely used complementary therapy for the management of neck pain caused by CS. In this paper, we present a randomized controlled trial protocol evaluating the use of acupuncture for CS neck pain, comparing the effects of the optimized acupuncture therapy in real practice compared with sham and shallow acupuncture. Methods/Design This trial uses a multicentre, parallel-group, randomized, sham acupuncture and shallow acupuncture, controlled single-blind design. Nine hospitals are involved as trial centres. 945 patients who meet inclusion criteria are randomly assigned to receive optimized acupuncture therapy, sham acupuncture or shallow acupuncture by a computerized central randomization system. The interventions past for 4 weeks with eight to ten treatments in total. The group allocations and interventions are concealed to patients and statisticians. The Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) is used as the primary outcome measure, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and The Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) are applied as secondary outcome measures. The evaluation is performed at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at the end of the first month and the third month during follow-up. The statistical analyses will include baseline data comparison and repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) for primary and secondary outcomes of group and time differences. Adverse events (AEs) will be reported if they occur. Discussion This trial is a multicentre randomized control trial (RCT) on the efficacy of acupuncture for CS neck pain and has a large sample size and central randomization in China. It will strictly follow the CONSORT statement and STRICTA extension guideline to report high-quality study results. By setting the control groups as sham and shallow acupuncture, this study attempts to reveal the effects of real acupuncture versus placebo or non-classic acupuncture treatment and evaluate whether classic Chinese medical acupuncture is effective on CS neck pain. This study will provide evidence for the effects of acupuncture on CS neck pain. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-00000184. PMID:22776567

2012-01-01

103

Is cervical decompression beneficial in patients with coexistent cervical stenosis and multiple sclerosis?  

PubMed

Cervical stenosis (CS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are two common conditions with distinctive pathophysiology but overlapping clinical manifestations. The uncertainty involved in attributing worsening symptoms to CS in patients with MS due to extremely high prevalence of asymptomatic radiological CS makes treatment decisions challenging. A retrospective review was performed analyzing the medical records of all patients with confirmed diagnosis of MS who had coexistent CS and underwent surgery for cervical radiculopathy/myeloradiculopathy. Eighteen patients with coexistent CS and MS who had undergone cervical spine decompression and fusion were identified. There were six men and 12 women with an average age of 52.7 years (range 40-72 years). Pre-operative symptoms included progressive myelopathy (14 patients), neck pain (seven patients), radiculopathy (five patients), and bladder dysfunction (seven patients). Thirteen of the 14 patients (92.9%) with myelopathy showed either improvement (4/14, 28.6%) or stabilization (9/14, 64.3%) in their symptoms with neck pain and radiculopathy improving in 100% and 80% of patients, respectively. None of the seven patients with urinary dysfunction had improvement in urinary symptoms after surgery. To conclude, cervical spine decompression and fusion can improve or stabilize myelopathy, and significantly relieve neck pain and radiculopathy in the majority of patients with coexistent CS and MS. Urinary dysfunctions appear unlikely to improve after surgery. The low rate of surgical complications in our cohort demonstrates that cervical spine surgery can be safely performed in carefully selected patients with concomitant CS and MS with a good clinical outcome and also eliminate CS as a confounding factor in the long-term management of MS patients. PMID:25088960

Tan, Lee A; Kasliwal, Manish K; Muth, Christopher C; Stefoski, Dusan; Traynelis, Vincent C

2014-12-01

104

From less to maximally invasiveness in cervical spine surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction Multilevel cervical myelopathy without surgical treatment is generally poor in the neurological deficit without surgical decompression. The two main surgical strategies used for the treatment of multilevel cervical myelopathy are anterior decompression via anterior corpectomy or posterior decompression via laminctomy/laminoplasty. Presentation of case We present the case of a 62 year-old lady, harboring rheumatoid artritis (RA) with gait disturbances, pain, and weakness in both arms. A C5 and C6 somatectomy, C4–C7 discectomy and, instrumentation and fusion with telescopic distractor “piston like”, anterior plate and expandable screws were performed. Two days later the patient complained dysfagia, and a cervical X-ray showed hardware dislocation. So a C4 somatectomy, telescopic extension of the construct up to C3 with expandible screws was performed. After one week the patient complained again soft dysfagia. New cervical X-ray showed the pull out of the cranial screws (C3). So the third surgery “one stage combined” an anterior decompression with fusion along with posterior instrumentation, and fusion was performed. Discussion There is a considerable controversy over which surgical approach will receive the best clinical outcome for the minimum cost in the compressive cervical myelopathy. However, the most important factors in patient selection for a particular procedure are the clinical symptoms and the radiographic alignment of the spine. the goals of surgery for cervical multilevel stenosis include the restoration of height, alignment, and stability. Conclusion We stress the importance of a careful patients selection, and invocated still the importance for 360° cervical fixation. PMID:25734320

Visocchi, M.; Conforti, G.; Roselli, R.; La Rocca, G.; Spallone, A.

2015-01-01

105

Contribution of disc degeneration to osteophyte formation in the cervical spine: a biomechanical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical spine disorders such as spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy are often related to osteophyte formation. Bone remodeling experimental–analytical studies have correlated biomechanical responses such as stress and strain energy density to the formation of bony outgrowth. Using these responses of the spinal components, the present study was conducted to investigate the basis for the occurrence of disc-related pathological conditions. An

Srirangam Kumaresan; Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A. Pintar; Dennis J. Maiman; Vijay K. Goel

2001-01-01

106

Hypoglossal nerve palsy from cervical spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: 3 case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blankenship LD, Basford JR, Strommen JA, Andersen RJ. Hypoglossal nerve palsy from cervical spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: 3 case reports. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:269-72. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) involvement of the cervical spine is a well-known but perhaps underappreciated phenomenon. Neurologic complications of this involvement include pain, myelopathy, and cranial nerve (CN) palsies. However, hypoglossal nerve palsy (CN XII)

Lisa D. Blankenship; Jeffrey R. Basford; Jeffrey A. Strommen; Renee J. Andersen

2002-01-01

107

Cervical cyst of the ligamentum flavum and C7-T1 subluxation: case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with progressive gait disturbance resulting from a cyst of the cervical ligamentum flavum associated with C7-T1 listhesis is reported. Surgical removal of the cyst improved the patient’s myelopathy. Intraspinal degenerative cysts are preferentially located in the lumbar region:unusual is the cervical localization. Differential diagnosis includes ligamentum flavum cyst, synovial and ganglion cysts. Association between degenerative intraspinal cysts and

Roberto Gazzeri; Marcelo Galarza; Leonardo Gorgoglione; Michele Bisceglia; Vincenzo D’Angelo

2005-01-01

108

Cervical Laminoplasty  

MedlinePLUS

... treated by taking the pressure off of the spinal cord via surgery." Figure 1. A) A side-view MRI scan ... myelopathy involves removal of the compression from the spinal cord via surgery. Laminoplasty is one of the options available, and ...

109

Comparative effectiveness of different types of cervical laminoplasty.  

PubMed

Study Design?Systematic review. Study Rationale?Numerous cervical laminoplasty techniques have been described but there are few studies that have compared these to determine the superiority of one over another. Clinical Questions?The clinical questions include key question (KQ)1: In adults with cervical myelopathy from ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) or spondylosis, what is the comparative effectiveness of open door cervical laminoplasty versus French door cervical laminoplasty? KQ2: In adults with cervical myelopathy from OPLL or spondylosis, are postoperative complications, including pain and infection, different for the use of miniplates versus the use of no plates following laminoplasty? KQ3: Do these results vary based on early active postoperative cervical motion? Materials and Methods?A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and March 11, 2013. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating (1) open door cervical laminoplasty and French door cervical laminoplasty and (2) the use of miniplates or no plates in cervical laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy or OPLL in adults. Studies involving traumatic onset, cervical fracture, infection, deformity, or neoplasms were excluded, as were noncomparative studies. Two independent reviewers (A.L.R., J.R.D.) assessed the level of evidence quality using the Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results?We identified three studies (one of class of evidence [CoE] II and two of CoE III) meeting our inclusion criteria comparing open door cervical laminoplasty with French door laminoplasty and two studies (one CoE II and one CoE III) comparing the use of miniplates with no plates. Data from one randomized controlled trial (RCT) and two retrospective cohort studies suggest no difference between treatment groups regarding improvement in myelopathy. One RCT reported significant improvement in axial pain and significantly higher short-form 36 scores in the French door laminoplasty treatment group. Overall, complications appear to be higher in the open door group than the French door group, although complete reporting of complications was poor in all studies. Overall, data from one RCT and one retrospective cohort study suggest that the incidence of complications (including reoperation, radiculopathy, and infection) is higher in the no plate treatment group compared with the miniplate group. One RCT reported greater pain as measured by the visual analog scale score in the no plate treatment group. There was no evidence available to assess the effect of early cervical motion for open door cervical laminoplasty compared with French door laminoplasty. Both studies comparing the use of miniplates and no plates reported early postoperative motion. Evidence from one RCT suggests that earlier postoperative cervical motion might reduce pain. Conclusion?Data from three comparative studies are not sufficient to support the superiority of open door cervical laminoplasty or French door cervical laminoplasty. Data from two comparative studies are not sufficient to support the superiority of the use of miniplates or no plates following cervical laminoplasty. The overall strength of evidence to support any conclusions is low or insufficient. Thus, the debate continues while opportunity exists for the spine surgery community to resolve these issues with appropriately designed clinical studies. PMID:24436708

Heller, John G; Raich, Annie L; Dettori, Joseph R; Riew, K Daniel

2013-10-01

110

Comparative Effectiveness of Different Types of Cervical Laminoplasty  

PubMed Central

Study Design?Systematic review. Study Rationale?Numerous cervical laminoplasty techniques have been described but there are few studies that have compared these to determine the superiority of one over another. Clinical Questions?The clinical questions include key question (KQ)1: In adults with cervical myelopathy from ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) or spondylosis, what is the comparative effectiveness of open door cervical laminoplasty versus French door cervical laminoplasty? KQ2: In adults with cervical myelopathy from OPLL or spondylosis, are postoperative complications, including pain and infection, different for the use of miniplates versus the use of no plates following laminoplasty? KQ3: Do these results vary based on early active postoperative cervical motion? Materials and Methods?A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and March 11, 2013. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating (1) open door cervical laminoplasty and French door cervical laminoplasty and (2) the use of miniplates or no plates in cervical laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy or OPLL in adults. Studies involving traumatic onset, cervical fracture, infection, deformity, or neoplasms were excluded, as were noncomparative studies. Two independent reviewers (A.L.R., J.R.D.) assessed the level of evidence quality using the Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results?We identified three studies (one of class of evidence [CoE] II and two of CoE III) meeting our inclusion criteria comparing open door cervical laminoplasty with French door laminoplasty and two studies (one CoE II and one CoE III) comparing the use of miniplates with no plates. Data from one randomized controlled trial (RCT) and two retrospective cohort studies suggest no difference between treatment groups regarding improvement in myelopathy. One RCT reported significant improvement in axial pain and significantly higher short-form 36 scores in the French door laminoplasty treatment group. Overall, complications appear to be higher in the open door group than the French door group, although complete reporting of complications was poor in all studies. Overall, data from one RCT and one retrospective cohort study suggest that the incidence of complications (including reoperation, radiculopathy, and infection) is higher in the no plate treatment group compared with the miniplate group. One RCT reported greater pain as measured by the visual analog scale score in the no plate treatment group. There was no evidence available to assess the effect of early cervical motion for open door cervical laminoplasty compared with French door laminoplasty. Both studies comparing the use of miniplates and no plates reported early postoperative motion. Evidence from one RCT suggests that earlier postoperative cervical motion might reduce pain. Conclusion?Data from three comparative studies are not sufficient to support the superiority of open door cervical laminoplasty or French door cervical laminoplasty. Data from two comparative studies are not sufficient to support the superiority of the use of miniplates or no plates following cervical laminoplasty. The overall strength of evidence to support any conclusions is low or insufficient. Thus, the debate continues while opportunity exists for the spine surgery community to resolve these issues with appropriately designed clinical studies. PMID:24436708

Heller, John G.; Raich, Annie L.; Dettori, Joseph R.; Riew, K. Daniel

2013-01-01

111

Nonoperative Modalities to Treat Symptomatic Cervical Spondylosis  

PubMed Central

Cervical spondylosis is a common and disabling condition. It is generally felt that the initial management should be nonoperative, and these modalities include physiotherapy, analgesia and selective nerve root injections. Surgery should be reserved for moderate to severe myelopathy patients who have failed a period of conservative treatment and patients whose symptoms are not adequately controlled by nonoperative means. A review of the literature supporting various modalities of conservative management is presented, and it is concluded that although effective, nonoperative treatment is labour intensive, requiring regular review and careful selection of medications and physical therapy on a case by case basis. PMID:21991426

Hirpara, Kieran Michael; Butler, Joseph S.; Dolan, Roisin T.; O'Byrne, John M.; Poynton, Ashley R.

2012-01-01

112

Acute compressive myelopathy due to vertebral haemangioma.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old woman with a history of anaemia presented to the emergency room with an acute onset of leg weakness. Physical examination of the bilateral lower extremities was significant for 0/5 muscle strength in all muscle groups with decreased pinprick and temperature sensation. A sensory level at the umbilicus was appreciated. Fine touch and proprioception were preserved. Bowel and bladder function were intact. CT revealed several thoracic, vertebral haemangiomatas. An MRI was suggestive of an epidural clot at the T8-T10-weighted posterior epidural space. At the level of the lesion, the cerebrospinal fluid space was completely effaced, and the flattened spinal cord exhibited signs of oedema and compressive myelopathy. The patient immediately underwent surgical decompression of the spinal cord. An epidural clot and vessel conglomeration were identified. A postoperative spinal angiogram confirmed the diagnosis of vertebral haemangioma. At 1-month follow-up, the patient regained strength and sensation. PMID:24777075

Macki, Mohamed; Bydon, Mohamad; Kaloostian, Paul; Bydon, Ali

2014-01-01

113

Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Overview What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer of the cervix. The cervix is part of your uterus (womb). ... your doctor does to check for signs of cancer of the cervix. The cells from your cervix are checked for ...

114

Cervical cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Cancer - cervix ... Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women. It is much less common in the United ... of the routine use of Pap smears . Cervical cancer starts in the cells on the surface of ...

115

Cervical spondylosis and hypertension: a clinical study of 2 cases.  

PubMed

Cervical spondylosis and hypertension are all common diseases, but the relationship between them has never been studied. Patients with cervical spondylosis are often accompanied with vertigo. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an effective method of treatment for cervical spondylosis with cervical vertigo that is unresponsive to conservative therapy. We report 2 patients of cervical spondylosis with concomitant cervical vertigo and hypertension who were treated successfully with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Stimulation of sympathetic nerve fibers in pathologically degenerative disc could produce sympathetic excitation, and induce a sympathetic reflex to cause cervical vertigo and hypertension. In addition, chronic neck pain could contribute to hypertension development through sympathetic arousal and failure of normal homeostatic pain regulatory mechanisms.Cervical spondylosis may be one of the causes of secondary hypertension. Early treatment for resolution of symptoms of cervical spondylosis may have a beneficial impact on cardiovascular disease risk in patients with cervical spondylosis. PMID:25761188

Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong

2015-03-01

116

Spinal dural ossification causing neurological signs in a cat.  

PubMed

A six-year-old Ragdoll cat underwent examination due to a six-month history of slowly progressive gait abnormalities. The cat presented with an ambulatory tetraparesis with a neurological examination indicating a C1-T2 myelopathy. Radiographs of the spine showed a radiopaque irregular line ventrally in the vertebral canal dorsal to vertebral bodies C3-C5. In this area, magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary/extradural lesion compressing the spinal cord. The spinal cord was surgically decompressed. The cause of the spinal cord compression was dural ossification, a diagnosis confirmed by histopathological examination of the surgically dissected sample of dura mater. The cat gradually improved after the procedure and was ambulating better than prior to the surgery. The cat's locomotion later worsened again due to ossified plaques in the dura causing spinal cord compression on the same cervical area as before. Oral prednisolone treatment provided temporary remission. Ten months after surgery, the cat was euthanized due to severe worsening of gait abnormalities, non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Necropsy confirmed spinal cord compression and secondary degenerative changes in the spinal cord on cervical and lumbar areas caused by dural ossification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spinal dural ossification in a cat. The reported cat showed neurological signs associated with these dural changes. Dural ossification should be considered in the differential diagnosis of compressive spinal cord disorders in cats. PMID:23777582

Antila, Johanna M; Jeserevics, Janis; Rakauskas, Mindaugas; Anttila, Marjukka; Cizinauskas, Sigitas

2013-01-01

117

Cervical spine fracture in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis causing a C2-T9 spinal epidural hematoma- Treatment resulted in a rapid and complete recovery from tetraplegia: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Full recovery from tetraplegia is uncommon in cervical spine injury. This has not being reported for cervical spine fracture in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis causing spinal epidural hematoma. We report on a case of cervical spine fracture in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis who came with tetraplegia. He underwent a two stage fixation and fusion. He had a complete recovery. Two hours after the operation he regained full strength in all the limbs while in the Intensive Care Unit. He went back to full employment. There are only two other reports in the literature where patients with ankylosing spondylitis and extradural hematoma who underwent treatment within 12 h and recovered completely from tetraparesis and paraplegia respectively. Patient with ankylosing spondylitis has a higher incidence of spinal fracture and extradural hematoma. Good outcome can be achieved by early diagnosis and treatment. This can ensure not only a stable spine, but also a rapid and complete recovery in a tetraplegic patient.

Wong, Albert Sii Hieng; Yu, Denis Hee youg

2015-01-01

118

INCREASING THE CERVICAL LORDOSIS WITH CHIROPRACTIC BIOPHYSICS SEATED COMBINED EXTENSION-COMPRESSION AND TRANSVERSE LOAD CERVICAL TRACTION WITH CERVICAL MANIPULATION: NONRANDOMIZED CLINICAL CONTROL TRIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cervical lordosis has been shown to be an important outcome of care; however, few conservative methods of rehabilitating sagittal cervical alignment have been reported. Objective: To study whether a seated, retracted, extended, and compressed position would cause tension in the anterior cervical ligament, anterior disk, and muscle structures, and thereby restore cervical lordosis or increase the curvature in patients

Deed E. Harrison; Donald D. Harrison; Joeseph J. Betz; Tadeusz J. Janik; Burt Holland; Christopher J. Colloca; Jason W. Haas

119

Cox Decompression Manipulation and Guided Rehabilitation of a Patient With a Post Surgical C6-C7 Fusion With Spondylotic Myelopathy and Concurrent L5-S1 Radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe combined treatment utilizing Cox distraction manipulation and guided rehabilitation for a patient with spine pain and post-surgical C6-7 fusion with spondylotic myelopathy and L5-S1 radiculopathy. Clinical features A 38-year-old man presented to a chiropractic clinic with neck pain and a history of an anterior cervical spine plate fusion at C6-7 after a work related accident 4 years earlier. He had signs and symptoms of spondolytic myelopathy and right lower back, right posterior thigh pain and numbness. Intervention and outcome The patient was treated with Cox technique and rehabilitation. The patient experienced a reduction of pain on a numeric pain scale from 8/10 to 3/10. The patient was seen a total of 12 visits over 3 months. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusions A patient with a prior C6-7 fusion with spondylotic myelopathy and concurrent L5-S1 radiculopathy improved after a course of rehabilitation and Cox distraction manipulation. Further research is needed to establish its efficiency. PMID:25685119

Joachim, George C.

2014-01-01

120

Traumatic Disorders of the Cervical Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The child’s cervical spine often presents a diagnostic dilemma. The presence of cervical growth plates, lack of complete ossification,\\u000a unique developmental aspects, and hypermobility are causes of confusion in the interpretation of cervical radiographs in children\\u000a with neck pain or stiffness [1]. Cervical spine radiographs in children are notoriously difficult to interpret. Lack of familiarity\\u000a with normal growth and development

Robert N. Hensinger

121

Two-level contiguous cervical disc disease treated with peek cages packed with demineralized bone matrix: results of 3-year follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interbody cages are widely used instruments for cervical fusion operations. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to clarify\\u000a if these devices are dependable. In this prospective study, 79 patients (42 women and 37 men) with a mean age of 51 years\\u000a operated between January 2000 and December 2005 for treatment of degenerative cervical disc disease and spondylosis associated\\u000a with radiculopathy or myelopathy

K?vanç Topuz; Ahmet Çolak; Serdar Kaya; Hakan ?im?ek; Murat Kutlay; Mehmet Nusret Demircan; Murat Velio?lu

2009-01-01

122

[Calcification and ossification of the posterior and longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine(author's transl)].  

PubMed

Three patients with calcification or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine are described. This abnormality is very common in Japan. Descriptions from non-Japanese sources vary considerably. The practical significance of this abnormality consists of narrowing of the spinal canal, which may result in a myelopathy. Two of our patients are Chinese, the third was a white Dutchman. PMID:125690

Orth, J O

1975-05-01

123

Treatment of Portosystemic Shunt Myelopathy with a Stent Graft Deployed through a Transjugular Intrahepatic Route  

SciTech Connect

A case of surgically created splenorenal shunt complicated with shunt myelopathy was successfully managed by placement of a stent graft within the splenic vein to close the portosystemic shunt and alleviate myelopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of shunt myelopathy in a patient with noncirrhotic portal fibrosis without cirrhosis treated by a novel technique wherein a transjugular intrahepatic route was adopted to deploy the stent graft.

Jain, Deepak, E-mail: deepakjain02@yahoo.com; Arora, Ankur, E-mail: aroradrankur@yahoo.com [Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Department of Radiology (India); Deka, Pranjal, E-mail: drpranjaldeka@gmail.com [Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery (India); Mukund, Amar, E-mail: dramarmukund@gmail.com; Bhatnagar, Shorav, E-mail: drshorav@yahoo.com [Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Department of Radiology (India); Jindal, Deepti, E-mail: deepijindal@rediffmail.com; Kumar, Niteen, E-mail: drniteenkumar@gmail.com; Pamecha, Viniyendra, E-mail: viniyendra@yahoo.co.uk [Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery (India)

2013-08-01

124

Cervical Cap  

MedlinePLUS

... and remove the cap. How Much Does It Cost? A cervical cap costs about $70 and should be replaced every year. In addition, there is also the cost of the doctor's visit. Many health insurance plans ...

125

Cervical Cryotherapy  

MedlinePLUS

Cervical Cryotherapy What is cryotherapy? Cryotherapy or a freezing treatment is a safe and effective way to ... similar to menstrual cramps during the treatment. The freezing treatment takes only 10 to 15 minutes and ...

126

Cervical Adenocarcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... The most common subtype of cervical cancer, called squamous cell carcinoma, arises from the surface lining of the ectocervix, ... successful at decreasing the number of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, it has not yet been ...

127

Portosystemic Myelopathy: A Rare Neurological Presentation of Portosystemic Shunts  

PubMed Central

Portosystemic myelopathy is an unusual complication in patients with chronic liver disease with hepatic encephalopathy and portosystemic shunts. Here we present a case of 35-year-old male patient who presented to us with difficulty in walking and progressive stiffness in both lower limbs for two months. He had undergone splenectomy with distal splenorenal shunt 20 years back. On physical examination, he had spasticity in both lower limbs of grade 3, with minimal pyramidal weakness in lower limbs, brisk knee and ankle jerks. The plantar response was extensor. Upper limb examination was normal. On investigations, he had hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, increased plasma ammonia levels. Contrast enhanced CT scan abdomen revealed dilated splenorenal shunt and MRI spine showed no spinal cord compression. Electromyoneurogram was also normal. Spastic paraparesis due to portosystemic shunts was diagnosed. Liver transplantation can reverse the myelopathy only in earlier stages, hence early and accurate diagnosis is important.

Rao, Prasanna K.S.; Sheth, Keyur A.; Nadig, Raghunandan; Patil, Mallikarjun; Channagiri, Adarsh K.

2012-01-01

128

Portosystemic myelopathy: a rare neurological presentation of portosystemic shunts.  

PubMed

Portosystemic myelopathy is an unusual complication in patients with chronic liver disease with hepatic encephalopathy and portosystemic shunts. Here we present a case of 35-year-old male patient who presented to us with difficulty in walking and progressive stiffness in both lower limbs for two months. He had undergone splenectomy with distal splenorenal shunt 20 years back. On physical examination, he had spasticity in both lower limbs of grade 3, with minimal pyramidal weakness in lower limbs, brisk knee and ankle jerks. The plantar response was extensor. Upper limb examination was normal. On investigations, he had hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, increased plasma ammonia levels. Contrast enhanced CT scan abdomen revealed dilated splenorenal shunt and MRI spine showed no spinal cord compression. Electromyoneurogram was also normal. Spastic paraparesis due to portosystemic shunts was diagnosed. Liver transplantation can reverse the myelopathy only in earlier stages, hence early and accurate diagnosis is important. PMID:25755460

Rao, Prasanna K S; Sheth, Keyur A; Nadig, Raghunandan; Patil, Mallikarjun; Channagiri, Adarsh K

2012-12-01

129

Preventing Cervical Cancer: The Development of HPV Vaccines  

Cancer.gov

Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

130

Fractures of the cervical spine  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative. PMID:24270959

Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Teixeira, William Jacobsen; Narasaki, Douglas Kenji; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

2013-01-01

131

[Pathophysiology, treatment and biomarkers for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)].  

PubMed

HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a rare neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system caused by infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1). HAM/TSP is characterized by chronic inflammation in spinal cord, leading to neurodegeneration and consequently the patients with HAM/TSP suffer from unremitting myelopathic symptoms such as spastic paraparesis, lower limb sensory disturbance, and bladder/bowel dysfunction. In the past quarter century since the discovery of this disease, significant advances have been made in the field of HAM/TSP research. Here we summarize current clinical and pathophysiological knowledge on HAM/TSP and discusses future focus areas for research on this disease. PMID:23777097

Yamano, Yoshihisa; Sato, Tomoo

2013-05-01

132

Nativity disparities in late-stage diagnosis and cause-specific survival among Hispanic women with invasive cervical cancer: An analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data  

PubMed Central

Purpose While cervical cancer screening and risk behaviors have been found to vary among U.S.- and foreign-born Hispanic women, many cancer epidemiology studies have conceptualized Hispanics as a homogenous group. Here we examine differences in cervical cancer stage at diagnosis and survival among Hispanic women by nativity. Methods We use data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, 1998–2008. Nativity was based on place of birth and was categorized as U.S.- versus foreign-born. Distant and regional tumors were classified as late-stage, while local tumors were classified as early-stage. Results Forty seven percent of cases of invasive cervical cancer among Hispanics were diagnosed at a late stage and over half of invasive cervical cancer cases were among foreign-born women. Foreign-born Hispanic women were significantly more likely than U.S.-born Hispanics to have late-stage diagnosis, after adjusting for age at diagnosis and tumor histology (adjusted odds ration= 1.09, p-value = 0.003). There was heterogeneity in the association between nativity and survival by stage at diagnosis. Among cases with early-stage diagnosis, survival was poorer among foreign-born versus U.S.-born Hispanics after adjusting for age at diagnosis, histology, and cancer-directed therapy (adjusted HR = 1.31, p-value = 0.030). However, among cases with late-stage diagnosis, survival was better among foreign--born Hispanics (adjusted HR = 0.81, p-value < 0.001). Conclusions We hypothesize that nativity differences in survival may be indicative of diverse risk, screening, and treatment profiles. Given such differences, it may be inappropriate to aggregate Hispanics as a single group for cervical cancer research. PMID:23934001

Montealegre, Jane R.; Zhou, Renke; Amirian, E. Susan; Follen, Michele; Scheurer, Michael E.

2014-01-01

133

Cervical radiculopathy.  

PubMed

Cervical radiculopathy is a condition encountered commonly in the evaluation of neck pain that may result in significant discomfort and functional deficits. Although the long-term prognosis of this condition is favorable, a standardized approach to therapy is important to minimize unnecessary tests and identify patients who require more urgent intervention. Patient education, pain control, and physical therapy are the first line of therapy. Patients who have protracted pain or significant functional deficits may require a more thorough evaluation, including imaging, electrodiagnostic testing, and, possibly, surgical referral. This article outlines the basic clinical, diagnostic, and therapy considerations in the evaluation of cervical radiculopathy. PMID:17445734

Polston, David W

2007-05-01

134

Slow ascending myelopathy, tetraplegia, carcinoma of the bladder and amyloidosis in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We report a case of slow ascending myelopathy in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Design: Case Report of a 60-year-old patient suffering from AS, who developed over a period of 39 years a slow ascending myelopathy leading to tetraplegia, squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder and amyloidosis of the small intestine secondary to neuropathic bladder and bowel. Setting:

M Zwecker; A Daich; N Blumen; G Zeilig; A Ohry

2000-01-01

135

Increased seroreactivity to HERV-K10 peptides in patients with HTLV myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Previously, we had shown that persons infected with human T-cell lymphoma leukemia virus 1 or 2 (HTLV-1 or 2) had an increased prevalence of antibodies to a peptide in the Pol protein of the retrovirus HERV-K10, homologous to a peptide in HTLV gp21 envelope protein. The prevalence rate was higher in those with myelopathy vs. non-myelopathy. We have now extended our observations to a cohort restricted to North America in whom the diagnosis of HTLV myelopathy was rigorously confirmed to also test for reactivity to another HERV-K10 peptide homologous to the HTLV p24 Gag protein. Methods Sera from 100 volunteer blood donors (VBD), 53 patients with large granular lymphocytic leukemia (LGLL), 74 subjects with HTLV-1 or 2 infection (58 non-myelopathy and 16 myelopathy) and 83 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were evaluated in ELISA assays using the above peptides. Results The HTLV myelopathy patients had a statistically significant increased prevalence of antibodies to both HERV-K10 peptides (87.5%) vs. the VBD (0%), LGLL patients (0%), MS patients (4.8%), and the HTLV positive non-myelopathy subjects (5.2%). Conclusion The data suggest that immuno-cross-reactivity to HERV-K10 peptides and/or transactivation of HERV-K10 expression by the HTLV Tax protein may be involved in the pathogenesis of HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and spastic ataxia. PMID:24365054

2013-01-01

136

Percutaneous cervical disc decompression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Cervical disc nucleoplasty is a significant and clinically demonstrated innovation in percutaneous disc decompression in case\\u000a of non-herniated disc protrusions or prolpase. It allows a percutaneous decompression via a 19-gauge needle under utilization\\u000a of the Coblation® technique and under C-arm control. Until now the patients suffering of a cervicobrachialgia in cause of a disc prolapse had\\u000a only the therapeutical solution

Klaus Birnbaum

2009-01-01

137

Neurological deterioration during intubation in cervical spine disorders  

PubMed Central

Anaesthesiologists are often involved in the management of patients with cervical spine disorders. Airway management is often implicated in the deterioration of spinal cord function. Most evidence on neurological deterioration resulting from intubation is from case reports which suggest only association, but not causation. Most anaesthesiologists and surgeons probably believe that the risk of spinal cord injury (SCI) during intubation is largely due to mechanical compression produced by movement of the cervical spine. But it is questionable that the small and brief deformations produced during intubation can produce SCI. Difficult intubation, more frequently encountered in patients with cervical spine disorders, is likely to produce greater movement of spine. Several alternative intubation techniques are shown to improve ease and success, and reduce cervical spine movement but their role in limiting SCI is not studied. The current opinion is that most neurological injuries during anaesthesia are the result of prolonged deformation, impaired perfusion of the cord, or both. To prevent further neurological injury to the spinal cord and preserve spinal cord function, minimizing movement during intubation and positioning for surgery are essential. The features that diagnose laryngoscopy induced SCI are myelopathy present on recovery, short period of unconsciousness, autonomic disturbances following laryngoscopy, cranio-cervical junction disease or gross instability below C3. It is difficult to accept or refute the claim that neurological deterioration was induced by intubation. Hence, a record of adequate care at laryngoscopy and also perioperative period are important in the event of later medico-legal proceedings. PMID:25624530

Durga, Padmaja; Sahu, Barada Prasad

2014-01-01

138

Molecular biology of cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is a virus-induced disease that is caused by the integration of high-risk infecting human papillomaviruses (HPV) in the host genome. For this reason, the carcinogenesis process of cervical cancer is associated to the expression of the viral oncogenic proteins E6 and E7. These proteins are capable of inactivating p53 and pRb, which induces a continuous cell proliferation with the increasing risk of accumulation of DNA damage that eventually leads to cancer. Moreover, cervical cancer can be prevented by prophylactic HPV vaccines; their molecular characteristics and mechanism of action are reviewed. Ultimately, new molecular targets for cervical cancer like proteasome, the EGFR family and IGF family are exposed. PMID:17594948

González Martín, A

2007-06-01

139

Screening for cervical cancer and human papilloma virus: Indian context.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer remains the most common fatal cancer in Indian women. The primary underlying cause of cervical cancer is persistent infection with human papilloma virus (HPV); HPV 16 and 18 account for nearly 70% of all cervical cancers worldwide. Cytology-based cervical screening programs have been very effective, but require establishing an infrastructure and quality control mechanisms, which can be a challenge. Cervical screening by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI) are acceptable alternatives for low-resource settings. Primary screening for cervical cancer with HPV testing is attractive but cost could be the limiting factor. A less expensive HPV test holds promise. PMID:22726999

Deodhar, Kedar K

2012-06-01

140

Clinical presentation of cervical ribs in the pediatric population.  

PubMed

Cervical ribs may cause thoracic outlet syndrome in adults, but symptoms are poorly described in children. In our series, 88.8% of the 322 children were asymptomatic. The most common symptoms were neck mass and pain. Useful diagnostic tools were cervical spine and chest radiographs. Differential diagnosis of a supraclavicular mass includes cervical ribs. PMID:23219244

Chan, Kenny H; Gitomer, Sarah A; Perkins, Jonathan N; Liang, Conan; Strain, John D

2013-03-01

141

Cervical Cancer: Screening and Therapeutic Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality and premature death among women in their most productive years in low- and medium-resourced countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, despite the fact that it is an eminently preventable cancer. While cytology screening programmes have resulted in a substantial reduction of cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, they have been shown

Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan; Somanathan Thara; Pulikottil Okkuru Esmy; Partha Basu

2008-01-01

142

Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... increased vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, or pain during sexual intercourse. (continued on next page) Cervical Cancer Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma Copyright © 2011. College of American Pathologists. For use and reproduction by patients and CAP members only. Normal cervical ...

143

Venous Congestive Myelopathy due to Chronic Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis Treated with Endovascular Stenting: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Objective Impaired inferior vena cava (IVC) outflow can lead to collateralization of blood to the valveless epidural venous plexus, causing epidural venous engorgement and venous congestion. Herein we describe a case of chronic IVC thrombosis presenting as venous congestive myelopathy treated with angioplasty and endovascular stenting. The pathophysiological mechanisms of cord injury are hypothesized, and IVC stenting application is evaluated. Methods Case report and review of the literature. Results IVC outflow obstruction has only rarely been associated with neurologic dysfunction, with reports of lumbosacral nerve root compression in the cases of IVC agenesis, compression, or occlusion. Although endovascular angioplasty with stenting is emerging as a leading treatment option for chronic IVC thrombosis, its use to treat neurologic complications is limited to one case report for intractable sciatica. Our case is the first description of IVC thrombosis presenting with venous congestive myelopathy, and treated successfully with IVC stenting. Conclusion Venous congestive myelopathy should be seen as a broader clinical condition, including not only typical dural arteriovenous fistulas, but also disorders of venous outflow. Therefore, identifying a rare, but potentially treatable, etiology is important to avoid permanent neurologic deficits. IVC stenting is proposed as a novel and effective treatment approach.

Carvalho, Diego Z.; Hughes, Joshua D.; Liebo, Greta B.; Bendel, Emily C.; Bjarnason, Haraldur; Klaas, James P.

2015-01-01

144

Nanotechnology in the management of cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer as well as the development of HPV vaccines. Early detection of cervical cancer enables tumours to be efficiently removed by surgical procedures, leading to increased survival rate. The current method of detecting cervical cancer by Pap smear can only achieve 50% sensitivity, whereas nanotechnology has been used to detect HPVs with greatly improved sensitivity. In cervical cancer treatment, nanotechnology has been used for the delivery of anticancer drugs to increase treatment efficacy and decrease side effects. Nanodelivery of HPV preventive and therapeutic vaccines has also been investigated to increase vaccine efficacy. Overall, these developments suggest that nanoparticle-based vaccine may become the most effective way to prevent and treat cervical cancer, assisted or combined with some other nanotechnology-based therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25752817

Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Kewei; Xu, Zhi Ping

2015-03-01

145

Cervical orthoses.  

