Sample records for causing cervical myelopathy

  1. Hypoplasia of the atlas causing cervical myelopathy with situs inversus totalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Tofuku; H Koga; K Yone; S Komiya

    2007-01-01

    Study design:A case report of myelopathic hypoplasia of the atlas with situs inversus totalis.Objectives:To describe a case of cervical myelopathy caused by hypoplasia of the atlas with situs inversus totalis, and to briefly review the pertinent literature.Setting:Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kagoshima, Japan.Methods:The history, results of examination, and findings of radiographic imaging studies for a 56-year-old man with a 10-year history

  2. Cervical Myelopathy in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, N.; Todd, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    Involvement of the cervical spine is common in rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical presentation can be variable, and symptoms may be due to neck pain or compressive myeloradiculopathy. We discuss the pathology, grading systems, clinical presentation, indications for surgery and surgical management of cervical myelopathy related to rheumatoid arthritis in this paper. We describe our surgical technique and results. We recommend early consultation for surgical management when involvement of the cervical spine is suspected in rheumatoid arthritis. Even patients with advanced cervical myelopathy should be discussed for surgical treatment, since in our experience improvement in function after surgery is common. PMID:22203899

  3. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Truumees, E; Herkowitz, H N

    2000-01-01

    Appropriate management of degenerative cervical spine conditions requires careful elucidation of the presenting clinical syndrome. Because of the pervasiveness of degenerative changes in asymptomatic patients, a clear correlation of symptoms, physical signs, and imaging findings is required before any specific diagnosis can be made. At this time, surgery is not recommended for prophylactic decompression in asymptomatic patients or in those patients with neck pain in the absence of extremity symptoms. In most patients with radiculopathy or mild myelopathy, a trial of nonsurgical management is recommended. Ultimately, patients with neurologic complaints and in whom nonsurgical measures have failed, as well as those with more pronounced myelopathy, should be offered surgical intervention. Selection of the safest, yet sufficient, approach requires a clear understanding of the benefits and expected outcomes. The outlook for patients with both cervical radiculopathy and early myelopathy is good. Radicular symptoms usually improve, but gait and hand changes may not. LF is preferred in younger patients with posterolateral or lateral soft disk herniations, or focal foraminal osteophyte impingement and predominance of upper extremity symptoms. More central 1- or 2-level pathology should be treated with ACDF. Anterior cervical corpectomy should be entertained in patients with nondisk level encroachment and in those with 3 contiguous levels of pathology. This approach is also required in cases of kyphosis and instability. Laminoplasty is indicated in patients with 4 or more levels of stenosis, particularly in those with global conditions such as continuous OPLL or congenital stenosis. In these patients, kyphosis or severe deformity may be addressed with a circumferential approach. PMID:10829188

  4. Pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, D N

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether either of two mechanical theories predicts the topographic pattern of neuropathology in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The compression theory states that the spinal cord is compressed between a spondylotic bar anteriorly and the ligamenta flava posteriorly. The dentate tension theory states that the spinal cord is pulled laterally by the dentate ligaments, which are tensed by an anterior spondylotic bar. METHODS: The spinal cord cross section, at the level of a spondylotic bar, is modelled as a circular disc subject to forces applied at its circumference. These forces differ for the two theories. From the pattern of forces at the circumference the distribution of shear stresses in the interior of the disc-that is, over the transverse section of the spinal cord-is calculated. With the assumption that highly stressed areas are most subject to damage, the stress pattern predicted by each theory can be compared to the topographic neuropathology of CSM. RESULTS: The predicted stress pattern of the dentate tension theory corresponds to the reported neuropathology, whereas the predicted stress pattern of the compression theory does not. CONCLUSIONS: The results strongly favour the theory that CSM is caused by tensile stresses transmitted to the spinal cord from the dura via the dentate ligaments. A spondylotic bar can increase dentate tension by displacing the spinal cord dorsally, while the dural attachments of the dentate, anchored by the dural root sleeves and dural ligaments, are displaced less. The spondylotic bar may also increase dentate tension by interfering locally with dural stretch during neck flexion, the resultant increase in dural stress being transmitted to the spinal cord via the dentate ligaments. Flexion of the neck increases dural tension and should be avoided in the conservative treatment of CSM. Both anterior and posterior extradural surgical operations can diminish dentate tension, which may explain their usefulness in CSM. The generality of these results must be tempered by the simplifying assumptions required for the mathematical model. Images PMID:9120444

  5. Cervical Myelopathy Caused by Disc Herniation at the Segment of Existing Osteochondroma in a Patient with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses

    PubMed Central

    Tarukado, Kiyoshi; Senba, Hideyuki; Kitamura, Takahiro; Komiya, Norihiro; Shidahara, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is a benign hereditary disorder characterized by multiple osteochondromas. Osteochondroma appears occasionally in the spinal column as a part of HME. A 37-year-old man presented with a history of HME and cervical compressive myelopathy caused by intraspinal osteochondroma arising from the lamina of the C5 and disc herniation at the C5-6. He was treated by open-door laminoplasty at the C5 and C6 with excision of the tumor. The neurological symptoms were immediately relieved after surgery. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a sufficient decompression of the spinal cord with a spontaneous regression of the herniated disc at one year after surgery. There was no recurrence of the tumor and no appearance of kyphosis and segmental instability of the cervical spine on postoperative imaging studies for three years after surgery. The patient could be successfully treated by laminoplasty with excision of the tumor and without removal of the herniated disc. PMID:25558330

  6. Operative Outcomes for Cervical Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, J. G.; Butler, J. S.; Dolan, A. M.; O'Byrne, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy are common disorders which can lead to significant clinical morbidity. Conservative management, such as physical therapy, cervical immobilisation, or anti-inflammatory medications, is the preferred and often only required intervention. Surgical intervention is reserved for those patients who have intractable pain or progressive neurological symptoms. The goals of surgical treatment are decompression of the spinal cord and nerve roots and deformity prevention by maintaining or supplementing spinal stability and alleviating pain. Numerous surgical techniques exist to alleviate symptoms, which are achieved through anterior, posterior, or circumferential approaches. Under most circumstances, one approach will produce optimal results. It is important that the surgical plan is tailored to address each individual's unique clinical circumstance. The objective of this paper is to analyse the major surgical treatment options for cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy focusing on outcomes and complications. PMID:22046575

  7. Cervical Stenosis, Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the entire cervical spinal cord through two operations: laminectomy and laminoplasty. In both of these operations, the ... portions of the back of the vertebra. In laminectomy, the back of the vertebra is completely removed. ...

  8. Influence of laminectomy on the course of cervical myelopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gorter

    1976-01-01

    Summary The pathogenesis of cervical myelopathy resulting from cervical spondylarthrosis seems to be the result of intermittent compression of the cervical cord and its feeding arteries. In the literature proof is given that both factors play an important role. By laminectomy or ventral fusion a regression of the neurological disability can be obtained. In our series of 75 patients there

  9. [A case of transverse myelopathy caused by acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Yamane, K; Ezima, M; Sugishita, Y; Nozaki, H

    1991-07-01

    A 54-year-old man received insertion of an acupuncture needle into the region extending from the posterior neck to the back on two occasions for the treatment of shoulder stiffness. Two weeks after the second acupuncture, he developed fever, dysarthria and mictionary disturbance, finally reaching the condition of tetraplegia. He was immediately admitted to an emergency room in our hospital, and was diagnosed as sepsis with DIC, ARDS, heart failure, renal failure, liver failure, and myelitis. After one month, he recovered with transverse myelopathy as a residual deficit. Neurological findings showed transverse myelopathy below the level of Th2 at that time. Cervical CT revealed an irregular low density at the periphery of the cervical vertebra from the C2 to C4 level. Cervical MRI revealed an irregular swelling of his spinal cord from the C2 to C7 level. We explained the mechanism of transverse myelopathy in this case as follows. After the acupuncture, he suffered a focal infection of the region of needle insertion, and then the infection expanded to the cervical vertebra, thus causing osteomyelitis, sepsis, and finally cervical myelitis. Direct injury of the spinal cord and nerve roots as a complication of acupuncture was previously reported, but indirect injury of the spinal cord due to myelitis had not been reported except our present case. Careful attentions should be paid to the complications of acupuncture. PMID:1786654

  10. Gait Analysis in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Kenji; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tanaka, Hidetoshi; Shishido, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Gait analysis of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) by using a sheet-type gait analysis system. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the gait patterns of patients with CSM, evaluated by the Nurick grades, and to determine the threshold values of gait parameters predicting the occurrence of a fall by using a gait recorder. Overview of Literature Gait disorder due to CSM may progress to severe paraplegia, following even a minor trauma such as a fall. The indications for the surgery of CSM without severe paralysis remain controversial. The quantitative gait analysis and the decision for decompressive surgery in patients with CSM are important in order to prevent severe paraplegia from a fall. Methods One hundred thirty-two subjects (normal, 34; CSM, 98) underwent gait analysis by using a sensor sheet. Measurements of gait cycle parameters included the step and stride length, step width, foot angle, swing phase, and stance phase. CSM was assessed by Nurick grade. Results Although the clinical symptoms were lacking, Nurick grade 1 had significant abnormalities in the parameters of velocity, step length, and step angle (p<0.05). Regarding the Nurick grade and walking phase, the length of the stance phase was increased to more than 70% of the entire walking cycle in Nurick grade 4. Conclusions Gait analysis was an objective tool for evaluating the gait stability. Our results suggested that when the percentage of the stance phase in the gait cycle increases to above 70%, the CSM patients have an increased fall risk. PMID:26097646

  11. Clinical outcomes of microendoscopic decompression surgery for cervical myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Munehito; Yamada, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yukihiro; Maio, Kazuhiro; Kawai, Masaki; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Retrospective study on the results of microendoscopic decompression surgery for the treatment of cervical myelopathy. The purpose of this study was to describe the microendoscopic laminoplasty (MEL) technique as the surgical method in the treatment of cervical myelopathy, and to document the clinical outcomes for MEL surgery. Endoscopic surgery poses several challenges for the aspiring endoscopic surgeons, the most critical of which is mastering hand–eye coordination. With training in live animal and cadaver surgery, the technical progress has reduced the problem of morbidity following surgery. The authors have performed microendoscopic decompression surgery on more than 2,000 patients for lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Fifty-one patients underwent the posterior decompression surgery using microendoscopy for cervical myelopathy at authors’ institute. The average age was 62.9 years. The criteria for exclusion were cervical myelopathy with tumor, trauma, severe ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, rheumatoid arthritis, pyogenic spondylitises, destructive spondylo-arthropathies, and other combined spinal lesions. The items evaluated were neurological evaluation, recovery rates; these were calculated following examination using the Hirabayashi’s method with the criteria proposed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association scoring system (JOA score). The mean follow-up period was 20.3 months. The average of JOA score was 10.1 points at the initial examination and 13.6 points at the final follow-up. The average recovery rate was 52.5%. The recovery rate according to surgical levels was, respectively, 56.5% in one level, 46.3% in two levels and 54.1% in more than three levels. The complications were as follows: one patient sustained a pin-hole-like dura mater injury inflicted by a high-speed air-drill during surgery, one patient developed an epidural hematoma 3 days after surgery, and two patients had the C5 nerve root palsy after surgery. The epidural hematoma was removed by the microendoscopy. All two C5 palsy improved with conservative therapy, such as a neck collar. These four patients on complications have returned to work at the final follow-up. This observation suggests that the clinical outcomes of microendoscopic surgery for cervical myelopathy were excellent or showed good results. This minimally invasive technique would be helpful in choosing a surgical method for cervical myelopathy. PMID:19956984

  12. Neurological recovery after surgical decompression in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy - a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Y. Cheung; D. Arvinte; Y. W. Wong; K. D. K. Luk; K. M. C. Cheung

    2008-01-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a common clinical problem. No study has examined the pattern of neurological recovery after\\u000a surgical decompression. We conducted a prospective study on the pattern of neurological recovery after surgical decompression\\u000a in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Patients suffering from cervical spondylotic myelopathy and requiring surgical\\u000a decompression from January 1995 to December 2000 were prospectively included. Upper

  13. Surgical results of anterior corpectomy in the aged patients with cervical myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Xiaotao; Li, Yonggang; Kong, Xiangfei

    2008-01-01

    Retrospective study on the results of anterior corpectomy for the treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients over 70 years old. To evaluate the surgical results of anterior corpectomy in aged patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy and to investigate the probable pathomechanism by radiographic study. There are few data focused on the surgical results and post-operative complications of anterior corpectomy in aged patients with cervical myelopathy. Twenty patients 70 years of age or older who underwent anterior corpectomy, titanium mesh cage (TMC) reconstruction and anterior plate fixation for the treatment of compressive cervical myelopathy were reviewed. The average age at the time of operation was 75 years. Neurologic deficits before and after surgery were assessed using a scoring system proposed by the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA Score). Clinical results and post-operative complications were compared with those of patients 69 years old or younger as a control. Pre-operative Radiologic evaluation of every patient consisted of anterior-posterior, lateral, bilateral oblique, flextion, and extension radiographs, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine. Any factor causing spinal cord compression and the sign of cervical instability were recorded. Surgical-related complications occurred in seven patients in the aged group. The incidence of complications was 35% in the aged patient group and 9.7% in the control group respectively. Although the difference was striking, no statistical significance was found between the two groups. One patient died of respiratory failure resulting from pulmonary infection. The mortality rate was 5%. The pre-operative mean JOA score was 9.3 (from 3 to 14) in the aged patient group. Nineteen patients were followed at least 2 years and the mean JOA score was 13.4 (from 8 to 17). 68.4% of the aged patients achieved a good or excellent result. There was no statistical difference in the recovery rate of JOA score between the aged group (58.1%) and control group (67.0%). In the pre-operative radiographs, the incidence of cervical instability was much higher in the control group (32%) than in the aged group (5%) and multilevel cord compression caused by posterior disc space osteophytes was more common in the aged group. Anterior corpectomy combined with TMC fusion and plate fixation provides favorable neurologic recovery even in the patients over 70 years old. However, the incidence of surgical related complications shows a conspicuous increasing in the aged patients. Overcompensation mechanism for cervical instability is the probable cause of degenerative cervical spondylotic myelopathy in aged patients. PMID:17972117

  14. Cervical myelopathy induced by pseudogout in ligamentum flavum and retro-odontoid mass: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S-H Lin; E-T Hsieh; T-Y Wu; C-W Chang

    2006-01-01

    Study design:Retrospective case study.Objectives:Report a rare case of cervical myelopathy induced by calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate (CPPD) deposition in multiple cervical levels.Setting:An area teaching hospital in Taiwan.Method:A patient with cervical myelopathy was evaluated by computerized tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance (MR) image. CPPD deposition known as pseudogout was diagnosed and approved by a polarized microscope.Result:A prominent hypertrophy of ligmentum flavum

  15. Anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis of the cervical spine in cervical spondylotic myelopathy in the elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motohiro Kawasaki; Toshikazu Tani; Takahiro Ushida; Kenji Ishida

    2007-01-01

    Background  Degenerative spondylolisthesis of the cervical spine has received insufficient attention in contrast to that of the lumbar\\u000a spine. The authors analyzed the functional significance of anterior and posterior degenerative spondylolisthesis (anterolisthesis\\u000a and retrolisthesis) of the cervical spine to elucidate its role in the development of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM)\\u000a in the elderly.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 79 patients aged 65 or

  16. Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting as Cervical Myelopathy: A Rapid Recovery with Balloon Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Modi, Manish, E-mail: modim72@yahoo.co [PGIMER, Department of Neurology (India); Bapuraj, J. Rajiv [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology (United States); Lal, Anupam [PGIMER, Department of Radiodiagnosis (India); Prabhakar, S. [PGIMER, Department of Neurology (India); Khandelwal, N. [PGIMER, Department of Radiodiagnosis (India)

    2010-12-15

    A 24-year-old male presented with progressive cervical myelopathy of 2 months' duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and angiography revealed a large arteriovenous fistula arising from the left vertebral artery. The present case highlights the clinical features and dramatic recovery following endovascular balloon occlusion of a giant cervical arteriovenous fistula.

  17. Surgical results of anterior corpectomy in the aged patients with cervical myelopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Lu; Xiaotao Wu; Yonggang Li; Xiangfei Kong

    2008-01-01

    Retrospective study on the results of anterior corpectomy for the treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients over 70 years\\u000a old. To evaluate the surgical results of anterior corpectomy in aged patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy and to investigate\\u000a the probable pathomechanism by radiographic study. There are few data focused on the surgical results and post-operative complications\\u000a of anterior corpectomy in aged

  18. Cervical myelopathy due to chronic overshunting in a pediatric patient: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Nils Harry-Bert; Maier, Matthias; Bernays, Rene-Ludwig; Krayenbuhl, Niklaus; Kollias, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    We present a rare cause of cervical myelopathy produced by an engorged suboccipital epidural venous plexus due to chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) overdrainage. A 17-year-old boy with obstructive hydrocephalus due to a retrocerebellar cyst and secondary implantation of a ventricloperitoneal shunt (VP-shunt) presented with progressive spastic tetraparesis. MRI imaging revealed myelopathy due to significant compression of the cervical spinal cord by engorged epidural veins. Further assessment at a low-pressure setting revealed a broken shunt valve. The VP-shunt valve was changed with an additional anti-siphon device leading to a gradual increase of the intracranial pressure (ICP). After intensive physiotherapy, the patient showed slight clinical improvement. Follow-up imaging within nine days showed distinct regression of the dilated venous plexus at the cranial-cervical junction (CCJ) with the resolution of cord compression. Engorgement of the epidural venous plexus should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of myelopathy in long-term shunt patients even when classical clinical and radiological signs of overshunting are missing. PMID:23756987

  19. Treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome: outcomes and implications

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Ruth E.; Shade-Zeldow, Yvonne; Kostas, Konstantinos; Morrissey, Mary; Elias, Dean A.; Shepard, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Some patients with fibromyalgia also exhibit the neurological signs of cervical myelopathy. We sought to determine if treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with fibromyalgia improves the symptoms of fibromyalgia and the patients’ quality of life. A non-randomized, prospective, case control study comparing the outcome of surgical (n = 40) versus non-surgical (n = 31) treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with fibromyalgia was conducted. Outcomes were compared using SF-36, screening test for somatization, HADS, MMPI-2 scale 1 (Hypochondriasis), and self reported severity of symptoms 1 year after treatment. There was no significant difference in initial clinical presentation or demographic characteristics between the patients treated by surgical decompression and those treated by non-surgical means. There was a striking and statistically significant improvement in all symptoms attributed to the fibromyalgia syndrome in the surgical patients but not in the non-surgical patients at 1 year following the treatment of cervical myelopathy (P ? 0.018–0.001, Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test). At the 1 year follow-up, there was a statistically significant improvement in both physical and mental quality of life as measured by the SF-36 score for the surgical group as compared to the non-surgical group (Repeated Measures ANOVA P < 0.01). There was a statistically significant improvement in the scores from Scale 1 of the MMPI-2 and the screening test for somatization disorder, and the anxiety and depression scores exclusively in the surgical patients (Wilcoxon signed rank, P < 0.001). The surgical treatment of cervical myelopathy due to spinal cord or caudal brainstem compression in patients carrying the diagnosis of fibromyalgia can result in a significant improvement in a wide array of symptoms usually attributed to fibromyalgia with attendant measurable improvements in the quality of life. We recommend detailed neurological and neuroradiological evaluation of patients with fibromyalgia in order to exclude compressive cervical myelopathy, a potentially treatable condition. PMID:17426987

  20. Intramedullary Sarcoidosis Presenting with Delayed Spinal Cord Swelling after Cervical Laminoplasty for Compressive Cervical Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Du Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology that may affect any organ in the body. The nervous system is involved in 5-16% of cases of sarcoidosis. Here, we report a case of intramedullary sarcoidosis presenting with delayed spinal cord swelling after laminoplasty for the treatment of compressive cervical myelopathy. A 56-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of upper extremity pain and gait disturbance. The patient had undergone laminoplasty for compressive cervical myelopathy 3 months previously. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large solitary intramedullary lesion with associated extensive cord swelling, signal changes, and heterogeneous enhancement of spinal cord from C2 to C7. Spinal cord biopsy revealed non-necrotizing granulomas with signs of chronic inflammation. The final diagnosis of sarcoidosis was based upon laboratory data, imaging findings, histological findings, and the exclusion of other diagnoses. Awareness of such presentations and a high degree of suspicion of sarcoidosis may help arrive at the correct diagnosis. PMID:25535524

  1. Surgical Treatment of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Associated Hypertension—A Retrospective Study of 309 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wen-yu; Wang, Xia; Chen, Bin; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Nie, Lin; Cheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease, and various risk factors are known to be involved in it. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common non-traumatic cause of myelopathy, which displays neurological symptoms and may induce systemic symptoms. To date, it is still unknown whether CSM is associated with hypertension, and if so, whether the decompression operations can attenuate CSM associated hypertension. Here, a total of 309 patients with CSM who received anterior or posterior decompression surgery were enrolled as subjects. Blood pressure measurements were performed before and within one week after the surgery. Among the 309 subjects, 144 (46.6%) of them exhibited hypertension before surgery, a significantly higher ratio than that of the whole population. One week after surgery, blood pressure of 106 (73.6%) patients turned back to normal. Blood pressure of another 37(25.7%) patients decreased with different degrees, although still higher than normal. Moreover, it appears that both approaches were effective in improving blood pressure, while the posterior approach was more effective in decreasing systolic blood pressure. We speculate this type of hypertension might result from hyperactivity of sympathetic nervous system as the heart rate of these patients decreased after surgery as well. Collectively, compression of spinal cord in CSM patients might be associated with hypertension, and decompression surgery largely attenuated this type of hypertension. These findings prove CSM to be a potential associated factor of high blood pressure and may shed light on therapies of hypertension in clinics. PMID:26193469

  2. Aggressive vertebral hemangioma as a rare cause of myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Sari, Hidayet; Uludag, Murat; Akarirmak, Ulku; Ornek, Nurettin Irem; Gun, Kerem; Gulsen, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are common lesions in the adult population. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally on radiological imaging. New-onset back pain followed by subacute progression of thoracal myelopathy is the most common presentation in patients with neurological deficit. Differential diagnoses would include metastasis, multiple myeloma, lymphoma, Paget disease, osseous tumors such as Ewing sarcoma or hemangioblastoma and blood dyscrasia. We present a 41 year-old-male patient with thoracal VH causing myelopathy that completely improved after rehabilitation program with embolization and vertebroplasty procedures. PMID:23948851

  3. Cervical myelopathy in athetoid and dystonic cerebral palsy: retrospective study and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Rech, Celia; Garreau de Loubresse, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The early onset of degenerative cervical lesions has been well described in patients suffering from athetoid or dystonic cerebral palsy. Myelopathy can occur and aggravate of their unstable neurological status. Diagnosis and treatment are delayed and disrupted by the abnormal movements. This retrospective study was implemented to evaluate the symptoms, the anatomical findings, and the surgical management of seven patients from 20 to 56 years old suffering from cervical myelopathy and athetoid or dystonic cerebral palsy. The mean delay in diagnosis was 15 months and the mean follow-up was 33 months. The initial symptoms were spasticity, limbs weakness, paresthesias and vesico-sphinteric dysfunction. In addition to abnormal movements, imaging demonstrated disc herniation, spinal stenosis and instability. All patients were managed surgically by performing simultaneous spinal cord decompression and fusion. Two patients benefited from preoperative botulinum toxin injections, which facilitated postoperative care and immobilization. Strict postoperative immobilization was achieved for 3 months by a Philadelphia collar or a cervico-thoracic orthosis. All patients improved functionally with a mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association score gain of 1.5 points, in spite of the permanent disabilities of the myelopathy. Complications occurred with wound infection, metal failure and relapse of cervical myelopathy at an adjacent level in one case each. All the previous authors advised against isolated laminectomy but no consensus emerged from the literature analysis. Spinal fusion is usually recommended but can be complicated by degenerative adjacent deterioration. Surgical management provides good outcomes but requires a long-term follow-up. PMID:20066444

  4. Neuropsychological improvement in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy after posterior decompression surgery.

    PubMed

    Hoshimaru, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    Patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy sometimes complain of cognitive dysfunction, which may be coincidence. However, cognitive dysfunction may be related to disorders of the cervical spine and/or spinal cord. This study investigated cognitive dysfunction in patients with cervical spinal disorders. A total of 79 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (40 women and 39 men, mean age 61.2 years) underwent cervical laminoplasty between January 2006 and July 2007. Ten of these 79 patients (7 women and 3 men, mean age 65.2 years) complained of moderate to severe memory disturbances. These 10 patients underwent neuroimaging studies and a battery of neuropsychological tests consisting of the mini-mental state examination, Kohs Block Design Test, Miyake Memory Test, Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and "kana-hiroi" test before and 3 months after surgery. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no organic brain lesions in the 10 patients, but single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated reduced regional cerebral blood flow in the posterior cortical areas in eight patients before surgery. Neuropsychological test scores showed statistically significant improvement after surgery in the Kohs Block Design Test and the BVRT, which measure visuospatial perception and reflect the function of the parietal and/or occipital lobes (p < 0.05). The practice effect may have contributed to the neuropsychological improvements, but this study suggests that cervical spinal disorders may affect cognitive functions and that surgical treatment can ameliorate such effects. PMID:20671380

  5. A case of 'tropical' myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Laureys, G; Chaskis, C; Bourgain, C; Stadnik, T; Dielman, C; Ebinger, G

    2007-12-01

    We present a case of lower limb sensory disturbances and weakness in a patient originating from Mali. MRI showed a diffuse myelopathy of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Serological evaluation of blood and cerebrospinal fluid pointed towards schistosomiasis as the cause. Histological confirmation was made on bladder-biopsy. Treatment with praziquantel and steroids brought marked clinical improvement. This case illustrates the need to keep in mind more exotic causes of myelopathy in those patients coming from endemic regions. PMID:18416289

  6. Cervical myelopathy from retro-odontoid calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate mass: a case report.

    PubMed

    Luksanapruksa, Panya; Chotivichit, Areesak; Wilartratsami, Sirichai

    2013-10-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease is one of the most common forms of crystal-associated arthropathy in the elderly. However, cervical spine is rarely affected, especially in upper cervical area. There have been previous reported cases of symptomatic retro-odontoid CPPD deposition disease in English literature but this case is the first reported in Thai patients. This is a case report of a 67-year-old man who presented with neck pain with progressive myelopathy. Neurologic examination demonstrated a cervical myelopathy with muscle weakness and sensory disturbance of both extremities. Imaging studies showed extradural retro-odontoid mass compressing the spinal cord. The patient underwent occiput to C3 fusion with plating, posterior arch of atlas resection, transoral odontoidectomy, and mass removal. Histological examination of the mass revealed fibrocartilage tissue and rhomboid shaped crystals that showed positive biferingent in polarized light microscopy consistent with CPPD crystals. After surgery, no complication was found, and his neurological function had improved. PMID:24350422

  7. MRI findings in Hirayama’s disease: flexion-induced cervical myelopathy or intrinsic motor neuron disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf Schröder; Ewald Keller; Sebastian Flacke; Stephan Schmidt; Christoph Pohl; Thomas Klockgether; Uwe Schlegel

    1999-01-01

    Hirayama’s disease is a benign juvenile form of focal amyotrophy affecting the upper limbs. Previous studies have suggested\\u000a that the disorder is a neck flexion induced cervical myelopathy. We report clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings\\u000a in nine patients with Hirayama’s disease. Cervical imaging of seven patients revealed spinal cord changes consisting of focal\\u000a atrophy and foci of signal alterations.

  8. Is there a benefit to operating on patients (bedridden or in wheelchairs) with advanced stage cervical spondylotic myelopathy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizio Borges Scardino; Leonardo Poubel Rocha; Alécio Cristino Evangelista Santos Barcelos; José Marcus Rotta; Ricardo Vieira Botelho

    2010-01-01

    Surgical treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) aims to prevent or delay the progression of the disease. Many\\u000a patients are diagnosed in advanced stages of the disease, presenting severe functional disability and extensive radiologic\\u000a changes, which suggests clinical irreversibility. There are doubts about the real benefit of surgery in patients who are seriously\\u000a ill, bedridden or in a wheelchair. The

  9. Characterizing Thalamocortical Disturbances in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: Revealed by Functional Connectivity under Two Slow Frequency Bands

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fuqing; Wu, Lin; Liu, Xiaojia; Gong, Honghan; Luk, Keith Dip-Kei; Hu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Recent advanced MRI studies on cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) revealed alterations of sensorimotor cortex, but the disturbances of large-scale thalamocortical systems remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to characterizing the CSM-related thalamocortical disturbances, which were associated with spinal cord structural injury, and clinical measures. Methods A total of 17 patients with degenerative CSM and well-matched control subjects participated. Thalamocortical disturbances were quantified using thalamus seed-based functional connectivity in two distinct low frequencies bands (slow-5 and slow-4), with different neural manifestations. The clinical measures were evaluated by Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score system and Neck Disability Index (NDI) questionnaires. Results Decreased functional connectivity was found in the thalamo-motor, -somatosensory, and -temporal circuits in the slow-5 band, indicating impairment of thalamo-cortical circuit degeneration or axon/synaptic impairment. By contrast, increased functional connectivity between thalami and the bilateral primary motor (M1), primary and secondary somatosensory (S1/S2), premotor cortex (PMC), and right temporal cortex was detected in the slow-4 band, and were associated with higher fractional anisotropy values in the cervical cord, corresponding to mild spinal cord structural injury. Conclusions These thalamocortical disturbances revealed by two slow frequency bands inform basic understanding and vital clues about the sensorimotor dysfunction in CSM. Further work is needed to evaluate its contribution in central functional reorganization during spinal cord degeneration. PMID:26053316

  10. Cervical Klippel-Feil syndrome predisposing an elderly African man to central cord myelopathy following minor trauma.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, A Olufemi; Akinyemi, R Olusola

    2010-09-01

    An otherwise-healthy, active 83-year-old Nigerian man developed reversible central cord myelopathy from a mild fall on a level surface. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed C5, 6, and 7 block vertebrae and marked disc extrusions only at the immediately adjoining upper and lower non-fused segments of the cervical spine. There was no spinal canal stenosis otherwise. We think that the unique presentation of this case of Klippel-Feil syndrome further supports the impression that following fusion (congenital or acquired) of one segment of the spinal column, hypermobility of the non-fused adjoining segments may strongly predispose to more disc extrusions. PMID:21327144

  11. Progressive Myelopathy in a Dog Caused by Thorium Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Lord, L. H.; Robinson, G. A.

    1965-01-01

    A study of the use of Thorotrast as a contrast media in myelograms in dogs is presented, indicating that the material introduced into the cerebro-spinal fluid, will become permanently associated with the meninges, leading to the development of myelopathy. ImagesFig. 1 (a)Fig. 1 (b).Fig. 1 (c).Fig. 1 (d).Fig. 2a.FIG. 2b.FIG. 3a.FIG. 3b.FIG. 4.FIG. 5. PMID:4221911

  12. Dorsal laminectomy for treatment of cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Barker, W H J; Witte, T H; Driver, C J; Jull, P; Whitehead, C E; Volk, H A

    2015-05-15

    Case Description-An 11-year-old male breeding alpaca was evaluated for a 2-day history of lowered head carriage and lethargy. Clinical Findings-On initial examination, the alpaca had signs of lethargy and lowered carriage of the head and neck, but no specific neurologic deficits. Medical management improved the clinical signs, but 8 months later, the alpaca developed acute, progressive general proprioceptive ataxia affecting all 4 limbs and was referred for further evaluation and treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging and CT identified disruption of the normal osseous architecture of C7 and T1. Medical management was attempted, but because of a lack of improvement, the patient underwent surgery 14 months after initial examination. Treatment and Outcome-A dorsal laminectomy of C7 and T1 via a dorsal midline approach was performed, and the spinous processes of both vertebrae were removed prior to removal of the overlying lamina. Free dorsal expansion of the spinal cord was ensured by resection of the ligamentum flavum. Six months after surgery, the alpaca had returned to successful breeding with 7 hembra bred in the first year after surgery, producing 6 crias, and 4 crias in the second year. The patient was eventually euthanized 28 months after surgery because of neurologic deterioration but was still ambulatory at that time. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-A good outcome with adequate alleviation of clinical signs and breeding soundness for > 2 years following dorsal laminectomy was achieved in this camelid patient. The surgical approach was similar to that in other species and was associated with mild postoperative morbidity. Veterinarians treating camelids should be aware of the initial clinical signs and treatment options for cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy. In acute cases, the signs of reduced cervical mobility and pain on manipulation should prompt investigation including appropriate diagnostic imaging. Timely surgical intervention should be considered in patients that respond poorly to medical treatment to avoid irreversible spinal cord injury and optimize outcome. PMID:25932939

  13. MR Classification System Based on Axial Images for Cervical Compressive Myelopathy.

    PubMed

    You, Ja Yeon; Lee, Joon Woo; Lee, Eugene; Lee, Guen Young; Yeom, Jin S; Kang, Heung Sik

    2015-08-01

    Purpose To propose a new magnetic resonance (MR) classification system based on axial images for cervical compressive myelopathy (CCM) (Ax-CCM system), to assess the interobserver agreement with the Ax-CCM system, and to evaluate the relationship between Ax-CCM patterns and the baseline severity of CCM and the subsequent surgical outcome. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. A total of 202 patients (male-to-female ratio, 128:84; mean age ± standard deviation, 56.3 years ± 11.9; age range, 24-83 years) with CCM who underwent preoperative MR imaging and decompression surgery were retrospectively evaluated. The Ax-CCM pattern was based on the margin and extent of intramedullary hyperintensity on axial T2-weighted images, as follows; type 0 = normal, type 1 = diffuse, type 2 = fuzzy focal, and type 3 = discrete focal. Interobserver variability was analyzed by using the intraclass correlation coefficient across three readers. The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and the postoperative improvement (good vs little improvement) were evaluated according to the Ax-CCM pattern by using one-way analysis of variance, the ?(2) test, and the Fisher exact test. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient for the Ax-CCM system was 0.83. The preoperative JOA score was significantly different according to Ax-CCM pattern across all readers (P < .05), with the type 2 pattern showing the worst preoperative JOA score (mean, 11.6 ± 3.1 for readers A and C and 11.7 ± 2.9 for reader B). The proportion of good improvement was significantly lower with the type 2 pattern (27 of 72 patients, 37%) than with the other patterns (64 of 123 patients, 52%) (P = .034). Conclusion The Ax-CCM system showed good interobserver agreement, and the type 2 pattern was correlated with poor preoperative neurologic status and less postoperative improvement. (©) RSNA, 2015. PMID:25906184

  14. Perioperative Risks Associated with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Based on Surgical Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Macagno, Angel; Liu, Shian; Marascalchi, Bryan J; Yang, Sun; Boniello, Anthony J; Bendo, John A; Lafage, Virginie C

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have provided nationwide estimates of patient characteristics and procedure-related complications, or examined postsurgical outcomes for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) comparatively with respect to surgical approach. The objective of this study is to identify patients at risk for morbidity and mortality directly related with the selected approach, report an overall nation-wide complication rate for each approach against which surgeons can compare themselves, and direct future research to improve patient outcomes. Methods Patients surgically treated for CSM were retrospectively identified using ICD-9-CM codes from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. Four cohorts were compared for demographics and hospital system-related data: anterior (ACDF, ACCF), posterior decompression without fusion, decompression with posterior fusion, and combined anterior-posterior. Multivariate analysis was also used to determine the odds ratio of morbidity and mortality among the cohorts. Results 54,416 discharges were identified between 2001 and 2010: 34,400 anterior, 9,014 decompression procedures without fusion, 8,741 decompression procedures with posterior fusion, and 2,261 combined anterior-posterior. Groups were statistically different with respect to age, length of hospital stay, mortality, and complications. Groups were statistically different for Deyo score except between posterior decompression only and combined approaches. Using multivariate analysis and adjusting for covariates, the combined (2.74[2.18-3.44]) and laminectomy (1.22[1.04-1.44]) cohorts had an increased risk of mortality when compared to anterior alone. Conclusion These findings are the first to determine the rates and odds of perioperative risks directly related to combined anterior-posterior procedures. This study provides clinically useful data for surgeons to educate patients and direct future research to improve patient outcomes. PMID:26196031

  15. The role of smoking status and collagen IX polymorphisms in the susceptibility to cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z C; Shi, J G; Chen, X S; Xu, G H; Li, L J; Jia, L S

    2012-01-01

    We investigated a possible association of collagen IX tryptophan (Trp) alleles (Trp2 and Trp3) and smoking with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) in 172 Chinese patients and 176 age- and gender-matched controls. The smoking status was evaluated by smoking index (SI). The CSM cases had a significantly higher prevalence of Trp2 alleles (Trp2+) than controls (19.8 vs 6.2%, P = 0.002), but the prevalence of Trp3 alleles (Trp3+) was similar between the two groups (23.3 vs 21.6%, P = 0.713). Logistic regression analyses showed that the subjects with Trp2+ had a higher risk for CSM. We thus analyzed whether smoking status influenced the association between Trp2 alleles and CSM risk. Among Trp2+ subjects with an SI less than 100, the smoking status did not influence the effect of risk for SCM [odds ratio (OR) = 1.34, 95% confidential interval (95%CI) = 0.85-2.18, P > 0.05]. When SI increased from 101 to 300, the OR for CSM reached 3.34 (95%CI = 2.11-5.67, P = 0.011); when SI was more than 300, the OR for CSM reached 5.56 (95%CI = 3.62-7.36, P < 0.001). Among Trp2- subjects with SI more than 300, the OR for CSM increased 2.14 (95%CI = 1.15-4.07, P = 0.024). We found a significant association between the Trp2 alleles and CSM risk and smoking amplifies this risk, suggesting that smoking abstinence is important for reducing CSM occurrence in subjects with high genetic risk. PMID:22614351

  16. A Comparison of Computed Tomography Measures for Diagnosing Cervical Spinal Stenosis Associated with Myelopathy: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoffler, C Edward; Cameron, Brian M; Rhee, John M; Bawa, Maneesh; Malone, David G; Bent, Melissa; Yoon, Tim S

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective comparative study. Purpose To assess differences in computed tomography (CT) imaging parameters between patients with cervical myelopathy and controls. Overview of Literature There is a lack of information regarding the best predictor of symptomatic stenosis based on osseous canal dimensions. We postulate that smaller osseous canal dimensions increase the risk of symptomatic central stenosis. Methods CT images and medical records of patients with cervical myelopathy (19 patients, 8 males; average age, 64.4±13.4 years) and controls (18 patients, 14 males; average age, 60.4±11.0 years) were collected. A new measure called the laminar roof pitch angle (=angle between the lamina) was conducted along with linear measures, ratios and surrogates of canal perimeter and area at each level C2-C7 (222 levels). Receiver-operator curves were used to assess the diagnostic value of each. Rater reliability was assessed for the measures. Results The medial-lateral (ML) diameter (at mid-pedicle level) and calculated canal area (=anterior-posterior.×ML diameters) were the most accurate and highly reliable. ML diameter below 23.5 mm and calculated canal area below 300 mm2 generated 82% to 84% sensitivity and 67% to 68% sensitivity. No significant correlations were identified between age, height, weight, body mass in dex and gender for each of the CT measures. Conclusions CT measures including ML dimensions were most predictive. This study is the first to identify an important role for the ML dimension in cases of slowly progressive compressive myelopathy. A ML reserve may be protective when the canal is progressively compromised in the anterior-posterior dimension. PMID:25705331

  17. Is there any relationship between proinflammatory mediator levels in disc material and myelopathy with cervical disc herniation and spondylosis? A non-randomized, prospective clinical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Nusret Demircan; Alparslan Asir; Ahmet Cetinkal; Nursal Gedik; Ahmet Murat Kutlay; Ahmet Çolak; Sedat Kurtar; Hakan Simsek

    2007-01-01

    The proinflammatory mediator (PIM) levels were assessed in surgically removed samples of herniated cervical intervertebral\\u000a discs. The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a correlation between the levels of PIMs in disc material\\u000a and myelopathy associated with cervical intervertebral disc herniation and spondylosis. The role of proinflammatory mediators\\u000a in the degeneration of intervertebral disc and the

  18. Cervical Myelopathy Secondary to Atlanto-occipital Assimilation: The Usefulness of the Simple Decompressive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kang Rae; Kim, Young Zoon; Cho, Yong Woon; Kim, Joon Soo; Kim, Kyu Hong; Lee, In Chang

    2013-01-01

    Atlanto-occipital assimilation is one of the most common osseous anomalies observed at the craniocervical junction. Most patients with atlas assimilation show no symptom, but some have neurological problems such as myelopathy that may require surgical treatment. Occipitocervical fusion may be required if atlato-occipital assimilation is accompanied by occipito-axial instability. However, in cases of symptomatic atlas assimilation with minor cord compression without instability, simple decompressive surgery may be the treatment modality. This report describes a case of successful treatment of a patient with myelopathy secondary to atlanto-occipital assimilation without instability, using posterior simple decompressive surgery. PMID:24757486

  19. Cervical Myelopathy Secondary to Atlanto-occipital Assimilation: The Usefulness of the Simple Decompressive Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang Rae; Lee, Young Min; Kim, Young Zoon; Cho, Yong Woon; Kim, Joon Soo; Kim, Kyu Hong; Lee, In Chang

    2013-09-01

    Atlanto-occipital assimilation is one of the most common osseous anomalies observed at the craniocervical junction. Most patients with atlas assimilation show no symptom, but some have neurological problems such as myelopathy that may require surgical treatment. Occipitocervical fusion may be required if atlato-occipital assimilation is accompanied by occipito-axial instability. However, in cases of symptomatic atlas assimilation with minor cord compression without instability, simple decompressive surgery may be the treatment modality. This report describes a case of successful treatment of a patient with myelopathy secondary to atlanto-occipital assimilation without instability, using posterior simple decompressive surgery. PMID:24757486

  20. Cervical myelopathy due to single level disc herniation presenting as intramedullary mass lesion: What to do first?

    PubMed

    Ek?i, Murat ?akir; Özcan Ek?i, Emel Ece; Y?lmaz, Baran; Tokta?, Zafer Orkun; Konya, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Cervical myelopathy (CM) is mostly a degenerative process ending in myelopathic and/or radiculopathic syndromes. On T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CM appears as a hyperintense area near the spondylotic spine. This high intensity signal depends on the impact of outer forces and their duration. It also determines the prognosis of the surgical candidate. A 40-year-old male patient admitted to our clinic with right upper extremity weakness and hypoesthesia that had started 2 months earlier. On neurological examination there was 2/5 motor weakness of right biceps brachii, and hypoesthesia over right C6 dermatome. Right upper extremity deep tendon reflexes were hypoactive, but lower ones were hyperactive. After clinical and radiological work-up, preliminary diagnosis was directed to a spinal intramedullary tumor. Total resection of the herniated cervical disc fragment and the mass lesion was managed. Pathology of the mass lesion was compatible with subacute infarct tissue and inflammatory response. Final diagnosis was CM under effect of cervical disc herniation. Contrast-enhanced spinal cord myelopathic lesions are very rare and resemble much more tumors and inflammatory processes. However, the principal treatment approach totally differs depending on pathology. When there are both a disc herniation and a high clinical suspicion; biopsy should be delayed. The most probable solution will be surgery for the disc disease with thorough preoperative scanning of vascular malformations; clinical and radiological close follow-up after surgery. Biopsy or surgical resection can be performed if patient deteriorates despite the primary surgery. PMID:25972718

  1. Laminoplasty versus laminectomy and fusion for multilevel cervical myelopathy: a meta-analysis of clinical and radiological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Jaebong; Kang, James D; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Posterior cervical surgery, expansive laminoplasty (EL) or laminectomy followed by fusion (LF), is usually performed in patients with multilevel (? 3) cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). However, the superiority of either of these techniques is still open to debate. The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes and postoperative kyphosis in patients undergoing EL versus LF by performing a meta-analysis. METHODS Included in the meta-analysis were all studies of EL versus LF in adults with multilevel CSM in MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane library. A random-effects model was applied to pool data using the mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, such as the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) grade, the cervical curvature index (CCI), and the visual analog scale (VAS) score for neck pain. RESULTS Seven studies comprising 302 and 290 patients treated with EL and LF, respectively, were included in the final analyses. Both treatment groups showed slight cervical lordosis and moderate neck pain in the baseline state. Both groups were similarly improved in JOA grade (MD 0.09, 95% CI -0.37 to 0.54, p = 0.07) and neck pain VAS score (MD -0.33, 95% CI -1.50 to 0.84, p = 0.58). Both groups evenly lost cervical lordosis. In the LF group lordosis seemed to be preserved in long-term follow-up studies, although the difference between the 2 treatment groups was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Both EL and LF lead to clinical improvement and loss of lordosis evenly. There is no evidence to support EL over LF in the treatment of multilevel CSM. Any superiority between EL and LF remains in question, although the LF group shows favorable long-term results. PMID:25815808

  2. Neck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    , such a sport injury or motor vehicle accident. More common and less dramatic causes include reaching or pulling trauma to head occurred or headache is severe. This side effect will resolve in time. Most injuriesNeck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES: Neck pain may be triggered by a specific event

  3. Use of electrical stimulation and exercise to increase muscle strength in a patient after surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Donna

    2010-02-01

    Current literature offers little research on the restoration of function in patients following anterior decompression surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. This case report describes the functional outcomes for a physical therapy program using a protocol of alternate day electrical stimulation to hip and knee extensor muscles along with exercise. The protocol, designed to increase lower extremity strength necessary for ambulation in a patient who was status post anterior cervical decompression and fusion surgery, consisted of treatment sessions five times per week for 6 weeks and included electrical stimulation [medium frequency alternating current (MFAC)] in conjunction with active range of motion exercises, followed by functional mobility training and gait training. Outcome measures included Manual Muscle testing, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injuries (WISCI). Improvement was demonstrated in all three measures following the use of the treatment regimen, suggesting there may be a benefit to the use of electrical stimulation and exercise to increase lower extremity strength and improve gait outcomes in this population. Definitive conclusions regarding the correlation between this treatment protocol and the outcomes achieved are limited by the case report design. Carefully designed research studies are needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the protocol. PMID:20067363

  4. [Cervical myelopathy after low grade distortion of the cervical spine. Possible association with pre-existing spondylosis of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Aurich, M; Hofmann, G O; Gras, F M

    2015-04-01

    A patient with spondylosis deformans of the cervical spine with no neurological deficits developed rapidly progressive tetraparesis 1 day after a whiplash injury due to a car accident (rear end collision), although initially there were no clinical symptoms. Surgical decompression and spondylodesis led to relief of the neurological deficits. This case demonstrates that even a low grade whiplash injury (grade 1) can cause severe neurological symptoms later and that a degenerative disease of the spine is a predisposing factor. PMID:25336350

  5. Myelopathy Caused by Spinal Dural Arterio-Venous Fistula after First Lumbar Vertebral Body Fracture - A Case Report -

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin-Woo; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Joo, Young-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Song, Sun-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula is a rare vascular lesion of the spinal cord associated with progressive myelopathy. Symptoms include progressive gait dysfunction, weakness, sensory loss, and bowel and bladder dysfunction. Because these symptoms overlap with other common causes of myelopathy and the disease is rare, spinal dural arteriovenous fistula is often not suspected and the time to diagnosis is long. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with progressive lower limb weakness and gait disturbance diagnosed as spinal dural arteriovenous fistula involving a fractured L1 vertebral body. PMID:22506198

  6. Increased Low-Frequency Oscillation Amplitude of Sensorimotor Cortex Associated with the Severity of Structural Impairment in Cervical Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fuqing; Gong, Honghan; Liu, Xiaojia; Wu, Lin; Luk, Keith Dip-Kei; Hu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Decreases in metabolites and increased motor-related, but decreased sensory-related activation of the sensorimotor cortex (SMC) have been observed in patients with cervical myelopathy (CM) using advanced MRI techniques. However, the nature of intrinsic neuronal activity in the SMC, and the relationship between cerebral function and structural damage of the spinal cord in patients with CM are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to assess intrinsic neuronal activity by calculating the regional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), and correlations with clinical and imaging indices. Nineteen patients and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects underwent rs-fMRI scans. ALFF measurements were performed in the SMC, a key brain network likely to impaired or reorganized patients with CM. Compared with healthy subjects, increased amplitude of cortical low-frequency oscillations (LFO) was observed in the right precentral gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, and left supplementary motor area. Furthermore, increased z-ALFF values in the right precentral gyrus and right postcentral gyrus correlated with decreased fractional anisotropy values at the C2 level, which indicated increased intrinsic neuronal activity in the SMC corresponding to the structural impairment in the spinal cord of patients with CM. These findings suggest a complex and diverging relationship of cortical functional reorganization and distal spinal anatomical compression in patients with CM and, thus, add important information in understanding how spinal cord integrity may be a factor in the intrinsic covariance of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations of BOLD signals involved in cortical plasticity. PMID:25111566

  7. Optic neuropathy, myelopathy, anemia, and neutropenia caused by acquired copper deficiency after gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Yarandi, Shadi S; Griffith, Daniel P; Sharma, Rahul; Mohan, Arun; Zhao, Vivian M; Ziegler, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    Malabsorptive bariatric surgery is rapidly becoming a major cause of copper deficiency given the increasing prevalence of these procedures for morbid obesity. Acquired copper deficiency can present with clinically significant hematologic and neurological manifestations. Although hematologic manifestations of copper deficiency are rapidly reversible, significant neurological improvement after copper supplementation therapy is unusual and many patients remain debilitated and may only experience, at best, stabilization of the neurological manifestations. Here we present a case of an undiagnosed copper deficiency several years after bariatric gastric bypass surgery, in a patient who concomitantly used zinc-containing denture cream for several years, associated with anemia, neutropenia, myelopathy, respiratory failure, and bilateral optic neuropathy, which caused major vision loss. This patient was also a heterozygote carrier of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C gene polymorphism, which may affect copper metabolism. Intravenous copper repletion resulted in rapid correction of hematologic indices. However, neurological manifestations, including vision loss responded only modestly to copper supplementation, despite achieving normal blood copper concentrations. Clinicians should consider copper deficiency in patients at risk, as in this case, as a delayed diagnosis can lead to irreversible disability due to neurological manifestations. PMID:24583748

  8. Embolization followed by surgery for treatment of perimedullary arteriovenous fistula causing acute myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, I-Han; Lee, Han-Chung; Yen, Pao-Sheng; Cho, Der-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is rare. There are three subtypes, and the treatment strategies for each are different. Subtype B (multiple fistulas) can be treated by either embolization or surgery. On the basis of a case from our treatment experience, we propose a method for achieving optimal outcome while minimizing nerve injury. Case Description: A 51-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with acute myelopathy caused by a perimedullary AVF. Initially, we treated her by embolization using the chemical agent Onyx. Her symptoms improved immediately but gradually returned beginning 1 week later. Two months later, the symptoms had returned to pretreatment status, so we removed the fistulas surgically. Severe adhesions between nerve and occult venous varices were noted during the operation. Afterward, the patient's symptoms improved significantly. Histopathological sections showed an inflammatory reaction around the varices. Conclusions: We initially considered several possible reasons for the return of symptoms: (a) Hypoperfusion of the spinal cord; (b) mass effect of the occult vein varices; (c) residual AVF or vascular remodeling resulting in recurrent cord hypertension; (d) Onyx-induced perivascular inflammation resulting in nerves adhering to each other and to occult venous varices. Clinical, surgical, and pathological findings ruled out the first three, leaving Onyx-induced perivascular inflammation as the probable reason. Given our treatment experience and the pros and cons of the two methods, we propose that initial embolization followed by surgery after 5 days to remove occult venous varices is the ideal strategy for treating perimedullary AVF of subtype B.

  9. Copper deficiency myelopathy: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Plantone, Domenico; Primiano, Guido; Renna, Rosaria; Restuccia, Domenico; Iorio, Raffaele; Patanella, Katia A; Ferilli, Michela N; Servidei, Serenella

    2015-07-01

    Context Copper deficiency myelopathy represents an often underdiagnosed, acquired neurological syndrome, clinically characterized by posterior column dysfunction. The main causes of copper deficiency are bariatric surgery, increased consumption of zinc, and malabsorption. However, even after a careful history taking and extensive laboratory researches, the etiology of copper deficiency remains undetermined in a significant percentage of cases. Patients affected by copper deficiency myelopathy usually present with sensory ataxia due to dorsal column dysfunction and sometimes with mild leg spasticity. In such patients, spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may show hyperintense lesions in T2-weighted sequences involving the posterior columns of cervical and thoracic cord. These MRI findings are not distinguishable from those of subacute combined degeneration associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Findings Here, we describe two patients with gait ataxia and sensory symptoms in which a diagnosis of copper deficiency myelopathy was made. Both patients showed a significant clinical, neuroradiological, and neurophysiological improvement after proper supplementation therapy. Conclusion The patients herein described underline the importance to include serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels as part of the myelopathy diagnostic workup, especially in the cases of otherwise unexplained subacute myelopathy involving the posterior columns. Since copper deficiency myelopathy is a progressive syndrome, early diagnosis is mandatory in order to promptly provide a proper supplementation therapy and, thus, prevent an irreversible neurological damage. PMID:25343982

  10. Comparison of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Score and Modified JOA (mJOA) Score for the Assessment of Cervical Myelopathy: A Multicenter Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kato, So; Oshima, Yasushi; Oka, Hiroyuki; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Takeshita, Yujiro; Miyoshi, Kota; Kawamura, Naohiro; Masuda, Kazuhiro; Kunogi, Junichi; Okazaki, Rentaro; Azuma, Seiichi; Hara, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Sakae; Takeshita, Katsushi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score is widely used to assess the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with cervical compressive myelopathy, particularly in East Asian countries. In contrast, modified versions of the JOA score are currently accepted as the standard tool for assessment in Western countries. The objective of the present study is to compare these scales and clarify their differences and interchangeability and verify their validity by comparing them to other outcome measures. Materials and Methods Five institutions participated in this prospective multicenter observational study. The JOA and modified JOA (mJOA) proposed by Benzel were recorded preoperatively and at three months postoperatively in patients with cervical compressive myelopathy who underwent decompression surgery. Patient reported outcome (PRO) measures, including Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire (JOACMEQ), the Short Form-12 (SF-12) and the Neck Disability Index (NDI), were also recorded. The preoperative JOA score and mJOA score were compared to each other and the PRO values. A Bland-Altman analysis was performed to investigate their limits of agreement. Results A total of ninety-two patients were included. The correlation coefficient (Spearman’s rho) between the JOA and mJOA was 0.87. In contrast, the correlations between JOA/mJOA and the other PRO values were moderate (|rho| = 0.03 – 0.51). The correlation coefficient of the recovery rate between the JOA and mJOA was 0.75. The Bland-Altman analyses showed that limits of agreement were 3.6 to -1.2 for the total score, and 55.1% to -68.8% for the recovery rates. Conclusions In the present study, the JOA score and the mJOA score showed good correlation with each other in terms of their total scores and recovery rates. Previous studies using the JOA can be interpreted based on the mJOA; however it is not ideal to use them interchangeably. The validity of both scores was demonstrated by comparing these values to the PRO values. PMID:25837285

  11. Latent period in clinical radiation myelopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy E. Schultheiss; Elizabeth M. Higgins; Anas M. El-Mahdi

    1984-01-01

    Seventy-seven papers containing data on more than 300 cases of radiation myelopathy have been analyzed. The data suggest that the latent periods are similar in the cervical and thoracic levels of the spinal cord and are bimodally distributed. Myelopathy of lumbar cord apparently has a shorter latent period. As in controlled animal experiments, the latent period decreases with increasing dose.

