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Sample records for causing periorbital swelling

  1. Frontal and orbital bone infarctions causing periorbital swelling in patients with sickle cell anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.; Garzozi, H.

    1984-10-01

    Two cases of unilateral and bilateral periorbital hematomas occurred in patients with sickle cell anemia. The cause of periorbital swelling in these cases was found to be orbital and frontal bone infarctions, respectively, diagnosed by technetium Tc 99m medronate bone scintigraphy. To our knowledge, periorbital bone infarction, as a part of the differential diagnosis of periorbital hematoma and as part of the possible ocular manifestations in patients with sickle cell anemia, has not previously been described.

  2. Granulicatella elegans Causing Periorbital Infection During Orthodontic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Joon; Choi, Bo Mi; Choi, Kyung Seek

    2016-01-01

    Granulicatella elegans is a normal component of the oral flora and is an unusual causative agent of infective endocarditis. A case of G. elegans periorbital infection of the eyelid after dental treatment is reported. A healthy 35-year-old man presented with painful swelling of the left upper eyelid. He was empirically treated with oral amoxicillin for 1 week. He presented 3 months later with the same clinical features. G. elegans and Staphylococcus epidermidis were identified in bacterial cultures from wound aspirates. Probable relapse of periorbital infection was successfully treated with a 6-week course of oral amoxicillin. This is the first reported case of a non-bloodstream infection caused by G. elegans. Clinicians should be aware of G. elegans as an unusual causative agent of periorbital infection. Within the limitations of this case report, prolonged antibiotic therapy is recommended for a G. elegans periorbital infection to minimize the risk of relapse. PMID:25105523

  3. Periorbital mass with cellulitis caused by dirofilaria.

    PubMed

    Joseph, K; Vinayakumar, A R; Criton, S; Vishnu, M S; Pariyaram, S E

    2011-01-01

    Dirofilariasis is a zoonotic disease caused by Dirofilaria, a parasite of domestic and wild animals. The disease is transmitted by inoculation of mosquitoes infected with the microfilariae during their blood meal. Accidental infection of man results in lung nodule, subcutaneous mass anywhere in the body or ocular lesion that may be subconjunctival or periorbital. The incidence of ocular dirofilariasis is on the rise in several parts of India particularly in Kerala. Here we report a case of ocular dirofilariasis with cellulitis presenting as a periorbital mass. PMID:22120811

  4. Pneumomediastinum presenting as left periorbital subcutaneous emphysema.

    PubMed

    Orton, Jonathan; Collette, Emily

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic spontaneous pneumomediastinum is rare but even rarer is associated unilateral periorbital subcutaneous emphysema. There is only 1 known case report noting both of these findings and was associated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography complication. Isolated periorbital emphysema has been associated with dental procedures, facial trauma, and sneezing. It is has also been seen with pneumomediastinum caused by barotrauma, pneumothorax, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and esophageal perforation. A 52-year-old White male presents to the emergency department with complaint of left eye swelling that occurred overnight without known cause. He was found to have spontaneous idiopathic pneumomediastinum and unilateral periorbital subcutaneous emphysema. Although rare, it is important to rule out subcutaneous air tracking from pneumomediastinum when evaluating unilateral periorbital swelling in an otherwise asymptomatic patient. PMID:25986202

  5. A rare cause of lateral facial swelling.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sujata; Gulati, Ujjwal; Vandana; Singh, Sapna

    2014-01-01

    A case of chronic, recurrent and asymptomatic facial swelling in a young male is presented. Swelling extended from lower midface to upper lateral neck and right commissure to anterior massetric border. History, clinical signs and symptoms and examination pointed towards the benign nature of the swelling. Fine-needle aspiration cytology tapered the diagnostic possibilities to a salivary cyst or pseudocyst. Ultrasonography identified the lesion to contain echogenic fluid with irregular borders. "Tail sign" was absent on contrast magnetic resonance imaging, excluding the involvement of the sublingual gland. Surgical excision of the lesion was done along with submandibular gland as both were in continuity via a bottle-neck tract. Final histopathological diagnosis was that of the submandibular gland extravasation phenomenon. As per the best of our knowledge, it is the first case report of a submandibular gland extravasation causing swelling in a retrograde direction onto the face. PMID:25593883

  6. Periorbital Hyperpigmentation: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Ranjan, Rashmi; Garg, Shilpa; Garg, Vijay K; Sonthalia, Sidharth; Bansal, Shivani