PubMed

A biomechanical study is presented to compare the effectiveness of three types of off-the-shelf cervical orthoses and one custom-fit collar in restricting cervical spine motion. A group of 10 normal subjects was studied. The measurements of flexion and extension, lateral side flexion and axial rotation were recorded using various measurement techniques. Interface pressures at the chin and occiput were also measured, along with the warming effect of the collars. The results indicated that all the collars restricted neck movements, for example, the Plastazote collar by 50% of flexion and extension, and that there was no significant difference between off-the-shelf Plastazote and custom-fit collars in restricting movement. Significantly high interface pressures were recorded at the chin, with the subjects wearing the hard and Plastazote orthoses. The warming effect of the soft collar was equal to that of a wool scarf. The study was aimed at improving prescription and although the subjective observations were not validated, the subjects concluded that the custom-fit collars were more comfortable; an important point with such a high rejection rate. PMID:2717386

Beavis, A

1989-04-01

146

Vertigo in patients with cervical spine dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

To our knowledge, quantitative studies on the significance of disorders of the upper cervical spine as a cause of vertigo\\u000a or impaired hearing do not exist. We examined the cervical spines of 67 patients who presented with symptoms of dizziness.\\u000a Prior to the orthopaedic examination, causes of vertigo relating to the field of ENT and neurology had been ruled out.

R. Galm; M. Rittmeister; E. Schmitt

1998-01-01

147

Cervical and mediastinal hematoma: presentation of an asymptomatic cervical parathyroid adenoma: case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spontaneous rupture with extracapsular hemorrhage of a cervical parathyroid adenoma is a rare cause of cervical and mediastinal hematoma. We describe this case to emphasize that a failure to consider this diagnosis may result in delayed operative intervention with potentially fatal complications.

Michele Tonerini; Eugenio Orsitto; Luisa Fratini; Alessandra Tozzini; Andrea Chelli; Stefano Santi; Mauro Rossi

2004-01-01

148

Giant Anterior Cervical Osteophyte Leading to Dysphagia  

PubMed Central

Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis(DISH). Large osteophytes can produce otolaryngological symptoms such as dysphagia, dysphonia, and foreign body sensation. We describe a DISH patient with giant anterior cervical osteophyte causing chronic dysphagia and dysphonia. A 56-year-old man presented with increasing dysphagia, dysphonia, neck pain and neck stiffness. Physical examination of the neck showed a non-tender and hard mass on the left side at the level of C4-5. Radiography showed extensive ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament along the left anterolateral aspect of vertebral bodies from C2 to T1. The ossification was espe cially prominent at the level of C4-5 and linear breakage was noted at same level. Esophagogram revealed a filling defect along the pharynx and lateral displacement of the esophagus. Giant anterior cervical osteophyte was removed through the leftsided anterolateral cervical approach to the spine. Anterior cervical interbody fusion at C4-5 was followed by posterior cervical fixation using lateral mass screws from C3 to C6. After surgery, dysphagia and dysphonia improved immediately. One year later, cervical CT showed bone fusion at C4-5 bodies and no recurrence of osteophyte. DISH is a common cause of anterior cervical osteophyte leading to progressive dysphagia. Keeping this clinical entity in the differential diagnosis is important in patients with progressive neck stiffness, dysphagia or dysphonia. And surgical treatment of symptomatic anterior cervical osteophyte due to DISH should be considered with a solid fusion procedure preventing postoperative instability or osteophyte progress. PMID:24757489

Hwang, Jin Seop; Chough, Chung Kee

2013-01-01

149

Giant anterior cervical osteophyte leading to Dysphagia.  

PubMed

Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis(DISH). Large osteophytes can produce otolaryngological symptoms such as dysphagia, dysphonia, and foreign body sensation. We describe a DISH patient with giant anterior cervical osteophyte causing chronic dysphagia and dysphonia. A 56-year-old man presented with increasing dysphagia, dysphonia, neck pain and neck stiffness. Physical examination of the neck showed a non-tender and hard mass on the left side at the level of C4-5. Radiography showed extensive ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament along the left anterolateral aspect of vertebral bodies from C2 to T1. The ossification was espe cially prominent at the level of C4-5 and linear breakage was noted at same level. Esophagogram revealed a filling defect along the pharynx and lateral displacement of the esophagus. Giant anterior cervical osteophyte was removed through the leftsided anterolateral cervical approach to the spine. Anterior cervical interbody fusion at C4-5 was followed by posterior cervical fixation using lateral mass screws from C3 to C6. After surgery, dysphagia and dysphonia improved immediately. One year later, cervical CT showed bone fusion at C4-5 bodies and no recurrence of osteophyte. DISH is a common cause of anterior cervical osteophyte leading to progressive dysphagia. Keeping this clinical entity in the differential diagnosis is important in patients with progressive neck stiffness, dysphagia or dysphonia. And surgical treatment of symptomatic anterior cervical osteophyte due to DISH should be considered with a solid fusion procedure preventing postoperative instability or osteophyte progress. PMID:24757489

Hwang, Jin Seop; Chough, Chung Kee; Joo, Won Il

2013-09-01

150

Acute spinal cord compression caused by vertebral hemangioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextThe reported incidence of vertebral hemangioma within the spinal column is common. Most often these benign vascular tumors are incidental radiographic findings and do not cause neurological sequelae. Rarely, vertebral hemangiomas will cause compressive neurological symptoms, such as radiculopathy, myelopathy and paralysis. In these cases the clinical presentation is usually the subacute or delayed onset of progressive neurological symptoms.

Cary R. Templin; Jeffrey B. Stambough; Jeffery L. Stambough

2004-01-01

151

Bilateral cervical ribs in a Dobermann Pinscher.  

PubMed

An 11-year-old intact female Doberman Pinscher was presented with the complaint of non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Clinical and neurological examination revealed a caudal cervical spinal cord disfunction (C6-T2 spinal cord segments). Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic (CT) findings of the cervical spine were consistent with caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM). During the diagnostic work-up for the cervical spine, bilateral bone anomalies involving the seventh cervical vertebra and the first ribs were found on radiographs and CT examination. The rib anomalies found in this dog appear similar to cervical ribs widely described in human medicine. In people, cervical ribs are associated with a high rate of stillbirth, early childhood cancer, and can cause the thoracic outlet syndrome, characterized by neurovascular compression at level of superior aperture of the chest. In dogs, only some sporadic anatomopathological descriptions of cervical ribs exist. In this report the radiographic and CT findings of these particular vertebral and rib anomalies along with their relationships with adjacent vasculature and musculature are shown intravitam in a dog. Specific radiographic and CT findings described in this report may help in reaching a presumptive diagnosis of this anomaly. Finally, their clinical and evolutionary significance are discussed. PMID:25650786

Ricciardi, M; De Simone, A; Gernone, F; Giannuzzi, P

2015-03-17

152

New insights into cervical cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality. For over 50 years, cervical cytology has been the gold standard for cervical cancer screening. Because of its profound effect on cervical cancer mortality in nations that have adopted screening programs, the Pap smear is widely accepted as the model screening test. Since its introduction, many studies have analyzed the Pap smear and found that it is not without its shortcomings including low sensitivity for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3. Additionally, the discovery of infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) as a necessary step in the development of cervical cancer has led to the development of HPV testing as an adjunct to cytology screening. More recently, researchers have compared HPV testing and cytology in the primary screening of cervical cancer. In this review, we will discuss cytologic testing limitations, the role of HPV DNA testing as an alternative screening tool, the impact of the HPV vaccine on screening, and future directions in cervical cancer screening. PMID:23094132

Boone, Jonathan D.; Erickson, Britt K.

2012-01-01

153

Minimally invasive posterior cervical decompression using tubular retractor: The technical note and early clinical outcome  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this work is to present a novel decompression technique that approaches cervical spine posteriorly, but through minimal invasive method using tubular retractor avoiding detachment of posterior musculature. Methods: Six patients underwent minimally invasive posterior cervical decompression using the tubular retractor system and surgical microscope. Minimally invasive access to the posterior cervical spine was performed with exposure through a paramedian muscle-splitting approach. With the assistance of a specialized tubular retraction system and deep soft tissue expansion mechanism, multilevel posterior cervical decompression could be accomplished. This approach also allows safe docking of the retractor system on the lateral mass, thus avoiding the cervical spinal canal during exposure. A standard operating microscope was used with ×10 magnification and 400 mm focal length. The hospital charts, magnetic resonance imaging studies, and follow-up records of all the patients were reviewed. Outcome was assessed by neurological status and visual analog scale (VAS) for neck and arm pain. Results: There was no significant complication related to operation. The follow-up time was 4-12 months (mean, 9 months). Muscle weakness improved in all patients; sensory deficits resolved in four patients and improved in two patients. Analysis of the mean VAS for radicular pain and VAS for neck pain showed significant improvement. Conclusions: The preliminary experiences with good clinical outcome seem to promise that this minimally invasive technique is a valid alternative option for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. PMID:24778922

Hur, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jin-Sung; Shin, Myeong-Hoon; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik

2014-01-01

154

Night blindness due to vitamin A deficiency associated with copper deficiency myelopathy secondary to bowel bypass surgery.  

PubMed

We present an interesting case of combined vitamin A and copper deficiency after a history of gastric bypass surgery where symptoms improved after parenteral copper and vitamin A treatment. Gastric bypass surgery as a cause of fat soluble vitamin deficiency is generally under-reported. Copper deficiency has been reported after gastric bypass surgery. Vitamin A deficiency after gastric bypass surgery has also been reported in the literature, but the reported cases again fall below the actual figures. B12 and folate deficiencies can produce a type of myelopathy similar to that produced by copper deficiency, and differentiation on the basis of laboratory tests, neurophysiology and improvement of symptoms after replacement therapy might be the hallmark of diagnosis. Combinations of vitamin deficiencies were previously reported, but no cases of combined vitamin A and copper deficiency could be found in the literature. PMID:24781845

AlHassany, Ali Abdul Jabbar

2014-01-01

155

Rel\\/Nuclear factor-kappa B apoptosis pathways in human cervical cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical cancer is considered a common yet preventable cause of death in women. It has been estimated that about 420 women out of the 1400 women diagnosed with cervical cancer will die during 5 years from diagnosis. This review addresses the pathogenesis of cervical cancer in humans with a special emphasis on the human papilloma virus as a predominant cause

Marlene F Shehata

2005-01-01

156

Surgical management of cervical and lumbosacral radiculopathies: indications and outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical and lumbosacral radiculopathies are common, but most are transient and rarely require anything more than symptomatic treatment. Although persistent radiculopathies can be caused by serious medical condi- tions, such as demyelinating diseases, cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) defi- ciency, syphilis, herpes, and others, the subject of this article is limited to cervical and lumbosacral radiculopathies caused by compression, most com- monly

Phillip B. Storm; Dean Chou; Rafael J. Tamargo

2002-01-01

157

Cervical Paravertebral Osteolipoma: Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Lipomas are the most frequent soft tissue tumors. Osteolipomas are a rare variant that can be difficult to diagnose. We report the case of a 66-year-old man consulting with a tumor of 2 years development in the right paravertebral cervical region. Neurologically, the patient had no sign of myelopathy or neurological focality. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass with a lipid component and calcifications inside within the right paravertebral musculature with a possible origin in the right C3 posterior root. A computed tomography scan and guided biopsy were performed, revealing hematic material and small bone spicules with no apparent neoplastic element. The tumor was totally removed, including the right C3 posterior branch, and was confirmed to be an osteolipoma on biopsy. The patient remains asymptomatic at 6-month follow-up. The osteolipoma is a benign tumor of soft tissue, characterized by lipoma areas with mature bone tissue differentiation, and even with hematopoietic marrow.

Guirro, Pau; Saló, Guillem; Molina, Antoni; Lladó, Andreu; Puig-Verdié, Lluís

2015-01-01

158

Hipertricosis cervical anterior esporádica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior cervical hypertrichosis was described by Trattner and coworkers in 1991. It consists of a «tuft» of hair at the anterior cervical level just above the laryngeal prominence. To date, only 28 cases of anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Although it is normally an isolated finding, it may be associated with mental retardation, hallux valgus, retinal disorders, other hair

B. Monteagudo; M. Cabanillas; C. de las Heras; J. M. Cacharrón

2009-01-01

159

Isolated Anterior Cervical Hypertrichosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior cervical hypertrichosis was described by Trattner and coworkers in 1991. It consists of a «tuft» of hair at the anterior cervical level just above the laryngeal prominence. To date, only 28 cases of anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Although it is normally an isolated finding, it may be associated with mental retardation, hallux valgus, retinal disorders, other hair

B. Monteagudo; M. Cabanillas; C. de las Heras; J. M. Cacharr?n

2009-01-01

160

Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

2015-02-27

161

Veliparib, Topotecan Hydrochloride, and Filgrastim or Pegfilgrastim in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

2015-03-11

162

Vertebroplasty of Cervical Vertebra  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The first vertebroplasty was performed by Harve Deramond in France in 1984 due to a hemangioma of cervical vertebral body. Procedure technique consisted of inserting a needle through the bony palate of the oral cavity. Bone cement injected under pressure not only fills the areas of bone loss. The heat released in the process of crystallization causes denaturation of pathological tissue proteins (metastasis) and disrupts blood supply (hemangiomas). The aim of this study was to evaluate the method of treatment from anterolateral access. Material/Methods In the years 2007–2012 the procedure was performed in 6 men and 9 women aged from 42 to 71 years (mean age: 56.3 years). In 10 cases the reason for vertebroplasty was the vertebral hemangioma, in another 4 – pathological vertebral fractures due to metastases, and in one case – multiple myeloma. Procedures were performed from anterolateral access, under local anesthesia, under x-ray guidance (fluoroscopy). Bone needle was inserted into the vertebral body, followed by injection of PMMA cement. Results In 100% cases pain relief was observed immediately after the procedure and beneficial therapeutic effect was obtained. No life-threatening complications and clinical symptoms were observed. Average length hospital stay amounted to 2.9 days. Conclusions Cervical spine vertebroplasty from anterolateral access seems to be a safe, effective and beneficial method of treatment. It reduces the risk of infection in comparison to the transoral method. PMID:25674195

Kordecki, Kazimierz; Lewszuk, Andrzej; Pu?awska-Stalmach, Magdalena; Michalak, Pawe?; ?ukasiewicz, Adam; Sackiewicz, Izabela; Polaków, Piotr; Rutka, Katarzyna; ?ebkowski, Wojciech; ?ebkowska, Urszula

2015-01-01

163

Upper Cervical Spine Trauma.  

PubMed

Injuries to the upper cervical spine are potentially lethal; thus, full characterization of the injuries requires an accurate history and physical examination, and management requires an in-depth understanding of the radiographic projection of the craniocervical complex. Occipital condyle fractures may represent major ligament avulsions and may be highly unstable, requiring surgery. Craniocervical dissociation results from disruption of the primary osseoligamentous stabilizers between the occiput and C2. Dynamic fluoroscopy can differentiate the subtypes of craniocervical dissociation and help guide treatment. Management of atlas fractures is dictated by transverse alar ligament integrity. Atlantoaxial dislocations are rotated, translated, or distracted and are treated with a rigid cervical orthosis or fusion. Treatment of odontoid fractures is controversial and dictated by fracture characteristics, patient comorbidities, and radiographic findings. Hangman's fractures of the axis are rarely treated surgically, but atypical patterns and displaced fractures may cause neurologic injury and should be reduced and fused. Management of injuries to the craniocervical junction remains challenging, but good outcomes can be achieved with a comprehensive plan that consists of accurate and timely diagnosis and stabilization of the craniocervical junction. PMID:25344597

Bransford, Richard J; Alton, Timothy B; Patel, Amit R; Bellabarba, Carlo

2014-11-01

164

Maple Syrup Urine Disease Complicated with Kyphoscoliosis and Myelopathy.  

PubMed

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive aminoacidopathy secondary to an enzyme defect in the catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine, and valine). Accumulation of their corresponding keto-acids leads to encephalopathy if not treated in time. A newborn male patient was suspected to have MSUD after tandem mass study when he presented symptoms and signs suggestive neonatal sepsis, anemia, and diarrhea. Food restriction of BCAAs was started; however, acrodermatitis enteropathica-like skin eruptions occurred at age 2 months. The skin rashes resolved after adding BCAAs and adjusting the infant formula. At age 7 months, he suffered from recurrent skin lesions, zinc deficiency, osteoporosis, and kyphosis of the thoracic spine with acute angulation over the T11-T12 level associated with spinal compression and myelopathy. After supplementation of zinc products and pamidronate, skin lesions and osteopenia improved gradually. Direct sequencing of the DBT gene showed a compound heterozygous mutation [4.7 kb deletion and c.650-651insT (L217F or L217fsX223)]. It is unusual that neurodegeneration still developed in this patient despite diet restriction. Additionally, brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging, bone mineral density study, and monitoring of zinc status are suggested in MSUD patients. PMID:24486081

Hou, Jia-Woei

2014-01-29

165

Regorafenib-induced transverse myelopathy after stereotactic body radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivers large doses of radiation with great accuracy, but is known to have deleterious effects on the vascular compartment of irradiated tissues. Combining SBRT with targeted anti-angiogenesis agents, while able to increase therapeutic efficacy, may unexpectedly precipitate vascular-based toxicities. In this report, we describe a patient with colon cancer who developed transverse myelopathy from regorafenib 2 years after receiving SBRT for three metastatic liver lesions. Regorafenib (Stivarga), formerly BAY 73-4506, (Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Montville, NJ) is a multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with anti-angiogenic effects used in metastatic colon cancer. Its most common side effects are fatigue, diarrhea and hypertension. However, severe neurologic toxicity has not been previously recognized. Here, we illustrate a case in which the patient developed hyperalgesia and radicular pain 2 weeks after starting regorafenib. Several studies report an increased neurological toxicity when angiogenesis inhibitors are given after radiation therapy, and we postulate that the angioinhibitory effects of regorafenib accelerated subclinical microvascular injury from SBRT. This unexpected toxicity may be clinically relevant when giving targeted angiogenesis inhibitors after SBRT. PMID:25436137

Tian, Sibo; Nissenblatt, Michael

2014-01-01

166

Analysis of cervical injuries in persons with head injuries.  

PubMed

To determine which clinical factors are useful for predicting concomitant injuries of the cervical spine and cervical spinal cord in persons with head injuries, we examined the nature and mechanisms of cervical injuries. For 109 forensic autopsies of persons with head injuries, the cause of injury, mechanism of cervical injury, survival time, and anatomic injury severity (1990 revision of the abbreviated injury scale [AIS] and injury severity score) were determined. Traffic accidents were the most common cause of injuries (41.3%), followed by slips and falls (24.8%), assaults (17.4%), and falls from height (9.2%). The mean maximum AIS scores and the AIS scores of the head or neck were similar in the 4 groups. Cervical spine injuries and epidural or subdural hemorrhages of the cervical spinal cord were more common in persons dying in traffic accidents and falls from height than in persons dying in slips and falls or assaults. Cervical injuries were significantly more common in persons sustaining frontal impacts than lateral or rear impacts. The most common cervical hyperextension injuries were atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial dislocation and injuries of the 5th intervertebral disc. Our results suggest that persons with injuries of the head due to high-energy frontal impacts should be carefully examined for concomitant cervical injuries. These findings should be helpful for decreasing preventable deaths from undiagnosed cervical injuries in head-injured persons. PMID:19749612

Hitosugi, Masahito; Maegawa, Mayumi; Motozawa, Yasuki; Kido, Masahito; Kawato, Hitoshi; Nagai, Toshiaki; Tokudome, Shogo

2008-03-01

167

Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesHigh-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined.MethodsThe placebo arms of two large, multinational, clinical trials of an HPV6\\/11\\/16\\/18 vaccine were combined. A total of 8441 healthy women

Matti Lehtinen; Kevin A Ault; Erika Lyytikainen; Joakim Dillner; Suzanne M Garland; Daron G Ferris; Laura A Koutsky; Heather L Sings; Shuang Lu; Richard M Haupt; Jorma Paavonen

2011-01-01

168

ADXS11-001 High Dose HPV+ Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Effects of Immunotherapy; Metastatic/Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

2015-02-25

169

Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer has spread to nearby organs or the lymph nodes , the tumors can affect how those organs work. ... invading organisms, such as bacteria that cause disease. Lymph Nodes: Small glands that filter the flow of lymph ( ...

170

Canine degenerative myelopathy: biochemical characterization of superoxide dismutase 1 in the first naturally occurring non-human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model.  

PubMed

Mutations in canine superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have recently been shown to cause canine degenerative myelopathy, a disabling neurodegenerative disorder affecting specific breeds of dogs characterized by progressive motor neuron loss and paralysis until death, or more common, euthanasia. This discovery makes canine degenerative myelopathy the first and only naturally occurring non-human model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), closely paralleling the clinical, pathological, and genetic presentation of its human counterpart, SOD1-mediated familial ALS. To further understand the biochemical role that canine SOD1 plays in this disease and how it may be similar to human SOD1, we characterized the only two SOD1 mutations described in affected dogs to date, E40K and T18S. We show that a detergent-insoluble species of mutant SOD1 is present in spinal cords of affected dogs that increases with disease progression. Our in vitro results indicate that both canine SOD1 mutants form enzymatically active dimers, arguing against a loss of function in affected homozygous animals. Further studies show that these mutants, like most human SOD1 mutants, have an increased propensity to form aggregates in cell culture, with 10-20% of cells possessing visible aggregates. Creation of the E40K mutation in human SOD1 recapitulates the normal enzymatic activity but not the aggregation propensity seen with the canine mutant. Our findings lend strong biochemical support to the toxic role of SOD1 in canine degenerative myelopathy and establish close parallels for the role mutant SOD1 plays in both canine and human disorders. PMID:23707216

Crisp, Matthew J; Beckett, Jeffrey; Coates, Joan R; Miller, Timothy M

2013-10-01

171

Canine Degenerative Myelopathy: Biochemical characterization of superoxide dismutase 1 in the first naturally occurring non-human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model1  

PubMed Central

Mutations in canine superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have recently been shown to cause canine degenerative myelopathy, a disabling neurodegenerative disorder affecting specific breeds of dogs characterized by progressive motor neuron loss and paralysis until death, or more common, euthanasia. This discovery makes canine degenerative myelopathy the first and only naturally occurring non-human model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), closely paralleling the clinical, pathological, and genetic presentation of its human counterpart, SOD1-mediated familial ALS. To further understand the biochemical role that canine SOD1 plays in this disease and how it may be similar to human SOD1, we characterized the only two SOD1 mutations described in affected dogs to date, E40K and T18S. We show that a detergent-insoluble species of mutant SOD1 is present in spinal cords of affected dogs that increases with disease progression. Our in vitro results indicate that both canine SOD1 mutants form enzymatically active dimers, arguing against a loss of function in affected homozygous animals. Further studies show that these mutants, like most human SOD1 mutants, have an increased propensity to form aggregates in cell culture, with 10-20% of cells possessing visible aggregates. Creation of the E40K mutation in human SOD1 recapitulates the normal enzymatic activity but not the aggregation propensity seen with the canine mutant. Our findings lend strong biochemical support to the toxic role of SOD1 in canine degenerative myelopathy and establish close parallels for the role mutant SOD1 plays in both canine and human disorders. PMID:23707216

Crisp, Matthew J.; Beckett, Jeffrey; Coates, Joan R.; Miller, Timothy M.

2013-01-01

172

Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV vaccines; and (ii) secondary prevention by increasing the accuracy of cervical cancer screening. PMID:24893303

Muñoz, Nubia

2012-01-01

173

Cervical surgery for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: One spine surgeon's perspective  

PubMed Central

Background: The selection, neurodiagnostic evaluation, and surgical management of patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) remain controversial. Whether for prophylaxis or treatment, the decision to perform anterior vs. posterior vs. circumferential cervical OPLL surgery is complex. MR and CT Documentation of OPLL: Together, MR and CT cervical studies best document the full extent of OPLL. While MR provides the optimal soft-tissue overview (e.g. hyperintense signals reflecting edema/myelomalacia in the cord), CT's directly demonstrate the ossification of OPLL often “missed” by MR (e.g. documents the single or double layer signs of dural penetration. Patient Selection: Patients with mild myelopathy/cord compression rarely require surgery, while those with moderate/severe myelopathy/cord compression often warrant anterior, posterior, or circumferential approaches. Operative Approaches: Anterior corpectomies/fusions, warranted in patients with OPLL and kyphosis/loss of lordosis, also increase the risks of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks (e.g. single/double layer sign), and vascular injuries (e.g. carotid, vertebral). Alternatively, with an adequate lordosis, posterior procedures (e.g. often with fusions), may provide adequate multilevel decompression while minimizing risk of anterior surgery. Occasionally, combined pathologies may warrant circumferential approaches. Anesthetic and Intraoperative Monitoring Protocols: The utility of awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation/awake positioning, intraoperative somatosensory/motor evoked potential, and electromyographic monitoring, and the requirement for total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) for OPLL surgery is also discussed. Conclusion: Anterior, posterior, or circumferential surgery may be warranted to treat patients with cervical OPLL, and must be based on careful patient selection, and both MR and CT documentation of the full extent of OPLL. PMID:24843818

Epstein, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

174

How protective is cervical cancer screening against cervical cancer mortality in developing countries? The Colombian case  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer is one of the top causes of cancer morbidity and mortality in Colombia despite the existence of a national preventive program. Screening coverage with cervical cytology does not explain the lack of success of the program in reducing incidence and mortality rates by cervical cancer. To address this problem an ecological analysis, at department level, was carried out in Colombia to assess the relationship between cervical screening characteristics and cervical cancer mortality rates. Methods Mortality rates by cervical cancer were estimated at the department level for the period 2000-2005. Levels of mortality rates were compared to cervical screening coverage and other characteristics of the program. A Poisson regression was used to estimate the effect of different dimensions of program performance on mortality by cervical cancer. Results Screening coverage ranged from 28.7% to 65.6% by department but increases on this variable were not related to decreases in mortality rates. A significant reduction in mortality was found in departments where a higher proportion of women looked for medical advice when abnormal findings were reported in Pap smears. Geographic areas where a higher proportion of women lack health insurance had higher rates of mortality by cervical cancer. Conclusions These results suggest that coverage is not adequate to prevent mortality due to cervical cancer if women with abnormal results are not provided with adequate follow up and treatment. The role of different dimensions of health care such as insurance coverage, quality of care, and barriers for accessing health care needs to be evaluated and addressed in future studies. PMID:20846446

2010-01-01

175

Cervical involvement of diffuse idiophatic skeletal hyperostosis with dysphagia and rhinolalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteophytosis in degenerative joint diseases of the cervical spine may result in dysphagia. Recently, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) or Forestier's disease has also been identified as a cause of dysphagia. A case of DISH with cervical involvement producing dysphagia and rhinolalia is presented. The symptomatology, radiographic features and treatment of DISH involving the cervical region are discussed. The diagnosis

S. Kristensen; K. M. Sander; P. R. Pedersen

1988-01-01

176

Epidemiologic Classification of Human Papillomavirus Types Associated with Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the risk associated with the various HPV types has not been adequately assessed. methods We pooled data from 11 case-control studies from nine countries involving 1918 wom- en with histologically confirmed squamous-cell cervical cancer and 1928 control wom- en. A common protocol and questionnaire were

Nubia Muñoz; F. Xavier Bosch; Silvia de Sanjosé; Rolando Herrero; Xavier Castellsagué; Keerti V. Shah; Peter J. F. Snijders; Chris J. L. M. Meijer

2003-01-01

177

Isolated Echinococcosis of cervical region  

PubMed Central

Echinococcosis, commonly called as hydatid disease, is a parasitic infestation caused by the larva of the genus Echinococcus in human. Isolated occurrence of Echinococcosis without any evidence of visceral disease is very rare. A thorough search of the literature revealed only 11 cases of isolated cervical Echinococcosis. We report here a very rare case of isolated hydatid cyst in a 45-year-old female patient, who presented with swelling in right cervical region about 5 cm below the angle of mandible with no evidence of the disease elsewhere in the body. The case was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. The diagnosis was further supported by histopathology. We propose that the treating physician should also consider the differential diagnosis of Echinococcosis in the presence of an asymptomatic soft tissue mass, especially when the patient lives in an endemic area. PMID:25210241

Khare, Pratima; Kala, Pooja; Gupta, Renu; Chauhan, Nidhi

2014-01-01

178

Pediatric cervical spine instability  

PubMed Central

Cervical spine instability in children is rare but not exceptional and may be due to many factors. Although it mostly occurs at the upper cervical spine, all vertebrae from the occiput to T1 may be involved. It may be acute or chronic, occurring secondary to trauma or due to congenital anomaly, skeletal or metabolic dystrophy or rheumatoid arthritis. It can be isolated or associated with other musculoskeletal or visceral anomalies. A thorough knowledge of embryology, anatomy, physiology and physiopathology of the cervical spine in children is essential to avoid pitfalls, recognize normal variants and identify children at risk of developing cervical spine instability and undertake the appropriate treatment. PMID:19308585

El Hage, Samer; Rachkidi, Rami; Kharrat, Khalil; Dagher, Fernand; Kreichati, Gabi

2008-01-01

179

Automated image analysis of uterine cervical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cervical Cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and the leading cause of cancer mortality of women in developing countries. If detected early and treated adequately, cervical cancer can be virtually prevented. Cervical precursor lesions and invasive cancer exhibit certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician with a Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system. In colposcopy, epithelium that turns white after application of acetic acid is called acetowhite epithelium. Acetowhite epithelium is one of the major diagnostic features observed in detecting cancer and pre-cancerous regions. Automatic extraction of acetowhite regions from cervical images has been a challenging task due to specular reflection, various illumination conditions, and most importantly, large intra-patient variation. This paper presents a multi-step acetowhite region detection system to analyze the acetowhite lesions in cervical images automatically. First, the system calibrates the color of the cervical images to be independent of screening devices. Second, the anatomy of the uterine cervix is analyzed in terms of cervix region, external os region, columnar region, and squamous region. Third, the squamous region is further analyzed and subregions based on three levels of acetowhite are identified. The extracted acetowhite regions are accompanied by color scores to indicate the different levels of acetowhite. The system has been evaluated by 40 human subjects' data and demonstrates high correlation with experts' annotations.

Li, Wenjing; Gu, Jia; Ferris, Daron; Poirson, Allen

2007-03-01

180

Bevacizumab, Radiation Therapy, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer

2014-09-22

181

Trend of Pharmacopuncture Therapy for Treating Cervical Disease in Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze trends in domestic studies on pharmacopuncture therapy for treating cervical disease. Methods: This study was carried out on original copies and abstracts of theses listed in databases or published until July 2014. The search was made on the Oriental medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS) the National Digital Science Library (NDSL), and the Korean traditional knowledge portal. Search words were ‘pain on cervical spine’, ‘cervical pain’, ‘ruptured cervical disk’, ‘cervical disc disorder’, ‘stiffness of the neck’, ‘cervical disk’, ‘whiplash injury’, ‘cervicalgia’, ‘posterior cervical pain’, ‘neck disability’, ‘Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP)’, and ‘Herniated Intervertebral Disc (HIVD)’. Results: Twenty-five clinical theses related to pharmacopuncture were selected and were analyzed by year according to the type of pharmacopuncture used, the academic journal in which the publication appeared, and the effect of pharmacopuncture therapy. Conclusion: The significant conclusions are as follows: (1) Pharmacopunctures used for cervical pain were Bee venom pharmacopuncture, Carthami-flos pharmacopuncture, Scolopendra pharmacopuncture, Ouhyul pharmacopuncturen, Hwangryun pharmacopuncture, Corpus pharmacopuncture, Soyeom pharmacopuncture, Hwangryunhaedoktang pharmacopuncture, Shinbaro phamacopuncture. (2) Randomized controlled trials showed that pharmacopuncture therapy combined with other methods was more effective. (3) In the past, studies oriented toward Bee venom pharmacopuncture were actively pursued, but the number of studies on various other types of pharmacopuncture gradually began to increase. (4) For treating a patient with cervical pain, the type of pharmacopuncture to be used should be selected based on the cause of the disease and the patient’s condition. PMID:25780714

Kim, Seok-Hee; Jung, Da-Jung; Choi, Yoo-Min; Kim, Jong-Uk; Yook, Tae-Han

2014-01-01

182

Cranio cervical tuberculous hypertrophic pachymeningitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a unique clinical entity characterized by fibrosis and thickening of dura mater resulting in neurological dysfunction. It could be idiopathic or due to variety of inflammatory and infectious conditions. Tuberculous hypertrophic pachymeningitis involving cranio cervical region is rarely reported. Case Description: A 50-year-old female presented with history of progressive quadriparesis and stiffness of neck for 2 years, dysphagia to liquid for past 3 months. Her condition rapidly deteriorated when another physician prescribed her corticosteroid. Physical examination revealed high cervical compressive myelo-radiculopathy with lower cranial nerve palsy and neck rigidity. Series of serum analysis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study and contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clinched the diagnosis. She improved on antitubercular treatment. Conclusion: In case of multilevel cervical compressive myelo-radiculopathy with lower cranial involvement, possibility of hypertrophic pachymeningitis should be kept in mind. Before diagnosing it as idiopathic, infectious causes should be excluded otherwise prescription of corticosteroid will flare up the disease process. PMID:24818059

Senapati, Satya Bhusan; Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Das, Srikanta; Parida, Deepak Kumar; Satapathy, Mani Charan

2014-01-01

183

Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels of analysis: naive reading, structural analysis and critical interpretation. Results These revealed that women were unprepared for screening results showing cervical cell changes, since they had no symptoms. When diagnosed, participants believed that they had early-stage cancer, leading to feelings of vulnerability and an increased need to care for themselves. Later on, an understanding of HPV as the basis for diagnosis and the realization that disease might not be accompanied by symptoms developed. The outcome for participants was a life experience, which they used to encourage others to participate in screening and to suggest ways that information about screening and HPV might reach a wider Greenlandic population. Conclusion Women living through the process of cervical disease, treatment and follow-up develop knowledge about HPV, cervical cell changes, cervical disease and their connection, which, if used to inform cervical screening programmes, will improve the quality of information about HPV, cervical cancer and screening participation. This includes that verbal and written information given at the point of screening and diagnosis needs to be complemented by visual imagery. PMID:23984277

Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle; Bradley, Stephen K.; Møller, Suzanne

2013-01-01

184

Stabilization with the Dynamic Cervical Implant: a novel treatment approach following cervical discectomy and decompression.  