  12. Dropped Shoulder Syndrome: A Cause of Lower Cervical Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cervical radiculopathy is a pathological process involving a nerve root of the cervical spine. The most common causes of radiculopathy are cervical disc herniation followed by cervical spondylosis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dropped shoulder as a cause of lower cervical radiculopathy. Methods In total, 132 patients, comprising 105 women (79.5%) and 27 men (20.5%; female : male ratio of 4 : 1) and a mean age of 36.7 years (range 18-58 years), were included in this study. All of the patients presented with shoulder pain, and were investigated by cervical X-ray, cervical magnetic resonance imaging, serum muscle enzymes, and electromyography (EMG)/nerve-conduction studies. Results Ninety six patients (72.7%) exhibited visually detectable dropped shoulder. The lateral view X-ray of the cervical region revealed eight or more vertebrae. In 119 patients (90.2%), the EMG revealed a mild-to-moderate or moderate denervation patterns in the abductor digiti minimi, first dorsal interosseous, and flexor carpi ulnaris muscles, while the abductor pollicis brevis, extensor carpi radialis, and triceps brachii were denervated in 102 patients (77.3%). All of the patients had lower cervical paraspinal muscles with a denervation pattern. Conclusions Three criteria for diagnosing dropped shoulder syndrome have been suggested: pain with consistent anatomical distribution, X-ray abnormalities, and EMG abnormalities. Compression of the cervical roots by muscle spasm has been proposed as the cause of dropped shoulder syndrome; this possibility is discussed herein. PMID:21779296

  13. Traumatic myelopathy in a seventeen-year-old child with cervical spinal stenosis (without fracture or dislocation) and a C2-C3 Klippel-Feil fusion. A case report.

    PubMed

    Epstein, N E; Epstein, J A; Zilkha, A

    1984-01-01

    A 17-year-old white male patient sustained a cervical hyperextension injury while body surfing. Plain cervical radiographs, tomography, and CAT scan showed neither fracture nor subluxation, but congenital narrowing of the spinal canal and fusion of C2-C3 (Klippel-Feil). Clinically, he had a central cord syndrome, characterized by a motor dominant myelopathy. The conservative management of this patient with a central cord injury in the presence of spinal stenosis and a Klippel-Feil syndrome resulted in almost full recovery although he was quadriplegic initially. This constellation of findings rarely has been reported in adolescence. PMID:6474247

  14. Over-shunting associated myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Howard, Brian M; Sribnick, Eric A; Dhall, Sanjay S

    2014-12-01

    Intracranial hypotension typically presents following cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, but can be induced by CSF diversion. Classically, patients present with positional headache, but less common symptoms include neck pain and cranial nerve palsies. To our knowledge, the neurosurgical literature contains six reports of patients with symptomatic cervical, epidural venous plexus engorgement as the result of CSF shunting. The patient presented herein is a 26-year-old woman with shunt-dependent, congenital hydrocephalus. She presented with rapidly progressive cervical myelopathy following ventriculoperitoneal shunt revision. Imaging revealed engorgement of the cervical epidural venous plexus and mass effect on the cervical spinal cord. "Over-shunting associated myelopathy" is a rare complication of CSF diversion that should be familiar to physicians who routinely evaluate patients with intracranial shunts. PMID:25070631

  15. Evaluation of Anterior Cervical Reconstruction with Titanium Mesh Cages versus Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Polyamide66 Cages after 1- or 2-Level Corpectomy for Multilevel Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Retrospective Study of 117 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Quan, Zhengxue; Zhao, Zenghui; Luo, Xiaoji; Tang, Ke; Li, Jie; Zhou, Xu; Jiang, Dianming

    2014-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively compare the efficacy of the titanium mesh cage (TMC) and the nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 cage (n-HA/PA66 cage) for 1- or 2-level anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) to treat multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM). Methods A total of 117 consecutive patients with MCSM who underwent 1- or 2-level ACCF using a TMC or an n-HA/PA66 cage were studied retrospectively at a mean follow-up of 45.28±12.83 months. The patients were divided into four groups according to the level of corpectomy (1- or 2-level corpectomy) and cage type used (TMC or n-HA/PA66 cage). Clinical and radiological parameters were used to evaluate outcomes. Results At the one-year follow-up, the fusion rate in the n-HA/PA66 group was higher, albeit non-significantly, than that in the TMC group for both 1- and 2-level ACCF, but the fusion rates of the procedures were almost equal at the final follow-up. The incidence of cage subsidence at the final follow-up was significantly higher in the TMC group than in the n-HA/PA66 group for the 1-level ACCF (24% vs. 4%, p?=?0.01), and the difference was greater for the 2-level ACCF between the TMC group and the n-HA/PA66 group (38% vs. 5%, p?=?0.01). Meanwhile, a much greater loss of fused height was observed in the TMC group compared with the n-HA/PA66 group for both the 1- and 2-level ACCF. All four groups demonstrated increases in C2-C7 Cobb angle and JOA scores and decreases in VAS at the final follow-up compared with preoperative values. Conclusion The lower incidence of cage subsidence, better maintenance of the height of the fused segment and similar excellent bony fusion indicate that the n-HA/PA66 cage may be a superior alternative to the TMC for cervical reconstruction after cervical corpectomy, in particular for 2-level ACCF. PMID:24789144

  16. Posterolateral microdisectomy for cervical monoradiculopathy caused by posterolateral soft cervical disc sequestration.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, F

    1990-03-01

    The controversy over whether to use a posterior or anterior approach for surgical treatment of soft cervical discs is still largely unsettled. However, although the posterior approach may be underutilized, it has distinct advantages when there are specific indications. Out of a large pool of cases, 53 patients presented with acute monoradiculopathy caused by soft cervical disc herniation. In 36 of these, the disc was sequestered (nonconfined) and was posterolateral to the disc space as seen on computerized tomography-myelography. Distinct motor weakness was a common clinical finding in all 36 cases. These patients were treated by using a 2- to 3-cm skin incision for the posterolateral microsurgical approach. The extent of the lateral facetectomy depended upon the relationship between the nerve root and the disc. All fragments were lateral to the dural sac and were sequestered through the anulus fibrosus and the posterior longitudinal ligament. Sequestrations were removed under direct microscopic vision, but the disc space was not entered. Pain relief and motor-power improvement in the affected radicular distribution were immediate in all patients. Sensory deficit and residual motor loss improved dramatically with normalization at approximately 6 months. No complications occurred and the mean hospital stay was 2 days. The follow-up period varied from 4 to 42 months with a mean of 26 months. Thus far, there have been no recurrences or other associated complications. By using strict selection criteria and a microsurgical posterolateral approach with removal of the sequestered disc fragment, excellent results with normalization of the monoradiculopathy can be obtained. The ease of this technique, low risk, minimal complications, and excellent results make it an attractive alternative to the anterior approach. The clinical presentations, specific indications, surgical technique, and clinical results are discussed; and a prototype of a small cervical self-retaining retractor is described. PMID:2303870

  17. Latent period in clinical radiation myelopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Higgins, E.M.; El-Mahdi, A.M.

    1984-07-01

    Seventy-seven papers containing data on more than 300 cases of radiation myelopathy have been analyzed. The data suggest that the latent periods are similar in the cervical and thoracic levels of the spinal cord and are bimodally distributed. Myelopathy of lumbar cord apparently has a shorter latent period. As in controlled animal experiments, the latent period decreases with increasing dose. Furthermore, the variation in latent periods also decreases with dose. It is also seen that retreated patients and pediatric or adolescent patients have greatly reduced latent periods. The implications of these findings as they compare with the animal data are discussed.

  18. Whiplash causes increased laxity of cervical capsular ligament

    PubMed Central

    Ivancic, Paul C.; Ito, Shigeki; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Rubin, Wolfgang; Coe, Marcus P.; Ndu, Anthony B.; Carlson, Erik J.; Panjabi, Manohar M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous clinical studies have identified the cervical facet joint, including the capsular ligaments, as sources of pain in whiplash patients. The goal of this study was to determine whether whiplash caused increased capsular ligament laxity by applying quasi-static loading to whiplash-exposed and control capsular ligaments. Methods A total of 66 capsular ligament specimens (C2/3 to C7/T1) were prepared from 12 cervical spines (6 whiplash-exposed and 6 control). The whiplash-exposed spines had been previously rear impacted at a maximum peak T1 horizontal acceleration of 8 g. Capsular ligaments were elongated at 1 mm/s in increments of 0.05 mm until a tensile force of 5 N was achieved and subsequently returned to neutral position. Four pre-conditioning cycles were performed and data from the load phase of the fifth cycle were used for subsequent analyses. Ligament elongation was computed at tensile forces of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 N. Two factor, non-repeated measures ANOVA (P<0.05) was performed to determine significant differences in the average ligament elongation at tensile forces of 0 and 5 N between the whiplash-exposed and control groups and between spinal levels. Findings Average elongation of the whiplash-exposed capsular ligaments was significantly greater than that of the control ligaments at tensile forces of 0 and 5 N. No significant differences between spinal levels were observed. Interpretation Capsular ligament injuries, in the form of increased laxity, may be one component perpetuating chronic pain and clinical instability in whiplash patients. PMID:17959284

  19. A possible cervical cause of low back pain: pelvic distortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett M. Carr; Ronald J. Tyszkowski

    2000-01-01

    Objective: to discuss the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic distortion related to cervical spine dysfunction in a patient with low back pain, as well as presenting a theoretical etiology.Clinical features: pelvic distortion is a disorder in which the ilia become counter-rotated on the sacrum. Our clinical experience suggests that it can arise from dysfunction in the cervical spine. It can

  20. HPV types and cofactors causing cervical cancer in Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Santos; N Muñoz; S Klug; M Almonte; I Guerrero; M Alvarez; C Velarde; O Galdos; M Castillo; J Walboomers; C Meijer; E Caceres

    2001-01-01

    We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Peru of 198 women with histologically confirmed cervical cancer (173 squamous cell carcinomas and 25 cases of adenocarcinoma\\/adenosquamous carcinoma) and 196 control women. Information on risk factors was obtained by personal interview. Using PCR-based assays on exfoliated cervical cells and biopsy specimens, HPV DNA was detected in 95.3% of women with squamous cell

  1. Stent-Graft Repair of a Large Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm Causing Dysphagia

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Vivek, E-mail: drvivekgupta.pgi@gmail.com; Niranjan, Khandelwal; Rawat, Lokesh [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging (India); Gupta, A. K. [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Department of Otolaryngology (India)

    2009-05-15

    Pseudoaneurysms of the cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) are rare and most frequently result from trauma, infection, or sometimes spontaneously. They have the potential to cause life-threatening hemorrhage; thus, their immediate management is necessary. Endovascular treatment by stent graft placement in the affected artery appears to be a safe and effective treatment option. We present a case of a child who presented with neck swelling and dysphagia caused by a ruptured cervical ICA pseudoaneurysm which was managed by stent graft placement.

  2. Are 20 human papillomavirus types causing cervical cancer?

    PubMed

    Arbyn, Marc; Tommasino, Massimo; Depuydt, Christophe; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there was consistent and sufficient epidemiological, experimental and mechanistic evidence of carcinogenicity to humans for 12 HPV types (HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58 and HPV59) for cervical cancer. Therefore, these types were considered as 1A carcinogens. They all belong to the family of the ?-Papillomaviridae, in particular to the species ?5 (HPV51), ?6 (HPV56), ?7 (HPV18, HPV39, HPV45, HPV59) and ?9 (HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58). Less evidence is available for a thirteenth type (HPV68, ?7), which is classified as a 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic). Moreover, seven other phylogenetically related types (HPV26, HPV53, HPV66, HPV67, HPV68, HPV70 and HPV73) were identified as single HPV infections in certain rare cases of cervical cancer and were considered possibly carcinogenic (2B carcinogens). Recently, Halec et al [7] demonstrated that the molecular signature of HPV-induced carcinogenesis (presence of type-specific spliced E6*| mRNA; increased expression of p16; and decreased expression of cyclin D1, p53 and Rb) was similar in cervical cancers containing single infections with one of the eight afore-mentioned 2A or 2B carcinogens to those in cancers with single infections with group 1 carcinogens. Ninety six percent of cervical cancers are attributable to one of the 13 most common HPV types (groups 1 and 2A). Including the additional seven HPV types (group 2B) added 2.6%, to reach a total of 98.7% of all HPV-positive cervical cancers. From recently updated meta-analyses, it was shown that HPV68, HPV26, HPV66, HPV67, HPV73 and HPV82 were significantly more common in cancer cases than in women with normal cervical cytology, suggesting that for these HPV types, an upgrading of the carcinogen classification could be considered. However, there is no need to include them in HPV screening tests or vaccines, given their rarity in cervical cancers. PMID:25124771

  3. Lumbar and cervical stenosis. Frequency of the association, role of the ankylosing hyperostosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Laroche; L. Moulinier; J. Arlet; Ph. Arrue; H. Rousseau; A. Cantagrel; B. Mazieres

    1992-01-01

    Summary  The authors report a study of 47 patients admitted for cervical myelopathy (N=17) or symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (N=30). Nine patients had clinical evidence of coexisting cervical myelopathy and lumbar spinal stenosis. Ten out of the 17 patients having cervical myelopathy had lumbar spinal stenosis as evidenced by saggital tomography and\\/or computerized tomography. Nine out of the 30 patients admitted

  4. Correlation between degree of subvoxel spinal cord compression measured with super-resolution tract density imaging and neurological impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Benjamin M; Salamon, Noriko; Woodworth, Davis C; Holly, Langston T

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT The purpose of this study was to explore the use of super-resolution tract density images derived from probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography of the spinal cord as an imaging surrogate for microstructural integrity and functional impairment in patients with cervical spondylosis. METHODS Structural MRI and DTI images were collected for 27 patients with cervical spondylosis with (n= 21) and without (n= 6) functional impairment as defined by the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scale (mJOA). DTI was performed axially through the site of compression in a total of 20 directions with 10 averages. Probabilistic tractography was performed at 0.5-mm isotropic spatial resolution using the streamline technique combined with constrained spherical deconvolution. The following measurements were calculated for each patient: maximum tract density at the site of compression, average tract density in rostral normal-appearing spinal cord, and the ratio of maximum density to normal density. RESULTS Compared with normal tissue, the site of compression exhibited elevated fiber tract density in all patients, and a higher fiber tract density was also noted in focal areas at the site of compression in patients with functional impairment. There was a strong negative correlation between maximum tract density and mJOA score (R(2)= 0.6324, p < 0.0001) and the ratio of maximum tract density to normal tract density (R(2)= 0.6647, p < 0.0001). When grouped according to severity of neurological impairment (asymptomatic, mJOA score of 18; mild, mJOA score of 15-17; moderate, mJOA score of 11-14; and severe, mJOA score < 11), the results showed a significant difference in the ratio between severe and both no impairment (p= 0.0009) and any impairment (p= 0.036). A ratio of maximum fiber tract density at the site of compression to fiber tract density at C-2 greater than 1.45 had 82% sensitivity and 70% specificity for identifying patients with moderate to severe impairment (ROC AUC= 0.8882, p= 0.0009). CONCLUSIONS These results support the use of DTI as a surrogate for determining spinal cord integrity in patients with cervical spondylosis. Probabilistic tractography provides spinal cord microstructural information that can help discern clinical status in cervical spondylosis patients with varying degrees of neurological impairment. PMID:25746116

  5. Camel collision as a major cause of low cervical spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sohail Ansari; KSM Ashraf Ali

    1998-01-01

    One hundred and forty patients with low cervical spinal cord injuries, who were admitted to the Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital over the past 10 years were reviewed. Motor vehicle accidents constituted 119 (85%) of the patients. Camel collisions were a major cause of vehicle accidents 39 (33%), after rollover accidents 70 (59%), and much more than head on collisions 9

  6. Pseudoaneurysm of uterine artery causing intra-abdominal and vaginal bleeding after cervical conization

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Gaeul; Jeon, Seob; Nam, Kye-Hyun; Choi, Seungdo; Sunwoo, Jaegeun

    2015-01-01

    Uterine arterial pseudoaneurysm is a very rare condition usually associated with postpartum hemorrhage. It almost never occurs after cervical conization; however, since ruptured pseudoaneurysm could be life threatening, we should consider the possibility of vascular injury such as pseudoaneurysm when we find a patient with vaginal bleeding after the process of surgical operation. Emergency arterial embolization is a well established therapeutic option to control the ruptured pseudoaneurysm. This is a case report of uterine arterial pseudoaneurysm causing intra-abdominal bleeding followed by cervical conization, which was successfully treated by uterine artery embolization. PMID:26023677

  7. Effects on the maxilla and cranial base caused by cervical headgear: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Conde, Carmen; Lorenzo-Pernía, José; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción; Solano-Reina, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to test the possible orthopedic effects of cervical headgear on the cranial base and maxilla. Study design: a sample consisting of 79 subjects with skeletal class II malocclusion was divided into two groups. The experimental group was made up of 41 patients all treated with cervical headgear. The control group included a total of 38 non-treated patients. Each one of these groups was then subdivided according to age into one of three groups: prepubescent, pubescent or post-pubescent. Cephalometric parameters were compared in both groups in order to measure the cranial base angle and the vertical and sagittal position of the maxilla. Additionally, cephalometric superimpositions taken at the beginning and end of the study were compared. Results: results revealed significant differences in the cranial base angle and in the SNA angle (p<0.05). However, no differences were observed in the variables that measure the maxillomandibular relationship. While no changes were noted in the palatal plane slope, a flattening of the cranial base was found caused by the cervical headgear, in addition to a retrusion of point A that does not mean there was a reduction in the maxillomandibular relationship. Conclusions: cervical headgear treatment induces cephalometric flattening of the cranial base and a decrease of the SNA angle. Key words:Orthodontics, cervical headgear, class II treatment, cephalometry, superimposition. PMID:22322499

  8. Dynamic Compression of the Spinal Cord by Paraspinal Muscles following Cervical Laminectomy: Diagnosis Using Flexion-Extension MRI

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Linton T.; Lollis, S. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Flexion-extension, or kinematic, MRI has been used to identify dynamic spondylotic spinal cord compression not seen with traditional static MRI. The use of kinematic MRI to diagnose postoperative complications, specifically dynamic compression, is not as well documented. The authors describe a case of dynamic spinal cord compression by the paraspinal muscles causing worsening myelopathy following cervical laminectomy. This was only diagnosed with flexion-extension MRI. Methods. The patient was a 90-year-old male presenting to the neurosurgery clinic with functional decline and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Results. A multilevel laminectomy was performed. Following surgery the patient had progressive weakness and worsening myelopathy. No active cord compression was seen on multiple MRIs obtained in a neutral position, and flexion-extension X-rays did not show instability. A kinematic MRI demonstrated dynamic compression of the spinal cord only during neck extension, by the paraspinal muscles. To relieve the compression, the patient underwent an instrumented fusion, with cross-links used to buttress the paraspinal muscles away from the cord. This resulted in neurologic improvement. Conclusions. We describe a novel case of spinal cord compression by paraspinal muscles following cervical laminectomy. In individuals with persistent myelopathy or delayed neurologic decline following posterior decompression, flexion-extension MRI may prove useful in diagnosing this potential complication. PMID:25984378

  9. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. ...

  10. Frozen storage of ram semen II. Causes of low fertility after cervical insemination and methods of improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Salamon; W. M. C Maxwell

    1995-01-01

    Research up to 1993 is reviewed. Freezing and thawing of ram semen causes ultrastructural, biochemical and functional damage to a significant proportion of spermatozoa. These changes are accompanied by a reduction in motility, impaired transport and decreased viability of spermatozoa in the female genital tract, and reduced fertility after cervical insemination.Methods used to improve the fertility after cervical insemination include

  11. Corpectomy with Adjacent-Level Kyphoplasty to Treat Metastatic Lung Cancer in Three Contiguous Cervical Vertebrae Causing Focal Neurologic Compromise

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Antony H.; Way, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objectives?Decompression of metastatic spinal cord compression has been shown to improve quality of life and prolong ambulation in patients undergoing palliative treatment. We report a case of metastatic cervical myelopathy treated with a combined approach using corpectomy and stabilization together with balloon kyphoplasty to allow adequate decompression and immediate stability in a patient with significant destruction of adjacent vertebral bodies. Methods?The cervical spine was approached anteriorly and decompressed with a C7 corpectomy. Subsequent stability was achieved with insertion of a trabecular metal cage. Balloon kyphoplasty was used to treat lytic lesions within the posterior body of the adjacent vertebrae for pain relief and increased stability. Additional stability was achieved through the application of an anterior plate. Results?Full limited decompression and stabilization were successfully achieved. The patient had no further neurologic deterioration and made modest improvements that allowed a return to independent ambulation. Conclusion?This limited approach may be an option for patients with metastatic spinal cord compression, lytic destruction of adjacent vertebral bodies, and limited life expectancy. PMID:25844288

  12. Pectoralis major motor evoked potentials in cervical spondylosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. L. Lo; L. L. Chan; C. T. Tan; J. L. T. Chen; S. B. Tan

    2005-01-01

    Myelopathy is a severe complication of cervical spondylosis (CS). We studied 27 consecutive patients with CS referred for evaluation for possible myelopathy using transcranial magnetic stimulation. The findings were compared with those from 20 normal controls. Magnetic resonance imaging was utilized to assess the degree of cord compromise. Central motor conduction time (CMCT) abnormalities showed equivalent diagnostic yield with pectoralis

  13. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: frequent complications by cervical spondylosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahito Yamada; Yutaka Furukawa; Mie Hirohata

    2003-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is associated with myelopathy and radiculopathy, which sometimes mimic clinical manifestations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects upper and lower motor neurons. Cervical spondylosis may coexist with ALS because both diseases preferentially affect individuals of middle or old age. We investigated 63 patients with ALS to clarify the complications of cervical spondylosis and

  14. [Imaging diagnosis of cervical spondylosis].

    PubMed

    Song, Z Q

    1989-04-01

    Myodil-myelographic manifestations of 60 cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy were analyzed. For better understanding the biomechanical disturbances of cervical spondylosis, CT scans of 26 cases of this disease were also investigated. Myelography and/or CT were considered necessary if surgical procedure was to be undertaken with anterior approach. Myodil myelography or CT could fulfill the diagnostic requirements for surgery if Non-ionic water-soluble contrast media or other new techniques were not available. PMID:2758936

  15. Boomerang deformity of cervical spinal cord migrating between split laminae after laminoplasty.

    PubMed

    Kimura, S; Gomibuchi, F; Shimoda, H; Ikezawa, Y; Segawa, H; Kaneko, F; Uchiyama, S; Homma, T

    2000-04-01

    Patients with cervical compression myelopathy were studied to elucidate the mechanism underlying boomerang deformity, which results from the migration of the cervical spinal cord between split laminae after laminoplasty with median splitting of the spinous processes (boomerang sign). Thirty-nine cases, comprising 25 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, 8 patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, and 6 patients with cervical disc herniation with developmental canal stenosis, were examined. The clinical and radiological findings were retrospectively compared between patients with (B group, 8 cases) and without (C group, 31 cases) boomerang sign. Moderate increase of the grade of this deformity resulted in no clinical recovery, although there was no difference in clinical recovery between the two groups. Most boomerang signs developed at the C4/5 and/or C5/6 level, where maximal posterior movement of the spinal cord was achieved. Widths between lateral hinges and between split laminae in the B group were smaller than in the C group. Flatness of the spinal cord in the B group was more severe than in the C group. In conclusion, the boomerang sign was caused by posterior movement of the spinal cord, narrower enlargement of the spinal canal and flatness of the spinal cord. PMID:10823431

  16. Longitudinal length of the spinal cord after cervical laminoplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toru Yokoyama; Kazumasa Ueyama; Akihiro Okada; Takashi Tomita

    2002-01-01

    Purpose of study: In cases of cervical myelopathy, the relationship between surgical outcome after laminoplasty and the sagittal alignment is controversial. In our cases with OPLL of unexpected poor surgical outcome, we often found a straight, tense spinal cord on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging, (MRI). So we tried to measure a longitudinal length of the cervical spinal cord (LSC) as

  17. Unexpected death of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis complicated by a cervical deformity.

    PubMed

    Unuma, Kana; Harada, Kazuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Ito, Takako; Okutsu, Kosuke; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2010-09-01

    An elderly female with a 43-year history of rheumatoid arthritis died 2weeks after the onset of chest discomfort, electrolyte disturbance, and interstitial pneumonia. She had frequent premature ventricular contractions, fluctuating heart rate, and hypotension. Ischemic heart disease and interstitial pneumonia were excluded as the cause of death based on clinical course and autopsy findings. A severe cervical deformity with myelopathy likely contributed to circulatory instability, possibly through injury to the intra-spinal sympathetic nervous system, which can induce cardiovascular instability and suppress respiratory function. This likely led to death. PMID:20634116

  18. Cervical polyps

    MedlinePLUS

    Cervical polyps are fingerlike growths on the lower part of the uterus that connects with the vagina ( ... The exact cause of cervical polyps is not known. They may occur with: An abnormal response to increased levels of the female hormone estrogen Chronic ...

  19. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and chlamydia. HPV is the virus that can cause genital warts. It seems to be very closely connected with these changes. Risk factors for cervical cancer Starting to have sex early (before age 18) ...

  20. Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of Anterior Cervical Interbody Fusion Using Hydroxyapatite Spacer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Chul; Kang, Sung Won; Kim, Se Hyuk; Cho, Ki Hong

    2009-01-01

    Objective This is retrospective study of clinical and radiological outcomes of anterior cervical fusion using Bongros-HA™ (BioAlpha, Seongnam, Korea) which is a type of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) spacer to evaluate the efficacy in its clinical application and usefulness as a reliable alternative to autograft bone. Methods Twenty-nine patients were enrolled in this study and 40 segments were involved. All patients were performed anterior cervical interbody fusion using HA spacer and plating system. Indications for surgery were radiculopathy caused by soft-disc herniation or spondylosis in 18 patients, spondylotic myelopathy in 1 patient, and spinal trauma in 10 patients. Cervical spine radiographs were obtained on postoperative 1day, 1week, and then at 1, 2, 6, and 12 months in all patients to evaluate intervertebral disc height, and the degrees of lordosis. Cervical computed tomography was done at postoperative 12 month in all patients to confirm the fusion status. The mean period of clinical follow-up was 17 months. Results Complete interbody fusion was achieved in 100% of patients. Preoperative kyphotic deformities were corrected in all cases after surgery. Intervertebral disc height was well maintained during follow up period. There were no cases of graft extrusion, graft deterioration and graft fracture. Conclusion HA spacer is very efficient in achieving cervical fusion, maintaining intervertebral disc height, and restoring lordosis. When combined with the placement of a cervical plate, immediate stability can be achieved and graft related complication can be prevented. PMID:19893716

  1. Acute transverse myelopathy complicating systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Propper, D J; Bucknall, R C

    1989-01-01

    A sixteen year old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus developed acute transverse myelopathy. She was treated with high dose steroids, cyclophosphamide, and plasma exchange and regained partial neurological function. Previous descriptions of transverse myelopathy complicating systemic lupus erythematosus are reviewed, with particular reference to the efficacy of high dose steroid treatment. PMID:2662918

  2. Oesophageal perforation caused by screw displacement 16 months following anterior cervical spine fixation.

    PubMed

    Leaver, Nicholas; Colby, Alexandra; Appleton, Nathan; Vimalachandran, Dale

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cervical spine plating is a standard procedure for fixing unstable vertebral fractures. Following surgery, oesophageal perforation has an incidence of 0.25% and this is usually hours following surgery, due to over prominent screws or friction between the oesophagus and the plate. Instrumentation failure of these plates months or years following surgery is very rare but potentially life-threatening. We report a case of microcytic anaemia which was investigated by oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, and subsequently found that a screw from the anterior plate had lifted off and perforated the oesophagus. This is very rare, but emphasises an important lesson. Anyone presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding or infectious signs, with a history of cervical spine plating should be investigated immediately for instrumentation failure as it brings a high mortality. PMID:25796082

  3. Evaluation of causes of increased incidence of cervical cancer in Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Špela Smrkolj; Stelio Rakar; Andrej Možina; Mojca Eržen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: In Slovenia the opportunistic cervical cancer (CC) screening programme has been performed within the regular gynaecological practice since 1960. The incidence rate 28.8\\/105 decreased to 16.1\\/105 in 1982, and increased to 23\\/105 in 1996. To explain the increased CC incidence the patients’ screening histories, occurrence of symptoms, and details of preventive measures were studied on the basis of medical

  4. E6AP is Required for Human Papillomavirus type 16 E6 to Cause Cervical Cancer in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shai, Anny; Pitot, Henry C.; Lambert, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses cause certain anogenital and head and neck cancers. E6, one of three potent HPV oncogenes that contribute to the development of these malignancies, is a multifunctional protein with many biochemical activities. Among these activities are its ability to bind and inactivate the cellular tumor suppressor p53, induce expression of telomerase, and bind to various other proteins including Bak, E6BP1, E6TP1, and proteins that contain PDZ domains such as hScrib and hDlg. Many of these activities are thought to contribute to E6’s role in carcinogenesis. E6’s interaction with many of these cellular proteins, including p53, leads to their destabilization. This property is mediated at least in part through E6’s ability to recruit the ubiquitin ligase, E6AP into complexes with these cellular proteins resulting in their ubiquitin–mediated degradation by the proteasome. In this study, we address the requirement for E6AP in mediating E6's acute and oncogenic phenotypes, including induction of epithelial hyperplasia, abrogation of DNA damage response and induction of cervical cancer. Loss of E6AP had no discernable effect on E6's ability to induce hyperplasia or abrogate DNA damage responses, akin to what we had earlier observed in the mouse epidermis. Nevertheless, in cervical carcinogenesis studies, there was a complete loss of E6’s oncogenic potential in mice nulligenic for E6AP. Thus, E6AP is absolutely required for E6 to cause cervical cancer. PMID:20530688

  5. FDG-PET SUV can distinguish between spinal sarcoidosis and myelopathy with canal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sakushima, Ken; Yabe, Ichiro; Shiga, Tohru; Yashima-Yamada, Moemi; Tsuji-Akimoto, Sachiko; Terae, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2011-02-01

    Spinal cord sarcoidosis is a rare manifestation of sarcoidosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spinal cord sarcoidosis sometimes resembles that of the non-inflammatory spinal cord lesion. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is an effective method to detect both systemic and central nervous system lesions in sarcoidosis. This study compared the standard uptake value (SUV) of FDG-PET between spinal cord sarcoidosis and non-inflammatory spinal cord lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent both spinal MRI and FDG-PET scans. We used SUV to evaluate the FDG-PET uptake of the lesion. The region of interest was the center of high-intensity areas on T2-weighted MR images. We included three patients with spinal cord sarcoidosis, five with myelomalacia caused by cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, one with spinal cord edema associated with cervical spondylosis, and one with spinal cord edema associated with dural arteriovenous fistula. The spinal cord sarcoidosis group had a significantly higher SUV (mean 4.38, range 3.30-4.93) than patients with the other diseases (mean 1.87, range 1.42-2.74). The SUV of FDG-PET thus may be able to distinguish spinal cord sarcoidosis from other non-inflammatory lesions. FDG-PET can play an important role in the diagnosis of spinal cord sarcoidosis because the gadolinium enhancement in MRI is sometimes seen in spondylotic myelopathy or vascular malformation. FDG-PET is informative for the accurate diagnosis of spinal cord sarcoidosis and may enable clinicians to start treatment at an earlier stage. PMID:20820799

  6. Kinematic Changes in Swallowing After Surgical Removal of Anterior Cervical Osteophyte Causing Dysphagia: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyeonghui; Seo, Han Gil; Han, Tai Ryoon; Chung, Chun Kee

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective case series included five patients who underwent surgical resection of the cervical anterior osteophyte due to dysphagia. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSSs) were performed before and after surgery on each patient, and kinematic analysis of the video clips from the VFSS of a 5-mL liquid barium swallow was carried out. Functional oral intake improved after surgery in 3/4 patients who had required a modified diet before surgery. Kinematic analysis showed increases in the maximal hyoid vertical movement length (13.16±5.87 to 19.09±4.77 mm, p=0.080), hyoid movement velocities (170.24±84.71 to 285.53±104.55 mm/s, p=0.043), and upper esophageal sphincter opening width (3.97±0.42 to 6.39±1.32 mm, p=0.043) after surgery. In conclusion, improved upper esophageal sphincter opening via enhancement of hyoid movement after cervical anterior osteophyte resection may be the kinetic mechanism of improved swallowing function. PMID:25566490

  7. Schistosomal myelopathy in childhood: findings of magnetic resonance imaging in 26 patients.

    PubMed

    Henriques-Souza, Adélia Maria de Miranda; Valença, Marcelo Moraes

    2011-12-01

    We describe magnetic resonance image findings of 26 children (16 boys; average age, 9.4 years) with schistosomal myelopathy. All children lived in Pernambuco State, Brazil, an area of endemic mansoni schistosomiasis. Imaging abnormalities were identified in 92.3% of the children. The most frequent findings included: (1) enlargement of the spinal cord at the thoracic level, usually below T(8), in 23/24 (96%) patients; (2) hypointense signals in T(1)-weighted imaging; (3) hyperintense signals in T(2) imaging; and (4) heterogeneous enhancement with gadolinium. Although enlargement was evident at the thoracic level, abnormal signals frequently extended to the lower cervical level, or inferiorly to the lumbar and sacral cord. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord can play a strong role in the investigation of children with schistosomal myelopathy. Although imaging abnormalities are not specific, their presence strengthens presumptive diagnoses, to expedite treatment and avoid invasive procedures. PMID:22114998

  8. Osteoradionecrosis of the cervical vertebrae in patients irradiated for head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Yasuhiro; Okuno, Yoshishige; Tagawa, Yumiko; Ueki, Nami; Itoh, Kyo; Shinohara, Shogo; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2010-06-01

    Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is one of the common late adverse effects that follow radiation therapy for head and neck cancers. ORN usually develops on the mandible and less frequently on the maxilla. We present three cases of ORN of the cervical vertebrae, which is rarely reported. Two patients suffered from secondary osteomyelitis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by definitive concurrent chemoradiation therapy with a hyperfractionated and an accelerated hyperfractionated regimen, respectively. For these patients, the high intensity of treatment was considered the cause of ORN. The third patient underwent concurrent chemoradiation therapy for upper thoracic esophageal cancer and subsequently underwent endoscopic laser resection and radiation therapy for hypopharyngeal cancer. ORN developed in the area of reirradiation. In this case, an excessive radiation dose was considered the cause. ORN of cervical vertebrae, different from that of the mandible and maxilla, has a risk of radiculopathy and myelopathy. In the future, ORN of cervical vertebrae will increase because metachronous double cancers will increase and opportunities for reirradiation, in turn, will increase. To prevent this, it is necessary to optimize the treatment schedule for radiation therapy, including the total dose, fractionation, and concurrent chemotherapy, and to decrease the volume of cervical vertebrae within the irradiation field. PMID:20585930

  9. Ectopic cervical thymus as a rare cause of pediatric neck mass: the role of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis. Case report.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Alper; Akdur, Pinar Ozdem?r; Celebi, Irfan; Karasu, Rabia; Yilmaz, Banu; Basak, Muzaffer

    2015-06-01

    Ectopic cervical thymus (ECT) is an uncommon cause for cervical mass in the pediatric age group. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings of the mass (located along the thymic descent pathway along the thymopharyngeal tract and has identical echostructure and signal intensities to the native thymus in the superior mediastinum) would lead to the diagnosis. The diagnosis is confirmed by fine needle aspiration biopsy or histopathology after resection. The management of ECT is a conservative follow up, except in symptomatic cases with tracheal compression and histologically confirmed neoplasia where surgery is indicated. We present the case of ECT presenting as a left upper neck mass in a 12 year old girl. PMID:26052578

  10. Mycobacteria causing human cervical lymphadenitis in pastoral communities in the Karamoja region of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Oloya, J; Opuda-Asibo, J; Kazwala, R; Demelash, A B; Skjerve, E; Lund, A; Johansen, T B; Djonne, B

    2008-05-01

    Mycobacteria from lymph node biopsies of patients with cervical lymphadenitis reporting for tuberculosis treatment in Matany and Moroto Hospitals in the transhumant areas of Karamoja, Uganda were isolated and characterized. The AccuProbe culture identification kits for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), M. avium complex (MAC) and M. avium were used to identify the isolates. Spoligotyping, IS901 PCR and IS1311 and IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were used to characterize the isolates. Of the 43 biopsies, ten M. avium, seven M. tuberculosis, three M. bovis, and two M. intracellulare were isolated. Two isolates could not be identified with AccuProbe and from 19 samples no mycobacteria could be isolated. Three isolates with the Beijing spoligotype were identified from the seven M. tuberculosis isolates. The spoligopatterns of the M. bovis isolates had previously been detected in cattle in Uganda. Isolation of members of the MAC group reflects the complex interaction between the transhumant communities, water sources and their cattle. None of the M. avium isolates harboured IS901, and all showed several bands on IS1311 and IS1245 RFLP, in accordance with M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Composite dendrograms of IS1311 and IS1245 RFLP showed that the isolates were similar and identical patterns were found. The isolation of M. bovis confirms the human infection with zoonotic mycobacteria in areas where consumption of raw milk and meat is routine. Isolation of environmental mycobacteria also confirms their increasing role in human disease and the occupational risk of infection in the transhumant ecosystem in the absence of safe drinking water and environmental contamination. PMID:17599779

  11. Flexitouch® Home Maintenance Therapy or Standard Home Maintenance Therapy in Treating Patients With Lower-Extremity Lymphedema Caused by Treatment for Cervical Cancer, Vulvar Cancer, or Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Lymphedema; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  12. Comparison of minimally invasive surgery with standard open surgery for vertebral thoracic metastases causing acute myelopathy in patients with short- or mid-term life expectancy: surgical technique and early clinical results.

    PubMed

    Miscusi, Massimo; Polli, Filippo Maria; Forcato, Stefano; Ricciardi, Luca; Frati, Alessandro; Cimatti, Marco; De Martino, Luca; Ramieri, Alessandro; Raco, Antonino

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT Spinal metastasis is common in patients with cancer. About 70% of symptomatic lesions are found in the thoracic region of the spine, and cord compression presents as the initial symptom in 5%-10% of patients. Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) has recently been advocated as a useful approach for spinal metastases, with the aim of decreasing the morbidity associated with more traditional open spine surgery; furthermore, the recovery time is reduced after MISS, such that postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy can begin sooner. METHODS Two series of oncological patients, who presented with acute myelopathy due to vertebral thoracic metastases, were compared in this study. Patients with complete paraplegia for more than 24 hours and with a modified Bauer score greater than 2 were excluded from the study. The first group (n = 23) comprised patients who were prospectively enrolled from May 2010 to September 2013, and who were treated with minimally invasive laminotomy/laminectomy and percutaneous stabilization. The second group (n = 19) comprised patients from whom data were retrospectively collected before May 2010, and who had been treated with laminectomy and stabilization with traditional open surgery. Patient groups were similar regarding general characteristics and neurological impairment. Results were analyzed in terms of neurological recovery (American Spinal Injury Association grade), complications, pain relief (visual analog scale), and quality of life (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BM22 scales) at the 30-day follow-up. Operation time, postoperative duration of bed rest, duration of hospitalization, intraoperative blood loss, and the need and length of postoperative opioid administration were also evaluated. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of neurological recovery and complications. Nevertheless, the MISS group showed a clear and significant improvement in terms of blood loss, operation time, and bed rest length, which is associated with a more rapid functional recovery and discharge from the hospital. Postoperative pain and the need for opioid administration were also significantly less pronounced in the MISS group. Results from the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BM22 scales showed a more pronounced improvement in quality of life at follow-up in the MISS group. CONCLUSIONS In the authors' opinion, MISS techniques should be considered the first choice for the treatment for patients with spinal metastasis and myelopathy. MISS is as safe and effective for spinal cord decompression and spine fixation as traditional surgery, and it also reduces the impact of surgery in critical patients. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25723122

  13. Spinal surgery -- cervical - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The cervical spinal column is made up of vertebral bodies which protect the spinal cord. ... Cervical spine disease is usually caused by herniated intervertebral discs, abnormal growth of bony processes on the ...

  14. Phosphorylated neurofilament subunit NF-H becomes elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acutely worsening symptoms of compression myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakajima, Arata; Sonobe, Masato; Terajima, Fumiaki; Saito, Masahiko; Taniguchi, Shinji; Yamada, Manabu; Watanabe, Fusako; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Yamazaki, Masashi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Nakagawa, Koichi

    2014-12-01

    It is known that the severity of compression myelopathy sometimes worsens rapidly and results in poor functional recovery because of limited axonal regeneration. Levels of phosphorylated neurofilament subunit NF-H (pNF-H), which indicate axonal degeneration, are elevated in other neurological disorders. To our knowledge, there has been no examination of pNF-H levels in compression myelopathy. Therefore, we conducted a pilot cross-sectional study to evaluate pNF-H levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with worsening symptoms of cervical compression myelopathy. From January 2011 to March 2013, 51 samples of CSF were collected from patients at the time of myelography before spinal surgery. The indications for surgery were acutely worsening compression myelopathy (AM) in eight, chronic compression myelopathy (CM) in six, and lumbar canal stenosis (LCS) in 37 patients. The pNF-H levels were measured using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean ± standard deviation pNF-H value was 2127.1 ± 556.8 pg/ml in AM patients, 175.8 ± 67.38 pg/ml in CM patients and 518.7 ± 665.7 pg/ml in LCS patients. A significant increase in pNF-H levels was detected in the CSF of patients with AM compared with those with either CM or LCS. The clinical outcome of surgical treatment for patients with cervical myelopathy was satisfactory in both AM and CM patients. Despite the limitations of small sample size and lack of healthy CSF control data due to ethical considerations, our results suggest that pNF-H in CSF can act as a biomarker that reflects the severity of AM. PMID:25065845

  15. [Cervical spondylosis].

    PubMed

    Iwanami, Akio; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2014-10-01

    Japan has now become an aging society. In 2014, people aged more than 65 years old accounted for 25.1% of Japan's entire population. Aging is associated with an increased risk of problems related to the locomotive organs. Deterioration of locomotive ability causes falls or tumbles, which would be a threat to good health and longevity of aged people. To maintain the locomotive ability of the elderly, therefore, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association starts a campaign to promote awareness and prevention of "locomotive syndrome". Cervical spondylosis is a disorder for age-related wear affecting the disks and vertebrae of cervical spine. It would also be a cause of "locomotive syndrome". Here, we give an outline of this disease and introduce its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25509798

  16. A Broken Drill-bit Fragment Causing Severe Radiating Pain after Cervical Total Disc Replacement: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chong-Suh; Chung, Sung-Soo; Park, Jae-Chul; Shin, Seong-Kee; Park, Yong-Serk; Kang, Kyung-Chung

    2011-06-01

    This is a case report of a 38-year-old man with severe radiating pain on upper extremity after cervical total disc replacement (TDR). We faced an unusual complication that has not been reported yet. He underwent cervical TDR for left central disc protrusion on C5-6. After the surgery, preoperative symptom disappeared. However, at postoperative 1 year, he complained severe right-sided radiating pain that had a sudden onset. On postoperative X-ray, a metal fragment which seemed like a broken drill bit was shown within the spinal canal. To remove that, right-sided anterior microforaminotomy on C5-6 was performed and the metal fragment was removed successfully. After that, anterior fusion was done because the motion of the artificial disc was minimal and the removed structure seemed to attenuate stability during cervical motion. The operation resulted in prompt symptomatic relief. During cervical TDR, particular attention should be paid to the procedures that require using drill-bits. PMID:21629488

  17. The optimized acupuncture treatment for neck pain caused by cervical spondylosis: a study protocol of a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neck pain is one of the chief symptoms of cervical spondylosis (CS). Acupuncture is a well-accepted and widely used complementary therapy for the management of neck pain caused by CS. In this paper, we present a randomized controlled trial protocol evaluating the use of acupuncture for CS neck pain, comparing the effects of the optimized acupuncture therapy in real practice compared with sham and shallow acupuncture. Methods/Design This trial uses a multicentre, parallel-group, randomized, sham acupuncture and shallow acupuncture, controlled single-blind design. Nine hospitals are involved as trial centres. 945 patients who meet inclusion criteria are randomly assigned to receive optimized acupuncture therapy, sham acupuncture or shallow acupuncture by a computerized central randomization system. The interventions past for 4 weeks with eight to ten treatments in total. The group allocations and interventions are concealed to patients and statisticians. The Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) is used as the primary outcome measure, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and The Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) are applied as secondary outcome measures. The evaluation is performed at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at the end of the first month and the third month during follow-up. The statistical analyses will include baseline data comparison and repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) for primary and secondary outcomes of group and time differences. Adverse events (AEs) will be reported if they occur. Discussion This trial is a multicentre randomized control trial (RCT) on the efficacy of acupuncture for CS neck pain and has a large sample size and central randomization in China. It will strictly follow the CONSORT statement and STRICTA extension guideline to report high-quality study results. By setting the control groups as sham and shallow acupuncture, this study attempts to reveal the effects of real acupuncture versus placebo or non-classic acupuncture treatment and evaluate whether classic Chinese medical acupuncture is effective on CS neck pain. This study will provide evidence for the effects of acupuncture on CS neck pain. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-00000184. PMID:22776567

  18. From less to maximally invasiveness in cervical spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Visocchi, M.; Conforti, G.; Roselli, R.; La Rocca, G.; Spallone, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Multilevel cervical myelopathy without surgical treatment is generally poor in the neurological deficit without surgical decompression. The two main surgical strategies used for the treatment of multilevel cervical myelopathy are anterior decompression via anterior corpectomy or posterior decompression via laminctomy/laminoplasty. Presentation of case We present the case of a 62 year-old lady, harboring rheumatoid artritis (RA) with gait disturbances, pain, and weakness in both arms. A C5 and C6 somatectomy, C4–C7 discectomy and, instrumentation and fusion with telescopic distractor “piston like”, anterior plate and expandable screws were performed. Two days later the patient complained dysfagia, and a cervical X-ray showed hardware dislocation. So a C4 somatectomy, telescopic extension of the construct up to C3 with expandible screws was performed. After one week the patient complained again soft dysfagia. New cervical X-ray showed the pull out of the cranial screws (C3). So the third surgery “one stage combined” an anterior decompression with fusion along with posterior instrumentation, and fusion was performed. Discussion There is a considerable controversy over which surgical approach will receive the best clinical outcome for the minimum cost in the compressive cervical myelopathy. However, the most important factors in patient selection for a particular procedure are the clinical symptoms and the radiographic alignment of the spine. the goals of surgery for cervical multilevel stenosis include the restoration of height, alignment, and stability. Conclusion We stress the importance of a careful patients selection, and invocated still the importance for 360° cervical fixation. PMID:25734320

  19. Contribution of disc degeneration to osteophyte formation in the cervical spine: a biomechanical investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srirangam Kumaresan; Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A. Pintar; Dennis J. Maiman; Vijay K. Goel

    2001-01-01

    Cervical spine disorders such as spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy are often related to osteophyte formation. Bone remodeling experimental–analytical studies have correlated biomechanical responses such as stress and strain energy density to the formation of bony outgrowth. Using these responses of the spinal components, the present study was conducted to investigate the basis for the occurrence of disc-related pathological conditions. An

  20. Fibrocartilaginous Embolic Myelopathy in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Gill, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    This case report gives details concerning fibrocartilaginous arterial embolism leading to an ischemic myelopathy in a dog. Using various histochemical techniques, the material occluding the vessels was found to be similar to that reported for fibrocartilaginous ground substance of the nucleus pulposus. The pathway by which this material enters the arterial vasculature of the spinal cord is not known. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 4. PMID:544004

  1. Hyperferritinemia in a woman with systemic lupus erythematosus, severe nephritis and an iron-rich intraspinal schwannoma mimicking lupus myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Conca, W; Al-Hakim, M; Moussa, N; Al-Salam, S; Corr, P

    2009-01-01

    We describe a lupus flare in a 59-year-old woman who presented with pancytopenia, nephritis, severe renal dysfunction and marked hyperferritinemia. The course of the disease was further complicated by an iron-laden, intraspinal ancient schwannoma that compressed the cervical cord mimicking a lupus-related myelopathy and was removed surgically. Treatment with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and prednisone induced a gradual decline in levels of serum ferritin with a concomitant improvement in renal function and reduction of proteinuria. Serum ferritin may be a useful marker of the response to treatment with MMF in renal lupus. PMID:19917169

  2. Thoracic Disc Herniation of the Adjacent Segment With Acutely Progressing Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Oh, In-Soo; Seo, Jun-Yeong; Kim, Yoon-Chung

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a 66-year-old woman with progressing myelopathy. Her history revealed instrumented fusion from T10 to S1 for degenerative lumbar kyphosis and spinal stenosis. The plain radiographs showed narrowing of the intervertebral disc space with a gas shadow and sclerotic end-plate changes at T9-T10. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a posterolateral mass compressing the spinal cord at the T9-T10 level. The patient was treated with a discectomy through the posterior approach combined with posterior instrumentation. The patient's symptoms and myelopathy resolved completely after the discectomy and instrumented fusion. The thoracic disc herniation might have been caused by the increased motion and stress concentration at the adjacent segment. PMID:20622956

  3. Acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy after cervical spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Miscusi, Massimo; Currà, Antonio; Della Rocca, Carlo; Missori, Paolo; Petrozza, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    The authors report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome with a poor prognosis, immediately after surgery for resection of a cervical chondroma. A misdiagnosis of spinal cord shock due to an acute surgical or vascular postoperative complication was initially made in this patient. Nevertheless, there was continuous transient improvement that was followed by progressive worsening, and further investigation was necessary. The diagnosis of AMSAN, associated with acute colitis caused by Helicobacter pylori, was made based on neurophysiological examinations and colonoscopy. Interestingly, the patient also developed nephrotic syndrome, which was thought to be a further complication of the autoimmune reaction. Delayed administration of immunoglobulins (400 mg/kg/day), mesalazine (800 mg 3×/day), and meropenem (3 g/day) was used to treat the Helicobacter infection and the autoimmune reaction, leading to restoration of renal function and slight neurological improvement. The patient's general condition and neurological status improved slightly, but he remained seriously disabled (Frankel Grade C). This case demonstrates that a new onset of neurological symptoms in the early postoperative period after spine surgery could be related to causes other than iatrogenic myelopathy, and that an early diagnosis can reduce neurological sequelae, leading to a better outcome. PMID:22559275

  4. Selective posterior decompression of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyongsong; Isu, Toyohiko; Sugawara, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Isobe, Masanori; Morimoto, Daijiro; Mishina, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shiro; Yoshida, Daizo; Teramoto, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Posterior decompression of the cervical spine is an accepted treatment for patients with cervical canal disease, but some patients experience postoperative axial pain and C5 or C6 palsy that affect their quality of life. Here we describe selective posterior decompression using a spinous process-splitting approach to prevent these complications performed in 17 patients with myelopathy treated at median 2.4 levels by selective posterior decompression via the transspinous approach. Clinical symptoms, axial pain, and C5 or C6 palsy were compared before and after treatment. The range of motion of the cervical spine and shift of the cervical cord were studied at the C5 level. All patients experienced symptom improvement and none suffered deterioration or required reoperation. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association score improved from 10.9 to 14.4 points and none of the patients reported C5 or C6 palsy or axial pain at the last follow-up visit. There was no statistically significant change in pre- and postoperative cervical alignment and range of motion. The posterior shift of the spinal cord at the C5 level was 1.7 mm. None of our 17 patients experienced significant postoperative axial pain after selective posterior decompression via the transspinous approach. Minimal spinal cord shift at the C5 level may have contributed to the reduced incidence of postoperative C5 or C6 palsy in our series. Selective posterior decompression is less invasive and effective in some patients with cervical canal disease. PMID:21358151

  5. Cervical radiculopathy: epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Woods, Barrett I; Hilibrand, Alan S

    2015-06-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a relatively common neurological disorder resulting from nerve root dysfunction, which is often due to mechanical compression; however, inflammatory cytokines released from damaged intervertebral disks can also result in symptoms. Cervical radiculopathy can often be diagnosed with a thorough history and physical examination, but an magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic myelogram should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Because of the ubiquity of degenerative changes found on these imaging modalities, the patient's symptoms must correlate with pathology for a successful diagnosis. In the absence of myelopathy or significant muscle weakness all patients should be treated conservatively for at least 6 weeks. Conservative treatments consist of immobilization, anti-inflammatory medications, physical therapy, cervical traction, and epidural steroid injections. Cervical radiculopathy typically is self-limiting with 75%-90% of patients achieving symptomatic improvement with nonoperative care. For patients who are persistently symptomatic despite conservative treatment, or those who have a significant functional deficit surgical treatment is appropriate. Surgical options include anterior cervical decompression and fusion, cervical disk arthroplasty, and posterior foraminotomy. Patient selection is critical to optimize outcome. PMID:25985461

  6. Intradural tumor and concomitant disc herniation of cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Bapat, Mihir R; Rathi, Prasanna; Pawar, Uday; Chaudhary, Kshitij

    2011-01-01

    We report a rare patient of a simultaneous extradural and intradural compression of the cervical spinal cord due to co-existent intervertebral disc herniation and an intradural schwannoma at the same level. The intradural lesion was missed resulting in recurrence of myelopathy after a surprisingly complete functional recovery following anterior cervical discectomy. Retrospectively, it was noted that the initial cord swelling noticed was tumor being masked by the compression produced by the herniated disc. A contrast magnetic resonance imaging scan is important in differentiating intradural tumors of the spinal cord. A high index of suspicion is often successful in unmasking both the pathologies. PMID:21221228

  7. Intradural tumor and concomitant disc herniation of cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Bapat, Mihir R; Rathi, Prasanna; Pawar, Uday; Chaudhary, Kshitij

    2011-01-01

    We report a rare patient of a simultaneous extradural and intradural compression of the cervical spinal cord due to co-existent intervertebral disc herniation and an intradural schwannoma at the same level. The intradural lesion was missed resulting in recurrence of myelopathy after a surprisingly complete functional recovery following anterior cervical discectomy. Retrospectively, it was noted that the initial cord swelling noticed was tumor being masked by the compression produced by the herniated disc. A contrast magnetic resonance imaging scan is important in differentiating intradural tumors of the spinal cord. A high index of suspicion is often successful in unmasking both the pathologies. PMID:21221228

  8. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... in women, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. Photo courtesy of Judy Folkenberg, NLM Writer ...