    2016-01-01

    Periorbital hyperpigmentation is a commonly encountered condition. There is very little scientific data available on the clinical profile and pathogenesis of periorbital hyperpigmentation. Periorbital hyperpigmentation is caused by various exogenous and endogenous factors. The causative factors include genetic or heredity, excessive pigmentation, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation secondary to atopic and allergic contact dermatitis, periorbital edema, excessive vascularity, shadowing due to skin laxity and tear trough associated with aging. There are a number of treatment options available for periorbital hyperpigmentation. Among the available alternatives to treat dark circles are topical depigmenting agents, such as hydroquinone, kojic acid, azelaic acid, and topical retinoic acid, and physical therapies, such as chemical peels, surgical corrections, and laser therapy, most of which are tried scientifically for melasma, another common condition of hyperpigmentation that occurs on the face. The aim of treatment should be to identify and treat the primary cause of hyperpigmentation as well as its contributing factors. PMID:26962392

  7. Periorbital Hyperpigmentation: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Ranjan, Rashmi; Garg, Shilpa; Garg, Vijay K.; Sonthalia, Sidharth; Bansal, Shivani

    2016-01-01

    Periorbital hyperpigmentation is a commonly encountered condition. There is very little scientific data available on the clinical profile and pathogenesis of periorbital hyperpigmentation. Periorbital hyperpigmentation is caused by various exogenous and endogenous factors. The causative factors include genetic or heredity, excessive pigmentation, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation secondary to atopic and allergic contact dermatitis, periorbital edema, excessive vascularity, shadowing due to skin laxity and tear trough associated with aging. There are a number of treatment options available for periorbital hyperpigmentation. Among the available alternatives to treat dark circles are topical depigmenting agents, such as hydroquinone, kojic acid, azelaic acid, and topical retinoic acid, and physical therapies, such as chemical peels, surgical corrections, and laser therapy, most of which are tried scientifically for melasma, another common condition of hyperpigmentation that occurs on the face. The aim of treatment should be to identify and treat the primary cause of hyperpigmentation as well as its contributing factors. PMID:26962392

  8. Prostaglandin-Associated Periorbital Lipodystrophy in Cosmetic Eyelid Surgery: A Novel Cause of Facial Asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Kian; Mifflin, Mark D; Anderson, Richard L

    2016-03-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented to our practice with profound ptosis of the left upper eyelid and notable asymmetry of the periocular area. On examination, she was noted to have significant atrophy of the periocular tissues on the left side, with lower eyelid retraction. These features were present but less severe on the right side. Upon further questioning, she stated that she had cataract surgery on the left side that was complicated by a high intraocular pressure and required subsequent secondary surgery. She had taken a prostaglandin eyedrop for many months after her cataract surgery to keep the eye pressure low. Recently, a newly recognized adverse effect of prostaglandin eyedrops has been described in the ophthalmic literature in which patients develop periorbital lipodystrophy. This case emphasizes that this may occur unilaterally in patients taking the eyedrop in only one eye, and should be recognized prior to considering functional and aesthetic surgery of the periocular area. PMID:26374814

  9. American kestrel (Falco spaverius) fledgling with severe bilateral periorbital swelling and infection with Mycoplasma buteonis, Avibacterium (Pasteurella) gallinarum, and Staphylococcus pasteuri.

    PubMed

    Bezjian, Marisa; Bezjian, Marisa

    2014-06-01

    Abstract: A female American kestrel (Falco spaverius) fledgling was found on the ground with a suspected trauma to the right eye and open-mouth breathing. During the first 2 days of hospitalization, the bird developed severe bilateral periorbital cellulitis, blepharoedema, and sinusitis. The periocular tissues of the right globe were devitalized and communicated with a fistula at the commissure of the right side of the beak. The blepharoedema of the left eye was aspirated and yielded a dark colored malodorous fluid, which was submitted for aerobic bacterial and Mycoplasma cultures. Results showed a mixed infection with Mycoplasma buteonis, Avibacterium gallinarum, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, all of which are not commonly isolated from birds of prey. With antimicrobial therapy, supportive care, and surgical debridement of the right periocular necrotic tissues and adhesed phthisical globe, the kestrel recovered from this severe mixed upper respiratory infection. PMID:25115041

  10. Periorbital (eyelid) dermatides.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Tüzün, Yalçın

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in various specialties-and dermatologists in particular-frequently encounter various forms of inflammation of the eyelids and of the anterior surface of the eye. Distinguishing the cause of itchy, painful, red, edematous eyelids is often difficult. Because the uppermost layer of the eyelids is part of the skin that wraps the entire body, almost every skin disease in the textbook can affect the periorbital area as well. In this contribution, we focused on the most common such disorders that require special consideration, as a result of their special appearance, their challenging diagnosis, or the nature of their treatment. We reviewed the key features of several common dermatides that affect the eyelids, such as atopic dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, airborne contact dermatitis, rosacea, psoriasis, and others. We focused on the special clinical features, causes, and treatments specific to the delicate skin of the eyelids. Because structures of the eye itself (i.e., the conjunctiva, the cornea, the lens, and the retina) may be involved in some of the discussed periorbital skin diseases, we found it useful to add a brief summary of the eyelid complications of those diseases. We then briefly reviewed some acute sight-threatening and even life-threatening infections of the eyelids, although dermatologists are not likely to be the primary care physicians responsible for treating them. PMID:24314387

  11. Swelling

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome Poor nutrition Pregnancy Thyroid disease Too little albumin in the blood (hypoalbuminemia) Too much salt or ... the swelling. Tests that may be done include: Albumin blood test Blood electrolyte levels Echocardiography ECG Kidney ...