PubMed

OBJECT Although cervical total disc replacement (TDR) has shown equivalence or superiority to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), potential problems include nonphysiological motion (hypermobility), accelerated degeneration of the facet joints, particulate wear, and compromise of the mechanical integrity of the endplate during device fixation. Dynamic cervical stabilization is a novel motion-preserving concept that facilitates controlled, limited flexion and extension, but prevents axial rotation and lateral bending, thereby reducing motion across the facet joints. Shock absorption of the Dynamic Cervical Implant (DCI) device is intended to protect adjacent levels from accelerated degeneration. METHODS The authors conducted a prospective evaluation of 53 consecutive patients who underwent DCI stabilization for the treatment of 1-level (n = 42), 2-level (n = 9), and 3-level (n = 2) cervical disc disease with radiculopathy or myelopathy. Forty-seven patients (89%) completed all clinical and radiographic outcomes at a minimum of 24 months. Clinical outcomes consisted of Neck Disability Index (NDI) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores, neurological function at baseline and at latest follow-up, as well as patient satisfaction. Flexion-extension radiography was evaluated for device motion, implant migration, subsidence, and heterotopic ossification. Cervical sagittal alignment (Cobb angle), functional spinal unit (FSU) angle, and range of motion (ROM) at index and adjacent levels were evaluated with WEB 1000 software. RESULTS The NDI score, VAS neck and arm pain scores, and neurological deficits were significantly reduced at each postoperative time point compared with baseline (p < 0.0001). At 24 months postoperatively, 91% of patients were very satisfied and 9% somewhat satisfied, while 89% would definitely and 11% would probably elect to have the same surgery again. In 47 patients with 58 operated levels, the radiographic assessment showed good motion (5°-12°) of the device in 57%, reduced motion (2°-5°) in 34.5%, and little motion (0-2°) in 8.5%. The Cobb and FSU angles improved, showing a clear tendency for lordosis with the DCI. Motion greater than 2° of the treated segment could be preserved in 91.5%, while 8.5% had a near segmental fusion. Mean ROM at index levels demonstrated satisfying motion preservation with DCI. Mean ROM at upper and lower adjacent levels showed maintenance of adjacent-level kinematics. Heterotopic ossification, including 20% minor and 15% major, had no direct impact on clinical results. There were 2 endplate subsidences detected with an increased segmental lordosis. One asymptomatic anterior device migration required reoperation. Three patients underwent a secondary surgery in another segment during follow-up, twice for a new disc herniation and once for an adjacent degeneration. There was no posterior migration and no device breakage. CONCLUSIONS Preliminary results indicate that the DCI implanted using a proper surgical technique is safe and facilitates excellent clinical outcomes, maintains index-and adjacent-level ROM in the majority of cases, improves sagittal alignment, and may be suitable for patients with facet arthrosis who would otherwise not be candidates for cervical TDR. Shock absorption together with maintained motion in the DCI may protect adjacent levels from early degeneration in longer follow-up. PMID:25555050

Matgé, Guy; Berthold, Christophe; Gunness, Vimal Raj Nitish; Hana, Ardian; Hertel, Frank

2015-03-01

185

Seropositive Neuromyelitis Optica imitating an Intramedullary Cervical Spinal Cord Tumor: Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old woman with progressive cervical myelopathy and central cord syndrome was noted to have an extensive cervical intramedullary contrast-enhancing lesion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The lesion resembled a spinal astrocytoma or ependymoma that required surgical intervention. She was subsequently diagnosed to have neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a rare idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disorder, when the clinical examination revealed left optic atrophy. This was confirmed by a test showing seropositivity for NMO-immunoglobulin (IgG). Disease control was achieved with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy. We report a rare case of a patient with NMO who had MRI features that could have easily led to the condition being misdiagnosed as a spinal cord tumor. The importance of careful history taking, awareness of typical radiological findings and the usefulness of serum NMO-IgG as a diagnostic tool are emphasized. PMID:25346824

Woo, Peter Yat-Ming; Chiu, Jennifer Hiu-Fung; Leung, Kar-Ming; Chan, Kwong-Yau

2014-10-01

186

Pure Spinal Epidural Cavernous Hemangioma with Intralesional Hemorrhage: A Rare Cause of Thoracic Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Although cavernous hemangiomas occur frequently in the intracranial structures, they are rare in the spine. Most of spinal hemangiomas are vertebral origin and "pure" epidural hemangiomas not originating from the vertebral bone are very rare. Our spinal hemangioma case is extremely rare because of its "pure" epidural involvement and intralesional hemorrhage. A 64-year-old man presented with progressive paraparesis from two months ago. His motor weakness was rated as grade 4/5 in bilateral lower extremities. He also complained of decreased sensation below the T4 sensory dermatome, which continuously progressed to the higher dermatome level. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated thoracic spinal tumor at T3-T4 level. The tumor was located epidural space compressing thoracic spinal cord ventrally. The tumor was not involved with the thoracic vertebral bone. We performed T3-5 laminectomy and removed the tumor completely. The tumor was not infiltrating into intradural space or vertebral bone. The histopathologic study confirmed the epidural tumor as cavernous hemangioma. Postoperatively, his weakness improved gradually. Four months later, his paraparesis recovered completely. Here, we present a case of pure spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma, which has intralesional hemorrhage. We believe cavernous hemangioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of the spinal epidural tumors. PMID:25110490

Jang, Donghwan; Kim, Choonghyo; Lee, Seung Jin; Ryu, Young-Joon

2014-01-01

187

Pure spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma with intralesional hemorrhage: a rare cause of thoracic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Although cavernous hemangiomas occur frequently in the intracranial structures, they are rare in the spine. Most of spinal hemangiomas are vertebral origin and "pure" epidural hemangiomas not originating from the vertebral bone are very rare. Our spinal hemangioma case is extremely rare because of its "pure" epidural involvement and intralesional hemorrhage. A 64-year-old man presented with progressive paraparesis from two months ago. His motor weakness was rated as grade 4/5 in bilateral lower extremities. He also complained of decreased sensation below the T4 sensory dermatome, which continuously progressed to the higher dermatome level. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated thoracic spinal tumor at T3-T4 level. The tumor was located epidural space compressing thoracic spinal cord ventrally. The tumor was not involved with the thoracic vertebral bone. We performed T3-5 laminectomy and removed the tumor completely. The tumor was not infiltrating into intradural space or vertebral bone. The histopathologic study confirmed the epidural tumor as cavernous hemangioma. Postoperatively, his weakness improved gradually. Four months later, his paraparesis recovered completely. Here, we present a case of pure spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma, which has intralesional hemorrhage. We believe cavernous hemangioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of the spinal epidural tumors. PMID:25110490

Jang, Donghwan; Kim, Choonghyo; Lee, Seung Jin; Ryu, Young-Joon; Kim, Jiha

2014-06-01

188

Role of Decompression in Late Presentation of Cervical Spinal Cord Disorders  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective study conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, India. Purpose To show the efficacy of decompression in the late presentation of cervical spinal cord disorders. Overview of Literature Studies by various authors have shown that early spinal decompression results in better neurological outcomes. Methods From January 2003 to January 2005, 11 of the 41 patients with cervical spinal cord compression, meeting the inclusion criteria, underwent anterior decompression; interbody graft placement and stabilization by anterior cervical locking plate. The neurologic and functional outcomes were recorded. Results Five patients had spinal cord injury and 6 patients had compressive cervical myelopathy. Complications included 1 death and 1 plate loosening. No patient lost their preoperative neurological status. One patient had no improvement, 2 patients showed full recovery. The mean follow-up is 28.3 month. At the of rehabilitation, 6 were able to walk without support), 2 could walk with support, and 1 needed a wheelchair. The average American Spinal Injury Association motor score on admission to the hospital, 32.8 (standard deviation [SD], 30.5); admission to rehabilitation, 38.6 (SD, 32.4); discharge from rehabilitation, 46.2 (SD, 33.7). The most recent follow-up was 64.0 (SD, 35.3). Conclusions The anterior approach for cervical decompression allows for adequate decompression. This decompression is the best chance offered in even late reported cases, including posttraumatic cases where there is no evidence of cord transactions. The use of anterior cervical plates reduces the chances of graft loosening, extruding, or collapsing. PMID:24761201

Sakale, Harshal; Dulani, Rajesh; Singh, Pradeep K; Sanrakhia, Manoj

2014-01-01

189

Comparison of in vivo and simulator-retrieved metal-on-metal cervical disc replacements  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical disc arthroplasty is regarded as a promising treatment for myelopathy and radiculopathy as an alternative to cervical spine fusion. On the basis of 2-year clinical data for the PRESTIGE® Cervical Disc (Medtronic, Memphis, Tennessee), the Food and Drug Administration recommended conditional approval in September 2006 and final approval in July 2007; however, relatively little is known about its wear and damage modes in vivo. The main objective was to analyze the tribological findings of the PRESTIGE® Cervical Disc. This study characterized the in vivo wear patterns of retrieved cervical discs and tested the hypothesis that the total disc replacements exhibited similar surface morphology and wear patterns in vitro as in vivo. Methods Ten explanted total disc replacements (PRESTIGE®, PRESTIGE® I, and PRESTIGE® II) from 10 patients retrieved after a mean of 1.8 years (range, 0.3–4.1 years) were analyzed. Wear testing included coupled lateral bending ( ±4.7°) and axial rotation ( ±3.8°) with a 49 N axial load for 5 million cycles followed by 10 million cycles of flexion-extension ( ±9.7°) with 148 N. Implant surfaces were characterized by the use of white-light interferometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Results The explants generally exhibited a slightly discolored, elliptic wear region of varying dimension centered in the bearing center, with the long axis oriented in the medial-lateral direction. Abrasive wear was the dominant in vivo wear mechanism, with microscopic scratches generally oriented in the medial-lateral direction. Wear testing resulted in severe abrasive wear in a curvilinear fashion oriented primarily in the medial-lateral direction. All retrievals showed evidence of an abrasive wear mechanism. Conclusions This study documented important similarity between the wear mechanisms of components tested in vitro and explanted PRESTIGE® Cervical Discs; however, the severity of wear was much greater during the in vitro test compared with the retrievals. PMID:25694884

Kurtz, Steven M.; Ciccarelli, Lauren; Harper, Megan L.; Siskey, Ryan; Shorez, Jacob; Chan, Frank W.

2012-01-01

190

[Isolated anterior cervical hypertrichosis].  

PubMed

Anterior cervical hypertrichosis was described by Trattner and coworkers in 1991. It consists of a of hair at the anterior cervical level just above the laryngeal prominence. To date, only 28 cases of anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Although it is normally an isolated finding, it may be associated with mental retardation, hallux valgus, retinal disorders, other hair disorders, facial dysmorphism, or sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman who presented with this condition as an isolated finding. PMID:19268113

Monteagudo, B; Cabanillas, M; de las Heras, C; Cacharrón, J M

2009-01-01

191

The next steps in cervical screening.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is fourth most common cancer among women with four-fifths of the global burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Persistent infection with one of the high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV), particularly HPV 16/18, is the central cause of cervical neoplasia. Progress in developing feasible, alternative screening methods in LMICs and HPV vaccines have further improved cervical cancer prevention prospects. While existing screening programs in high-income countries should be re-organized, in view of the downstream effects of national HPV vaccination programs, LMICs should introduce national programs to vaccinate single year cohorts of girls aged 9-13 years with two or three doses and screen 30-35-year-old women with HPV testing to pragmatically decrease their high disease burden. PMID:25776294

Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Qiao, You-Lin; Keita, Namory

2015-03-01

192

Breed Distribution of SOD1 Alleles Previously Associated with Canine Degenerative Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Previous reports associated 2 mutant SOD1 alleles (SOD1:c.118A and SOD1:c.52T) with degenerative myelopathy in 6 canine breeds. The distribution of these alleles in other breeds has not been reported. Objective To describe the distribution of SOD1:c.118A and SOD1:c.52T in 222 breeds. Animals DNA from 33,747 dogs was genotyped at SOD1:c.118, SOD1:c.52, or both. Spinal cord sections from 249 of these dogs were examined. Methods Retrospective analysis of 35,359 previously determined genotypes at SOD1:c.118G>A or SOD1:c.52A>T and prospective survey to update the clinical status of a subset of dogs from which samples were obtained with a relatively low ascertainment bias. Results The SOD1:c.118A allele was found in cross-bred dogs and in 124 different canine breeds whereas the SOD1:c.52T allele was only found in Bernese Mountain Dogs. Most of the dogs with histopathologically confirmed degenerative myelopathy were SOD1:c.118A homozygotes, but 8 dogs with histopathologically confirmed degenerative myelopathy were SOD1:c.118A/G heterozygotes and had no other sequence variants in their SOD1 amino acid coding regions. The updated clinical conditions of dogs from which samples were obtained with a relatively low ascertainment bias suggest that SOD1:c.118A homozygotes are at a much higher risk of developing degenerative myelopathy than are SOD1:c.118A/G heterozygotes. Conclusions and Clinical Importance We conclude that the SOD1:c.118A allele is widespread and common among privately owned dogs whereas the SOD1:c.52T allele is rare and appears to be limited to Bernese Mountain Dogs. We also conclude that breeding to avoid the production of SOD1:c.118A homozygotes is a rational strategy. PMID:24524809

Zeng, R; Coates, JR; Johnson, GC; Hansen, L; Awano, T; Kolicheski, A; Ivansson, E; Perloski, M; Lindblad-Toh, K; O'Brien, DP; Guo, J; Katz, ML; Johnson, GS

2014-01-01

193

Hepatic Myelopathy in a Patient with Decompensated Alcoholic Cirrhosis and Portal Colopathy  

PubMed Central

Cirrhotic or hepatic myelopathy is a rare neurological complication of chronic liver disease usually seen in adults and presents as a progressive pure motor spastic paraparesis which is usually associated with overt liver failure and a surgical or spontaneous systemic portocaval shunt. We describe the development of progressive spastic paraparesis, in a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis with portal hypertension and portal colopathy who presented with the first episode of hepatic encephalopathy. The patient had not undergone any shunt procedure. PMID:25374709

Premkumar, Madhumita; Bagchi, Avishek; Kapoor, Neha; Gupta, Ankit; Maurya, Gaurav; Vatsya, Shubham; Kapahtia, Siddharth; Kar, Premashish

2012-01-01

194

Cervical Cancer Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer are being studied in clinical trials. Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer. ... might lower your risk of cancer. The following risk factors increase the risk of cervical cancer: HPV Infection ...

195

Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

196

Cervical Cancer Screening Programs  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

197

Cervical Cancer Screening Programs  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Organization

198

Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Other

199

Cervical Cancer Participation Rates  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Participation

200

Smoking and Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking and Cervical Cancer If you smoke, you have an increased chance of developing precancerous lesions of ... returning for follow-up appointments, and to Stop Smoking! Copyright © 2003, 2008 American Society for Colposcopy and ...

201

Pediatric cervical spine instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical spine instability in children is rare but not exceptional and may be due to many factors. Although it mostly occurs\\u000a at the upper cervical spine, all vertebrae from the occiput to T1 may be involved. It may be acute or chronic, occurring secondary\\u000a to trauma or due to congenital anomaly, skeletal or metabolic dystrophy or rheumatoid arthritis. It can

Ismat Ghanem; Samer El Hage; Rami Rachkidi; Khalil Kharrat; Fernand Dagher; Gabi Kreichati

2008-01-01

202

Efficacy of Vaccination against HPV infections to prevent cervical cancer in France Laureen Ribassin-Majed1, 2  

E-print Network

Efficacy of Vaccination against HPV infections to prevent cervical cancer in France Laureen Pères, 75006 Paris, France Keywords : Human papillomavirus; vaccine; cervical cancer; modelling Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 cause 70% of cervical cancers, and currently two vaccines protecting against

203

Radiation Therapy Plus Cisplatin and Gemcitabine in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-23

204

The role of phonophoresis in dyshpagia due to cervical osteophytes  

PubMed Central

Objective: Treatment of patients with anterior cervical osteophytes causing dysphagia includes conservative treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, antibiotics, and an appropriate soft diet. Physical therapy with its advantages may be an alternative method in the treatment, which was not reported previously. Case description: Phonophoresis therapy is applied in nine patients with dysphagia due to cervical osteophytes. Results: The symptom of dysphagia regressed in various degrees in all patients after phonophoresis therapy. Conclusions: Phonophoresis might be an alternative method for the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment in patients with dysphagia due to cervical osteophytes. PMID:20428400

Unlu, Zeliha; Orguc, Sebnem; Eskiizmir, Gorkem; Aslan, Asim; Tasci, Saliha

2008-01-01

205

January Monthly Spotlight: Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities  

Cancer.gov

In January, CRCHD joins the nation in raising awareness for Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities. This month we share a special focus on NCI/CRCHD research programs that are trying to reduce cervical cancer disparities in underserved communities and the people who are spreading the word about the importance of early detection.

206

Cervical Perineural Cyst Masquerading as a Cervical Spinal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha

2014-01-01

207

Cervical perineural cyst masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.  

PubMed

Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha; Agrawal, Amit

2014-04-01

208

An Unusual Case of Subclinical Peripheral Neuropathy and Cervical Spondylosis in Atopic Myelitis  

PubMed Central

Many cases of atopic myelitis have been reported in Japan; however very few were described in western countries. An 82-year-old woman with a past medical history of atopic dermatitis and asthma presented with progressive paresthesia (tingling) of both hands and tetraparesis. Before the onset of neurological symptoms, she complained of ichthyosis of both legs for 5 weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multisegmental degenerative arthritis, degenerative disc disease, and abnormal spinal cord signal intensity over several cervical segments, suggesting the diagnosis of myelitis. Total serum IgE level was elevated. Nerve conduction studies revealed asymmetric axonal sensorimotor neuropathy. The cerebrospinal fluid specimen showed lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein level. Based on clinical, imaging, and laboratory findings, atopic myelitis was diagnosed. The diagnosis of atopic myelitis should be considered in myelopathy patients with history of atopy and elevated serum IgE levels. PMID:24251051

Ozlu, Pelin; Ince, Ferda

2013-01-01

209

Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials NCI Publications Español Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®) Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening Key Points for This ... your need for screening tests. Screening tests have risks. Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not ...

210

Accelerated Development of Cervical Spine Instabilities in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Prospective Minimum 5-Year Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To clarify the incidence and predictive risk factors of cervical spine instabilities which may induce compression myelopathy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Three types of cervical spine instability were radiographically categorized into “moderate” and “severe” based on atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS: atlantodental interval >3 mm versus ?10 mm), vertical subluxation (VS: Ranawat value <13 mm versus ?10 mm), and subaxial subluxation (SAS: irreducible translation ?2 mm versus ?4 mm or at multiple). 228 “definite” or “classical” RA patients (140 without instability and 88 with “moderate” instability) were prospectively followed for >5 years. The endpoint incidence of “severe” instabilities and predictors for “severe” instability were determined. Results Patients with baseline “moderate” instability, including all sub-groups (AAS+ [VS? SAS?], VS+ [SAS? AAS±], and SAS+ [AAS± VS±]), developed “severe” instabilities more frequently (33.3% with AAS+, 75.0% with VS+, and 42.9% with SAS+) than those initially without instability (12.9%; p<0.003, p<0.003, and p?=?0.061, respectively). The incidence of cervical canal stenosis and/or basilar invagination was also higher in patients with initial instability (17.5% with AAS+, 37.5% with VS+, and 14.3% with SAS+) than in those without instability (7.1%; p?=?0.028, p<0.003, and p?=?0.427, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified corticosteroid administration, Steinbrocker stage III or IV at baseline, mutilating changes at baseline, and the development of mutilans during the follow-up period correlated with the progression to “severe” instability (p<0.05). Conclusions This prospective cohort study demonstrates accelerated development of cervical spine involvement in RA patients with pre-existing instability—especially VS. Advanced peripheral erosiveness and concomitant corticosteroid treatment are indicators for poor prognosis of the cervical spine in RA. PMID:24558457

Yurube, Takashi; Sumi, Masatoshi; Nishida, Kotaro; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Kohyama, Kozo; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Miura, Yasushi; Hirata, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Doita, Minoru

2014-01-01

211

Cervical ectopic pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Cervical pregnancy is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy and it represents <1% of all ectopic pregnancies. Early diagnosis and medical management with systemic or local administration of methotrexate is the treatment of choice. If the pregnancy is disturbed, it may lead to massive hemorrhage, which may require hysterectomy to save the patient. We report three cases of cervical pregnancy managed successfully with different approaches of management. Our first case, 28 years old G3P2L2 with previous two lower segment cesarean sections, presented with bleeding per vaginum following 6 weeks of amenorrhea. Clinical examination followed by transvaginal ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of cervical pregnancy. Total abdominal hysterectomy was done in view of intractable bleeding to save the patient. The second case, a 26-year-old second gravida with previous normal vaginal delivery presented with pain abdomen and single episode of spotting per vaginum following 7 weeks of amenorrhea. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed empty endometrial cavity, closed internal os with gestational sac containing live fetus of 7 weeks gestational age in cervical canal and she was treated with intra-amniotic potassium chloride followed by systemic methotrexate. Follow up with serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin level revealed successful outcome. Our third case, a 27-year-old primigravida with history of infertility treatment admitted with complaints of bleeding per vaginum for 1 day following 8 weeks amenorrhea. She was diagnosed as cervical pregnancy by clinical examination, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography and subsequently managed by dilation and curettage with intracervical Foleys’ ballon tamponade.

Samal, Sunil Kumar; Rathod, Setu

2015-01-01

212

Cervical Facet Arthropathy and Occipital Neuralgia: Headache Culprits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervicogenic headache (CH) is pain referred from the neck. Two common causes are cervical facet arthropathy and occipital\\u000a neuralgia. Clinical diagnosis is difficult because of the overlying features between primary headaches such as migraine, tension-type\\u000a headache, and CH. Interventional pain physicians have focused on supporting the clinical diagnosis of CH with confirmatory\\u000a blocks. The treatment of cervical facet arthropathy as

J. D. Hoppenfeld

2010-01-01

213

MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-10-09

214

Cervical disk injuries in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical disk injuries are defined as a cervical injury associated with neurological deficits, radicular symptoms, or radiological evidence of disk degeneration, but not with a fracture or a dislocation of the cervical spine. Thirty cases covering the period from July 1982 to June 1984 were analyzed, and the following findings are presented. Fifty percent of the injuries were sustained in

K. Kumano; T. Umeyama

1986-01-01

215

[Treatment of cervical cancer].  

PubMed

The treatment of uterine cervical cancer evolved the last past twenty years. The management of early stages cervical cancer is based on surgery +/- after an initial brachytherapy in order to increase loco-regional control. A conservative treatment preserving uterine and ovarian functions is sometimes possible for young patients < 40 years old wishing to conceive. This strategy allows pregnancies with low recurrence rate. Finally, the use of the sentinel lymph node staging should be validated within the next few years. The treatment of locally advanced stages is based on concomitant chemoradiation therapy, which allows obtaining an important complete tumour response rate (90%). Thereafter, the irradiation modalities will depend on the para-aortic lymph nodes status diagnosed by PET-computed tomography +/- staging laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The use of completion surgery may be indicated in case of cervical residual disease and has to be balanced with its specific morbidity. All the decisions are made during a multidisciplinary tumour board. PMID:25090765

Touboul, Cyril; Skalli, Dounia; Guillo, Eric; Martin, Michel; Mallaurie, Emmanuelle; Mansouri, Dhouha; Abd Al Samad, Issam; Chabi, Naima; Hospitel, Sylvie; Koskas, Martin; Haddad, Bassam

2014-06-01

216

Cervical total disc arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc arthroplasty devices have come onto the market and completed Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trials. Though some of the early results demonstrate equivalency of arthroplasty to fusion, compelling evidence of benefits in terms of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration are lacking. In addition, non-industry-sponsored studies indicate that these devices are equivalent to fusion in terms of adjacent segment degeneration. Longer-term studies will eventually provide the definitive answer. PMID:24353955

Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A

2012-06-01

217

Large scale study of HPV genotypes in cervical cancer and different cytological cervical specimens in Thailand.  

PubMed

Identification of high-risk HPV genotypes in patients is essential for vaccination and prevention programs while the geographic distribution of cervical cancer varies widely. HPV 16 is the major cause of cervical cancer followed by HPV 18, HPV 31, HPV 52, or HPV 58 depending on geographic area. In this study, the distribution of HPV genotypes in cervical specimens from women living in Thailand was analyzed by HPV testing with electrochemical DNA chip and PCR direct sequencing. The 716 specimens were grouped according to their cytological grades; 100 normal, 100 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 100 high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 416 specimens of cervical cancer. The results showed that HPV 16, HPV 18, HPV 52, and HPV 58 are the most common HPV genotypes in Thailand, respectively. With respect to age, women below the age of 26 years were almost negative for high-risk HPV DNA exclusively. Conversely, high prevalence of high-risk HPV DNA and abnormal cytology were usually found in women between 26 and 45 years while cervical cancer was detected mainly in women above the age of 45 years. To increase protection efficiency, a vaccine including HPV 52 and HPV 58 should be offered to Asian women, and primary HPV screening should start at 26-30 years of age. PMID:24127280

Chansaenroj, Jira; Junyangdikul, Pairoj; Chinchai, Teeraporn; Swangvaree, Sukumarn; Karalak, Anant; Gemma, Nobuhiro; Poovorawan, Yong

2014-04-01

218

Cervical Mucus Properties Stratify Risk for Preterm Birth  

PubMed Central

Background Ascending infection from the colonized vagina to the normally sterile intrauterine cavity is a well-documented cause of preterm birth. The primary physical barrier to microbial ascension is the cervical canal, which is filled with a dense and protective mucus plug. Despite its central role in separating the vaginal from the intrauterine tract, the barrier properties of cervical mucus have not been studied in preterm birth. Methods and Findings To study the protective function of the cervical mucus in preterm birth we performed a pilot case-control study to measure the viscoelasticity and permeability properties of mucus obtained from pregnant women at high-risk and low-risk for preterm birth. Using extensional and shear rheology we found that cervical mucus from women at high-risk for preterm birth was more extensible and forms significantly weaker gels compared to cervical mucus from women at low-risk of preterm birth. Moreover, permeability measurements using fluorescent microbeads show that high-risk mucus was more permeable compared with low-risk mucus. Conclusions Our findings suggest that critical biophysical barrier properties of cervical mucus in women at high-risk for preterm birth are compromised compared to women with healthy pregnancy. We hypothesize that impaired barrier properties of cervical mucus could contribute to increased rates of intrauterine infection seen in women with preterm birth. We furthermore suggest that a robust association of spinnbarkeit and preterm birth could be an effectively exploited biomarker for preterm birth prediction. PMID:23936335

Jaishankar, Aditya; Friedlander, Ronn S.; Lieleg, Oliver; Doyle, Patrick S.; McKinley, Gareth; House, Michael; Ribbeck, Katharina

2013-01-01

219

Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

2014-01-01

220

Aqueous Cinnamon Extract (ACE-c) from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia causes apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line (SiHa) through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential  

PubMed Central

Background Chemoprevention, which includes the use of synthetic or natural agents (alone or in combination) to block the development of cancer in human beings, is an extremely promising strategy for cancer prevention. Cinnamon is one of the most widely used herbal medicines with diverse biological activities including anti-tumor activity. In the present study, we have reported the anti-neoplastic activity of cinnamon in cervical cancer cell line, SiHa. Methods The aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE-c) was analyzed for its cinnamaldehyde content by HPTLC analysis. The polyphenol content of ACE-c was measured by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Cytotoxicity analysis was performed by MTT assay. We studied the effect of cinnamon on growth kinetics by performing growth curve, colony formation and soft agar assays. The cells treated with ACE-c were analyzed for wound healing assay as well as for matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression at mRNA and protein level by RT-PCR and zymography, respectively. Her-2 protein expression was analyzed in the control and ACE-c treated samples by immunoblotting as well as confocal microscopy. Apoptosis studies and calcium signaling assays were analyzed by FACS. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in cinnamon treated cells was studied by JC-1 staining and analyzed by confocal microscopy as well as FACS. Results Cinnamon alters the growth kinetics of SiHa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cells treated with ACE-c exhibited reduced number of colonies compared to the control cells. The treated cells exhibited reduced migration potential that could be explained due to downregulation of MMP-2 expression. Interestingly, the expression of Her-2 oncoprotein was significantly reduced in the presence of ACE-c. Cinnamon extract induced apoptosis in the cervical cancer cells through increase in intracellular calcium signaling as well as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusion Cinnamon could be used as a potent chemopreventive drug in cervical cancer. PMID:20482751

2010-01-01

221

Neurogenic bladder following myelopathies: Has it any correlation with neurological and functional recovery?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To observe neurogenic bladder pattern in patients with myelopathy by performing urodynamic study (UDS) and to observe whether it has any correlation with functional and neurological recovery. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was conducted with 90 patients with myelopathy, both traumatic and non-traumatic (males = 65) in a university tertiary research hospital in India between January 2011 and December 2013. Mean age was 33.5 ± 13.2 years (range 15-65 years), mean duration of injury was 82.63 ± 88.3 days (range 14-365 days) and mean length of stay (LOS) in the rehabilitation unit 42.5 ± 23.3 days (range 14-130 days). The urodynamic study was performed in all the patients to assess the neurogenic bladder pattern. Management was based on the UDS findings. Functional recovery was assessed using Barthel index (BI) scores and spinal cord independence measures (SCIM) scores. Neurological recovery was assessed using ASIA impairment scale (AIS). We tried to correlate neurogenic bladder patterns with recovery. Results: Fifty patients (55.6%) had overactive detrusor with 25 each had detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) and synergic sphincter. Thirty-eight patients had hypoactive/acontractile detrusor and two had normal studies. No significant correlation observed between neurogenic bladder pattern and change in BI scores (P = 0.696), SCIM scores (P = 0.135) or change in ASIA status (P = 0.841) in the study. Conclusions: More than half of the patients with myelopathies had overactive detrusor with or without dyssynergic sphincter according to the urodynamic study. Neurogenic bladder patterns had no significant correlation with functional and neurological recovery in these patients. PMID:25540531

Menon, Nitin; Gupta, Anupam; Taly, Arun B.; Khanna, Meeka; Kumar, Sushruth Nagesh

2014-01-01

222

Neck Pain Following Cervical Laminoplasty: Does Preservation of the C2 Muscle Attachments and/or C7 Matter?  

PubMed Central

Study Design?Systematic review. Objective?In patients aged 18 years or older, with cervical spondylotic myelopathy or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), does sparing the C2 muscle attachments and/or C7-preserving cervical laminoplasty lead to reduced postoperative axial pain compared with conventional C3 to C7 laminoplasty? Do these results vary based on early active postoperative cervical motion? Methods?A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and August 17, 2012. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating C2/C3- or C7-preserving cervical laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) or OPLL in adults. Studies involving traumatic onset, cervical fracture, infection, deformity, or neoplasms were excluded, as were noncomparative studies. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence quality using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results?We identified 11 articles meeting our inclusion criteria. Only the randomized controlled trial (RCT) showed no significant difference in late axial pain (at 12 months) when C7 spinous muscle preservation was compared with no preservation. However, seven other retrospective cohort studies showed significant pain relief in the preserved group compared with the nonpreserved group. The preservation group included those with preservation of the C7 spinous process and/or attached muscles, the deep extensor muscles, or C2 muscle attachment and/or C3 laminectomy (as opposed to laminoplasty). One study that included preservation of either the C2 or C7 posterior paraspinal muscles found that only preservation of the muscles attached to C2 resulted in reduced postoperative pain. Another study that included preservation of either the C7 spinous process or the deep extensor muscles found that only preservation of C7 resulted in reduced postoperative pain. Conclusion?Although there is conflicting data regarding the importance of preserving C7 and/or the semispinalis cervicis muscle attachments to C2, there is enough evidence to suggest that surgeons should make every attempt to preserve these structures whenever possible since there appears to be little downside to doing so, unless it compromises the neurologic decompression. PMID:24436698

Riew, K. Daniel; Raich, Annie L.; Dettori, Joseph R.; Heller, John G.

2013-01-01

223

Neck Pain Following Cervical Laminoplasty: Does Preservation of the C2 Muscle Attachments and/or C7 Matter?  

PubMed

Study Design?Systematic review. Objective?In patients aged 18 years or older, with cervical spondylotic myelopathy or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), does sparing the C2 muscle attachments and/or C7-preserving cervical laminoplasty lead to reduced postoperative axial pain compared with conventional C3 to C7 laminoplasty? Do these results vary based on early active postoperative cervical motion? Methods?A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and August 17, 2012. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating C2/C3- or C7-preserving cervical laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) or OPLL in adults. Studies involving traumatic onset, cervical fracture, infection, deformity, or neoplasms were excluded, as were noncomparative studies. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence quality using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results?We identified 11 articles meeting our inclusion criteria. Only the randomized controlled trial (RCT) showed no significant difference in late axial pain (at 12 months) when C7 spinous muscle preservation was compared with no preservation. However, seven other retrospective cohort studies showed significant pain relief in the preserved group compared with the nonpreserved group. The preservation group included those with preservation of the C7 spinous process and/or attached muscles, the deep extensor muscles, or C2 muscle attachment and/or C3 laminectomy (as opposed to laminoplasty). One study that included preservation of either the C2 or C7 posterior paraspinal muscles found that only preservation of the muscles attached to C2 resulted in reduced postoperative pain. Another study that included preservation of either the C7 spinous process or the deep extensor muscles found that only preservation of C7 resulted in reduced postoperative pain. Conclusion?Although there is conflicting data regarding the importance of preserving C7 and/or the semispinalis cervicis muscle attachments to C2, there is enough evidence to suggest that surgeons should make every attempt to preserve these structures whenever possible since there appears to be little downside to doing so, unless it compromises the neurologic decompression. PMID:24436698

Riew, K Daniel; Raich, Annie L; Dettori, Joseph R; Heller, John G

2013-04-01

224

New molecular targets against cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women. Major advances but still insufficient achievements in the treatment of locally advanced and high-risk early stage patients have occurred in the last decade with the incorporation of concurrent cisplatin with radiation and, lately, gemcitabine added to cisplatin chemoradiation. Despite a number of clinical studies incorporating molecular-targeted therapy as radiosensitizers being in progress, so far, only antiangiogenic therapy with bevacizumab added to cisplatin chemoradiation has demonstrated safety and shown encouraging results in a Phase II study. In advanced disease, cisplatin doublets do not have a great impact on the natural history of the disease with median survival rates not exceeding 13 months. The first Phase III study of bevacizumab, added to cisplatin or a non-cisplatin-containing doublet, showed significant increase in both overall survival and progression-free survival. Further studies are needed before bevacizumab plus chemotherapy can be considered the standard of care for advanced disease. Characterization of the mutational landscape of cervical cancer has already been initiated, indicating that, for now, few of these targetable alterations match with available agents. Progress in both the mutational landscape knowledge and developments of novel targeted therapies may result in more effective and individualized treatments for cervical cancer. The potential efficacy of knocking down the key alterations in cervical cancer – E6 and E7 human papillomavirus oncoproteins – must not be overlooked. PMID:25525394

Duenas-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Serrano-Olvera, Alberto; Cetina, Lucely; Coronel, Jaime

2014-01-01

225

Neuroimmunological aspects of human T cell leukemia virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.  

PubMed

Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus etiologically associated with adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Only approximately 0.25-4 % of infected individuals develop HAM/TSP; the majority of infected individuals remain lifelong asymptomatic carriers. Recent data suggest that immunological aspects of host-virus interactions might play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. This review outlines and discusses the current understanding, ongoing developments, and future perspectives of HAM/TSP research. PMID:23943469

Saito, Mineki

2014-04-01

226

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Tirapazamine in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-06-18

227

Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2015-03-23

228

Cervical Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve)  

MedlinePLUS

... sometimes referred to as a “pinched” nerve. The medical term for this condition is cervical radiculopathy. Understanding your ... worn for short periods of time, because long-term wear can decrease the strength of neck ... and is not intended to serve as medical advice. Anyone seeking speci? c orthopaedic advice or ...

229

Application of the Carolina Framework for Cervical Cancer Prevention  

PubMed Central

Objective The Carolina Framework for Cervical Cancer Prevention describes 4 main causes of cervical cancer incidence: human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, lack of screening, screening errors, and not receiving follow-up care. We present 2 applications of the Carolina Framework in which we identify high-need counties in North Carolina and generate recommendations for improving prevention efforts. Methods We created a cervical cancer prevention need index (CCPNI) that ranked counties on cervical cancer mortality, HPV vaccine initiation and completion, Pap smear screening, and provision of Pap tests to rarely- or never-screened women. In addition, we conducted in-depth interviews with 19 key informants from programs and agencies involved in cervical cancer prevention in North Carolina. Results North Carolina’s 100 counties varied widely on individual CCPNI components, including annual cervical cancer mortality (median 2.7/100,000 women; range 0.0–8.0), adolescent girls’ HPV vaccine initiation (median 42%; range 15%–62%), and Pap testing in the previous 3 years among Medicaid-insured adult women (median 59%; range 40%–83%). Counties with the greatest prevention needs formed 2 distinct clusters in the northeast and south-central regions of the state. Interviews generated 9 recommendations to improve cervical cancer prevention in North Carolina, identifying applications to specific programs and policies in the state. Conclusions This study found striking geographic disparities in cervical cancer prevention need in North Carolina. Future prevention efforts in the state should prioritize high-need regions as well as recommended strategies and applications in existing programs. Other states can use the Carolina Framework to increase the impact of their cervical cancer prevention efforts. PMID:24333357

Moss, Jennifer L.; McCarthy, Schatzi H.; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Brewer, Noel T.