  9. Clinical presentation of a patient with thoracic myelopathy at a chiropractic clinic

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Charles W.; Bishop, Mark D.; Beres, Jacqueline L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this case report is to describe the clinical presentation, examination findings, and management decisions of a patient with thoracic myelopathy who presented to a chiropractic clinic. Case Report/Methods After receiving a diagnosis of a diffuse arthritic condition and kidney stones based on lumbar radiograph interpretation at a local urgent care facility, a 45-year-old woman presented to an outpatient chiropractic clinic with primary complaints of generalized low back pain, bilateral lower extremity paresthesias, and difficulty walking. An abnormal neurological examination result led to an initial working diagnosis of myelopathy of unknown cause. The patient was referred for a neurological consult. Results Computed tomography revealed severe multilevel degenerative spondylosis with diffuse ligamentous calcification, facet joint hypertrophy, and disk protrusion at T9-10 resulting in midthoracic cord compression. The patient underwent multilevel spinal decompressive surgery. Following surgical intervention, the patient reported symptom improvement. Conclusion It is important to include a neurologic examination on all patients presenting with musculoskeletal complaints, regardless of prior medical attention. The ability to recognize myelopathy and localize the lesion to a specific spinal region by clinical examination may help prioritize diagnostic imaging decisions as well as facilitate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23204955

  10. Surgical treatment of myeloradiculopathy in cervical spondylosis. A report on 438 operations.

    PubMed

    Samii, M; Völkening, D; Sepehrnia, A; Penkert, G; Baumann, H

    1989-01-01

    In the past eleven years we have performed 438 microsurgical ventral discectomies with bilateral foraminotomy followed by fusion with palacos in the cervical spine in our clinic. An analysis of the preoperative symptoms shows a great variability and overlapping of the various segments. To determine the right level for the operation it is crucial that the results of the clinical and the radiological examinations be evaluated. The results of ascending myelography and CT scans are of great value. In cases of cervical myelopathy a multisegmental operation is often necessary to obtain good results. The complication rate was small in our patients and a second operation was only necessary in a few cases. We had very good postoperative results in radicular pain and muscle weakness. In patients with symptoms of cervical myelopathy we achieved considerable improvement. PMID:2594204

  11. Combined Anterior Approach with Transcorporeal Herniotomy for a Huge Migrated Cervical Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yong; Lee, Choon Dae; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2011-01-01

    The report describes the herniation of a huge migrated cervical disc, which was treated by a combined anterior approach. A 50-year-old man presented with radiculopathy and myelopathy. Radiological images revealed the herniation of a huge disc which had migrated superiorly from the C6-7 disc to the C5-6 disc. We tried to combine an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and transcorporeal herniotomy to avoid corpectomy. Postoperatively, successful clinical and radiological results were obtained. It is therefore possible to remove a huge migrated herniated cervical disc completely by a combined ACDF and trancorporeal approach without corpectomy.

  12. [Cervical teratoma].

    PubMed

    Lindhardt, Christian; Kristensen, Søren

    2003-04-21

    We describe the case of a 3-year-old girl with a cervical teratoma. Cervical teratomas are rare tumors in infancy and childhood, commonly presenting as large cervical masses and often diagnosed before birth. In the actual case the teratoma was present at birth but was very small and had a little pseudoduct, which was mistaken for a median cervical cyst. It is emphasized that knowledge of teratomas although often benign in infants and children is essential since they have a malignant potential. If detected early surgical removal is curative provided it is complete. PMID:12768909

  13. Cox Decompression Manipulation and Guided Rehabilitation of a Patient With a Post Surgical C6-C7 Fusion With Spondylotic Myelopathy and Concurrent L5-S1 Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Joachim, George C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe combined treatment utilizing Cox distraction manipulation and guided rehabilitation for a patient with spine pain and post-surgical C6-7 fusion with spondylotic myelopathy and L5-S1 radiculopathy. Clinical features A 38-year-old man presented to a chiropractic clinic with neck pain and a history of an anterior cervical spine plate fusion at C6-7 after a work related accident 4 years earlier. He had signs and symptoms of spondolytic myelopathy and right lower back, right posterior thigh pain and numbness. Intervention and outcome The patient was treated with Cox technique and rehabilitation. The patient experienced a reduction of pain on a numeric pain scale from 8/10 to 3/10. The patient was seen a total of 12 visits over 3 months. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusions A patient with a prior C6-7 fusion with spondylotic myelopathy and concurrent L5-S1 radiculopathy improved after a course of rehabilitation and Cox distraction manipulation. Further research is needed to establish its efficiency. PMID:25685119

  14. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign. The ... the facts about gynecologic cancer, providing important “inside knowledge” about their bodies and health. What is cervical ...

  15. Use of cylindrical titanium mesh and locking plates in anterior cervical fusion. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Das, K; Couldwell, W T; Sava, G; Taddonio, R F

    2001-01-01

    After performing anterior cervical corpectomy or discectomy for cervical spondolytic myelopathy or radiculopathy, iliac crest bone graft and fibular auto- or allograft is often used to achieve arthrodesis in the cervical spine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a cylindrical titanium mesh and locking plate system as an alternative technique in achieving anterior cervical fusion and maintaining lordosis. Hospital records and radiographs of 38 patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomies (28 patients) or corpectomies (10 patients) from 1995 to 1997 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients had undergone arthrodesis in which autograft and a cylindrical titanium mesh and anterior locking plate fixation were used after discectomy or corpectomy. There were 20 men and 18 women (mean age 46.1 years; range 34-72 years). Presenting symptoms included radiculopathy (61%), myelopathy (37%), and neck pain (2%). Preoperative and postoperative radiographs were studied, and data were obtained on the following: overall lordosis or kyphosis of the cervical spine, segmental lordosis or kyphosis at each surgically treated level, and evidence of fusion. In all of the patients in whom lordosis was present preoperatively, lordosis was maintained during the follow-up period. The overall fusion rate was 100%. The average change in overall lordosis or kyphosis related to the fixation devices was 1.2 degrees (range 1-5 degrees) the average segmental change was 2.3 degrees (range 0-5 degrees); and the mean follow up was 16 months (range 12-36 months). Anterior cervical fusion with cylindrical titanium mesh and cervical locking plate system is an effective method of achieving arthrodesis and maintaining alignment in the cervical spine. The construct may provide additional load-sharing function, and it avoids the use of cadaveric bone or the need for harvesting tricortical iliac crest autograft. PMID:11147858

  16. How will HPV vaccines affect cervical cancer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Roden; T.-C. Wu

    2006-01-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in women, and its toll is greatest in populations that lack screening programmes to detect precursor lesions. Persistent infection with 'high risk' genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, although not sufficient, to cause cervical carcinoma. Therefore, HPV vaccination provides an opportunity to profoundly affect cervical cancer

  17. Preventing Cervical Cancer: The Development of HPV Vaccines

    Cancer.gov

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  18. Fractures of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Teixeira, William Jacobsen; Narasaki, Douglas Kenji; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative. PMID:24270959

  19. Vaginitis, cervicitis, and cervical length in pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jantien J. Boomgaard; Karin S. Dekker; Elsabet van Rensburg; Corlia van den Berg; Illse Niemand; Roosmarie H. Bam; Hendrik S. Cronjé

    1999-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the possible association among vaginitis, cervicitis, and cervical length in pregnancy. Study Design: Primigravid volunteers, between 20 and 36 weeks’ gestation (n = 210), were examined. Vaginitis was diagnosed by pH determination and wet mount smear, cervicitis was diagnosed by cervicography, and cervical length was diagnosed by vaginal ultrasonographic measurement. Patients with both vaginitis and

  20. Atlanto-axial approach for cervical myelography in a Thoroughbred horse with complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Monica; Dimock, Abigail N; Wisner, Erik R; Prutton, Jamie W; Madigan, John E

    2014-11-01

    A 2-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with clinical signs localized to the first 6 spinal cord segments (C1 to C6) had complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones which precluded performing a routine myelogram. An ultrasound-assisted myelogram at the intervertebral space between the atlas and axis was successfully done and identified a marked extradural compressive myelopathy at the level of the atlas and axis, and axis and third cervical vertebrae. PMID:25392550

  1. Atlanto-axial approach for cervical myelography in a Thoroughbred horse with complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Monica; Dimock, Abigail N.; Wisner, Erik R.; Prutton, Jamie W.; Madigan, John E.

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with clinical signs localized to the first 6 spinal cord segments (C1 to C6) had complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones which precluded performing a routine myelogram. An ultrasound-assisted myelogram at the intervertebral space between the atlas and axis was successfully done and identified a marked extradural compressive myelopathy at the level of the atlas and axis, and axis and third cervical vertebrae. PMID:25392550

  2. Cranial and Cervical Muscular Weakness in Mitochondrial Myopathy Is Associated With Resolution of Migraine Headaches: Further Evidence That Muscular Compression of Cranial and Peripheral Nerves Is a Cause of Headache in a Subset of Patients With Migraine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A significant subset of patients with migraine headaches has pain relief after neuroplasty/muscular decompression of select cranial and cervical nerves. In the majority of cases, compression occurs secondary to compression of the nerves by adjacent muscles. Previous studies have shown that both surgical decompression and chemical denervation (eg, botulinum toxin) provide relief of migraine headaches; however, controversy remains. If some migraine headaches are caused by muscular compression, then paresis of the compressing muscles by underlying myopathic/metabolic disease should result in migraine relief in some patients. Methods: We report a case of mitochondrial myopathy causing weakness primarily of the muscles of facial expression and the neck in the context of chronic migraine headaches (>20-year history). Muscle biopsy was obtained to confirm the myopathic diagnosis. Results: There was complete resolution of the patient's migraine headaches that occurred simultaneously with the onset of symptomatic paresis of the muscles of facial expression and the neck. The relief has persisted for more than 10 months. Neurologic evaluation and muscle biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of mitochondrial myopathy. Conclusions: Pathologic paresis/paralysis of facial and/or cervical muscles can result in persistent resolution of migraine headache pain, giving further evidence to the concept that peripheral and/or cranial nerve compression causes migraine headache pain in a subset of patients with a diagnosis of migraine. PMID:26171092

  3. Cervical laminoplasty for cervical myeloradiculopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Ozuna; Rick B. Delamarter

    1996-01-01

    The role for treatment of conditions resulting in cervical spondylotic myeloradiculopathy through posterior approaches is discussed. The indications and advantages of a posterior approach andin particular laminoplasty are reviewed. Various techniques of laminoplasty are presented. The senior author's technique and series in expansive open door laminoplasty is also reviewed. The series was a prospective study performed to evaluate the clinical

  4. Human papilloma virus and cervical preinvasive disease

    PubMed Central

    Bari, M; Iancu, G; Popa, F

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer lesions represent a major threat to the health of the women worldwide. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for 99.7% of cervical cancer cases, the infectious etiology giving the possibility of preventing cervical cancer by vaccination. The most aggressive HPV types are 16 and 18, which cause about 70% of cases of invasive cancer. The vaccination is recommended to the girls aged 11–12. The diagnosis and the treatment of cervical preinvasive disease allow the doctor to prevent the development of the invasive disease. PMID:20108750

  5. Cervical Cancer: Screening and Therapeutic Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan; Somanathan Thara; Pulikottil Okkuru Esmy; Partha Basu

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality and premature death among women in their most productive years in low- and medium-resourced countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, despite the fact that it is an eminently preventable cancer. While cytology screening programmes have resulted in a substantial reduction of cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, they have been shown

  6. Revision of anterior cervical pseudoarthrosis with anterior allograft fusion and plating.

    PubMed

    Coric, D; Branch, C L; Jenkins, J D

    1997-06-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an efficacious procedure used to treat a variety of cervical spinal disorders, including spondylosis, myelopathy, herniated discs, trauma, and degenerative disc disease. Pseudarthrosis, or failure of fusion, may be the most common complication of spinal fusion procedures. Nineteen consecutive patients with symptomatic pseudarthrosis following failed anterior cervical fusions were treated with anterior cervical revision using iliac crest allografts and either the Cervical Spine Locking Plate system (10 patients) or the Trapezial Osteosynthetic Plate system (nine patients). The mean age of the nine men and 10 women undergoing treatment was 49.1 years (range 25-72 years). Eleven patients (57.9%) exhibited pseudarthrosis at one level, six (31.5%) at two levels, and two (10.5%) at three levels. The indications for revision were intractable neck pain with radiculopathy (17 patients) or myelopathy (two patients), with evidence of pseudarthrosis on plain cervical radiography as well as computerized tomography (CT) or single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) scanning, or both. All eight patients evaluated with SPECT showed increased focal uptake consistent with pseudarthrosis, which was subsequently confirmed intraoperatively in all eight. The average follow-up period was 22.4 months (range 12-42 months). Solid osseous fusion was achieved over all 28 levels in all 18 patients available for follow-up review (100%). One patient died 4 months postoperatively from myocardial infarction related to preexisting coronary artery disease. There were no intraoperative complications; postoperatively, two patients (10.5%) experienced transient hoarseness. Anterior revision of failed cervical fusions using allograft interbody fusion material and anterior plating is a safe and efficacious procedure. In this series, the use of allografts avoided donor site morbidity without adversely affecting fusion rates. Rigid internal fixation was achieved by means of anterior plating without increasing surgical morbidity rates. The SPECT imaging technique has the potential to reliably confirm the diagnosis of pseudarthrosis. PMID:9171175

  7. Cervical spine CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... scan – cervical spine; Computed tomography scan – cervical spine; CT scan - cervical spine; Neck CT scan ... table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. Once you are inside the scanner, the ...

  8. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA View/Download: Small: 612x612 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IVB View/Download: Small: 594x640 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; ...

  10. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    MedlinePLUS

    Cervical Cancer Stage IA View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing shows a cross-section of the ...

  11. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IVA View/Download: Small: 756x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; ...

  12. Cervical dysplasia - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. It is a cancer of the ... smear is the screening procedure used to detect cervical cancer. Limited or early cervical cancer (carcinoma in ...

  13. Missed upper cervical spine fracture: clinical and radiological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Lemire, Joe J

    1997-01-01

    Objective: This report presents a case of missed upper cervical spine fracture following a motor vehicle accident and illustrates various clinical and radiographic considerations necessary in the evaluation of post traumatic cervical spine injuries. Specific clinical signs and symptoms, as well as radiographic clues should prompt the astute clinician to suspect a fracture even when plain film radiographs have been reported as normal. Clinical features: A 44-year-old male was referred for an orthopaedic consultation for assessment of headaches following a high speed head-on motor vehicle accident eleven weeks prior to his presentation. Cervical spine radiographs taken at an emergency ward the day of the collision were reported as essentially normal. Subsequent radiographs taken eleven weeks later revealed a fracture through the body of axis with anterior displacement of atlas. A review of the initial radiographs clearly demonstrated signs suggesting an upper cervical fracture. Intervention and outcome: Initially the patient was prescribed a soft collar which he wore daily until an orthopaedic consultation eleven weeks later. Fifteen weeks following trauma, the patient was considered for surgical intervention, due to persistent headaches associated with the development of neurological signs suggestive of early onset of cervical myelopathy. Conclusion: Cervical spine fractures can have disastrous consequences if not detected early. A thorough clinical and radiological evaluation is essential in any patient presenting with a history of neck or head trauma. Repeated plain film radiographs are imperative in the event of inadequate visualization of the cervical vertebrae. When in doubt, further imaging studies such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are required to rule out a fracture. ImagesFigure 1AFigure 1BFigure 2Figure 3

  14. Spinal cord infarction with cervical angina.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Yoshiharu; Johkura, Ken; Kudo, Yosuke; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-15

    Cervical angina is defined as chest pain resembling true cardiac angina but originating from disorders of the cervical spine. Cervical angina is caused by cervical spondylosis in most cases. A 66-year-old man presented with bilateral arm palsy after chest pain resembling angina pectoris. Neurological examination revealed motor and sensory disturbances of the C7 to T1 level, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a hyperintense spinal cord lesion on T2-weighted imaging. Spinal cord infarction was diagnosed. Severe sinus bradycardia was identified on admission, and improved over the course of 5 weeks. Sympathetic afferent fibers from the heart and coronary arteries generally have their cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia of the C8 to T9 spinal segments. Electrical stimulation of cardiopulmonary afferent fibers excites spinothalamic tract cells in the T1 to T6 segments of the spinal cord. Spinal cord injury can result in the loss of supraspinal control of the sympathetic system and can cause bradycardia, as commonly seen in patients with severe lesions of the cervical or high-thoracic (T6 or above) spinal cord. Bradycardia in the present case suggested impairment of the sympathetic system at the cervical and thoracic levels. These findings indicated that cervical angina in this case was mediated through the sympathetic nervous system. This represents only the second report of cervical angina caused by spinal cord infarction. PMID:23199591

  15. Occipito-Cervical Fusion with the Cervical Cotrel-Dubousset Rod System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Heidecke; N. G. Rainov; W. Burkert

    1998-01-01

    Summary  ?Diseases and conditions which cause instability of the cranio-cervical junction and the adjacent upper cervical spine are\\u000a relatively common and potentially life-threatening. Direct internal occipito-cervical fusion (OCF) is a modern means of surgical\\u000a treatment in such cases, and has some advantages over simple immobilization of the affected segments. The present study was\\u000a designed to evaluate surgical handling, results, and complications

  16. Leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Tae Hoon; Shin, Jun Jae; Chae, Gue Tae

    2010-07-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium leprae that leads to leprotic neuropathy involving the peripheral nerve and several characteristic skin lesions. Skeletal involvement can occur in peripheral joints, such as the wrist and the ankle. However, there is no report of an axial leprotic lesion involving the spine or paraspinal soft tissue. The authors report the first case of a leprotic cervical lesion involving the axial skeletal system. A 48-year-old male presented with neck pain and severe pain in the right suprascapular area and left arm. Preoperative MRI of the cervical spine revealed signal changes in the prevertebral soft tissue at the level of the C3, 4, 5 vertebral bodies. There were a lower signal intensity on T1-weighted image and high signal intensity on T2WI of the bone marrow at the level of the C5 and C6 vertebral bodies, and a C5/6 segmental ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. There were herniated cervical disc on the left C5/6 with C6 root and the right side of C6/7 with a C7 root compression. He was previously diagnosed with leprosy when he was 14 years old and received treatment intermittently over the course of 7 years. But patient did not disclose his past history. Surgical intervention was conducted using an anterior cervical approach. An incision was made in the anterior longitudinal ligament at C5/6, and a pinkish gray friable gelatinous material was observed on the C5/6 disc and on the anterior lower one-third surface of the C5 vertebral body. Specimens were obtained and subjected to pathological evaluation and microbiological culture. After C5/6 and C6/7 discectomies, nerve root decompression and autologous iliac bone grafting were performed at the C5/6 and C6/7 levels. The C5-6-7 vertebrae were fixed with an Atlantis cervical locking plate and a screw system. The pathological report indicated chronic inflammation with heavy plasma cell infiltration on the specimen. We sent the specimens to the Institute of Hansen's Disease, and polymerase chain reaction for leprosy tested positive. After surgery, his pain disappeared and he was given a prescription for antileprotic drugs. The authors describe the first case of leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis that was operatively treated in a 48-year-old patient with known leprosy history since his 14 years old. PMID:20372941

  17. Resection of an intramedullary high cervical metastasis from a malignant mixed Muellerian tumour.

    PubMed

    Stienen, Martin Nikolaus; Hinkerohe, Daniel; Harders, Albrecht; Lücke, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    We present a 66-year-old female patient with a high cervical intramedullary metastasis from a malignant mixed Muellerian tumour (MMMT; carcinosarcoma) with concomitant syringomyelia. She was admitted to our clinic with symptoms of cervical myelopathy. MRI revealed an intramedullary tumour of 2.6cm×1.2cm at the cervical vertebral body C2. We performed a laminectomy on C2 followed by a dorsal median myelotomy from C1 to C3 to resect the tumour. The surgical intervention removed the tumour completely and resolved the syringomyelia. During the 36months of follow-up, the patient presented in a stable condition with no evidence of tumour recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intramedullary metastasis of a MMMT. PMID:23321628

  18. Cervical orthoses.

    PubMed

    Beavis, A

    1989-04-01

    A biomechanical study is presented to compare the effectiveness of three types of off-the-shelf cervical orthoses and one custom-fit collar in restricting cervical spine motion. A group of 10 normal subjects was studied. The measurements of flexion and extension, lateral side flexion and axial rotation were recorded using various measurement techniques. Interface pressures at the chin and occiput were also measured, along with the warming effect of the collars. The results indicated that all the collars restricted neck movements, for example, the Plastazote collar by 50% of flexion and extension, and that there was no significant difference between off-the-shelf Plastazote and custom-fit collars in restricting movement. Significantly high interface pressures were recorded at the chin, with the subjects wearing the hard and Plastazote orthoses. The warming effect of the soft collar was equal to that of a wool scarf. The study was aimed at improving prescription and although the subjective observations were not validated, the subjects concluded that the custom-fit collars were more comfortable; an important point with such a high rejection rate. PMID:2717386

  19. HPV vaccination and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Szarewski, Anne

    2012-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide and often affects women under 40 years with young families. Vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major advance, since it offers primary prevention against the infectious agent that is the main cause of the disease. Two prophylactic vaccines have shown great promise in clinical trials. One of these (Gardasil(®)) contains all four HPV types, offering protection against genital warts (types 6 and 11) as well as cervical cancer (types 16 and 18). The other (Cervarix(®)) contains types 16 and 18, targeting cervical cancer alone, but also has a degree of cross-protection against types 31 and 45, which could significantly increase the level of protection. Adolescent girls remain the primary target of vaccination programmes, but the issues of vaccinating boys and older women are increasingly debated. PMID:22890794

  20. Cervical spondylosis with spinal cord encroachment: should preventive surgery be recommended?

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Donald R; Coulis, Christopher M; Gerrard, Jonathan K

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been stated that individuals who have spondylotic encroachment on the cervical spinal cord without myelopathy are at increased risk of spinal cord injury if they experience minor trauma. Preventive decompression surgery has been recommended for these individuals. The purpose of this paper is to provide the non-surgical spine specialist with information upon which to base advice to patients. The evidence behind claims of increased risk is investigated as well as the evidence regarding the risk of decompression surgery. Methods A literature search was conducted on the risk of spinal cord injury in individuals with asymptomatic cord encroachment and the risk and benefit of preventive decompression surgery. Results Three studies on the risk of spinal cord injury in this population met the inclusion criteria. All reported increased risk. However, none were prospective cohort studies or case-control studies, so the designs did not allow firm conclusions to be drawn. A number of studies and reviews of the risks and benefits of decompression surgery in patients with cervical myelopathy were found, but no studies were found that addressed surgery in asymptomatic individuals thought to be at risk. The complications of decompression surgery range from transient hoarseness to spinal cord injury, with rates ranging from 0.3% to 60%. Conclusion There is insufficient evidence that individuals with spondylotic spinal cord encroachment are at increased risk of spinal cord injury from minor trauma. Prospective cohort or case-control studies are needed to assess this risk. There is no evidence that prophylactic decompression surgery is helpful in this patient population. Decompression surgery appears to be helpful in patients with cervical myelopathy, but the significant risks may outweigh the unknown benefit in asymptomatic individuals. Thus, broad recommendations for decompression surgery in suspected at-risk individuals cannot be made. Recommendations to individual patients must consider possible unique circumstances. PMID:19703280

  1. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer This page lists cancer ... Cervical Cancer Drug Combinations Used in Cervical Cancer Drugs Approved to Prevent Cervical Cancer Cervarix (Recombinant HPV ...

  2. Immunopathogenesis of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis: Recent Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Mineki; Bangham, Charles R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a replication-competent human retrovirus associated with two distinct types of disease only in a minority of infected individuals: the malignancy known as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and a chronic inflammatory central nervous system disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HAM/TSP is a chronic progressive myelopathy characterized by spastic paraparesis, sphincter dysfunction, and mild sensory disturbance in the lower extremities. Although the factors that cause these different manifestations of HTLV-1 infection are not fully understood, accumulating evidence from host population genetics, viral genetics, DNA expression microarrays, and assays of lymphocyte function suggests that complex virus-host interactions and the host immune response play an important role in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. Especially, the efficiency of an individual's cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response to HTLV-1 limits the HTLV-1 proviral load and the risk of HAM/TSP. This paper focuses on the recent advances in HAM/TSP research with the aim to identify the precise mechanisms of disease, in order to develop effective treatment and prevention. PMID:23198155

  3. New titanium spacer for cervical laminoplasty: initial clinical experience. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Tani, Satoshi; Suetsua, Futoshi; Mizuno, Junichi; Uchikado, Hisaaki; Nagashima, Hiroyasu; Akiyama, Masahiko; Isoshima, Akira; Ohashi, Hiroki; Hirano, Yoshitaka; Abe, Toshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Many commercially available hydroxyapatite (HA) spacers for cervical laminoplasty have been introduced but have disadvantages such as lack of plasticity, easy cracking, and occasional difficulty in fixation by sutures. Here we present the short-term results of a newly designed titanium spacer (Laminoplasty Basket) in open-door cervical laminoplasty, and evaluated clinically and radiologically. The titanium box-shaped spacer with two arms for fixation was easily inserted and fixed into the laminoplasty space with 4-mm or 5-mm length screws after the posterior cervical arch was repositioned for the canal expansion. Twenty-one patients with cervical myelopathy due to spondylosis or ossification of the longitudinal ligament or developmental narrow canal observed for more than 6 months postoperatively were enrolled in this study. The neurological condition of these patients improved from 9.4 points on the Japanese Orthopaedic Association scale preoperatively to 13.5 points at 6 months after surgery. Postoperative radiological evaluation showed no laminar closure or implant failure and cervical spine curvature was maintained. These results seemed to have no significant difference compared with those using HA spacers. This titanium spacer is a potential substitute for conventional HA or other similar devices in cervical laminoplasty. PMID:21206196

  4. Minimally invasive posterior cervical decompression using tubular retractor: The technical note and early clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jin-Sung; Shin, Myeong-Hoon; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this work is to present a novel decompression technique that approaches cervical spine posteriorly, but through minimal invasive method using tubular retractor avoiding detachment of posterior musculature. Methods: Six patients underwent minimally invasive posterior cervical decompression using the tubular retractor system and surgical microscope. Minimally invasive access to the posterior cervical spine was performed with exposure through a paramedian muscle-splitting approach. With the assistance of a specialized tubular retraction system and deep soft tissue expansion mechanism, multilevel posterior cervical decompression could be accomplished. This approach also allows safe docking of the retractor system on the lateral mass, thus avoiding the cervical spinal canal during exposure. A standard operating microscope was used with ×10 magnification and 400 mm focal length. The hospital charts, magnetic resonance imaging studies, and follow-up records of all the patients were reviewed. Outcome was assessed by neurological status and visual analog scale (VAS) for neck and arm pain. Results: There was no significant complication related to operation. The follow-up time was 4-12 months (mean, 9 months). Muscle weakness improved in all patients; sensory deficits resolved in four patients and improved in two patients. Analysis of the mean VAS for radicular pain and VAS for neck pain showed significant improvement. Conclusions: The preliminary experiences with good clinical outcome seem to promise that this minimally invasive technique is a valid alternative option for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. PMID:24778922

  5. Transient radiation myelopathy: spinal somatosensory evoked responses following incidental cord exposure during radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B R Lecky; N M Murray; R J Berry

    1980-01-01

    Serial spinal somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded in six patients undergoing radiotherapy involving incidental spinal radiation. Two patients developed transient radiation myelopathy. No abnormality was found in the somatosensory evoked potentials throughout the study.

  6. Rel\\/Nuclear factor-kappa B apoptosis pathways in human cervical cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marlene F Shehata

    2005-01-01

    Cervical cancer is considered a common yet preventable cause of death in women. It has been estimated that about 420 women out of the 1400 women diagnosed with cervical cancer will die during 5 years from diagnosis. This review addresses the pathogenesis of cervical cancer in humans with a special emphasis on the human papilloma virus as a predominant cause

  7. Surgical management of cervical and lumbosacral radiculopathies: indications and outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip B. Storm; Dean Chou; Rafael J. Tamargo

    2002-01-01

    Cervical and lumbosacral radiculopathies are common, but most are transient and rarely require anything more than symptomatic treatment. Although persistent radiculopathies can be caused by serious medical condi- tions, such as demyelinating diseases, cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) defi- ciency, syphilis, herpes, and others, the subject of this article is limited to cervical and lumbosacral radiculopathies caused by compression, most com- monly

  8. Hepatic myelopathy: an unusual neurological complication of chronic liver disease presenting as quadriparesis

    PubMed Central

    Kori, Prakash; Sahu, Ritesh; Jaiswal, Anupam; Shukla, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic myelopathy is a rare neurological complication of chronic liver disease, which is usually seen in adults, presenting as pure motor spastic paraparesis. It is almost always associated with portosystemic shunts and hepatic decompensation. We report a rare case of a young adult man presenting as rapidly progressive spastic quadriparesis because of hepatic myelopathy and associated spontaneous splenorenal shunt and early hepatic decompensation. PMID:23749858

  9. HPV Vaccine Promotion: Does Referring to Both Cervical Cancer and Genital Warts Affect Intended and Actual Vaccination Behavior?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilona Juraskova; Royena Abdul Bari; Michaeley Therese O’Brien; Kirsten Jo McCaffery

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundYoung women have poor awareness that human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause both cervical cancer and genital warts, a sexually transmitted infection (STI). A newly developed HPV vaccine can provide protection against both cervical cancer and genital warts. This vaccine could be promoted by health authorities\\/professionals as preventing cervical cancer plus genital warts, or cervical cancer alone. Because stigma around STIs

  10. Smoking and Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... been found in cervical mucus. These substances, called carcinogens, may damage the genes in cervical cells. Because ... www.smokefree.gov/ American Cancer ... Lung Association: http://www.ffsonline.org/ Centers for Disease ...

  11. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes ...

  12. Cervical spondylosis (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Cervical spondylosis is a disorder that results from abnormal growth of the bones of the neck and ... Progressive neck pain is a key indication of cervical spondylosis. It may be the only symptom in ...

  13. [Cervical ranula].

    PubMed

    Geurts, T W; van den Akker, H P; Balm, A J

    2004-02-21

    Three patients, 2 men aged 21 and 39 years, respectively, and 1 woman aged 29 years, presented with a unilateral swelling of the neck, with no accompanying symptoms. In the youngest man the diagnosis of a 'plunging ranula' was made after repeated fine needle aspiration yielded viscous yellowish mucus with a high amylase content. In the oldest man the diagnosis was made during the operation and in the woman the diagnosis was finally made after two surgical explorations in the neck. In all 3, no recurrence occurred after removal of the involved salivary glands. A cervical ranula is an extension of a pseudocyst of the glandula sublingualis. Important clues for the diagnosis of a 'plunging ranula' are: the simultaneous presence of a ranula in the floor of the mouth (or a history of one), a characteristic cystic mass in the submandibular space with an extension into the sublingual space on CT and/or MRI, and the aspiration of amylase-containing mucus. Excision of the sublingual gland as the source of salivary leakage is the therapy of choice in a case of 'plunging ranula', with drainage of mucus from the ranula into the oral cavity. As the 'plunging ranula' represents a pseudocyst without an epithelial lining, excision is not indicated. PMID:15032092

  14. Cervical screw missing secondary to delayed esophageal fistula: case report.

    PubMed

    Cagli, Sedat; Isik, H Serdar; Zileli, Mehmet

    2009-10-01

    Although anterior surgical approaches to the cervical spine have become popular and safe in recent years, they also have some complications. We present a case of loss of an anterior cervical plate screw by the natural tracts. The patient was a 47- year-old woman who was operated on for cervical spondylotic myelopathy at another institution. Surgical interference included two levels of anterior discectomy, iliac graft placement and fixation using plate and screws. Two years later, plate dislocation and partial migration of the upper screws were observed. After 7 years the patient complained of dysphagia and she accepted removal of the osteosynthesis. Radiographical examination showed that one of the upper screws was missing and two lower screws were broken. Esophageal perforation was found during the surgery and repaired. Further progress was favourable. Complications associated with esophageal perforation may range from massive infection and death to spontaneous recovery. Erosion of the esophageal wall due to extruded bulky constructs may lead to a persistent fistula, abscess or septic diffusion. Spontaneous perforation of the esophagus and screw loss via the gastrointestinal tract make this case interesting.. PMID:19847769

  15. Congenital Stenosis of the Cervical Spine: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Countee, Roger W.; Vijayanathan, Thurairasah

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of 11 cases of congenital stenosis of the cervical spine seen over the past three years is reported. The authors' experiences at an urban community hospital, as well as a large Veterans Administration Hospital, lead them to conclude that this disorder is a neurologically significant anomaly which is probably more common than published reports would imply. It can be clinically and radiographically distinguished from “pure” cervical spondylosis, to which it is related, and its treatment should be appropriately modified. It appears to have a predilection for young adult black males, and cervical myelopathy is the predominant clinical feature. Varying degrees of trauma, a disease endemic to the inner city, plays a major role in precipitating the neurological catastrophes associated with this potentially correctable disorder. Proper management of this entity demands a heightened awareness of its existence as well as a high standard of neurological and roentgenographic diagnosis, and operative performance. A flexible operative strategy which takes into account the specific biomechanical factors involved in this disorder as well as the patient's individual physiological and social status is imperative. Surgery offers a good opportunity for improving neurological function. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:439156

  16. Update knowledge on cervical cancer incidence and prevalence in Asia.

    PubMed

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Naheed; Ahmad, Saeed; Fatima, Urooj; Akram, Muhammad; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide, with over 500,000 new cases diagnosed annually and 50% mortality rate in Asia. In the United States, approximately 10,370 new cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed annually, and estimated 3,710 deaths occur from the disease, making it the sixth most common cause of malignancy among American women. This study aims to provide awareness about cervical cancer as well as an updated knowledge about the prevalence and incidence of cervical cancer in Asia. PMID:25987011

  17. Cervical paravertebral osteolipoma: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Guirro, Pau; Saló, Guillem; Molina, Antoni; Lladó, Andreu; Puig-Verdié, Lluís; Ramírez-Valencia, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Lipomas are the most frequent soft tissue tumors. Osteolipomas are a rare variant that can be difficult to diagnose. We report the case of a 66-year-old man consulting with a tumor of 2 years development in the right paravertebral cervical region. Neurologically, the patient had no sign of myelopathy or neurological focality. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass with a lipid component and calcifications inside within the right paravertebral musculature with a possible origin in the right C3 posterior root. A computed tomography scan and guided biopsy were performed, revealing hematic material and small bone spicules with no apparent neoplastic element. The tumor was totally removed, including the right C3 posterior branch, and was confirmed to be an osteolipoma on biopsy. The patient remains asymptomatic at 6-month follow-up. The osteolipoma is a benign tumor of soft tissue, characterized by lipoma areas with mature bone tissue differentiation, and even with hematopoietic marrow. PMID:25901244

  18. Giant Ventral Midline Schwannoma of Cervical Spine : Agonies and Nuances

    PubMed Central

    Chagla, Aadil; Goel, Atul

    2010-01-01

    Pure ventral midline giant schwannoma is an extremely rare entity. Spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas commonly occur posterolateral or anterolateral to the spinal cord. A case of a pure midline ventrally situated giant pan cervical extramedullary schwannoma in an 18-year-old male patient with compressive myelopathy and sphincter involvement is presented. Spinal MR imaging showed a midline ventrally situated extramedullary tumor with severe spinal cord compression extending from clivus to C7 vertebra. It was resected through a posterolateral approach. Histology was consistent with a schwannoma. Post operative MR imaging showed no evidence of the tumor. The radiological features, pathogenesis and surgical strategies in management of these difficult tumors are discussed and the relevant literature is briefly reviewed. PMID:20617092

  19. Veliparib, Topotecan Hydrochloride, and Filgrastim or Pegfilgrastim in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-16

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  20. Veliparib, Topotecan Hydrochloride, and Filgrastim or Pegfilgrastim in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-02

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  1. Upper Cervical Spine Trauma.

    PubMed

    Bransford, Richard J; Alton, Timothy B; Patel, Amit R; Bellabarba, Carlo

    2014-11-01

    Injuries to the upper cervical spine are potentially lethal; thus, full characterization of the injuries requires an accurate history and physical examination, and management requires an in-depth understanding of the radiographic projection of the craniocervical complex. Occipital condyle fractures may represent major ligament avulsions and may be highly unstable, requiring surgery. Craniocervical dissociation results from disruption of the primary osseoligamentous stabilizers between the occiput and C2. Dynamic fluoroscopy can differentiate the subtypes of craniocervical dissociation and help guide treatment. Management of atlas fractures is dictated by transverse alar ligament integrity. Atlantoaxial dislocations are rotated, translated, or distracted and are treated with a rigid cervical orthosis or fusion. Treatment of odontoid fractures is controversial and dictated by fracture characteristics, patient comorbidities, and radiographic findings. Hangman's fractures of the axis are rarely treated surgically, but atypical patterns and displaced fractures may cause neurologic injury and should be reduced and fused. Management of injuries to the craniocervical junction remains challenging, but good outcomes can be achieved with a comprehensive plan that consists of accurate and timely diagnosis and stabilization of the craniocervical junction. PMID:25344597

  2. Vaccines against cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Kathrin U

    2004-11-01

    Cervical cancer and precancerous lesions of the genital tract are a major threat to women's health worldwide. Although the introduction of screening tests to detect cervical cancer and its precursor lesions has reduced overall cervical cancer rates in the developed world, the approach was largely unsuccessful for developing countries, primarily due to a lack of appropriate infrastructures and high costs. Annually, 470,000 cervical cancer cases are diagnosed worldwide, of which 80% occur in developing countries. Despite advances in treatment of cervical cancer, approximately half of the women afflicted with the disease will die. Over 20 years of dedicated research has provided conclusive evidence that a subset of human papillomaviruses are the aetiological agents for cervical cancer. Finding a viral origin for this disease provided the basis to fight cervical cancer using prophylactic or therapeutic vaccination. Both vaccine approaches are reviewed here, with an emphasis on recent clinical data. PMID:15500408

  3. Single-Level Degenerative Cervical Disc Disease and Driving Disability: Results from a Prospective, Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Michael P.; Mitchell, M. David; Hacker, Robert J.; Riew, K. Daniel; Sasso, Rick C.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design?Post hoc analysis of prospective, randomized trial. Objective?To investigate the disability associated with driving and single-level degenerative, cervical disc disease and to investigate the effect of surgery on driving disability. Methods?Post hoc analysis of data obtained from three sites participating in a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial comparing cervical disc arthroplasty (TDA) with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The driving subscale of the Neck Disability Index (NDI) was analyzed for all patients. A dichotomous severity score was created from the NDI. Statistical comparisons were made within and between groups. Results?Two-year follow-up was available for 118/135 (87%) patients. One half of the study population (49.6%) reported moderate or severe preoperative driving difficulty. This disability associated with driving was similar among the two groups (ACDF: 2.5?±?1.1, TDA: 2.6?±?1.0, p?=?0.646). The majority of patients showed improvement, with no or little driving disability, at the sixth postoperative week (ACDF: 75%, TDA: 90%, p?=?0.073). At no follow-up point did a difference exist between groups according to the severity index. Conclusions?Many patients suffering from radiculopathy or myelopathy from cervical disc disease are limited in their ability to operate an automobile. Following anterior cervical spine surgery, most patients are able to return to comfortable driving at 6 weeks. PMID:24436875

  4. The evidence and the possible significance of autophagy in degeneration model of human cervical end-plate cartilage

    PubMed Central

    XU, HONGGUANG; XIONG, SHOULIANG; WANG, HONG; ZHANG, MIN; YU, YUNFEI

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe autophagy in chondrocytes from degenerative human cervical vertebral end-plates and to investigate the significance of variations in autophagy in the degeneration of cervical vertebral end-plate chondrocytes. Cartilage end-plates were obtained from 48 inpatients admitted to hospital between February 2011 and August 2012. The patients were divided into the control group (n=17) with cervical vertebral fracture or dislocation and the cervical spondylosis group (n=31) with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. End-plate chondrocytes were isolated via enzyme digestion and then cultured in vitro. The cells were stained with toluidine blue and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E). A laser scanning confocal microscope and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) were used to reveal autophagy in the end-plate chondrocytes. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect mRNA expression of type II collagen and aggrecan. Western blotting was conducted to detect LC3 proteins. The chondrocytes isolated from the degenerative human cervical end-plates were cultured successfully in vitro. The morphology of the cells from the cervical spondylosis group tended to exhibit changes in spindle morphology compared with the control group. Autophagic bodies were stained with MDC. LC3 proteins were visible in the intracellular and perinuclear regions under the laser scanning confocal microscope. The mRNA expression levels (relative to those of ?-actin) of aggrecan (0.715±0.194) and type II collagen (0.628±0.254) in the cervical spondylosis group were markedly decreased compared with those in the control group (0.913±0.254 and 0.845±0.186, respectively; both P<0.05). The LC3-II/LC3-I ratio was observed to be significantly reduced in the cervical spondylosis group by Western blot analysis. Autophagy has an important role in human cervical disc degeneration. The regulation of autophagy may prevent disc degeneration in cartilage end-plate cells. PMID:24520242

  5. HPV - a vaccine against cervical cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Desmond; H. Petousis-Harris; N. Turner

    2006-01-01

    Most cervical cancer is caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV). Protection against the major cancer-causing serotypes of this virus by vaccination is now a reality for New Zealand women. Internationally two manufacturers have candidate HPV vaccines: the bivalent Cervarix (GlaxoSmith Kline) and the tetravalent Gardasil (CSL and Merck & Co). This article focuses on Gardasil, as this vaccine is now available

  6. Cervical Myomas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Live Longer Health Care Workers Harbor Biases About Sexual Orientation: Study ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos & Animations Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The One-Page Manual of Health ... myoma may bleed, become infected, interfere with urinating, or cause pain during sexual intercourse. Doctors can see or feel most myomas ...

  7. How protective is cervical cancer screening against cervical cancer mortality in developing countries? The Colombian case

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is one of the top causes of cancer morbidity and mortality in Colombia despite the existence of a national preventive program. Screening coverage with cervical cytology does not explain the lack of success of the program in reducing incidence and mortality rates by cervical cancer. To address this problem an ecological analysis, at department level, was carried out in Colombia to assess the relationship between cervical screening characteristics and cervical cancer mortality rates. Methods Mortality rates by cervical cancer were estimated at the department level for the period 2000-2005. Levels of mortality rates were compared to cervical screening coverage and other characteristics of the program. A Poisson regression was used to estimate the effect of different dimensions of program performance on mortality by cervical cancer. Results Screening coverage ranged from 28.7% to 65.6% by department but increases on this variable were not related to decreases in mortality rates. A significant reduction in mortality was found in departments where a higher proportion of women looked for medical advice when abnormal findings were reported in Pap smears. Geographic areas where a higher proportion of women lack health insurance had higher rates of mortality by cervical cancer. Conclusions These results suggest that coverage is not adequate to prevent mortality due to cervical cancer if women with abnormal results are not provided with adequate follow up and treatment. The role of different dimensions of health care such as insurance coverage, quality of care, and barriers for accessing health care needs to be evaluated and addressed in future studies. PMID:20846446

  8. Genital warts and cervical neoplasia: An epidemiological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Franceschi; R Doll; J Gallwey; C La Vecchia; R Peto; A I Spriggs

    1983-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) are likely to be associated with all sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). To help discover which (if any) of the recognised STDs might actually cause these conditions, a key question is whether one particular such association is much stronger than the others. The present study is therefore only of women newly attending an STD

  9. The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Cancer in Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SH Mortazavi; M Raoufi; M Nadji; P Kowsarian; A Nowroozi

    2002-01-01

    Background: The human papiloma virus (HPV), which is sexually transmitted, and most commonly causes genital warts, has been linked to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma. Of ninety plus types of HPV, HPV-16 is the most prevalent in cervical cancer, followed by HPV-18, and HPV-33. As HPV's implication has not been assessed in the Middle East the main focus of

  10. Cervical lymphadenitis caused by a fastidious mycobacterium closely related to Mycobacterium genavense in an apparently immunocompetent woman: diagnosis by culture-free microbiological methods.

    PubMed Central

    Bosquée, L; Böttger, E C; De Beenhouwer, H; Fonteyne, P A; Hirschel, B; Larsson, L; Meyers, W M; Palomino, J C; Realini, L; Rigouts, L

    1995-01-01

    Fastidious mycobacteria usually infect immunocompromised hosts (human immunodeficiency virus-infected or otherwise immunosuppressed patients). We here describe severe lymphadenitis, caused by a fastidious mycobacterium closely related to Mycobacterium genavense, in an apparently immunocompetent woman, whose brother had died from an unidentified mycobacterial infection in 1969. A variety of techniques, including inoculation of nude mice, histopathology, electron microscopy, lipid analysis, ATP measurements, and molecular biology, were used to characterize this mycobacterium. All attempts to culture the etiological agent on many different media failed. The organism multiplied only in congenitally athymic nude mice. Although phenotypically similar to M. genavense, the mycobacterium differs from M. genavense by three nucleotides of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Various antimycobacterial drugs were administered, including gamma interferon, but multiple relapses occurred. Finally, therapy with a combined regimen of clarithromycin, clofazimine, rifabutin, and ethambutol was curative. To our knowledge, this is the first report of lymphadenitis in an apparently immunocompetent patient, caused by a noncultivable Mycobacterium sp. closely related to M. genavense. This study emphasizes the importance of employing a variety of diagnostic approaches such as the inoculation of laboratory animals, histopathology, electron microscopy, lipid analysis, ATP measurements, and molecular biology to characterize novel microorganisms that cannot be cultured in vitro. PMID:8567903

  11. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Get Tested for Cervical Cancer The Basics Take Action! Ver en español ... tests) and follow-up care can help prevent cervical cancer. You can get a Pap test (sometimes ...

  12. Cervical spondylotic amyotrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng-Dan Jiang; Lei-Sheng Jiang; Li-Yang Dai

    2011-01-01

    Cervical spondylotic amyotrophy is characterized with weakness and wasting of upper limb muscles without sensory or lower\\u000a limb involvement. Two different mechanisms have been proposed in the pathophysiology of cervical spondylotic amyotrophy. One\\u000a is selective damage to the ventral root or the anterior horn, and the other is vascular insufficiency to the anterior horn\\u000a cell. Cervical spondylotic amyotrophy is classified

  13. Pediatric cervical spine instability

    PubMed Central

    El Hage, Samer; Rachkidi, Rami; Kharrat, Khalil; Dagher, Fernand; Kreichati, Gabi

    2008-01-01

    Cervical spine instability in children is rare but not exceptional and may be due to many factors. Although it mostly occurs at the upper cervical spine, all vertebrae from the occiput to T1 may be involved. It may be acute or chronic, occurring secondary to trauma or due to congenital anomaly, skeletal or metabolic dystrophy or rheumatoid arthritis. It can be isolated or associated with other musculoskeletal or visceral anomalies. A thorough knowledge of embryology, anatomy, physiology and physiopathology of the cervical spine in children is essential to avoid pitfalls, recognize normal variants and identify children at risk of developing cervical spine instability and undertake the appropriate treatment. PMID:19308585

  14. Automated image analysis of uterine cervical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Gu, Jia; Ferris, Daron; Poirson, Allen

    2007-03-01

    Cervical Cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and the leading cause of cancer mortality of women in developing countries. If detected early and treated adequately, cervical cancer can be virtually prevented. Cervical precursor lesions and invasive cancer exhibit certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician with a Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system. In colposcopy, epithelium that turns white after application of acetic acid is called acetowhite epithelium. Acetowhite epithelium is one of the major diagnostic features observed in detecting cancer and pre-cancerous regions. Automatic extraction of acetowhite regions from cervical images has been a challenging task due to specular reflection, various illumination conditions, and most importantly, large intra-patient variation. This paper presents a multi-step acetowhite region detection system to analyze the acetowhite lesions in cervical images automatically. First, the system calibrates the color of the cervical images to be independent of screening devices. Second, the anatomy of the uterine cervix is analyzed in terms of cervix region, external os region, columnar region, and squamous region. Third, the squamous region is further analyzed and subregions based on three levels of acetowhite are identified. The extracted acetowhite regions are accompanied by color scores to indicate the different levels of acetowhite. The system has been evaluated by 40 human subjects' data and demonstrates high correlation with experts' annotations.

  15. Persistent human papillomavirus infection and cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Ferenczy, Alex; Franco, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    The development of cervical cancer is preceded by precursor lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia). Evidence-based epidemiological and molecular data suggest that persistent infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that carry ahigh oncogenic risk are the intermediate endpoints, leading to both intraepithelial and invasive cervical neoplasia. Integration of highly oncogenic HPVs into host-cell chromosomes is followed by binding of HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins to tumour-suppressor genes p53 and RB, respectively. This process results in impaired tumour-suppressor-gene function, involving DNA repair, decreased apoptosis, and eventual cell immortalisation. Mutations causing chromosomal alterations, loss of heterozygosity, and proto-oncogene and telomerase activation in immunopermissive individuals have important roles in virus-induced cervical carcinogenesis. The so-called non-European variants of HPV 16 and 18 may increase the degradation potential of p53. HPV 16 is polymorphic and, although the evidence is controversial, the Arg/Arg genotype of p53 could have greater susceptibility to HPV-E6 degradation than the other genotypes. The coincident interplay between the non-European genomic variants of HPV 16/18 and p53 Arg/Arg may explain, at least in part, the persistence of HPV infection and tumour progression in women with cervical neoplasia. Further epidemiological and molecular research is needed, to gain insight into HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. The evidence highlights the need to develop appropriate prophylactic HPV vaccines and diagnostic and screening tests. PMID:11905599

  16. The Future of Vaccines for Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Warner K.; Roden, Richard B.S.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, making prophylactic cervical cancer vaccines an important focus for cervical cancer prevention. The increasing accessibility of these vaccines worldwide has the potential to greatly decrease the incidence and burden of disease in the future. However, current prophylactic vaccines offer no therapeutic benefit for persons already infected with human papillomavirus types targeted by vaccines or persons with precancerous lesions or cervical cancer. The protection offered by current vaccines is primarily against human papillomavirus types used to derive the vaccine, although partial cross-protection for related virus types has been observed. Herein, we describe findings from preclinical and clinical studies that employ vaccine strategies that have the potential to shape the future of vaccines against cervical cancer. Modalities include prophylactic strategies to target more oncogenic virus types by using the minor capsid antigen L2 and/or by increasing the number of types used to derive virus-like particle vaccines. Therapeutic strategies include the development of vaccines against human papillomavirus early proteins (targets for cellular immunity) for the resolution of precancerous lesions and cervical cancer. Future applications of existing VLP-based vaccines are also discussed. PMID:18482559

  17. Oxygen Tension and Formation of Cervical-Like Tissue in Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Culture

    E-print Network

    House, Michael

    Cervical dysfunction contributes to a significant number of preterm births and is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. Cervical dysfunction is related to weakened load bearing properties of the ...