2014-01-01

230

Bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis due to cervical chiropractic manipulation.  

PubMed

Neck pain from cervical spinal disease is a common problem with significant disability, and chiropractic manipulation has emerged as one of the leading forms of alternative treatment for such spinal symptoms. However, more experience with these forms of treatment has revealed associated complications that are far from benign. Complications range from mild symptoms, such as local neck tenderness or stiffness, to more severe injuries involving the spinal cord, peripheral nerve roots, and arteries within the neck. Phrenic nerve injury causing diaphragmatic palsy is a rare complication of cervical chiropractic manipulation. We report a case of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis in a healthy gentleman who underwent cervical manipulation. Physicians must be aware of this complication and should be cautious when recommending spinal manipulation for the treatment of neck pain, especially in the presence of preexisting degenerative disease of the cervical spine. PMID:25692510

John, Seby; Tavee, Jinny

2015-02-01

231

Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula presenting as myelopathy: Case series and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is a rare type of cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Common presenting symptoms are related to hemorrhage. However, rarely these patients may present with myelopathy. We present two cases of DAVF presenting as rapidly progressive myelopathy. Two treatment options are available: microsurgical interruption of the fistula and endovascular embolization. These treatment options of DAVFs have improved significantly in the last decade. The optimal treatment of DAVFs remains controversial, and there is an ongoing debate as to whether primary endovascular or primary microsurgical treatment is the optimal management for these lesions. However, despite treatment a high percentage of patients are still left with severe disability. The potential for functional ambulation in patients with DAVF is related to the time of intervention. This emphasizes the important of early diagnosis and early intervention in DAVF. The eventual outcome may depend on several factors, such as the duration of symptoms, the degree of disability before treatment, and the success of the initial procedure to close the fistula. The usage of magnetic resonance imaging and selective angiography has significantly improved the ability to characterize DAVFs, however, these lesions remain inefficiently diagnosed. If intervention is delayed even prolonged time in rehabilitation does not change the grave prognosis. This review outlines the presentation, classication and management of DAVF as well as discussing patient outcomes. PMID:25516869

Gross, Robert; Ali, Rushna; Kole, Max; Dorbeistein, Curtis; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; Khan, Muhib

2014-01-01

232

[Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1(HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy].  

PubMed

HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM), also known as tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), is a chronic progressive demyelinating disease that affects the spinal cord and white matter of the central nervous system. The lifetime incidence of HAM in HTLV-1 carriers is estimated to be less than 5%. Typical time of onset is in the fourth decade of life, with a female-to-male rate of 2:1. Gait disturbance and weakness and stiffness of the lower limbs are common presenting signs and symptoms of HAM. Lower extremities are affected to a much greater degree than upper extremities. Spasticity may be moderate to severe, and lower back pain is common. As the disease progresses, bladder and bowel dysfunction can occur. Sensory involvement is generally mild and can result in a variable degree of sensory loss and dysesthesia. Results of magnetic resonance imaging may be normal, or the scans show atrophy of the spinal cord and nonspecific lesions in the brain. Immunologic evidence suggests that an immune mechanism may play a role in the development of HAM. There is no effective treatment for the myelopathy. Corticosteroids, and INF-gamma may produce transient responses. Danazol, an anabolic steroid, does not improve gait and bladder function. The value of zidovudine (anti-retroviral agent) in the treatment has not been defined yet. PMID:12170334

Ribas, João Gabriel Ramos; Melo, Gustavo Correa Netto

2002-01-01

233

Post-anaesthetic myelopathy in a 3-year-old Friesian gelding.  

PubMed

A 3-year-old Friesian stallion was referred to the Department of Equine Sciences at Utrecht University with signs of colic. Laparotomy was performed and the stallion was castrated bilaterally because of an incarcerated inguinal hernia. Intestinal resection was not performed. Eight days postoperatively, the horse showed signs of severe colic and was admitted for re-laparotomy. After resection of 1.5 m of strangulated jejunum and severe intraoperative hypotension, bradycardia, and electrolyte disorders, the horse showed problems during recovery with signs of hindquarter paralysis. There was no pain perception in the hind limbs and there were no patellar or anal reflexes. The muscles of the hindquarters and the long extensor muscles of the back were soft and not painful on palpation. No improvement was seen 60 minutes after intravenous injection of corticosteroids. Because of the tentative diagnosis of post-anaesthetic myelopathy and its poor prognosis, and the fact that the horse was restless and did not accept being lifted with a sling system, the horse was euthanized with the owner's consent. Post-anaesthetic myelopathy is a rare neuropathological condition in the horse. Because of its low incidence, knowledge about its aetiology and contributing factors is rather limited. This case report presents the clinical observations and the anaesthetic protocol and compares this case with previously reported cases in the literature. PMID:20415029

van Loon, J P A M; Meertens, N M; van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M Sloet; van Dijk, R

2010-04-01

234

An unusual cause of progressive quadriparesis  

PubMed Central

Thyroid carcinoma is a rare cause of compressive myelopathy. Quadriparesis as the presenting manifestation of follicular carcinoma of thyroid without any preceding features of malignancy is quite uncommon. We describe a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with progressive quadriparesis of 2 months duration, on evaluation was found to have a large tumor destroying C1, C2 vertebrae and occupying craniovertebral junction. Histopathological examination of excised tumor was follicular thyroid carcinoma. She was successfully managed with surgical excision, stabilization of spine followed by radiotherapy. PMID:24251141

Upreti, Vimal; Sridhar, M. S.; Dhull, Pawan; Sen, Arijit

2013-01-01

235

An unusual cause of progressive quadriparesis.  

PubMed

Thyroid carcinoma is a rare cause of compressive myelopathy. Quadriparesis as the presenting manifestation of follicular carcinoma of thyroid without any preceding features of malignancy is quite uncommon. We describe a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with progressive quadriparesis of 2 months duration, on evaluation was found to have a large tumor destroying C1, C2 vertebrae and occupying craniovertebral junction. Histopathological examination of excised tumor was follicular thyroid carcinoma. She was successfully managed with surgical excision, stabilization of spine followed by radiotherapy. PMID:24251141

Upreti, Vimal; Sridhar, M S; Dhull, Pawan; Sen, Arijit

2013-10-01

236

Percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Percutaneous disc decompression procedures have been performed in the past. Various percutaneous techniques such as percutaneous\\u000a discectomy, laser discectomy, and nucleoplasty have been successful. Our prospective study was directly to evaluate the results\\u000a of percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty (PCN) surgery for cervical disc herniation, and illustrate the effectiveness of PCN\\u000a in symptomatic patients who had cervical herniated discs. From July of

Jian Li; Deng-lu Yan; Zai-Heng Zhang

2008-01-01

237

Autologous clavicle bone graft for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with titanium interbody cage.  

PubMed

A variety of donor-site complications have been reported for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using autologous iliac bone graft. To minimize such morbidities and to obtain optimal bony fusion at the ACDF surgery, a novel technique was used to harvest cancellous bone from the autologous clavicle instead of the popular iliac crest graft. After a routine cervical discectomy of the affected level, a 1.5-cm linear skin incision was made over the clavicle within 2.5 cm of the sternoclavicular joint on the medial one-third portion. This portion is known as an anatomically safe zone, with no subcutaneous distribution of the supraclavicular nerve. Then, cancellous bone was harvested through a small cortical window developed on the clavicle. Care was taken not to injure the subclavian major vessels and the lung below the clavicle. A box-type titanium cage was packed with the harvested cancellous bone and then inserted into the discectomy-treated space for cervical interbody fusion. From 2009 to 2013, 16 patients with cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy underwent single-level ACDF with this method. All but 1 patient experienced significant improvement of clinical symptoms after the surgery and showed radiographic evidence of solid bony fusion and spinal stabilization within 6 months. Further, no peri- and postoperative complications at the clavicular donor site were noted. The mean visual analog scale pain score (range 0 [no pain to 10 [maximum pain]) at 1 year after the surgery was 0.1, and 13 of 14 patients with data at 1-year follow-up were highly satisfied with their donor-site cosmetic outcome. The clavicle is a safe, reliable, and technically easy source of autologous bone graft that yields optimal fusion rates and patient satisfaction with ACDF surgery. PMID:25170654

Iwasaki, Koichi; Ikedo, Taichi; Hashikata, Hirokuni; Toda, Hiroki

2014-11-01

238

Fluoroscopically Guided Cervical Prolotherapy for Instability with Blinded Pre and Post Radiographic Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several authors have pos- tulated that cervical instability is a major cause of traumatic spinal pain. Objective: The purpose of this prospec- tive case series study (n = 6) was to deter- mine if proliferant injections have an effect on cervical translation as measured by a blinded reader. Design: This study was a prospective case series. Study participants were

Christopher J. Centeno; James Elliott; Whitney L. Elkins; Michael Freeman

239

Early clinical and radiographical results of keel-less and shallow keel cervical disc replacement  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical disc replacements has been shown to be as effective as fusions in the treatment of radiculopathy or myelopathy due to disc prolapse. Newer implants were designed to reduce the difficulty of end-plate preparation. Since 2010, the authors have started using Discocerv (Alphatec Spine, Carlsbad, USA) a keel-less implant and Activ-C (B. Braun, Sheffield, UK), a shallow keel implant. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the duration of surgery between cervical disc replacement and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, and also to evaluate the functional outcome, complications, and radiographic outcome of cervical disc replacement. Results: Fifty patients were included (20 disc replacement and 30 fusion). This was a single surgeon retrospective study, with all surgery performed by the senior author (RT). The mean operation duration for single-level disc replacement was 2.6 h, and for single-level fusion was 2.4 h (P = 0.4684). For 2-levels surgery, the result was 3.5 h for 2-level hybrid surgery (one level disc replacement and one level fusion) and 3.4 h for fusion (P = 0.4489). Disc replacement resulted in preservation of an average of 67% of the angle of motion at the sagittal plane (FFflexion-extension). The average range of motion after disc replacement was 6.1°. The median clinical follow-up duration was 2 years (average 1.8 years). There was no incidence of major complications or significant neurovascular injury in this series of patients. A significant improvement in short form-36 scores was seen as early as 3 months postoperative (from 58 preoperative to 92 at 3 months). The improvement was sustained up to the fourth year of follow-up. Conclusion: Cervical arthroplasty with keel-less and shallow keel implants are safe and relatively easy to perform. The surgical time for disc replacement is not significantly longer than standard fusion surgery. There is reasonably good preservation of motion. The short-term functional improvement is good, and we await further long-term outcome results. The authors felt that cervical disc replacement will have an important role in the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease in the future.

Ling, Ji Min; Tiruchelvarayan, Rajendra

2015-01-01

240

Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-29

241

Upper cervical trauma in motor vehicle collisions.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle collisions can cause a variety of injuries in pedestrians and vehicle occupants. Fatal and nonfatal trauma to the upper cervical spine, that is, atlanto-occipital junction, atlas and axis, can be part of this spectrum. Certain distinctive injuries (for example, "hangman's fracture") which occur result from the unique anatomic structure of this area and the various disruptive forces such as extension, distraction (tension), compression (axial loading), shear, and inertia generated during collision. Correlation of autopsy findings or radiological information of these cervical injuries or both with scene investigation can be informative not only in the determination of morbidity and mortality, but also in the assessment of injury mechanisms and improvements in occupant protection. PMID:2708956

Shkrum, M J; Green, R N; Nowak, E S

1989-03-01

242

Adenocarcinoma of the cervical stump  

SciTech Connect

Sixteen women with adenocarcinoma of the cervical stump were treated over a 15-year period. The median survivals of 40 months for stage IB and 17 months for stages II and III were significantly worse compared with those for patients treated for cervical adenocarcinoma of the intact uterus or squamous carcinoma of the cervical stump. The poor results were due to both local and distant failure. Implications regarding tumor radiosensitivity and adjuvant therapy in these high-risk patients are discussed.

Goodman, H.M.; Niloff, J.M.; Buttlar, C.A.; Welch, W.R.; Marck, A.; Feuer, E.J.; Lahman, E.A.; Jenison, E.; Knapp, R.C. (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

1989-11-01

243

Disparities and Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cervical cancer became a preventable disease with the introduction of the Papanicolaou smear (Pap smear) in the 1940s. Trend\\u000a data show that incidence rates have decreased steadily over the past several decades in both white and African American women\\u000a living in the United States (American Cancer Society 2007). Mortality rates have declined steadily over the past several decades\\u000a as well

Marcela del Carmen; Teresa Diaz-Montez

244

HPV-related cervical disease and oropharyngeal cancer.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially HPV 16, is associated with the development of both cervical and oral cancer. We show the case of a woman affected by HPV-related cervical disease and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). A 41-year-old woman arrived at our Colposcopy Center following an abnormal Pap smear result (ASC-H) and a diagnosis of moderate cervical dysplasia obtained by a cervical biopsy. She underwent a colposcopy that showed a cervical abnormal transformation zone grade 2. A laser conization was performed in November 2010. Histology reported a moderate/severe dysplasia. The cone resection margins were free. Follow-up colposcopy and cytology were negative. The HPV testing showed an infection by HPV 16. In October 2012, the patient presented to the Head-Neck ER after episodes of hemoptysis; a lesion was found in the left tonsillar lodge. A biopsy was performed with a result of squamous cell carcinoma with low-grade differentiation. The HPV testing detected a high-risk HPV and the immunohistochemical analysis was positive for p16. She was treated by chemotherapy and brachytherapy. She was followed at the head-neck center with monthly visits with oral visual inspection that showed complete absence of mucosal abnormalities. HPV-related OPSCC and cervical precancerous/cancerous lesions have significant similarities in terms of pathogenesis. They are both caused largely by HPV 16, as in the present case. In conclusion, because of this association found in literature and in our case, we think that women with HPV cervical lesions should have regular surveillance for oropharyngeal cancer, whereas women with OPSCC should be encouraged to have diligent cervical screening. PMID:24584479

Lozza, Virginia; Pieralli, Annalisa; Corioni, Serena; Longinotti, Manuela; Bianchi, Claudia; Moncini, Daniela; Fallani, Maria Grazia

2014-08-01

245

Neurologic abnormalities in HTLV-I– and HTLV-II–infected individuals without overt myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background: Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type I is the causative agent of HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis, and a number of HAM cases with HTLV-II infection have also been reported. However, despite some reports, it is unclear whether HTLV-I or -II infection is associated with other neurologic manifestations. Methods: An analysis of medical histories and screening neurologic examinations from a prospective cohort of 153 HTLV-I, 388 HTLV-II, and 810 HTLV-seronegative individuals followed up for means of 11.5, 12.0, and 12.2 years was performed. Participants diagnosed with HAM were excluded. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for age, sex, race or ethnicity, income, educational attainment, body mass index, alcohol and cigarette consumption, injection drug use, diabetes, and hepatitis C virus status, using generalized estimating equations for repeated measures. Results: HTLV-I and -II participants were more likely than seronegative participants to have leg weakness (ORs 1.67 [95% CI 1.28–2.18] and 1.44 [1.16–1.78]), impaired tandem gait (ORs 1.25 [95% CI 1.07–1.47] and 1.45 [1.27–1.64]), Babinski sign (ORs 1.54 [95% CI 1.13–2.08] and 1.51 [1.18–1.93]), impaired vibration sense (ORs 1.16 [95% CI 1.01–1.33] and 1.27 [1.14–1.42]), and urinary incontinence (ORs 1.45 [95% CI 1.23–1.72] and 1.70 [1.50–1.93]). For both HTLV-I and -II participants, higher odds of sensory neuropathy by monofilament examination were no longer significant after adjustment for confounding. Conclusions: These results provide strong evidence that human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-I and -II are associated with a spectrum of predominantly motor abnormalities in patients without overt HTLV-associated myelopathy. Further investigation of the clinical course and etiology of these abnormalities is warranted. GLOSSARY ATL = adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma; CI = confidence interval; HAM = human T-lymphotropic virus–associated myelopathy; HOST = HTLV Outcomes Study; HTLV = human T-lymphotropic virus; OR = odds ratio; ORa = adjusted odds ratio. PMID:19738173

Biswas, H H.; Engstrom, J W.; Kaidarova, Z; Garratty, G; Gibble, J W.; Newman, B H.; Smith, J W.; Ziman, A; Fridey, J L.; Sacher, R A.; Murphy, E L.

2009-01-01

246

Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Epoetin Alfa in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer and Anemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Anemia; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Drug Toxicity; Radiation Toxicity; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-29

247

Management of surgical splenorenal shunt-related hepatic myelopathy with endovascular interventional techniques  

PubMed Central

We present a case with hepatic myelopathy (HM) due to a surgical splenorenal shunt that was successfully treated by endovascular interventional techniques. A 39-year-old man presented with progressive spastic paraparesis of his lower limbs 14 mo after a splenorenal shunt. A portal venogram identified a widened patent splenorenal shunt. We used an occlusion balloon catheter initially to occlude the shunt. Further monitoring of the patient revealed a decrease in his serum ammonia level and an improvement in leg strength. We then used an Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) to enable closure of the shunt. During the follow up period of 7 mo, the patient experienced significant clinical improvement and normalization of blood ammonia, without any complications. Occlusion of a surgically created splenorenal shunt with AVP represents an alternative therapy to surgery or coil embolization that can help to relieve shunt-induced HM symptoms. PMID:23323015

Wang, Mao-Qiang; Liu, Feng-Yong; Duan, Feng

2012-01-01

248

Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type-1-associated Myelopathy Manifesting Shortly after Living-donor Renal Transplantation.  

PubMed

A 38-year-old woman experienced numbness in both lower extremities and spastic paralysis a few months after undergoing living-donor renal transplantation. The patient was negative for human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) antibodies prior to the procedure; however, she was diagnosed with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) based on positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid antibody titers after the surgery. Because the donor was also positive for HTLV-1 antibodies, the infection likely originated from the transplanted kidney. Clinical and imaging improvements were noted following the administration of interferon-?. HAM has been reported to occur after living-donor renal transplantation; however, there are no previous reports of onset within such a short period. PMID:25742898

Nagamine, Yuito; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kato, Yuji; Horiuchi, Yohsuke; Tanahashi, Norio

2015-01-01

249

Immunopathogenesis of HTLV-1-assoaciated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).  

PubMed

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Only a limited percentage of infected individuals develop disease in response to the virus while the majority remain asymptomatic, and HAM/TSP is the most common clinical manifestation of the virus. HAM/TSP is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS); however, the mechanism by which HTLV-1 induces HAM/TSP is not yet clear. CD4(+) T lymphocytes are the main reservoirs of HTLV-1 in vivo and perform an important role in the immunological response to this retrovirus. This virus-host interaction may provoke changes in the immunological response, such as the enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines and the spontaneous proliferation of T CD4(+) lymphocytes, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. PMID:24704970

Fuzii, Hellen Thais; da Silva Dias, George Alberto; de Barros, Rodrigo Jose Saraiva; Falcão, Luiz Fabio Magno; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simoes

2014-05-28

250

[Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for a patient with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy].  

PubMed

An 81-year-old female with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM) was scheduled for transurethral lithotomy. She had had paresthesia and spastic paresis in the lower extremities for the past 15 years. The preoperative respiratory function test revealed a vital capacity of 1.3 l (58% of the predicted value). We selected combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) for her to avoid postoperative respiratory complications due to general anesthesia. After placement of a thoracic epidural catheter, spinal anesthesia was achieved by administration of bupivacaine 7.5 mg, resulting in the sensory block level to T 6, five min later. The intraoperative blood pressure remained high at 150-200 mmHg, in spite of the administration of nicardipine. Postoperatively, neither the deterioration in the neurological findings of HAM nor the exacerbation of respiratory function was observed. The present report suggests that CSEA can be one of the choices of anesthesia for a patient with HAM. PMID:25199333

Yokomizo, Taishi; Hiraki, Teruyuki; Mishima, Yasunori; Ushijima, Kazuo

2014-08-01

251

A Unique Case of Primary Ewing's Sarcoma of the Cervical Spine in a 53-Year-Old Male: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a rare presentation, representing only 15% of all primary Ewing's sarcoma cases. Even more uncommon is EES presenting as a primary focus in the spinal canal. These rapidly growing tumors often present with focal neurological symptoms of myelopathy or radiculopathy. There are no classic characteristic imaging findings and thus the physician must keep a high index of clinical suspicion. Diagnosis can only be definitively made by histopathological studies. In this report, we discuss a primary cervical spine EES in a 53-year-old man who presented with a two-month history of left upper extremity pain and acute onset of weakness. Imaging revealed a cervical spinal canal mass. After undergoing cervical decompression, histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma. A literature search revealed fewer than 25 reported cases of primary cervical spine EES published in the past 15 years and only one report demonstrating this pathology in a patient older than 30 years of age (age = 38). Given the low incidence of this pathology presenting in this age group and the lack of treatment guidelines, each patient's plan should be considered on a case-by-case basis until further studies are performed to determine optimal evidence based treatment. PMID:25802527

Holland, Marshall T.; Flouty, Oliver E.; Close, Liesl N.; Reddy, Chandan G.; Howard, Matthew A.

2015-01-01

252

Cervical cancer: a missed health priority in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri. It is the second commonest cancer in women worldwide and is among the largest causes of global cancer mortality. Human papilloma virus (HPV) which is transmitted sexually, particularly subtypes 16 and 18 are responsible for causing majority of cervical cancer cases worldwide. The disease is one of the most preventable and curable carcinomas if detected and treated at an early enough stage. The effective prevention and control of the disease depends on, among others, the effective screening program coupled with knowledge and awareness of women population on the disease's risk factors and available screening services. Pap-test screening that is widely used in Western countries and proved to be effective in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer is not so popular in Tanzania, and so is HPV vaccine. This review examines the literatures on cervical cancer situation and explores various evidence-based cost-effective strategies and approaches that could be employed to confront the rising cervical cancer burden in the country. PMID:23120931

Saleh, F H

2011-12-01

253

Fra?1 is downregulated in cervical cancer tissues and promotes cervical cancer cell apoptosis by p53 signaling pathway in vitro.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is a potentially preventable disease; however, it is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Cervical cancer is thought to develop through a multistep process involving virus, tumor suppressor genes, proto?oncogenes and immunological factors. It is known that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary but insufficient to cause malignancy. At present, the etiology of cervical carcinoma remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the expression of FOS?like antigen?1 (Fra?1) gene was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non?cancerous tissues by RT?qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting techniques. To uncover the effect of Fra?1 on cervical cancer, we tested and confirmed that Fra?1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells by MMT assays in vitro. At the same time, overexpression of Fra?1 promoted apoptosis of HeLa cells. To explore the possible mechanism of Fra?1 in cervical cancer, we tested the expression levels of key molecules in p53 signaling pathway by western blotting technology. The results showed that p53 was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non?cancerous tissues, but MDM2 proto?oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (MDM2) was upregulated in cervical cancer. In vitro, the p53 was upregulated and MDM2 was downregulated in HeLa cells with Fra?1 overexpression. In summary, our results suggested that Fra?1 expression is low in cervical cancer tissues and promotes apoptosis of cervical cancer cells by p53 signaling pathway. PMID:25651840

Xiao, Songshu; Zhou, Yanhong; Yi, Wei; Luo, Guijuan; Jiang, Bin; Tian, Qi; Li, Yueran; Xue, Min

2015-04-01

254

Electrodiagnosis of cervical radiculopathy.  

PubMed

Cervical radiculopathy is a common diagnosis with a peak onset in the fifth decade. The most commonly affected nerve root is C7, C6, and C8. The etiology is often compressive, but may arise from noncompressive sources. Patients commonly complain of pain, weakness, numbness, and/or tingling. Examination may reveal sensory or motor disturbance in a dermatomal/myotomal distribution. Neural compression and tension signs may be positive. Diagnostic tests include imaging and electrodiagnostic study. Electrodiagnostic study serves as an extension of the neurologic examination. Electrodiagnostic findings can be useful for patients with atypical symptoms, potential pain-mediated weakness, and nonfocal imaging findings. PMID:23177027

Hakimi, Kevin; Spanier, David

2013-02-01

255

Syphilitic myelopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... not reverse existing nerve damage. For neurosyphilis, aqueous penicillin G (by injection) is the drug of choice. Some patients with penicillin allergies may have to be desensitized to penicillin ...

256

Pain and cervical traction variation during manual turning  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment using a dummy with a cervical traction recorder was used in place of a patient. Nurses and orderlies from the Spinal Unit carried out manual lifting and turning techniques, used in the conservative treatment of spinal injury. Variation in manual traction continues throughout a turn. Traction force may be quadrupled or quartered. Inco-ordination between the individuals lifting, causes

F X Keane

1978-01-01

257

Thoracic outlet syndrome due to hyperextension-hyperflexion cervical injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posttraumatic brachial plexus entrapment in fibrotic scarring tissue is taken into consideration as the cause of complaints for patients who suffered a hyperextension-hyperflexion cervical injury. All 54 patients included in this analysis where symptom-free before the accident and subsequently complained for pain, paresthesia and slight weakness in the arm. In 14 neurological signs of brachial plexus entrapment were observed. Electroneurophysiological,

Alberto Alexandre; L. Corò; A. Azuelos; M. Pellone

258

Cervical pain syndromes: Primary care diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses treatment of the most common musculoskeletal causes of cervical pain syndromes. A thorough history\\u000a and physical exam can allow treatment of these disorders without use of unnecessary and costly testing in the current era\\u000a of managed care.

Howard I. Levy

2000-01-01

259

The adverse effect of treatment prolongation in cervical carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Proliferation of surviving tumor clonogens during a course of protracted radiation therapy may be a cause of local failure in cervical carcinoma. The effect of total treatment time was analyzed retrospectively in relation to pelvic control and overall survival for squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix.Methods and Materials: Two hundred and nine patients (Stage IB-IIIB) treated with a

Daniel G. Petereit; Jann N. Sarkaria; Richard Chappell; John F. Fowler; Trudy J. Hartmann; Timothy J. Kinsella; Judith A. Stitt; Bruce R. Thomadsen; Dolores A. Buchler

1995-01-01

260

INTERFERON BETA-1A TREATMENT IN HTLV-1-ASSOCIATED MYELOPATHY/TROPICAL SPASTIC PARAPARESIS: A CASE REPORT  

PubMed Central

Here a young patient (< 21 years of age) with a history of infective dermatitis is described. The patient was diagnosed with myelopathy associated with HTLV-1/tropical spastic paraparesis and treated with interferon beta-1a. The disease was clinically established as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and laboratory tests confirmed the presence of antibodies to HTLV-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Mumps, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, schistosomiasis, herpes virus 1 and 2, rubella, measles, varicella-zoster toxoplasmosis, hepatitis, HIV, and syphilis were excluded by serology. The patient was diagnosed with neurogenic bladder and presented with nocturia, urinary urgency, paresthesia of the lower left limb, a marked reduction of muscle strength in the lower limbs, and a slight reduction in upper limb strength. During the fourth week of treatment with interferon beta-1a, urinary urgency and paresthesia disappeared and clinical motor skills improved. PMID:25229227

Viana, Graça Maria de Castro; da Silva, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto; Souza, Victor Lima; Lopes, Natália Barbosa da Silva; da Silva, Diego Luz Felipe; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão

2014-01-01

261

Interferon beta-1a treatment in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: a case report.  

PubMed

Here a young patient (< 21 years of age) with a history of infective dermatitis is described. The patient was diagnosed with myelopathy associated with HTLV-1/tropical spastic paraparesis and treated with interferon beta-1a. The disease was clinically established as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and laboratory tests confirmed the presence of antibodies to HTLV-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Mumps, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, schistosomiasis, herpes virus 1 and 2, rubella, measles, varicella-zoster toxoplasmosis, hepatitis, HIV, and syphilis were excluded by serology. The patient was diagnosed with neurogenic bladder and presented with nocturia, urinary urgency, paresthesia of the lower left limb, a marked reduction of muscle strength in the lower limbs, and a slight reduction in upper limb strength. During the fourth week of treatment with interferon beta-1a, urinary urgency and paresthesia disappeared and clinical motor skills improved. PMID:25229227

Viana, Graça Maria de Castro; Silva, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da; Souza, Victor Lima; Lopes, Natália Barbosa da Silva; Silva, Diego Luz Felipe da; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão

2014-01-01

262

Antemortem diagnosis and successful management of noncompressive segmental myelopathy in a Siberian-Bengal mixed breed tiger.  

PubMed

A 10-yr-old female spayed mixed breed tiger presented for a 9-day history of acute and nonprogressive paralysis of the pelvic limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion suggestive of fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy with regional spinal cord edema, decreased disk signal intensity at L2-L3, and mild intervertebral disk protrusion at L1-L2 and L2-L3. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis showed no overt evidence of infection or neoplasia. Medical therapy was instituted, including corticosteroids and gastroprotectants as well as nursing care and physical therapy. The tiger began showing clinical improvement 2 wk after initiating treatment, progressing to the point where the animal was standing and intermittently walking. Three months after diagnosis, the tiger had regained muscle strength of its hind limbs and walked regularly with improving coordination. This case is the first report of antemortem diagnosis and successful medical management of suspected fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy in a large exotic felid. PMID:24450082

Flower, Jennifer E; Lynch, Kate; Clark-Price, Stuart C; Welle, Kenneth R; O'Brien, Robert; Whittington, Julia K

2013-12-01

263

Health systems challenges in cervical cancer prevention program in Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among women in sub-Saharan Africa. In Malawi, very few women have undergone screening and the incidence of cervical cancer is on the increase as is the case in most developing countries. We aimed at exploring and documenting health system gaps responsible for the poor performance of the cervical cancer prevention program in Malawi. Design The study was carried out in 14 randomly selected districts of the 29 districts of Malawi. All cervical cancer service providers in these districts were invited to participate. Two semi-structured questionnaires were used, one for the district cervical cancer coordinators and the other for the service providers. The themes of both questionnaires were based on World Health Organization (WHO) health system frameworks. A checklist was also developed to audit medical supplies and equipment in the cervical cancer screening facilities. The two questionnaires together with the medical supplies and equipment checklist were piloted in Chikwawa district before being used as data collection tools in the study. Quantitative data were analyzed using STATA and qualitative in NVIVO. Results Forty-one service providers from 21 health facilities and 9 district coordinators participated in the study. Our findings show numerous health system challenges mainly in areas of health workforce and essential medical products and technologies. Seven out of the 21 health facilities provided both screening and treatment. Results showed challenges in the management of the cervical cancer program at district level; inadequate service providers who are poorly supervised; lack of basic equipment and stock-outs of basic medical supplies in some health facilities; and inadequate funding of the program. In most of the health facilities, services providers were not aware of the policy which govern their work and that they did not have standards and guidelines for cervical cancer screening and treatment. Conclusion Numerous health system challenges are prevailing in the cervical cancer prevention program in Malawi. These challenges need to be addressed if the health system is to improve on the coverage of cervical cancer screening and treatment. PMID:25623612

Maseko, Fresier C.; Chirwa, Maureen L.; Muula, Adamson S.

2015-01-01

264

Synovial chondromatosis of the lumbar spine with compressive myelopathy: a case report with review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synovial chondromatosis has been rarely reported to occur in the spine with only one case found in the lumbar spine. We describe\\u000a another case of synovial chondromatosis in the lumbar spine in a 41-year-old man who presented with compressive myelopathy.\\u000a The tumor was located in the left ventrolateral corner of the epidural space just below the L4–L5 intervertebral space. Besides

Ibrahim Fikry Abdelwahab; Daniel Contractor; Stefano Bianchi; George Hermann; Benjamin Hoch

2008-01-01

265

Occurrence of primary biliary cirrhosis, CREST syndrome and Sjögren's syndrome in a patient with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy.  

PubMed

We report the occurrence of three autoimmune diseases (primary biliary cirrhosis, CREST syndrome and Sjögren's syndrome) in a patient with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM). The patient had the depressed cell-mediated immune responses but the infiltration of CD8-T cells was found in the cerebrospinal fluid and liver. The clinical and immunological features of this case are similar to those of chronic graft-versus-host disease. PMID:8509804

Kuroda, Y; Fukuoka, M; Endo, C; Matsui, M; Kurohara, K; Kakigi, R; Tokunaga, O

1993-05-01

266

Hemiparesis and Facial Sensory Loss following Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection.  

PubMed

Interlaminar cervical epidural steroid injections (ic-ESI) are safe and effective treatment options for the management of acute and chronic radiculopathy, spinal stenosis, and other causes of neck pain not responding to more conservative measures. However, the procedure inherently lends itself to possible spinal cord injury (SCI). Though reports of such events have been documented, the clinical presentation of patients with needle puncture SCI varies. In part, this may be due to anatomic considerations, as symptoms may be dependent on the cervical level intruded, as well as the volume and type of injectate used. Many cases go unreported and therefore the true incidence of cord injections during ic-ESI is not known. Cervical epidurals can be performed by the transforaminal or interlaminar approach. It is generally accepted that ic-ESI is safer than transforaminal epidurals. There are numerous reports of arterial invasion or irritation with the latter despite an inherently greater risk of cord puncture with the former. The likelihood of cord interruption rises when ic-ESIs are performed above C6-C7 as there is a relatively slim epidural layer compared to lower cervical epidural zones. Though most cases of devastating outcomes, such as hemiplegia and death, have been reported during cervical transforaminal epidural injections and rarely with ic-ESI, it is important to understand the symptoms and potential pitfalls of performing any cervical epidural injection. Cervical epidural malpractice claims are uncommon, but exceed those of steroid blocks at all the levels combined, demonstrating the need for improved awareness of potential complications in ic-ESI. Here, we will describe an unusual presentation of a spinal cord injection during an ic-ESI procedure. PMID:25415791

Maddela, Raghu; Wahezi, Sayed E; Sparr, Steven; Brook, Allan

2014-12-01

267

Outcome of single level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide-66 cage  

PubMed Central

Background: Cages have been widely used for the anterior reconstruction and fusion of cervical spine. Nonmetal cages have become popular due to prominent stress shielding and high rate of subsidence of metallic cages. This study aims to assess fusion with n-HA/PA66 cage following one level anterior cervical discectomy. Materials and Methods: Forty seven consecutive patients with radiculopathy or myelopathy underwent single level ACDF using n-HA/PA66 cage. We measured the segmental lordosis and intervertebral disc height on preoperative radiographs and then calculated the loss of segmental lordosis correction and cage subsidence over followup. Fusion status was evaluated on CT scans. Odom criteria, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) and Visual Analog Pain Scales (VAS) scores were used to assess the clinical results. Statistically quantitative data were analyzed while Categorical data by ?2 test. Results: Mean correction of segmental lordosis from surgery was 6.9 ± 3.0° with a mean loss of correction of 1.7 ± 1.9°. Mean cage subsidence was 1.2 ± 0.6 mm and the rate of cage subsidence (>2 mm) was 2%. The rate of fusion success was 100%. No significant difference was found on clinical or radiographic outcomes between the patients (n=27) who were fused by n-HA/PA66 cage with pure local bone and the ones (n=20) with hybrid bone (local bone associating with bone from iliac crest). Conclusions: The n-HA/PA66 cage is a satisfactory reconstructing implant after anterior cervical discectomy, which can effectively promote bone graft fusion and prevent cage subsidence. PMID:24741136

Yang, Xi; Liu, Limin; Song, Yueming; Kong, Qingquan; Zeng, Jiancheng; Tu, Chongqi

2014-01-01

268

History of cervical disc arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Enthusiasm for cervical disc arthroplasty is based on the premise that motion-preserving devices attenuate the progression of adjacent-segment disease (ASD) in the cervical spine. Arthrodesis, on the other hand, results in abnormal load transfer on adjacent segments, leading to the acceleration of ASD. It has taken several decades of pioneering work to produce clinically relevant devices that mimic the kinematics of the intervertebral disc. The goal of this work is to trace the origins of cervical arthroplasty technology and highlight the attributes of devices currently available in the market. PMID:19722812

Baaj, Ali A; Uribe, Juan S; Vale, Fernando L; Preul, Mark C; Crawford, Neil R

2009-09-01

269

Early Cervical Neoplasia: Advances in Screening and Treatment Modalities  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer in women worldwide. However, improvements in screening programs and treatment modalities have significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of this disease. The discovery that infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a crucial part of the causative pathway in cervical cancer pathogenesis has revolutionized screening, and prompted investigations into alternatives to traditional cytologic evaluation which may be useful in low-resource settings. Concomitant with improved screening has been a shift towards greater detection of both pre-invasive and early-stage neoplastic disease. Earlier detection not only allows for surgical management of disease, with the avoidance of chemotherapy and radiation, but also the possibility of fertility preservation. As surgical technologies advance to encompass minimally-invasive procedures, interventions for early-stage cervical cancer are becoming increasingly effective in disease eradication while permitting patients to maintain their quality of life. PMID:20966891

Tierney, Brent; Westin, Shannon N.; Schlumbrecht, Matthew P.; Ramirez, Pedro T.

2015-01-01

270

Increase in cervical cancer mortality in Spain, 1951-1991  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The trend in cervical cancer mortality in Spain from 1951 to 1991 is examined. METHODS: Analysis of national mortality statistics calculating age standardised mortality rates and an age-period cohort analysis. A fit to the Gompertz function was made to estimate the influence of the environmental factors on the mortality rates evolution. MAIN RESULTS: The age standardised mortality rate in Spain is lower than in other developed countries (USA or Estonia) and equal to Norwegian and Finland rates; but whereas in these countries the trend is to decrease, the Spanish rate has increased during this period, because of a cohort effect. A misclassification bias could be responsible for the trend in women aged 40 and older but the increasing trend in younger women could not be interpreted as espurious. The Gompertzian analysis suggests an increase in environmental factors causing cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Cervical cancer mortality rates are increasing in Spain because of environmental factors.   PMID:10492733

Llorca, J.; Prieto, M. D.; Delgado-Rodriguez, M.

1999-01-01

271

Cervical Lymphadenopathy—Pitfalls of Blind Antitubercular Treatment  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common cause of cervical lymphadenopathy in the TB-endemic zone, like India but it can also mimic other diseases. Four cases of cervical lymphadenopathy presented to us as initial treatment failure after completion of six months of antitubercular drugs (ATD), including rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. All were diagnosed as having tuberculosis either by fine needle aspiration cytology or clinically from outside our institution. In one case, tuberculosis was the final diagnosis but, unfortunately, it was multidrug-resistant. In other three cases, Hodgkin disease, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and Kikuchi's disease were the diagnoses. In resource-poor countries, like India, which is also a TB-endemic zone, TB should be the first diagnosis in all cases of chronic cervical lymphadenopathy, based on clinical and/or cytological evidences. So, they were correctly advised antitubercular therapy (ATT) initially. Sometimes, TB mimics other aetiologies where apparent initial improvement with ATT finally results in treatment failure. Hence, investigations for microbiological and histopathological diagnosis are warranted, depending on the resources and feasibility. If these tests are not routinely available, the patients should be under close monitoring so that lymphoma, drug-resistant TB, or other aetiologies of cervical lymphadenopathy are not missed. Patients with cervical lymphadenopathy rarely presents acutely; so, a physician can take the opportunity of histopathological study of lymphnode tissue. PMID:24847605

Choudhury, Sabyasachi; Das, Anirban; Das, Sibes Kumar; Bhattacharya, Soumya

2014-01-01

272

Trauma radiology: Part V. Imaging of acute cervical spine trauma.  

PubMed

Cervical spine injury constitutes a major cause of morbidity resulting from trauma. The consequences of a missed "significant" injury can be devastating for the patient and can create potential medical legal consequences for involved physicians. Multiple imaging modalities can be applied to imaging of the cervical spine after trauma, including radiography, computed tomography (CT), myelography, CT myelography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Controversy exists concerning the appropriate number of radiographic views required for the screening assessment of cervical spine injuries. CT clarifies uncertain radiological findings, identifies subtle fractures in patients with neck pain or with neurological deficits but with normal radiographs, determines details of injury, and assists in operative planning. MRI has virtually replaced myelography and CT myelography in evaluating the traumatized cervical spine. MRI is more accurate than CT with intrathecal contrast in delineating epidural pathology, ligament injury, soft-tissue edema, and cord parenchymal injury. Information derived from MRI guides appropriate management and has value in predicting injury outcome. We consider indications for and relative merits of these various diagnostic modalities, and we describe imaging features of major patterns of cervical spine injury. PMID:10155167

Mirvis, S E; Shanmuganathan, K

1995-01-01

273

Molecularly targeted therapies in cervical cancer. A systematic review.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer represents the third most common cause of female cancer mortality. Even with the best currently available treatment, a significant proportion of patients will experience recurrence and eventually die. Evidently, there is a clear need for the development of new agents with novel mechanisms of action in this disease. A number of biological agents modulating different signal transduction pathways are currently in clinical development, inhibiting angiogenesis, targeting epidermal growth factor receptor, cell cycle, histone deacetylases, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). This is the first systematic review of the literature to synthesize all available data emerging from trials and evaluate the efficacy and safety of molecularly targeted drugs in cervical cancer. However, it should be stressed that relatively fewer molecularly targeted agents have been tested in cervical cancer in comparison with other cancer types; of note, no related phase 3 trials have been published and consequently no agent has been approved for use in clinical practice. Nevertheless, the promising results of bevacizumab in therapeutic trials for cervical cancer have shown that targeting the VEGF pathway is an attractive therapeutic strategy. As knowledge accumulates on the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis in the cervix, the anticipated development and assessment of molecularly targeted agents may offer a promising perspective for cervical cancer. PMID:22504292

Zagouri, Flora; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Chrysikos, Dimosthenis; Filipits, Martin; Bartsch, Rupert

2012-08-01

274

Anterior Cervical Arachnoid Cyst  

PubMed Central

This report is composed of two patients with anteriorly located cervical intradural arachnoid cyst and review of 24 cases in Englishlanguage literature. Both of our patients were in the first two decades of life with neck pain and motor weakness. With suspicious diagnosis of anterior arachnoid cyst surgery was carried out in both cases, though laminectomy in one and laminoplasty in the other. The cyst wall was widely fenestrated with subsequent subtotal excision of the cyst. Both cases had good long-term outcome. The review disclosed male predominance. 73% of the patients were diagnosed within the first two decades of life. Neck pain and motor weakness were the dominant signs and symptoms of this pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging showing a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing cyst was the best mode of diagnosis. Wide cyst fenestration with waying CSF into subarachnoid cyst was the most appropriate and applied surgery with optimal outcome. PMID:23741550

Sharifi, Give

2013-01-01

275

Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Other Drug Resources A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Drugs Approved for Different Types of Cancer Drugs Approved ... NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms NCI Drug Dictionary Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer This page lists cancer ...

276

Cervical Cancer HPV Vaccine Use  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

277

Hemangiopericytoma of the cervical spine.  

PubMed

A 28-year-old male presented with neck pain and dysesthesias in the right upper limb. On examination, he had a firm, well-defined midline posterior cervical mass discernible on palpation at the mid-cervical level. He had no neurological deficit. Neuroradiology revealed a variegated enhancing cervical mass is arising from C3 lamina. The mass extended into the right extradural space eroding the C3 lamina and posteriorly into the intermuscular plane. The tumor was excised totally. Histopathology of the tumor showed features of hemangiopericytoma (HPC). The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Primary osseous spinal HPC are rare malignant extra-axial tumors that tend to recur and metastasize. Only two cases of primary osseous HPC have been reported earlier to involve the cervical spine. The clinical presentation and management of the present case with a review of the literature is presented. PMID:25210342

Ramdasi, Raghvendra V; Nadkarni, Trimurti D; Goel, Naina A

2014-04-01

278

Hemangiopericytoma of the cervical spine  

PubMed Central

A 28-year-old male presented with neck pain and dysesthesias in the right upper limb. On examination, he had a firm, well-defined midline posterior cervical mass discernible on palpation at the mid-cervical level. He had no neurological deficit. Neuroradiology revealed a variegated enhancing cervical mass is arising from C3 lamina. The mass extended into the right extradural space eroding the C3 lamina and posteriorly into the intermuscular plane. The tumor was excised totally. Histopathology of the tumor showed features of hemangiopericytoma (HPC). The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Primary osseous spinal HPC are rare malignant extra-axial tumors that tend to recur and metastasize. Only two cases of primary osseous HPC have been reported earlier to involve the cervical spine. The clinical presentation and management of the present case with a review of the literature is presented. PMID:25210342

Ramdasi, Raghvendra V.; Nadkarni, Trimurti D.; Goel, Naina A.

2014-01-01

279

General Information about Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... increased risk of cervical cancer. There are two vaccines to prevent HPV in girls and young women ... HPV) test : A laboratory test used to check DNA or RNA for certain types of HPV infection. ...

280

History of the use of HPV testing in cervical screening and in the management of abnormal cervical screening results.  

PubMed

Twenty years have passed since the first studies using human papillomavirus (HPV) testing began in clinical settings. At that time controversy regarding the role of HPV in cervical carcinogenesis still divided the scientific world. Epidemiological and natural history studies on HPV and cervical cancer in the ensuing two decades secured the necessary role of high-risk (carcinogenic) HPV in the genesis of cervical cancer, providing the rationale for testing for its cause. Subsequently, cross sectional studies and large randomized trials have provided clinical validation for high-risk HPV testing in triage of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), in postcolposcopy management of women referred for ASC-US, atypical squamous cells "cannot rule out high grade" (ASC-H), atypical glandular cells "not otherwise specified" (AGC NOS) and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and not found to have cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+ or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) at initial colposcopy, in post-treatment of CIN 2+ surveillance, and in cotesting with the Papanicolaou (Pap) test of women age 30 and over. This is the story of the road traveled that brought the clinical use of HPV testing from its genesis only a few years after Dr. zur Hausen's discovery to its present eminent role in both primary cervical cancer screening and abnormal Pap management. PMID:19651367

Cox, J Thomas

2009-07-01

281

Severe neurologic manifestations from cervical spine instability in spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia.  

PubMed

Spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia (SMMD; OMIM 613330) is a dysostosis/dysplasia caused by recessive mutations in the homeobox-containing gene, NKX3-2 (formerly known as BAPX1). Because of the rarity of the condition, its diagnostic features and natural course are not well known. We describe clinical and radiographic findings in six patients (five of which with homozygous mutations in the NKX3-2 gene) and highlight the unusual and severe changes in the cervical spine and the neurologic complications. In individuals with SMMD, the trunk and the neck are short, while the limbs, fingers and toes are disproportionately long. Radiographs show a severe ossification delay of the vertebral bodies with sagittal and coronal clefts, missing ossification of the pubic bones, large round "balloon-like" epiphyses of the long bones, and presence of multiple pseudoepiphyses at all metacarpals and phalanges. Reduced or absent ossification of the cervical vertebrae leads to cervical instability with anterior or posterior kinking of the cervical spine (swan neck-like deformity, kyknodysostosis). As a result of the cervical spine instability or deformation, five of six patients in our series suffered cervical cord injury that manifested clinically as limb spasticity. Although the number of individuals observed is small, the high incidence of cervical spine deformation in SMMD is unique among skeletal dysplasias. Early diagnosis of SMMD by recognition of the radiographic pattern might prevent of the neurologic complications via prophylactic cervical spine stabilization. PMID:22791571

Simon, Marleen; Campos-Xavier, Ana Belinda; Mittaz-Crettol, Lauréane; Valadares, Eugenia Ribeiro; Carvalho, Daniel; Speck-Martins, Carlos Eduardo; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Alanay, Yasemin; Mihci, Ercan; van Bever, Yolande; Garcia-Segarra, Nuria; Cavalcanti, Denise; Mortier, Geert; Bonafé, Luisa; Superti-Furga, Andrea

2012-08-15

282

Cervical cancer and the global health agenda: Insights from multiple policy-analysis frameworks  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths for women globally, with an estimated 88% of deaths occurring in the developing world. Available technologies have dramatically reduced mortality in high-income settings, yet cervical cancer receives considerably little attention on the global health policy landscape. The authors applied four policy-analysis frameworks to literature on global cervical cancer to explore the question of why cervical cancer may not be receiving the international attention it may otherwise warrant. Each framework explores the process of agenda setting and discerns factors that either facilitate or hinder policy change in cases where there is both a clear problem and a potential effective solution. In combination, these frameworks highlight a number of crucial elements that may be needed to raise the profile of cervical cancer on global health agendas, including improving local (national or sub-national) information on the condition; increasing mobilisation of affected civil society groups; framing cervical cancer debates in ways that build upon its classification as a non-communicable disease (NCD) and an issue of women's rights; linking cervical cancer screening to well-funded services such as those for HIV treatment in some countries; and identifying key global policy windows of opportunity to promote the cervical cancer agenda, including emerging NCD global health discussions and post-2015 reviews of the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:24236409

Parkhurst, Justin O.; Vulimiri, Madhulika

2013-01-01

283

High-risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Cervical Lesions and Vaccination Challenges in China.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer, mostly progressing from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Chinese women. This is largely due to high prevalence of high-risk human papillomaviruses (hr-HPVs) in the population. The prevalence of hr-HPV DNA in women and in cervical lesions women ranged from 9.9% to 17.% and from 50.5% to 70.9% in different regions of China, respectively. The most common genotypes somewhat differ between regions throughout the country and from those in many other countries. This may be a challenge to cervical cancer screening and prevention in China. Combined detection of particular HPV genotypes should be recommended in all geographical regions in China and greater attention must be paid to specific hr-HPV types during cervical cancer screening and follow-up of cervical lesions. Besides, vaccination for prevention of cervical cancer by particular HPV genotypes, has not been introduced to China so far. Updated knowledge on prevalent HPV genotypes should be provided to public health organizations to help with the development of more effective HPV vaccines, which can protect Chinese women against HPV types prevalent in local China and thus have a substantial impact on the cervical cancer burden. PMID:25824736

Xu, Qiu-Xiang; Zhang, Zhen-Yu

2015-01-01

284

Factors Associated with the Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Portland, Jamaica  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and is the leading cause of deaths in developing countries. Despite the strong evidence that cervical cancer screening results in decreased mortality from this disease, the uptake for cervical screening among Jamaican women remains low. Aims: This study was carried out to identify factors associated with Jamaican women's decisions to screen for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of 403 women aged 19 years and older from Portland, Jamaica. An interviewer-administered questionnaire assessed the women's cervical cancer screening history, as well as their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding the disease and screening. Results: Of the 403 women interviewed, 66% had a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear and only 16% had a Pap test within the past year. Significant predicators of uptake of screening were being married, age, parity, discussing cancer with health provider, perception of consequences of not having a Pap smear, and knowing a person with cervical cancer. Women who did not know where to go for a Pap smear were 85% less likely to have been screened (prevalence odds ratio (POR): 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04, 0.52). Conclusions: This study showed suboptimal uptake of cervical cancer screening among Jamaican women. Multipronged approaches are needed to address barriers to screening, as well as identify and support conditions that encourage women's use of reproductive health services, thereby reducing incidence and mortality rates from cervical cancer.

Ncube, Butho; Bey, Amita; Knight, Jeremy; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Pauline E.

2015-01-01

285

How Are Cervical Cancers and Pre-Cancers Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... How is cervical cancer staged? How is cervical cancer diagnosed? The first step in finding cervical cancer ... systems. Tests for women with symptoms of cervical cancer or abnormal Pap results Medical history and physical ...

286

Infections of the Cervical Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Spinal infections are relatively rare, accounting for only 2–4% of all osteomyelitis infections, and are located preferentially\\u000a in the thoracic and lumbar segments. Although the cervical segment is the less common spine localization, cervical spinal\\u000a infections present the highest incidence of neurological involvement [6].\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Recent advances in diagnosis and management — with the introduction of antibiotics and more aggressive surgery

Luca Denaro; Umile Giuseppe Longo; Vincenzo Denaro

287

Early Cervical Neoplasia: Treatment Methods  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer screening programs have been one of the most important developments in women's health care during the past 50 years. Sound knowledge of the principles and techniques for taking Papanicolaou smears, interpreting results, and investigating abnormalities detected are essential skills for individuals providing primary health care to women. The author briefly reviews the current investigatory methods and the common treatments for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and early invasive cancer of the cervix. PMID:21233966

Benedet, J.L.

1990-01-01

288

Surgical outcome in patients with cervical ossified posterior longitudinal ligament: A single institutional experience  

PubMed Central

Objective: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a complex multi-factorial disease process having both metabolic and biomechanical factors. The role of surgical intervention as well as the choice of approach weather anterior or posterior is ambiguous. The objective of this study was to assess the surgical out come and post operative functional improvement in patients with cervical OPLL at a tertiary care centre. Patients and Methods: This prospective study included 63 patients of cervical OPLL who underwent either anterior and/or posterior surgeries in Department of Neurosurgery, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad between June 2009 to May 2011. Patient's data including age, sex, pre and post operative functional status, radiographic findings and OPLL subtypes were recorded and analyzed over a follow up ranging up to minimum two years. Results: The mean age of the patients was 51.1 (range 30-80 years) involving 14 women and 49 men. Out of 63 patients, 14 patients underwent surgery by anterior approach (corpectomy and fusion) and all of them improved (P = 0.52). 49 patients underwent surgery by posterior approach where decompressive laminectomy was performed in 40, laminectomy with instrumentation was done in 5, laminoplasty was done in 3 and 1 patient underwent both anterior and posterior surgeries. Of those who underwent posterior surgery, 40 patients improved, 7 remained the same as their preoperative status (who were having signal intensity changes on T2W MRI) and 2 patients deteriorated in the immediate post operative period and then showed gradual improvement. All the patients were followed up for 24 months. The mean pre-operative Nurick grade was 2.82 which later on improved to 2.03 post surgery (P < 0.05). Minor complications included wound infections in two patients (1.26%). Conclusions: Anterior cervical decompression and reconstruction is a safe and appropriate treatment for cervical spondylitic myelopathy in the setting of single or two level OPLL. Laminectomy or laminoplasty is indicated in patients with preserved cervical lordosis having three or more levels of involvement. Younger patients with good pre operative functional status and less than 2 levels of involvement have better outcome following anterior surgery. PMID:25685216

Kommu, Rao; Sahu, B. P.; Purohit, A. K.

2014-01-01

289

Grantee Research Highlight: Innovative Models to Assess the Costs, Benefits, and Cost-effectiveness of Cervical Cancer Screening  

Cancer.gov

Cervical cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide. In recent years, an improving understanding of the natural history of the human papillomavirus (HPV), promising new screening approaches using HPV DNA testing, and the development of an HPV vaccine have significantly changed the approach to preventing and controlling cervical cancer.

290

Glycoprotein and Glycan in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-23

291

Chronic Neck Pain: Making the Connection Between Capsular Ligament Laxity and Cervical Instability  

PubMed Central

The use of conventional modalities for chronic neck pain remains debatable, primarily because most treatments have had limited success. We conducted a review of the literature published up to December 2013 on the diagnostic and treatment modalities of disorders related to chronic neck pain and concluded that, despite providing temporary relief of symptoms, these treatments do not address the specific problems of healing and are not likely to offer long-term cures. The objectives of this narrative review are to provide an overview of chronic neck pain as it relates to cervical instability, to describe the anatomical features of the cervical spine and the impact of capsular ligament laxity, to discuss the disorders causing chronic neck pain and their current treatments, and lastly, to present prolotherapy as a viable treatment option that heals injured ligaments, restores stability to the spine, and resolves chronic neck pain. The capsular ligaments are the main stabilizing structures of the facet joints in the cervical spine and have been implicated as a major source of chronic neck pain. Chronic neck pain often reflects a state of instability in the cervical spine and is a symptom common to a number of conditions described herein, including disc herniation, cervical spondylosis, whiplash injury and whiplash associated disorder, postconcussion syndrome, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and Barré-Liéou syndrome. When the capsular ligaments are injured, they become elongated and exhibit laxity, which causes excessive movement of the cervical vertebrae. In the upper cervical spine (C0-C2), this can cause a number of other symptoms including, but not limited to, nerve irritation and vertebrobasilar insufficiency with associated vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness, facial pain, arm pain, and migraine headaches. In the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), this can cause muscle spasms, crepitation, and/or paresthesia in addition to chronic neck pain. In either case, the presence of excessive motion between two adjacent cervical vertebrae and these associated symptoms is described as cervical instability. Therefore, we propose that in many cases of chronic neck pain, the cause may be underlying joint instability due to capsular ligament laxity. Currently, curative treatment options for this type of cervical instability are inconclusive and inadequate. Based on clinical studies and experience with patients who have visited our chronic pain clinic with complaints of chronic neck pain, we contend that prolotherapy offers a potentially curative treatment option for chronic neck pain related to capsular ligament laxity and underlying cervical instability. PMID:25328557

Steilen, Danielle; Hauser, Ross; Woldin, Barbara; Sawyer, Sarah

2014-01-01

292

Cervical facet injections in the management of cervicogenic headaches.  

PubMed

Cervicogenic headache is defined as headaches originating from cervical spine structures including cervical facet joints, cervical intervertebral discs, skeletal muscles, connective tissues, and neurovascular structures. Cervical facet injections with steroids have been used to alleviate cervicogenic headache secondary to cervical facet arthropathy. In this article, we will review the cervical spine anatomy, cervical facet injections, and the efficacy of cervical facet injections as a treatment for cervicogenic headache. PMID:25795156

Ng, Andrew; Wang, Dajie

2015-05-01

293

Cervical Cord Decompression Using Extended Anterior Cervical Foraminotomy Technique  

PubMed Central

Objective At present, gold-standard technique of cervical cord decompression is surgical decompression and fusion. But, many complications related cervical fusion have been reported. We adopted an extended anterior cervical foraminotomy (EACF) technique to decompress the anterolateral portion of cervical cord and report clinical results and effectiveness of this procedure. Methods Fifty-three patients were operated consecutively using EACF from 2008 to 2013. All of them were operated by a single surgeon via the unilateral approach. Twenty-two patients who exhibited radicular and/or myelopathic symptoms were enrolled in this study. All of them showed cervical cord compression in their preoperative magnetic resonance scan images. Results In surgical outcomes, 14 patients (64%) were classified as excellent and six (27%), as good. The mean difference of cervical cord anterior-posterior diameter after surgery was 0.92 mm (p<0.01) and transverse area was 9.77 mm2 (p<0.01). The dynamic radiological study showed that the average post-operative translation (retrolisthesis) was 0.36 mm and the disc height loss at the operated level was 0.81 mm. The change in the Cobb angle decreased to 3.46, and showed slight kyphosis. The average vertebral body resection rate was 11.47%. No procedure-related complications occurred. Only one patient who had two-level decompression needed anterior fusion at one level as a secondary surgery due to postoperative instability. Conclusions Cervical cord decompression was successfully performed using EACF technique. This procedure will be an alternative surgical option for treating cord compressing lesions. Long-term follow-up and a further study in larger series will be needed. PMID:25328648

Kim, Sung-Duk; Lee, Cheol-Young; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Chul-Ku; Kim, Jong Hyun

2014-01-01

294

A Comprehensive Review of Dysregulated miRNAs Involved in Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs(miRNAs) have become the center of interest in oncology. In recent years, various studies have demonstrated that miRNAs regulate gene expression by influencing important regulatory genes and thus are responsible for causing cervical cancer. Cervical cancer being the third most diagnosed cancer among the females worldwide, is the fourth leading cause of cancer related mortality. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and new HPV screening tests, combined with traditional Pap test screening have greatly reduced cervical cancer. Yet, thousands of women continue to be diagnosed with and die of this preventable disease annually. This has necessitated the scientists to ponder over ways of evolving new methods and chalk out novel treatment protocols/strategies. As miRNA deregulation plays a key role in malignant transformation of cervical cancer along with its targets that can be exploited for both prognostic and therapeutic strategies, we have collected and reviewed the role of miRNA in cervical cancer. A systematic search was performed using PubMed for articles that report aberrant expression of miRNA in cervical cancer. The present review provides comprehensive information for 246 differentially expressed miRNAs gathered from 51 published articles that have been implicated in cervical cancer progression. Of these, more than 40 miRNAs have been reported in the literature in several instances signifying their role in the regulation of cancer. We also identified 40 experimentally validated targets, studied the cause of miRNAs dysregulation along with its mechanism and role in different stages of cervical cancer. We also identified and analysed miRNA clusters and their expression pattern in cervical cancer. This review is expected to further enhance our understanding in this field and serve as a valuable reference resource. PMID:25132800

Sharma, Garima; Dua, Pradeep; Agarwal, Subhash Mohan

2014-01-01

295

Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Cervical Spine Injury during Heating Season in the Patients with Cervical Trauma: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of cervical spine injury in the patients with cervical trauma and analyze its associated risk factors during the special heating season in North China. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated predictors for cervical spine injury in cervical trauma patients using retrospectively collected data of Hebei Provincial Orthopaedic Hospital from 11/2011 to 02/2012, and 11/2012 to 02/2013. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for cervical fractures/dislocations or cord injury. Results A total of 106 patients were admitted into this study. Of all, 34 patients (32.1%) were treated from 11/2011 to 02/2012 and 72 patients (67.9%) from 11/2012 to 02/2013. The mean age was 41.9±13.3 years old; 85 patients (80.2%) were male and 82 (77.4%) from rural areas. Eighty patients (75.5%) were caused by fall including 45 (42.5%) by severe fall (>2 m). Sixty-five patients (61.3%) of all suffered injuries to other body regions and 32 (30.2%) got head injury. Thirty-one patients (29.2%) sustained cervical cord injury with cervical fractures/dislocations. Twenty-six (83.9%) of cervical cord injury patients were from rural areas and 24 (77.4%) of those resulted from fall including 15 (48.4%) from severe fall (>2 m). Logistic regression displayed that age (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.05–2.07), head injury (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 2.23–14.26), were risk factors for cervical cord injury and snowing (OR, 8.25; 95% CI, 2.26–30.15) was a risk factor for cervical spine injury due to severe fall (>2 m). Conclusions The elder male patients and patients with head trauma are high-risk population for cervical cord injury. As a seasonal factor, snowing during heating season is of note a risk factor for cervical spine injury resulting from severe fall (>2 m) in the patients with cervical trauma in North China. PMID:24223795

Yang, Sidong; Ding, Wenyuan; Yang, Dalong; Gu, Tixin; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Di; Sun, Yapeng; Ma, Lei; Song, Yanli

2013-01-01

296

Characterization of Intercostal Muscle Pathology in Canine Degenerative Myelopathy: A Disease Model for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Dogs homozygous for missense mutations in the SOD1 gene develop a late-onset neuromuscular disorder called degenerative myelopathy (DM) that has many similarities to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Both disorders are characterized by widespread progressive declines in motor functions accompanied by atrophic changes in the descending spinal cord tracts , and some forms of ALS are also associated with SOD1 mutations. In end-stage ALS, death usually occurs as a result of respiratory failure due to severe functional impairment of respiratory muscles. The mechanisms that lead to this loss of function are not known. Dogs with DM are euthanized at all stages of disease progression providing an opportunity to characterize the onset and progression of any pathological changes in the respiratory muscles that may precede respiratory failure. To characterize such potential disease-related pathology we evaluated intercostal muscles from Boxer and Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs that were euthanized at various stages of DM disease progression. DM was found to result in intercostal muscle atrophy, fibrosis, increased variability in muscle fiber size and shape, and an alteration in muscle fiber type composition. This pathology was not accompanied by retraction of the motor neuron terminals from the muscle acetylcholine receptor complexes, suggesting that the muscle atrophy did not result from physical denervation. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms that likely lead to respiratory failure in at least some forms of ALS and will be useful in the development and evaluation of potential therapeutic interventions using the DM model. PMID:24043596

Morgan, Brandie R.; Coates, Joan R.; Johnson, Gayle C.; Bujnak, Alyssa C.; Katz, Martin L.

2014-01-01

297

Daily controlled physiotherapy increases survival time in dogs with suspected degenerative myelopathy.  

PubMed

The purposes of the study reported here were to evaluate the signalment and clinical presentation in 50 dogs with degenerative myelopathy, to evaluate whether mean survival time was significantly affected by various means of physiotherapy performed in 22 dogs, and to determine whether neurologic status, anatomic localization, or age at onset had an influence on survival time in dogs that received physiotherapy. We found a significant (P < .05) breed predisposition for the German Shepherd Dog, Kuvasz, Hovawart, and Bernese Mountain Dog. Mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 years, and both sexes were affected equally. The anatomic localization of the lesion was spinal cord segment T3-L3 in 56% (n = 28) and L3-S3 in 44% (n = 22) of the dogs. Animals that received intensive (n = 9) physiotherapy had longer (P < .05) survival time (mean 255 days), compared with that for animals with moderate (n = 6; mean 130 days) or no (n = 7; mean 55 days) physiotherapy. In addition, our results indicate that affected dogs which received physiotherapy remained ambulatory longer than did animals that did not receive physical treatment. PMID:16955818

Kathmann, I; Cizinauskas, S; Doherr, M G; Steffen, F; Jaggy, A

2006-01-01

298

LOW KNOWLEDGE OF CERVICAL CANCER AND CERVICAL PAP SMEARS AMONG WOMEN IN PERU, AND THEIR IDEAS OF HOW THIS COULD BE IMPROVED  

PubMed Central

Estimates of the percentage of women who have had Pap smears in Peru vary between 7% and 43%. This study explores what women know about cervical cancer and Pap smears, as well as their barriers to obtaining Pap smears. Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with a total of 177 women in four Peruvian cities. Discussions reveal that most women did not know what causes cervical cancer. Most women did not know the purpose of Pap smears, although knowledge about Pap smears was higher than knowledge about cervical cancer. Fear, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge were the main barriers identified for not getting Pap smears. Programs and policies aiming to increase Pap smear coverage must start by educating women on cervical cancer and its prevention in order to improve women's perceptions about the screening test and increase Pap smear seeking behaviors in the long term. PMID:21988870

PAZ-SOLDÁN, VALERIE A.; NUSSBAUM, LAUREN; BAYER, ANGELA M.; CABRERA, LILIA

2013-01-01

299

Evaluation of an educational program on cervical cancer for rural women in Mangalore, Southern India.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer in women worldwide. One way by which the incidence of this malignant disease can be minimized is by imparting knowledge through health education. This study aimed at developing an educational package on cervical cancer (EPCC) and determining its effectiveness in terms of significant increase in knowledge of rural women regarding cervical cancer. A one group pre-test, post-test design was adopted. Thirty rural women were selected using a convenient sampling method. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a structured knowledge questionnaire developed by the researchers. The EPCC was designed for a duration of one hour and 10 minutes. The structured knowledge questionnaire was first administered as the pre-test, following which knowledge on cervical cancer was imparted using the EPCC. On the 8th day, the post-test was administered. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean post-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was significantly higher than that of their mean pre-test score, indicating that the EPCC was effective in improving the knowledge of rural women on cervical cancer. The association between pre-test knowledge scores and selected demo-graphic variables were computed using chi-square test showed that pre-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was independent of all the socio-demographic variables. It was concluded that the EPCC is effective in improving the knowledge of women, regarding cervical cancer. Since the prevalence of cervical cancer is high, there is an immediate need to educate women on prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:25169495

Mary, Bright; D'Sa, Juliana Linnette

2014-01-01

300

Distribution of human papillomavirus genotypes among cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancers in Macao.  

PubMed

Macao is a densely populated city situated in East Asia where a relatively high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 52 and 58 has been reported in women with invasive cervical cancer. To provide data for a population-specific estimation on the impact of HPV vaccines, paraffin-embedded tissues collected from women with invasive cervical cancer or cervical intrapeitheilal neoplasia grade 2 or 3 confirmed histologically were examined for HPV using the INNO-LiPa kit. Of the 35 HPV-positive patients with invasive cancer, one HPV type was detected in 68.6%, and 31.4% were co-infected with more than one HPV type. Overall, HPV 16, HPV 18, HPV 52, and HPV 54 were the most common types found respectively in 57.1%, 17%, 11.4%, and 8.5% of patients with invasive cervical cancer. Among the 59 HPV-positive patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3, 55.9% hardbored one HPV type, and 44.1% had co-infections. The common HPV types found included HPV 16 (52.5%), HPV 52 (23.7%), HPV 58 (18.7%), and HPV 33 (17%). Although HPV 11 (a low-risk type) was also found commonly in invasive cervical cancers (14.3%) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (15.3%), the fact that they all existed as co-infections with another high-risk type suggested HPV 11 was not the cause of the lesion. The current vaccines targeting HPV 16/18 are expected to cover 62.9-74.3% of invasive cervical cancers and 32.2-55.9% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 in Macao. Widespread HPV vaccination is expected to reduce substantially the disease burden associated with cervical neoplasia in Macao. PMID:20648616

Hlaing, Thazin; Yip, Yuk-Ching; Ngai, Karry L K; Vong, Heong-Ting; Wong, Sio-In; Ho, Wendy C S; Batalha, Sellma L S C; Chan, Paul K S

2010-09-01

301

Use of cervical spine manipulation under anesthesia for management of cervical disk herniation, cervical radiculopathy, and associated cervicogenic headache syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To demonstrate the benefits of cervical spine manipulation with the patient under anesthesia as an approach to treating a patient with chronic cervical disk herniation, associated cervical radiculopathy, and cervicogenic headache syndrome. Clinical Features: The patient had neck pain with radiating paresthesia into the right upper extremity and incapacitating headaches and had no response to 6 months of conservative

James Herzog

1999-01-01

302

Differences between Cervical Schwannomas of the Anterior and Posterior Nerve Roots in Relation to the Incidence of Postoperative Radicular Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To assess the case files of patients who underwent surgery for cervical dumbbell schwannoma for determining the differences between schwannomas of the anterior and posterior nerve roots with respect to the incidence of postoperative radicular dysfunction. Overview of Literature The spinal roots giving origin to schwannoma are frequently nonfunctional, but there is a risk of postoperative neurological deficit once these roots are resected during surgery. Methods Fifteen patients with cervical dumbbell schwannomas were treated surgically. Ten men and 5 women, who were 35-79 years old (mean age, 61.5 years), presented with neck pain (n=6), radiculopathy (n=10), and myelopathy (n=11). Results Fourteen patients underwent gross total resection and exhibited no recurrence. Follow-ups were performed for a period of 6-66 months (mean, 28 months). Preoperative symptoms resolved in 11 patients (73.3%) but they persisted partially in 4 patients (26.7%). Six patients had tumors of anterior nerve root origin, and 9 patients had tumors of posterior nerve root origin. Two patients who underwent total resection of anterior nerve root tumors (33.3%) displayed minor postoperative motor weakness. One patient who underwent total resection of a posterior nerve root tumor (11.1%) showed postoperative numbness. Conclusions Appropriate tumor removal improved the neurological symptoms. In this study, the incidence of radicular dysfunction was higher in patients who underwent resection of anterior nerve root tumors than in patients who underwent resection of posterior nerve root tumors. PMID:25901239

Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Ohkawa, Toshika; Ninomiya, Koshi; Moriwaki, Takashi; Yoshimine, Toshiki

2015-01-01

303

Cervical Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity  

MedlinePLUS

... Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All ... Skin Uterine Cancer Home Cervical Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ...

304

Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening: Financial Issues  

MedlinePLUS

... with lower incomes and those without insurance. Federal law Coverage of cervical cancer screening tests is mandated ... says. They also are not covered by state laws, including those about cervical cancer screening. Women who ...

305

21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Prosthetic Devices § 884.3200 Cervical drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide...

2010-04-01

306

Neuropathology of Cervical Dystonia  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to search for neuropathological changes in postmortem brain tissue of individuals with cervical dystonia (CD). Multiple regions of formalin-preserved brains were collected from patients with CD and controls and examined with an extensive battery of histopathological stains in a two-stage study design. In stage one, 4 CD brains underwent a broad screening neuropathological examination. In stage two, these 4 CD brains were combined with 2 additional CD brains, and the subjective findings were quantified and compared to 16 age-matched controls. The initial subjective neuropathological assessment revealed only two regions with relatively consistent changes. The substantia nigra had frequent ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusions known as Marinesco bodies. Additionally, the cerebellum showed patchy loss of Purkinje cells, areas of focal gliosis and torpedo bodies. Other brain regions showed minor or inconsistent changes. In the second stage of the analysis, quantitative studies failed to reveal significant differences in the numbers of Marinesco bodies in CD versus controls, but confirmed a significantly lower Purkinje cell density in CD. Molecular investigations revealed 4 of the CD cases and 2 controls to harbor sequence variants in non-coding regions of THAP1, and these cases had lower Purkinje cell densities regardless of whether they had CD. The findings suggest that subtle neuropathological changes such as lower Purkinje cell density may be found in primary CD when relevant brain regions are investigated with appropriate methods. PMID:23195594

Prudente, C.N.; Pardo, C.A.; Xiao, J.; Hanfelt, J.; Hess, E.J.; LeDoux, M.S.; Jinnah, H.A.