  18. Bevacizumab, Radiation Therapy, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-22

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer

  19. Return to play after cervical spine injury in sports.

    PubMed

    Cantu, Robert C; Li, Yan Michael; Abdulhamid, Mohamed; Chin, Lawrence S

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) resulting from sports now represent 8.9% of the total causes of SCI. Regardless of cause, there are bound to be return-to-play decisions to be made for athletes. Since catastrophic cervical spine injuries are among the most devastating injuries in all of sports, returning from a cervical spine injury is one of the most difficult decisions in sports medicine. Axial loading is the primary mechanism for catastrophic cervical spine injuries. Axial loading occurs as a result of intentional or unintentional head-down contact and spearing. Most would agree that the athlete returning to a contact or collision sport after a cervical spine injury must be asymptomatic, have full strength, and have full active range of motion; however, each situation is unique. The following review discusses the pathophysiology of these conditions and suggests guidelines for return to contact sports after traumatic cervical SCI. PMID:23314078

  20. Cervical Discitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Scheuerman, Oded; Landau, Daniel; Schwarz, Michael; Hoffer, Vered; Marcus, Nufar; Hoffnung, Liat Ashkenazi; Levy, Itzhak

    2015-07-01

    Cervical discitis, though rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis of torticollis, neck pain and neurodevelopmental regression in motor skills in children and infants. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic method of choice. Treatment should be conservative with antibiotics only. The aim of this study was to describe the 10-year experience of a tertiary pediatric medical center with cervical discitis. PMID:25886786

  1. Trend of Pharmacopuncture Therapy for Treating Cervical Disease in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Hee; Jung, Da-Jung; Choi, Yoo-Min; Kim, Jong-Uk; Yook, Tae-Han

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze trends in domestic studies on pharmacopuncture therapy for treating cervical disease. Methods: This study was carried out on original copies and abstracts of theses listed in databases or published until July 2014. The search was made on the Oriental medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS) the National Digital Science Library (NDSL), and the Korean traditional knowledge portal. Search words were ‘pain on cervical spine’, ‘cervical pain’, ‘ruptured cervical disk’, ‘cervical disc disorder’, ‘stiffness of the neck’, ‘cervical disk’, ‘whiplash injury’, ‘cervicalgia’, ‘posterior cervical pain’, ‘neck disability’, ‘Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP)’, and ‘Herniated Intervertebral Disc (HIVD)’. Results: Twenty-five clinical theses related to pharmacopuncture were selected and were analyzed by year according to the type of pharmacopuncture used, the academic journal in which the publication appeared, and the effect of pharmacopuncture therapy. Conclusion: The significant conclusions are as follows: (1) Pharmacopunctures used for cervical pain were Bee venom pharmacopuncture, Carthami-flos pharmacopuncture, Scolopendra pharmacopuncture, Ouhyul pharmacopuncturen, Hwangryun pharmacopuncture, Corpus pharmacopuncture, Soyeom pharmacopuncture, Hwangryunhaedoktang pharmacopuncture, Shinbaro phamacopuncture. (2) Randomized controlled trials showed that pharmacopuncture therapy combined with other methods was more effective. (3) In the past, studies oriented toward Bee venom pharmacopuncture were actively pursued, but the number of studies on various other types of pharmacopuncture gradually began to increase. (4) For treating a patient with cervical pain, the type of pharmacopuncture to be used should be selected based on the cause of the disease and the patient’s condition. PMID:25780714

  2. A comprehensive review on host genetic susceptibility to human papillomavirus infection and progression to cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Koushik

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. This is caused by oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Although large numbers of young sexually active women get HPV-infected, only a small fraction develop cervical cancer. This points to different co-factors for regression of HPV infection or progression to cervical cancer. Host genetic factors play an important role in the outcome of such complex or multifactor diseases such as cervical cancer and are also known to regulate the rate of disease progression. The aim of this review is to compile the advances in the field of host genetics of cervical cancer. MEDLINE database was searched using the terms, ‘HPV’, ‘cervical’, ‘CIN’, ‘polymorphism(s)’, ‘cervical’+ *the name of the gene* and ‘HPV’+ *the name of the gene*. This review focuses on the major host genes reported to affect the progression to cervical cancer in HPV infected individuals. PMID:22345983

  3. Mechanical and biochemical properties of human cervical tissue

    E-print Network

    Myers, Kristin M

    2005-01-01

    The mechanical integrity of cervical tissue is crucial for maintaining a healthy gestation. Altered tissue biochemistry can cause drastic changes in the mechanical properties of the cervix and contribute to premature ...

  4. Developing an HPV vaccine to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janine T. Bryan

    2007-01-01

    The challenges of the journey from target identification through development of a prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine have been met in Gardasil®. Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Approximately 70% of cervical cancer is caused by infection with HPV types 16 and 18 and ?90% of genital warts are caused by HPV

  5. Seropositive Neuromyelitis Optica imitating an Intramedullary Cervical Spinal Cord Tumor: Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Jennifer Hiu-Fung; Leung, Kar-Ming; Chan, Kwong-Yau

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman with progressive cervical myelopathy and central cord syndrome was noted to have an extensive cervical intramedullary contrast-enhancing lesion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The lesion resembled a spinal astrocytoma or ependymoma that required surgical intervention. She was subsequently diagnosed to have neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a rare idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disorder, when the clinical examination revealed left optic atrophy. This was confirmed by a test showing seropositivity for NMO-immunoglobulin (IgG). Disease control was achieved with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy. We report a rare case of a patient with NMO who had MRI features that could have easily led to the condition being misdiagnosed as a spinal cord tumor. The importance of careful history taking, awareness of typical radiological findings and the usefulness of serum NMO-IgG as a diagnostic tool are emphasized. PMID:25346824

  6. Posterior Cervical Foraminotomy and Laminectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. O’Toole; Kurt M. Eichholz; Richard G. Fessler

    \\u000a Posterior decompressive procedures are fundamental tools in the surgical treatment of symptomatic cervical degenerative spine\\u000a disease [1–4]. Even as anterior cervical procedures have gained prominence, posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy still provides\\u000a symptomatic relief in 92–97% of patients with radiculopathy from foraminal stenosis or lateral herniated discs [3, 5]. Similarly,\\u000a posterior cervical decompression for cervical stenosis achieves neurological improvement in 62.5–83% of

  7. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-05

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  8. Congestive Myelopathy due to Intradural Spinal AVM Supplied by Artery of Adamkiewicz: Case Report with Brief Literature Review and Analysis of the Foix-Alajouanine Syndrome Definition

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Dinesh; Mistry, Kewal A.; Khatri, Garvit D.; Chadha, Veenal; Garg, Swati; Suthar, Pokhraj P.; Patel, Dhruv G.; Patel, Ankitkumar

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) can lead to development of congestive myelopathy (Foix-Alajouanine syndrome). Spinal AVMs are rare and so is this syndrome. Diagnosis is often missed due to its rarity and confusing definitions of the Foix-Alajouanine syndrome. Case Report We report a case of a 47-year-old male patient suffering from this rare syndrome with an AVM arising from the artery of Adamkiewicz, which is another rarity. Our patient was treated by embolization of the lesion with 20% glue, after which he showed mild improvement of symptoms. We also present a brief review of literature on spinal AVMs and elucidate the evolution of the term Foix-Alajouanine syndrome. Conclusions Use of the term “Foix-Alajouanine syndrome” should be restricted to patients with progressive subacute to chronic neurological symptoms due to congestive myelopathy caused by intradural spinal AVMs. CT angiography should supplement DSA as preliminary Imaging modality. Patients may be treated with surgery or endovascular procedures. PMID:26171088

  9. Posterior Epidural Migration of Sequestrated Cervical Disc Fragment: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gopalan Senthil; Mahesha, Kanthila Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study was undertaken to delineate the characteristics of non-traumatic sequestrated epidurally migrated cervical disc prolapse. Purpose To present first case series of eight such cases diagnosed preoperatively and to discuss their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and their management. Overview of Literature Non-traumatic spontaneous migration of the sequestrated disc fragment epidurally behind cervical vertebral body is rare. Only ten cases have been reported in literature. Methods Detailed clinico-radiological profiles of these 8 cases are presented. In six cases their clinical picture was suggestive of cervical myelopathy. MRI scan showed single level epidural migrated disc behind body of C4, C6, and C7 in six patients and two cases with multiple levels (C5-C6). In six cases, anterior corpectomy with excision of the disc was performed and the seventh patient underwent dorsal laminectomy. The eighth patient chose not to undergo surgery. Results T1 images of the MRI scan showed an isointense signal in all the 8 cases. T2 images revealed a varying intensity. In six cases who underwent anterior corpectomy, there was a rent in the posterior longitudinal ligament. Among those in two cases multiple disc fragments were seen. In the rest four cases, a single large fragment was observed. These patients improved after anterior corpectomy and disc excision. There was no improvement in the patient who had undergone dorsal laminectomy. The eighth patient who refused surgery progressively deteriorated. Conclusions We opine that MRI scan especially T1 images are useful in these cases. We prefer to treat these cases through anterior corpectomy with excision of the sequestrated disc which proved to result in excellent outcome. PMID:22164316

  10. Comparison of in vivo and simulator-retrieved metal-on-metal cervical disc replacements

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Steven M.; Ciccarelli, Lauren; Harper, Megan L.; Siskey, Ryan; Shorez, Jacob; Chan, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical disc arthroplasty is regarded as a promising treatment for myelopathy and radiculopathy as an alternative to cervical spine fusion. On the basis of 2-year clinical data for the PRESTIGE® Cervical Disc (Medtronic, Memphis, Tennessee), the Food and Drug Administration recommended conditional approval in September 2006 and final approval in July 2007; however, relatively little is known about its wear and damage modes in vivo. The main objective was to analyze the tribological findings of the PRESTIGE® Cervical Disc. This study characterized the in vivo wear patterns of retrieved cervical discs and tested the hypothesis that the total disc replacements exhibited similar surface morphology and wear patterns in vitro as in vivo. Methods Ten explanted total disc replacements (PRESTIGE®, PRESTIGE® I, and PRESTIGE® II) from 10 patients retrieved after a mean of 1.8 years (range, 0.3–4.1 years) were analyzed. Wear testing included coupled lateral bending ( ±4.7°) and axial rotation ( ±3.8°) with a 49 N axial load for 5 million cycles followed by 10 million cycles of flexion-extension ( ±9.7°) with 148 N. Implant surfaces were characterized by the use of white-light interferometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Results The explants generally exhibited a slightly discolored, elliptic wear region of varying dimension centered in the bearing center, with the long axis oriented in the medial-lateral direction. Abrasive wear was the dominant in vivo wear mechanism, with microscopic scratches generally oriented in the medial-lateral direction. Wear testing resulted in severe abrasive wear in a curvilinear fashion oriented primarily in the medial-lateral direction. All retrievals showed evidence of an abrasive wear mechanism. Conclusions This study documented important similarity between the wear mechanisms of components tested in vitro and explanted PRESTIGE® Cervical Discs; however, the severity of wear was much greater during the in vitro test compared with the retrievals. PMID:25694884

  11. Role of Decompression in Late Presentation of Cervical Spinal Cord Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sakale, Harshal; Dulani, Rajesh; Singh, Pradeep K; Sanrakhia, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective study conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, India. Purpose To show the efficacy of decompression in the late presentation of cervical spinal cord disorders. Overview of Literature Studies by various authors have shown that early spinal decompression results in better neurological outcomes. Methods From January 2003 to January 2005, 11 of the 41 patients with cervical spinal cord compression, meeting the inclusion criteria, underwent anterior decompression; interbody graft placement and stabilization by anterior cervical locking plate. The neurologic and functional outcomes were recorded. Results Five patients had spinal cord injury and 6 patients had compressive cervical myelopathy. Complications included 1 death and 1 plate loosening. No patient lost their preoperative neurological status. One patient had no improvement, 2 patients showed full recovery. The mean follow-up is 28.3 month. At the of rehabilitation, 6 were able to walk without support), 2 could walk with support, and 1 needed a wheelchair. The average American Spinal Injury Association motor score on admission to the hospital, 32.8 (standard deviation [SD], 30.5); admission to rehabilitation, 38.6 (SD, 32.4); discharge from rehabilitation, 46.2 (SD, 33.7). The most recent follow-up was 64.0 (SD, 35.3). Conclusions The anterior approach for cervical decompression allows for adequate decompression. This decompression is the best chance offered in even late reported cases, including posttraumatic cases where there is no evidence of cord transactions. The use of anterior cervical plates reduces the chances of graft loosening, extruding, or collapsing. PMID:24761201

  12. [Cervical cerclage in 2008].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, F; Senat, M-V; Gervaise, A; Deffieux, X; Faivre, E; Frydman, R; Fernandez, H

    2008-11-01

    Cervical cerclage is a common surgical technique that has been used for more than 50 years to prevent preterm deliveries and in the management of a threatened second trimester loss. However, it remains one of the most controversial interventions in obstetrics and this is probably due to difficulties in diagnosing cervical insufficiency, which is based on a history of recurrent second trimester loss or early preterm delivery following painless cervical dilatation in the absence of contractions or bleeding. This article reviews in 2008 the current literature regarding the efficacy of elective cerclage, ultrasound-indicated cerclage, emergency cerclage, and cervico-isthmic cerclage for singletons and multiple pregnancies. PMID:18922730

  13. Hysterosalpingographic features of cervical abnormalities: acquired structural anomalies.

    PubMed

    Zafarani, F; Ahmadi, F; Shahrzad, G

    2015-08-01

    Cervical abnormalities may be congenital or acquired. Congenital cervical structural anomalies are relatively uncommon, whereas acquired cervical abnormalities are commonly seen in gynaecology clinics. Acquired abnormalities of the cervix can cause cervical factor infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Various imaging tools have been used for evaluation of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a quick and minimally invasive tool for evaluation of infertility that facilitates visualization of the inner surfaces of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes, as well as the cervical canal and isthmus. The lesions of the uterine cervix show various imaging manifestations on HSG such as narrowing, dilatation, filling defects, irregularities and diverticular projections. This pictorial review describes and illustrates the hysterosalpingographic appearances of normal variants and acquired structural abnormalities of the cervix. Accurate diagnosis of such cases is considered essential for optimal treatment. The pathological findings and radiopathological correlation will be briefly discussed. PMID:26111269

  14. South Africa project provides cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, L

    1997-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the five leading causes of death among women aged 45-59 years in the developing world, and the most common type of cancer among South African women, accounting for about 25% of all cancer-related mortality. The Philani Cervical Cancer Prevention Project, located in Site C of Khayelitsha, a settlement outside of Cape Town, is now screening women to prevent development of the disease. The Philani Project is a demonstration study for a larger cervical cancer prevention project. AVSC International is providing technical and management assistance as one of the project's five collaborators. Working out of a mobile clinic parked next to an outpatient treatment center, the project is comparing the use of Pap smears and four other screening approaches in a low-resource situation in order to develop protocols for similar programs. Now in its second year, the Philani project has enrolled 1600 previously unscreened women over age 35 years. Follow-up and treatment are provided. 80% of women identified with a problem through screening and in need of colposcopy return for follow-up and treatment. However, the number of women who return voluntarily for follow-up is continuously increasing due to the staff's attention to providing community education about cervical screening. About 9% of clients were found to have abnormalities of the cervix with the potential to progress to a malignancy, and 8 cases of outright cervical cancer have been detected. Community outreach, innovative programs, and coordinated efforts are discussed. PMID:12293924

  15. Progesterone Signaling Inhibits Cervical Carcinogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young A; Son, Jieun; Mehta, Fabiola F.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.; Chung, Sang-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is the main cause of cervical cancer, yet other nonviral cofactors are also required for the disease. The uterine cervix is a hormone-responsive tissue, and female hormones have been implicated in cervical carcinogenesis. A transgenic mouse model expressing human papillomavirus oncogenes E6 and/or E7 has proven useful to study a mechanism of hormone actions in the context of this common malignancy. Estrogen and estrogen receptor ? are required for the development of cervical cancer in this mouse model. Estrogen receptor ? is known to up-regulate expression of the progesterone receptor, which, on activation by its ligands, either promotes or inhibits carcinogenesis, depending on the tissue context. Here, we report that progesterone receptor inhibits cervical and vaginal epithelial cell proliferation in a ligand-dependent manner. We also report that synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate promotes regression of cancers and precancerous lesions in the female lower reproductive tracts (ie, cervix and vagina) in the human papillomavirus transgenic mouse model. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that supports the hypothesis that progesterone signaling is inhibitory for cervical carcinogenesis in vivo. PMID:24012679

  16. Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

  17. Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Other

  18. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 17 PM You are here: Home Recommendations for Primary Care Practice Published Recommendations Recommendation Summary Cervical Cancer: Screening ... are one-page documents that provide guidance to primary care clinicians for using recommendations in practice. This summary ...

  19. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing shows cancer in the cervix, the vagina, and ... that connect the kidneys to the bladder). The drawing shows the ureter on the right blocked by ...

  20. Natural history and epidemiology of HPV infection and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Castellsagué, Xavier

    2008-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in developing countries. It has been estimated to have been responsible for almost 260 000 deaths annually, of which about 80% occurred in developing countries. Persistent infection by certain oncogenic HPV types is firmly established as the necessary cause of most premalignant and malignant epithelial lesions of the cervix and of a variable fraction of neoplastic lesions of the vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. There are more than 100 known HPV genotypes, at least 15 of which can cause cancer of the cervix and other sites. HPV 16 and 18, the two most common oncogenic types, cause approximately 70% of all cervical cancers worldwide. HPV, especially genotypes 6 and 11, can also cause genital warts. HPV is highly transmissible and it is now considered the most common sexually transmitted infection in most populations. Although most women infected with the virus become negative within 2 years, women with persistent high-risk HPV infections are at greatest risk for developing cervical cancer. Since the identification of HPV as the necessary cause of cervical cancer, HPV-based technology has become the centre of novel primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention strategies by the introduction of HPV testing in screening and of HPV vaccines in preadolescent girls and young women. If implemented widely and wisely the deployment of these protocols has the potential to complete Papanicolaou's goal of cervical cancer eradication by extending the benefits of prevention to the developing populations of the world. PMID:18760711

  1. Radiation Therapy Plus Cisplatin and Gemcitabine in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  2. Dysphagia and airway obstruction due to large cervical osteophyte in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Varsak, Yasin Kür?ad; Eryilmaz, Mehmet Akif; Arba?, Hamdi

    2014-07-01

    Anterior cervical osteophytes are excessive bony formation of cervical vertebra bodies. They are common but rarely symptomatic lesions mostly seen in geriatric population. Large anterior cervical osteophytes may cause symptoms such as dysphagia, dyspnea, dysphonia, and odynophagia. They have been attributed to multiple etiologies including diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, following trauma, cervical spondylitis, and infectious spondylitis. However, symptomatic large anterior cervical osteophyte with ankylosing spondylitis is extremely rare. Surgical excision is the main treatment for symptomatic cases. We report a case of a 53-year-old man with airway obstruction and dysphagia due to large cervical osteophyte who has a history of ankylosing spondylitis, and we also addressed the etiological factors and management of large symptomatic cervical osteophytes. PMID:24905946

  3. Impact of HPV immunization on the detection of cervical disease.

    PubMed

    Munro, Ami J; Cruickshank, Margaret E

    2014-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer and genital warts. The development of HPV vaccines has been a major advance in the prevention of these diseases. Recent studies have shown promising early effects of HPV immunization programs on cervical abnormalities and genital warts, with evidence of herd immunity against genital warts also emerging in Australia. Further studies are required to not only continue monitoring the effect of the HPV immunization on the incidence of these diseases, but also to establish the effect the immunization will have on cervical screening programs and the performance of colposcopy. PMID:24606579

  4. Cervical Perineural Cyst Masquerading as a Cervical Spinal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

  5. Cervical perineural cyst masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha; Agrawal, Amit

    2014-04-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

  6. January Monthly Spotlight: Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities

    Cancer.gov

    In January, CRCHD joins the nation in raising awareness for Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities. This month we share a special focus on NCI/CRCHD research programs that are trying to reduce cervical cancer disparities in underserved communities and the people who are spreading the word about the importance of early detection.

  7. “The Flipping Bullet” with Associated Intramedullary Dystrophic Calcification: An Unusual Cause for Migratory Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Christopher H; McKenzie, Gavin A; Diehn, Felix E; Morris, Jonathan M; Wood, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 24 year old male who had a retained bullet within his thoracic spine from a gunshot wound resulting in paraplegia. After 7 months he began experiencing painful dysesthesias at his sensory level. Repeat imaging demonstrated migration of the bullet as well as the development of intramedullary dystrophic calcification associated with the bullet. This case demonstrates not only the ability for retained bullets to migrate within the spinal canal but also demonstrates they can lead to remote symptoms due to the development of dystrophic calcification. PMID:22942925

  8. Cervical Headache: An Investigation of Natural Head Posture and Upper Cervical Flexor Muscle Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean H Watson; Patricia H Trott

    1993-01-01

    In this study, 60 female subjects, aged between 25 and 40 years, were divided into two equal groups on the basis of absence or presence of headache. A passive accessory intervertebral mobility (PAIVM) examination was performed to confirm an upper cervical articular cause of the subjects' headache and a questionnaire was used to establish a profile of the headache population.

  9. Follicular cervicitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Seema; Rajni

    2004-04-01

    Chronic follicular cervicitis (CFC) is a benign inflammatory condition which can be easily diagnosed with a fair degree of assurance on pap stained cervical smears, thus preventing the need for cervical biopsy. We report a case of CFC in a postmenopausal woman. PMID:16295497

  10. Breed Distribution of SOD1 Alleles Previously Associated with Canine Degenerative Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, R; Coates, JR; Johnson, GC; Hansen, L; Awano, T; Kolicheski, A; Ivansson, E; Perloski, M; Lindblad-Toh, K; O'Brien, DP; Guo, J; Katz, ML; Johnson, GS

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous reports associated 2 mutant SOD1 alleles (SOD1:c.118A and SOD1:c.52T) with degenerative myelopathy in 6 canine breeds. The distribution of these alleles in other breeds has not been reported. Objective To describe the distribution of SOD1:c.118A and SOD1:c.52T in 222 breeds. Animals DNA from 33,747 dogs was genotyped at SOD1:c.118, SOD1:c.52, or both. Spinal cord sections from 249 of these dogs were examined. Methods Retrospective analysis of 35,359 previously determined genotypes at SOD1:c.118G>A or SOD1:c.52A>T and prospective survey to update the clinical status of a subset of dogs from which samples were obtained with a relatively low ascertainment bias. Results The SOD1:c.118A allele was found in cross-bred dogs and in 124 different canine breeds whereas the SOD1:c.52T allele was only found in Bernese Mountain Dogs. Most of the dogs with histopathologically confirmed degenerative myelopathy were SOD1:c.118A homozygotes, but 8 dogs with histopathologically confirmed degenerative myelopathy were SOD1:c.118A/G heterozygotes and had no other sequence variants in their SOD1 amino acid coding regions. The updated clinical conditions of dogs from which samples were obtained with a relatively low ascertainment bias suggest that SOD1:c.118A homozygotes are at a much higher risk of developing degenerative myelopathy than are SOD1:c.118A/G heterozygotes. Conclusions and Clinical Importance We conclude that the SOD1:c.118A allele is widespread and common among privately owned dogs whereas the SOD1:c.52T allele is rare and appears to be limited to Bernese Mountain Dogs. We also conclude that breeding to avoid the production of SOD1:c.118A homozygotes is a rational strategy. PMID:24524809

  11. Hypothesis on the pathogenesis of vacuolar myelopathy, dementia, and peripheral neuropathy in AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Tan, S; Guiloff, R

    1998-01-01

    Certain aspects of the clinical syndrome of dementia, cerebral atrophy, predominantly sensory neuropathy, and vacuolar myelopathy in AIDS resemble those seen in vitamin B12 deficiency. Pathologically, there are similarities not only in the changes in the spinal cord, but also in the brain and peripheral nerves. The pathogenesis of vacuolar myelopathy may be secondary to a combination of immune mediated myelin and oligodendrocyte injury, and simultaneous impairment of repair mechanisms due to a deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Products derived from macrophages may interfere directly with the methyl transfer cycle through the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates and reactions involving nitric oxide and peroxynitrite which may limit the supply of methionine for conversion to SAM, both by direct interaction as well as through inhibition of methionine synthase. Macrophage activation with secretion of cytokines and other biologically reactive substances within the nervous system is sustained in the late stages of HIV infection by the general effects of immune depletion, including loss of T cells (with concomitant reduction of macrophage regulatory molecules) and recurrent opportunistic infections, and may be further augmented by the local presence of the virus itself (or its surface glycoprotein gp120). This would account for the common, but not exclusive, occurrence of vacuolar myelopathy in AIDS. The ability of the virus and its products to stimulate macrophage and microglial activation may also explain the association between severity ofvacuolar myelopathy and the presence of HIV encephalitis. A similar mechanism may underlie the pathogenesis of dementia, cerebral atrophy, and peripheral neuropathy. Local factors or differential susceptibility between the central and peripheral nervous system may determine whether myelinotoxic or neurotoxic processes predominate; the prominence of myelin involvement in the spinal cord, and axonal involvement peripherally may reflect both ends of this range, with the brain manifesting a more equal balance of both processes. ?? PMID:9667556

  12. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc arthroplasty devices have come onto the market and completed Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trials. Though some of the early results demonstrate equivalency of arthroplasty to fusion, compelling evidence of benefits in terms of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration are lacking. In addition, non-industry-sponsored studies indicate that these devices are equivalent to fusion in terms of adjacent segment degeneration. Longer-term studies will eventually provide the definitive answer. PMID:24353955

  13. Cervical Mucus Properties Stratify Risk for Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Jaishankar, Aditya; Friedlander, Ronn S.; Lieleg, Oliver; Doyle, Patrick S.; McKinley, Gareth; House, Michael; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Background Ascending infection from the colonized vagina to the normally sterile intrauterine cavity is a well-documented cause of preterm birth. The primary physical barrier to microbial ascension is the cervical canal, which is filled with a dense and protective mucus plug. Despite its central role in separating the vaginal from the intrauterine tract, the barrier properties of cervical mucus have not been studied in preterm birth. Methods and Findings To study the protective function of the cervical mucus in preterm birth we performed a pilot case-control study to measure the viscoelasticity and permeability properties of mucus obtained from pregnant women at high-risk and low-risk for preterm birth. Using extensional and shear rheology we found that cervical mucus from women at high-risk for preterm birth was more extensible and forms significantly weaker gels compared to cervical mucus from women at low-risk of preterm birth. Moreover, permeability measurements using fluorescent microbeads show that high-risk mucus was more permeable compared with low-risk mucus. Conclusions Our findings suggest that critical biophysical barrier properties of cervical mucus in women at high-risk for preterm birth are compromised compared to women with healthy pregnancy. We hypothesize that impaired barrier properties of cervical mucus could contribute to increased rates of intrauterine infection seen in women with preterm birth. We furthermore suggest that a robust association of spinnbarkeit and preterm birth could be an effectively exploited biomarker for preterm birth prediction. PMID:23936335

  14. Advancing Cervical Cancer Prevention in India: Implementation Science Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Emily; Porterfield, Deborah; Varghese, Beena

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in India, accounting for 17% of all cancer deaths among women aged 30 to 69 years. At current incidence rates, the annual burden of new cases in India is projected to increase to 225,000 by 2025, but there are few large-scale, organized cervical cancer prevention programs in the country. We conducted a review of the cervical cancer prevention research literature and programmatic experiences in India to summarize the current state of knowledge and practices and recommend research priorities to address the gap in services. We found that research and programs in India have demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of cervical cancer prevention efforts and that screening strategies requiring minimal additional human resources and laboratory infrastructure can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, additional evidence generated through implementation science research is needed to ensure that cervical cancer prevention efforts have the desired impact and are cost-effective. Specifically, implementation science research is needed to understand individual- and community-level barriers to screening and diagnostic and treatment services; to improve health care worker performance; to strengthen links among screening, diagnosis, and treatment; and to determine optimal program design, outcomes, and costs. With a quarter of the global burden of cervical cancer in India, there is no better time than now to translate research findings to practice. Implementation science can help ensure that investments in cervical cancer prevention and control result in the greatest impact. PMID:24217555

  15. Proteomics-based approach to elucidate the mechanism of antitumor effect of curcumin in cervical cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krystal Madden; Lisa Flowers; Ritu Salani; Ira Horowitz; Sanjay Logan; Kevin Kowalski; Jun Xie; Sulma I. Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death for women in the world. A potential target for preventing and treating cervical cancer is cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2). Curcumin is an anti-inflammatory agent that is known to have anti-cox-2 activity. In this study we examined the expression of cox-2 in cervical cancer and its precursors by immunohistochemistry. The effect of curcumin

  16. Health and economic impact of HPV 16 and 18 vaccination and cervical cancer screening in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Diaz; J J Kim; G Albero; S de Sanjosé; G Clifford; F X Bosch; S J Goldie

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among women in low-income countries, with ?25% of cases worldwide occurring in India. We estimated the potential health and economic impact of different cervical cancer prevention strategies. After empirically calibrating a cervical cancer model to country-specific epidemiologic data, we projected cancer incidence, life expectancy, and lifetime costs (I$2005), and calculated incremental

  17. Aqueous Cinnamon Extract (ACE-c) from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia causes apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line (SiHa) through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemoprevention, which includes the use of synthetic or natural agents (alone or in combination) to block the development of cancer in human beings, is an extremely promising strategy for cancer prevention. Cinnamon is one of the most widely used herbal medicines with diverse biological activities including anti-tumor activity. In the present study, we have reported the anti-neoplastic activity of cinnamon in cervical cancer cell line, SiHa. Methods The aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE-c) was analyzed for its cinnamaldehyde content by HPTLC analysis. The polyphenol content of ACE-c was measured by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Cytotoxicity analysis was performed by MTT assay. We studied the effect of cinnamon on growth kinetics by performing growth curve, colony formation and soft agar assays. The cells treated with ACE-c were analyzed for wound healing assay as well as for matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression at mRNA and protein level by RT-PCR and zymography, respectively. Her-2 protein expression was analyzed in the control and ACE-c treated samples by immunoblotting as well as confocal microscopy. Apoptosis studies and calcium signaling assays were analyzed by FACS. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in cinnamon treated cells was studied by JC-1 staining and analyzed by confocal microscopy as well as FACS. Results Cinnamon alters the growth kinetics of SiHa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cells treated with ACE-c exhibited reduced number of colonies compared to the control cells. The treated cells exhibited reduced migration potential that could be explained due to downregulation of MMP-2 expression. Interestingly, the expression of Her-2 oncoprotein was significantly reduced in the presence of ACE-c. Cinnamon extract induced apoptosis in the cervical cancer cells through increase in intracellular calcium signaling as well as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusion Cinnamon could be used as a potent chemopreventive drug in cervical cancer. PMID:20482751

  18. Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-10

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  19. Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-02

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  20. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PDF [PDF-839KB] High-quality PDF for professional printing [PDF-2.7MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” ... PDF [PDF-839KB] High-quality PDF for professional printing [PDF-2.7MB] Language: English Español (Spanish) File ...

  1. Injectable silk foams for the treatment of cervical insufficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Eric P.

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality, resulting in over 4,000 deaths each year. A significant risk factor for preterm birth is cervical insufficiency, the weakening and subsequent deformation of cervical tissue. Cervical insufficiency is both detectable and treatable but current treatments are lacking. The most common approach requires multiple invasive procedures. This work investigates the injection of silk foams, a minimally-invasive method for supporting cervical tissue. Silk offers many advantages for use as a biomaterial including strength, versatility, and biocompatibility. Injectable silk foams will minimize patient discomfort while also providing more targeted and personalized treatment. A battery of mechanical testing was undertaken to determine silk foam response under physiologically relevant loading and environmental conditions. Mechanical testing was paired with analysis of foam morphology and structure that illustrated the effects of injection on pore geometry and size. Biological response to silk foams was evaluated using an in vitro degradation study and subcutaneous in vivo implantation in a mouse model. Results showed that foams exceeded the mechanical requirements for stiffening cervical tissue, although the current injection process limits foam size. Injection was shown to cause measurable but localized foam deformation. This work indicates that silk foams are a feasible treatment option for cervical insufficiency but challenges remain with foam delivery.

  2. Cervical cancer prevention in the human papilloma virus vaccine era.

    PubMed

    Ghazal-Aswad, Saad

    2008-09-01

    Globally, cervical cancer is second only to breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer in women, with a global prevalence of 2.3 million. It is the third most common cause of female cancer-related mortality worldwide, and 82% of new cervical cancer cases occur in developing countries. As stated by WHO, "without screening programs, cervical cancer is detected too late and leads to death in almost all cases." However, even in Europe, the United States, and Canada, where most women have access to routine screening, approximately 30,000 women die each year. Infection with oncogenic types of HPV 16 and 18 is the most significant risk/causative factor in cervical cancer etiology, and worldwide HPV positivity in cervical carcinoma has been documented to be 99.7%. In 2006 Merck's quadrivalent vaccine was approved by FDA. It targets four HPV types (6, 11, 16, and 18) that are involved in cervical cancer, high and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and anogenital warts. Results from combined Phase II/III studies show that the efficacy of vaccine was 95-100% against LGSIL and HGSIL related to HPV 16 and 18 and vaccine use led to a 99% reduction in the incidence of genital warts (related to HPV 6 and 11). Due to morbidity associated with infection with HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, a prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine targeting these four HPV types is expected to substantially reduce the burden of HPV-related disease. PMID:18837904

  3. Cervical ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sunil Kumar; Rathod, Setu

    2015-01-01

    Cervical pregnancy is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy and it represents <1% of all ectopic pregnancies. Early diagnosis and medical management with systemic or local administration of methotrexate is the treatment of choice. If the pregnancy is disturbed, it may lead to massive hemorrhage, which may require hysterectomy to save the patient. We report three cases of cervical pregnancy managed successfully with different approaches of management. Our first case, 28 years old G3P2L2 with previous two lower segment cesarean sections, presented with bleeding per vaginum following 6 weeks of amenorrhea. Clinical examination followed by transvaginal ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of cervical pregnancy. Total abdominal hysterectomy was done in view of intractable bleeding to save the patient. The second case, a 26-year-old second gravida with previous normal vaginal delivery presented with pain abdomen and single episode of spotting per vaginum following 7 weeks of amenorrhea. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed empty endometrial cavity, closed internal os with gestational sac containing live fetus of 7 weeks gestational age in cervical canal and she was treated with intra-amniotic potassium chloride followed by systemic methotrexate. Follow up with serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin level revealed successful outcome. Our third case, a 27-year-old primigravida with history of infertility treatment admitted with complaints of bleeding per vaginum for 1 day following 8 weeks amenorrhea. She was diagnosed as cervical pregnancy by clinical examination, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography and subsequently managed by dilation and curettage with intracervical Foleys’ ballon tamponade. PMID:25810679

  4. Role of cervical soft tissue lesion in cervical spondylosis and tuina intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Fang; Jun-tao Yan; Shu-yun Jiang; Wu-quan Sun; Yu-chao Liu

    2008-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is markedly characterized by degenerative changes. The studies in recent years on the role of cervical soft tissue lesion in cervical spondylosis indicated that cervical soft tissue lesion runs through the whole process of cervical spondylosis and is dominantly responsible for varieties of clinical symptoms. Cervical osseous lesion can be regarded as a result of soft tissue lesion

  5. HPV-Based Screening, Triage, Treatment, and Followup Strategies in the Management of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Deas, Jessica; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; García-Suastegui, Wendy Argelia; Fierros-Zárate, Geny del Socorro; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia Judith

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop immunotherapy and gene therapy strategies to treat cervical cancer. HPV genotyping has potentially valuable applications in triage of low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, assessment of prognosis and followup of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and in treatment strategies for invasive cervical cancer. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, the identification and subsequent functional evaluation of host proteins associated with HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins may provide useful information in understanding cervical carcinogenesis, identifying cervical cancer molecular markers, and developing specific targeting strategies against tumor cells. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss the main diagnostic methods, management strategies, and followup of HPV-associated cervical lesions and review clinical trials applying gene therapy strategies against the development of cervical cancer. PMID:23690785

  6. Perspective for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Cervical Cancer: An Immunological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Marjorie; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Mirandola, Leonardo; Tonroy, Catherine; Tedjarati, Sean S.; Davis, Nicole; D’Cunha, Nicholas; Tijani, Lukman; Hardwick, Fred; Nguyen, Diane; Kast, W. Martin; Cobos, Everardo

    2014-01-01

    As the second most common cause of cancer-related death in women, human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines have been a major step in decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. An estimated 490,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year. Increasing knowledge of the HPV role in the etiology of cervical cancer has led to the development and introduction of HPV-based vaccines for active immunotherapy of cervical cancer. Immunotherapies directed at preventing HPV-persistent infections. These vaccines are already accessible for prophylaxis and in the near future, they will be available for the treatment of preexisting HPV-related neoplastic lesions. PMID:22251005

  7. Percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Li; Deng-lu Yan; Zai-Heng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Percutaneous disc decompression procedures have been performed in the past. Various percutaneous techniques such as percutaneous\\u000a discectomy, laser discectomy, and nucleoplasty have been successful. Our prospective study was directly to evaluate the results\\u000a of percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty (PCN) surgery for cervical disc herniation, and illustrate the effectiveness of PCN\\u000a in symptomatic patients who had cervical herniated discs. From July of

  8. Endovascular Treatment of a Cervical Paraspinal Arteriovenous Malformation Via Arterial and Venous Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maciej Szajner; Alain Weill; Michel Piotin; Jacques Moret

    Summary: We describe a cervical congenital paraspinal ar- teriovenous malformation (AVM) drained by paraspinal and epidural ectatic veins, which caused massive erosion of the C6 and C7 vertebral bodies, threatening the cervical stability and necessitating treatment. During the first ses- sion, six arterial embolizations were performed to reduce the size and the flow of the AVM. Two months later, a

  9. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  10. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 ...Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 ...Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle...

  12. HPV infection and cervical disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jonathan R; Ding, Zongqun; Rose, Barbara R

    2011-04-01

    Cervical cancer remains a significant problem worldwide particularly in underdeveloped countries. The disease and its financial impact are significant. Infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV) is necessary for the development of cervical cancer and its precursors. HPV also causes precancer and cancer elsewhere in the lower genital tract in women and men, as well as cancers of the aerodigestive tract. Whilst non-sexual transmission has been reported, the usual method of transmission is by sexual intercourse with the virus deposited on the basement membrane of the cervical epithelium. It is then taken up by the basal cells, and viral amplification occurs with the maturation of the squamous epithelium. During this process, it remains hidden from the host immune system, thus not mounting an immune response in many instances. About half of the women infected with HPV do not develop clinically detected serum antibody levels and are thus at risk of re-infection with the same HPV type. HPV vaccination produces sustained levels of serum-neutralising antibodies and has been shown to be effective in reducing disease caused by the vaccine-associated HPV types. Vaccination is considered well tolerated and safe with syncope and venous thromboembolism reported more frequently that would be expected. Vaccination will not protect against pre-existing HPV infection and hence may not provide complete protection in all women, and as the duration of protection is not known, for the time being routine Pap testing screening according to the Australian guidelines should continue. PMID:21466509

  13. Early clinical and radiographical results of keel-less and shallow keel cervical disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Ji Min; Tiruchelvarayan, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical disc replacements has been shown to be as effective as fusions in the treatment of radiculopathy or myelopathy due to disc prolapse. Newer implants were designed to reduce the difficulty of end-plate preparation. Since 2010, the authors have started using Discocerv (Alphatec Spine, Carlsbad, USA) a keel-less implant and Activ-C (B. Braun, Sheffield, UK), a shallow keel implant. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the duration of surgery between cervical disc replacement and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, and also to evaluate the functional outcome, complications, and radiographic outcome of cervical disc replacement. Results: Fifty patients were included (20 disc replacement and 30 fusion). This was a single surgeon retrospective study, with all surgery performed by the senior author (RT). The mean operation duration for single-level disc replacement was 2.6 h, and for single-level fusion was 2.4 h (P = 0.4684). For 2-levels surgery, the result was 3.5 h for 2-level hybrid surgery (one level disc replacement and one level fusion) and 3.4 h for fusion (P = 0.4489). Disc replacement resulted in preservation of an average of 67% of the angle of motion at the sagittal plane (FFflexion-extension). The average range of motion after disc replacement was 6.1°. The median clinical follow-up duration was 2 years (average 1.8 years). There was no incidence of major complications or significant neurovascular injury in this series of patients. A significant improvement in short form-36 scores was seen as early as 3 months postoperative (from 58 preoperative to 92 at 3 months). The improvement was sustained up to the fourth year of follow-up. Conclusion: Cervical arthroplasty with keel-less and shallow keel implants are safe and relatively easy to perform. The surgical time for disc replacement is not significantly longer than standard fusion surgery. There is reasonably good preservation of motion. The short-term functional improvement is good, and we await further long-term outcome results. The authors felt that cervical disc replacement will have an important role in the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease in the future. PMID:25767568

  14. Appropriate use of cervical cancer vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zimet, Gregory D; Shew, Marcia L; Kahn, Jessica A

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary, though not sufficient, cause of cervical cancer. Two vaccines have been developed that prevent two HPV types associated with 70% of cervical cancers. One of the vaccines (a quadrivalent vaccine) also prevents two HPV types associated with 90% of genital warts. Both HPV vaccines have shown very good efficacy and safety. This review summarizes the guidelines for use of the quadrivalent vaccine published by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, presents data on vaccine efficacy and safety, and gives an overview of the findings of cost-effectiveness studies. In addition, we summarize the research on the attitudes of parents and health care providers toward HPV vaccine and critically evaluate controversial and challenging issues surrounding HPV vaccination, including concerns about sexual disinhibition and potential obstacles to vaccine distribution and uptake. PMID:18186704

  15. Cervical cystic hygroma.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Chauhan, Dinesh Singh

    2012-09-01

    Cystic hygroma or cystic lymphangioma is a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system that manifests itself as a soft, benign, and painless mass. It is widely accepted that they arise from the remnants of embryonic lymphatic tissue which retains the potential for proliferation. They grow in the fashion of sprouting and are capable of transgressing anatomical boundaries. They can occur almost at any anatomical site. However, 75-80% cystic hygromas are located in the head and neck region. In the neck, they are typically located within the posterior cervical triangle. The majority of cases (80-90%) are diagnosed under the age of two. We present a case of cervical cystic hygroma in a 6 year old male child which was surgically treated. PMID:23997487

  16. [Measurement and clinical significance of cervical lordosis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-ting; Wang, Xiang; Zhan, Hong-sheng

    2014-12-01

    Measurement of cervical lordosis is the basic method for evaluating cervical function, and important reference for determine treatment decision. However, how to choose appropriate measurement in accordance with different situation, as well as the relationship among these methods is not clear. An increasing number of studies suggested that different measurements could directly affect the judgment of cervical lordosis. Therefore, comparative study of cervical vertebrae plays an important role in clinical treatment for cervical spondylosis under different cervical curvature conditions. PMID:25638900

  17. Cervical plate fracture: a rare complication

    PubMed Central

    Veli, Citisli; Muhammet, Ibrahimoglu; Serkan, Civlan; Murat, Kocaoglu

    2015-01-01

    In traumatic and degenerative diseases cervical fusion with anterior cervical plate are commonly used. The increase in the use of cervical plate segment level is also increased risk of developing complications. This case report shows that the increase in the use of cervical plate segment level and also the complications in cervical spinal instrumentation, short-segment cervical plate rare case reported to be broken.

  18. Cervical split: A pseudofracture

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, R.P.; Vine, H.S.; Sacks, B.A.; Ellison, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    A horizontal lucent line projecting over a cervical vertebral body on lateral radiographs and simulating a fracture is described. This pseudofracture line results from the lucency between contiguous proliferative osteophytes at the uncinate process/vertebral articulation. Associated disc space narrowing was seen in all of our eleven cases. The origin of this pseudofracture line, cases illustrating this phenomenon, and additional projections helpful for clarification are presented.

  19. Cervical Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne S. Tsao; Lawrence M. Roth; Alan Sandler; Jean A. Hurteau

    2001-01-01

    Background.Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare and potentially aggressive malignancies.Case. A 24-year-old woman in her eighth week of pregnancy presented with a cervical mass. Tissue biopsy demonstrated poorly differentiated carcinosarcoma with neuroendocrine features. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of PNET. Treatment included alternating courses of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine (CAV) and ifosfamide, etoposide (IE). A radical hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian transposition

  20. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    PubMed

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile PMID:19301766

  1. A Critical Review of Non-carious Cervical (Wear) Lesions and the Role of Abfraction, Erosion, and Abrasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Bartlett; P. Shah

    2006-01-01

    The terms ‘abfraction’ and ‘abrasion’ describe the cause of lesions found along the cervical margins of teeth. Erosion, abrasion, and attrition have all been associated with their formation. Early research suggested that the cause of the V-shaped lesion was excessive horizontal toothbrushing. Abfraction is another possible etiology and involves occlusal stress, producing cervical cracks that predispose the surface to erosion

  2. Correlation of noncarious cervical lesion size and occlusal wear in a single adult over a 14-year time span

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria R. Pintado; Ralph DeLong; Ching-Chang Ko; Ronald L. Sakaguchi; William H. Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Statement of problem. Noncarious cervical lesions are described as having a multifactorial cause, with occlusal trauma and toothbrush abrasion frequently mentioned as major factors. Finite element modeling studies have demonstrated a relocalization of occlusal stresses to the cervical area due to flexure of the crown. This may cause microcracking, especially under tensile stresses, that will lead to a loss of

  3. HPV-related cervical disease and oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lozza, Virginia; Pieralli, Annalisa; Corioni, Serena; Longinotti, Manuela; Bianchi, Claudia; Moncini, Daniela; Fallani, Maria Grazia

    2014-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially HPV 16, is associated with the development of both cervical and oral cancer. We show the case of a woman affected by HPV-related cervical disease and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). A 41-year-old woman arrived at our Colposcopy Center following an abnormal Pap smear result (ASC-H) and a diagnosis of moderate cervical dysplasia obtained by a cervical biopsy. She underwent a colposcopy that showed a cervical abnormal transformation zone grade 2. A laser conization was performed in November 2010. Histology reported a moderate/severe dysplasia. The cone resection margins were free. Follow-up colposcopy and cytology were negative. The HPV testing showed an infection by HPV 16. In October 2012, the patient presented to the Head-Neck ER after episodes of hemoptysis; a lesion was found in the left tonsillar lodge. A biopsy was performed with a result of squamous cell carcinoma with low-grade differentiation. The HPV testing detected a high-risk HPV and the immunohistochemical analysis was positive for p16. She was treated by chemotherapy and brachytherapy. She was followed at the head-neck center with monthly visits with oral visual inspection that showed complete absence of mucosal abnormalities. HPV-related OPSCC and cervical precancerous/cancerous lesions have significant similarities in terms of pathogenesis. They are both caused largely by HPV 16, as in the present case. In conclusion, because of this association found in literature and in our case, we think that women with HPV cervical lesions should have regular surveillance for oropharyngeal cancer, whereas women with OPSCC should be encouraged to have diligent cervical screening. PMID:24584479

  4. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kovanda, Timothy J; Horn, Eric M

    2014-09-01

    Secondary injury following initial spinal cord trauma is uncommon and frequently attributed to mismanagement of an unprotected cord in the acute time period after injury. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy (SPAM) is a rare occurrence in the days to weeks following an initial spinal cord injury that is unrelated to manipulation of an unprotected cord and involves 4 or more vertebral levels above the original injury. The authors present a case of SPAM occurring in a 15-year-old boy who sustained a T3-4 fracture-dislocation resulting in a complete spinal cord injury, and they highlight the imaging findings and optimum treatment for this rare event. PMID:24905393

  5. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Epoetin Alfa in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer and Anemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Anemia; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Drug Toxicity; Radiation Toxicity; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  6. Comparison of the mechanisms responsible for cervical remodeling in preterm and term labor.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Juan M; Romero, Roberto; Girardi, Guillermina

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of term and preterm cervical remodeling is essential to prevent prematurity. Is preterm cervical remodeling caused by the same mechanisms that cause cervical remodeling at term, and are these changes accelerated in time? This question has been pondered by obstetricians seeking strategies to prevent preterm labor for many years. Mice represent an informative model of preterm birth. Thus, in this review we discuss the recent findings from mouse models that identify and characterize the initiators and cellular effectors of cervical remodeling at term and preterm labor/delivery. These studies suggest that similarities and differences exist between term and preterm cervical remodeling. Complement is an initiator or mediator in preterm labor/delivery, but is not involved in the physiological process that leads to term delivery. Therefore, complememt constitutes a specific and selective target for potentially preventing preterm delivery, thus improving neonatal health. PMID:23312455

  7. Gradual Recovery from Nonambulatory Quadriparesis Caused by Metastatic Epidural Cervical Cord Compression in an Octogenarian Gallbladder Carcinoma Patient Treated with Image-Guided Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Alone Using a Field-in-Field Technique

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy for acute metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) involves conventional techniques and dose fractionation schemes, as it needs to be initiated quickly. However, even with rapid intervention, few paraplegic patients regain ambulation. Here, we describe the case of a mid-octogenarian who presented with severe pain and nonambulatory quadriparesis attributable to MESCC at the fifth cervical vertebra, which developed 10 months after the diagnosis of undifferentiated carcinoma of the gallbladder. Image-guided three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (IG-3DCRT) was started with 25?Gy in 5 fractions followed by a boost of 12?Gy in 3 fractions, for which a field-in-field (FIF) technique was used to optimize the dose distribution. Despite the fact that steroids were not administered, the patient reported significant pain reduction and showed improved motor function 3 and 4 weeks after the IG-3DCRT, respectively. Over the following 4 months, her neurological function gradually improved, and she was consequently able to eat and change clothes without assistance and to walk slowly for 10–20?m using a walker. She succumbed to progression of abdominal disease 8.5 months after the IG-3DCRT. This case demonstrates that image-guided FIF radiotherapy with a dose-escalated hypofractionated regimen can potentially improve functional outcome and local control. PMID:25184063

  8. Rehabilitation and long-term course of nontraumatic myelopathy associated with surfing.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Masahiro; Moriizumi, Shigehiro; Toki, Megumi; Murakami, Takanori; Ishiai, Sumio

    2013-09-01

    A nontraumatic spinal cord injury related to surfing is called surfer's myelopathy. The case of a 26-yr-old man who became paraplegic after surfing without apparent traumatic events is described. Physical examination revealed a spinal cord injury at T12 according to the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A. The initial magnetic resonance image revealed a fusiform swelling of the spinal cord from T7-8 to the conus, which was hyperintense on T2-weighted images. After 6 mos of rehabilitation, the patient was followed for more than 1 yr after onset. He became able to walk with knee-ankle-foot-orthoses without assistance. A magnetic resonance image obtained 1 yr after the onset of paraplegia showed an atrophic spinal cord from T7-8 to the conus. The course of the neurologic findings and the imaging studies suggest that the pathogenesis of surfer's myelopathy may be ischemia of the anterior spinal artery territory induced by the abnormal trunk posture while surfing. PMID:22019977

  9. Hirayama disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Lin; Chen, Chi-Jen

    2011-11-01

    Hirayama disease (juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper extremity) is a cervical myelopathy. Predominantly affecting male adolescents, it is characterized by progressive muscular weakness and atrophy of distal upper limbs, followed by spontaneous arrest within several years. Although the cause of cervical myelopathy remains unclear, neuropathologic and neuroradiologic findings suggest a forward displacement of the posterior cervical dural sac during neck flexion, causing compression of the cervical cord, and results in atrophic and ischemic changes in the anterior horn. A good understanding of Hirayama disease is essential because early recognition and management can effectively halt the progressive deterioration. PMID:22032508

  10. The EXIT for Prenatally Diagnosed Cervical Cystic Teratoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cansaran, Sabri; Cerrah Celayir, Ay?enur; Moral?o?lu, Serdar; Ayvac?, Habibe; Tu?rul, Semih; Oval?, Fahri; Çetiner, Handan

    2015-01-01

    The Ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) is a procedure performed during caesarean section while on fetal-placental circulation. We present a prenatally diagnosed cervical cystic mass causing tracheal compression which was managed successfully with the EXIT procedure.

  11. Modeling and analyzing spread of epidemic diseases: case study based on cervical cancer 

    E-print Network

    Parvin, Hoda

    2009-05-15

    In this thesis, health care policy issues for prevention and cure of cervical cancer have been considered. The cancer is typically caused by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) for which individuals can be tested and also given vaccinations. Policymakers...

  12. Natural history and epidemiology of HPV infection and cervical cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Castellsagué

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in developing countries. It has been estimated to have been responsible for almost 260 000 deaths annually, of which about 80% occurred in developing countries.Persistent infection by certain oncogenic HPV types is firmly established as the necessary cause of most premalignant and malignant epithelial lesions of the cervix and of a

  13. Time to consider HPV testing in cervical screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Cuzick

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) has been clearly es- tablished as the primary cause of cervical cancer in nearly all cases (1). Thus, it should not be surprising that testing for HPV should have a role in measures aimed at control of this disease. The ultimate goal must be eradication of HPV by vaccination, but a more imme- diate prospect is

  14. Some borderlands of the cervical spine. Pt. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kattan, K.R.; Pais, M.J.

    1982-03-01

    The complexity of the structure of the cervical spine as well superimposition by the parts of adjacent vertebrae, as well as other structures may cause some abnormalities to be overlooked. Among those abnormalities are, the short sagittal diameter, neoplasm in the cancellous part of the vertebral bodies, spurs in the apophyseal joints, trauma, infection and others.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of cervical artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Engelter, Stefan T; Traenka, Christopher; Von Hessling, Alexander; Lyrer, Philippe A

    2015-05-01

    Cervical artery dissection (CAD) is a major cause of stroke in the young. A mural hematoma is detected in most CAD patients. The intramural blood accumulation should not be considered a reason to withhold intravenous thrombolysis in patients with CAD-related stroke. Because intravenous-thrombolyzed CAD patients might not recover as well as other stroke patients, acute endovascular treatment is an alternative. Regarding the choice of antithrombotic agents, this article discusses the findings of 4 meta-analyses across observational data, the current status of 3 randomized controlled trials, and arguments and counterarguments favoring anticoagulants over antiplatelets. Furthermore, the role of stenting and surgery is addressed. PMID:25907914

  16. Trauma-induced myelopathy in patients with retro-odontoid pseudotumour and ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Tobari, Yoshiko; Kimura, Atsushi; Sasaki, Satoru; Tajiri, Yasuhito; Seichi, Atsushi

    2014-12-01

    We report 2 cases of acute, progressive myelopathy after a fall in elderly patients who had a retroodontoid pseudotumour and extensive ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament. PMID:25550033

  17. Cervical neurofibromatosis with quadriparesis: Management by fibular strut graft

    PubMed Central

    Laohacharoensombat, Wichien; Wajanavisit, Wiwat; Woratanarat, Patarawan

    2010-01-01

    This is a case report of an eight-year old boy with neurofibromatosis and a 120° dystrophic kyphosis of the cervical spine. He presented with progressive quadriparesis caused by spondyloptosis of the C2/C3, and was successfully treated by skull traction and one-stage anterior fibular strut graft lying between the tubercle of the atlas through the C2 body slot and lower vertebrae. At seven years follow-up there was, loosening of lower vertebral screws which allowed growth and residual mobility of lower vertebral joints while the fusion of upper cervical spines was still solid. PMID:20165684

  18. Outcome of single level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide-66 cage

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xi; Liu, Limin; Song, Yueming; Kong, Qingquan; Zeng, Jiancheng; Tu, Chongqi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cages have been widely used for the anterior reconstruction and fusion of cervical spine. Nonmetal cages have become popular due to prominent stress shielding and high rate of subsidence of metallic cages. This study aims to assess fusion with n-HA/PA66 cage following one level anterior cervical discectomy. Materials and Methods: Forty seven consecutive patients with radiculopathy or myelopathy underwent single level ACDF using n-HA/PA66 cage. We measured the segmental lordosis and intervertebral disc height on preoperative radiographs and then calculated the loss of segmental lordosis correction and cage subsidence over followup. Fusion status was evaluated on CT scans. Odom criteria, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) and Visual Analog Pain Scales (VAS) scores were used to assess the clinical results. Statistically quantitative data were analyzed while Categorical data by ?2 test. Results: Mean correction of segmental lordosis from surgery was 6.9 ± 3.0° with a mean loss of correction of 1.7 ± 1.9°. Mean cage subsidence was 1.2 ± 0.6 mm and the rate of cage subsidence (>2 mm) was 2%. The rate of fusion success was 100%. No significant difference was found on clinical or radiographic outcomes between the patients (n=27) who were fused by n-HA/PA66 cage with pure local bone and the ones (n=20) with hybrid bone (local bone associating with bone from iliac crest). Conclusions: The n-HA/PA66 cage is a satisfactory reconstructing implant after anterior cervical discectomy, which can effectively promote bone graft fusion and prevent cage subsidence. PMID:24741136

  19. Cytokine Concentrations in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Great Danes with Cervical Spondylomyelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Vaquero, P.; da Costa, R.C.; Moore, S.A.; Gross, A.C.; Eubank, T.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of human cervical spondylotic myelopathy and could also play a role in cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) in dogs. Hypothesis/Objectives That cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokine concentrations would differ between clinically normal (control) and CSM-affected Great Danes (GDs), with affected GDs showing higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/chemokine ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2). Animals Client-owned GDs: 15 control, 15 CSM-affected. Methods Prospective study. Dogs underwent cervical vertebral column magnetic resonance imaging and collection of CSF from the cerebellomedullary cistern. Cytokine concentrations were measured using a commercially available canine multiplex immunoassay. Cytokine concentrations were compared between groups. Associations with the administration of anti-inflammatory medications, disease duration and severity, severity of spinal cord (SC) compression, and SC signal changes were investigated in affected GDs. Results Affected GDs had significantly lower MCP-1/CCL2 (mean 138.03 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 114.85–161.20) than control GDs (212.89 pg/mL, 95% CI = 165.68–260.11, P = .028). In affected GDs, MCP-1/CCL2 concentrations correlated inversely with the severity of SC compression. There were no associations with administration of anti-inflammatory medications, disease duration, or disease severity. IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher (2.20 pg/mL, 95% CI = 1.92–2.47, P < .001) in GDs with SC signal changes. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Lower MCP-1/CCL2 in CSM-affected GDs might compromise clearance of axonal and myelin debris, delay axon regeneration, and affect recovery. Higher IL-6 in CSM-affected GDs with SC signal changes suggests more severe inflammation in this group. PMID:24965833

  20. Expanding the Scope of Nursing Research in Low Resource and Middle Resource Countries, Regions, and States Focused on Cervical Cancer Prevention, Early Detection, and Control

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Sandra Millon; Ramsay-Johnson, Edith; Dean, Asante; Russ, Jori; Ivalis, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. There are significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality globally as well as in the United States. The most significant global disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality are reported in low resource and middle resource countries, regions, and states. This report provides an overview of cervical cancer epidemiology and etiology, and identifies “gaps” in the nursing literature specific to cervical cancer prevention and control worthy of consideration by nurses within the practice setting. PMID:20364726

  1. Cervical-vaginal bacterial flora in patients with cervical carcinoma treated with irradiation and febrile morbidity during intracavitary radium therapy.

    PubMed

    Choo, Y C; Seto, W H; Ma, H K

    1984-02-01

    The cervical-vaginal bacterial flora of 57 patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix were found to be identical to those reported in studies of different population groups, except for a lower frequency of anaerobic bacteria. Radiation suppressed significantly both the aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Following 4,000 rads of external irradiation, 47.4% of the cervical cultures were bacteriologically sterile. During the first and second radium treatment, 21% and 25.5% of the patients respectively developed fever of 38 degrees C or more, the cause of which could not definitely be established. The significance of fever during radium treatment is discussed. PMID:6378172

  2. Carcinoma of the cervical esophagus: diagnosis, management, and results

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.J.; Harris, A.; Gillette, A.; Munoz, L.; Kashima, H.

    1984-11-01

    Nine of 168 patients (5.3%) with carcinoma of the esophagus had primary tumors in the cervical esophagus. The principal symptoms and signs of carcinoma of the cervical esophagus were dysphagia, hoarseness, neck mass, and weight loss. The esophagogram was a very reliable study, revealing the abnormality in all nine patients. The true extent of the disease was better delineated by computerized tomography which demonstrated not only the intraluminal mass but also the extraesophageal spread. Endoscopic examination of the cervical esophagus was the definitive procedure to establish the diagnosis. All nine patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy, three surviving two to five years. The major cause of death was the failure to control local disease. 14 references, 3 tables.

  3. The epidemiology of hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bertesteanu, SVG; Mirea, D; Grigore, R; Ionescu, D; Popescu, B

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer represents a major issue for all countries of the world. The epidemiology of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer deals with the spread of the disease in human population in regards to sex, age, profession, time and space, as well as risk factors that contribute to these phenomena. The main goal is to investigate the causes and the factors involved in the development of the tumors at the pharyngo–esophageal junction, knowledge that contributes to latest therapeutic assessment through interdisciplinary collaboration (E.N.T. surgeon, general surgeon, radiation oncologist, chemotherapist, nutritionist). The epidemiology of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer includes three major areas of interest: descriptive (the study of the spread in mass population), analytical (the study of causal risk factors on the disease) and experimental (that verifies by experiments on animals the prior identified hypothesis). PMID:21254737

  4. Cervical Lymphadenopathy—Pitfalls of Blind Antitubercular Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Sabyasachi; Das, Anirban; Das, Sibes Kumar; Bhattacharya, Soumya

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common cause of cervical lymphadenopathy in the TB-endemic zone, like India but it can also mimic other diseases. Four cases of cervical lymphadenopathy presented to us as initial treatment failure after completion of six months of antitubercular drugs (ATD), including rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. All were diagnosed as having tuberculosis either by fine needle aspiration cytology or clinically from outside our institution. In one case, tuberculosis was the final diagnosis but, unfortunately, it was multidrug-resistant. In other three cases, Hodgkin disease, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and Kikuchi's disease were the diagnoses. In resource-poor countries, like India, which is also a TB-endemic zone, TB should be the first diagnosis in all cases of chronic cervical lymphadenopathy, based on clinical and/or cytological evidences. So, they were correctly advised antitubercular therapy (ATT) initially. Sometimes, TB mimics other aetiologies where apparent initial improvement with ATT finally results in treatment failure. Hence, investigations for microbiological and histopathological diagnosis are warranted, depending on the resources and feasibility. If these tests are not routinely available, the patients should be under close monitoring so that lymphoma, drug-resistant TB, or other aetiologies of cervical lymphadenopathy are not missed. Patients with cervical lymphadenopathy rarely presents acutely; so, a physician can take the opportunity of histopathological study of lymphnode tissue. PMID:24847605

  5. Percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty and percutaneous cervical discectomy treatments of the contained cervical disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denglu YanJian; Jian Li; Haodong Zhu; Zhi Zhang; Lijun Duan

    2010-01-01

    Background  There were no studies in literature to compare the clinical outcomes of percutaneous nucleoplasty (PCN) and percutaneous cervical\\u000a discectomy (PCD) in contained cervical disc herniation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective of patients with symptomatic contained cervical disc herniated were operated on with PCN and PCD from June\\u000a 2003 to July 2005. Two-hundred and four patients initially fulfilled the study criteria, and 28 patients

  6. Cervical Cancer HPV Vaccine Use

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

  7. [Cervical vertebra-induced hearing and equilibrium disorders. Recent clinical aspects].

    PubMed

    Elies, W

    1984-12-01

    The contribution of cervical spine disorders to cochleovestibular symptoms was based on the evaluation of patients complaining of dizziness and/or inner ear hearing loss, treated in the ENT Department of Tubingen University between 1977 and 1982. Cervicogenic vertigo was provoked by movements of the cervical spine, but the latter rarely caused tinnitus and never induced hearing loss. The diagnosis between a vascular or proprioceptive nystagmus may be made on the presence of lesions of the cervical spine. These are disorders of the cranio-cervical or the thoraco-cervical region especially and much less often due to osteochondrosis of the vertebrae. The findings of a cervical osteochondrosis has no diagnostic value unless vertigo is provoked by head movements. In cervical vertigo the thoraco-cervical region should be examined to prove a thoracic outlet syndrome. In selected cases operative treatment is possible, eg. transoral resection of the dental process of the axis, resection of the posterior arch of the atlas, myotomy of the anterior scalenus muscle or decompression of the vertebral artery. PMID:6530373

  8. Laparoscopic Placement of Cervical Cerclage

    PubMed Central

    Tusheva, Olga A; Cohen, Sarah L; McElrath, Thomas F; Einarsson, Jon I

    2012-01-01

    Cervical shortening is believed to be a marker for generalized intrauterine inflammation and has a strong association with spontaneous preterm birth. A variety of therapies, including vaginal and intramuscular progesterone, pessary, and cerclage, have been demonstrated to be effective in specific clinical circumstances. Cervical cerclage can be placed via transvaginal, open transabdominal, or laparoscopic transabdominal approach, preferably before pregnancy. A laparoscopic approach may be superior to the transabdominal approach in terms of surgical outcomes, cost, and postoperative morbidity. PMID:23483629

  9. Immunohistochemical screening for viral agents in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Shibly, S; Schmidt, P; Robert, N; Walzer, C; Url, A

    2006-10-21

    Numerous cases of acute-onset progressive ataxia, hindlimb paresis and paralysis of unknown aetiology occurred during 1993 to 2003 in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) within the European Endangered Species Programme (eep). This study describes the immunohistochemical investigation of a possible viral aetiology of the "cheetah myelopathy". Antibodies to feline herpesvirus type 1, canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and Borna disease virus were applied to formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain and spinal cord sections from 25 affected cheetahs aged between three-and-a-half months and 13 years. Using the avidin-biotin complex technique, none of the antibodies gave positive immunosignals in either the brain or the spinal cord tissue. PMID:17056652

  10. Human T lymphotropic virus type-1-associated myelopathy manifesting shortly after living-donor renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Yuito; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kato, Yuji; Horiuchi, Yohsuke; Tanahashi, Norio

    2015-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman experienced numbness in both lower extremities and spastic paralysis a few months after undergoing living-donor renal transplantation. The patient was negative for human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) antibodies prior to the procedure; however, she was diagnosed with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) based on positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid antibody titers after the surgery. Because the donor was also positive for HTLV-1 antibodies, the infection likely originated from the transplanted kidney. Clinical and imaging improvements were noted following the administration of interferon-?. HAM has been reported to occur after living-donor renal transplantation; however, there are no previous reports of onset within such a short period. PMID:25742898

  11. [Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for a patient with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy].

    PubMed

    Yokomizo, Taishi; Hiraki, Teruyuki; Mishima, Yasunori; Ushijima, Kazuo

    2014-08-01

    An 81-year-old female with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM) was scheduled for transurethral lithotomy. She had had paresthesia and spastic paresis in the lower extremities for the past 15 years. The preoperative respiratory function test revealed a vital capacity of 1.3 l (58% of the predicted value). We selected combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) for her to avoid postoperative respiratory complications due to general anesthesia. After placement of a thoracic epidural catheter, spinal anesthesia was achieved by administration of bupivacaine 7.5 mg, resulting in the sensory block level to T 6, five min later. The intraoperative blood pressure remained high at 150-200 mmHg, in spite of the administration of nicardipine. Postoperatively, neither the deterioration in the neurological findings of HAM nor the exacerbation of respiratory function was observed. The present report suggests that CSEA can be one of the choices of anesthesia for a patient with HAM. PMID:25199333

  12. HTLV-I associated myelopathy: an endemic disease of Canadian aboriginals of the Northwest Pacific coast?

    PubMed

    Oger, J J; Werker, D H; Foti, D J; Dekaban, G A

    1993-11-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) is responsible for HTLV-I associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Both diseases have been well described in individuals living in Japan, West Indies, Seychelles Islands and Columbia where infection with HTLV-I is considered endemic and in persons whose descendants originated from these endemic areas. We report here 4 cases of HAM/TSP in 4 natives from 4 different tribal groups from British Columbia (B.C.). These are the first case reports of HTLV-I linked diseases found among North American Aboriginals. Possible routes of infection for HTLV-I infection included sexual transmission, breast feeding, blood transfusions and IV drug use. The seroprevalence of HTLV-I in North American Native population is unknown and we suggest that it is endemic in this ethnic group. PMID:8313245

  13. Grantee Research Highlight: Innovative Models to Assess the Costs, Benefits, and Cost-effectiveness of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Cervical cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide. In recent years, an improving understanding of the natural history of the human papillomavirus (HPV), promising new screening approaches using HPV DNA testing, and the development of an HPV vaccine have significantly changed the approach to preventing and controlling cervical cancer.

  14. Risk factors in cervical spondylosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudhir; Kumar, Dharmendra; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical spondylosis is essentially a degenerative disorder common after fourth decade. It has been seen that radiological evidence of cervical spondylosis do not necessarily co-relate with clinical findings. This discrepancy has been attributed to the morphometric dimensions of the vertebrae, age, sex, race, occupation, weight and height of the patients. Objective The objective of this study is to co-relate the variables like age, sex, race, occupation, vertebral body diameter, canal diameter, canal body ratio of cervical spine vertebrae with cervical spondylosis cases with normal population. Methods In this hospital based, case control, consent based, cross-sectional, clinico-radiological study 200 individuals (controls-100, cases-100) who were subjected to lateral projection radiographs of cervical spine. Their age, sex, race, occupation, height, weight and mid-sagittal canal diameter (CD), sagittal vertebral body diameter (VBD) and the canal-body ratio (CBR) of the cervical vertebrae was recorded and analyzed statistically. Results There was no relation between vertebral dimensions and clinical groups. In radiculopathy group, age and height showed significance on univariate analysis. While only age remained significant on multivariate analysis. In neck pain group age, sex, and height showed significance on univariate analysis while in multivariate analysis age, sex and occupation were significant risk factors. PMID:25983502

  15. Neurologic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus-2: dementia, myelopathy, and neuropathy in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youngjee; Townend, John; Vincent, Tim; Zaidi, Irfan; Sarge-Njie, Ramu; Jaye, Assan

    2015-01-01

    While well documented in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, neurologic sequelae have not been systematically evaluated in HIV-2. After excluding for confounding comorbidities, 67 individuals from a rural cohort in Guinea-Bissau (22 HIV-2 participants, 45 seronegative controls) were evaluated. HIV+individuals were divided into CD4<350 and CD4?350 for analysis. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), assessed by the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSPN), and myelopathy were the main outcome variables. In univariate analysis, there was no difference in IHDS scores among groups. When analyzed by primary education attainment, IHDS scores were nonsignificantly higher (p=0.06) with more education. There was no significant difference in DSPN prevalence among groups; overall, 45% of participants had DSPN. There were no cases of myelopathy. In multivariate linear regression, higher IHDS scores were significantly correlated with older age (coefficient=?0.11, p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that older age (odds ratio (OR) 95% CI 1.04–1.20), lower CD4 count (OR 95% CI 0.996–0.999), and higher BMI (OR 95% CI 1.02–1.43) significantly predicted the presence of DSPN. While a significant increase in cognitive impairment was not observed in HIV-2-infected individuals, the study suggests the IHDS may be a less effective screening tool for HAND in settings of lower educational attainment as encountered in rural Guinea-Bissau. Similar to HIV-1, DSPN seems to occur with lower CD4 counts in HIV-2. Further study of the viral–host interactions in HIV-2 and its consequent neurological diseases may provide an avenue for understanding the epidemic problems of HIV-1. PMID:21424866

  16. A Comprehensive Review of Dysregulated miRNAs Involved in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Garima; Dua, Pradeep; Agarwal, Subhash Mohan

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs(miRNAs) have become the center of interest in oncology. In recent years, various studies have demonstrated that miRNAs regulate gene expression by influencing important regulatory genes and thus are responsible for causing cervical cancer. Cervical cancer being the third most diagnosed cancer among the females worldwide, is the fourth leading cause of cancer related mortality. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and new HPV screening tests, combined with traditional Pap test screening have greatly reduced cervical cancer. Yet, thousands of women continue to be diagnosed with and die of this preventable disease annually. This has necessitated the scientists to ponder over ways of evolving new methods and chalk out novel treatment protocols/strategies. As miRNA deregulation plays a key role in malignant transformation of cervical cancer along with its targets that can be exploited for both prognostic and therapeutic strategies, we have collected and reviewed the role of miRNA in cervical cancer. A systematic search was performed using PubMed for articles that report aberrant expression of miRNA in cervical cancer. The present review provides comprehensive information for 246 differentially expressed miRNAs gathered from 51 published articles that have been implicated in cervical cancer progression. Of these, more than 40 miRNAs have been reported in the literature in several instances signifying their role in the regulation of cancer. We also identified 40 experimentally validated targets, studied the cause of miRNAs dysregulation along with its mechanism and role in different stages of cervical cancer. We also identified and analysed miRNA clusters and their expression pattern in cervical cancer. This review is expected to further enhance our understanding in this field and serve as a valuable reference resource. PMID:25132800

  17. Interferon beta-1a treatment in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Viana, Graça Maria de Castro; Silva, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da; Souza, Victor Lima; Lopes, Natália Barbosa da Silva; Silva, Diego Luz Felipe da; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão

    2014-01-01

    Here a young patient (< 21 years of age) with a history of infective dermatitis is described. The patient was diagnosed with myelopathy associated with HTLV-1/tropical spastic paraparesis and treated with interferon beta-1a. The disease was clinically established as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and laboratory tests confirmed the presence of antibodies to HTLV-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Mumps, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, schistosomiasis, herpes virus 1 and 2, rubella, measles, varicella-zoster toxoplasmosis, hepatitis, HIV, and syphilis were excluded by serology. The patient was diagnosed with neurogenic bladder and presented with nocturia, urinary urgency, paresthesia of the lower left limb, a marked reduction of muscle strength in the lower limbs, and a slight reduction in upper limb strength. During the fourth week of treatment with interferon beta-1a, urinary urgency and paresthesia disappeared and clinical motor skills improved. PMID:25229227

  18. Antemortem diagnosis and successful management of noncompressive segmental myelopathy in a Siberian-Bengal mixed breed tiger.

    PubMed

    Flower, Jennifer E; Lynch, Kate; Clark-Price, Stuart C; Welle, Kenneth R; O'Brien, Robert; Whittington, Julia K

    2013-12-01

    A 10-yr-old female spayed mixed breed tiger presented for a 9-day history of acute and nonprogressive paralysis of the pelvic limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion suggestive of fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy with regional spinal cord edema, decreased disk signal intensity at L2-L3, and mild intervertebral disk protrusion at L1-L2 and L2-L3. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis showed no overt evidence of infection or neoplasia. Medical therapy was instituted, including corticosteroids and gastroprotectants as well as nursing care and physical therapy. The tiger began showing clinical improvement 2 wk after initiating treatment, progressing to the point where the animal was standing and intermittently walking. Three months after diagnosis, the tiger had regained muscle strength of its hind limbs and walked regularly with improving coordination. This case is the first report of antemortem diagnosis and successful medical management of suspected fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy in a large exotic felid. PMID:24450082

  19. Analysis of digitized cervical images to detect cervical neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Daron G.

    2004-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. If diagnosed in the premalignant stage, cure is invariably assured. Although the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer where implemented, the test is only moderately sensitive, highly subjective and skilled-labor intensive. Newer optical screening tests (cervicography, direct visual inspection and speculoscopy), including fluorescent and reflective spectroscopy, are fraught with certain weaknesses. Yet, the integration of optical probes for the detection and discrimination of cervical neoplasia with automated image analysis methods may provide an effective screening tool for early detection of cervical cancer, particularly in resource poor nations. Investigative studies are needed to validate the potential for automated classification and recognition algorithms. By applying image analysis techniques for registration, segmentation, pattern recognition, and classification, cervical neoplasia may be reliably discriminated from normal epithelium. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), in cooperation with the National Library of Medicine (NLM), has embarked on a program to begin this and other similar investigative studies.

  20. Evaluation of an educational program on cervical cancer for rural women in Mangalore, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Mary, Bright; D'Sa, Juliana Linnette

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer in women worldwide. One way by which the incidence of this malignant disease can be minimized is by imparting knowledge through health education. This study aimed at developing an educational package on cervical cancer (EPCC) and determining its effectiveness in terms of significant increase in knowledge of rural women regarding cervical cancer. A one group pre-test, post-test design was adopted. Thirty rural women were selected using a convenient sampling method. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a structured knowledge questionnaire developed by the researchers. The EPCC was designed for a duration of one hour and 10 minutes. The structured knowledge questionnaire was first administered as the pre-test, following which knowledge on cervical cancer was imparted using the EPCC. On the 8th day, the post-test was administered. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean post-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was significantly higher than that of their mean pre-test score, indicating that the EPCC was effective in improving the knowledge of rural women on cervical cancer. The association between pre-test knowledge scores and selected demo-graphic variables were computed using chi-square test showed that pre-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was independent of all the socio-demographic variables. It was concluded that the EPCC is effective in improving the knowledge of women, regarding cervical cancer. Since the prevalence of cervical cancer is high, there is an immediate need to educate women on prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:25169495

  1. Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening: Financial Issues

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with lower incomes and those without insurance. Federal law Coverage of cervical cancer screening tests is mandated ... says. They also are not covered by state laws, including those about cervical cancer screening. Women who ...

  2. Cervical Spinal Epidural Hematoma Following Cervical Posterior Laminoforaminotomy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2013-01-01

    A 65-year-old man who had lateral cervical disc herniation underwent cervical posterior laminoforaminotomy at C5-6 and C6-7 level right side. During the operation, there was no serious surgical bleeding event. After operation, he complained persistent right shoulder pain and neck pain. Repeated magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed diffuse cervical epidural hematoma (EDH) extending from C5 to T1 level right side and spinal cord compression at C5-6-7 level. He underwent exploration. There was active bleeding at muscular layer. Muscular active bleeding was controlled and intramuscular hematoma was removed. The patient's symptom was reduced after second operation. Symptomatic postoperative spinal EDH requiring reoperation is rare. Meticulous bleeding control is important before wound closure. In addition, if patient presents persistent or aggravated pain after operation, rapid evaluation using MRI and second look operation is needed as soon as possible. PMID:23560180

  3. Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection for Unilateral Cervical Radiculopathy: Comparison of Midline and Paramedian Approaches for Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji Young; Yoon, Young Cheol; Lee, Jongseok

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of the cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection (CIESI) for unilateral radiculopathy by the midline or paramedian approaches and to determine the prognostic factors of CIESI. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 182 patients who underwent CIESI from January 2009 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria were no previous spinal steroid injection, presence of a cross-sectional image, and presence of follow-up records. Exclusion criteria were patients with bilateral cervical radiculopathy and/or dominant cervical axial pain, combined peripheral neuropathy, and previous cervical spine surgery. Short-term clinical outcomes were evaluated at the first follow-up after CIESI. We compared the clinical outcomes between the midline and paramedian approaches. Possible prognostic factors for the outcome, such as age, gender, duration of radiculopathy, and cause of radiculopathy were also analyzed. Results Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections were effective in 124 of 182 patients (68.1%) at the first follow-up. There was no significant difference in the clinical outcomes of CIESI, between midline (69.6%) and paramedian (63.7%) approaches (p = 0.723). Cause of radiculopathy was the only significant factor affecting the efficacy of CIESI. Patients with disc herniation had significantly better results than patients with neural foraminal stenosis (82.9% vs. 56.0%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion There is no significant difference in treatment efficacy between the midline and paramedian approaches in CIESI, for unilateral radiculopathy. The cause of the radiculopathy is significantly associated with the treatment efficacy; patients with disc herniation experience better pain relief than those with neural foraminal stenosis. PMID:25995690

  4. Cervical esophageal hemangioma combined with thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Cheol; Kim, Jeong Won; Lee, Yong Jik; Lee, Seong Rok; Park, Chang-Ryul; Jung, Jong-Pil

    2011-08-01

    Hemangiomas that arise in cervical esophagus are extremely rare, representing 3.3% of all benign esophageal tumors. Although endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and potassium titanyl phosphate/yttrium aluminum garnet (KTP/YAG) laser therapy have been used with success for small tumors, the safety and efficacy in the case of large tumors remains uncertain. We report the successful resection of cervical esophageal hemangioma through a cervical esophagotomy in a patient with thyroid cancer who needed a cervical collar incision. PMID:22263178

  5. Syringomyelia associated with cervical spondylosis: A rare condition.

    PubMed

    Landi, Alessandro; Nigro, Lorenzo; Marotta, Nicola; Mancarella, Cristina; Donnarumma, Pasquale; Delfini, Roberto

    2013-06-16

    Spinal spondylosis is an extremely common condition that has only rarely been described as a cause of syringomyelia. We describe a case of syringomyelia associated with cervical spondylosis admitted at our division and treated by our institute. It is the case of a 66-year-old woman. At our observation she was affected by moderate-severe spastic tetraparesis. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an hyperintense signal within spinal cord from C3 to T1 with a more sharply defined process in the inferior cervical spinal cord. At the same level bulging discs, facets and ligamenta flava hypertrophy determined a compression towards subarachnoid space and spinal cord. Spinal cord compression was more evident in hyperextension rather than flexion. A 4-level laminectomy and subsequent posterior stabilization with intra-articular screws was executed. At 3-mo follow up there was a regression of tetraparesis but motor deficits of the lower limbs residuated. At the same follow up postoperative MRI was executed. It suggested enlargement of the syrinx. Perhaps hyperintensity within spinal cord appeared "bounded" from C3 to C7 with clearer margins. At the level of surgical decompression, subarachnoid space and spinal cord enlargement were also evident. A review of the literature was executed using PubMed database. The objective of the research was to find an etiopathological theory able to relate syringomyelia with cervical spondylosis. Only 6 articles have been found. At the origin of syringomyelia the mechanisms of compression and instability are proposed. Perhaps other studies assert the importance of subarachnoid space regard cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamic. We postulate that cervical spine instability may be the cause of multiple microtrauma towards spinal cord and consequently may damage spinal cord parenchyma generating myelomalacia and consequently syrinx. Otherwise the hemorrhage within spinal cord central canal can cause an obstruction of CSF outflow, finally generating the syrinx. On the other hand in cervical spondylosis the stenotic elements can affect subarachnoid space. These elements rubbing towards spinal cord during movements of the neck can generate arachnoiditis, subarachnoid hemorrhages and arachnoid adhesions. Analyzing the literature these "complications" of cervical spondylosis are described at the origin of syringomyelia. So surgical decompression, enlarging medullary canal prevents rubbings and contacts between the bone-ligament structures of the spine towards spinal cord and subarachnoid space therefore syringomyelia. Perhaps stabilization is also necessary to prevent instability of the cervical spine at the base of central cord syndrome or syringomyelia. Finally although patients affected by central cord syndrome are usually managed conservatively we advocate, also for them, surgical treatment in cases affected by advanced state of the symptoms and MRI. PMID:24303479

  6. Syringomyelia associated with cervical spondylosis: A rare condition

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Alessandro; Nigro, Lorenzo; Marotta, Nicola; Mancarella, Cristina; Donnarumma, Pasquale; Delfini, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Spinal spondylosis is an extremely common condition that has only rarely been described as a cause of syringomyelia. We describe a case of syringomyelia associated with cervical spondylosis admitted at our division and treated by our institute. It is the case of a 66-year-old woman. At our observation she was affected by moderate-severe spastic tetraparesis. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an hyperintense signal within spinal cord from C3 to T1 with a more sharply defined process in the inferior cervical spinal cord. At the same level bulging discs, facets and ligamenta flava hypertrophy determined a compression towards subarachnoid space and spinal cord. Spinal cord compression was more evident in hyperextension rather than flexion. A 4-level laminectomy and subsequent posterior stabilization with intra-articular screws was executed. At 3-mo follow up there was a regression of tetraparesis but motor deficits of the lower limbs residuated. At the same follow up postoperative MRI was executed. It suggested enlargement of the syrinx. Perhaps hyperintensity within spinal cord appeared “bounded” from C3 to C7 with clearer margins. At the level of surgical decompression, subarachnoid space and spinal cord enlargement were also evident. A review of the literature was executed using PubMed database. The objective of the research was to find an etiopathological theory able to relate syringomyelia with cervical spondylosis. Only 6 articles have been found. At the origin of syringomyelia the mechanisms of compression and instability are proposed. Perhaps other studies assert the importance of subarachnoid space regard cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamic. We postulate that cervical spine instability may be the cause of multiple microtrauma towards spinal cord and consequently may damage spinal cord parenchyma generating myelomalacia and consequently syrinx. Otherwise the hemorrhage within spinal cord central canal can cause an obstruction of CSF outflow, finally generating the syrinx. On the other hand in cervical spondylosis the stenotic elements can affect subarachnoid space. These elements rubbing towards spinal cord during movements of the neck can generate arachnoiditis, subarachnoid hemorrhages and arachnoid adhesions. Analyzing the literature these “complications” of cervical spondylosis are described at the origin of syringomyelia. So surgical decompression, enlarging medullary canal prevents rubbings and contacts between the bone-ligament structures of the spine towards spinal cord and subarachnoid space therefore syringomyelia. Perhaps stabilization is also necessary to prevent instability of the cervical spine at the base of central cord syndrome or syringomyelia. Finally although patients affected by central cord syndrome are usually managed conservatively we advocate, also for them, surgical treatment in cases affected by advanced state of the symptoms and MRI. PMID:24303479

  7. Human papillomavirus genotyping by multiplex pyrosequencing in cervical cancer patients from India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl M. Travasso; Mona Anand; Mansi Samarth; Aditi Deshpande; Chandan Kumar-Sinha

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in India. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is\\u000a the causative agent of cervical cancer; and infection with the high-risk genotypes, predominantly HPV16 and 18, is the biggest\\u000a risk factor. Vaccines targeting HPV16 and 18 have been found to confer protection in large-scale clinical trials. HPV genotyping\\u000a has traditionally been carried

  8. Intervertebral Neck Injury Criterion for Prediction of Multiplanar Cervical Spine Injury Due to Side Impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manohar M. Panjabi; Paul C. Ivancic; Yasuhiro Tominaga; Jaw-Lin Wang

    2005-01-01

    Objective. Intervertebral Neck Injury Criterion (IV-NIC) is based on the hypothesis that dynamic three-dimensional intervertebral motion beyond physiological limits may cause multiplanar injury of cervical spine soft tissues. Goals of this study, using a biofidelic whole human cervical spine model with muscle force replication and surrogate head in simulated side impacts, were to correlate IV-NIC with multiplanar injury and determine

  9. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    Screening methods used to find cervical changes that may lead to cervical cancer include the Pap test and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Such screening tests may find cancers early, when they are most treatable. Women who have never been screened or who have not been screened in the past 5 years face a greater risk of developing invasive cervical cancer.

  10. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury. PMID:25290103

  11. Micromechanics of Minor Cervical Spine Injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederer, Peter F.; Schmitt, Kai-Uwe; Muser, Markus H.; Walz, Felix H.

    Minor soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine are of increasing significance in public health. They may in particular be associated with long-term impairment. Such injuries are observed primarily in rear-end automobile collisions at low impact speeds and are attributed to a “whiplash”-type event. The question with respect to injury mechanisms of the cervical spine in cases of impacts of a low severity have raised controversial views in the past. Among proposed injury mechanisms, interactions between fluid and solid structures have been postulated: Viscous shear stresses or pressure gradients which arise in the deforming anatomical structures may have an adverse influence, e. g., on cellular membranes. In this communication, mathematical modeling approaches are presented which allow for a quantification of fluid/solid interactions under typical loading conditions of interest here. It is found, that the shear stresses caused by fluids and acting on accelerated surfaces of fluid-filled bodies depend largely on the size of the fluid space under consideration. Accelerations exhibit a stronger influence than their duration. It cannot be excluded that critical levels are reached even in a low speed impact scenario.

  12. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after cervical spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Hsien; Wu, Jau-Ching; Cheng, Henrich; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2013-10-01

    Remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) is an unpredictable and rare complication of spinal surgery. We report five cases of RCH following cervical spinal surgery, and summarize another seven similar cases from the literature. Dural opening with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia seems to be an important factor contributing to RCH following cervical spinal surgery. As other authors have proposed, surgical positioning may be another factor contributing to RCH. RCH is thought to be hemorrhagic venous infarction, resulting from the stretching occlusion of the superior cerebellar vein by the cerebellar sag effect. Either intraoperative CSF loss or a postoperative CSF leak from drainage may cause cerebellar sag, further resulting in RCH. RCH is usually self-limiting, and most patients with RCH have an optimal outcome after conservative treatment. Severe cases that involved surgical intervention because of evidence of brainstem compression or hydrocephalus also had acceptable outcomes, compared to spontaneous CH. It has been suggested that one way to prevent RCH is to avoid extensive perioperative loss of CSF, by paying attention to surgical positioning during spinal surgery. We also underline the importance of early diagnosis and CSF expansion in the early treatment of RCH. PMID:23746536

  13. Diagnostic value of MCM2 immunocytochemical staining in cervical lesions and its relationship with HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide, and human papillomavirus infection represents the most important risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. Minichromosome maintenance protein-2 has been previously identified by DNA microarray and transcriptional profiling as genes that is overexpressed in cervical carcinomas. 183 cases were enrolled and tested with thin prep liquid-based cytology test. The expressions of human papillomavirus were detected and minichromosome maintenance protein-2 immuncytochemical test was performed on liquid-based pap smears from the samples. Those results were compared with the cervical histopathology results. The positive expression rates of minichromosome maintenance protein-2 and high-risk type human papillomavirus increased with the severity of cervical lesions. The expression level of MCM2 was positively correlated with high-risk types of human papillomavirus. In cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions, minichromosome maintenance protein-2 was overexpressed and positively correlated with the high risk types of human papillomavirus. As minichromosome maintenance protein-2 immuncytochemical detection was better than genotyping of human papillomavirus, minichromosome maintenance protein-2 may serve as a useful marker in the screening of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions and improve the diagnosis of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance. The joint application can improve the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis. PMID:25755789

  14. Perception of Human Papillomavirus Infection, Cervical Cancer and HPV Vaccination in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Showket; Nasare, Vilas; Kumari, Malasha; Sharma, Shashi; Khan, Mohammad Aijaz; Das, Bhudev C.; Bharadwaj, Mausumi

    2014-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) -associated cervical cancer is the second-most common cancer in women worldwide but it is the most frequent gynaecological cancer and cancer associated death in India women. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, HPV vaccine, HPV vaccine acceptance among school and undergraduates students and their parent’s perception about acceptance of HPV vaccine in Northern part of India (Delhi and NCR regions). Materials and Methods A qualitative questionnaire based survey among 2500 urban/rural students aged 12–22 years was conducted. Results Overall, a low frequency (15%) of HPV and cervical cancer awareness was observed in students and their parents. However, the awareness was much higher in females belonging to urban setup compared to boys with a perception that HPV causes cervical cancer in women only. Additionally, only (13%) participants who were aware of cervical cancer and HPV) were willing to accept HPV vaccination. Apparently, parents of female students were two times more willing to accept HPV vaccination for their ward than male students (p<0.001; OR 95%CI?=?2.09 (1.58–2.76). Conclusion Cervical cancer and HPV awareness among school, undergraduate students and also to their parents was found to be very low in this part of India. The level of awareness and education appears to be insignificant determinants in rural compared to urban setup. Better health education will be needed to maximize public awareness for cervical cancer prevention. PMID:25386964

  15. Knowledge and views of secondary school students in Kuala Lumpur on cervical cancer and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Rashwan, Hesham; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Sawalludin, Nurhidayah

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in women worldwide. Persistent infection with a human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause for cervical cancer. Vaccination and Pap smear screening are the best methods for prevention of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and views of upper secondary school female students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, toward prevention of cervical cancer. This study was conducted from April 2009 to September 2009 in 8 schools in Kuala Lumpur area using pre-tested and validated questionnaires. Results indicated that the respondents had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention although the majority of students (80.4%) had heard about the disease. The level of knowledge of cervical cancr and its prevention was significantly higher among students from the science stream (p<0.001) compared to students from the art stream. Most students (69.3%) agreed to take the vaccination if the service was available in schools. A high percentage of students (82.2%) agreed that the vaccination should be compulsory to the students. In conclusion, most students had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention but they had positive attitude toward vaccination and agreed that vaccination should be compulsory. Therefore, suitable educational programmes should be developed to improve the knowledge of secondary school students on the prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:23725172

  16. Biomarkers of Cervical Dysplasia and Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sonya J.; Shroyer, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Although cervical cytology screening has decreased the incidence of cervical cancer in industrialized countries, HPV-related cervical disease, including premalignant and malignant lesions, continues to represent a major burden on the health care system. Some of the problems include the potential for either under- or overtreatment of women due to decreased specificity of screening tests as well as significant interobserver variability in the diagnosis of cervical dysplastic lesions. Although not completely elucidated, the HPV-driven molecular mechanisms underlying the development of cervical lesions have provided a number of potential biomarkers for both diagnostic and prognostic use in the clinical management of these women. PMID:22131995

  17. Cervical spinal cord injuries in patients with cervical spondylosis.

    PubMed

    Regenbogen, V S; Rogers, L F; Atlas, S W; Kim, K S

    1986-02-01

    Eighty-eight patients over age 40 with traumatic cervical spinal cord injuries were clinically and radiographically evaluated, and comparison was made with 35 spinal cord injury patients under age 36. While most older patients sustained obvious bony and/or ligamentous damage commensurate with their neurologic findings, 25 (28%) of the 88 patients had no demonstrable bony abnormalities and 17 (20%) of the 88 patients had only minimal evidence of bony injury. Of particular interest are the patients with severe cord injuries, yet no bony abnormalities, who seem to form a distinct subgroup of the cervical spinal cord injury patient on the basis of radiographic and clinical features. Of these 25 patients, 24 (96%) had severe cervical spondylosis. Fourteen (56%) of the 25 patients were injured in falls, five (36%) of these 14 being of a seemingly trivial nature. Of the 42 patients with minimal or no demonstrable bony abnormalities, 33 (79%) were evaluated with plain tomography and no occult fractures or other significant pathology was demonstrated. Pantopaque myelography in 27 (64%) of the 42 cases revealed no extruded disk or other surgical lesion in any patient. In large measure, these injuries can be attributed to cervical spondylosis, which narrows the canal and makes the cord more susceptible to compression by the bulging ligamenta flava during hyperextension. PMID:3484576

  18. Making the case for cervical cancer prevention: what about equity?

    PubMed

    Tsu, Vivien D; Levin, Carol E

    2008-11-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of suffering and premature death among women in the developing world, yet it is largely prevented in most higher-income countries. From an equity perspective, cervical cancer is unequally distributed globally in ways that are unnecessary, avoidable and unjust. Although cost-effectiveness analyses demonstrate that prevention measures are justified in low-resource countries, affordability and lack of prioritization have contributed to a lack of progress. This paper describes the inequities in cervical cancer disease burden, barriers in access to and utilisation of services, and the underlying conditions of poverty and low socio-economic status that put women in a disadvantaged position. These social disadvantages are aggravated by the disease itself, with serious consequences for women, their families and communities. Remedies are available in the form of new prevention and treatment approaches, including vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV), rapid HPV testing, visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy. These technologies could help to overcome the social, economic, and political disadvantages that contribute to disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality through an optimal combination of vaccination, screening and treatment. In the long run, however, increasing women's access to care will also require societies to address structural barriers related to health systems and poverty. PMID:19027628

  19. Cervical Stenosis in a Patient with Arthrogryposis: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jerry; Aichmair, Alexander; Lykissas, Marios; Girardi, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?Amyoplasia-type arthrogryposis is a rare congenital disease that presents as multiple contractures involving various areas of the body. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no reports of adults with amyoplasia in the current literature. We report a case of an adult patient with cervical stenosis in the setting of amyoplasia. Patients and Methods?A 48-year-old patient with amyoplasia and over 30 previous orthopedic reconstructive surgeries presented with neck pain radiating down his left shoulder and into the fingers, dysesthesia in his fingertips, and left-sided periauricular headache. A diagnosis of central spinal canal stenosis and bilateral foraminal stenosis at C3–C7 with radiculopathy was made based on computed tomography scans. Because of a prior right-side sternocleidomastoid muscle transfer, a left-side C3–C4, C5–C7 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion procedure was performed. Results?The patient experienced significant improvement in symptoms that was transient. Symptoms returned to preoperative values after 1?year, despite significant and persistent improvement in stenosis. Conclusions?Both amyoplasia and cervical stenosis can manifest in neurologic symptoms. Distinguishing the causing pathology can be challenging. The radiographic improvement of cervical stenosis in a patient with amyoplasia is not always associated with long-standing pain relief. PMID:24715873

  20. Percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Yan, Deng-lu; Zhang, Zai-Heng

    2008-12-01

    Percutaneous disc decompression procedures have been performed in the past. Various percutaneous techniques such as percutaneous discectomy, laser discectomy, and nucleoplasty have been successful. Our prospective study was directly to evaluate the results of percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty (PCN) surgery for cervical disc herniation, and illustrate the effectiveness of PCN in symptomatic patients who had cervical herniated discs. From July of 2002 to June of 2005, 126 consecutive patients with contained cervical disc herniations have presented at the authors' clinic and treated by PCN. The patients' gender distribution for PCN was 65 male, 61 female. The age of patients ranged from 34 to 66 years (mean 51.9 +/- 10.2 years). The levels of involvement were 21 cases at C3-4, 30 cases at C4-5, 40 cases at C5-6, and 35 cases at C6-7. The clinical outcomes, pain reduction and the segment stability were all recorded during this study. A clinical outcome was quantified by the Macnab standard and using VAS. The angular displacement (AD) > or =11 degrees or horizontal displacement (HD) > or =3 mm was considered to be radiographically unstable. In the results of this study, puncture of the needle into the disc space was accurately performed under X-ray guidance in all cases. There was one case where the Perc-D Spine Wand had broken in the disc space during the procedure. The partial Perc-D Spine Wand, which had broken in the disc space could not be removed by the percutaneous cervical discectomy and thus remained there. There were no recurrent cases or complications in our series. Macnab standard results were excellent in 62 cases, good in 41 cases and fair in 23 cases. The rate of excellent and good was 83.73%. The VAS scores demonstrated statistically significant improvement in PCN at the 2-week, 1, 3, 6, and 12-month follow-up visits when compared to preoperational values (P < 0.01). There were no cases of instability following the PCN procedure. There was no significant difference in stability either preoperatively or postoperatively (P > 0.05). Our findings confirm that PCN for the treatment of cervical disc herniation results in a good outcome without any tampering of the stability of the cervical spine. Hence, PCN as a procedure is safe, minimally invasive, less traumatic, requiring less time with an excellent clinical outcome. PCN should be performed for those patients who fail conservative medical management including medication, physical therapy, behavioral management, psychotherapy, and who are unwilling to undergo a more invasive technique such as spinal surgery. PMID:18830638

  1. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    This study examines whether Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a risk factor for decreased cervical cancer surveillance care among women. Behavioral factors such as avoidance are common in PTSD and may increase the likelihood that some women will postpone or avoid preventive gynecological care. This avoidance may be particularly pronounced among women whose PTSD was caused by the leading precipitant in women (i.e., sexual trauma) because invasive exams may trigger traumatic memories of a prior assault.

  2. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  3. Cervical MRI scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have been no reported side effects from the magnetic fields and radio waves. The most common type of ... health care provider before the test The strong magnetic fields created during an MRI can cause heart pacemakers ...

  4. Effectiveness of manual physical therapy in the treatment of cervical radiculopathy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Boyles, Robert; Toy, Patrick; Mellon, James; Hayes, Margaret; Hammer, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Study design Systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Objective Review of current literature regarding the effectiveness of manual therapy in the treatment of cervical radiculopathy. Background Cervical radiculopathy (CR) is a clinical condition frequently encountered in the physical therapy clinic. Cervical radiculopathy is a result of space occupying lesions in the cervical spine: either cervical disc herniations, spondylosis, or osteophytosis. These affect the pain generators of bony and ligamentous tissues, producing radicular symptoms (i.e. pain, numbness, weakness, paresthesia) observed in the upper extremity of patients with cervical nerve root pathology. Cervical radiculopathy has a reported annual incidence of 83·2 per 100?000 and an increased prevalence in the fifth decade of life among the general population. Results Medline and CINAHL via EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were used to retrieve the randomized clinical trial studies for this review between the years of 1995 and February of 2011. Four studies met inclusion criteria and were considered to be high quality (PEDro scores of ?5). Manual therapy techniques included muscle energy techniques, non-thrust/thrust manipulation/mobilization of the cervical and/or thoracic spine, soft-tissue mobilization, and neural mobilization. In each study, manual therapy was either a stand-alone intervention or part of a multimodal approach which included therapeutic exercise and often some form of cervical traction. Although no clear cause and effect relationship can be established between improvement in radicular symptoms and manual therapy, results are generally promising. Conclusion Although a definitive treatment progression for treating CR has not been developed a general consensus exists within the literature that using manual therapy techniques in conjunction with therapeutic exercise is effective in regard to increasing function, as well as AROM, while decreasing levels of pain and disability. High quality RCTs featuring control groups are necessary to establish clear and effective protocols in the treatment of CR. PMID:22851876

  5. Decreased expression of lncRNA GAS5 predicts a poor prognosis in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shihong; Liu, Weiliang; Li, Feng; Zhao, Weipin; Qin, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality for women around the world. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been investigated as a new class of regulators of cellular processes, such as cell growth, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. Although downregulation of lncRNA GAS5 in several cancers has been studied, its role in cervical cancer remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression, clinical significance and biological role in cervical cancer. Methods: Expression of GAS5 was analyzed in cervical cancer tissues by quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). And its association with overall survival of patients was analyzed by statistical analysis. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to suppress GAS5 expression in cervical cancer cells. In vitro assays were performed to further explore the biological functions of GAS5 in cervical cancer. Results: We found that GAS5 expression was markedly downregulated in cervical cancer tissues than in corresponding adjacent normal tissues. Decreased GAS5 expression was significantly correlated with FIGO stage, vascular invasion and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, cervical cancer patients with GAS5 lower expression have shown significantly poorer overall survival than those with higher GAS5 expression. And GAS5 expression was an independent prognostic marker of overall survival in a multivariate analysis. In vitro assays our data indicated that knockdown of GAS5 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Conclusions: Our study presents that lncRNA GAS5 is a novel molecule involved in cervical cancer progression, which provide a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target. PMID:25400758

  6. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  7. Primary cervical hydatid cyst: a rare occurrence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid disease, a parasitic infection is caused by Echinococcus granulosus. It has serious impact on health and economy especially in countries where it is endemic. It occurs frequently in liver and lung. The disease is chronic and cyst can localize in different organs. A hydatid cyst occurrence in the head and neck is extremely rare. To know the distribution of disease can help in its control and prevention. We report a case of primary cervical hydatid cyst in 20 year old female. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose hydatid cyst in rare locations like this. Hydatid cyst should be considered in differential diagnosis of benign swellings of head and neck region, so that it can be managed during surgery to prevent acute anaphylaxis. Virtual slides The virtual slides’ for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4915595218376646 PMID:23157817

  8. Patient considerations in the treatment of cervical dystonia: focus on botulinum toxin type A

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Reversa R; Pagan, Fernando L

    2015-01-01

    Cervical dystonia is the most common form of focal dystonia characterized by involuntary muscle contractions causing abnormal movements and posturing of the head and neck and is associated with significant pain. Botulinum toxin is considered first-line therapy in the treatment of pain and abnormal head posturing associated with cervical dystonia. There are currently three botulinum toxin type A neurotoxins and one botulinum type B neurotoxin commercially available and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeled for the treatment of cervical dystonia. This review will focus on the efficacy, safety, and therapeutic use of botulinum type A neurotoxins in the treatment of cervical dystonia. We conclude with a discussion of factors influencing toxin selection including therapeutic effect, duration of effect, side effect profile, cost, and physician preference.

  9. Brown Tumor of the Cervical Spines: A Case Report with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Halawani, Mohammed Mohamoud; Attia, Walid Ismail; Almusrea, Khaled Naser

    2015-01-01

    To report a rare case of axis brown tumor and to review literature of cervical spine brown tumor. Brown tumor is a rare bone lesion, incidence less than 5% in primary hyperparathyroidism. It is more common in secondary hyperparathyroidism with up to 13% of cases. Brown tumor reactive lesion forms as a result of disturbed bone remodeling due to long standing increase in parathyroid hormones. Cervical spine involvement is extremely rare, can be confused with serous spine lesions. To date, only four cases of cervical spine involvement have been reported. Three were due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Only one was reported to involve the axis and was due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. This is the first reported case of axis brown tumor due to primary hyperparathyroidism. A case report of brown tumor is presented. A literature review was conducted by a Medline search of reported cases of brown tumor, key words: brown tumor, osteoclastoma and cervical lesions. The resulting papers were reviewed and cervical spine cases were listed then classified according to the level, cause, and management. Only four previous cases involved the cervical spine. Three were caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism and one was by primary hyperparathyroidism which involved the C6. Our case was the first case of C2 involvement of primary hyperparathyroidism and it was managed conservatively. Brown tumor, a rare spinal tumor that presents with high PTH and giant cells, requires a high level of suspicion. PMID:25705344

  10. Brown tumor of the cervical spines: a case report with literature review.

    PubMed

    Alfawareh, Mohammad Dursi; Halawani, Mohammed Mohamoud; Attia, Walid Ismail; Almusrea, Khaled Naser

    2015-02-01

    To report a rare case of axis brown tumor and to review literature of cervical spine brown tumor. Brown tumor is a rare bone lesion, incidence less than 5% in primary hyperparathyroidism. It is more common in secondary hyperparathyroidism with up to 13% of cases. Brown tumor reactive lesion forms as a result of disturbed bone remodeling due to long standing increase in parathyroid hormones. Cervical spine involvement is extremely rare, can be confused with serous spine lesions. To date, only four cases of cervical spine involvement have been reported. Three were due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Only one was reported to involve the axis and was due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. This is the first reported case of axis brown tumor due to primary hyperparathyroidism. A case report of brown tumor is presented. A literature review was conducted by a Medline search of reported cases of brown tumor, key words: brown tumor, osteoclastoma and cervical lesions. The resulting papers were reviewed and cervical spine cases were listed then classified according to the level, cause, and management. Only four previous cases involved the cervical spine. Three were caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism and one was by primary hyperparathyroidism which involved the C6. Our case was the first case of C2 involvement of primary hyperparathyroidism and it was managed conservatively. Brown tumor, a rare spinal tumor that presents with high PTH and giant cells, requires a high level of suspicion. PMID:25705344

  11. Cervical cancer prevention & the role of human papillomavirus vaccines in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neerja Bhatla; Elizabeth Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths among Indian women. Current screening and prevention programs based on cytology have not been effective in reducing the disease burden. Two vaccines are now available for primary prevention. They generate neutralizing antibodies to HPV capsid protein. The vaccines have been shown to confer nearly

  12. Cervical Syndrome – the Effectiveness of Physical Therapy Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Kasumovic, Mersija; Gorcevic, Emir; Gorcevic, Semir; Osmanovic, Jasna

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The cervical syndrome refers to a set of disorders caused by the changes in the cervical spine and the soft-tissue surrounding it, with pain as the predominant symptom. Sore neck has been a common problem among a large section of today`s population. The factors contributing to this issue include the modern lifestyle, prolonged sitting and incorrect, fixed or constrained working postures. The root of these difficulties is found in the mechanical disorders of the cervical spine structures, poor body posture and jerky body movements. In the Scandinavian countries neck pain is considered to be a public health problem. Methods: The study evaluated 25 patients with an established diagnosis of cervical syndrome. The research was conducted at the PI Institute of Occupational and Sports Medicine of Zenica–Doboj Canton. Each patient received twenty physical therapy treatment sessions. Results and conclusions: The study included 25 patients suffering from the cervical syndrome. The statistical analysis of gender distribution indicated that 36% of the patients were male, while 64% were female. The mean age of study participants was 46.76±4,23. The patients ranged in age from 39 to 54 years, with no statistically significant difference in the mean age of male and female patients, p=0.691. Analysing the types of occupational activities performed by the patients, the study found a positive relation between neck pain and prolonged sitting at work. The patients who performed office work made up 76% of the total number. Each method of physical therapy applied in the treatment of neck pain patients proved useful. However, the combination of electrotherapy, kinesiotherapy and manual massage proved to be most effective. Conclusion: The cervical syndrome is a common medical condition primarily affecting adult population, with prevalence being higher among women and office workers. The condition places a considerable socioeconomic burden on the afflicted. Cervical pain ranges greatly in severity – from moderate to unbearable, thus leading to high levels of work absence as well as to a decrease in the quality of life. Proper physical therapy program can help the patients with neck pain return to their normal everyday activities, improve their quality of life, as well as reduce the absence from work. PMID:25568511

  13. Ultrasound-indicated cervical cerclage: Outcome depends on preoperative cervical length and presence of visible membranes at time of cerclage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katie M. Groom; Andrew H. Shennan; Phillip R. Bennett

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess cases of ultrasound-indicated cervical cerclage and to relate preoperative cervical length, operative findings, postoperative cervical length, and pregnancy outcome to establish the appropriate criteria to offer cervical cerclage. Study Design: A prospective observational study comprised 380 women at high risk of preterm labor who underwent serial transvaginal ultrasonographic assessment of cervical

  14. Cervical cancer prevention & the role of human papillomavirus vaccines in India.

    PubMed

    Bhatla, Neerja; Joseph, Elizabeth

    2009-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths among Indian women. Current screening and prevention programs based on cytology have not been effective in reducing the disease burden. Two vaccines are now available for primary prevention. They generate neutralizing antibodies to HPV capsid protein. The vaccines have been shown to confer nearly 100 percent protection against cervical pre-cancers and genital warts caused by HPV types 16/18 in HPV naïve population with few or no side effects. Though there is some cross-protection, around 30 percent of cervical cancers will not be prevented by the vaccine. Vaccination and screening, which are complementary and synergistic, now constitute the new paradigm for prevention of this disease. PMID:19901443

  15. Low-back pain in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic paraparesis: nociceptive or neuropathic?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Í R Tavares; A C Franzoi; A Q-C Araújo

    2010-01-01

    Study design:Cross-sectional.Objectives:To describe characteristics of low-back pain in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM\\/TSP) patients and to identify its neuropathic and\\/or non-neuropathic pain components.Setting:A reference center for the care of patients with HAM\\/TSP in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Methods:A total of 90 patients with HAM\\/TSP referred by tertiary care centers were consecutively assessed. The patients were

  16. Percutaneous transplantation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a dog suspected to have fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wook-Hun; Park, Seon-Ah; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Chung, Dai-Jung; Yang, Wo-Jong; Kang, Eun-Hee; Choi, Chi-Bong; Chang, Hwa-Seok; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Hwang, Soo-Han; Han, Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The use of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell transplantation therapy holds great promise for repairing spinal cord injury. Here we report the first clinical trial transplantation of human umbilical cord (hUCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the spinal cord of a dog suspected to have fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy (FCEM) and that experienced a loss of deep pain sensation. Locomotor functions improved following transplantation in a dog. Based on our findings, we suggest that transplantation of hUCB-derived MSCs will have beneficial therapeutic effects on FCEM patients lacking deep pain sensation. PMID:23820160

  17. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of thoracic epidural space presenting with dorsal compressive myelopathy: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amandeep; Satyarthee, Guru Dutt; Sable, Mukund; Suri, Vaishali; Sharma, Bhawani S.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma Cell neoplasms result from monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas (SEMPs) are rare and constitute 5% of all plasma cell disorders. SEMPs most commonly involve upper aerodigestive tract. Isolated spinal epidural space involvement by SEMPs is extremely rare and to best of our knowledge only 7 such cases have been reported previously in available English literature. We hereby present a rare case of thoracic epidural SEMP in a 32-year-old female who presented with thoracic compressive myelopathy and discuss the pertinent literature.