2012-01-01

307

Neuropathology of cervical dystonia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to search for neuropathological changes in postmortem brain tissue of individuals with cervical dystonia (CD). Multiple regions of formalin-preserved brains were collected from patients with CD and controls and examined with an extensive battery of histopathological stains in a two-stage study design. In stage one, 4 CD brains underwent a broad screening neuropathological examination. In stage two, these 4 CD brains were combined with 2 additional CD brains, and the subjective findings were quantified and compared to 16 age-matched controls. The initial subjective neuropathological assessment revealed only two regions with relatively consistent changes. The substantia nigra had frequent ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusions known as Marinesco bodies. Additionally, the cerebellum showed patchy loss of Purkinje cells, areas of focal gliosis and torpedo bodies. Other brain regions showed minor or inconsistent changes. In the second stage of the analysis, quantitative studies failed to reveal significant differences in the numbers of Marinesco bodies in CD versus controls, but confirmed a significantly lower Purkinje cell density in CD. Molecular investigations revealed 4 of the CD cases and 2 controls to harbor sequence variants in non-coding regions of THAP1, and these cases had lower Purkinje cell densities regardless of whether they had CD. The findings suggest that subtle neuropathological changes such as lower Purkinje cell density may be found in primary CD when relevant brain regions are investigated with appropriate methods. PMID:23195594

Prudente, C N; Pardo, C A; Xiao, J; Hanfelt, J; Hess, E J; Ledoux, M S; Jinnah, H A

2013-03-01

308

Fusion around cervical disc prosthesis: case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Cervical arthroplasty is a relatively new method to maintain motion after cervical anterior discectomy. Two cases are presented in which bony fusion occurred around a cervical disc prosthesis. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old man and a 49-year-old woman underwent a right-sided anterior cervical discectomy because of pain in the right arm resulting from a herniated disc (C5-C6). INTERVENTION:

Ronald H. M. A. Bartels; Roland Donk

2005-01-01

309

Intervertebral Neck Injury Criterion for Prediction of Multiplanar Cervical Spine Injury Due to Side Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Intervertebral Neck Injury Criterion (IV-NIC) is based on the hypothesis that dynamic three-dimensional intervertebral motion beyond physiological limits may cause multiplanar injury of cervical spine soft tissues. Goals of this study, using a biofidelic whole human cervical spine model with muscle force replication and surrogate head in simulated side impacts, were to correlate IV-NIC with multiplanar injury and determine

Manohar M. Panjabi; Paul C. Ivancic; Yasuhiro Tominaga; Jaw-Lin Wang

2005-01-01

310

Motor conduction velocity in the human spinal cord: slowed conduction in multiple sclerosis and radiation myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the central nervous system was used to measure motor conduction velocity in the human spinal cord in 21 subjects aged 22 to 75 years (mean 55 years), none of whom had neurological disease. The motor conduction velocity between the sixth cervical (C6) and first lumbar (L1) vertebral levels was 67.4 +\\/- 9.1 m\\/s. This probably represents

S J Snooks; M Swash

1985-01-01

311

Percutaneous transplantation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a dog suspected to have fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy  

PubMed Central

The use of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell transplantation therapy holds great promise for repairing spinal cord injury. Here we report the first clinical trial transplantation of human umbilical cord (hUCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the spinal cord of a dog suspected to have fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy (FCEM) and that experienced a loss of deep pain sensation. Locomotor functions improved following transplantation in a dog. Based on our findings, we suggest that transplantation of hUCB-derived MSCs will have beneficial therapeutic effects on FCEM patients lacking deep pain sensation. PMID:23820160

Chung, Wook-Hun; Park, Seon-Ah; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Chung, Dai-Jung; Yang, Wo-Jong; Kang, Eun-Hee; Choi, Chi-Bong; Chang, Hwa-Seok; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Hwang, Soo-Han; Han, Hoon

2013-01-01

312

Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after cervical spinal surgery.  

PubMed

Remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) is an unpredictable and rare complication of spinal surgery. We report five cases of RCH following cervical spinal surgery, and summarize another seven similar cases from the literature. Dural opening with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia seems to be an important factor contributing to RCH following cervical spinal surgery. As other authors have proposed, surgical positioning may be another factor contributing to RCH. RCH is thought to be hemorrhagic venous infarction, resulting from the stretching occlusion of the superior cerebellar vein by the cerebellar sag effect. Either intraoperative CSF loss or a postoperative CSF leak from drainage may cause cerebellar sag, further resulting in RCH. RCH is usually self-limiting, and most patients with RCH have an optimal outcome after conservative treatment. Severe cases that involved surgical intervention because of evidence of brainstem compression or hydrocephalus also had acceptable outcomes, compared to spontaneous CH. It has been suggested that one way to prevent RCH is to avoid extensive perioperative loss of CSF, by paying attention to surgical positioning during spinal surgery. We also underline the importance of early diagnosis and CSF expansion in the early treatment of RCH. PMID:23746536

Huang, Po-Hsien; Wu, Jau-Ching; Cheng, Henrich; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Cheng

2013-10-01

313

Causes, Viruses: HPV, Galloway clip 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Galloway explains that there are many HPVs that infect the genital tract and a set of those cause benign genital warts but another set is able to cause lesions that will go on and progress to cervical or other anal-genital cancers.

2009-12-26

314

A plasma diagnostic model of human T-cell leukemia virus-1 associated myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Objective Human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) associated myelopathy/tropic spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is induced by chronic inflammation in spinal cord due to HTLV-1 infection. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neopterin or proviral load are clinically measured as disease grading biomarkers, however, they are not exactly specific to HAM/TSP. Therefore, we aimed to identify HAM/TSP-specific biomarker molecules and establish a novel less-invasive plasma diagnostic model for HAM/TSP. Methods Proteome-wide quantitative profiling of CSFs from six asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (AC) and 51 HAM/TSP patients was performed. Fourteen severity grade biomarker proteins were further examined plasma enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays (n = 71). Finally, we constructed three-factor logistic regression model and evaluated the diagnostic power using 105 plasma samples. Results Quantitative analysis for 1871 nonredundant CSF proteins identified from 57 individuals defined 14 CSF proteins showing significant correlation with Osame's motor disability score (OMDS). Subsequent ELISA experiments using 71 plasma specimens confirmed secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) demonstrated the same correlations in plasma (R = ?0.373 and R = 0.431, respectively). In this training set, we constructed a HAM/TSP diagnostic model using SPARC, VCAM1, and viral load. Sensitivity and specificity to diagnose HAM/TSP patients from AC (AC vs. OMDS 1–11) were 85.3% and 81.1%, respectively. Importantly, this model could be also useful for determination of therapeutic intervention point (OMDS 1–3 + AC vs. OMDS 4–11), exhibiting 80.0% sensitivity and 82.9% specificity. Interpretation We propose a novel less-invasive diagnostic model for early detection and clinical stratification of HAM/TSP.

Ishihara, Makoto; Araya, Natsumi; Sato, Tomoo; Saichi, Naomi; Fujii, Risa; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Ueda, Koji

2015-01-01

315

Novel complications with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: interstitial cystitis and persistent prostatitis.  

PubMed

Lower urinary symptoms associated with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) are common, but have been regarded as 'neurogenic' due to spinal involvements. However, in some cases, these symptoms are persistent, progressive, and not directly correlated with the severity of other neurologic symptoms of the lower spinal cord. These findings prompted us to locate organic lesions in the lower urinary tract and to correlate them with HTLV-1 infection. Among 35 HAM patients with lower urinary symptoms, we found 4 cases with the symptoms persistent and progressive: 3 with contracted bladder and another with persistent prostatitis. Histological or cytological examinations indicated local lymphocytic infiltrations in the lower urinary tract in all cases: 3 by the infiltration in the bladder and the other by a high concentration of lymphocytes in expressed prostatic secretions. Of 3 cases whose urinary samples were available, 2 showed significant increase in the concentration of urinary anti-HTLV-1 antibody of IgA class. The urinary IgA antibody of the third case was not elevated, but the sample had been obtained after resection of the affected bladder. None of the control cases showed significant anti-HTLV-1 IgA antibody in urine except for a case of gross hematuria due to chemotherapy directed against adult T-cell leukemia. We suggest inclusion of these processes into the spectrum of complications for HAM/TSP. The elevated excretion of anti-HTLV-1 of IgA class in urine may be an indicator of these complications. PMID:1353753

Nomata, K; Nakamura, T; Suzu, H; Yushita, Y; Kanetake, H; Sawada, T; Ikeda, S; Hino, S; Nagataki, S; Saito, Y

1992-06-01

316

Probabilities of Radiation Myelopathy Specific to Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to Guide Safe Practice  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dose-volume histogram (DVH) results for 9 cases of post spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) radiation myelopathy (RM) are reported and compared with a cohort of 66 spine SBRT patients without RM. Methods and Materials: DVH data were centrally analyzed according to the thecal sac point maximum (Pmax) volume, 0.1- to 1-cc volumes in increments of 0.1 cc, and to the 2 cc volume. 2-Gy biologically equivalent doses (nBED) were calculated using an {alpha}/{beta} = 2 Gy (units = Gy{sub 2/2}). For the 2 cohorts, the nBED means and distributions were compared using the t test and Mann-Whitney test, respectively. Significance (P<.05) was defined as concordance of both tests at each specified volume. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the probability of RM using the dose distribution for a given volume. Results: Significant differences in both the means and distributions at the Pmax and up to the 0.8-cc volume were observed. Concordant significance was greatest for the Pmax volume. At the Pmax volume the fit of the logistic regression model, summarized by the area under the curve, was 0.87. A risk of RM of 5% or less was observed when limiting the thecal sac Pmax volume doses to 12.4 Gy in a single fraction, 17.0 Gy in 2 fractions, 20.3 Gy in 3 fractions, 23.0 Gy in 4 fractions, and 25.3 Gy in 5 fractions. Conclusion: We report the first logistic regression model yielding estimates for the probability of human RM specific to SBRT.

Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Weinberg, Vivian [University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, California (United States)] [University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, California (United States); Ma, Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Chang, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chao, Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Muacevic, Alexander [European Cyberknife Center Munich in affiliation with University Hospitals of Munich, Munich (Germany)] [European Cyberknife Center Munich in affiliation with University Hospitals of Munich, Munich (Germany); Gorgulho, Alessandra [Department of Neurosurgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Department of Neurosurgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Soltys, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gerszten, Peter C. [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Ryu, Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Angelov, Lilyana [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Gibbs, Iris [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Larson, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

2013-02-01

317

Fibromatosis of the cervical fascia.  

PubMed

Fibromatosis is a rare benign soft-tissue tumor of fibroblastic origin arising from the aponeurotic structures. Preoperative diagnosis of fibromatosis of the deep cervical fascia is difficult from clinical presentation alone. We report a case of a tumor of the cervical fascia space for which the radiologic appearance did not exhibit specific characteristics. Critical analysis of the radiologic images combined with fine-needle aspiration findings were helpful in suggesting preoperatively the diagnosis of fibromatosis, which was confirmed histologically after surgical resection. PMID:12884216

Kania, Romain E; Hartl, Dana M; Hans, Stéphane; Papon, Jean-François; Carnot, Françoise; Brasnu, Daniel F

2003-01-01

318

EMT in cervical cancer: its role in tumour progression and response to therapy.  

PubMed

The prognosis of cervical patients significantly decreases as the cancer metastasizes to other parts of the body. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in cervical cancer progression and metastasis. Recurrence is the primary cause of the increased number of deaths due to cervical cancer. Oncogenes, such as AEG1, Sam-68, FTS and miR-361-5p, induce EMT in cervical cancer. Tumour suppressors, such as LMX-1, SFRP1, klotho, and miR-155, suppress EMT in cervical cancer. Factors such as hypoxia, the radiation dose, cytokines, proteins, transcription factors, and signalling pathways also play an important role in the induction, progression and maintenance of EMT in cervical cancer. Overall, this review describes a wide range of factors with potential roles in EMT that have been identified to date, and this information could be important for the development of new and more effective therapeutics that ameliorate the negative impact of cervical pathogenesis via EMT. PMID:25281477

Qureshi, Rehana; Arora, Himanshu; Rizvi, M A

2015-01-28

319

Diagnostic value of MCM2 immunocytochemical staining in cervical lesions and its relationship with HPV infection  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer remains the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide, and human papillomavirus infection represents the most important risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. Minichromosome maintenance protein-2 has been previously identified by DNA microarray and transcriptional profiling as genes that is overexpressed in cervical carcinomas. 183 cases were enrolled and tested with thin prep liquid-based cytology test. The expressions of human papillomavirus were detected and minichromosome maintenance protein-2 immuncytochemical test was performed on liquid-based pap smears from the samples. Those results were compared with the cervical histopathology results. The positive expression rates of minichromosome maintenance protein-2 and high-risk type human papillomavirus increased with the severity of cervical lesions. The expression level of MCM2 was positively correlated with high-risk types of human papillomavirus. In cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions, minichromosome maintenance protein-2 was overexpressed and positively correlated with the high risk types of human papillomavirus. As minichromosome maintenance protein-2 immuncytochemical detection was better than genotyping of human papillomavirus, minichromosome maintenance protein-2 may serve as a useful marker in the screening of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions and improve the diagnosis of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance. The joint application can improve the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis. PMID:25755789

Zheng, Jian

2015-01-01

320

Anatomic study of individualized and improved pedicle screw implantation in the lower cervical spine.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to explore a safe, reliable, and effective method for pedicle screw implantation in the lower cervical spine. Recently, a number of studies have shown that cervical pedicle screw fixation is better than roadside steel plate after cervical screw internal fixation within the scope of its indications. However, the difficulty of the former surgery technology is relatively higher and it is much easier to cause many complications. Therefore, domestic and foreign scholars have been positively exploring safer, easier operations and cheaper methods of pedicle screw implantation in the lower cervical spine. The lower cervical spine areas (C3-C7) of 7 adult cadavers were carried out with computed tomography (CT) scans of 1-mm slices. The entry point, angle, and length of the screws were determined by the measurement of CT images in a picture archiving and communication system. The pedicle screws were implanted with the technique of improved Abumi pedicle screw placement in the lab. The accuracy of the screws was evaluated by the Andrew CT classification criteria of pedicle screw position and gross observation after the experiment. A total of 66 screws were implanted in the lower cervical spine, and 90.9% of the screws inserted were found to be in an optimal position. The method of individualized and improved pedicle screw implantation in the lower cervical spine is relatively safe and reliable, which can be considered to be used in the clinic. PMID:25692438

Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Bin; Dai, Min; Xiong, Han-Chu; Gao, Song; Li, Bin-Hua; Yao, Hao-Qun; Cao, Kai; Liu, Zhi-Li

2015-02-01

321

Diagnostic value of MCM2 immunocytochemical staining in cervical lesions and its relationship with HPV infection.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer remains the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide, and human papillomavirus infection represents the most important risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. Minichromosome maintenance protein-2 has been previously identified by DNA microarray and transcriptional profiling as genes that is overexpressed in cervical carcinomas. 183 cases were enrolled and tested with thin prep liquid-based cytology test. The expressions of human papillomavirus were detected and minichromosome maintenance protein-2 immuncytochemical test was performed on liquid-based pap smears from the samples. Those results were compared with the cervical histopathology results. The positive expression rates of minichromosome maintenance protein-2 and high-risk type human papillomavirus increased with the severity of cervical lesions. The expression level of MCM2 was positively correlated with high-risk types of human papillomavirus. In cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions, minichromosome maintenance protein-2 was overexpressed and positively correlated with the high risk types of human papillomavirus. As minichromosome maintenance protein-2 immuncytochemical detection was better than genotyping of human papillomavirus, minichromosome maintenance protein-2 may serve as a useful marker in the screening of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions and improve the diagnosis of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance. The joint application can improve the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis. PMID:25755789

Zheng, Jian

2015-01-01

322

Hedgehog pathway regulators influence cervical cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be a primary hit that causes cervical cancer. However, infection with this agent, although needed, is not sufficient for a cancer to develop. Additional cellular changes are required to complement the action of HPV, but the precise nature of these changes is not clear. Here, we studied the function of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in cervical cancer. The Hh pathway can have a role in a number of cancers, including those of liver, lung and digestive tract. We found that components of the Hh pathway are expressed in several cervical cancer cell lines, indicating that there could exists an autocrine Hh signaling loop in these cells. Inhibition of Hh signaling reduces proliferation and survival of the cervical cancer cells and induces their apoptosis as seen by the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein cleaved caspase 3. Our results indicate that Hh signaling is not induced directly by HPV-encoded proteins but rather that Hh-activating mutations are selected in cells initially immortalized by HPV. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) ligand induces proliferation and promotes migration of the cervical cancer cells studied. Together, these results indicate pro-survival and protective roles of an activated Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer-derived cells, and suggest that inhibition of this pathway may be a therapeutic option in fighting cervical cancer. PMID:22820185

Samarzija, Ivana; Beard, Peter

2012-08-17

323

Perception of Human Papillomavirus Infection, Cervical Cancer and HPV Vaccination in North Indian Population  

PubMed Central

Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) -associated cervical cancer is the second-most common cancer in women worldwide but it is the most frequent gynaecological cancer and cancer associated death in India women. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, HPV vaccine, HPV vaccine acceptance among school and undergraduates students and their parent’s perception about acceptance of HPV vaccine in Northern part of India (Delhi and NCR regions). Materials and Methods A qualitative questionnaire based survey among 2500 urban/rural students aged 12–22 years was conducted. Results Overall, a low frequency (15%) of HPV and cervical cancer awareness was observed in students and their parents. However, the awareness was much higher in females belonging to urban setup compared to boys with a perception that HPV causes cervical cancer in women only. Additionally, only (13%) participants who were aware of cervical cancer and HPV) were willing to accept HPV vaccination. Apparently, parents of female students were two times more willing to accept HPV vaccination for their ward than male students (p<0.001; OR 95%CI?=?2.09 (1.58–2.76). Conclusion Cervical cancer and HPV awareness among school, undergraduate students and also to their parents was found to be very low in this part of India. The level of awareness and education appears to be insignificant determinants in rural compared to urban setup. Better health education will be needed to maximize public awareness for cervical cancer prevention. PMID:25386964

Hussain, Showket; Nasare, Vilas; Kumari, Malasha; Sharma, Shashi; Khan, Mohammad Aijaz; Das, Bhudev C.; Bharadwaj, Mausumi

2014-01-01

324

Cervical Stenosis in a Patient with Arthrogryposis: Case Report  

PubMed Central

Study Design?Case report. Objective?Amyoplasia-type arthrogryposis is a rare congenital disease that presents as multiple contractures involving various areas of the body. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no reports of adults with amyoplasia in the current literature. We report a case of an adult patient with cervical stenosis in the setting of amyoplasia. Patients and Methods?A 48-year-old patient with amyoplasia and over 30 previous orthopedic reconstructive surgeries presented with neck pain radiating down his left shoulder and into the fingers, dysesthesia in his fingertips, and left-sided periauricular headache. A diagnosis of central spinal canal stenosis and bilateral foraminal stenosis at C3–C7 with radiculopathy was made based on computed tomography scans. Because of a prior right-side sternocleidomastoid muscle transfer, a left-side C3–C4, C5–C7 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion procedure was performed. Results?The patient experienced significant improvement in symptoms that was transient. Symptoms returned to preoperative values after 1?year, despite significant and persistent improvement in stenosis. Conclusions?Both amyoplasia and cervical stenosis can manifest in neurologic symptoms. Distinguishing the causing pathology can be challenging. The radiographic improvement of cervical stenosis in a patient with amyoplasia is not always associated with long-standing pain relief. PMID:24715873

Du, Jerry; Aichmair, Alexander; Lykissas, Marios; Girardi, Federico

2014-01-01

325

Cervical stenosis in a patient with arthrogryposis: case report.  

PubMed

Study Design?Case report. Objective?Amyoplasia-type arthrogryposis is a rare congenital disease that presents as multiple contractures involving various areas of the body. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no reports of adults with amyoplasia in the current literature. We report a case of an adult patient with cervical stenosis in the setting of amyoplasia. Patients and Methods?A 48-year-old patient with amyoplasia and over 30 previous orthopedic reconstructive surgeries presented with neck pain radiating down his left shoulder and into the fingers, dysesthesia in his fingertips, and left-sided periauricular headache. A diagnosis of central spinal canal stenosis and bilateral foraminal stenosis at C3-C7 with radiculopathy was made based on computed tomography scans. Because of a prior right-side sternocleidomastoid muscle transfer, a left-side C3-C4, C5-C7 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion procedure was performed. Results?The patient experienced significant improvement in symptoms that was transient. Symptoms returned to preoperative values after 1?year, despite significant and persistent improvement in stenosis. Conclusions?Both amyoplasia and cervical stenosis can manifest in neurologic symptoms. Distinguishing the causing pathology can be challenging. The radiographic improvement of cervical stenosis in a patient with amyoplasia is not always associated with long-standing pain relief. PMID:24715873

Du, Jerry; Aichmair, Alexander; Lykissas, Marios; Girardi, Federico

2014-04-01

326

Brown–Sequard syndrome produced by cervical disc herniation with complete neurologic recovery: report of three cases and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Case report.Objective:To report three cases of Brown–Sequard syndrome (BSS) associated with cervical disc herniation.Method:We describe clinical and radiographic review of three patients who presented with BSS caused by cervical disc herniation. Three patients presented with ipsilateral motor weakness and diminished sensation to pain and temperature on the contralateral side. Magnetic resonance images of the cervical spine in all cases,

J-K Lee; Y-S Kim; S-H Kim; Jung-Kil Lee

2007-01-01

327

Contribution of disc degeneration to osteophyte formation in the cervical spine: a biomechanical investigation.  

PubMed

Cervical spine disorders such as spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy are often related to osteophyte formation. Bone remodeling experimental-analytical studies have correlated biomechanical responses such as stress and strain energy density to the formation of bony outgrowth. Using these responses of the spinal components, the present study was conducted to investigate the basis for the occurrence of disc-related pathological conditions. An anatomically accurate and validated intact finite element model of the C4-C5-C6 cervical spine was used to simulate progressive disc degeneration at the C5-C6 level. Slight degeneration included an alteration of material properties of the nucleus pulposus representing the dehydration process. Moderate degeneration included an alteration of fiber content and material properties of the anulus fibrosus representing the disintegrated nature of the anulus in addition to dehydrated nucleus. Severe degeneration included decrease in the intervertebral disc height with dehydrated nucleus and disintegrated anulus. The intact and three degenerated models were exercised under compression, and the overall force-displacement response, local segmental stiffness, anulus fiber strain, disc bulge, anulus stress, load shared by the disc and facet joints, pressure in the disc, facet and uncovertebral joints, and strain energy density and stress in the vertebral cortex were determined. The overall stiffness (C4-C6) increased with the severity of degeneration. The segmental stiffness at the degenerated level (C5-C6) increased with the severity of degeneration. Intervertebral disc bulge and anulus stress and strain decreased at the degenerated level. The strain energy density and stress in vertebral cortex increased adjacent to the degenerated disc. Specifically, the anterior region of the cortex responded with a higher increase in these responses. The increased strain energy density and stress in the vertebral cortex over time may induce the remodeling process according to Wolff's law, leading to the formation of osteophytes. PMID:11562150

Kumaresan, S; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Maiman, D J; Goel, V K

2001-09-01

328

Percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous disc decompression procedures have been performed in the past. Various percutaneous techniques such as percutaneous discectomy, laser discectomy, and nucleoplasty have been successful. Our prospective study was directly to evaluate the results of percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty (PCN) surgery for cervical disc herniation, and illustrate the effectiveness of PCN in symptomatic patients who had cervical herniated discs. From July of 2002 to June of 2005, 126 consecutive patients with contained cervical disc herniations have presented at the authors’ clinic and treated by PCN. The patients’ gender distribution for PCN was 65 male, 61 female. The age of patients ranged from 34 to 66 years (mean 51.9 ± 10.2 years). The levels of involvement were 21 cases at C3–4, 30 cases at C4–5, 40 cases at C5–6, and 35 cases at C6–7. The clinical outcomes, pain reduction and the segment stability were all recorded during this study. A clinical outcome was quantified by the Macnab standard and using VAS. The angular displacement (AD) ?11° or horizontal displacement (HD) ?3 mm was considered to be radiographically unstable. In the results of this study, puncture of the needle into the disc space was accurately performed under X-ray guidance in all cases. There was one case where the Perc-D Spine Wand had broken in the disc space during the procedure. The partial Perc-D Spine Wand, which had broken in the disc space could not be removed by the percutaneous cervical discectomy and thus remained there. There were no recurrent cases or complications in our series. Macnab standard results were excellent in 62 cases, good in 41 cases and fair in 23 cases. The rate of excellent and good was 83.73%. The VAS scores demonstrated statistically significant improvement in PCN at the 2-week, 1, 3, 6, and 12-month follow-up visits when compared to preoperational values (P < 0.01). There were no cases of instability following the PCN procedure. There was no significant difference in stability either preoperatively or postoperatively (P > 0.05). Our findings confirm that PCN for the treatment of cervical disc herniation results in a good outcome without any tampering of the stability of the cervical spine. Hence, PCN as a procedure is safe, minimally invasive, less traumatic, requiring less time with an excellent clinical outcome. PCN should be performed for those patients who fail conservative medical management including medication, physical therapy, behavioral management, psychotherapy, and who are unwilling to undergo a more invasive technique such as spinal surgery. PMID:18830638

Li, Jian; Zhang, Zai-Heng

2008-01-01

329

Cervical Remodeling during Pregnancy and Parturition  

PubMed Central

Appropriate and timely cervical remodeling is key for successful birth. Premature cervical opening can result in preterm birth which occurs in 12.5% of pregnancies. Research focused on the mechanisms of term and preterm cervical remodeling is essential to prevent prematurity. This review highlights recent findings that better define molecular processes driving progressive disorganization of the cervical extracellular matrix. This includes studies that redefine the role of immune cells and identify diverse functions of the cervical epithelia and hyaluronan in remodeling. New investigations proposing that infection-induced premature cervical remodeling is distinct from the normal process are presented. Recent advances in our understanding of term and preterm cervical remodeling provide new directions for investigation and compel investigators to reevaluate currently accepted models. PMID:20172738

Timmons, Brenda; Akins, Meredith; Mahendroo, Mala

2010-01-01

330

Damage to DNA in cervical epithelium related to smoking tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether tobacco smoking causes increased DNA modification (adducts) in human cervical epithelium. DESIGN--Comparison of DNA adducts measured by the technique of postlabelling with phosphorus-32 in normal ectocervical epithelium of smokers and non-smokers. A questionnaire on smoking habit and a urinary cotinine assay were used to identify smokers and non-smokers. SETTING--Cytology unit in large teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--39 women (11

A M Simons; D H Phillips; D V Coleman

1993-01-01

331

Direct cervical arterial access for intracranial endovascular treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Tortuous vasculature is a cause of failure of endovascular treatment of intracranial vascular lesions. We report our experience of direct cervical accesses in patients in whom the arterial femoral route was not attainable.Methods  In this retrospective study, 42 direct punctures of the carotid or the vertebral arteries at the neck were performed in 38 patients. The vessel harboring the intracranial lesion

R. Blanc; M. Piotin; C. Mounayer; L. Spelle; J. Moret

2006-01-01

332

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-23

333

Get Tested for Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Testing for cervical cancer is covered under the Affordable Care Act , the health care reform law passed in 2010. Depending on your insurance plan, you may be able to get tested at no cost to you. If ... about the Affordable Care Act. If you don’t have insurance, find a ...

334

Cervical traction using EMG biofeedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase of age-related diseases such as musculoskeletal and neurological dysfunction will require increased use of rehabilitation therapy. The effectiveness of this treatment depends of the skill of the therapist and the functionality inherent in the therapeutic device used. Here, a new EMG biofeedback controlled therapeutic traction machine was developed to relieve neck pain or cervical compression syndrome. Through EMG

M. Y. Lee; M. K. Wong; F. T. Tang; W. H. Chang; Y. L. Chen

1996-01-01

335

ISASS Policy Statement - Cervical Interbody  

PubMed Central

Morgan Lorio, MD, FACS, Chair, ISASS Task Force on Coding & Reimbursement In 2011, CPT code 22551 was revised to combine or bundle CPT codes 63075 and 22554 when both procedures were performed at the same site/same surgical session. The add on code +22552 is used to report each additional interspace. 2014 heralded a downward pressure on this now prime target code (for non-coverage?) 22551 through an egregious insurer attempt to redefine cervical arthrodesis, effectively removing spine surgeon choice and altering best practice without clinical evidence. Currently, spine surgeons are equally split on the use of allograft versus cages for cervical arthrodesis. Structural allograft, CPT code 20931, is reported once per same surgical session, regardless of the number of allografts used. CPT code 22851 which is designated solely for cage use, has a higher reimbursement than structural allograft, and may be reported for each inner space. Hence, the rationale behind why some payers wrongly consider “spine cages NOT medically necessary for cervical fusion.” A timely consensus paper summarizing spine surgeon purview on the logical progressive evolution of cervical interbody fusion for ISASS/IASP membership was strategically identified as an advocacy focus by the ISASS Task Force. ISASS appreciates the authors’ charge with gratitude. This article has both teeth and transparent clinical real-world merit. PMID:25694945

Singh, Kern; Qureshi, Sheeraz

2014-01-01

336

Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

337

ISASS Policy Statement - cervical interbody.  

PubMed

Morgan Lorio, MD, FACS, Chair, ISASS Task Force on Coding & Reimbursement In 2011, CPT code 22551 was revised to combine or bundle CPT codes 63075 and 22554 when both procedures were performed at the same site/same surgical session. The add on code +22552 is used to report each additional interspace. 2014 heralded a downward pressure on this now prime target code (for non-coverage?) 22551 through an egregious insurer attempt to redefine cervical arthrodesis, effectively removing spine surgeon choice and altering best practice without clinical evidence. Currently, spine surgeons are equally split on the use of allograft versus cages for cervical arthrodesis. Structural allograft, CPT code 20931, is reported once per same surgical session, regardless of the number of allografts used. CPT code 22851 which is designated solely for cage use, has a higher reimbursement than structural allograft, and may be reported for each inner space. Hence, the rationale behind why some payers wrongly consider "spine cages NOT medically necessary for cervical fusion." A timely consensus paper summarizing spine surgeon purview on the logical progressive evolution of cervical interbody fusion for ISASS/IASP membership was strategically identified as an advocacy focus by the ISASS Task Force. ISASS appreciates the authors' charge with gratitude. This article has both teeth and transparent clinical real-world merit. PMID:25694945

Singh, Kern; Qureshi, Sheeraz

2014-01-01

338

Hedgehog pathway regulators influence cervical cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unknown cellular mutations complement papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway components are expressed by cervical cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway activators and inhibitors regulate cervical cancer cell biology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell immortalization by papillomavirus and activation of Hedgehog are independent. -- Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be a primary hit that causes cervical cancer. However, infection with this agent, although needed, is not sufficient for a cancer to develop. Additional cellular changes are required to complement the action of HPV, but the precise nature of these changes is not clear. Here, we studied the function of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in cervical cancer. The Hh pathway can have a role in a number of cancers, including those of liver, lung and digestive tract. We found that components of the Hh pathway are expressed in several cervical cancer cell lines, indicating that there could exists an autocrine Hh signaling loop in these cells. Inhibition of Hh signaling reduces proliferation and survival of the cervical cancer cells and induces their apoptosis as seen by the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein cleaved caspase 3. Our results indicate that Hh signaling is not induced directly by HPV-encoded proteins but rather that Hh-activating mutations are selected in cells initially immortalized by HPV. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) ligand induces proliferation and promotes migration of the cervical cancer cells studied. Together, these results indicate pro-survival and protective roles of an activated Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer-derived cells, and suggest that inhibition of this pathway may be a therapeutic option in fighting cervical cancer.

Samarzija, Ivana [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Beard, Peter, E-mail: peter.beard@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-08-17

339

Decreased expression of lncRNA GAS5 predicts a poor prognosis in cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality for women around the world. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been investigated as a new class of regulators of cellular processes, such as cell growth, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. Although downregulation of lncRNA GAS5 in several cancers has been studied, its role in cervical cancer remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression, clinical significance and biological role in cervical cancer. Methods: Expression of GAS5 was analyzed in cervical cancer tissues by quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). And its association with overall survival of patients was analyzed by statistical analysis. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to suppress GAS5 expression in cervical cancer cells. In vitro assays were performed to further explore the biological functions of GAS5 in cervical cancer. Results: We found that GAS5 expression was markedly downregulated in cervical cancer tissues than in corresponding adjacent normal tissues. Decreased GAS5 expression was significantly correlated with FIGO stage, vascular invasion and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, cervical cancer patients with GAS5 lower expression have shown significantly poorer overall survival than those with higher GAS5 expression. And GAS5 expression was an independent prognostic marker of overall survival in a multivariate analysis. In vitro assays our data indicated that knockdown of GAS5 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Conclusions: Our study presents that lncRNA GAS5 is a novel molecule involved in cervical cancer progression, which provide a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target. PMID:25400758

Cao, Shihong; Liu, Weiliang; Li, Feng; Zhao, Weipin; Qin, Chuan

2014-01-01

340

Radiation myelopathy: Estimates of risk in 1048 patients in three randomized trials of palliative radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation myelopathy (RM) is an uncommon but serious late effect of thoracic radiotherapy (RT), which oncologists try to avoid by careful planning and dose selection. Five patients with RM are described from among 1048 with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer treated with palliative RT in three randomized trials conducted by the Medical Research Council Lung Cancer Working Party. Seven RT

F. R. Macbeth; T. E. Wheldon; D. J. Girling; R. J. Stephens; D. Machin; N. M. Bleehen; A. Lamont; D. J. Radstone; N. S. Reed

1996-01-01

341

Brown Tumor of the Cervical Spines: A Case Report with Literature Review  

PubMed Central

To report a rare case of axis brown tumor and to review literature of cervical spine brown tumor. Brown tumor is a rare bone lesion, incidence less than 5% in primary hyperparathyroidism. It is more common in secondary hyperparathyroidism with up to 13% of cases. Brown tumor reactive lesion forms as a result of disturbed bone remodeling due to long standing increase in parathyroid hormones. Cervical spine involvement is extremely rare, can be confused with serous spine lesions. To date, only four cases of cervical spine involvement have been reported. Three were due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Only one was reported to involve the axis and was due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. This is the first reported case of axis brown tumor due to primary hyperparathyroidism. A case report of brown tumor is presented. A literature review was conducted by a Medline search of reported cases of brown tumor, key words: brown tumor, osteoclastoma and cervical lesions. The resulting papers were reviewed and cervical spine cases were listed then classified according to the level, cause, and management. Only four previous cases involved the cervical spine. Three were caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism and one was by primary hyperparathyroidism which involved the C6. Our case was the first case of C2 involvement of primary hyperparathyroidism and it was managed conservatively. Brown tumor, a rare spinal tumor that presents with high PTH and giant cells, requires a high level of suspicion. PMID:25705344

Halawani, Mohammed Mohamoud; Attia, Walid Ismail; Almusrea, Khaled Naser

2015-01-01

342

Surveillance of Human Papilloma Virus Infection and Cervical Cancer in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Preliminary Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionDevelopment of cancer after transplantation has rapidly became one of the leading causes of death in kidney transplant recipients with functioning grafts. Anogenital malignant neoplasms may occur with a 14-fold increased incidence, and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection has been recently identified as the leading cause of cervical carcinoma. We report the preliminary findings of a prospective study that evaluated

M. Veroux; D. Corona; G. Scalia; V. Garozzo; M. Gagliano; G. Giuffrida; C. M. Costanzo; A. Giaquinta; I. Palermo; D. Zappalà; T. Tallarita; D. Zerbo; R. Russo; A. Cappellani; C. Franchina; V. Scriffignano; P. Veroux

2009-01-01

343

Finite element modeling of cervical laminectomy with graded facetectomy.  