  18. The effect of increased pressure in the cavities of the alimentary tract on evoked reflexes. Report 2: The effect on Proprioceptive cervical and lumbar compensatory reflexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komendantov, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    Changes occurring in the cervical ocular reflexes and in the lumbar ocular reflexes following an increase in gastric pressure were studied. The lumbar reflexes were subject to the most pronounced after effect. The pressure increase caused greater changes in the cervical ocular reflexes. It was concluded that all reflexes were affected to some extent.

  19. Indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane induce apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells and in murine HPV16-transgenic preneoplastic cervical epithelium.

    PubMed

    Chen, D Z; Qi, M; Auborn, K J; Carter, T H

    2001-12-01

    Dietary indole-3-carbinol (I3C) has clinical benefits for both cervical cancer and laryngeal papillomatosis, and causes apoptosis of breast cancer cells in vitro. We asked whether I3C and its major acid-catalyzed condensation product diindolylmethane (DIM), which is produced in the stomach after consumption of cruciferous vegetables, could induce apoptosis of cervical cancer cell lines. We also asked whether this effect could be observed in vivo. In vitro, both I3C and DIM caused accumulation of DNA strand breaks in three cervical cancer cell lines. Induction of apoptosis was confirmed by nuclear morphology, nucleosome leakage, altered cytoplasmic membrane permeability and caspase 3 activation. Neither I3C nor DIM caused apoptotic changes in normal human keratinocytes. In C33A cervical cancer cells, DIM was more potent than I3C [dose at which the number of viable cells was 50% of that in untreated cultures (LD(50)) = 50-60 micromol/L for DIM and 200 micromol/L for I3C in a mitochondrial function assay] and faster acting. Furthermore, I3C reduced Bcl-2 protein in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In HPV16-transgenic mice, which develop cervical cancer after chronic estradiol exposure, apoptotic cells were detected in cervical epithelium by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining and by immunohistochemical staining of active caspase 3 only in mice exposed to 17beta-estradiol (E2) and fed I3C. Rare apoptotic cells were also observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining in the spinous layer of the cervical epithelium in both control and transgenic mice. Estradiol reduced the percentage of these late-stage apoptotic cells in the cervical epithelium of transgenic, E2-treated mice, but this reduction was prevented by I3C. These data confirm the proapoptotic action of I3C on transformed cells in vitro, extend the observations to cervical cancer cells and to DIM and show for the first time that dietary I3C results in increased apoptosis in target tissues in vivo. PMID:11739883

  20. 21 CFR 884.4250 - Expandable cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Expandable cervical dilator. 884.4250 Section 884...Surgical Devices § 884.4250 Expandable cervical dilator. (a) Identification. An expandable cervical dilator is an instrument with two...

  1. 21 CFR 884.4250 - Expandable cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Expandable cervical dilator. 884.4250 Section 884...Surgical Devices § 884.4250 Expandable cervical dilator. (a) Identification. An expandable cervical dilator is an instrument with two...

  2. Cervical varix with placenta previa totalis.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, Yukiyo; Shimizu, Dai; Hosoya, Naoko; Hirano, Hideto; Ishiyama, Koichi; Tanaka, Toshinobu

    2007-08-01

    A cervical varix during pregnancy is a very rare complication. It can lead to hemorrhage and may result in significant morbidity. Furthermore, appropriate management has not yet been established. We present a case of a cervical varix with placenta previa totalis. A 30-year-old woman with placenta previa totalis also had a cervical varix without bleeding. At 32 weeks' gestation, massive hemorrhage from the cervical varix occurred. A vaginal pack controlled the bleeding, and a cesarean section was subsequently carried out because of uncontrollable uterine contractions. A 1655 g female infant was delivered; the estimated blood loss was 1814 mL. The cervical varix decreased dramatically in size. In conclusion, presented herein is a rare case of a cervical varix, which had a successful outcome. PMID:17688624

  3. Kikuchi's disease: A benign cause of fever and cervical lymphadenopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna M. Boula; John G. Bizakis; George E. Tsirakis; Theognosia S. Chimona; Efstathios N. Stathopoulos; Michael G. Alexandrakis

    2005-01-01

    Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (Kikuchi's disease, KD) is a rare benign condition of unknown origin, usually characterized by lymphadenopathy and fever, affecting mainly young women. We describe three cases of patients, one man and two women, with biopsy-proven KD detected at our university hospital during the past 3 years and we review the literature.

  4. Rapid induction of senescence in human cervical carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Edward C.; Yang, Eva; Lee, Chan-Jae; Lee, Han-Woong; Dimaio, Daniel; Hwang, Eun-Seong

    2000-09-01

    Expression of the bovine papillomavirus E2 regulatory protein in human cervical carcinoma cell lines repressed expression of the resident human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes and within a few days caused essentially all of the cells to synchronously display numerous phenotypic markers characteristic of cells undergoing replicative senescence. This process was accompanied by marked but in some cases transient alterations in the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and by decreased telomerase activity. We propose that the human papillomavirus E6 and E7 proteins actively prevent senescence from occurring in cervical carcinoma cells, and that once viral oncogene expression is extinguished, the senescence program is rapidly executed. Activation of endogenous senescence pathways in cancer cells may represent an alternative approach to treat human cancers.

  5. Cervical uncinate process: an anatomic study for anterior decompression of the cervical spine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lu; N. A. Ebraheim; H. Yang; M. Skie; R. A. Yeasting

    1998-01-01

    Morphometric evaluation of 54 dry cervical spines from C3 to C7 (a total of 270 cervical vertebrae) was performed to determine the bony boundaries of the uncinate process for resection of the uncinate process for access to posterolateral osteophytes or herniated disks at the time of anterior cervical diskectomy. The uncinate processes were significantly higher (p < 0.01) at the

  6. Human papillomavirus in false negative archival cervical smears: implications for screening for cervical cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M Walboomers; A M de Roda Husman; P J Snijders; H V Stel; E K Risse; T J Helmerhorst; F J Voorhorst; C J Meijer

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To assess the value of detecting human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in false negative archival cervical smears in population based screening programmes for cervical cancer. METHODS--Cytomorphologically classified false negative archival Pap smears (n = 27) taken from 18 women up to six years before cervical cancer was diagnosed were blindly mixed with 89 smears from hospital patients with a variety of

  7. Induction of Aromatase Expression in Cervical Carcinomas: Effects of Endogenous Estrogen on Cervical Cancer Cell Proliferation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hareesh B. Nair; Roopa Luthra; Nameer Kirma; Ya-Guang Liu; Lisa Flowers; Dean Evans; Rajeshwar Rao Tekmal

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have implicated estrogenic exposure as well as human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in cervical carcinogenesis, and some studies have suggested that estrogen and HPV may play synergistic roles in cervical tumorigenesis. In this study, we report a novel finding that f35% of cervical carcinomas tested (n = 19) express aromatase, the enzyme responsible for converting androgen to estrogen,

  8. Cervical competence as a continuum: A study of ultrasonographic cervical length and obstetric performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay D. Iams; Francee F. Johnson; Jiri Sonck; Larry Sachs; Cathy Gebauer; Philip Samuels

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the hypothesis that cervical competence is a continuum that is related to cervical length and is reflected by pregnancy history.STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed of cervical length measured by transvaginal ultrasonography in women with prior preterm delivery at ? 26 weeks, 27 to 32 weeks, and 33 to 35 weeks compared with

  9. OXYTOCIN-INDUCED CERVICAL DILATION AND CERVICAL MANIPULATION IN SHEEP: EFFECTS ON LAPAROSCOPIC ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Difficulty of cervical penetration during transcervical artificial insemination (TAI), limits its use in sheep. Trauma of cervical manipulation (CM) may explain low fertility after TAI. We investigated effects of cervical dilation using exogenous oxytocin (OT) to facilitate TAI and its effect on rep...

  10. Multiple noncontiguous fractures of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Shear, P; Hugenholtz, H; Richard, M T; Russell, N A; Peterson, E W; Benoit, B G; da Silva, V F

    1988-05-01

    Multiple noncontiguous fracture-subluxations of the cervical spine are fractures and subluxations separated by at least one normal intervening cervical vertebra. A review of all 66 consecutive cervical spine fractures treated by the Division of Neurosurgery at the University of Ottawa during 26 consecutive months revealed six such cases (9%). These injuries are more common than previously recognized. Special consideration is required in their treatment because of the presence of a mobile intermediate segment in some of these patients. PMID:3367408

  11. Human papillomavirus, cervical cancer and women's knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azadeh Stark; Lucie Gregoire; Rebecca Pilarski; Allison Zarbo; Arthur Gaba; Wayne D. Lancaster

    2008-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Methods: We implemented a retrospective case-series study to discern HPV knowledge accuracy among women diagnosed with and treated for cervical cancer. Cases (n=1174), identified from the Pathology database, were diagnosed and treated for cervical cancer at the same institution. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and by reviewing

  12. Cervical spine injury in maxillofacial trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Lalani; K. M. Bonanthaya

    1997-01-01

    Objective—To find out the incidence of associated facial injuries and injuries to the cervical spine. Design—Retrospective study. Setting—Teaching hospital, India. Subjects-536 patients treated for maxillofacial injuries between January 1992 and November 1993. Interventions—Review of hospital case notes and radiographs. Main outcome measures—Coexisting facial and cervical spine injuries, morbidity and mortality. Results—16 patients (3%) had sustained both facial and cervical spine

  13. Probabilities of Radiation Myelopathy Specific to Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to Guide Safe Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Weinberg, Vivian [University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, California (United States)] [University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, California (United States); Ma, Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Chang, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chao, Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Muacevic, Alexander [European Cyberknife Center Munich in affiliation with University Hospitals of Munich, Munich (Germany)] [European Cyberknife Center Munich in affiliation with University Hospitals of Munich, Munich (Germany); Gorgulho, Alessandra [Department of Neurosurgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Department of Neurosurgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Soltys, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gerszten, Peter C. [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Ryu, Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Angelov, Lilyana [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Gibbs, Iris [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Larson, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Dose-volume histogram (DVH) results for 9 cases of post spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) radiation myelopathy (RM) are reported and compared with a cohort of 66 spine SBRT patients without RM. Methods and Materials: DVH data were centrally analyzed according to the thecal sac point maximum (Pmax) volume, 0.1- to 1-cc volumes in increments of 0.1 cc, and to the 2 cc volume. 2-Gy biologically equivalent doses (nBED) were calculated using an {alpha}/{beta} = 2 Gy (units = Gy{sub 2/2}). For the 2 cohorts, the nBED means and distributions were compared using the t test and Mann-Whitney test, respectively. Significance (P<.05) was defined as concordance of both tests at each specified volume. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the probability of RM using the dose distribution for a given volume. Results: Significant differences in both the means and distributions at the Pmax and up to the 0.8-cc volume were observed. Concordant significance was greatest for the Pmax volume. At the Pmax volume the fit of the logistic regression model, summarized by the area under the curve, was 0.87. A risk of RM of 5% or less was observed when limiting the thecal sac Pmax volume doses to 12.4 Gy in a single fraction, 17.0 Gy in 2 fractions, 20.3 Gy in 3 fractions, 23.0 Gy in 4 fractions, and 25.3 Gy in 5 fractions. Conclusion: We report the first logistic regression model yielding estimates for the probability of human RM specific to SBRT.

  14. Survival from Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Gausepohl, Jeniffer S.; Wagner, Jonathan G.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) is an uncommon, yet clinically significant infection that rapidly progresses to involve the deep neck spaces. Early recognition and aggressive surgical intervention and debridement are important, as this disease is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this report, we present a case of CNF and descending mediastinitis from a non-odontogenic source in a patient presenting with neck swelling and odynophagia. PMID:25671035

  15. Survival from cervical necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Gausepohl, Jeniffer S; Wagner, Jonathan G

    2015-01-01

    Cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) is an uncommon, yet clinically significant infection that rapidly progresses to involve the deep neck spaces. Early recognition and aggressive surgical intervention and debridement are important, as this disease is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this report, we present a case of CNF and descending mediastinitis from a non-odontogenic source in a patient presenting with neck swelling and odynophagia. PMID:25671035

  16. Surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Hirsch, Pierre PL; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Bryant, Andrew; Dickinson, Heather O; Keep, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the most common pre-malignant lesion. Atypical squamous changes occur in the transformation zone of the cervix with mild, moderate or severe changes described by their depth (CIN 1, 2 or 3). Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is treated by local ablation or lower morbidity excision techniques. Choice of treatment depends on the grade and extent of the disease. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of alternative surgical treatments for CIN. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to April 2009). We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings and reference lists of included studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of alternative surgical treatments in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risks of bias. Risk ratios that compared residual disease after the follow-up examination and adverse events in women who received one of either laser ablation, laser conisation, large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ), knife conisation or cryotherapy were pooled in random-effects model meta-analyses. Main results Twenty-nine trials were included. Seven surgical techniques were tested in various comparisons. No significant differences in treatment failures were demonstrated in terms of persistent disease after treatment. Large loop excision of the transformation zone appeared to provide the most reliable specimens for histology with the least morbidity. Morbidity was lower than with laser conisation, although the trials did not provide data for every outcome measure. There were not enough data to assess the effect on morbidity when compared with laser ablation. Authors’ conclusions The evidence suggests that there is no obvious superior surgical technique for treating cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in terms of treatment failures or operative morbidity. PMID:20556751

  17. Tumoral calcinosis involving the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Osamu; Nakamura, Kimihiko; Nashimoto, Takeo; Shibuya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tumoral calcinosis (TC) is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of calcified masses in the juxta-articular regions of the extremities. Involvement of the cervical spine is very rare. In this report, the characteristics of TC of the cervical spine, including the clinical presentation, radiographic features, and surgical management are discussed. Case Description: A 90-year-old healthy female suffering from numbness of the upper extremities for 3 months presented with a 2-week history of progressive weakness of the lower extremities. A neurological examination revealed mild weakness and sensory impairment of the bilateral upper and lower extremities. Computed tomography (CT) scans demonstrated amorphous calcified masses posterior to the spinous process that extended into the interlaminar spaces of C3/4 and C4/5. The masses involved the posterior elements of C3-C4. Interestingly, CT scans performed 4 years earlier showed subtle calcification of a yellow ligament at C3/4 and C4/5. However, neither calcified masses nor bone erosion were observed. On magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the mass showed hypointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. The lesion was compressing the spinal cord and was resected surgically. The pathological findings were consistent with those of TC. The natural history of TC is not understood. However, this case suggests that calcified masses may progress within several years and that the bone around the mass may be involved. Postoperatively, residual masses may disappear spontaneously, while new bone is formed in the erosive lamina and facet. Conclusion: The treatment of choice for TC, if the lesion causes progressive symptoms, is surgical resection.

  18. Interdisciplinary treatment of cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Allen, Edward P; Winter, Robert R

    2011-01-01

    Soft tissue grafting is an integral part of treatment of cervical lesions due to the common lack of adequate attached gingiva and root exposure associated with these lesions. Complete root coverage is a predictable outcome for Miller Class I and II recession defects, and partial root coverage can be achieved in Miller Class III defects. In the esthetic zone, it is desirable to cover as much of the root as possible, and all sites require an adequate zone of attached gingiva, especially adjacent to a restoration. Restorations are required for cervical lesions with excessive depth and significant involvement of the enamel, but they should be avoided where the lesion is shallow and the enamel involvement is minimal. Of course, some sites will require both soft-tissue grafting and placement of a restoration. An interdisciplinary approach to treating cervical lesions will create the most biologically appropriate, stable, and esthetic outcome. Establishing the appropriate tooth form first in treatment planning and sequencing will determine the gingival level and extent of periodontal procedures necessary to achieve the desired outcome. PMID:22439257

  19. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2: Molecular Targets for Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Taehun; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Suh, Dong Hoon; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Song, Yong Sang

    2013-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key enzyme responsible for inflammation, converting arachidonic acid to prostaglandin and thromboxane. COX has at least two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2. While COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues for maintaining physiologic homeostasis, COX-2 is induced by inflammatory stimuli including cytokines and growth factors. Many studies have shown that COX-2 contributes to cancer development and progression in various types of malignancy including cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus, a necessary cause of cervical cancer, induces COX-2 expression via E5, E6 and E7 oncoproteins, which leads to prostaglandin E2 increase and the loss of E-cadherin, promotes cell proliferation and production of vascular endothelial growth factor. It is strongly suggested that COX-2 is associated with cancer development and progression such as lymph node metastasis. Many studies have suggested that non-selective COX-2 inhibitors such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and selective COX-2 inhibitors might show anti-cancer activity in COX-2 -dependent and -independent manners. Two phase II trials for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer showed that celecoxib increased toxicities associated with radiotherapy. Contrary to these discouraging results, two phase II clinical trials, using rofecoxib and celecoxib, demonstrated the promising chemopreventive effect for patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or 3. However, these agents cause a rare, but serious, cardiovascular complication in spite of gastrointestinal protection in comparison with NSAIDs. Recent pharmacogenomic studies have showed that the new strategy for overcoming the limitation in clinical application of COX-2 inhibitors shed light on the use of them as a chemopreventive method. PMID:25337538

  20. MET receptor is a potential therapeutic target in high grade cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miekus, Katarzyna; Pawlowska, Marta; Seku?a, Ma?gorzata; Drabik, Grazyna; Madeja, Zbigniew; Adamek, Dariusz; Majka, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women suffering from tumors. Current treatment options are insufficient. Here, we investigated the MET receptor as a potential molecular target in advanced cervical cancer. Downregulation of MET receptor expression via RNA interference in different cervical carcinoma cell lines dramatically decreased tumor growth and forced tumor differentiation in vivo. MET receptor silencing also led to a dramatic decrease in cell size and a decrease in proliferation rate under normal and stress conditions. MET receptor downregulation also resulted in decreased cyclin D1 and c-myc levels but did not increase apoptosis. Subsequent experiments showed that downregulation of the MET receptor decreased the expression of a key regulator of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, SLUG. and increased the expression of E-cadherin, a hallmark of the epithelial phenotype. Moreover, MET downregulation impairs expression and signaling of CXCR4 receptor, responsible for invasive phenotype. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the MET receptor influences the oncogenic properties of cervical carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. These findings highlight a unique role of the MET receptor in cervical carcinoma cells and indicate the MET receptor as a potential therapeutic target for advanced cervical carcinoma. PMID:25888626

  1. Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths

    PubMed Central

    Reumer, Jelle W.F.; ten Broek, Clara M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects). Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in Late Pleistocene mammoths from the North Sea is high (33.3%) and approximately 10 times higher than that of extant elephants (3.6%). Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, which we deduced from the presence of rib articulation facets on sixth (posterior side) and seventh (anterior side) cervical vertebrae. The incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in mammoths appears to be much higher than in other mammalian species, apart from exceptional sloths, manatees and dugongs and indicates a vulnerable condition. We argue that the increased incidence of cervical ribs in mammoths is probably caused by inbreeding and adverse conditions that impact early pregnancies in declining populations close to extinction in the Late Pleistocene. PMID:24711969

  2. Activation of miR-9 by human papillomavirus in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuhui; Schwarz, Julie K.; Chen, Jason J.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Wang, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, leading to about 300,000 deaths each year. Most cervical cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, persistent transcriptional activity of HPV oncogenes, which indicates active roles of HPV in cervical cancer maintenance and progression, has not been well characterized. Using our recently developed assays for comprehensive profiling of HPV E6/E7 transcripts, we have detected transcriptional activities of 10 high-risk HPV strains from 87 of the 101 cervical tumors included in the analysis. These HPV-positive patients had significantly better survival outcome compared with HPV-negative patients, indicating HPV transcriptional activity as a favorable prognostic marker for cervical cancer. Furthermore, we have determined microRNA (miRNA) expression changes that were correlated with tumor HPV status. Our profiling and functional analyses identified miR-9 as the most activated miRNA by HPV E6 in a p53-independent manner. Further target validation and functional studies showed that HPV-induced miR-9 activation led to significantly increased cell motility by downregulating multiple gene targets involved in cell migration. Thus, our work helps to understand the molecular mechanisms as well as identify potential therapeutic targets for cervical cancer and other HPV-induced cancers. PMID:25344913

  3. The clinical meaning of external cervical resorption in maxillary canine: transoperative dental trauma

    PubMed Central

    Consolaro, Alberto; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; de Almeida, Carolina Dornelas C. M.; Souza, Ingrid Araújo Oliveira; Capelloza, Leopoldino

    2014-01-01

    External Cervical Resorption in maxillary canines with pulp vitality is frequently associated with dental trauma resulting from surgical procedures carried out to prepare the teeth for further orthodontic traction. Preparation procedures might surgically manipulate the cementoenamel junction or cause luxation of teeth due to applying excessive force or movement tests beyond the tolerance limits of periodontal ligament and cervical tissue structures. Dentin exposure at the cementoenamel junction triggers External Cervical Resorption as a result of inflammation followed by antigen recognition of dentin proteins. External Cervical Resorption is painless, does not induce pulpitis and develops slowly. The lesion is generally associated with and covered by gingival soft tissues which disguise normal clinical aspects, thereby leading to late diagnosis when the process is near pulp threshold. Endodontic treatment is recommended only if surgical procedures are rendered necessary in the pulp space; otherwise, External Cervical Resorption should be treated by conservative means: protecting the dental pulp and restoring function and esthetics of teeth whose pulp will remain in normal conditions. Unfortunately, there is a lack of well-grounded research evincing how often External Cervical Resorption associated with canines subjected to orthodontic traction occurs. PMID:25628076

  4. Human semen: the biological basis of sexual behaviour to promote human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianding; Zhuang, Jing; Wu, Ke; Xu, Ruiling; Li, Mingyuan; Lu, Yiping

    2010-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the second leading cause of cancer-associated morbidity and mortality among sexually active women worldwide due to its prerequisite role in cervical carcinogenesis. However, HPV infection alone is not sufficient to bring about cervical cancer. Sexual behaviour is consistently the most important co-factor for HPV infection and cervical cancer, but what is the underlying biological basis? In this paper, we postulate that human semen is the biological basis of sexual behaviour to promote HPV infection and cervical cancer. Based on international collaboration of epidemiological investigations and various HPV-infected in vivo models, it is likely for us to explore the exact role and pathogenesis of human semen in HPV infection and cervical carcinogenesis. If our hypothesis is true, regular use of condoms in the sexual intercourse should be recommended as a way of preventing genital transmission of HPV and reducing the incidence of cervical cancer, no matter women are infected by HPV or not. PMID:20138438

  5. Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Allie K.; Wise-Draper, Trisha M.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed. PMID:25226287

  6. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    This study seeks to develop sensitive, specific, and inexpensive approaches to cervical cancer screening as alternatives to the traditional Pap test and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.

  7. Socioeconomic disparity in cervical cancer screening among Korean women: 1998–2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer among Korean women and is one of the most preventable cancers in the world. This study aimed to investigate the change in cervical cancer screening rates, the level of socioeconomic disparities in cervical cancer screening participation, and whether there was a reduction in these disparities between 1998 and 2010. Methods Using the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, women 30?years or older without a history of cervical cancer and who completed a health questionnaire, physical examination, and nutritional survey were included (n?=?17,105). Information about participation in cervical cancer screening was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between cervical cancer screening participation and the socioeconomic status of the women. Results The cervical cancer screening rate increased from 40.5% in 1998 to 52.5% in 2010. Socioeconomic disparities influenced participation, and women with lower educational levels and lower household income were less likely to be screened. Compared with the lowest educational level, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for screening in women with the highest educational level were 1.56 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05–2.30) in 1998, and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.12–1.87) in 2010. Compared with women with the lowest household income level, the adjusted ORs for screening in women with the highest household income level were 1.80 (95% CI: 1.22–2.68), 2.82 (95% CI: 2.01–3.96), and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.08–1.94) in 2001, 2005, and 2010, respectively. Conclusion Although population-wide progress has been made in participation in cervical cancer screening over the 12-year period, socioeconomic status remained an important factor in reducing compliance with cancer screening. PMID:23742100

  8. Radiation myelopathy: Estimates of risk in 1048 patients in three randomized trials of palliative radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. Macbeth; T. E. Wheldon; D. J. Girling; R. J. Stephens; D. Machin; N. M. Bleehen; A. Lamont; D. J. Radstone; N. S. Reed

    1996-01-01

    Radiation myelopathy (RM) is an uncommon but serious late effect of thoracic radiotherapy (RT), which oncologists try to avoid by careful planning and dose selection. Five patients with RM are described from among 1048 with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer treated with palliative RT in three randomized trials conducted by the Medical Research Council Lung Cancer Working Party. Seven RT

  9. Anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine: Part I: the “normal” cervical spine †

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Marion; Mior, Silvano

    1989-01-01

    This is the first of a three part series describing the clinical issues surrounding the radiographic assessment of the cervical spine. Defined in this literature review is the working definition of cervical stability. Described are the “normal” anatomical relationships between the cervical vertebrae for both the adult and the child, as portrayed by lateral radiographs. Also presented is a review of available documentation regarding the normal segmental function of the vertebrae in the upper and in the lower cervical spine. The next two parts in this series will deal with the definitions and radiographic evaluation of cervical hypermobility and instability respectively.

  10. Human Papilloma Virus prevalence and type-specific relative contribution in invasive cervical cancer specimens from Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciano Mariani; Núria Monfulleda; Laia Alemany; Enrico Vizza; Ferdinando Marandino; Amina Vocaturo; Maria Benevolo; Beatriz Quirós; Belén Lloveras; Jo Ellen Klaustermeier; Wim Quint; Silvia de Sanjosé; F Xavier Bosch

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer represents an important global public health problem. It is the 2nd most common cancer among women worldwide. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is now well-established as a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) development. Only a few studies on HPV prevalence and type-specific distribution in ICC have been conducted in Italy. AIM: To describe the prevalence of

  11. Myelopathy mimicking subacute combined degeneration in a Down syndrome patient with methotrexate treatment for B lymphoblastic leukemia: report of an autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Satomi, Kaishi; Yoshida, Mari; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Okita, Hajime; Hosoya, Yosuke; Shioda, Yoko; Kumagai, Masa-Aki; Mori, Tetsuya; Morishita, Yukio; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nakazawa, Atsuko

    2014-08-01

    We report clinicopathological features of a 23-year-old woman with Down syndrome (DS) presenting with subacute myelopathy treated with chemotherapy, including intravenous and intrathecal administration of methotrexate (MTX), and with allogenic bone-marrow transplantation for B lymphoblastic leukemia. Autopsy revealed severe demyelinating vacuolar myelopathy in the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord, associated with macrophage infiltration, marked axonal loss and some swollen axons. Pathological changes of posterior and lateral columns were observed from the medulla oblongata to lumbar cord. Proximal anterior and posterior roots were preserved. Cerebral white matter was relatively well preserved. There were no vascular lesions or meningeal dissemination of leukemia. Longitudinal extension of cord lesions was extensive, unlike typical cases of subacute combined degeneration (SACD), but distribution of lesions and histological findings were similar to that of SACD. DS patients show heightened sensitivity to MTX because of their genetic background. Risk factors for toxic myelopathy of DS are discussed, including delayed clearance of MTX despite normal renal function, alterations in MTX polyglutamation and enhanced folic acid depletion due to gene dosage effects of chromosome 21. Alteration of folate metabolism and/or vitamin B12 levels through intravenous or intrathecal administration of MTX might exist, although vitamin B12 and other essential nutrients were managed using intravenous hyperalimentation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an autopsy case that shows myelopathy mimicking SACD in a DS patient accompanied by B lymphoblastic leukemia. The case suggests a pathophysiological mechanism of MTX-related myelopathy in DS patients with B lymphoblastic leukemia mimicking SACD. PMID:24661121

  12. Enterobacter cloacae infection after anterior cervical decompression and fusion: case study and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongli; Wang, Lixun; Yang, Yong; Lu, Feizhou; Ma, Xiaosheng; Xia, Xinlei; Jiang, Jianyuan

    2015-01-01

    Wound infection after anterior cervical decompression and fusion can lead to disastrous consequences despite a low incidence rate. Although Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus are the most common pathogenic bacteria, some rare bacteria such as conditional pathogenic bacteria may also result in such a condition. To the best of our knowledge, E. cloacae-caused acute infection after anterior cervical decompression and fusion has not been reported. Here, we report an E. cloacae-caused acute infection after anterior vertical decompression and fusion. This infection was eventually controlled by virtue of an early diagnosis and the correspondingly-adopted anti-infection, internal fixation removal, and drainage treatments. Exploring the reasons underlying acute infection after anterior cervical decompression and fusion caused by rare bacteria, particularly E. cloacae, by analyzing this case was the basic therapeutic principle in this study. We believe that the therapeutic principle for E. cloacae-caused wound infection after anterior cervical internal fixation is basically consistent with that for other bacterium-caused wound infections after spinal internal fixation. Sufficient drainage, the adoption of sensitive antibacterials, and internal fixation removal as early as possible when necessary are the essential measures in infection control.

  13. Evaluation of pediatric cervical spine injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Baker; Howard Kadish; Jeff E Schunk

    1999-01-01

    To compare historical features, clinical examination findings, and radiographic results among pediatric patients with cervical spine injury (CSI), a retrospective review of patients who were diagnosed with CSI was undertaken. Two main groups were identified: radiographically evident cervical spine injury (RESCI), and spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA). Demographic, historical, clinical, and radiographic information was obtained from patients' charts

  14. Congenital Disorders of the Cervical Spine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert N. Hensinger

    \\u000a Radiological interpretation of the infant’s spine may be difficult and a clear understanding of its appearance at different\\u000a ages is essential if deformity and malalignment are to be recognized. Normal development of the cervical spine is discussed\\u000a in the section on cervical trauma.

  15. Cervical Spine MRI in Abused Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study attempted to use cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect cord injury in 12 dead children with head injury from child abuse. Eighty percent of children autopsied had small cervical spine hemorrhages; MRI did not identify them and did not identify cord injury in any child studied, indicating that MRI scans are probably…

  16. Cervical spine injuries from motor vehicle accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Yoganandan; D. J. Maiman; F. A. Pintar

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the study was to delineate the critical regions of the human cervical spine and determine the mechanisms of injury in motor vehicle accidents (MVA). The clinical data were gathered from patient records. Results indicated that while neck injuries in MVA are complex and can occur at any level of the cervical spine, the craniocervical junction (among fatalities)

  17. HPV and the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin C. Mahoney

    Summary Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has many significant clinical outcomes, including the development of cervical cancer. The consequences of HPV infec- tion are costly in terms of both direct and indirect costs. A significant advance in the prevention of cervical cancer and other adverse outcomes from HPV has occurred with the introduction of a vaccine to prevent infection with the

  18. Ectopic cervical thymoma located in the carotid triangle.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Jitsuro; Hasegawa, Ichiro; Sato, Hiroaki; Kakefuda, Toshihiro; Sugiura, Hitoshi; Narimatsu, Yoshiaki

    2013-02-01

    Ectopic cervical thymoma is an extremely rare tumor thought to arise from ectopic thymic tissue caused by the aberrant migration of the embryonic thymus. We present the case of a 44-year-old woman with an ectopic cervical thymoma located in the carotid triangle. A computed tomography (CT) scan detected a mass in her right carotid triangle. On an unenhanced scan, the tumor showed homogeneous isodensity compared with muscles, and neither fat nor calcification was detected. A contrast-enhanced CT image obtained during the arterial phase showed intratumoral septa, while an image obtained during the parenchymal phase showed cystic changes within the mass. The patient underwent a surgical resection. A histological study enabled a diagnosis of type AB thymoma in which foci with the features of type A thymoma are admixed with foci rich in lymphocytes. This subtype is a benign tumor with a good prognosis. Ectopic cervical thymoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of solid masses located in the carotid triangle when the CT findings are typical of a thymoma. PMID:23073822

  19. Familial Clusters of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis

    PubMed Central

    Nozuma, Satoshi; Matsuura, Eiji; Matsuzaki, Toshio; Watanabe, Osamu; Kubota, Ryuji; Izumo, Shuji; Takashima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Objective HTLV-1 proviral loads (PVLs) and some genetic factors are reported to be associated with the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). However, there are very few reports on HAM/TSP having family history. We aimed to define the clinical features and laboratory indications associated with HAM/TSP having family history. Methods Records of 784 HAM/TSP patients who were hospitalized in Kagoshima University Hospital and related hospitals from 1987 to 2012 were reviewed. Using an unmatched case-control design, 40 patients of HAM/TSP having family history (f-HAM/TSP) were compared with 124 patients suffering from sporadic HAM/TSP, who were admitted in series over the last 10 years for associated clinical features. Results Of the 784 patients, 40 (5.1%) were f-HAM/TSP cases. Compared with sporadic cases, the age of onset was earlier (41.3 vs. 51.6 years, p<0.001), motor disability grades were lower (4.0 vs. 4.9, p?=?0.043) despite longer duration of illness (14.3 vs. 10.2 years, p?=?0.026), time elapsed between onset and wheelchair use in daily life was longer (18.3 vs. 10.0 years, p?=?0.025), cases with rapid disease progression were fewer (10.0% vs. 28.2%, p?=?0.019), and protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were significantly lower in f-HAM/TSP cases (29.9 vs. 42.5 mg, p<0.001). There was no difference in HTLV-1 PVLs, anti-HTLV-1 antibody titers in serum and CSF, or cell number and neopterin levels in CSF. Furthermore, HTLV-1 PVLs were lower in cases with rapid disease progression than in those with slow progression in both f-HAM/TSP and sporadic cases. Conclusions We demonstrated that HAM/TSP aggregates in the family, with a younger age of onset and a slow rate of progression in f-HAM/TSP cases compared with sporadic cases. These data also suggested that factors other than HTLV-1 PVLs contribute to the disease course of HAM/TSP. PMID:24802839

  20. Reoperations Following Cervical Disc Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Lee, Dong-Ho; Caridi, John Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cervical disc replacement (CDR) has emerged as an alternative surgical option to cervical arthrodesis. With increasing numbers of patients and longer follow-ups, complications related to the device and/or aging spine are growing, leaving us with a new challenge in the management and surgical revision of CDR. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature regarding reoperations following CDR and to discuss about the approaches and solutions for the current and future potential complications associated with CDR. The published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.0%; range, 0%-3.1%), revision (mean, 0.2%; range, 0%-0.5%), and removal (mean, 1.2%; range, 0%-1.9%) following CDR are low and comparable to the published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.7%; range; 0%-3.4%), revision (mean, 1.5%; range, 0%-4.7%), and removal (mean, 2.0%; range, 0%-3.4%) following cervical arthrodesis. The surgical interventions following CDR range from the repositioning to explantation followed by fusion or the reimplantation to posterior foraminotomy or fusion. Strict patient selection, careful preoperative radiographic review and surgical planning, as well as surgical technique may reduce adverse events and the need for future intervention. Minimal literature and no guidelines exist for the approaches and techniques in revision and for the removal of implants following CDR. Adherence to strict indications and precise surgical technique may reduce the number of reoperations, revisions, and removals following CDR. Long-term follow-up studies are needed, assessing the implant survivorship and its effect on the revision and removal rates.

  1. Anterior decompression in the management of unilateral cervical spondylotic amyotrophy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing Tao; Yang, Da Long; Shen, Yong; Zhang, Ying Ze; Wang, Lin Feng; Ding, Wen Yuan

    2012-12-01

    Cervical spondylotic amyotrophy is a rare clinical condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of anterior decompression in patients with unilateral upper-extremity amyotrophy caused by cervical spondylosis. The authors retrospectively analyzed the records of 31 patients (23 men and 8 women) who underwent anterior decompressive surgery for cervical spondylotic amyotrophy at the authors' institution between 2000 and 2011. Demographic characteristics, pre- and postoperative results of imaging studies, and postoperative muscle power improvement were reviewed at a mean follow-up of 22.2 months (range, 14-36 months). Patients were divided into proximal (n=21) and distal (n=10) types according to the most severely atrophic muscle, and the 2 groups were compared statistically. The most commonly affected intervertebral level in proximal-type patients was C4-C5, whereas that in distal-type patients was C5-C6. Impingements against the ventral nerve root and anterior horn were observed in 22 and 25 cases, respectively, with 16 cases having both impingements. Eighty-one percent of proximal-type patients gained 1 or more grades of muscle power improvement on manual muscle testing, whereas 40% of distal-type patients improved. Within 15 postoperative days, 57% of proximal-type patients attained subjective or objective improvement of muscle power, whereas all distal-type patients failed to improve. Anterior decompression was effective for most patients with unilateral cervical spondylotic amyotrophy, although postoperative muscle power improvement in distal-type patients was inferior to that in proximal-type patients. Furthermore, compared with the proximal type, the distal type showed a slower postoperative recovery. PMID:23218638

  2. Direct measurement of the permeability of human cervical tissue.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Michael; Vink, Joy; Yoshida, Kyoko; Wapner, Ronald; Myers, Kristin M

    2013-02-01

    The mechanical integrity of the uterine cervix is critical for a pregnancy to successfully reach full term. It must be strong to retain the fetus throughout gestation and then undergo a remodeling and softening process before labor for delivery of the fetus. It is believed that cervical insufficiency (CI), a condition in pregnancy resulting in preterm birth (PTB), is related to a cervix with compromised mechanical strength which cannot resist deformation caused by external forces generated by the growing fetus. Such PTBs are responsible for infant developmental problems and in severe cases infant mortality. To understand the etiologies of CI, our overall research goal is to investigate the mechanical behavior of the cervix. Permeability is a mechanical property of hydrated collagenous tissues that dictates the time-dependent response of the tissue to mechanical loading. The goal of this study was to design a novel soft tissue permeability testing device and to present direct hydraulic permeability measurements of excised nonpregnant (NP) and pregnant (PG) human cervical tissue from women with different obstetric histories. Results of hydraulic permeability testing indicate repeatability for specimens from single patients, with an order of magnitude separating the NP and PG group means (2.1?±?1.4×10(-14) and 3.2?±?4.8×10(-13)m(4)/N[middle dot]s, respectively), and large variability within the NP and PG sample groups. Differences were found between samples with similar obstetric histories, supporting the view that medical history may not be a good predictor of permeability (and therefore mechanical behavior) and highlighting the need for patient-specific measurements of cervical mechanical properties. The permeability measurements from this study will be used in future work to model the constitutive material behavior of cervical tissue and to develop in vivo diagnostic tools to stage the progression of labor. PMID:23445069

  3. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Cibelli; da Fonseca, Allex Jardim; Sibajev, Alexander; Souza, Camila Iasmim de Andrade; Araújo, Daniela Souza; Teles, Daniele Aparecida de Freitas; de Carvalho, Stéphanie Gomes Lins; Cavalcante, Kyldery Wendell Moura; Rabelo, Wendell Lima

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2). Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5). A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease). Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer. PMID:25741655

  4. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Cibelli; Fonseca, Allex Jardim da; Sibajev, Alexander; Souza, Camila Iasmim de Andrade; Araújo, Daniela Souza; Teles, Daniele Aparecida de Freitas; Carvalho, Stéphanie Gomes Lins de; Cavalcante, Kyldery Wendell Moura; Rabelo, Wendell Lima

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women's health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2). Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5). A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease). Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer. PMID:25741655

  5. Pathology Case Study: Cervical Lymphadenopathy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Contis, Lydia C.

    This is a hematopathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 17-year-old female has cervical lymphadenopathy. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  6. Human Papillomavirus Type 18: Association With Poor Prognosis in Early Stage Cervical Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Burger; Bradley J. Monk; Tom Kurosaki; Hoda Anton-Culver; Steven A. Vasilev; Michael L. Berman; Sharon P. Wilczynski

    Background: Cervical carcinoma is a leading cause of mor- tality from cancer among women worldwide, accounting for approximately 160 000 deaths annually. Prognosis in pa- tients with this disease is dependent on several well-estab- lished clinical features (stage of disease and age of patient) and pathologic features (lymph node status, grade of tumor, and depth of invasion). Although the features

  7. Extraction of motor activity from the cervical spinal cord of behaving rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhishek Prasad; Mesut Sahin

    2006-01-01

    Injury at the cervical region of the spinal cord results in the loss of the skeletal muscle control from below the shoulders and hence causes quadriplegia. The brain-computer interface technique is one way of generating a substitute for the lost command signals in these severely paralyzed individuals using the neural signals from the brain. In this study, we are investigating

  8. Mexican physicians' knowledge and attitudes about the human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, T; Becker, D; Garcia, S; Lara, D

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess Mexican physicians' knowledge about the human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer and their opinions and practices related to screening, managing, and counselling women on these topics. Methodology: In August 2002 we surveyed 1206 general practitioners (GPs) and obstetricians-gynaecologists (Ob-Gyns) working in a nationally representative sample of public and private facilities in urban Mexico. Eligible physicians completed a self administered questionnaire. We conducted a weighted analysis and used ?2 tests to compare GPs and Ob-Gyns on outcome variables. Results: 76% of recruited physicians responded to the survey. 43% of Ob-Gyns had performed a hysterectomy in the last year to treat a case of CIN I or II. With respect to HPV, while 80% of respondents identified the virus as the principal cause of cervical cancer, many lacked detailed knowledge about this association. Ob-Gyns were more likely than GPs to have heard about specific oncogenic strains of HPV (p<0.001). Nearly all respondents thought that women should be informed that HPV causes cervical cancer; nevertheless, physicians believed that positioning cervical cancer as a sexually transmitted infection (STI) could cause problems in partner relationships (60%), confusion (40%), and unnecessary anxiety among women (32%). Conclusions: Mexican physicians support patient education on the HPV-cervical cancer link. However, findings suggest the need to present clear messages to women (emphasising, for example, that only certain types of HPV are oncogenic), to consider the conflicts such information might create for couples, and to further educate physicians about this topic and about overall cervical cancer screening and treatment protocols. PMID:15800091

  9. Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kandalgaonkar, Shilpa D; Gharat, Leena A; Tupsakhare, Suyog D; Gabhane, Mahesh H

    2013-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is a relatively uncommon form of external root resorption exhibiting no external signs. The resorptive condition is often detected by routine radiographic examination. The clinical features vary from a small defect at the gingival margin to a pink coronal discoloration of the tooth crown resulting in ultimate cavitation of the overlying enamel which is painless unless pulpal or periodontal infection supervenes. Radiographic features of lesions vary from well-delineated to irregularly bordered mottled radiolucencies, and these can be confused with dental caries. A characteristic radiopaque line generally separates the image of the lesion from that of the root canal, because the pulp remains protected by a thin layer of predentin until late in the process. Histopathologically, the lesions contain fibrovascular tissue with resorbing clastic cells adjacent to the dentin surface. More advanced lesions display fibro-osseous characteristics with deposition of ectopic bonelike calcifications both within the resorbing tissue and directly on the dentin surface. How to cite this article: Kandalgaonkar SD, Gharat LA, Tupsakhare SD, Gabhane MH. Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(6):124-30 . PMID:24453457

  10. Positron Emission Tomography Using Fluoromisonidazole F 18 and Fludeoxyglucose F 18 to Find Oxygen in Tumor Cells of Patients Undergoing Treatment for Newly Diagnosed Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-10

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  11. Vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Gregory D.; Hsu, Wellington K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vertebral artery injuries during cervical spine surgery are rare, but potentially fatal. When performing cervical spine surgery, it is imperative that the surgeon has a systematic approach for avoiding, and if necessary, dealing with a vertebral artery injury. Methods: This is a review paper. Results: Upper posterior cervical spine surgeries put the vertebral artery at the highest risk, as opposed to anterior subaxial cervical spine procedures, which put the artery at the least risk. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomy of the vertebral artery is mandatory prior to performing cervical spine surgery, and since the vertebral artery can have a variable course, especially in the upper cervical spine, the surgeon must minimize the possibility of an arterial injury by preoperatively assessing the artery with a computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Intraoperatively, the surgeon must be aware of when the vertebral artery is most at risk, and take precautions to avoid an injury. In the event of an arterial injury, the surgeon must have a plan of action to (1) Achieve control of the hemorrhage. (2) Prevent acute central nervous system ischemia. (3) Prevent postoperative complications such as embolism and pseudoaneurysm Conclusion: Prior to performing cervical spine surgery, one must understand the four A's of vertebral artery injuries: Anatomy, Assessment, Avoidance, and Action. PMID:24340233

  12. Use of high frequency ultrasound to monitor cervical lymph node alterations in mice.

    PubMed

    Walk, Elyse L; McLaughlin, Sarah; Coad, James; Weed, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Cervical lymph node evaluation by clinical ultrasound is a non-invasive procedure used in diagnosing nodal status, and when combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), provides an effective method to assess nodal pathologies. Development of high-frequency ultrasound (HF US) allows real-time monitoring of lymph node alterations in animal models. While HF US is frequently used in animal models of tumor biology, use of HF US for studying cervical lymph nodes alterations associated with murine models of head and neck cancer, or any other model of lymphadenopathy, is lacking. Here we utilize HF US to monitor cervical lymph nodes changes in mice following exposure to the oral cancer-inducing carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) and in mice with systemic autoimmunity. 4-NQO induces tumors within the mouse oral cavity as early as 19 wks that recapitulate HNSCC. Monitoring of cervical (mandibular) lymph nodes by gray scale and power Doppler sonography revealed changes in lymph node size eight weeks after 4-NQO treatment, prior to tumor formation. 4-NQO causes changes in cervical node blood flow resulting from oral tumor progression. Histological evaluation indicated that the early 4-NQO induced changes in lymph node volume were due to specific hyperproliferation of T-cell enriched zones in the paracortex. We also show that HF US can be used to perform image-guided fine needle aspirate (FNA) biopsies on mice with enlarged mandibular lymph nodes due to genetic mutation of Fas ligand (Fasl). Collectively these studies indicate that HF US is an effective technique for the non-invasive study of cervical lymph node alterations in live mouse models of oral cancer and other mouse models containing cervical lymphadenopathy. PMID:24955984

  13. Use of High Frequency Ultrasound to Monitor Cervical Lymph Node Alterations in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Walk, Elyse L.; McLaughlin, Sarah; Coad, James; Weed, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical lymph node evaluation by clinical ultrasound is a non-invasive procedure used in diagnosing nodal status, and when combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), provides an effective method to assess nodal pathologies. Development of high-frequency ultrasound (HF US) allows real-time monitoring of lymph node alterations in animal models. While HF US is frequently used in animal models of tumor biology, use of HF US for studying cervical lymph nodes alterations associated with murine models of head and neck cancer, or any other model of lymphadenopathy, is lacking. Here we utilize HF US to monitor cervical lymph nodes changes in mice following exposure to the oral cancer-inducing carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) and in mice with systemic autoimmunity. 4-NQO induces tumors within the mouse oral cavity as early as 19 wks that recapitulate HNSCC. Monitoring of cervical (mandibular) lymph nodes by gray scale and power Doppler sonography revealed changes in lymph node size eight weeks after 4-NQO treatment, prior to tumor formation. 4-NQO causes changes in cervical node blood flow resulting from oral tumor progression. Histological evaluation indicated that the early 4-NQO induced changes in lymph node volume were due to specific hyperproliferation of T-cell enriched zones in the paracortex. We also show that HF US can be used to perform image-guided fine needle aspirate (FNA) biopsies on mice with enlarged mandibular lymph nodes due to genetic mutation of Fas ligand (Fasl). Collectively these studies indicate that HF US is an effective technique for the non-invasive study of cervical lymph node alterations in live mouse models of oral cancer and other mouse models containing cervical lymphadenopathy. PMID:24955984

  14. HPV and Cervical Dysplasia in Adolescents: A Progressive March Toward Prevention.

    PubMed

    Haugsdal, Michael L; Ryan, Ginny L

    2015-06-01

    Cervical cancer caused by infection with the human papillomavirus is the second most common malignancy among women worldwide. Over the course of the past century our understanding of the virus and the disease has expanded exponentially through landmark studies and pioneers of academic medicine. It has all led to the current evidence-based guidelines for prevention of cervical dysplasia and invasive carcinoma in adolescent females that will significantly lessen morbidity and mortality and may eradicate the disease completely. Unfortunately, the greatest challenge to this may be overcoming common misunderstandings and other barriers to compliance with these guidelines among practitioners, patients, and the general public. PMID:25532683

  15. The SUMO conjugating enzyme UBC9 as a biomarker for cervical HPV infections

    PubMed Central

    Mattoscio, Domenico; Casadio, Chiara; Fumagalli, Marzia; Sideri, Mario; Chiocca, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect stratified epithelium and are the causative agents of cervical cancer, the second most common cause of cancer-related death in women. A critical aspect that still persists in the HPV field is the selection of very sensitive and specific HPV diagnostic assays. Here, we provide evidence that the crucial small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E2-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 is strongly upregulated in cervical lesions. Ubc9 detection could thus be used in diagnosing and/or monitoring the progression of an HPV oncogenic infection. PMID:26015803

  16. The SUMO conjugating enzyme UBC9 as a biomarker for cervical HPV infections.

    PubMed

    Mattoscio, Domenico; Casadio, Chiara; Fumagalli, Marzia; Sideri, Mario; Chiocca, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect stratified epithelium and are the causative agents of cervical cancer, the second most common cause of cancer-related death in women. A critical aspect that still persists in the HPV field is the selection of very sensitive and specific HPV diagnostic assays. Here, we provide evidence that the crucial small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E2-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 is strongly upregulated in cervical lesions. Ubc9 detection could thus be used in diagnosing and/or monitoring the progression of an HPV oncogenic infection. PMID:26015803

  17. Oxygen tension and formation of cervical-like tissue in two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    House, Michael; Daniel, Jennifer; Elstad, Kirigin; Socrate, Simona; Kaplan, David L

    2012-03-01

    Cervical dysfunction contributes to a significant number of preterm births and is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. Cervical dysfunction is related to weakened load bearing properties of the collagen-rich cervical stroma. However, the mechanisms responsible for cervical collagen changes during pregnancy are not well defined. It is known that blood flow and oxygen tension significantly increase in reproductive tissues during pregnancy. To examine the effect of oxygen tension, a key mediator of tissue homeostasis, on the formation of cervical-like tissue in vitro, we grew primary human cervical cells in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) culture systems at 5% and 20% oxygen. Immunofluorescence studies revealed a stable fibroblast phenotype across six passages in all subjects studied (n=5). In 2D culture for 2 weeks, 20% oxygen was associated with significantly increased collagen gene expression (p<0.01), increased tissue wet weight (p<0.01), and increased collagen concentration (p=0.046). 3D cultures could be followed for significantly longer time frames than 2D cultures (12 weeks vs. 2 weeks). In contrast to 2D cultures, 20% oxygen in 3D cultures was associated with decreased collagen concentration (p<0.01) and unchanged collagen gene expression, which is similar to cervical collagen changes seen during pregnancy. We infer that 3D culture is more relevant for studying cervical collagen changes in vitro. The data suggest that increased oxygen tension may be related to significant cervical collagen changes seen in pregnancy. PMID:21919792

  18. Donor-transmitted HTLV-1-associated myelopathy in a kidney transplant recipient--case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, P; Deziel, P J; Norby, S M; Yao, J D; Garza, I; Razonable, R R

    2014-10-01

    Clinical disease due to human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a retrovirus endemic in certain regions of the world, is rarely reported after solid organ transplantation. In 2009, universal deceased donor organ screening for HTLV-1 was discontinued in the United States. We report the first case of donor-derived HTLV-1-associated myelopathy in a kidney transplant recipient from the United States. The patient, who was HTLV-1-seronegative prior to transplantation, likely acquired HTLV-1 infection from a seropositive organ donor. In this era when screening of donors and recipients for HTLV infection is not mandatory, clinicians should be vigilant in recognizing the risk and potential occurrence of this donor-derived infection in recipients with epidemiologic exposures. PMID:25138148

  19. Tissue- and column-specific measurements from multi-parameter mapping of the human cervical spinal cord at 3 T.

    PubMed

    Samson, R S; Ciccarelli, O; Kachramanoglou, C; Brightman, L; Lutti, A; Thomas, D L; Weiskopf, N; Wheeler-Kingshott, C A M

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify a range of MR parameters [apparent proton density, longitudinal relaxation time T1, magnetisation transfer (MT) ratio, MT saturation (which represents the additional percentage MT saturation of the longitudinal magnetisation caused by a single MT pulse) and apparent transverse relaxation rate R2*] in the white matter columns and grey matter of the healthy cervical spinal cord. The cervical cords of 13 healthy volunteers were scanned at 3 T using a protocol optimised for multi-parameter mapping. Intra-subject co-registration was performed using linear registration, and tissue- and column-specific parameter values were calculated. Cervical cord parameter values measured from levels C1-C5 in 13 subjects are: apparent proton density, 4822 ± 718 a.u.; MT ratio, 40.4 ± 1.53 p.u.; MT saturation, 1.40 ± 0.12 p.u.; T1 = 1848 ± 143 ms; R2* = 22.6 ± 1.53 s(-1). Inter-subject coefficients of variation were low in both the cervical cord and tissue- and column-specific measurements, illustrating the potential of this method for the investigation of changes in these parameters caused by pathology. In summary, an optimised cervical cord multi-parameter mapping protocol was developed, enabling tissue- and column-specific measurements to be made. This technique has the potential to provide insight into the pathological processes occurring in the cervical cord affected by neurological disorders. PMID:24105923

  20. Ultrasound of malignant cervical lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Ying, M.; Ho, S.Y.; Antonio, G.; Lee, Y.P.; King, A.D.; Wong, K.T.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Malignant lymph nodes in the neck include metastases and lymphoma. Cervical nodal metastases are common in patients with head and neck cancers, and their assessment is important as it affects treatment planning and prognosis. Neck nodes are also a common site of lymphomatous involvement and an accurate diagnosis is essential as its treatment differs from other causes of neck lymphadenopathy. On ultrasound, grey scale sonography helps to evaluate nodal morphology, whilst power Doppler sonography is used to assess the vascular pattern. Grey scale sonographic features that help to identify metastatic and lymphomatous lymph nodes include size, shape and internal architecture (loss of hilar architecture, presence of intranodal necrosis and calcification). Soft tissue oedema and nodal matting are additional grey scale features seen in tuberculous nodes or in nodes that have been previously irradiated. Power Doppler sonography evaluates the vascular pattern of nodes and helps to identify the malignant nodes. In addition, serial monitoring of nodal size and vascularity are useful features in the assessment of treatment response. PMID:18390388

  1. Overexpression of TROP2 predicts poor prognosis of patients with cervical cancer and promotes the proliferation and invasion of cervical cancer cells by regulating ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Liu, Yueyang; Bao, Xiangxiang; Tian, Jiguang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Xingsheng

    2013-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence has demonstrated that the aberrant expression of the human trophoblast cell-surface antigen (TROP2) was associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in a variety of human cancers, however the roles of TROP2 in cervical cancer have not been investigated. The purpose of our study was to elucidate the prognostic significance of TROP2 expression in patients with cervical cancer and determine its effect on tumor progression. Immunohistochemistry assay showed that 88.7% (94/106 cases) of cervical cancer specimens were positively stained with TROP2, and the overexpression of TROP2 was closely related with FIGO stage, histological grades, lymphatic metastasis, invasive interstitial depth and high expression of Ki-67. Patients with TROP2-positive staining exhibited a significantly decreased overall survival and progression free survival; it was also an independent predictor for prognosis according to multivariate analysis. Moreover, down-regulation of TROP2 mediated by siRNA in Siha and CaSki cells resulted in a strong inhibition of proliferation and invasion, TROP2 abrogation also elevated the apoptotic ratio and caused G1 arrest. Conversely, enforced expression of TROP2 in HeLa and C33A cells remarkably promoted cell growth, migration and invasion. In addition, the tumorigenic function of TROP2 was associated with the increased expressions of cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK2 and CDK4 but reduced expression of p27 and E-cadherin via the activation of Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Furthermore, the inhibition of TROP2 expression in cervical cancer cell lines enhances sensitivity to cisplatin. The present study suggest that overexpression of TROP2 may play crucial roles in the development and pathogenesis of human cervical cancer, therefore, TROP2 may represent a prospective prognostic indicator and a potential therapeutic target of cervical cancer. PMID:24086649

  2. Overexpression of TROP2 Predicts Poor Prognosis of Patients with Cervical Cancer and Promotes the Proliferation and Invasion of Cervical Cancer Cells by Regulating ERK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Liu, Yueyang; Bao, Xiangxiang; Tian, Jiguang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Xingsheng

    2013-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence has demonstrated that the aberrant expression of the human trophoblast cell-surface antigen (TROP2) was associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in a variety of human cancers, however the roles of TROP2 in cervical cancer have not been investigated. The purpose of our study was to elucidate the prognostic significance of TROP2 expression in patients with cervical cancer and determine its effect on tumor progression. Immunohistochemistry assay showed that 88.7% (94/106 cases) of cervical cancer specimens were positively stained with TROP2, and the overexpression of TROP2 was closely related with FIGO stage, histological grades, lymphatic metastasis, invasive interstitial depth and high expression of Ki-67. Patients with TROP2-positive staining exhibited a significantly decreased overall survival and progression free survival; it was also an independent predictor for prognosis according to multivariate analysis. Moreover, down-regulation of TROP2 mediated by siRNA in Siha and CaSki cells resulted in a strong inhibition of proliferation and invasion, TROP2 abrogation also elevated the apoptotic ratio and caused G1 arrest. Conversely, enforced expression of TROP2 in HeLa and C33A cells remarkably promoted cell growth, migration and invasion. In addition, the tumorigenic function of TROP2 was associated with the increased expressions of cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK2 and CDK4 but reduced expression of p27 and E-cadherin via the activation of Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Furthermore, the inhibition of TROP2 expression in cervical cancer cell lines enhances sensitivity to cisplatin. The present study suggest that overexpression of TROP2 may play crucial roles in the development and pathogenesis of human cervical cancer, therefore, TROP2 may represent a prospective prognostic indicator and a potential therapeutic target of cervical cancer. PMID:24086649

  3. Cervical uncinate process: an anatomic study for anterior decompression of the cervical spine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lu; N. A. Ebraheim; H. Yang; M. Skie; R. A. Yeasting

    1998-01-01

    Summary Morphometric evaluation of 54 dry cervical spines from C3 to C7 (a total of 270 cervical vertebrae) was performed to determine the bony boundaries of the uncinate process for resection of the uncinate process for access to posterolateral osteophytes or herniated disks at the time of anterior cervical diskectomy. The uncinate processes were significantly higher (p<0.01) at the C4

  4. Modified transcorporeal anterior cervical microforaminotomy for cervical radiculopathy: a technical note and early results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gun Choi; Sang-Ho Lee; Arun Bhanot; Yu Sik Chae; Byungjoo Jung; Seungcheol Lee

    2007-01-01

    A prospective analysis of the first twenty patients operated for cervical radiculopathy by a new modification of transcorporeal\\u000a anterior cervical foraminotomy technique. To evaluate early results of a functional disc surgery in which decompression for\\u000a the cervical radiculopathy is done by drilling a hole in the upper vertebral body and most of the disc tissue is preserved.\\u000a Earlier approaches to

  5. Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Integration in Cervical Carcinoma In Situ and in Invasive Cervical Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo Arias-Pulido; Cheri L. Peyton; Nancy E. Joste; Hernan Vargas; Cosette M. Wheeler

    2006-01-01

    Integration of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) into the host DNA has been proposed as a potential marker of cervical neoplastic progression. In this study, a quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to examine the physical status of HPV-16 in 126 cervical carcinoma in situ and 92 invasive cervical cancers. Based on criteria applied to results from this qRT-PCR assay,

  6. New Technologies for Cervical Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alaina J.; Trimble, Cornelia L.

    2013-01-01

    New technologies for cervical cancer screening seek to provide an accurate, efficient, and cost-effective way of identifying women at risk for cervical cancer. Current screening uses HPV DNA testing combined with cytology and requires multiple visits at a great cost to the patient and the society. New methods for screening include HPV diagnostics (detection of either the presence of HPV or integration of the virus into the host cell), proliferation, and detection of epigenetic changes, either in the host or virus. These methods show promise in changing the way that current cervical cancer screening is undertaken in both low and high-resource settings. PMID:22119058

  7. Characterization of the Human Cervical Mucous Proteome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gitika Panicker; Yiming Ye; Dongxia Wang; Elizabeth R. Unger

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Cervical cancer is among the most common cancers in women worldwide. Discovery of biomarkers for the early detection of cervical\\u000a cancer would improve current screening practices and reduce the burden of disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  In this study, we report characterization of the human cervical mucous proteome as the first step towards protein biomarker\\u000a discovery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The protein composition was characterized using one- and

  8. Contribution of Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation for the Diagnosis of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis

    PubMed Central

    Matos Cunha, Luciana Cristina; Campelo Tavares, Maurício; Tierra Criollo, Carlos Julio; Labanca, Ludimila; Cardoso dos Santos Couto Paz, Clarissa; Resende Martins, Henrique; de Freitas Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a low-cost and safe examination for testing the vestibulospinal pathway. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a slowly progressive disease that affects the vestibulospinal tract early in its course. This study compared the electromyographic (EMG) responses triggered by GVS of asymptomatic HTLV-1-infected subjects and subjects with HAM/TSP. Methods Bipolar galvanic stimuli (400 ms and 2 mA) were applied to the mastoid processes of 39 subjects (n=120 stimulations per subject, with 60 from each lower limb). Both the short latency (SL) and medium latency (ML) components of the EMG response were recorded from the soleus muscles of 13 healthy, HTLV-1-negative adults (56±5 years, mean±SD), and 26 individuals infected with HTLV-1, of whom 13 were asymptomatic (56±8 years) and 13 had HAM/TSP (60±6 years). Results The SL and ML EMG components were 55±4 and 112±10 ms, respectively, in the group of healthy subjects, 61±6 and 112±10 ms and in the HTLV-1-asymptomatic group, and 67±8 and 130±3 ms in the HAM/TSP group (p=0.001). The SL component was delayed in 4/13 (31%) of the examinations in the HTLV-1-asymptomatic group, while the ML component was normal in all of them. In the HAM/TSP group, the most common alteration was the absence of waves. Conclusions A pattern of abnormal vestibular-evoked EMG responses was found in HTLV-1-neurological disease, ranging from delayed latency among asymptomatic carriers to the absence of a response in HAM/TSP. GVS may contribute to the early diagnosis and monitoring of nontraumatic myelopathies. PMID:24285967

  9. Cultural Beliefs and Understandings of Cervical Cancer Among Mexican Immigrant Women in Southeast Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Tarasenko, Yelena N.; Maupin, Jonathan N.; Alfonso, Moya L.; Watson, Lisa C.; Reyes-Garcia, Claudia; Ferris, Daron G.

    2014-01-01

    Rural Mexican immigrant women in the U.S. are infrequently screened and experience health disparities from cervical cancer. We explored cancer-related cultural beliefs in this population. We administered a cross-sectional survey to 39 Mexican immigrant women due for screening. We conducted univariate and bivariate analyses of participants’ characteristics, Pap test history, cancer-related knowledge and beliefs, and cultural consensus analysis about causes of cervical cancer and barriers to screening. For all the cultural consensus tasks, there was consensus (Eigenratios >3:1) among survey participants. Comparing the rankings of risk factor clusters, clusters related to sexual behaviors were ranked more severely than clusters related to genetic or other behavioral factors. There was agreement on ideas of cervical cancer causation and barriers to screening among these women. Hence, improved methods of disseminating important health information and greater access to care are needed, particularly in relationship to stigma about sex and birth control practices. PMID:25274023

  10. Cultural beliefs and understandings of cervical cancer among mexican immigrant women in southeast georgia.

    PubMed

    Luque, John S; Tarasenko, Yelena N; Maupin, Jonathan N; Alfonso, Moya L; Watson, Lisa C; Reyes-Garcia, Claudia; Ferris, Daron G

    2015-06-01

    Rural Mexican immigrant women in the U.S. are infrequently screened and experience health disparities from cervical cancer. We explored cancer-related cultural beliefs in this population. We administered a cross-sectional survey to 39 Mexican immigrant women due for screening. We conducted univariate and bivariate analyses of participants' characteristics, Pap test history, cancer-related knowledge and beliefs, and cultural consensus analysis about causes of cervical cancer and barriers to screening. For all the cultural consensus tasks, there was consensus (Eigenratios >3:1) among survey participants. Comparing the rankings of risk factor clusters, clusters related to sexual behaviors were ranked more severely than clusters related to genetic or other behavioral factors. There was agreement on ideas of cervical cancer causation and barriers to screening among these women. Hence, improved methods of disseminating important health information and greater access to care are needed, particularly in relationship to stigma about sex and birth control practices. PMID:25274023

  11. Acute Spontaneous Cervical Epidural Hematoma Mimicking Cerebral Stroke: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, Sang Keun; Hwang, Yong Soon; Shin, Hyung Shik; Shin, Jun Jae

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma (SCEDH) is a rare disease, but can cause severe neurologic impairment. We report a case of a 68-year-old female who presented with sudden onset, posterior neck pain, right shoulder pain, and progressive right hemiparesis mimicking stroke with no trauma history. Initial brain CT and diffusion MRI performed to rule out brain lesion did not show any positive findings. Laboratory examination presented only severe thrombocytopenia (45,000/mm3). Subsequent cervical MRI revealed a cervical epidural mass lesion. We confirmed that it was pure hematoma through C5 unilateral total laminectomy and C6 partial hemilaminectomy. She achieved complete neurologic recovery with active rehabilitation. Early surgical decompression for SCEDH with neurologic impairment should be recommended for better outcome. PMID:24757481

  12. Body conformation in Great Danes with and without clinical signs of cervical spondylomyelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Vaquero, P.; da Costa, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that a combination of large head and long neck cause abnormal forces on the cervical vertebral column and are involved in the pathogenesis of cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) in Great Danes. The aim of this study was to compare the body conformation of 15 clinically normal and 15 CSM-affected Great Danes. There were no statistically significant differences between clinically normal and CSM-affected Great Danes in any body measurements. There were no significant associations between body conformation and the severity of neurological signs or cervical vertebral body dimensions determined by magnetic resonance imaging in CSM-affected Great Danes. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that differences in body conformation related to head size, neck length, and body height and length, play a role in the pathogenesis of CSM in Great Danes. PMID:25555338

  13. Cervical Dystonia: A Disorder of the Midbrain Network for Covert Attentional Orienting

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Michael; Isa, Tadashi; Molloy, Anna; Kimmich, Okka; Williams, Laura; Molloy, Fiona; Moore, Helena; Healy, Daniel G.; Lynch, Tim; Walsh, Cathal; Butler, John; Reilly, Richard B.; Walsh, Richard; O’Riordan, Sean

    2014-01-01

    While the pathogenesis of cervical dystonia remains unknown, recent animal and clinical experimental studies have indicated its probable mechanisms. Abnormal temporal discrimination is a mediational endophenotype of cervical dystonia and informs new concepts of disease pathogenesis. Our hypothesis is that both abnormal temporal discrimination and cervical dystonia are due to a disorder of the midbrain network for covert attentional orienting caused by reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition, resulting, in turn, from as yet undetermined, genetic mutations. Such disinhibition is (a) subclinically manifested by abnormal temporal discrimination due to prolonged duration firing of the visual sensory neurons in the superficial laminae of the superior colliculus and (b) clinically manifested by cervical dystonia due to disinhibited burst activity of the cephalomotor neurons of the intermediate and deep laminae of the superior colliculus. Abnormal temporal discrimination in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with cervical dystonia represents a subclinical manifestation of defective GABA activity both within the superior colliculus and from the substantia nigra pars reticulata. A number of experiments are required to prove or disprove this hypothesis. PMID:24803911

  14. Onset of complications following cervical manipulation due to malpractice in osteopathic treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cicconi, Michela; Mangiulli, Tatiana; Bolino, Giorgio

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to correlate cervical disc herniation with manipulation performed by a non-physician osteopath on a patient complaining of neck pain. The authors report a case in which a woman - treated with osteopathic spinal manipulation - developed cervical-brachial neuralgia following the cervical disc herniation. The patient then underwent surgery and was followed by physiotherapists. A clinical condition characterized by limitation of neck mobility, with pain and sensory deficit in the right arm and II-III fingers, still persists. The patient consulted the authors to establish whether cervical disc herniation could be attributed to manipulation. Adverse events or side effects of spinal manipulative therapy are relatively common and usually benign. Most of these side effects are mild or moderate, but sometimes they can be severe. Cervical manipulation can provoke complications less often than thoracic or lumbar manipulation. Furthermore, many diseases can be absolutely and relatively contraindicated to osteopathic treatment. Therefore, the knowledge of a patient's clinical conditions is essential before starting a manipulative treatment; otherwise the osteopath could be accused of malpractice. It is the authors' opinion that a cause-effect relationship exists between the manipulative treatment and the development of disc herniation. PMID:24402084

  15. Cervical cancer: a qualitative study on subjectivity, family, gender and health services

    PubMed Central

    Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca E; Tirado-Gómez, Laura L; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro; López-Cervantes, Malaquías

    2007-01-01

    Background In 2002, cervical cancer was one of the leading causes of death in Mexico. Quantitative techniques allowed for the identification of socioeconomic, behavioral and biological characteristics that are part of its etiology. However such characteristics, are inadequate to explain sufficiently the role that emotions, family networks and socially-constructed categories such as gender play in the demand and utilization of health services for cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment and neither the timely undertaking of preventive actions, such as getting a PAP smear or seeking adequate and continuons treatment. Methods A qualitative study was carried out to analyze the role of different social and cultural factors in the timely detection of cervical cancer. As part of a multi-level, multi-method research effort, this particular study was based on individual interviews with women diagnosed with cervical cancer (identified as the "cases"), their female friends and relatives (identified as the "controls") and the cases' husbands. Results The results showed that both: denial and fear are two important components that regulate the behavior of both the women and their partners. Women with a small support network may have limited opportunities for taking action in favor of their own health and wellbeing. Conclusion Women tend not to worry about their health, in general and neither about cervical cancer in particular, as a consequence of their conceptualizations regarding their body and feminine identify – both of which are socially determined. Furthermore, it is necessary to improve the quality of information provided in health services. PMID:17331256

  16. The measurement of tissue interface pressures and changes in jugular venous parameters associated with cervical immobilisation devices: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cervical immobilisation is commonly applied following trauma, particularly blunt head injury, but current methods of immobilisation are associated with significant complications. Semi-rigid disposable cervical collars are known to cause pressure ulcers, and impede effective airway management. These collars may also exacerbate a head injury by increasing intracranial pressure as a result of external compression of the jugular veins. There is a clear imperative to find ways of effectively immobilising the cervical spine whilst minimising complications, and any assessment of existing or new devices should include a standardized approach to the measurement of tissue interface pressures and their effect on jugular venous drainage from the brain. This systematic review summarises the research methods and technologies that have been used to measure tissue interface pressure and assess the jugular vein in the context of cervical immobilisation devices. 27 papers were included and assessed for quality. Laboratory investigations and biomechanical studies have gradually given way to methods that more accurately reflect clinical care. There are numerous accounts of skin ulceration associated with cervical collars, but no standardised approach to measuring tissue interface pressure. It is therefore difficult to compare studies and devices, but a pressure of less than 30 mmHg appears desirable. Cervical collars have been shown to have a compressive effect on the jugular veins, but it is not yet certain that this is the cause of the increased intracranial pressure observed in association with cervical collar use. This is the first review of its type. It will help guide further research in this area of trauma care, and the development and testing of new cervical immobilisation devices. PMID:24299024

  17. Diagnostic performance of HPV E6/E7, hTERT, and Ki67 mRNA RT-qPCR assays on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissue specimens from women with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Geehyuk; Cho, Hyemi; Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Dongsup; Park, Sunyoung; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2015-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, which is the third most common cancer in women. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and Ki67 are tumor cell markers indicating cancer cell proliferation in cancer patients, and activation of hTERT and Ki67 leads to progressive cervical carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the CervicGen HPVE6/E7 mRNA RT-qDx assay, which detects 16 HPV high-risk (HR) genotypes (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68 and 69), and the CervicGen hTERT and Ki67 mRNA RT-qDx assay using 117 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cervical cancer tissue samples. The diagnostic validity of the CervicGen HPV RT-qDx assay for detecting histologically proven prevalent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was 94% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 77.8% positive predictive value (PPV), and 78.9% negative predictive value (NPV). The most common HPV genotypes detected in FFPE cervical cancer tissue samples were HPV 16 (56%) and HPV 18 (10%). The positivity rate of hTERT and Ki67 mRNA expressions in FFPE cervical cancer tissue samples on RT-qPCR was 65% and 93% respectively. Moreover, the positivity rates were 92% for a combination of HPV E6/E7 and hTERT mRNA expressions, 97% for HPV E6/E7 and Ki67 mRNA expressions, and 99% (99/100) for the combination of HPV E6/E7, hTERT, and Ki67 mRNA expressions. These data showed that SSC FFPE cervical cancer tissue samples correlated more strongly with high Ki67 mRNA expressions than with hTERT mRNA expressions. Notably, hTERT and Ki67 mRNA expression level was increased in high-grade cervical lesions, but was very low in normal samples. Our findings suggest that the combination of HPV E6/E7, hTERT, and Ki67 mRNA expression levels could be used in a complementary manner in diagnosing high-grade cervical lesions. Further studies are required to evaluate these assays as a useful predictive tool for screening low-grade cervical lesions. PMID:25835783

  18. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-28

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  19. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-25

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  20. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-17

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  1. Indications and techniques for anterior cervical plating.

    PubMed

    Rhee, John M; Park, Jong-Beom; Yang, Jun-Young; Riew, Daniel K

    2005-12-01

    Anterior cervical plating is commonly performed to stabilize anterior cervical fusions. Modern plating options include dynamic plates, with screws that can either toggle within fixed holes or translate within slotted holes. Regardless of the plating system used, paramount to success and avoidance of complications with plated anterior cervical fusions are meticulous plating techniques, exacting graft carpentry, and understanding the biomechanical limitations of plating in certain situations, such as multilevel corpectomies reconstructed with a single-strut graft. In order to prevent graft-related complications associated with long-strut grafts, additional posterior fixation and fusion, or alternative corpectomy constructs, such as multilevel anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, corpectomy-discectomy, and corpectomy-corpectomy, should be considered instead if the pattern of stenosis allows. PMID:16565534

  2. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePLUS

    ... freeze abnormal cervical tissue, which then sloughs off. • Laser therapy—A focused beam of light is used ... tissue is removed from the cervix. Cryotherapy: A freezing technique used to destroy diseased tissue; also known ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

  4. A qualitative assessment of the social cultural factors that influence cervical cancer screening behaviors and the health communication preferences of women in Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle S

    2014-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in Ghana. Despite the availability of cervical cancer screening in healthcare facilities throughout the country, less than 4 % of Ghanaian women seek preventive cervical cancer screenings regularly. There is a lack of culturally relevant cervical cancer education material available in Ghana. The aims of this study were to assess the social cultural factors that influence cervical cancer screening behaviors and the health communication preferences of Ghanaian women. A focus group guide based on the constructs of the PEN-3 model was used to conduct six focus groups that were stratified by educational attainment. Thirty-four women participated in the study. The qualitative data revealed that most participants were not aware of cervical cancer or cervical cancer screening. However, many of the participants were willing to seek screening if they knew more about it. The most common sources of health information were television, radio, friends, and family. And the participants preferred inspirational cervical-cancer-screening messages that would be delivered by a doctor and a cancer survivor. PMID:24488557

  5. Development of Consensus Educational Materials on HPV & Cervical Cancer for Europe

    Cancer.gov

    1 Development of Development of Consensus Educational Materials Consensus Educational Materials on HPV & Cervical Cancer for Europe on HPV & Cervical Cancer for Europe Philip Davies Philip Davies European Cervical Cancer Association European Cervical

  6. Trampoline Injuries of the Cervical Spine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G. Brown; Mark Lee

    2000-01-01

    Trampolines were responsible for over 6,500 pediatric cervical spine injuries in 1998. This represents a five-fold increase in just 10 years. While most have been minor, paraplegia, quadriplegia and death are all reported. We present 2 cases of trampoline-related cervical spine injury and review the relevant literature. Additionally, we examine the efforts made to reduce the incidence of trampoline injuries,

  7. Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad

    Cancer.gov

    NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cervix coated with dilute acetic acid (vinegar), a process known as VIA. Image depicts cervical cancer microvessel density which increases lethality of the cancer.

  8. Polygenic Control of Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV?I) Provirus Load and the Risk of HTLV?I–Associated Myelopathy\\/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asna Siddiqui; Mike Bunce; Nobutaka Eiraku; Shuji Izumo; Koichiro Usuku; Mitsuhiro Osame

    2002-01-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy\\/tropical spastic para- paresis (HAM\\/TSP) is one outcome of infection with HTLV-I. A population association study of 229 patients with HAM\\/TSP and 202 healthy carriers of HTLV-I in southern Japan showed that this outcome of HTLV-I infection and the HTLV-I provirus load are under polygenic control. Of 58 polymorphic sites studied in 39

  9. Conservative Treatment in Early Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Mousavi, Azamsadat; Gilani, Mitra Modares; Barooti, Esmat; Miratashi-Yazdi, Ashrafosadat; Dehghani, Atefe

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: The aim of this study was to describe fertility preservation methods to improve quality of life of early stages of cervical cancer. Recent finding: Although definite treatment of early stages of cervical cancer including stages IA,IB1 and IIA non-bulky is radial hysterectomy, this method is used in perimenopousal period in which fertility preservation is not important. Whenever fertility preservation is so important, some methods like radical trachelectomy and laparoscopic lymphadenectomy are used to rule out lymphatic metastases. Summary: If any visible lesion on cervix is found, pelvic MRI is helpful and during operation, trachelectomy samples are sent for frozen section and margin study. Radical trachelectomy is done vaginal or abdominal. Overall relapse rate of cervical cancer in radical trachelectomy and radical hysterectomy is the same. Complications of radical trachelectomy include chronic vaginal discharge, abnormal uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, inflammation and ulcer due to cercelage, amenorrhea, cervical stenosis and pregnancy complications following trachelectomy including 2nd trimester abortion and premature labor following cervical prematurity.The best and preferred method of labor is cesarean section. Neoadjuant chemotherapy followed by radical trachelectomy in large cervical lesions is a suitable treatment. Ultraconservative operations like large cold knife conization, simple trachelectomy with laparoscopic lymphadenectomy and sentinel lymph node mapping are suitable for very small lesions. PMID:24170987

  10. I. Cervical dysplasia = abnormal tissue growth n Cervical cancer develops in the

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    in flat, scaly surface cells that line the cervix (called squamous cell carcinomas). Approximately 10-15% of cases develop in glandular surface cells (called adenocarcinomas). Types of Cervical Cancer: Squamous Cell Carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Small Cell Carcinoma #12;11/12/12 2 B. Incidence & Prevelance n Cervical

  11. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Ricciardi, Alessandro; Cohet, Catherine; Palazzo, Fabio; Furnari, Giacomo; Valle, Sabrina; Largeron, Nathalie; Federici, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia) was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively). Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening. PMID:19243586

  12. Increased Fusion Rates With Cervical Plating for Two Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey C. Wang; Paul W. McDonough; Kevin K. Endow; Rick B. Delamarter

    Study Design. A retrospective review of all patients surgically treated with a two-level anterior cervical disc- ectomy and fusion with and without anterior plate fixa- tion by a single surgeon. Objectives. To compare the clinical and radiographic success of two-level discectomy and the effect of anterior cervical plate fixation. Summary of Background Data. Prior studies of multi- segment fusions have

  13. Palliative Occipito-Cervical Stabilization in Patients with Malignant Tumors of the Occipito-Cervical Junction and the Upper Cervical Spine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zimmermann; R. Wolff; A. Raabe; D. Stolke; V. Seifert

    2002-01-01

    Summary.\\u000a Summary.  \\u000a ?\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background:   Occipital-cervical stability may be impaired in patients with primary malignant or metastatic tumors of the cranio-cervical\\u000a junction and the upper cervical spine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate occipital-cervical fixation with prebended\\u000a titanium-loops and sublaminar wiring in order to achieve a rigid and safe stabilisation of the occipito-cervical region in\\u000a this group of patients.

  14. Cervical wedge resection for treatment of pyometra secondary to transluminal cervical adhesions in six mares.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Carolyn E; Brinsko, Steven P; Varner, Dickson D

    2015-06-15

    Case Description-6 mares with pyometra secondary to transluminal cervical adhesions were examined. Clinical Findings-Reasons for hospital admission included infertility (5 mares) and acute colic (1 mare). In the 6 mares, palpation per rectum of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention, and transrectal ultrasonography confirmed the presence of echogenic fluid accumulation within the uterus. Cervical palpation during vaginal speculum examination indicated transluminal cervical adhesions. Three mares had severe distortion of the cervix as a result of diverticula and fibrosis. All 6 mares had a diagnosis of pyometra secondary to transluminal cervical adhesions. Treatment and Outcome-Initially, the cervical adhesions were manually broken down to establish a patent cervical lumen to accommodate a uterine lavage catheter. A sample of the uterine content was obtained for bacteriologic culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the uterus was lavaged with 0.05% povidone-iodine solution to remove the mucopurulent exudate. Once the uterus was evacuated, cervical surgery was performed in standing mares following sedation and caudal epidural anesthesia. A full-thickness wedge-shaped defect was made in the dorsolateral aspect of the cervix that created a permanent opening to the uterus. Postoperative care included applying topical medication to the cervix to reduce the recurrence of adhesion formation. All 6 mares had patent cervices and resolution of pyometra following surgery. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Cervical wedge resection enabled treatment of pyometra in mares with transluminal cervical adhesions, without the need for ovariohysterectomy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;246:1354-1357). PMID:26043134

  15. Changes in Cervical Sagittal Alignment after Single-Level Posterior Percutaneous Endoscopic Cervical Diskectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chi Heon; Shin, Kyung-Hyun; Chung, Chun Kee; Park, Sung Bae; Kim, Jung Hee

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Case series. Objective?Posterior percutaneous endoscopic cervical diskectomy (PECD) can preserve the disk in patients with a foraminal disk herniation. However, progressive angulation at the operated segment is a concern, especially for patients with cervical lordosis?cervical lordosis after posterior PECD was analyzed. Methods?Medical records were reviewed of 32 consecutive patients (22 men, 10 women; mean age, 49?±?12 years) who had single-level foraminal soft disk herniation. The operation levels were as follows: C4–5 in 1 patient, C5–6 in 12, C6–7 in 18, and C7–T1 in 1. All patients were discharged the day after the operation, and neck motion was encouraged. All patients were followed for 30?±?7 months (range, 24 to 46 months), and 21/32 patients (66%) had radiographs taken at 25?±?11 months (range, 12 to 45 months). Radiologic parameters were assessed, including cervical curvature (C2–7), segmental Cobb's angle (SA), and anterior and posterior disk height (AH and PH, respectively) at the operative level. Results?At the last follow-up, 29/32 patients (91%) had no or minimal pain, and 3/32 patients had occasional pain. SA, AH, and PH were not significantly changed. Cervical lordosis?cervical lordosis?cervical curvature changed from ?2.5?±?8.0 to ?11.3?±?9.3 degrees (p?=?0.01). For patients with cervical lordosis???10 degrees, cervical curvature changed from ?17.5?±?5.8 to ?19.9?±?5.7 degrees (p?=?0.24). Conclusions?Cervical curvature does not worsen after posterior PECD. PMID:25648214

  16. Degeneration of Phrenic Motor Neurons Induces Long-Term Diaphragm Deficits following Mid-Cervical Spinal Contusion in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nicaise, Charles; Putatunda, Rajarshi; Hala, Tamara J.; Regan, Kathleen A.; Frank, David M.; Brion, Jean-Pierre; Leroy, Karelle; Pochet, Roland; Wright, Megan C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A primary cause of morbidity and mortality following cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is respiratory compromise, regardless of the level of trauma. In particular, SCI at mid-cervical regions targets degeneration of both descending bulbospinal respiratory axons and cell bodies of phrenic motor neurons, resulting in deficits in the function of the diaphragm, the primary muscle of inspiration. Contusion-type trauma to the cervical spinal cord is one of the most common forms of human SCI; however, few studies have evaluated mid-cervical contusion in animal models or characterized consequent histopathological and functional effects of degeneration of phrenic motor neuron–diaphragm circuitry. We have generated a mouse model of cervical contusion SCI that unilaterally targets both C4 and C5 levels, the location of the phrenic motor neuron pool, and have examined histological and functional outcomes for up to 6 weeks post-injury. We report that phrenic motor neuron loss in cervical spinal cord, phrenic nerve axonal degeneration, and denervation at diaphragm neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) resulted in compromised ipsilateral diaphragm function, as demonstrated by persistent reduction in diaphragm compound muscle action potential amplitudes following phrenic nerve stimulation and abnormalities in spontaneous diaphragm electromyography (EMG) recordings. This injury paradigm is reproducible, does not require ventilatory assistance, and provides proof-of-principle that generation of unilateral cervical contusion is a feasible strategy for modeling diaphragmatic/respiratory deficits in mice. This study and its accompanying analyses pave the way for using transgenic mouse technology to explore the function of specific genes in the pathophysiology of phrenic motor neuron degeneration and respiratory dysfunction following cervical SCI. PMID:23176637

  17. Propriospinal Myoclonus Induced by a Herniated Lumbar Intervertebral Disc at a Young Age: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kwan Su; Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Ho Kook

    2011-01-01

    The cause of propriospinal myoclonus (PSM) is idiopathic. Cervical trauma, ischemic myelopathy secondary to a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula, syringomyelia, Lyme neuroborreliosis, human immunodeficiency virus central nervous system infection, and cervical disc herniation can be the cause of PSM, but lumbar herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) induced PSM has not been reported. We describe a patient who presented with PSM induced by HIVD and was treated with an epidural steroid injection using a transforaminal approach.

  18. [Anesthesia for surgery of degenerative and abnormal cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Béal, J L; Lopin, M C; Binnert, M

    1993-01-01

    A feature common to all congenital or inflammatory abnormalities of the cervical spine is an actual or potential reduction in the lumen of the spinal canal. The spinal cord and nerve roots are at risk. During intubation, and positioning the patient on the table, all untoward movements of the cervical spine may lead to spinal cord compression. Abnormalities of the cervical spine carry the risk of a difficult intubation. If there is much debate as to what constitutes optimum management of the airway, there is no evidence that any one method is the best. Recognizing the possible instability and intubating with care, are probably much more important in preserving neurological function than any particular mode of intubation. During maintenance of anaesthesia, the main goal is to preserve adequate spinal cord perfusion in order to prevent further damage. Spinal cord blood flow seems to be regulated by the same factors as cerebral blood flow. Hypercapnia increases cord blood flow while hypocapnia decreases it. Therefore, normocapnia or mild hypocapnia is recommended. Induced hypotension is frequently used to decrease blood loss. However, in patients with a marginally perfused spinal cord, the reduction in blood flow may cause ischaemia of the spinal cord and may therefore be relatively contraindicated. In addition to standard intraoperative monitoring, spinal cord monitoring is almost mandatory. Monitoring somatosensory evoked potentials is used routinely. However, the major limitation is that this technique only monitors dorsal column function; theoretically, motor paralysis can occur despite a lack of change in recorded signals. Neurogenic motor evoked potentials may now be used to monitor anterior spinal cord integrity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8273927

  19. Human papillomavirus typing of invasive cervical cancers in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Del Mistro, Annarosa; Salamanca, Helena Frayle; Trevisan, Rossana; Bertorelle, Roberta; Parenti, Anna; Bonoldi, Emanuela; Zambon, Paola; Minucci, Daria

    2006-01-01

    Background Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are the necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Of the many different types identified so far, only a few of them account for the great majority of cases worldwide, with geographical differences in their distribution. Data on the local distribution are now of interest in view of the soon-to-come introduction of HPV type-specific prophylactic vaccines. Results We have investigated HPV type distribution in samples of 48 ICC cases occurred in women living in North-East Italy in the years 1997–1999. Cases were extracted from the Venetian Tumour Registry files, as incident cases whose specimens had been processed in two Pathology Departments. Search and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using GP5+/GP6+ primers, followed by direct sequencing or reverse dot blot. Three cases were PCR negative using the housekeeping primers and hence excluded. One case was negative by all HPV tests used. HPV 16 was present in 32 (72.7%) cases, as single infection in 28, in mixed infection in 4. Of the 44 positive cases, HPV 16 and HPV 18 accounted for 33 (75%), as single or mixed infections. The other high risk HPV types accounted for 11 (25%) of the remaining infections. Of the 32 HPV 16 positive cases, sequencing of the E6 gene could be performed in 25; the prototype isolate was identified in 7, and the variant T350G in 18; in 4 cases one or more additional mutations were present. Conclusions Our results suggest that HPV 16 has a very high prevalence among women with invasive cervical cancer in Italy; therefore, the use of a prophylactic vaccine for HPV types 16 and 18 could prevent up to 75% of invasive cervical cancers in Italy. PMID:17192187

  20. A pilot study on the distribution of human papillomavirus genotypes and HPV-16 variants in cervical neoplastic lesions from Ecuadorian women.

    PubMed

    Tornesello, Maria Lina; Buonaguro, Luigi; Izzo, Sergio; Lopez, Guillermo; Vega, Ximena; Maldonado Reyes, Claudio Francisco; Buonaguro, Franco Maria

    2008-11-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the cause of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinomas of the uterine cervix. The distribution of specific HPV genotypes varies greatly across populations and HPV surveys have been performed in different geographical regions in order to apply appropriate vaccine strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the spectrum of HPV genotypes and HPV-16 variants among women with cervical lesions living in Ecuador. A total of 71 cases have been analyzed, including 32 chronic cervicitis, 29 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1, and 10 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2-3. HPV sequences were detected by broad spectrum consensus-primer-pairs MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+-based polymerase chain reaction and characterized by nucleotide sequence analysis. Overall, 31 (43.7%) cases were HPV positive with prevalence rates of 37.5%, 44.8%, and 60% in patients with chronic cervicitis, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2-3, respectively. Among the positive cases, the most common genotypes were HPV 16 (64.5%) and HPV 81 (29%) followed by HPV 31, 53, 56, and 58, in descending order of prevalence. Seventeen (85%) HPV-16 isolates were classified as European and three (15%) as African-1 variant on the basis of nucleotide signature present within the MY09/MY11 L1 sequence. The results suggest that HPV 16 has a very high prevalence among women with cervical lesions in Ecuador; therefore, an effective HPV-16 based vaccine should prevent the development of cervical cancer in a large proportion of Ecuadorian women. PMID:18814248

  1. Understanding the Low Level of Cervical Cancer Screening in Masaka Uganda Using the ASE Model: A Community-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Twinomujuni, Cyprian; Nuwaha, Fred; Babirye, Juliet Ndimwibo

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths among women globally and its impact is mostly felt in developing countries like Uganda where its prevalence is higher and utilization of cancer screening services is low. This study aimed to identify factors associated with intention to screen for cervical cancer among women of reproductive age in Masaka Uganda using the attitude, social influence and self efficacy (ASE) model. A descriptive community based survey was conducted among 416 women. A semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were computed using a generalized linear model with Poisson family and a log link using STATA 12. Only 7% (29/416) of our study respondents had ever screened for cervical cancer although a higher proportion (63%, 262/416) reported intention to screen for cervical cancer. The intention to screen for cervical cancer was higher among those who said they were at risk of developing cervical cancer (Adjusted prevalence ratio [PR] 2.0, 95% CI 1.60–2.58), those who said they would refer other women for screening (Adjusted PR 1.4, 95% CI 1.06–1.88) and higher among those who were unafraid of being diagnosed with cervical cancer (Adjusted PR 1.6, 95% CI 1.36–1.93). Those who reported discussions on cervical cancer with health care providers (Adjusted PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.05–1.44), those living with a sexual partner (Adjusted PR 1.4, 95% CI 1.11–1.68), and those who were formally employed (Adjusted PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.03–1.35) more frequently reported intention to screen for cervical cancer. In conclusion, health education to increase risk perception, improve women's attitudes towards screening for cervical cancer and address the fears held by the women would increase intention to screen for cervical cancer. Interventions should also target increased discussions with health workers. PMID:26030869

  2. Anesthetic Implications of Chronic Disease of the Cervical Spine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL D. POPITZ

    1998-01-01

    nderstanding the anatomy of the cervical spine and its anatomical relationships to the airway has daily importance to the anesthesiologist. Particularly important considerations include the con- tribution of chronic abnormalities of the cervical spine to the \\

  3. Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Early Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED)

    Cancer.gov

    A study to comprehensively assess biomarkers of risk for progressive cervical neoplasia, and thus develop a new set of biomarkers that can distinguish those at highest risk of cervical cancer from those with benign infection

  4. What Are the Key Statistics about Cervical Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... factors for cervical cancer? What are the key statistics about cervical cancer? The American Cancer Society's estimates ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

  5. Raman spectroscopic characterization on cervical neoplasm in biopsy direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hsiao Hsin; Tsai, Yan Sheng; Wang, Tao Yuan; Chu, Shou Chia; Chiang, Huihua Kenny

    2007-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy was applied to distinguish the spectroscopic information between normal cervical tissues (14) and cervical neoplasia (17), including low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (6) and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (11). Standard pathological sections of these cervical tissues were measured from superficial to stroma layers. We have normalized significant Raman peaks, 1250 and 1579-1656 cm -1 by taking a ratio over a stationary Raman at 1004 cm -1, and successfully discriminated between normal and neoplasm cervical tissues.

  6. The cervical cap as a barrier contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Cagen, R

    1986-05-01

    This report covers the 1st 4 years (beginning in 1984) of a Food and Drug Administration-approved study of use of the cervical cap as a contraceptive device. The cap used in this study is the Prentif Cavity-Rim Cervical Cap. 620 women were issued cervical caps. They ranged in age from 16 to 43 years. 97.7% had attained a high school diploma and 57.3% had at least an undergraduate college education. Each woman was instructed carefully on proper placement and use of the cervical cap. Terminal problems appear most frequently during the 1st 9 months of cap usage. Terminal problems most frequently mentioned include 1) unplanned pregnancy, 2) partner discomfort, 3) dislodgement and 4) lack of confidence. Out of 620 women, there were 92 unplanned pregnancies during the 4-year period. At least 45 of 86 pregnancies were associated with user failure (6 of the 92 were not sure whether their pregnancies occurred before or after being fitted for the cap.). 4 of the 620 developed an abnormal Papanicolaou smear. This figure is within the expected range of women in any sample who would develop an abnormal Papanicolaou smear. Odor was the most frequently mentioned problem (2.9%). 80.53% of the participants continued to use the cervical cap after 1 year. Comfort and convenience were 2 positive reasons mentioned for continuing use of the cap. Motivation is the most important factor associated with the success of the cap. PMID:3757513

  7. Biomechanical analysis of the anterior cervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P C; Fernandes, P R; Folgado, J O; Levy Melancia, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a biomechanical analysis of the cervical C5-C6 functional spine unit before and after the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. The aim of this work is to study the influence of the medical procedure and its instrumentation on range of motion and stress distribution. First, a three-dimensional finite element model of the lower cervical spine is obtained from computed tomography images using a pipeline of image processing, geometric modelling and mesh generation software. Then, a finite element study of parameters' influence on motion and a stress analysis at physiological and different post-operative scenarios were made for the basic movements of the cervical spine. It was confirmed that the results were very sensitive to intervertebral disc properties. The insertion of an anterior cervical plate influenced the stress distribution at the vertebral level as well as in the bone graft. Additionally, stress values in the graft decreased when it is used together with a cage. PMID:21806410

  8. Landscape of Genomic Alterations in Cervical Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Freeman, Samuel S.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Imaz-Rosshandler, Ivan; Pugh, Trevor J.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Ambrogio, Lauren; Cibulskis, Kristian; Bertelsen, Bjørn; Romero-Cordoba, Sandra; Treviño, Victor; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla; Guadarrama, Alberto Salido; Wright, Alexi A.; Rosenberg, Mara W.; Duke, Fujiko; Kaplan, Bethany; Wang, Rui; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Walline, Heather M.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Stewart, Chip; Carter, Scott L.; McKenna, Aaron; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P.; Espinosa-Castilla, Magali; Woie, Kathrine; Bjorge, Line; Wik, Elisabeth; Halle, Mari K.; Hoivik, Erling A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Gabiño, Nayeli Belem; Gómez-Macías, Gabriela Sofia; Valdez-Chapa, Lezmes D.; Garza-Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Maytorena, German; Vazquez, Jorge; Rodea, Carlos; Cravioto, Adrian; Cortes, Maria L.; Greulich, Heidi; Crum, Christopher P.; Neuberg, Donna S.; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Escareno, Claudia Rangel; Akslen, Lars A.; Carey, Thomas E.; Vintermyr, Olav K.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A.; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Getz, Gad; Salvesen, Helga B.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is responsible for 10–15% of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide1,2. The etiological role of infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV) in cervical carcinomas is well established3. Previous studies have implicated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53, STK11 and KRAS4–7 as well as several copy number alterations in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas8,9. Here, we report whole exome sequencing analysis of 115 cervical carcinoma-normal paired samples, transcriptome sequencing of 79 cases and whole genome sequencing of 14 tumor-normal pairs. Novel somatic mutations in 79 primary squamous cell carcinomas include recurrent E322K substitutions in the MAPK1 gene (8%), inactivating mutations in the HLA-B gene (9%), and mutations in EP300 (16%), FBXW7 (15%), NFE2L2 (4%) TP53 (5%) and ERBB2 (6%). We also observed somatic ELF3 (13%) and CBFB (8%) mutations in 24 adenocarcinomas. Squamous cell carcinomas had higher frequencies of somatic mutations in the Tp*C dinucleotide context than adenocarcinomas. Gene expression levels at HPV integration sites were significantly higher in tumors with HPV integration compared with expression of the same genes in tumors without viral integration at the same site. These data demonstrate several recurrent genomic alterations in cervical carcinomas that suggest novel strategies to combat this disease. PMID:24390348

  9. Emerging Biological Treatments for Uterine Cervical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vici, Patrizia; Mariani, Luciano; Pizzuti, Laura; Sergi, Domenico; Di Lauro, Luigi; Vizza, Enrico; Tomao, Federica; Tomao, Silverio; Mancini, Emanuela; Vincenzoni, Cristina; Barba, Maddalena; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Giovinazzo, Giuseppe; Venuti, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies is a major interest for public health. Cisplatin, in combination with external beam irradiation for locally advanced disease, or as monotherapy for recurrent/metastatic disease, has been the cornerstone of treatment for more than two decades. Other investigated cytotoxic therapies include paclitaxel, ifosfamide and topotecan, as single agents or in combination, revealing unsatisfactory results. In recent years, much effort has been made towards evaluating new drugs and developing innovative therapies to treat cervical cancer. Among the most investigated molecular targets are epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathways, both playing a critical role in cervical cancer development. Studies with bevacizumab or VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase have given encouraging results in terms of clinical efficacy, without adding significant toxicity. A great number of other molecular agents targeting critical pathways in cervical malignant transformation are being evaluated in preclinical and clinical trials, reporting preliminary promising data. In the current review, we discuss novel therapeutic strategies which are being investigated for the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. PMID:24494026

  10. New highly potent and specific E6 and E7 siRNAs for treatment of HPV16 positive cervical cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Yamato; T Yamada; M Kizaki; K Ui-Tei; Y Natori; M Fujino; T Nishihara; Y Ikeda; Y Nasu; K Saigo; M Yoshinouchi

    2008-01-01

    Persistent infection by high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer, with HPV16 the most prevalent, accounting for more than 50% of reported cases. The virus encodes the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, whose expression is essential for maintenance of the malignant phenotype. To select efficacious siRNAs applicable to RNAi therapy for patients with HPV16+ cervical

  11. Human Papillomavirus type distribution in invasive cervical cancer in Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Odida; Silvia de Sanjosé; Wim Quint; Xavier F Bosch; Joellen Klaustermeier; Elisabete Weiderpass

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a study aiming to describe Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in invasive cervical carcinoma in Uganda. METHODS: 191 archival cervical carcinoma samples diagnosed in the Department of Pathology, Makerere University in Kampala between 1968 and 1992 were analysed using a sensitive PCR-Reverse Hybridization Line Probe Assay. RESULTS: Out of the 186 cases of confirmed invasive cervical cancer

  12. Neurological and Osteological Definitions of Cervical Vertebrae in Mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. B. Giffin; M. Gillett

    1996-01-01

    The presence of seven cervical vertebrae is an almost universal mammalian trait. The posterior boundary of the cervical series is traditionally defined osteologically, but its location is also predictable using neurological markers of the brachial plexus. The existence of three living mammalian genera with osteologi-cally defined cervical counts other than seven offers the opportunity to examine the coincidence of osteological

  13. Computed tomography in cervical disc disease when myelography is unsatisfactory.

    PubMed

    Fon, G T; Sage, M R

    1984-01-01

    Water-soluble contrast media have replaced myodil for cervical myelography. In the presence of significant degenerative disease, the normal cervical lordotic curve may be decreased, straightened or even reversed, making it impossible to 'pool' sufficient contrast medium in this region. In such cases, third generation computed tomography is invaluable in confirming or excluding the presence of cervical disc protrusion. PMID:6690181

  14. An Historical Look at a Contemporary Question: The Cervical Cap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmet, Judy A.; Reagan, Patricia A.

    1986-01-01

    The history of the use of cervical caps as a birth control method is recounted in the areas of (1) revival of the cervical cap; (2) repopularization of the cervical cap; (3) empirical research; (4) nonbehavioral factors; (5) behavioral problems; and (6) health problems. (CB)

  15. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Risk for cervical cancer may depend on human papillomavirus (HPV) subtype, viral load in cervical tissue, and the persistence of infection. The risk of cervical cancer due to HPV infection may be modified by an individual's genetics, specifically, a group of alleles that code for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA).