PubMed

In this study, an anatomically accurate three-dimensional finite element model of the human lower cervical spine (C4-C6) was used to study the biomechanical effects of cervical laminectomy with and without graded facetectomy. The intact finite element model was validated under flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial torsion load vectors of 1.8 Nm magnitude. The moment rotation response of the finite element model matched well with experimental data. The gross external (angular motion) and the internal (superior and inferior intervertebral disc stress) responses were delineated under the four physiological loading modes for these iatrogenic changes. Results indicated that laminectomy markedly altered the cervical angular motion and the disc stress under flexion compared with all other loading modes. Facetectomy increased the angular motion and the inferior disc stress notably under flexion but did not affect the adjacent superior disc stress. Facet resection of > 50% caused pronounced increases in angular rotation and intervertebral disc stresses. These findings suggest that the resection of more than one-half of this structure may require additional procedures to restore the strength of the cervical column. Although gross external motion response can be obtained by experimental studies, the internal stress response can only be determined using mathematical models such as the finite element model used in the present study. The accentuated changes in the disc stress compared with the changes in the external rotation may be clinically relevant because increased internal load/stress can result in disc degeneration. The present three-dimensional finite element model offers additional information to better understand the extrinsic and intrinsic responses of the iatrogenically altered cervical spine. PMID:9041495

Kumaresan, S; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Voo, L M; Cusick, J F; Larson, S J

1997-02-01

344

Down-regulation of the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? gene in cervical squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical carcinoma is the second most common cancer and is an important cause of death in women worldwide. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate cellular differentiation and proliferation in a variety of tissues. However, the role of C/EBP? gene in cervical cancer is still not clear. Methods We investigated the expression of C/EBP? gene in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. C/EBP? mRNA level was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in cervical cancer tissues and their adjacent normal tissues. C/EBP? protein level was measured by immunohistochemistry. Methylation in the promoter of C/EBP? gene was detected by MALDI TOF MassARRAY. We transfected HeLa cells with C/EBP? expression vector. C/EBP? expression in HeLa cells was examined and HeLa cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay and HeLa cells migration was analyzed by matrigel-coated transwell migration assays. Results There were significant difference in C/EBP? protein expression between chronic cervicitis and cervical carcinoma (P?cervical cancer tissues than in normal cervical tissues (P?cervical cancer than in normal cervical tissues (P?cervical squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24913332

2014-01-01

345

An intradural cervical chordoma mimicking schwannoma  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Chordoma is a relatively rare tumor originating from the embryonic remnants of the notochord. This is an aggressive, slow growing and invasive tumor. It occurs mostly at the two ends of neuroaxis which is more frequent in the sacrococcygeal region. Chordoma in vertebral column is very rare. This tumor is extradural in origin and compresses neural tissues and makes the patient symptomatic. This tumor found extremely rare in the spinal region as an intradural tumor. The present study reports a rare case of intradural chordoma tumor as well as its clinical manifestations and treatment options. Case: The patient was a 50-year-old female presented with 9 months history of progressively worsening neck pain, cervical spine chordoma resembling neurinoma and right arm numbness. Physical examination showed no weakness in her limbs, but she had upward plantar reflex and mild hyperreflexia. In a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the cervical spine there was an ill-defined enhancing mass in the posterior aspect of C2-C3 body caused cord compression more severe in right side as well as foraminal scalloping. The patient underwent surgery and after midline posterior cervical incision and paravertebral muscle stripping a laminectomy was performed from C1 through C4 using a high speed drill. Needle biopsy revealed chordoma on frozen section and all of accessible parts of tumor were excised. The gross and microscopic histopathological appearance was consistent with chordoma. Chordomas are malignant tumors that arise from remains of embryonic notochord. These ectopic rests of notochord termed “ecchordosis physaliphora “can be found in approximately 2% of autopsies. These are aggressive, slow growing, locally invasive and destructive tumors those occur in the midline of neuroaxis. They generally thought to account for 2% to 4% of all primary bone neoplasms and 1% to 4% malignant bone neoplasms. They are the most frequent primary malignant spinal tumors after plasmacytomas. The incidence has been estimated to be 0.51 cases per million. The most common location is sacrococcygeal region followed by the clivus. These two locations account for approximately 90% of chordomas. Of the tumors that do not arise in the sacrum or clivus, half occur in the cervical region, with the remainder found in the lumbar or thoracic region, in descending order of frequency. Cervical spine chordomas account for 6% of all cases. Distal metastasis most often occurs in young patients, those with sacrococcygeal or vertebral tumors, and those with atypical histological features. These tumors usually spread to contiguous anatomical structures, but they may be found in distant sites (skin, musculoskeletal system, brain, and other internal organs). Seeding of the tumor has also been reported, and the likely mechanism seems to be tumor cell of contamination during the surgical procedures. The usual radiological findings in chordomas of spine are destructive or lytic lesions with occasional sclerotic changes. They tend to lie anterolateral, rather than dorsal towards the cord, and reportedly known to invade the dura. The midline location, destructive nature, soft tissue mass formation and calcification are the radiological hallmarks of chordomas. Computed Tomography (CT) scan is the best imaging modality to delineate areas of osteolytic, osteosclerotic, or mixed areas of bone destruction.Chordoma is usually known as a hypovascular tumor which grows in a lobulated manner. Septal enhancement which reflects a lobulated growth pattern is seen in both CT and MRI and even in gross examination. Other epidural tumors include neurinoma, neurofibroma, meningioma, neuroblastoma, hemangioma, lymphoma and metastases. Their differentiation from chordoma may be difficult due to the same enhancement pattern on CT and MRI. A dumbbell-shaped chordoma is a rare pathogenic condition. The dumbbell shape is a characteristic finding of neurinomas in spine but in spinal neurinomas extention to transverse foramina has not yet been reported. Although our case mimicked a

Samadian, Mohammad; Shafizad, Misagh

2012-01-01

346

Cervical Syndrome – the Effectiveness of Physical Therapy Interventions  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Introduction: The cervical syndrome refers to a set of disorders caused by the changes in the cervical spine and the soft-tissue surrounding it, with pain as the predominant symptom. Sore neck has been a common problem among a large section of today`s population. The factors contributing to this issue include the modern lifestyle, prolonged sitting and incorrect, fixed or constrained working postures. The root of these difficulties is found in the mechanical disorders of the cervical spine structures, poor body posture and jerky body movements. In the Scandinavian countries neck pain is considered to be a public health problem. Methods: The study evaluated 25 patients with an established diagnosis of cervical syndrome. The research was conducted at the PI Institute of Occupational and Sports Medicine of Zenica–Doboj Canton. Each patient received twenty physical therapy treatment sessions. Results and conclusions: The study included 25 patients suffering from the cervical syndrome. The statistical analysis of gender distribution indicated that 36% of the patients were male, while 64% were female. The mean age of study participants was 46.76±4,23. The patients ranged in age from 39 to 54 years, with no statistically significant difference in the mean age of male and female patients, p=0.691. Analysing the types of occupational activities performed by the patients, the study found a positive relation between neck pain and prolonged sitting at work. The patients who performed office work made up 76% of the total number. Each method of physical therapy applied in the treatment of neck pain patients proved useful. However, the combination of electrotherapy, kinesiotherapy and manual massage proved to be most effective. Conclusion: The cervical syndrome is a common medical condition primarily affecting adult population, with prevalence being higher among women and office workers. The condition places a considerable socioeconomic burden on the afflicted. Cervical pain ranges greatly in severity – from moderate to unbearable, thus leading to high levels of work absence as well as to a decrease in the quality of life. Proper physical therapy program can help the patients with neck pain return to their normal everyday activities, improve their quality of life, as well as reduce the absence from work. PMID:25568511

Kasumovic, Mersija; Gorcevic, Emir; Gorcevic, Semir; Osmanovic, Jasna

2013-01-01

347

Myelopathy mimicking subacute combined degeneration in a Down syndrome patient with methotrexate treatment for B lymphoblastic leukemia: report of an autopsy case.  

PubMed

We report clinicopathological features of a 23-year-old woman with Down syndrome (DS) presenting with subacute myelopathy treated with chemotherapy, including intravenous and intrathecal administration of methotrexate (MTX), and with allogenic bone-marrow transplantation for B lymphoblastic leukemia. Autopsy revealed severe demyelinating vacuolar myelopathy in the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord, associated with macrophage infiltration, marked axonal loss and some swollen axons. Pathological changes of posterior and lateral columns were observed from the medulla oblongata to lumbar cord. Proximal anterior and posterior roots were preserved. Cerebral white matter was relatively well preserved. There were no vascular lesions or meningeal dissemination of leukemia. Longitudinal extension of cord lesions was extensive, unlike typical cases of subacute combined degeneration (SACD), but distribution of lesions and histological findings were similar to that of SACD. DS patients show heightened sensitivity to MTX because of their genetic background. Risk factors for toxic myelopathy of DS are discussed, including delayed clearance of MTX despite normal renal function, alterations in MTX polyglutamation and enhanced folic acid depletion due to gene dosage effects of chromosome 21. Alteration of folate metabolism and/or vitamin B12 levels through intravenous or intrathecal administration of MTX might exist, although vitamin B12 and other essential nutrients were managed using intravenous hyperalimentation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an autopsy case that shows myelopathy mimicking SACD in a DS patient accompanied by B lymphoblastic leukemia. The case suggests a pathophysiological mechanism of MTX-related myelopathy in DS patients with B lymphoblastic leukemia mimicking SACD. PMID:24661121

Satomi, Kaishi; Yoshida, Mari; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Okita, Hajime; Hosoya, Yosuke; Shioda, Yoko; Kumagai, Masa-Aki; Mori, Tetsuya; Morishita, Yukio; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nakazawa, Atsuko

2014-08-01

348

Familial Clusters of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis  

PubMed Central

Objective HTLV-1 proviral loads (PVLs) and some genetic factors are reported to be associated with the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). However, there are very few reports on HAM/TSP having family history. We aimed to define the clinical features and laboratory indications associated with HAM/TSP having family history. Methods Records of 784 HAM/TSP patients who were hospitalized in Kagoshima University Hospital and related hospitals from 1987 to 2012 were reviewed. Using an unmatched case-control design, 40 patients of HAM/TSP having family history (f-HAM/TSP) were compared with 124 patients suffering from sporadic HAM/TSP, who were admitted in series over the last 10 years for associated clinical features. Results Of the 784 patients, 40 (5.1%) were f-HAM/TSP cases. Compared with sporadic cases, the age of onset was earlier (41.3 vs. 51.6 years, p<0.001), motor disability grades were lower (4.0 vs. 4.9, p?=?0.043) despite longer duration of illness (14.3 vs. 10.2 years, p?=?0.026), time elapsed between onset and wheelchair use in daily life was longer (18.3 vs. 10.0 years, p?=?0.025), cases with rapid disease progression were fewer (10.0% vs. 28.2%, p?=?0.019), and protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were significantly lower in f-HAM/TSP cases (29.9 vs. 42.5 mg, p<0.001). There was no difference in HTLV-1 PVLs, anti-HTLV-1 antibody titers in serum and CSF, or cell number and neopterin levels in CSF. Furthermore, HTLV-1 PVLs were lower in cases with rapid disease progression than in those with slow progression in both f-HAM/TSP and sporadic cases. Conclusions We demonstrated that HAM/TSP aggregates in the family, with a younger age of onset and a slow rate of progression in f-HAM/TSP cases compared with sporadic cases. These data also suggested that factors other than HTLV-1 PVLs contribute to the disease course of HAM/TSP. PMID:24802839

Nozuma, Satoshi; Matsuura, Eiji; Matsuzaki, Toshio; Watanabe, Osamu; Kubota, Ryuji; Izumo, Shuji; Takashima, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

349

Cervical Histology Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

of vision from the vagina. #12;Human papilloma virus (HPV) Over 20 serotypes Cause a variety of lesions growth) occurs in the presence of HPV, the cervix provides the best-defined model of virus-mediated carcinogenesis in humans to date! Infectious disease + cancer #12;Normal Histology The cervix is covered

Gleeson, Joseph G.

350

Improving cervical region of interest by eliminating vaginal walls and cotton-swabs for automated image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image analysis for automated diagnosis of cervical cancer has attained high prominence in the last decade. Automated image analysis at all levels requires a basic segmentation of the region of interest (ROI) within a given image. The precision of the diagnosis is often reflected by the precision in detecting the initial region of interest, especially when some features outside the ROI mimic the ones within the same. Work described here discusses algorithms that are used to improve the cervical region of interest as a part of automated cervical image diagnosis. A vital visual aid in diagnosing cervical cancer is the aceto-whitening of the cervix after the application of acetic acid. Color and texture are used to segment acetowhite regions within the cervical ROI. Vaginal walls along with cottonswabs sometimes mimic these essential features leading to several false positives. Work presented here is focused towards detecting in-focus vaginal wall boundaries and then extrapolating them to exclude vaginal walls from the cervical ROI. In addition, discussed here is a marker-controlled watershed segmentation that is used to detect cottonswabs from the cervical ROI. A dataset comprising 50 high resolution images of the cervix acquired after 60 seconds of acetic acid application were used to test the algorithm. Out of the 50 images, 27 benefited from a new cervical ROI. Significant improvement in overall diagnosis was observed in these images as false positives caused by features outside the actual ROI mimicking acetowhite region were eliminated.

Venkataraman, Sankar; Li, Wenjing

2008-03-01

351

Expansive open-door laminoplasty secured with titanium miniplates is a good surgical method for multiple-level cervical stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Laminoplasty is an effective procedure for treating cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Little information is available regarding the surgical outcomes of expansive open-door laminoplasty (EOLP) when securing with titanium miniplates without bone grafting. This study is aimed to elucidate the efficacy of and problems associated with EOLP secured with titanium miniplates without bone grafting, thereby enhancing future surgical outcomes. Methods This is a retrospective study. The study participants comprised 104 patients who underwent cervical EOLP secured with titanium miniplates without bone graft for CSM treatment between August 2005 and March 2011. The clinical results were evaluated based on the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) and Nurick scores. The radiographic outcomes were determined based on plain film and magnetic resonance imaging findings, which were assessed and compared. Results Lateral cervical spine X-rays exhibited improvement in the Pavlov ratio of the spinal canal at 1 day postoperation, and this ratio did not change at 1 year postoperation. The mean cervical curvature from C2 to C7 decreased 0.21°?±?10.09° and the mean cervical range of motion was deteriorated by 35% at 12 months (P?

2014-01-01

352

The effect of increased pressure in the cavities of the alimentary tract on evoked reflexes. Report 2: The effect on Proprioceptive cervical and lumbar compensatory reflexes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes occurring in the cervical ocular reflexes and in the lumbar ocular reflexes following an increase in gastric pressure were studied. The lumbar reflexes were subject to the most pronounced after effect. The pressure increase caused greater changes in the cervical ocular reflexes. It was concluded that all reflexes were affected to some extent.

Komendantov, G. L.

1973-01-01

353

Genital warts and cervical neoplasia: an epidemiological study.  

PubMed Central

Cervical carcinoma and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) are likely to be associated with all sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). To help discover which (if any) of the recognised STDs might actually cause these conditions, a key question is whether one particular such association is much stronger than the others. The present study is therefore only of women newly attending an STD clinic, and compares the prevalences of cytological abnormalities of the cervix among 415 women attending with genital warts, 135 with genital herpes, and 458 with trichomoniasis or gonorrhoea. Significantly more genital wart patients (8.1%) than trichomoniasis or gonorrhoea patients (1.9%) showed dyskaryotic changes (adjusted relative risk (RR) = 5.8 with 95% limits 2.5-13.5) at, or a few months before, first attendance, while no excess whatever was seen in women with genital herpes. Moreover, half the women had a subsequent smear (at an average of 3-4 years after first attendance) and, although the diagnosis at first attendance was not related to the onset rate of dyskaryotic changes observed in these subsequent smears, it was related to the onset rate of grade III cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN III), which was found in 7 previous genital wart patients, in 2 previous trichomonas patients, but in 0 previous genital herpes patients. Thus, our findings suggest that herpes is not directly relevant to dyskaryotic change, but that one or more of the human papilloma viruses that cause genital warts may be. PMID:6688952

Franceschi, S.; Doll, R.; Gallwey, J.; La Vecchia, C.; Peto, R.; Spriggs, A. I.

1983-01-01

354

Defective antioxidant systems in cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer remains a great problem for woman health, as it is the second deadly cancer of females worldwide. The infection of human papilloma virus (HPV) is the major risk factor for this cancer, although several other factors are also associated. Oxidative stress or antioxidant deficiency has been frequently identified to be associated with cervical cancer. Defects in the antioxidant enzyme systems are reported to play important role behind this antioxidant deficiency, which is responsible for the production of reactive oxygen species and ultimately, DNA damage in cervical cells. In response, cells become more vulnerable to HPV infection for cervical cancer development. Recently, antioxidant therapies or dietary supplementation of antioxidants have gained considerable interests in the cervical cancer treatment. In this study, we have reviewed the association of defective antioxidant systems and cervical cancer development. The recent advances in both of the basic and clinical research focusing on possible antioxidant therapy have also been discussed. PMID:23616011

Jiang, Bin; Xiao, Songshu; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Xue, Min

2013-08-01

355

Factors associated with radiosensitivity of cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Radiation therapy plays a critical role in women with advanced-stage cervical cancer worldwide, particularly in developing countries, and most of the time it may be the only available treatment. The efficacy of radiation largely depends on the radiosensitivity of the tumor. The high radiation dose associated with therapy for cervical cancer may have severe side-effects and low-dose radiation has little effect on cervical cancer. A safe and effective radiosensitizing agent is required to allow reduction of radiation doses used and of side-effects associated with radiation for cervical cancer. In recent years, great knowledge has been gained about the effects of apoptosis, cyclo-oxygenases, angiogenesis, hypoxia and temperature on radiation, making it possible to manipulate the radiation response of cervical cancer to achieve a better treatment outcome. In this mini review, some of these factors associated with the radiosensitivity of cervical cancer are discussed. PMID:25202040

Qin, Chenglu; Chen, Xuhui; Bai, Qian; Davis, Matthew R; Fang, Yujiang

2014-09-01

356

International study identifies the origins of cervical cancer  

Cancer.gov

Virtually all cervical cancers are caused by HPV infections, with just two HPV types, 16 and 18, responsible for about 70 percent of all cases, according to the National Cancer Institute. Scientists have presumed for decades that the cervical cancers that develop from HPV infection arise in a specific location in the cervix. Now, new research from Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) in close collaboration with Harvard Medical School and the Agency for Science Technology and Research in Singapore finds that a specific population of cells that are found only in the region of the cervix called the "squamo-columnar junction" can become cancerous when infected with HPV while other cells in the cervix apparently do not. This research is published online the week of June 11 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

357

Rapid induction of senescence in human cervical carcinoma cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expression of the bovine papillomavirus E2 regulatory protein in human cervical carcinoma cell lines repressed expression of the resident human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes and within a few days caused essentially all of the cells to synchronously display numerous phenotypic markers characteristic of cells undergoing replicative senescence. This process was accompanied by marked but in some cases transient alterations in the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and by decreased telomerase activity. We propose that the human papillomavirus E6 and E7 proteins actively prevent senescence from occurring in cervical carcinoma cells, and that once viral oncogene expression is extinguished, the senescence program is rapidly executed. Activation of endogenous senescence pathways in cancer cells may represent an alternative approach to treat human cancers.

Goodwin, Edward C.; Yang, Eva; Lee, Chan-Jae; Lee, Han-Woong; Dimaio, Daniel; Hwang, Eun-Seong

2000-09-01

358

Cervical epidural steroid injections in the management of cervical radiculitis: interlaminar versus transforaminal. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been recent concern regarding the safety of cervical epidural steroid injections. The decision to proceed with treatment\\u000a requires balancing the risk and benefits. This article is an in depth review of the efficacy, complications, and technique\\u000a of both interlaminar and transforaminal cervical epidural steroid injections in the management of cervical radiculitis.

Christopher W. Huston

2009-01-01

359

OXYTOCIN-INDUCED CERVICAL DILATION AND CERVICAL MANIPULATION IN SHEEP: EFFECTS ON LAPAROSCOPIC ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Difficulty of cervical penetration during transcervical artificial insemination (TAI), limits its use in sheep. Trauma of cervical manipulation (CM) may explain low fertility after TAI. We investigated effects of cervical dilation using exogenous oxytocin (OT) to facilitate TAI and its effect on rep...

360

Human papillomavirus in false negative archival cervical smears: implications for screening for cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM--To assess the value of detecting human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in false negative archival cervical smears in population based screening programmes for cervical cancer. METHODS--Cytomorphologically classified false negative archival Pap smears (n = 27) taken from 18 women up to six years before cervical cancer was diagnosed were blindly mixed with 89 smears from hospital patients with a variety of

J M Walboomers; A M de Roda Husman; P J Snijders; H V Stel; E K Risse; T J Helmerhorst; F J Voorhorst; C J Meijer

1995-01-01

361

Chemotherapy for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer.  

PubMed

The primary treatment options for cervical cancer are surgery and radiation for more than a century. However, over the last 40 years chemotherapy has been building up its reputation in the management of cervical cancer in various forms such as chemoradiation, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and palliative chemotherapy for advanced or recurrent disease. Among these, in this review, chemotherapy for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer will be discussed. PMID:23915846

Kamura, Toshiharu; Ushijima, Kimio

2013-06-01

362

Human cervical mucus: research update.  

PubMed

Evaluation of cervical mucus is a standard for determining the fertile period in natural family planning. Cervical mucus accepts, filters, prepares, and releases sperm for successful transport to the egg and fertilization. Recent scientific advances provide answers to how the mucus regulates fertility as its physical properties change during the menstrual cycle. Transmission electron microscopy reveals small interstices between mucus macromolecules relative to a sperm head. Thus advancing sperm must push aside or cut through the microstructure. The interstices are largest in the periovulatory phase of the cycle. Small magnetic spheres, comparable with the size of a sperm head, are now being used to study the physical properties of the mucus on the scale of individual sperm. PMID:1755453

Katz, D F

1991-12-01

363

Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 22-year-old Marine who presented to the emergency department, after a martial arts exercise, with transient weakness and numbness in all extremities. Computed tomography cervical spine radiographs revealed os odontoideum. Lateral flexion–extension radiographs identified atlanto-axillary instability. This abnormality is rare and can be career ending for military members who do not undergo surgical fusion. PMID:22224150

Robson, Kristie A

2011-01-01

364

Survival from cervical necrotizing fasciitis.  

PubMed

Cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) is an uncommon, yet clinically significant infection that rapidly progresses to involve the deep neck spaces. Early recognition and aggressive surgical intervention and debridement are important, as this disease is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this report, we present a case of CNF and descending mediastinitis from a non-odontogenic source in a patient presenting with neck swelling and odynophagia. PMID:25671035

Gausepohl, Jeniffer S; Wagner, Jonathan G

2015-01-01

365

MRI of cervical facet dislocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MRI examinations of eight patients with cervical vertebral dislocation demonstrated by conventional radiography were\\u000a reviewed. All patients had axial and sagittal T 1- and T 2-weighted imaging on a 1.5-T unit. This revealed unilateral partial\\u000a facet dislocation (in two patients), bilateral partial facet dislocation (in two), unilateral complete dislocation (in two)\\u000a and bilateral complete facet dislocation (in two). In

C. C. Leite; B. E. Escobar; J. Randy Jinkins

1997-01-01

366

Survival from Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis  

PubMed Central

Cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) is an uncommon, yet clinically significant infection that rapidly progresses to involve the deep neck spaces. Early recognition and aggressive surgical intervention and debridement are important, as this disease is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this report, we present a case of CNF and descending mediastinitis from a non-odontogenic source in a patient presenting with neck swelling and odynophagia. PMID:25671035

Gausepohl, Jeniffer S.; Wagner, Jonathan G.

2015-01-01

367

Cervical cerclage: a review of current evidence.  

PubMed

Cervical cerclage is commonly used in the management of women considered to be at high risk of second-trimester loss and spontaneous preterm birth. Insertion is dictated by factors such as multiple pregnancy, uterine anomalies, a history of cervical trauma through destructive procedures or forced dilatation, and cervical shortening seen on transvaginal ultrasound examination. However, its use and efficacy in these different groups is highly controversial as there is contradiction in the results of individual studies and meta-analyses. This review examines the contemporary evidence on cervical cerclage and its current role in obstetrics. PMID:22335473

Abbott, Danielle; To, Meekai; Shennan, Andrew

2012-06-01

368

Degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis has received insufficient attention, in contrast to degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis.\\u000a In fact, degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis may be more common than previously thought.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In order to provide appropriate guidelines for the treatment of degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis, a systematic review\\u000a of degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis was performed. An English literature search from January 1947 to November 2010\\u000a was completed with

Sheng-Dan Jiang; Lei-Sheng Jiang; Li-Yang Dai

2011-01-01

369

Laparoscopic Fertility Sparing Management of Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

Fertility can be preserved after conservative cervical surgery. We report on a 29-year-old woman who was obese, para 0, and diagnosed with cervical insufficiency at the first trimester of current pregnancy due to a previous trachelectomy. She underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (LTCC) for cervical cancer. The surgery was successful and she was discharged two days later. The patient underwent a caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive approach associated with less pain and faster recovery, feasible even in obese women. PMID:24696772

Facchini, Chiara; Rapacchia, Giuseppina; Montanari, Giulia; Casadio, Paolo; Pilu, Gianluigi; Seracchioli, Renato

2014-01-01

370

Management of complex cervical instability.  

PubMed

Purpose?Illustrative cases are presented to demonstrate the surgical management of complex instability of the cervical spine. Methods?Six patients with different underlying pathologies are presented along with their clinical and radiologic findings, surgical procedures, complications, and outcomes. Results?Five patients underwent anteroposterior (AP) decompression and stabilization, of which two required secondary posterior stabilization because of dislocation or subsidence of the anterior osteosynthesis. In another case, a patient with a two-level corpectomy, a stable situation was achieved with an anterior approach only. The outcomes, measured according to Odom's criteria, were excellent in one patient, good in three patients, and fair in two patients. Conclusions?In cases of complex cervical instability, combined AP decompression and stabilization minimizes the risk of anterior plate failure or dislocation of the vertebral body prosthesis. However, there may be increased risk of adjacent-level degeneration. Therefore, a combined procedure should be considered in selected patients. Not all patients with cervical instability require circumferential surgery. In two-level corpectomy cases, the decision between the less invasive anterior-only approach and the more stable combined approach can be difficult. However, in patients with proof of poor bone quality or with metabolic disorders, a more stable combined approach should be considered. PMID:23765918

König, Stefan Alexander; Ranguis, Sebastian; Spetzger, Uwe

2015-03-01

371

Multimodality evaluation of cervical tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical signs of radiotherapy failure are often not present until well after treatment has been completed. Methods which could predict the response of tumors either before or early into the radiotherapy schedule would have important implications for patient management. Recent studies performed at our institution suggest that MR perfusion imaging maya be useful in distinguishing between individuals who are likely to benefit from radiation therapy and those who are not. Because MR perfusion imaging reflects tissue vascularity as well as perfusion, quantitative positron emission tomographic (PET) blood flow studies were performed to obtain an independent assessment of tumor perfusion. MR perfusion and PET quantitative blood flow studies were acquired on four women diagnosed with advanced cervical cancer. The MR perfusion studies were acquired on a 1 cm sagittal slice through the epicenter of the tumor mass. Quantitative PET blood flow studies were performed using an autoradiographic technique. The PET and MRI were registered using a manual interactive routine and the mean blood flow in the tumor was compared to the relative signal intensity in a corresponding region on the MR image. The mean blood flow in the cervical tumors ranged form 30-48 ml/min/100 grams. The observed blood flow values are consistent with the assumed relationship between MR contrast enhancement and the distribution of tissue perfusion. The information offered by these studies provides an additional window into the evaluation of the response of cervical tumors to radiation therapy.

Madsen, Mark T.; Mayr, Nina A.; Yuh, William T. C.; Ehrhardt, James C.; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Ponto, Laura L. B.; Vannier, Michael W.; Hichwa, Richard D.

1997-05-01

372

Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths.  

PubMed

The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects). Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in Late Pleistocene mammoths from the North Sea is high (33.3%) and approximately 10 times higher than that of extant elephants (3.6%). Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, which we deduced from the presence of rib articulation facets on sixth (posterior side) and seventh (anterior side) cervical vertebrae. The incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in mammoths appears to be much higher than in other mammalian species, apart from exceptional sloths, manatees and dugongs and indicates a vulnerable condition. We argue that the increased incidence of cervical ribs in mammoths is probably caused by inbreeding and adverse conditions that impact early pregnancies in declining populations close to extinction in the Late Pleistocene. PMID:24711969

Reumer, Jelle W F; Ten Broek, Clara M A; Galis, Frietson

2014-01-01

373

Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths  

PubMed Central

The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects). Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in Late Pleistocene mammoths from the North Sea is high (33.3%) and approximately 10 times higher than that of extant elephants (3.6%). Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, which we deduced from the presence of rib articulation facets on sixth (posterior side) and seventh (anterior side) cervical vertebrae. The incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in mammoths appears to be much higher than in other mammalian species, apart from exceptional sloths, manatees and dugongs and indicates a vulnerable condition. We argue that the increased incidence of cervical ribs in mammoths is probably caused by inbreeding and adverse conditions that impact early pregnancies in declining populations close to extinction in the Late Pleistocene. PMID:24711969

Reumer, Jelle W.F.; ten Broek, Clara M.A.

2014-01-01

374

Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed. PMID:25226287

Adams, Allie K.; Wise-Draper, Trisha M.; Wells, Susanne I.

2014-01-01

375

Knowledge and Acceptability of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Karnataka, India.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15 % had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4 % of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21 %) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95 % CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India. PMID:25355525

Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

2015-03-01

376

Downregulation of glutathione peroxidase 3 is associated with lymph node metastasis and prognosis in cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) is a member of the glutathione peroxidase family of selenoproteins and is one of the key defensive enzymes against oxidative damages to host cells. Downregulation of GPX3 due to its promoter hypermethylation has been documented in several different types of cancer, indicating that GPX3 functions as a possible tumor suppressor. In the present study, we showed that GPX3 is also significantly downregulated in cervical cancer tissues compared to normal cervical tissues by qRT-PCR analyses and immunohistostainings. GPX3 expression was significantly related to lymph node metastasis and prognosis in cervical cancer patients. Treatment of cervical cancer cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored the expression of GPX3 and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) confirmed the CpG methylation of the GPX3 gene. Our results indicate that promoter methylation is one of the major causes of GPX3 downregulation in cervical cancer and GPX3 could serve as a predictive biomarker for lymph node metastasis and prognosis of cervical cancer. PMID:24788695

Zhang, Xianglan; Zheng, Zhenlong; Yingji, Shen; Kim, Hyeyeon; Jin, Renshun; Renshu, Li; Lee, Doo Young; Roh, Mi Ryung; Yang, Sanghwa

2014-06-01

377

Socioeconomic disparity in cervical cancer screening among Korean women: 1998–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer among Korean women and is one of the most preventable cancers in the world. This study aimed to investigate the change in cervical cancer screening rates, the level of socioeconomic disparities in cervical cancer screening participation, and whether there was a reduction in these disparities between 1998 and 2010. Methods Using the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, women 30?years or older without a history of cervical cancer and who completed a health questionnaire, physical examination, and nutritional survey were included (n?=?17,105). Information about participation in cervical cancer screening was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between cervical cancer screening participation and the socioeconomic status of the women. Results The cervical cancer screening rate increased from 40.5% in 1998 to 52.5% in 2010. Socioeconomic disparities influenced participation, and women with lower educational levels and lower household income were less likely to be screened. Compared with the lowest educational level, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for screening in women with the highest educational level were 1.56 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05–2.30) in 1998, and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.12–1.87) in 2010. Compared with women with the lowest household income level, the adjusted ORs for screening in women with the highest household income level were 1.80 (95% CI: 1.22–2.68), 2.82 (95% CI: 2.01–3.96), and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.08–1.94) in 2001, 2005, and 2010, respectively. Conclusion Although population-wide progress has been made in participation in cervical cancer screening over the 12-year period, socioeconomic status remained an important factor in reducing compliance with cancer screening. PMID:23742100

2013-01-01

378

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1–associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: Viral load and muscle tone are correlated  

PubMed Central

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infections are associated with varying degrees of HTLV-1 viral load and spasticity. Increased viral load is associated with higher risk of developing HTLV-1–associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The authors performed a cross-sectional study of 24 people with HAM/TSP in Lima, Perú, to determine if higher HTLV-1 viral load was correlated with increased muscle tone, measured with a device providing quantitative spasticity assessment (QSA). Median HTLV-1 viral load was 17.0 copies/100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells and QSA value was 39.9 Newton-meters/radian. HTLV-1 viral load was significantly correlated with QSA value (Spearman rho = .48, P = .02), suggesting viral load may play a role in expression of symptomatic neurologic disease. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if treatments that reduce viral load will reduce muscle tone. PMID:17162662

Zunt, JR; Montano, SM; Beck, I; Alarcón, JOV; Frenkel, LM; Bautista, CT; Price, R; Longstreth, WT

2009-01-01

379

Alopecia areata possibly induced by autoimmune reaction in a patient with human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1-associated myelopathy.  

PubMed

A 38-year-old female patient suffered from alopecia areata totalis followed by human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1-associated myelopathy (HAM). These two diseases have recently been considered to be related to cell-mediated autoimmune reactions. Immunohistochemistry revealed accumulation of CXCR3+ CD8+ T cells around hair bulbs in alopecic lesions. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis showed the elevated frequency of CD8+ human leukocyte antigen DR+ -activated T cells at the initial time and declined at the hair regrowth phase with HAM. CD4+ CD25+ adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells were elevated at hair loss phase and decreased after improvement of hair loss. These results suggest that autoreactive and cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells induce not only alopecia areata but also HAM in ATL patients. This case highlights that the autoimmune reactions may play an important role in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata and HAM. PMID:23668541

Ito, Taisuke; Shimada, Shinichiro; Mori, Tatsuyoshi; Tokura, Yoshiki

2013-05-01

380

Imbalanced Protein Expression Patterns of Anabolic, Catabolic, Anti-Catabolic and Inflammatory Cytokines in Degenerative Cervical Disc Cells: New Indications for Gene Therapeutic Treatments of Cervical Disc Diseases  

PubMed Central

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) of the cervical spine is common after middle age and can cause loss of disc height with painful nerve impingement, bone and joint inflammation. Despite the clinical importance of these problems, in current publications the pathology of cervical disc degeneration has been studied merely from a morphologic view point using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), without addressing the issue of biological treatment approaches. So far a wide range of endogenously expressed bioactive factors in degenerative cervical disc cells has not yet been investigated, despite its importance for gene therapeutic approaches. Although degenerative lumbar disc cells have been targeted by different biological treatment approaches, the quantities of disc cells and the concentrations of gene therapeutic factors used in animal models differ extremely. These indicate lack of experimentally acquired data regarding disc cell proliferation and levels of target proteins. Therefore, we analysed proliferation and endogenous expression levels of anabolic, catabolic, ant-catabolic, inflammatory cytokines and matrix proteins of degenerative cervical disc cells in three-dimensional cultures. Preoperative MRI grading of cervical discs was used, then grade III and IV nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues were isolated from 15 patients, operated due to cervical disc herniation. NP cells were cultured for four weeks with low-glucose in collagen I scaffold. Their proliferation rates were analysed using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Their protein expression levels of 28 therapeutic targets were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. During progressive grades of degeneration NP cell proliferation rates were similar. Significantly decreased aggrecan and collagen II expressions (P<0.0001) were accompanied by accumulations of selective catabolic and inflammatory cytokines (disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4 and 5, matrix metalloproteinase 3, interleukin-1?, interleukin-1 receptor) combined with low expression of anti-catabolic factor (metalloproteinase inhibitor 3) (P<0.0001). This study might contribute to inhibit inflammatory catabolism of cervical discs. PMID:24804684

Mern, Demissew S.; Beierfuß, Anja; Fontana, Johann; Thomé, Claudius; Hegewald, Aldemar A.