  16. Analysis of the cervical spine alignment following laminoplasty and laminectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunji Matsunaga; Takashi Sakou; Kenji Nakanisi

    1999-01-01

    Very little detailed biomechanical examination of the alignment of the cervical spine following laminoplasty has been reported. We performed a comparative study regarding the buckling-type alignment that follows laminoplasty and laminectomy to know the mechanical changes in the alignment of the cervical spine. Lateral images of plain roentgenograms of the cervical spine were put into a computer and examined using

  17. Evaluation of cervical conization as a definitive treatment for microinvasive cervical carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriko Takeda; Takahiro Suzuki; Miwa Suzuki; Motoki Matsuura; Ryoichi Tanaka; Miho Fujii; Eiki Ito; Tsuyoshi Saito

    Purpose  The aim of the study was to evaluate disease persistence after conization of CIN3 and microinvasive cervical carcinoma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Medical records from a total of 231 patients were reviewed. The prevalence of CIN3 and cervical carcinoma diagnosed by means\\u000a of conization were analyzed. All conizations were performed under lumbar anesthesia using a laser technique.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Of the 231 patients, 25 had margin

  18. Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Intact Human Cervical Spine Ligaments

    PubMed Central

    Ivancic, Paul C.; Coe, Marcus P.; Ndu, Anthony B.; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Carlson, Erik J.; Rubin, Wolfgang; (FH), Dipl-Ing; Panjabi, Manohar M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT Most previous studies have investigated ligaments mechanical properties at slow elongation rates of less than 25 mm/s. PURPOSE To determine the tensile mechanical properties, at a fast elongation rate, of intact human cervical anterior and posterior longitudinal, capsular, and interspinous and supraspinous ligaments, middle-third disc, and ligamentum flavum. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING In vitro biomechanical study. METHODS A total of 97 intact bone-ligament-bone specimens (C2–C3 to C7-T1) were prepared from six cervical spines (average age: 80.6 years, range, 71 to 92 years) and were elongated to complete rupture at an average (SD) peak rate of 723 (106) mm/s using a custom-built apparatus. Non-linear force vs. elongation curves were plotted and peak force, peak elongation, peak energy, and stiffness were statistically compared (P<0.05) among ligament. A mathematical model was developed to determine the quasi-static physiological ligament elongation. RESULTS Highest average peak force, up to 244.4 and 220.0 N in the ligamentum flavum and capsular ligament, respectively, were significantly greater than in the anterior longitudinal ligament and middle-third disc. Highest peak elongation reached 5.9 mm in the intraspinous and supraspinous ligaments, significantly greater than in the middle-third disc. Highest peak energy of 0.57 J was attained in the capsular ligament, significantly greater than in the anterior longitudinal ligament and middle-third disc. Average stiffness was generally greatest in the ligamentum flavum and least in the intraspinous and supraspinous ligaments. For all ligaments, peak elongation was greater than average physiological elongation computed using the mathematical model. CONCLUSIONS Comparison of the present results with previously reported data indicated that high speed elongation may cause cervical ligaments to fail at a higher peak force and smaller peak elongation and may be stiffer and absorb less energy, as compared to a slow elongation rate. These comparisons may be useful to clinicians for diagnosing cervical ligament injuries based upon the specific trauma. PMID:17998125

  19. Primary human cervical carcinoma cells require human papillomavirus E6 and E7 expression for ongoing proliferation.

    PubMed

    Magaldi, Thomas G; Almstead, Laura L; Bellone, Stefania; Prevatt, Edward G; Santin, Alessandro D; DiMaio, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Repression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in established cervical carcinoma cell lines causes senescence due to reactivation of cellular tumor suppressor pathways. Here, we determined whether ongoing expression of HPV16 or HPV18 oncogenes is required for the proliferation of primary human cervical carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions at low passage number after isolation from patients. We used an SV40 viral vector expressing the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein to repress E6 and E7 in these cells. To enable efficient SV40 infection and E2 gene delivery, we first incubated the primary cervical cancer cells with the ganglioside GM1, a cell-surface receptor for SV40 that is limiting in these cells. Repression of HPV in primary cervical carcinoma cells caused them to undergo senescence, but the E2 protein had little effect on HPV-negative primary cells. These data suggest that E6 and E7 dependence is an inherent property of human cervical cancer cells. PMID:22056390

  20. Primary human cervical carcinoma cells require human papillomavirus E6 and E7 expression for ongoing proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Magaldi, Thomas G.; Almstead, Laura L. [Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208005, New Haven, CT 06520-8005 (United States)] [Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208005, New Haven, CT 06520-8005 (United States); Bellone, Stefania [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208063, New Haven, CT 06520-8063 (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208063, New Haven, CT 06520-8063 (United States); Prevatt, Edward G. [Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208005, New Haven, CT 06520-8005 (United States)] [Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208005, New Haven, CT 06520-8005 (United States); Santin, Alessandro D. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208063, New Haven, CT 06520-8063 (United States) [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208063, New Haven, CT 06520-8063 (United States); Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, P.O. Box 208028, New Haven, CT 06520-8028 (United States); DiMaio, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.dimaio@yale.edu [Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208005, New Haven, CT 06520-8005 (United States) [Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208005, New Haven, CT 06520-8005 (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208040, New Haven, CT 06520-8040 (United States); Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208024 (United States); Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, P.O. Box 208028, New Haven, CT 06520-8028 (United States)

    2012-01-05

    Repression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in established cervical carcinoma cell lines causes senescence due to reactivation of cellular tumor suppressor pathways. Here, we determined whether ongoing expression of HPV16 or HPV18 oncogenes is required for the proliferation of primary human cervical carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions at low passage number after isolation from patients. We used an SV40 viral vector expressing the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein to repress E6 and E7 in these cells. To enable efficient SV40 infection and E2 gene delivery, we first incubated the primary cervical cancer cells with the ganglioside GM1, a cell-surface receptor for SV40 that is limiting in these cells. Repression of HPV in primary cervical carcinoma cells caused them to undergo senescence, but the E2 protein had little effect on HPV-negative primary cells. These data suggest that E6 and E7 dependence is an inherent property of human cervical cancer cells.

  1. Whiplash-associated chronic headache treated with home cervical traction.

    PubMed

    Olson, V L

    1997-04-01

    The subject of this case report was a 56-year-old woman who sustained a whiplash-associated disorder as a result of a motor vehicle accident. Within a few hours after the accident, she developed a headache, which became chronic, creating disability and hindering the quality of her life. In the following year, a variety of diagnostic tests, medications, and physical therapy were unsuccessful in determining the cause of her complaints or in relieving them. After this year, she expressed anger, frustration, and a reluctance to undergo additional physical therapy. By listening to her explain how she coped with her problem and observing that she lacked the ability to reduce her cervical lordosis, the therapist developed and implemented a home program of supine cervical traction and exercise. After 30 days of treatment, she was able to reduce and control her headache. This treatment and the approach used to develop the treatment may benefit other patients who have whiplash-associated chronic headache. PMID:9105344

  2. Pain Relief in Cervical Dystonia with Botulinum Toxin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ferreira; Cattai, Lígia; Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni

    2015-01-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by intermittent or sustained muscle contractions that cause abnormal, usually repetitive, movements and postures. Dystonic movements can be tremulous and twisting and often follow a pattern. They are frequently associated with overflow muscle activation and may be triggered or worsened by voluntary action. Most voluntary muscles can be affected and, in the case of the neck muscles, the condition is referred to as cervical dystonia (CD), the most common form of dystonia. The high incidence of pain distinguishes CD from other focal dystonias and contributes significantly to patient disability and low quality of life. Different degrees of pain in the cervical region are reported by more than 60% of patients, and pain intensity is directly related to disease severity. Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is currently considered the treatment of choice for CD and can lead to an improvement in pain and dystonic symptoms in up to 90% of patients. The results for BoNT/A and BoNT/B are similar. The complex relationship between pain and dystonia has resulted in a large number of studies and more comprehensive assessments of dystonic patients. When planning the application of BoNT, pain should be a key factor in the choice of muscles and doses. In conclusion, BoNT is highly effective in controlling pain, and its analgesic effect is sustained for a long time in most CD patients. PMID:26110508

  3. Cervical Meningomyelitis After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon-Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are a common treatment for back pain management. ESI-related complications have increased with the growing number of procedures. We report a case of cervical meningomyelitis followed by multiple lumbar ESI. A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus presented to our hospital with severe neck pain. He had a history of multiple lumbar injections from a local pain clinic. After admission, high fever and elevated inflammatory values were detected. L-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hematoma in the S1 epidural space. Antibiotic treatment began under the diagnosis of a lumbar epidural abscess. Despite the treatment, he started to complain of weakness in both lower extremities. Three days later, the weakness progressed to both upper extremities. C-spine MRI revealed cervical leptomeningeal enhancement in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Removal of the epidural abscess was performed, but there was no neurological improvement.

  4. Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems. PMID:24131497

  5. Preoperative Embolization of Cervical Spine Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Sylvia C.; Strecker, Ernst-Peter [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Diakonissenkrankenhaus, Diakonissenstrasse 28, D-76199 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ackermann, Ludwig W.; Harms, Juergen [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Klinikum Karlsbad-Langensteinbach Guttmannstrasse 1, D-76307 Karlsbad (Germany)

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the technical success rate, complications, and effect on intraoperative blood loss of preoperative transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with tumors of the cervical spine; 69 vertebrae were affected. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, coils, gelfoam particles, either alone or in combination, were used for preoperative tumor embolization. After embolization a total of 57 corporectomies with titanium basket implantation were performed. Results: In 36 of 38 patients, complete (n= 27) or partial (n= 9) embolization was achieved. In 23 patients one vertebral artery was completely occluded by coil placement, and in one patient the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries were occluded in addition. No neurological complications could be directly related to the embolization, but two postoperative brain stem infarctions occurred. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2.4 L. Conclusion: Transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors is a safe and effective procedure to facilitate extensive surgery.

  6. Correlation between ebv co-infection and HPV16 genome integrity in Tunisian cervical cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kahla, Saloua; Oueslati, Sarra; Achour, Mongia; Kochbati, Lotfi; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis; Maalej, Mongi; Oueslati, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    Infection with high risk Human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is necessary but not sufficient to cause cervical carcinoma. This study explored whether multiple HR-HPV or coinfection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) influence the integration status of HPV16 genome. The presence and typing of HPV in a series of 125 cervical specimens were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the specific primers for the HPV L1 region. As for EBV infection, the viral EBNA1 gene was used for its detection through PCR amplification. Disruption of the HPV E2 gene was assessed by amplification of the entire E2 gene with single set of primers, while E2 transcripts were evaluated by a reverse transcription PCR method (RT-PCR). The overall prevalence of HPVDNA was of 81.8% in cervical cancers versus 26.9% in benign lesions. In HPV positive cases, HPV16 and HPV18 were the most prevalent types, followed by HPV types 33, 31. EBV EBNA1 prevalence was statistically more frequent in cervical carcinomas than in benign lesions (29.5%, vs 9.6%; P=0.01). No viral infection was detected in healthy control women. The uninterrupted E2 gene was correlated with the presence of E2 transcripts originating from the HPV episomal forms. It was observed that integration was more common in HPV18 and EBV coinfection. The presence of EBV caused a five-fold [OR= 5; CI= 1.15-21.8; P = 0.04] increase in the risk of HPV16 genome integration in the host genome. This study indicates that EBV infection is acting as a cofactor for induction of cervical cancer by favoring HPVDNA integration. PMID:24031886

  7. Clinical features of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in northeast Iran.

    PubMed

    Shoeibi, Ali; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Azarpazhooh, Amir; Mokhber, Naghme; Hedayati-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Amin; Hashemi, Peyman; Foroghipour, Mohsen; Hoseini, Reza Farid; Bazarbachi, Ali; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to introduce clinical manifestations of patients in northeast Iran with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and describe the epidemiological features, as well as risk factors for HTLV-1 infection. This is a cross-sectional study of HTLV-1 infected cases and HAM/TSP patients referred by outpatient neurology clinics as well as Mashhad Blood Transfusion Center from 2005 to 2010. The study comprises 513 cases, including 358 healthy carriers (HCs) and 145 HAM/TSP patients. The majority of carriers were male (73.5%), whereas 67.6% of HAM/TSP sufferers were female (P < 0.001). The mean age of HAM/TSP patients and HCs was 45.9 ± 13.6 and 39.5 ± 11.58 years, respectively (P < 0.001). The history of transfusion, surgery, hospitalization and cupping was observed in a significant greater number of HAM/TSP patients than the HCs (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P = 0.029, respectively). Gait disturbance was the most common complaint in HAM/TSP patients (72.4%). This research develops an HTLV-1 data registry in an endemic area such as Mashhad which can serve useful purposes, including evaluation of clinical and laboratory characteristics of HAM/TSP patients and epidemiological data of HTLV-1-infected cases. PMID:23568138

  8. Tax mutation associated with tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-cell leukemia virus type I-associated myelopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Renjifo, B; Borrero, I; Essex, M

    1995-01-01

    Tumaco, Colombia, is an area with elevated rates of tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). We have identified a mutation in nucleotide 7959 of the tax gene of 14 Tumaco HTLV-I isolates (14 positive of 14 tested) that was present in 5 of 14 (35%) TSP/HAM patients from Japan and in 8 of 11 (72%) TSP/HAM patients from other geographic locations. In contrast, this mutation was found in only 2 of 21 (9.5%) HTLV-I-infected subjects outside of Tumaco who did not have TSP/HAM. tax clones with nucleotide mutations including one at nucleotide 7959 showed a greater ability to transactivate the HTLV-I U3 promoter. However, this effect was not observed when two clones that differed only in nucleotide 7959 were compared. These results suggest that HTLV-I-infected individuals carrying isolates with this tax mutation are at higher risk for developing TSP/HAM. PMID:7884912

  9. HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in Brazil: a nationwide survey. HAM/TSP Brazilian Study Group.

    PubMed

    Araújo, A Q; Andrade-Filho, A S; Castro-Costa, C M; Menna-Barreto, M; Almeida, S M

    1998-12-15

    To study the epidemiology of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in Brazil, we conducted a nationwide survey between March 1994 and April 1995. Five centers from three regions of the country participated, enrolling 163 patients. Most patients came from the northeastern and southeastern regions (93.2%). Most enrollees were white women, 42.9% and 64.4%, respectively. The most common risk factors for infection included a history of venereal diseases (30.6%) and blood transfusion (21.6%). The median age at the beginning of the disease was 42 years. The main neurologic findings were spastic paraparesis, widespread brisk tendon jerks, bilateral Babinski's sign, and bladder dysfunction. Some interregional differences reached statistical significance. The ratio of females over males increased from south to north. In addition, in both southern and southeastern regions, whites prevailed, whereas in the northeast, mulattos predominated. This follows the normal distribution of the population in these regions. A significantly higher rate of venereal diseases was found in the southeast compared with the other regions studied. A history of intravenous drug use was more frequent among patients as the sample moves south. Finally, a fluctuating course of the disease was proportionally more frequent in the southern region. PMID:9859969

  10. Physiotherapy for human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated myelopathy: review of the literature and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sá, Katia N; Macêdo, Maíra C; Andrade, Rosana P; Mendes, Selena D; Martins, José V; Baptista, Abrahão F

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) infection may be associated with damage to the spinal cord - HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis - and other neurological symptoms that compromise everyday life activities. There is no cure for this disease, but recent evidence suggests that physiotherapy may help individuals with the infection, although, as far as we are aware, no systematic review has approached this topic. Therefore, the objective of this review is to address the core problems associated with HTLV-1 infection that can be detected and treated by physiotherapy, present the results of clinical trials, and discuss perspectives on the development of knowledge in this area. Major problems for individuals with HTLV-1 are pain, sensory-motor dysfunction, and urinary symptoms. All of these have high impact on quality of life, and recent clinical trials involving exercises, electrotherapeutic modalities, and massage have shown promising effects. Although not influencing the basic pathologic disturbances, a physiotherapeutic approach seems to be useful to detect specific problems related to body structures, activity, and participation related to movement in HTLV-1 infection, as well as to treat these conditions. PMID:25759588

  11. [A case of acute progressive myelopathy due to intravascular large B cell lymphoma diagnosed with only random skin biopsy].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hidekazu; Imai, Keisuke; Hamanaka, Masashi; Yamada, Takehiro; Tsuto, Kazuma; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Tsutumi, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A 64-year old woman was admitted to our hospital with subacute onset paraparesis and sensory disturbance at a level below Th10. Spinal MRI showed a T2 weighted high-signal intensity lesion at a level from Th5 to Th12, and an abdominal CT showed a mass in the left kidney. Her paraparesis deteriorated rapidly, and administration of high dose methyl prednisolone followed by oral steroid therapy was started before obtaining of a definitive diagnosis. However her symptoms did not improve after the beginning of treatment. At the same time, a bone marrow puncture, and biopsies from kidney and spinal cord were performed. These biopsies demonstrated no clues, diagnostically. Therefore a random skin biopsy was performed at the five sites on the 17th day after the steroid dosage end. From this, pathological evidence of intravascular large B cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) was shown. For rapid diagnosis of acute myelopathy with mass lesion of another organ due to IVLBCL, a biopsy is taken not only from spinal cord or mass lesions, but is also taken of multiple sites in skin randomly. This must be performed without a delay before a sudden deterioration of neurologic symptoms can occur from ischemic events not responsive to steroid therapy. PMID:25746076

  12. Physiotherapy for human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated myelopathy: review of the literature and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Katia N; Macêdo, Maíra C; Andrade, Rosana P; Mendes, Selena D; Martins, José V; Baptista, Abrahão F

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) infection may be associated with damage to the spinal cord – HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis – and other neurological symptoms that compromise everyday life activities. There is no cure for this disease, but recent evidence suggests that physiotherapy may help individuals with the infection, although, as far as we are aware, no systematic review has approached this topic. Therefore, the objective of this review is to address the core problems associated with HTLV-1 infection that can be detected and treated by physiotherapy, present the results of clinical trials, and discuss perspectives on the development of knowledge in this area. Major problems for individuals with HTLV-1 are pain, sensory-motor dysfunction, and urinary symptoms. All of these have high impact on quality of life, and recent clinical trials involving exercises, electrotherapeutic modalities, and massage have shown promising effects. Although not influencing the basic pathologic disturbances, a physiotherapeutic approach seems to be useful to detect specific problems related to body structures, activity, and participation related to movement in HTLV-1 infection, as well as to treat these conditions. PMID:25759588

  13. Descriptive Epidemiology of Cervical Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Defazio, Giovanni; Jankovic, Joseph; Giel, Jennifer L.; Papapetropoulos, Spyridon

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical dystonia (CD), the most common form of adult-onset focal dystonia, has a heterogeneous clinical presentation with variable clinical features, leading to difficulties and delays in diagnosis. Owing to the lack of reviews specifically focusing on the frequency of primary CD in the general population, we performed a systematic literature search to examine its prevalence/incidence and analyze methodological differences among studies. Methods We performed a systematic literature search to examine the prevalence data of primary focal CD. Sixteen articles met our methodological criteria. Because the reported prevalence estimates were found to vary widely across studies, we analyzed methodological differences and other factors to determine whether true differences exist in prevalence rates among geographic areas (and by gender and age distributions), as well as to facilitate recommendations for future studies. Results Prevalence estimates ranged from 20–4,100?cases/million. Generally, studies that relied on service-based and record-linkage system data likely underestimated the prevalence of CD, whereas population-based studies suffered from over-ascertainment. The more methodologically robust studies yielded a range of estimates of 28–183?cases/million. Despite the varying prevalence estimates, an approximate 2:1 female:male ratio was consistent among many studies. Three studies estimated incidence, ranging from 8–12 cases/million person-years. Discussion Although several studies have attempted to estimate the prevalence and incidence of CD, there is a need for additional well-designed epidemiological studies on primary CD that include large populations; use defined CD diagnostic criteria; and stratify for factors such as age, gender, and ethnicity. PMID:24255801

  14. Cervical intramedullary schwannoma mimicking a glioma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ankush; Nair, Bijesh Ravindran; Chacko, Geeta; Mani, Sunithi; Joseph, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a cervical intramedullary schwannoma (IS), which resembled a glioma on radiology. Somatic and root pain, the most common presenting complaints of IS, were lacking in our patient, and the characteristic magnetic resonance finding of an enhancing thickened nerve root in IS, was absent in our case. Preoperative diagnosis of a cervical IS is not always possible. Complete tumor resection is the ideal treatment for IS. Intraoperative frozen section can be a useful for decision making though the tumor-cord plane will ultimately decide if the tumor can be radically excised. PMID:25767576

  15. AAC11 Overexpression Induces Invasion and Protects Cervical Cancer Cells from Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Woo Kim; Hyun Suk Cho; Jeong Hyun Kim; Soo Young Hur; Tae Eung Kim; Joon Mo Lee; In-Kyung Kim; Sung Eun Namkoong

    2000-01-01

    To identify the genes involved in cervical carcinogenesis, we applied the mRNA differential display (DD) method to analyze normal cervical tissue, cervical cancer, metastatic lymph node, and cervical cancer cell line. We cloned a 491-bp cDNA fragment, CC231, which was present in metastatic tissue and cervical cancer cell line, but absent in normal cervical and cervical cancer tissues. The 491

  16. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    This study explores the cervical cancer-related knowledge and behaviors of mothers and the potential of the mother-daughter relationship using daughter-initiated cervical cancer prevention in South Africa. The relationship has implications for effecting intergenerational prevention behavior for cervical cancer. This study will contribute formative data towards a better understanding of the potential of daughters to serve as advocates to promote cervical cancer screening with their mothers in order to develop effective and innovative methods to promote screening for cervical cancer.

  17. Human papillomavirus types 52 and 58 are prevalent in uterine cervical squamous lesions from Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Kazuhiro; Toda, Tamaki; Nishimura, Toshinao; Sakane, Junichi; Kawakami, Yosuke; Mizunoe, Tomoya; Nishiwaki, Morie; Taniyama, Kiyomi

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To estimate the prevalence and genotypes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) focusing HPV 16, 18, 52, and 58 in Japan. Methods. Liquid-base cytology specimens were collected from Japanese women (n = 11022), aged 14-98. After classifying cytodiagnosis, specimens were analyzed for HPV DNA by the multiplex polymerase chain reaction method, where 1195 specimens were positive for cervical smear, except adenomatous lesions. Result. HPV genotypes were detected in 9.5% of NILM and 72.2% of ASC-US or more cervical lesions. In positive cervical smears, HPV genotypes were HPV 52 at 26.6%, HPV 16 at 25.2%, HPV 58 at 21.8%, and HPV 18 at 7.1%. Most patients infected with HPV 16 were between 20-29 years old, decreasing with age thereafter. As for HPV 52 and 58, although the detection rate was high in 30- to 39-year-olds, it also was significant in the 50s and 60s age groups. Conclusion. In Japan, as a cause of abnormal cervical cytology, HPV52 and 58 are detected frequently in addition to HPV 16. In older age groups, HPV 52 and 58 detection rates were higher than that observed for HPV 16. After widespread current HPV vaccination, we still must be aware of HPV 52 and 58 infections. PMID:21660229

  18. Assessment of parturition with cervical light-induced fluorescence and uterine electromyography.

    PubMed

    Lucovnik, Miha; Kuon, Ruben J; Garfield, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Parturition involves increasing compliance (ripening) of the uterine cervix and activation of the myometrium. These processes take place in a different time frame. Softening and shortening of the cervix starts in midpregnancy, while myometrial activation occurs relatively close to delivery. Methods currently available to clinicians to assess cervical and myometrial changes are subjective and inaccurate, which often causes misjudgments with potentially adverse consequences. The inability to reliably diagnose true preterm labor leads to unnecessary treatments, missed opportunities to improve neonatal outcome, and inherently biased research of treatments. At term, the likelihood of cesarean delivery depends on labor management, which in turn depends on accurate assessments of cervical change and myometrial contractility. Studies from our group and others show that noninvasive measurements of light-induced fluorescence (LIF) of cervical collagen and uterine electromyography (EMG) objectively detect changes in the composition of the cervix and myometrial preparedness to labor and are more reliable than clinical observations alone. We present a conceptual model of parturition constructed on cervical LIF and uterine EMG studies. We also explore how these methodologies could be helpful with managing patients experiencing preterm contractions and with optimizing labor management protocols aimed to reduce cesarean section. PMID:24187578

  19. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with uterine cervical human papillomavirus infection: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV), an alteration of vaginal flora involving a decrease in Lactobacilli and predominance of anaerobic bacteria, is among the most common cause of vaginal complaints for women of childbearing age. It is well known that BV has an influence in acquisition of certain genital infections. However, association between BV and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been inconsistent among studies. The objective of this meta-analysis of published studies is to clarify and summarize published literature on the extent to which BV is associated with cervical HPV infection. Methods Medline and Web of Science were systematically searched for eligible publications until December 2009. Articles were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. After testing heterogeneity of studies, meta-analysis was performed using random effect model. Results Twelve eligible studies were selected to review the association between BV and HPV, including a total of 6,372 women. The pooled prevalence of BV was 32%. The overall estimated odds ratio (OR) showed a positive association between BV and cervical HPV infection (OR, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.84). Conclusion This meta-analysis of available literature resulted in a positive association between BV and uterine cervical HPV infection. PMID:21223574

  20. Innovations in HPV vaccination and roles of nurses in cervical cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Julide Gulizar; Arabaci, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main aetiological agent for cervical cancer, one of the most frequent cancers observed in women throughout the world. There are effective programs for reducing the incidence of cervical cancer with HPV vaccination. The objective of this study was to discuss the applicability of the HPV vaccination and the role of nurses in prevention of cervical cancer. Use of bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines has been initiated against the types of HPV which are the primary cause of cancer. The quadrivalent HPV vaccination has entered into the routine vaccination schedule in many European countries for use in children and adolescents between 9-15 years of age and for women between 16-26 years of age, whereas it has been proposed that the bivalent vaccination should be given to girls between 9-18 years of age. While cervical cancer is among the cancers that can be prevented, it is essential to continue screening tests while introducing vaccination in a systematic manner for protection. On this subject, among the most important roles of nurses is to implement the screening programs by fulfilling the caregiving, training and consultancy roles for the society and especially, for high risk groups and to increase the awareness of the people. PMID:25556424

  1. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS, GENITAL WARTS, PAP SMEARS, AND CERVICAL CANCER: KNOWLEDGE AND BELIEFS OF ADOLESCENT AND ADULT WOMEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    The high prevalence of genital warts, human papillomavirus (HPV), and the virus's cancer-causing potential warrant that women be well informed about these conditions and measures to prevent them. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine women's knowledge and beliefs about genital warts, HPV, cervical cancer, and Pap tests. We interviewed 40 women recruited from health clinics in Chicago

  2. The effects of cervical joint manipulation, based on passive motion analysis, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture, and cervical ROM in university students with abnormal posture of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wontae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cervical posture manipulation, based on passive motion analysis (MBPMA) and general mobilization, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture (FHP), and cervical ROM in university students with problems in cervical posture and range of motion (ROM). [Subjects] The Subjects were 40 university students in their 20s who displayed problems in cervical posture and ROM; they were divided into an MBPMA group (n=20) and a mobilization group (n=20). [Methods] Each group underwent MBPMA or mobilization three times a week for four weeks. The effects of MBPMA and mobilization on cervical lordosis, FHP, and cervical ROM were analyzed by radiography. [Results] MBPMA was effective in increasing the cervical lordosis, cervical extension ROM (CER), and ranges of flexion and extension motion (RFEM) and in decreasing FHP. Mobilization was effective in increasing CER and decreasing FHP. [Conclusion] MBPMA can be utilized as an effective method for decreasing FHP and improving cervical lordosis and cervical ROM.

  3. Use of C2 spinous process screw for posterior cervical fixation as substitute for laminar screw in a patient with thin laminae

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Kosei; Baba, Satoshi; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Takeshita, Katsushi

    2013-01-01

    Rigid screw fixation of C2 including transarticular screw and pedicle screw contain the risk of vertebral artery (VA) injury. On the other hand, translaminar screws are considered to be safer for patients with anomalous VA. But C2 translaminar screw placement was limited in patients who have thin laminas and there is marked variation in C2 laminar thickness. Appropriate C2 fixation method for a patient who has thin laminas and high-riding VA together was controversial. Here, we present a case of an elderly Asian woman who had thin laminas and high-riding VA together with progressive myelopathy to report a first case of C2 spinous process screw insertion. Although the stability and safety of C2 spinous process screw was reported in cadaver series, there was no clinical report to our knowledge. Spinous process screw can be an option of C2 fixation for patients with high-riding VA and severe degenerated cervical spines including thin C2 laminas. PMID:23814004

  4. Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-06-08

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  5. Empowering Women through Education and Advocacy in Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    Cancer.gov

    Breast and cervical cancers are two leading causes of death among women worldwide. Countries in the northern Andean region face the highest mortality and incidence ratio for these cancers in Latin America. Poor outcomes in low- and middle-income countries have been attributed to a lack of awareness on the benefits of early detection and treatment, late stage detection, and limited access to cancer-related treatment.

  6. Oropharyngeal lesions and cervical lymphadenopathy: syphilis is a differential diagnosis that is still relevant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristian Ikenberg; Erik Springer; Wolfgang Bräuninger; Katrin Kerl; Daniela Mihic; Simone Schmid; Anja Schmitt; Sibel Yeginsoy; Beata Bode; Achim Weber

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundSyphilis (lues), a chronic infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum, has been increasing in incidence during the last few years. Therefore, while clinically it is often not suspected, syphilis is increasingly becoming a differential diagnosis in routine pathology.AimTo report our experience with five cases of cervical lymphadenopathy and\\/or oropharyngeal lesions, clinically thought to be lymphomas, lymph node metastases or carcinoma,

  7. Aminophylline for the treatment of symptomatic bradycardia and asystole secondary to cervical spine injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyle A. Weant; Michaux Kilpatrick; Sivakumar Jaikumar

    2007-01-01

    Introduction  Bradycardia is a common complication of cervical spine damage in the weeks following injury, occurring in up to 100% of patients\\u000a in some studies. Cardiac arrest and asystole have been reported in as many as 15% of these patients and cardiac events are\\u000a the main cause of death within the first year. We describe the case of a 25-year-old African-American

  8. Cervical lymphadenopathy secondary to rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as Horner syndrome in an infant.

    PubMed

    Gangaputra, Sapna; Babiuch, Allison; Bradfield, Yasmin S

    2015-04-01

    A 4-week-old boy with left ptosis, anisocoria, and a mass on his left hand was diagnosed with Horner syndrome. The diagnosis precipitated a work-up for a possible malignant etiology. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated enlarged left cervical and axillary lymph nodes. A biopsy of the hand lesion confirmed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, but a biopsy of the axillary lymph node was negative. Mechanical pressure by noncancerous enlarged lymph nodes is hypothesized to cause the Horner syndrome. PMID:25818281

  9. Cervical collar or physiotherapy versus wait and see policy for recent onset cervical radiculopathy: randomised trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Kuijper; Jos Th J Tans; Anita Beelen; Frans Nollet; Marianne de Visser

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with collar or physiotherapy compared with a wait and see policy in recent onset cervical radiculopathy.Design Randomised controlled trial.Setting Neurology outpatient clinics in three Dutch hospitals.Participants 205 patients with symptoms and signs of cervical radiculopathy of less than one month’s durationInterventions Treatment with a semi-hard collar and taking rest for three to six

  10. Update on ASCCP consensus guidelines for abnormal cervical screening tests and cervical histology.

    PubMed

    Apgar, Barbara S; Kittendorf, Anne L; Bettcher, Catherine M; Wong, Jean; Kaufman, Amanda J

    2009-07-15

    New data have emerged since publication of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology's 2001 consensus guidelines for management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology. The 2006 guidelines include recommendations for special populations (i.e., adolescents and pregnant women). Human papillomavirus testing is now included for management of atypical glandular cytology, for follow-up after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and in combination with cytologic screening in women 30 years and older. The preferred management of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in adult women is reflex human papillomavirus DNA testing. Colposcopy is recommended for adult women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, atypical glandular cells, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, and atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 can be managed conservatively in adult women, but treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grades 2 and 3 is recommended. Immediate treatment is an option for adult women but not for adolescents with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Conservative management of adolescents with any cytologic or histologic diagnosis except specified cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 3 and adenocarcinoma in situ is recommended. Colposcopy is preferred for pregnant women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, but evaluation of the former may be deferred until no earlier than six weeks postpartum. Treatment during pregnancy is unacceptable unless invasive carcinoma is identified. PMID:19621855

  11. Position of the cervical vertebrae during helmet removal and cervical collar application in football and hockey.

    PubMed

    Prinsen, R K; Syrotuik, D G; Reid, D C

    1995-07-01

    There is lack of consensus among prehospital personnel (athletic therapists, paramedics, sport physiotherapists) concerning specific aspects of initial care and assessment of injured athletes presenting signs and symptoms of a cervical spine injury (CSI). In instances of serious injury involving the head and/or spine, complicated by altered levels of consciousness, protective equipment such as helmets and shoulder pads may provide a hinderance to prompt, safe and efficient management. Specifically, there is disagreement concerning the need or advisability of removing protective head gear, as in the case of football and hockey athletes. Using the technique of fluoroscopy, the cervical spine displacement of 21 male football and hockey athletes was determined while wearing protective shoulder pads and protective head equipment at the following times (a) during helmet removal, (b) during cervical collar application, and (c) as the helmetless head was allowed to rest. Subsequent frame-by-frame video arthokinematic analysis, using computer-assisted digitization, showed significant alterations in the position of adjacent cervical vertebrae during helmet removal, cervical collar application, and head rest. Results suggest that stabilization and transportation of football and hockey athletes with suspected CSI in their respective protective equipment is recommended in order to reduce the risk of further trauma by unnecessary cervical spine motion. PMID:7670970

  12. Human Papillomavirus-mediated cervical cancer awareness and Gardasil vaccination: a pilot survey among North Indian women.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Saumya; Chandravati

    2013-10-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated cervical cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide, including Indian women. Cervical cancer control and prevention strategies are being adopted in developing nations to reduce the increasing burden of HPV infection in the vaccine era. The present study, therefore, aimed to evaluate cervical cancer awareness and knowledge of Gardasil vaccination in North Indian women. A pilot survey was conducted among 103 women of North Indian ethnicity residing in Lucknow/adjoining areas in state of Uttar Pradesh, during routine screening/clinic visits from June 2012 to December 2012. The study subjects were interviewed in either Hindi or English; subsequently the awareness of HPV-mediated cervical cancer and knowledge of Gardasil vaccination was assessed in terms of "yes", "no" and "no response". The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was taken from the participants. Overall, the response of participants (n = 103) in our single-centre survey-based pilot study was well-defined. The response regarding HPV-mediated cervical cancer awareness in terms of "yes", "no" and "no response" among the study subjects was 43.7, 44.7 and 11.6 %, respectively. Furthermore, in response to knowledge of HPV vaccine Gardasil, out of 103 subjects, 28.1 % answered "yes" while 37.9 and 34.0 % stated "no" and "no response", respectively. Our pilot survey may help in assessing knowledge of HPV-mediated cervical cancer and Gardasil vaccination awareness in women, and accordingly develop cost-effective cervical cancer control and prevention/public health counseling sessions in a clinical setting. PMID:23653161

  13. Anterior plating of unstable cervical spine fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D C Mann; B W Braner; J S Keene; A B Levin; David Mann

    1990-01-01

    Medical records and radiographs of 16 patients who had anterior decompression, bone grafting, and plating of grade III and IV (Allen 1982) unstable cervical spine injuries were reviewed. Surgery was performed within 15 days of injury, reductions were achieved and maintained at follow-up, and fusion occurred in all cases. Neurologic function stabilised or improved in all cases. However, 3 patients

  14. Angiogenesis, Thrombospondin1 and Cervical Carcinogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Ping Wu; Cheng-Yang Chou

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY Angiogenesis, the growth of new vessels from existing vasculature, plays an essential role in tumor development. The process involves interaction among cancer cells, endothelial cells, and components of the extracellular matrix, and is regulated by the balance of angiogenesis activators and angiogenesis inhibitors. This review profiles some fundamental concepts of angiogenesis, the importance of angiogenesis in cervical neoplasm, and

  15. Excessive daytime sleepiness in cervical dystonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Marie Trotti; Christine D. Esper; Paul J. Feustel; Donald L. Bliwise; Stewart A. Factor

    2009-01-01

    Few investigations have examined sleep in cervical dystonia (CD) patients. We assessed 43 consecutive CD patients, 19 patients with other focal movement disorders, and 49 healthy, age- and gender-matched controls for the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, ESS). All patients were receiving botulinum toxin. We found that a higher percentage of CD patients

  16. [Castelman disease. Apropos of 2 cervical localizations].

    PubMed

    el Messaoudi, A; el Edghiri, H; Lazrak, A; Jazouli, N; Kzadri, M

    1993-01-01

    The authors report two cases of neck localisations of Castelman's disease. A cervical mass and an inflammatory syndrome are the main clinical and biological symptoms. The diagnosis of the disease is based on histology. Surgery provides a complete recovery. PMID:8191062

  17. Sonographic Evaluation of an Embryonic Cervical Pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cassie J. Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Cervical pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy, and early diagnosis and treatment are important when managing this type of emergency. Although rare, if implantation occurs in the endocervical canal, it can pose a serious risk to the patient's future fertility. When an endocervical pregnancy is suspected, transabdominal and endocavity sonography should be performed.

  18. Director's Message 2 Cervical Cancer 4

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Director's Message 2 Cervical Cancer 4 Laser Eyelid Surgery 5 LASER B E C K M A N L A S E R I N on pg. 8) Rafiki, an iguana, has recovered fully from laser surgery. (Please see Veterinary Update on pg

  19. Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

  20. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or hand. It can detect fractures in the cervical vertebrae or dislocation of the joints between the vertebrae. It's commonly done after someone has been in an automobile or other accident and has had an injury to the head, neck, or back, especially if ...

  1. Cervical spine response in frontal crash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew B. Panzer; Jason B. Fice; Duane S. Cronin

    2011-01-01

    Predicting neck response and injury resulting from motor vehicle accidents is essential to improving occupant protection. A detailed human cervical spine finite element model has been developed, with material properties and geometry determined a priori of any validation, for the evaluation of global kinematics and tissue-level response. Model validation was based on flexion\\/extension response at the segment level, tension response

  2. Remote microscope control for cervical cancer telediagnostic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Parra; J. Puentes; A. Herrera

    2003-01-01

    Despite the improvements to conveniently exchange digital cytological images and patient data forms, which facilitate and accelerate cervical cancer telediagnostic, some of the diagnosed cases require the expert cytologist to remotely acquire images of the slide being examined by a less experienced technician. This paper presents an interactive remote microscope control that permits to distantly be in command of the

  3. Cortical and cervical stimulation after hemispheric infarction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Berardelli; M Inghilleri; M Manfredi; A Zamponi; V Cecconi; G Dolce

    1987-01-01

    Cortical and cervical stimulation has been performed in 20 patients with hemiparesis or hemiplegia due to hemispheric infarction and in 20 control subjects. The motor action potentials (MAPs) were recorded from biceps and thenar muscles. MAPs evoked by stimulation of the undamaged hemisphere were normal in 18 out of 20 patients and in two there was a slight increase of

  4. Clinical Reversible Myelopathy in T-Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Treated with Nelarabine and Radiotherapy: Report of a Case and Review of Literature of an Increasing Complication

    PubMed Central

    Tisi, Maria Chiara; Ausoni, Giuseppe; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Tartaglione, Tommaso; Balducci, Mario; Laurenti, Luca; Chiusolo, Patrizia; Hohaus, Stefan; Sica, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Eleven cases of neurological defects in T-ALL patients treated with nelarabine have been described in the last 4 years, seven of these after stem cell transplantation (SCT) for T Lymphoblastic Lymphoma (T-LBL). Most of these patients had an unfavorable outcome or irreversible neurological damage. We now report the case of a 41-year-old woman suffering from T-LBL who presented with severe, but reversible myelopathy after receiving nelarabine-based treatment and mediastinal radiotherapy, and we provide a review of the literature on the topic. PMID:25745552

  5. Evaluating societal preferences for human papillomavirus vaccine and cervical smear test screening programme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bridgette Oteng; Fawziah Marra; Larry D Lynd; Gina Ogilvie; David Patrick; Carlo A Marra

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundCervical cancer and genital warts are diseases associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Cervical smear testing is used as a cervical cancer screening tool in most countries worldwide. The newly introduced vaccines that prevent HPV infections are the quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil), which prevents genital warts and cervical cancer, and the bivalent vaccine (Cervarix), which prevents cervical cancer only. Public preferences

  6. THE IMPACT OF HPV INFORMATION ON PERCEIVED RISK OF CERVICAL CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Laura AV; Waller, Jo; Wardle, Jane

    2009-01-01

    There is a need to develop public education about the link between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Explaining that a sexually-transmitted virus causes cervical cancer may affect perceived risk of cervical cancer. We hypothesized that presenting HPV information would have differential effects depending on age and screening attendance. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews with a sample of British women age 16-75 years who had not heard of HPV before (n=965). A repeated measures design was used, assessing perceived risk of cervical cancer before and after providing information about HPV. Perceived risk was assessed using a comparative risk measure with a 5-point response scale. Pre-information, the mean perceived risk score was 2.67 (SE=0.03). Overall, presentation of HPV information did not have an effect on perceived risk of cervical cancer [?2(1)=.72, p=.396], but as expected there was a significant time by age interaction for the change in perceived risk [?2(5)=33.56, p<.001], which increased in the youngest age group (16-25 years) and decreased in the oldest age group (65-75 years). In a separate analysis with women in the screening age range (25-64 years, n=709), there was a significant time by screening attendance interaction [?2(1)=5.25, p=.022], with an increase in perceived risk among women who did not regularly attend screening. This is the first study to examine the effect of HPV information on perceived risk across different population groups. Interventions to increase awareness of HPV could benefit from tailoring information to pre-screening age, screening age and post-screening age women. PMID:19190156

  7. Curcumin and Emodin Down-Regulate TGF-? Signaling Pathway in Human Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Pooja Chandrakant; Karunagaran, Devarajan

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the major cause of cancer related deaths in women, especially in developing countries and Human Papilloma Virus infection in conjunction with multiple deregulated signaling pathways leads to cervical carcinogenesis. TGF-? signaling in later stages of cancer is known to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition promoting tumor growth. Phytochemicals, curcumin and emodin, are effective as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic compounds against several cancers including cervical cancer. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of curcumin and emodin on TGF-? signaling pathway and its functional relevance to growth, migration and invasion in two cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and HeLa. Since TGF-? and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways are known to cross talk having common downstream targets, we analyzed the effect of TGF-? on ?-catenin (an important player in Wnt/?-catenin signaling) and also studied whether curcumin and emodin modulate them. We observed that curcumin and emodin effectively down regulate TGF-? signaling pathway by decreasing the expression of TGF-? Receptor II, P-Smad3 and Smad4, and also counterbalance the tumorigenic effects of TGF-? by inhibiting the TGF-?-induced migration and invasion. Expression of downstream effectors of TGF-? signaling pathway, cyclinD1, p21 and Pin1, was inhibited along with the down regulation of key mesenchymal markers (Snail and Slug) upon curcumin and emodin treatment. Curcumin and emodin were also found to synergistically inhibit cell population and migration in SiHa and HeLa cells. Moreover, we found that TGF-? activates Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway in HeLa cells, and curcumin and emodin down regulate the pathway by inhibiting ?-catenin. Taken together our data provide a mechanistic basis for the use of curcumin and emodin in the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:25786122

  8. CSF CXCL10, CXCL9, and Neopterin as Candidate Prognostic Biomarkers for HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomoo; Coler-Reilly, Ariella; Utsunomiya, Atae; Araya, Natsumi; Yagishita, Naoko; Ando, Hitoshi; Yamauchi, Junji; Inoue, Eisuke; Ueno, Takahiko; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Nishioka, Kusuki; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Jacobson, Steven; Izumo, Shuji; Yamano, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) -associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a rare chronic neuroinflammatory disease. Since the disease course of HAM/TSP varies among patients, there is a dire need for biomarkers capable of predicting the rate of disease progression. However, there have been no studies to date that have compared the prognostic values of multiple potential biomarkers for HAM/TSP. Methodology/Principal Findings Peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from HAM/TSP patients and HTLV-1-infected control subjects were obtained and tested retrospectively for several potential biomarkers, including chemokines and other cytokines, and nine optimal candidates were selected based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Next, we evaluated the relationship between these candidates and the rate of disease progression in HAM/TSP patients, beginning with a first cohort of 30 patients (Training Set) and proceeding to a second cohort of 23 patients (Test Set). We defined “deteriorating HAM/TSP” as distinctly worsening function (?3 grades on Osame's Motor Disability Score (OMDS)) over four years and “stable HAM/TSP” as unchanged or only slightly worsened function (1 grade on OMDS) over four years, and we compared the levels of the candidate biomarkers in patients divided into these two groups. The CSF levels of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), CXCL9, and neopterin were well-correlated with disease progression, better even than HTLV-1 proviral load in PBMCs. Importantly, these results were validated using the Test Set. Conclusions/Significance As the CSF levels of CXCL10, CXCL9, and neopterin were the most strongly correlated with rate of disease progression, they represent the most viable candidates for HAM/TSP prognostic biomarkers. The identification of effective prognostic biomarkers could lead to earlier detection of high-risk patients, more patient-specific treatment options, and more productive clinical trials. PMID:24130912

  9. The association of uterine cervical microbiota with an increased risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, H Y; Kim, B-S; Seo, S-S; Kong, J-S; Lee, J-K; Park, S-Y; Hong, K-M; Kim, H-K; Kim, M K

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested potential roles of the microbiome in cervicovaginal diseases. However, there has been no report on the cervical microbiome in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We aimed to identify the cervical microbiota of Korean women and assess the association between the cervical microbiota and CIN, and to determine the combined effect of the microbiota and human papillomavirus (HPV) on the risk of CIN. The cervical microbiota of 70 women with CIN and 50 control women was analysed using pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene. The associations between specific microbial patterns or abundance of specific microbiota and CIN risk were assessed using multivariate logistic regression, and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and the synergy index (S) were calculated. The phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes, Fusobacteria and TM7 were predominant in the microbiota and four distinct community types were observed in all women. A high score of the pattern characterized by predominance of Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus iners with a minority of Lactobacillus crispatus had a higher CIN risk (OR 5.80, 95% CI 1.73?19.4) and abundance of A. vaginae had a higher CIN risk (OR 6.63, 95% CI 1.61?27.2). The synergistic effect of a high score of this microbial pattern and oncogenic HPV was observed (OR 34.1, 95% CI 4.95?284.5; RERI/S, 15.9/1.93). A predominance of A. vaginae, G. vaginalis and L. iners with a concomitant paucity of L. crispatus in the cervical microbiota was associated with CIN risk, suggesting that bacterial dysbiosis and its combination with oncogenic HPV may be a risk factor for cervical neoplasia. PMID:25752224

  10. Increased seroreactivity to human T cell lymphoma/leukemia virus-related endogenous sequence-1 Gag peptides in patients with human T cell lymphoma/leukemia virus myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Perzova, Raisa; Graziano, Elliot; Sanghi, Swathi; Welch, Caitlin; Benz, Patricia; Abbott, Lynn; Lalone, Danielle; Glaser, Jordan; Loughran, Thomas; Sheremata, William; Poiesz, Bernard J

    2015-02-01

    Previously, we had shown that although only 8% of patients with large granular lymphocytic leukemia (LGLL) were infected with human T cell lymphoma/leukemia virus (HTLV)-2, almost half had antibodies to HTLV Gag and Env peptides. Herein, we investigated whether this could be due to cross-reactive antibodies to two homologous peptides in the Gag protein of the endogenous retrovirus HTLV-related endogenous sequence-1 (HRES-1). In addition, we had previously shown that patients with HTLV neurodegenerative diseases had increased seroreactivity to homologous HERV-K10 endogenous retrovirus peptides. Hence, in this study we also examined whether these patients had increased seroreactivity to the aforementioned HRES-1 Gag peptides. Sera from 100 volunteer blood donors (VBD), 53 patients with LGLL, 74 subjects with HTLV-1 or 2 infection (58 nonmyelopathy and 16 myelopathy), and 83 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were evaluated. The HTLV-positive myelopathy (HAM) patients had a statistically increased prevalence of antibodies to both HRES-1 Gag peptides (81%) vs. the VBD (0%), LGLL patients (13%), and MS patients (1%), and the HTLV-positive nonmyelopathy subjects (21%). The data suggest that cross-reactivity to HRES-1 peptides could be involved in the pathogenesis of HAM. The difference between the VBD and LGLL patients was also statistically significant, also suggesting a possible association in a minority of patients. PMID:25295378

  11. Cervical radiculopathy: Pain, muscle weakness and sensory loss in patients with cervical radiculopathy treated with surgery, physiotherapy or cervical collar A prospective, controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. G. Persson; U. Moritz; L. Brandt; C.-A. Carlsson

    1997-01-01

    This prospective, randomised study compares the efficacy of surgery, physiotherapy and cervical collar with respect to pain, motor weakness and sensory loss in 81 patients with long-lasting cervical radiculopathy corresponding to a nerve root that was significantly compressed by spondylotic encroachment, with or without an additional bulging disk, as verified by MRI or CT-myelography. Pain intensity was registered on a

  12. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes...

  13. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Task Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of...

  14. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Reform and its impact for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on...

  15. 78 FR 36306 - Proposed Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...a claimant's diagnosis of a cervical spine condition. DATES: Written comments and...Control No. 2900--NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...

  16. Human papillomavirus prevalence in paired urine and cervical samples in women invited for cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Burroni, Elena; Bonanni, Paolo; Sani, Cristina; Lastrucci, Vieri; Carozzi, Francesca; Iossa, Anna; Andersson, Karin Louise; Brandigi, Livia; Di Pierro, Carmelina; Confortini, Massimo; Levi, Miriam; Boccalini, Sara; Indiani, Laura; Sala, Antonino; Tanini, Tommaso; Bechini, Angela; Azzari, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    With the introduction of Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in young girls in 2007, it is important to monitor HPV infections and epidemiological changes in this target population. The present study has evaluated the detection of human papillomavirus DNA in paired cervical and urine samples to understand if HPV testing in urine could be used as non-invasive method to monitor HPV status in young women. The study enrolled 216 twenty five-year-old women, resident in Florence and invited for the first time to the cervical cancer Screening Program within a project evaluating the impact of HPV vaccination. HPV genotyping was performed on 216 paired urine and cervical samples. The overall concordance between cervix and urine samples, investigated by HPV genotyping (INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra), was: 85.6% (184/215), 84.6% (182/215), 80% (172/215) when the same HPV, at least the same HR HPV and all HR HPV, respectively, were detected. HPV type specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples was observed in 85.8% (175/204) of women with normal cytology and in seven out of nine women with abnormal cytology. Urine seems to be a suitable and reliable biological material for HPV DNA detection as evidenced by the high concordance with HPV detected in cervical samples. These results suggest that urine could be a good noninvasive tool to monitor HPV infection in vaccinated women. PMID:25418873

  17. Genomic aberrations in cervical adenocarcinomas in Hong Kong Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tony K H; Van Hummelen, Paul; Chan, Paul K S; Cheung, Tak Hong; Yim, So Fan; Yu, Mei Y; Ducar, Matthew D; Thorner, Aaron R; MacConaill, Laura E; Doran, Graeme; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Wong, Raymond R Y; Wang, Vivian W; Freeman, Samuel S; Lau, Tat San; Kwong, Joseph; Chan, Loucia K Y; Fromer, Menachem; May, Taymaa; Worley, Michael J; Esselen, Katharine M; Elias, Kevin M; Lawrence, Michael; Getz, Gad; Smith, David I; Crum, Christopher P; Meyerson, Matthew; Berkowitz, Ross S; Wong, Yick Fu

    2015-08-15

    Although the rates of cervical squamous cell carcinoma have been declining, the rates of cervical adenocarcinoma are increasing in some countries. Outcomes for advanced cervical adenocarcinoma remain poor. Precision mapping of genetic alterations in cervical adenocarcinoma may enable better selection of therapies and deliver improved outcomes when combined with new sequencing diagnostics. We present whole-exome sequencing results from 15 cervical adenocarcinomas and paired normal samples from Hong Kong Chinese women. These data revealed a heterogeneous mutation spectrum and identified several frequently altered genes including FAT1, ARID1A, ERBB2 and PIK3CA. Exome sequencing identified human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences in 13 tumors in which the HPV genome might have integrated into and hence disrupted the functions of certain exons, raising the possibility that HPV integration can alter pathways other than p53 and pRb. Together, these provisionary data suggest the potential for individualized therapies for cervical adenocarcinoma based on genomic information. PMID:25626421

  18. Description of cervical cancer mortality in Belgium using Bayesian age-period-cohort models

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To correct cervical cancer mortality rates for death cause certification problems in Belgium and to describe the corrected trends (1954-1997) using Bayesian models. Method Cervical cancer (cervix uteri (CVX), corpus uteri (CRP), not otherwise specified (NOS) uterus cancer and other very rare uterus cancer (OTH) mortality data were extracted from the WHO mortality database together with population data for Belgium and the Netherlands. Different ICD (International Classification of Diseases) were used over time for death cause certification. In the Netherlands, the proportion of not-otherwise specified uterine cancer deaths was small over large periods and therefore internal reallocation could be used to estimate the corrected rates cervical cancer mortality. In Belgium, the proportion of improperly defined uterus deaths was high. Therefore, the age-specific proportions of uterus cancer deaths that are probably of cervical origin for the Netherlands was applied to Belgian uterus cancer deaths to estimate the corrected number of cervix cancer deaths (corCVX). A Bayesian loglinear Poisson-regression model was performed to disentangle the separate effects of age, period and cohort. Results The corrected age standardized mortality rate (ASMR) decreased regularly from 9.2/100 000 in the mid 1950s to 2.5/100,000 in the late 1990s. Inclusion of age, period and cohort into the models were required to obtain an adequate fit. Cervical cancer mortality increases with age, declines over calendar period and varied irregularly by cohort. Conclusion Mortality increased with ageing and declined over time in most age-groups, but varied irregularly by birth cohort. In global, with some discrete exceptions, mortality decreased for successive generations up to the cohorts born in the 1930s. This decline stopped for cohorts born in the 1940s and thereafter. For the youngest cohorts, even a tendency of increasing risk of dying from cervical cancer could be observed, reflecting increased exposure to risk factors. The fact that this increase was limited for the youngest cohorts could be explained as an effect of screening. Bayesian modeling provided similar results compared to previously used classical Poisson models. However, Bayesian models are more robust for estimating rates when data are sparse (youngest age groups, most recent cohorts) and can be used to for predicting future trends.

  19. Ewe breed differences in fertility after cervical AI with frozen–thawed semen and associated differences in sperm penetration and physicochemical properties of cervical mucus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorraine Richardson; J. P. Hanrahan; Lydia O’Hara; Anne Donovan; Sean Fair; Michael O'Sullivan; Stephen D. Carrington; Pat Lonergan; A. C. O. Evans

    The objective of this study was to examine sperm penetration through cervical mucus and associated physicochemical properties of cervical mucus from Belclare and Suffolk ewes – two breeds with divergent pregnancy rate following cervical AI using frozen–thawed semen. In Experiment 1, sperm penetration through cervical mucus was assessed in 15 Belclare and 15 Suffolk ewes at 30, 48 and 57h

  20. Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Kenya: Perspectives from a Provider Survey.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Joelle I; Hamisi, Sabina; Njoroge, Betty; Huchko, Megan J

    2015-08-01

    Although cervical cancer is highly preventable through screening, it remains the number one cause of cancer-related death in Kenyan women due to lack of funding and infrastructure for prevention programs. In 2012, Family AIDS Care and Education Services in partnership with the Kenya Ministry of Health began offering free screening at eleven rural health facilities. We sought to explore why screening coverage remains low at some sites. We examined the barriers to screening through a survey of 106 healthcare staff. The most frequently cited barriers to service delivery included staffing shortages, lack of trained staff, insufficient space, and supply issues. The patient barriers commonly perceived by the staff included inadequate knowledge, wait time, discomfort with male providers, and fear of pain with the speculum exam. Despite multilateral efforts to implement cervical cancer screening, staff face significant challenges to service provision and increased education is needed for both providers and patients. PMID:25677728