2014-01-01

381

Contribution of Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation for the Diagnosis of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a low-cost and safe examination for testing the vestibulospinal pathway. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a slowly progressive disease that affects the vestibulospinal tract early in its course. This study compared the electromyographic (EMG) responses triggered by GVS of asymptomatic HTLV-1-infected subjects and subjects with HAM/TSP. Methods Bipolar galvanic stimuli (400 ms and 2 mA) were applied to the mastoid processes of 39 subjects (n=120 stimulations per subject, with 60 from each lower limb). Both the short latency (SL) and medium latency (ML) components of the EMG response were recorded from the soleus muscles of 13 healthy, HTLV-1-negative adults (56±5 years, mean±SD), and 26 individuals infected with HTLV-1, of whom 13 were asymptomatic (56±8 years) and 13 had HAM/TSP (60±6 years). Results The SL and ML EMG components were 55±4 and 112±10 ms, respectively, in the group of healthy subjects, 61±6 and 112±10 ms and in the HTLV-1-asymptomatic group, and 67±8 and 130±3 ms in the HAM/TSP group (p=0.001). The SL component was delayed in 4/13 (31%) of the examinations in the HTLV-1-asymptomatic group, while the ML component was normal in all of them. In the HAM/TSP group, the most common alteration was the absence of waves. Conclusions A pattern of abnormal vestibular-evoked EMG responses was found in HTLV-1-neurological disease, ranging from delayed latency among asymptomatic carriers to the absence of a response in HAM/TSP. GVS may contribute to the early diagnosis and monitoring of nontraumatic myelopathies. PMID:24285967

Matos Cunha, Luciana Cristina; Campelo Tavares, Maurício; Tierra Criollo, Carlos Julio; Labanca, Ludimila; Cardoso dos Santos Couto Paz, Clarissa; Resende Martins, Henrique; de Freitas Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara

2013-01-01

382

Fever after Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy; a case report from Gorgan, Iran  

PubMed Central

Ectopic pregnancy is a rare condition, and, although its prevalence has decreased in recent years, it is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in women. Cervical ectopic pregnancy is less than 1% of all ectopic pregnancies. Fever is one of signs of infection, and it is necessary to monitor patients closely for other signs of infection. This paper presents and discusses a case of cervical ectopic pregnancy with fever after treatment. The patient had a high fever that became worse after three hospitalizations. The probable cause of her pyelonephritis was a urinary catheter, although it had been removed earlier, and she was receiving antibiotic therapy. Even though cervical ectopic pregnancy is a rare condition, it has certain complications that must be managed appropriately.

Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Besharat, Mahsa

2014-01-01

383

Oncogenic potential of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and its relation with cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer being the second most common cancer after lung cancer, affecting women of different age groups; has a prevalence of about 20% in young sexually active women. Among different types of HPV, HPV16 the major strain causing this cancer and is sexually transmitted had been unnoticed for decades. Keeping in mind the multiple risk factors related with cervical cancer such as early age sexual activities, teenage pregnancies, smoking, use of oral contraceptives, having multiple sex partners, hormone replacement therapies and various other unknown factors lead to the onset of the disease. Awareness for various diagnostic procedures such as Pap smears screening prove to be an effective way in eradicating the oncogenic potential of HPV. PMID:21635792

2011-01-01

384

Application of Percutaneous Cervical Nucleoplasty Using the Navigable Disc Decompression Device in Patient of Cervical Herniated Intervertebral Disc: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Recent years, various percutaneous procedures including cervical nucleoplasty have been developed for disc decompressions to relieve radicular pains caused by disc herniations. We report the application of percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty (PCN) by using the navigable disc decompression device in two patients of cervical herniated intervertebral discs (HIVD). A 38-year-old female diagnosed with C4-C5 disc extrusion with bilateral C5 roots impingement received nucleoplasty twice at C4-C5 disc level. After second procedure, her pain was improved from 6-7/10 to 1-2/10 by visual analog scale (VAS). The second case, a 51-year-male was diagnosed with C6-C7 disc extrusion with right C7 roots impingement and received the procedure at C6-C7 disc level. The pain improved from 8/10 to 3-4/10 by VAS. Successfully, we decompressed cervical herniated discs in 2 HIVD patients without major complications. The PCN with the navigable device will be recommended as an alternative treatment method for cervical HIVD. PMID:24236264

Lim, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Hye-Jin

2013-01-01

385

The Isadora syndrome: a case report of cervical, oesophageal and tracheal transection in a go-karting accident.  

PubMed

We report a case of cervical spine, tracheal and oesophageal trauma from a go-karting injury caused by the patient's scarf catching in the vehicle's wheel. We discuss the significance of the pre-hospital and operative management of this potentially life-threatening injury by a multi-specialty surgical team. The importance of health and safety issues in recreational sports is highlighted in view of the increasing incidence of cervical spine trauma over past two decades. PMID:21545330

Ahmad, Maleeha; Sinha, Priyank; Al-Tamimi, Yahia Z; Sylvester, Deborah; Dezso, Atilla; Timothy, Jake

2011-04-01

386

Induction of cell death in human papillomavirus 18-positive cervical cancer cells by E6 siRNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human cervical cancer is caused by high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) such as HPV16 and HPV18, which possess the E6 and E7 oncogenes, whose concurrent expression is a prerequisite for cancer development and maintaining malignant phenotypes. Silencing these oncogenes is considered to be applicable in molecular therapies of human cervical cancer. However, it remains to be determined whether E6,

K Yamato; J Fen; H Kobuchi; Y Nasu; T Yamada; T Nishihara; Y Ikeda; M Kizaki; M Yoshinouchi

2006-01-01

387

Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have examined the role of tests for human papillomavirus (HPV) in screening for cervical cancer but as yet the relevance is unclear. We looked at HPV testing for types 16, 18, 31, and 33 on material taken at the time of a cervical smear in 2009 eligible women having routine screening. Women with any degree of dyskaryosis or

J. Cuzick; A. Szarewski; G. Terry; A. Hanby; P. Maddox; M. Anderson; S. J. Steele; J. Guillebaud; C. Kocjean

1995-01-01

388

Restoration of non-carious cervical lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveAs a typical non-carious cervical lesion, abfraction is a common clinical occurrence which requires restorative treatment in most patients. Nonetheless, the relatively poor clinical longevity of cervical dental used for restoring abfraction lesions has been a major concern of dentists and patients. The continuing loss of hard tissue and, in turn, the low retention of the restorative materials in situ

I. Ichim; Q. Lib; J. Loughran; M. V. Swain; J. Kieser

2007-01-01

389

Cervical spine injuries from motor vehicle accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to delineate the critical regions of the human cervical spine and determine the mechanisms of injury in motor vehicle accidents (MVA). The clinical data were gathered from patient records. Results indicated that while neck injuries in MVA are complex and can occur at any level of the cervical spine, the craniocervical junction (among fatalities)

N. Yoganandan; D. J. Maiman; F. A. Pintar

1989-01-01

390

Cervical Spine MRI in Abused Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to use cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect cord injury in 12 dead children with head injury from child abuse. Eighty percent of children autopsied had small cervical spine hemorrhages; MRI did not identify them and did not identify cord injury in any child studied, indicating that MRI scans are probably…

Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

1997-01-01

391

Antigen-specific immunotherapy of cervical and ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Summary We contrast the efforts to treat ovarian cancer and cervical cancer through vaccination because of their different pathobiology. A plethora of approaches have been developed for therapeutic vaccination against cancer, many of which target defined tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is necessary cause of cervical cancer. Furthermore, cervical cancer patients frequently mount both humoral and T cell immune responses to the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins, whose expression is required for the transformed phenotype. Numerous vaccine studies target these viral TAAs, including recent trials that may enhance clearance of pre-malignant disease. By contrast little is known about the etiology of epithelial ovarian cancer. Although it is clear that p53 mutation or loss is a critical early event in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer, no precursor lesion has been described for the most common serous histotype, and even the location of its origin is debated. These issues have complicated the selection of appropriate ovarian TAAs and the design of vaccines. Here we focus on mesothelin as a promising ovarian TAA because it is overexpressed and immunogenic at high frequency in patients, is displayed on the cell surface and potentially contributes to ovarian cancer biology. PMID:18363994

Hung, Chien-fu; Wu, TC; Monie, Archana; Roden, Richard

2009-01-01

392

Intermittent hypoxia induces functional recovery following cervical spinal injury  

PubMed Central

Respiratory-related complications are the leading cause of death in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Few effective SCI treatments are available after therapeutic interventions are performed in the period shortly after injury (e.g. spine stabilization and prevention of further spinal damage). In this review we explore the capacity to harness endogenous spinal plasticity induced by intermittent hypoxia to optimize function of surviving (spared) neural pathways associated with breathing. Two primary questions are addressed: 1) does intermittent hypoxia induce plasticity in spinal synaptic pathways to respiratory motor neurons following experimental SCI? and 2) can this plasticity improve respiratory function? In normal rats, intermittent hypoxia induces serotonin-dependent plasticity in spinal pathways to respiratory motor neurons. Early experiments suggest that intermittent hypoxia also enhances respiratory motor output in experimental models of cervical SCI, (cervical hemisection) and that the capacity to induce functional recovery is greater with longer durations post-injury. Available evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia-induced spinal plasticity has considerable therapeutic potential to treat respiratory insufficiency following chronic cervical spinal injury. PMID:19651247

Vinit, Stéphane; Lovett-Barr, Mary Rachael; Mitchell, Gordon S.

2009-01-01

393

Modulation of specificity protein 1 by mithramycin A as a novel therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of death among women. However, the standard treatment for cervical cancer includes cisplatin, which can cause side effects such as hematological damage or renal toxicity. New innovations in cervical cancer treatment focus on developing more effective and better-tolerated therapies such as Sp1-targeting drugs. Previous studies suggested that mithramycin A (Mith) inhibits the growth of various cancers by decreasing Sp1 protein. However, how Sp1 protein is decreased by Mith is not clear. Few studies have investigated the regulation of Sp1 protein by proteasome-dependent degradation as a possible control mechanism for the regulation of Sp1 in cancer cells. Here, we show that Mith decreased Sp1 protein by inducing proteasome-dependent degradation, thereby suppressing cervical cancer growth through a DR5/caspase-8/Bid signaling pathway. We found that prolonged Mith treatment was well tolerated after systemic administration to mice carrying cervical cancer cells. Reduction of body weight was minimal, indicating that Mith was a good therapeutic candidate for treatment of cancers in which Sp1 is involved in promoting and developing disease. PMID:25418289

Choi, Eun-Sun; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Jung, Ji-Youn; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae

2014-01-01

394

Modulation of specificity protein 1 by mithramycin A as a novel therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of death among women. However, the standard treatment for cervical cancer includes cisplatin, which can cause side effects such as hematological damage or renal toxicity. New innovations in cervical cancer treatment focus on developing more effective and better-tolerated therapies such as Sp1-targeting drugs. Previous studies suggested that mithramycin A (Mith) inhibits the growth of various cancers by decreasing Sp1 protein. However, how Sp1 protein is decreased by Mith is not clear. Few studies have investigated the regulation of Sp1 protein by proteasome-dependent degradation as a possible control mechanism for the regulation of Sp1 in cancer cells. Here, we show that Mith decreased Sp1 protein by inducing proteasome-dependent degradation, thereby suppressing cervical cancer growth through a DR5/caspase-8/Bid signaling pathway. We found that prolonged Mith treatment was well tolerated after systemic administration to mice carrying cervical cancer cells. Reduction of body weight was minimal, indicating that Mith was a good therapeutic candidate for treatment of cancers in which Sp1 is involved in promoting and developing disease. PMID:25418289

Choi, Eun-Sun; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Jung, Ji-Youn; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae

2014-01-01

395

Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2). Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5). A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease). Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer. PMID:25741655

Navarro, Cibelli; da Fonseca, Allex Jardim; Sibajev, Alexander; Souza, Camila Iasmim de Andrade; Araújo, Daniela Souza; Teles, Daniele Aparecida de Freitas; de Carvalho, Stéphanie Gomes Lins; Cavalcante, Kyldery Wendell Moura; Rabelo, Wendell Lima

2015-01-01

396

Automatic image quality assessment for uterine cervical imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uterine cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. However, its death rate can be dramatically reduced by appropriate treatment, if early detection is available. We are developing a Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system to facilitate colposcopic examinations for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis. Unfortunately, the effort to develop fully automated cervical cancer diagnostic algorithms is hindered by the paucity of high quality, standardized imaging data. The limited quality of cervical imagery can be attributed to several factors, including: incorrect instrumental settings or positioning, glint (specular reflection), blur due to poor focus, and physical contaminants. Glint eliminates the color information in affected pixels and can therefore introduce artifacts in feature extraction algorithms. Instrumental settings that result in an inadequate dynamic range or an overly constrained region of interest can reduce or eliminate pixel information and thus make image analysis algorithms unreliable. Poor focus causes image blur with a consequent loss of texture information. In addition, a variety of physical contaminants, such as blood, can obscure the desired scene and reduce or eliminate diagnostic information from affected areas. Thus, automated feedback should be provided to the colposcopist as a means to promote corrective actions. In this paper, we describe automated image quality assessment techniques, which include region of interest detection and assessment, contrast dynamic range assessment, blur detection, and contaminant detection. We have tested these algorithms using clinical colposcopic imagery, and plan to implement these algorithms in a CAD system designed to simplify high quality data acquisition. Moreover, these algorithms may also be suitable for image quality assessment in telemedicine applications.

Gu, Jia; Li, Wenjing

2006-03-01

397

Triapine, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer or Vaginal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

2014-04-21

398

Recurrent Spontaneous Rupture of the Urinary Bladder in a Patient With Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Associated Myelopathy: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Recurrent spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder has rarely been reported in English articles. This condition may be difficult to diagnosis before a laparotomy due to acute peritonitis. Herein we describe a case of recurrent spontaneous rupture of the bladder in a 39-year-old woman with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) -associated myelopathy/topical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). PMID:24719820

Feizzadeh Kerigh, Behzad; Boostani, Reza; Ghoreifi, Alireza

2014-01-01

399

Clustering of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH) in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Fifteen families with clustering of infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH) and/or HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) were observed among 28 families of IDH index cases, 93% of them occurring in two generations. With the exception of two mothers of children with IDH, all the mothers with HAM/TSP had at least one child with HAM/TSP. This is the first report of such clustering involving many families. PMID:23932323

da Silva, José Lucas Sena; Primo, Janeusa Rita L; de Oliveira, Maria de Fátima S P; Batista, Everton da Silva; Moreno-Carvalho, Otávio; Farré, Lourdes; Bittencourt, Achiléa L

2013-10-01

400

Evaluation of Microbial Enzymes in Normal and Abnormal Cervicovaginal Fluids of Cervical Dysplasia: A Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of microbial enzymes in normal and abnormal cervicovaginal fluids of cervical dysplasia. The cervicovaginal infections were evaluated through the estimation of microbial enzymes in patients with and without abnormal cervical cytology like bacterial and fungal infections. The patients were categorized based on infection caused by organism and stages of dysplasia. The pH, Whiff test, and Pap smear tests were conducted for normal and abnormal cervical swabs based on standard protocols. Microbial enzymes include mucinase, sialidases, and proteases of the cervical swabs and are estimated according to standard methods. The results of abnormal cervical cytological smears showed increased pH and the presence of amines with different levels of Pap smear test. Increased levels of microbial enzymes were observed in patients with abnormal cytology than normal cytology. Three microbial enzymes mucinase, sialidase, and protease were significantly (P < 0.01) more elevated in patients with bacterial infections (8.97 ± 0.64, 10.39 ± 0.28, 8.12 ± 0.64) than without dysplasia (2.02 ± 0.8, 1.98 ± 0.3, 1.96 ± 0.8). The results reinforce that the microbial infection seems to be more prone to cervical dysplasia and may act as risk-factor for the development of cervical cancer along with HPV infection. PMID:24967392

Dasari, Subramanyam; Rajendra, Wudayagiri; Valluru, Lokanatha

2014-01-01

401

A combined approach for the treatment of cervical vertigo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cervical vertigo is a diagnosis commonly made at both otorhinolaringologist and chiropractic offices. Hypothesized nonvascular mechanisms are reviewed. Therapeutic approaches have been suggested in the literature, ranging from cervical immobilization to vertebral manipulation.Objective: To characterize the patient population with cervical vertigo and observe therapeutic results of a treatment protocol by using distinct conservative modalities.Methods: Fifteen subjects with cervical vertigo

Eduardo S. B Bracher; Clemente I. R Almeida; Roberta A Almeida; André C Duprat; Cheri B. B Bracher

2000-01-01

402

Childhood Forced Sex and Cervical Dysplasia Among Women Prison Inmates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study is one of the first to investigate an association between childhood forced sex and cervical dysplasia. Cervical dysplasia can be identified through Pap smear screening and indicates precancerous cervical lesions, which if not treated, could become cervical cancer. Of 123 women confined under medium security in a women's correctional facility and surveyed for this study, 31.7% (n

Ann L. Coker; Nilam J. Patel; Shanthi Krishnaswami; Wendy Schmidt; Donna L. Richter

1998-01-01

403

Is 58% sensitivity for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and invasive cervical cancer optimal for cervical screening?  

PubMed Central

Recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of a Roche cobas human papillomavirus (HPV) test application as a first line primary cervical screening tool in women 25 and older introduces a new era of complex cervical screening choices. Perhaps the most surprising findings in Roche's supporting ATHENA trial data were the unexpectedly low verification bias-adjusted CIN3+ sensitivities documented by the FDA for both the proposed cobas HPV testing algorithm (58.26%) and Pap testing algorithm (42.63%). These unexpectedly low sensitivity estimates suggest intuitively that there is still considerable room for improvement in cervical screening, and available data from large systems point to routine cytology and HPV co-testing as offering the greatest protection against development of cervical cancer. Observational studies of large populations screened over time remain essential to document actual protection from development of cervical cancer with any new cervical screening options, as natural history studies and available data from large systems indicate that most CIN2/3 cases detected in short term clinical trials would not progress to invasive cervical cancer. Interpretation of ATHENA trial data and its application to routine clinical practice is further limited by published studies which document that a significant proportion of CIN2/3 biopsy diagnoses in the ATHENA trial could not be confirmed as accurate when evaluated with p16 immunohistochemistry and that cytology laboratory performance in the trial was notably suboptimal. PMID:24987445

Austin, R. Marshall; Zhao, Chengquan

2014-01-01

404

Is transabdominal ultrasound scanning of cervical measurement in mid-trimester pregnancy a useful alternative to transvaginal ultrasound scan?  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound measurements of the cervix in pregnancy. If transabdominal ultrasound measurement of cervical length is found to provide effective information, it could be used in patient counselling and when making clinical decisions. Material and Methods One hundred and twenty seven pregnant patients between 18–26 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in this prospective study for measuring cervical length, both by transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound scan after bladder emptying. Transabdominal and transvaginal measurements were compared and correlated. Results In patients with transvaginal ultrasound scan (TVS) cervical length ?32 mm, TVS cervical length was found to be shorter than by transabdominal ultrasound scan (TAS). Most of these patients needed >3 cm of vertical pocket of urine in the bladder for adequate visualisation of the cervix. In patients with TVS cervical length >32 mm, the TVS measurement of the cervix was longer than the TAS measurement of the cervix. In these patients, the cervix could be seen by TAS when there was either ?3 cm vertical pocket of urine in the bladder or an empty bladder. Statistical tests showed that there is a significant difference between TAS and TVS cervical measurements and that there is a significant association between these two measurements. Conclusion Most of the patients needed variable degrees of bladder filling for adequate visualisation of the cervix. Although minimal bladder filling does not influence TAS measurements of cervical length, moderate fullness of the bladder does cause an apparent increase in TAS measurements of cervical length. If the cervical length is ?30 mm by TAS, regardless of urine content in the bladder, the patient can be assured vis a vis their risk of preterm labour as far as cervical length is concerned. However, in patients with TAS cervical measurement <30 mm and where the bladder needed a moderate amount of urine for adequate visualisation of the cervix, TVS cervical measurement may be close to the critical value of 25 mm. These patients need to be counselled and offered TVS for better assessment of cervical length. PMID:24592111

Chaudhury, Kalyansree; Ghosh, Mrinalkanti; Halder, Atin; Senapati, Sourav; Chaudhury, Sudeshna

2013-01-01

405

Imaging, clearance, and controversies in pediatric cervical spine trauma.  

PubMed

Diagnosing cervical spine injury in children can be difficult because the clinical examination can be unreliable, and evidence-based consensus guidelines for cervical spine injury evaluation in children have not been established. However, the consequences of cervical spine injuries are significant. Therefore, practitioners should understand common patterns of cervical spine injury in children, the evidence and indications for cervical spine imaging, and which imaging modalities to use. Herein, we review the epidemiology and unique anatomical features of pediatric cervical spine injury. In addition, we will summarize current practice for clearance and imaging of the pediatric cervical spine in trauma. PMID:25469605

Tat, Sonny T; Mejia, Michelle J; Freishtat, Robert J

2014-12-01

406

Human Papillomavirus Type 18: Association With Poor Prognosis in Early Stage Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cervical carcinoma is a leading cause of mor- tality from cancer among women worldwide, accounting for approximately 160 000 deaths annually. Prognosis in pa- tients with this disease is dependent on several well-estab- lished clinical features (stage of disease and age of patient) and pathologic features (lymph node status, grade of tumor, and depth of invasion). Although the features

Robert A. Burger; Bradley J. Monk; Tom Kurosaki; Hoda Anton-Culver; Steven A. Vasilev; Michael L. Berman; Sharon P. Wilczynski

407

Viruses, Cancer Warts and All: The HPV Vaccine for Cervical Cancer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. Scientist Peyton Rous used Plymouth Rock chickens to make his Nobel Prize winning discovery that viruses can cause cancer. Chickens, rabbits, and mice were among the animal models that made invaluable contributions to the development of the HPV vaccine to protect against cervical cancer.

2010-07-12

408

Bacterial vaginosis is associated with uterine cervical human papillomavirus infection: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV), an alteration of vaginal flora involving a decrease in Lactobacilli and predominance of anaerobic bacteria, is among the most common cause of vaginal complaints for women of childbearing age. It is well known that BV has an influence in acquisition of certain genital infections. However, association between BV and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been

Evy Gillet; Joris FA Meys; Hans Verstraelen; Carolyne Bosire; Philippe De Sutter; Marleen Temmerman; Davy Vanden Broeck

2011-01-01

409

The epidemiologic, pathologic, biomechanical, and cinematographic analysis of football-induced cervical spine trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic, pathologic, biomechanical, and cinema tographic data on head and neck injuries occurring in tackle football have been compiled since 1971 by the National Football Head and Neck Injury Registry. Pre liminary analysis performed in 1975 indicated that the majority of serious cervical spine football injuries were caused by axial loading. Based on this observation, the National Collegiate Athletic Association

Joseph S. Torg; Joseph J. Vegso; Mary Jane ONeill; Brian Sennett

1990-01-01

410

Increased risk of posterior circulation infarcts among ischemic stroke patients with cervical spondylosis  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical spondylosis is one of the extrinsic factors causing vertebral artery stenosis. Several case studies have reported compression of the vertebral artery induced by cervical osteophytes that has resulted in posterior circulation infarcts (POCI). However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have yet analyzed differences in the risk factors and stroke subtypes between ischemic stroke patients with cervical spondylosis and those without. Purpose In the case-controlled study reported here, we analyzed the risk factors and stroke subtypes in ischemic stroke patients with and without cervical spondylosis. Characteristics in all the recruited patients with POCI and non-POCI were further compared to extract other risk factors that could predict the occurrence of POCI. Methods and patients We filtered out ischemic stroke patients with cervical spondylosis (“Stroke+C” group) by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. We analyzed the data of 38 subjects in the Stroke+C group and 152 sex- and age-comparable ischemic stroke patients without cervical spondylosis (“Stroke?C” group). We recorded the demographic characteristics including sex and age, and stroke risk factors, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, and smoking habits. The stroke classifications were defined by the Oxford Community Stroke Project classification. All subjects were further categorized into POCI or non-POCI groups. The ultrasound findings of the vertebral arteries (extracranial and intracranial) in the Stroke+C group were also recorded. Results More patients in the Stroke+C group tended to have POCI (34.2%) than patients in the Stroke?C group (17.5%) (odds ratio [OR] =2.41, P<0.05). Furthermore, hypertension (OR=3.41, P<0.01) and cervical spondylosis (OR=2.41, P<0.05) were two independent risk factors for POCI in ischemic stroke patients. Conclusion Ischemic stroke patients with cervical spondylosis are more prone to POCI than those without cervical spondylosis. Hypertension is another identified risk factor for POCI in ischemic stroke patients. The occurrence of POCI should be highlighted for patients with cervical spondylosis. PMID:25678792

Chen, Chih-Chi; Chung, Chia-Ying; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Chang, Wei-Han; Tang, Simon FT; Pei, Yu-Cheng

2015-01-01

411

Cervical screening adjuncts: recent advances.  

PubMed

In an effort to reduce the false-negative rate of cervical cytologic findings, several new technologies have recently evolved. Automated cytologic testing (PapNet, AutoPap 300 QC) proposes to rescreen negative conventional cytologic findings to identify smears likely to be false negative. Fluid-based monolayers (ThinPrep, CytoRich) propose to reduce the false-negative rates by optimizing the collection and preparation of cells. Human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid testing by Hybrid Capture has been proposed for a variety of screening and triage roles. Visual screening after application of acetic acid is done by cervicography by use of a photographic technique, whereas in speculoscopy the screening is done by direct visualization of the cervix by the primary care provider. Polarprobe uses biophysical parameters and a computer algorithm to give an instantaneous prediction of the likelihood of cervical disease. Each of these techniques, as well as the clinical experience with them, is reviewed. Current and possible future uses are discussed with regard to both clinical usefulness and cost-effectiveness. PMID:9731867

Spitzer, M

1998-08-01

412

Positron Emission Tomography Using Fluoromisonidazole F 18 and Fludeoxyglucose F 18 to Find Oxygen in Tumor Cells of Patients Undergoing Treatment for Newly Diagnosed Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

2014-06-10

413

Cervical fracture, decapitation, and vehicle-assisted suicide.  

PubMed

Two cases of vehicle-assisted suicides are described in males aged 33 and 24 years, respectively. In both cases the victims had tied ropes between stationary objects and their necks and then attempted to drive their vehicles away. The speed with which the vehicles were driven resulted in forces great enough to cause fracture--dislocation of the cervical spine in Case 1 and virtual decapitation in Case 2. Although inadvertent alteration of the death scene in Case 1, with removal of the rope, complicated the initial assessment, the extent of soft tissue and bony injuries was such that ligature strangulation appeared unlikely. PMID:11908616

Byard, Roger W; Gilbert, John D

2002-03-01

414

Use of High Frequency Ultrasound to Monitor Cervical Lymph Node Alterations in Mice  

PubMed Central

Cervical lymph node evaluation by clinical ultrasound is a non-invasive procedure used in diagnosing nodal status, and when combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), provides an effective method to assess nodal pathologies. Development of high-frequency ultrasound (HF US) allows real-time monitoring of lymph node alterations in animal models. While HF US is frequently used in animal models of tumor biology, use of HF US for studying cervical lymph nodes alterations associated with murine models of head and neck cancer, or any other model of lymphadenopathy, is lacking. Here we utilize HF US to monitor cervical lymph nodes changes in mice following exposure to the oral cancer-inducing carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) and in mice with systemic autoimmunity. 4-NQO induces tumors within the mouse oral cavity as early as 19 wks that recapitulate HNSCC. Monitoring of cervical (mandibular) lymph nodes by gray scale and power Doppler sonography revealed changes in lymph node size eight weeks after 4-NQO treatment, prior to tumor formation. 4-NQO causes changes in cervical node blood flow resulting from oral tumor progression. Histological evaluation indicated that the early 4-NQO induced changes in lymph node volume were due to specific hyperproliferation of T-cell enriched zones in the paracortex. We also show that HF US can be used to perform image-guided fine needle aspirate (FNA) biopsies on mice with enlarged mandibular lymph nodes due to genetic mutation of Fas ligand (Fasl). Collectively these studies indicate that HF US is an effective technique for the non-invasive study of cervical lymph node alterations in live mouse models of oral cancer and other mouse models containing cervical lymphadenopathy. PMID:24955984

Walk, Elyse L.; McLaughlin, Sarah; Coad, James; Weed, Scott A.

2014-01-01

415

Maryland study finds nearly 38 percent of lesbians not routinely screened for cervical cancer  

Cancer.gov

Nearly 38 percent of lesbians polled in a national survey were not routinely screened for cervical cancer, putting them at risk of developing a highly preventable cancer, according to a University of Maryland School of Medicine study being presented at the 11th Annual AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research. Cervical cancer is caused by a sexually transmitted virus, the human papillomavirus (HPV), and can be detected through regular Pap smears. The University of Maryland is home to the Greenebaum Cancer Center.

416

Assessing Forelimb Function after Unilateral Cervical SCI using Novel Tasks: Limb Step-alternation, Postural Instability and Pasta Handling  

PubMed Central

Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) can cause devastating neurological deficits, including impairment or loss of upper limb and hand function. A majority of the spinal cord injuries in humans occur at the cervical levels. Therefore, developing cervical injury models and developing relevant and sensitive behavioral tests is of great importance. Here we describe the use of a newly developed forelimb step-alternation test after cervical spinal cord injury in rats. In addition, we describe two behavioral tests that have not been used after spinal cord injury: a postural instability test (PIT), and a pasta-handling test. All three behavioral tests are highly sensitive to injury and are easy to use. Therefore, we feel that these behavioral tests can be instrumental in investigating therapeutic strategies after cSCI. PMID:24084700

Schallert, Timothy; Schmidt, Christine E.

2013-01-01

417

Cervical Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament in X-Linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets Revealing Homogeneously Increased Vertebral Bone Density  

PubMed Central

There is no report that describes in detail the radiological and intraoperative findings of rickets with symptomatic cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Here, we describe a case of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament presenting unique radiological and intraoperative findings. The patient presented progressive tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed severe cervical spinal cord compression caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Computed tomography scans revealed homogeneously increased vertebral bone density. An expansive laminoplasty was performed. At surgery, homogeneously hard lamina bone was burdened in drilling and opening of the laminae. The patient's neurological symptoms were improved postoperatively. Bony fusion of the hinges occurred postoperatively. Therefore, expansive laminoplasty could be performed for symptomatic cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets. However, unusual bone characters should be taken into consideration for careful operation during surgery. PMID:25705343

Mizuno, Masaki; Kuraishi, Keita; Suzuki, Hidenori

2015-01-01

418

Tissue- and column-specific measurements from multi-parameter mapping of the human cervical spinal cord at 3 T.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to quantify a range of MR parameters [apparent proton density, longitudinal relaxation time T1, magnetisation transfer (MT) ratio, MT saturation (which represents the additional percentage MT saturation of the longitudinal magnetisation caused by a single MT pulse) and apparent transverse relaxation rate R2*] in the white matter columns and grey matter of the healthy cervical spinal cord. The cervical cords of 13 healthy volunteers were scanned at 3 T using a protocol optimised for multi-parameter mapping. Intra-subject co-registration was performed using linear registration, and tissue- and column-specific parameter values were calculated. Cervical cord parameter values measured from levels C1-C5 in 13 subjects are: apparent proton density, 4822 ± 718 a.u.; MT ratio, 40.4 ± 1.53 p.u.; MT saturation, 1.40 ± 0.12 p.u.; T1 = 1848 ± 143 ms; R2* = 22.6 ± 1.53 s(-1). Inter-subject coefficients of variation were low in both the cervical cord and tissue- and column-specific measurements, illustrating the potential of this method for the investigation of changes in these parameters caused by pathology. In summary, an optimised cervical cord multi-parameter mapping protocol was developed, enabling tissue- and column-specific measurements to be made. This technique has the potential to provide insight into the pathological processes occurring in the cervical cord affected by neurological disorders. PMID:24105923

Samson, R S; Ciccarelli, O; Kachramanoglou, C; Brightman, L; Lutti, A; Thomas, D L; Weiskopf, N; Wheeler-Kingshott, C A M

2013-12-01

419

Overexpression of TROP2 Predicts Poor Prognosis of Patients with Cervical Cancer and Promotes the Proliferation and Invasion of Cervical Cancer Cells by Regulating ERK Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Overwhelming evidence has demonstrated that the aberrant expression of the human trophoblast cell-surface antigen (TROP2) was associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in a variety of human cancers, however the roles of TROP2 in cervical cancer have not been investigated. The purpose of our study was to elucidate the prognostic significance of TROP2 expression in patients with cervical cancer and determine its effect on tumor progression. Immunohistochemistry assay showed that 88.7% (94/106 cases) of cervical cancer specimens were positively stained with TROP2, and the overexpression of TROP2 was closely related with FIGO stage, histological grades, lymphatic metastasis, invasive interstitial depth and high expression of Ki-67. Patients with TROP2-positive staining exhibited a significantly decreased overall survival and progression free survival; it was also an independent predictor for prognosis according to multivariate analysis. Moreover, down-regulation of TROP2 mediated by siRNA in Siha and CaSki cells resulted in a strong inhibition of proliferation and invasion, TROP2 abrogation also elevated the apoptotic ratio and caused G1 arrest. Conversely, enforced expression of TROP2 in HeLa and C33A cells remarkably promoted cell growth, migration and invasion. In addition, the tumorigenic function of TROP2 was associated with the increased expressions of cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK2 and CDK4 but reduced expression of p27 and E-cadherin via the activation of Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Furthermore, the inhibition of TROP2 expression in cervical cancer cell lines enhances sensitivity to cisplatin. The present study suggest that overexpression of TROP2 may play crucial roles in the development and pathogenesis of human cervical cancer, therefore, TROP2 may represent a prospective prognostic indicator and a potential therapeutic target of cervical cancer. PMID:24086649

Liu, Ting; Liu, Yueyang; Bao, Xiangxiang; Tian, Jiguang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Xingsheng

2013-01-01

420

Modified transcorporeal anterior cervical microforaminotomy for cervical radiculopathy: a technical note and early results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective analysis of the first twenty patients operated for cervical radiculopathy by a new modification of transcorporeal\\u000a anterior cervical foraminotomy technique. To evaluate early results of a functional disc surgery in which decompression for\\u000a the cervical radiculopathy is done by drilling a hole in the upper vertebral body and most of the disc tissue is preserved.\\u000a Earlier approaches to

Gun Choi; Sang-Ho Lee; Arun Bhanot; Yu Sik Chae; Byungjoo Jung; Seungcheol Lee

2007-01-01

421

Attachment and barriers to cervical screening.  

PubMed

The present study explored the role of attachment insecurity in cervical screening behaviors and barriers in a sample of 257 female undergraduates. Information on attachment dimensions as well as attachment style was collected. Attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance were associated with decreased likelihood of having participated in cervical screening and positively associated with screening barriers. Screening barriers were elevated among individuals with insecure attachment styles (preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing), and dismissing participants were less likely to have engaged in screening compared to secure participants. Our findings demonstrate that attachment insecurity may be a risk factor for inadequate cervical screening and screening barriers. PMID:22933580

Hill, Erin M; Gick, Mary L

2013-05-01

422

Cervical necrosis after chemoradiation for cervical cancer: case series and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to assess the management of cervical necrosis (CN) following radiotherapy (RT) and the impact of smoking status. This rare complication mimics a neoplastic recurrence, and causes concern among attending physicians. Methods Between July 2008 and March 2013, 5 women on 285 with localized cervical cancer had a CN following RT. Patients were treated with concomitant chemoradiation. The medical records were reviewed to abstract demographic and clinical information until March 2013. Results 1.75% (95% confidence interval: 0.23 to 3.28%) developed CN. All patients were smokers with a mean of 19.5 pack-years (range: 7.5-45 pack-years). All patients were treated with weekly Cisplatin chemotherapy and external beam radiation to the pelvis, 45 Gy in 25 fractions. Four patients received an extra boost with a median dose of 7.2 Gy (range: 5.4-10 Gy). All patients had intracavitary brachytherapy (range: 27.9 to 30 Gy). Clinical presentation was similar for all the cases: vaginal discharge associated with pain. Mean time for time post-radiation therapy to necrosis was 9.3 months (range: 2.2-20.5 months). Standard workup was done to exclude cancer recurrence: biopsies and radiologic imaging. Conservative treatment was performed with excellent results. Re