  12. Bilateral periorbital ecthyma gangrenosum.

    PubMed

    Ghosheh, Faris R; Kathuria, Sajeev S

    2006-01-01

    We describe a case of bilateral periorbital ecthyma gangrenosum in a diabetic patient with renal failure. Ecthyma gangrenosum is a cutaneous manifestation of Pseudomonas sepsis. We briefly review the pathogenesis of ecthyma gangrenosum and discuss previous reports of periocular involvement. In our patient, conservative measures and supportive care of the periorbital tissue resulted in a good outcome. PMID:17117116

  13. Joint swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...

  14. Periorbital non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Kriwalsky, Marcus Stephan; Schroers, Roland; Stricker, Ingo; Hollstein, Stefan; Kunkel, Martin

    2010-06-01

    The head and neck region is the second most common site for the development of extranodal lymphomas. Richter's syndrome (RS) involves the transformation of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) to an aggressive lymphoma, most commonly, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We report the case of a 62-year-old man who developed DLBCL in the periorbital region 2 months after blunt trauma to the site. The patient lacked other physical symptoms at the time of presentation. Bone marrow biopsy and immunophenotypic analysis revealed a Richter transformation of unknown B-CLL. RS frequently arises in lymph nodes or bone marrow and rarely presents with extranodal involvement. Chemotherapy resulted in total remission of the lymphoma and no relapse was observed in the 6-month follow-up period. This case demonstrates that the clinician must recognize that unresolved soft tissue swelling after a trauma may be caused by NHL. PMID:20451833

  15. Rare cause of bilateral groin swelling: Round ligament varicosities

    PubMed Central

    Bulbul, Erdogan; Taskin, Mine Islimye; Yanik, Bahar; Demirpolat, Gulen; Adali, Ertan; Basbug, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Round ligament varicosity (RLV) is rare and almost all cases are pregnant women. RLV appears as a unilateral or bilateral groin swelling. Pain and tenderness may present. Clinical evaluation is inadequate for exact diagnosis because inguinal hernia has similar findings. Ultrasonography (US) is essential when a groin swelling is detected in a pregnant woman. We present gray scale US and colour Doppler US findings of a 32-week pregnant woman with bilateral RLVs at the inguinal canal, parauterine area and in the myometrium. PMID:26430450

  16. Rare cause of bilateral groin swelling: Round ligament varicosities.

    PubMed

    Bulbul, Erdogan; Taskin, Mine Islimye; Yanik, Bahar; Demirpolat, Gulen; Adali, Ertan; Basbug, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Round ligament varicosity (RLV) is rare and almost all cases are pregnant women. RLV appears as a unilateral or bilateral groin swelling. Pain and tenderness may present. Clinical evaluation is inadequate for exact diagnosis because inguinal hernia has similar findings. Ultrasonography (US) is essential when a groin swelling is detected in a pregnant woman. We present gray scale US and colour Doppler US findings of a 32-week pregnant woman with bilateral RLVs at the inguinal canal, parauterine area and in the myometrium. PMID:26430450

  17. Periorbital Surgery: Forehead, Brow, and Midface.

    PubMed

    Chi, John J

    2016-05-01

    Periorbital rejuvenation requires a careful understanding of the interplay between the eyelids, brow, forehead, and midface. Reversing periorbital signs of aging requires a correction of volume loss, soft tissue ptosis, and skin changes. Many surgical and nonsurgical techniques exist to treat the aging periorbital region; however, careful consideration of the patient's complaints and existing anatomy is critical to achieving a safe and esthetically pleasing outcome. PMID:27105796

  18. Rhinosporidiosis of lacrimal sac: An interesting case of orbital swelling

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sandip Kanti; Bain, Jayanta; Maity, Kuntal; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Baitalik, Debasis; Majumdar, Bijay Kumar; Gupta, Vivek; Kumar, Ashwini; Dalal, Bibhas Saha; Malik, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic localized granulomatous disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, an aquatic protistan parasite belonging to a clade, Mesomycetozoea. Infestation of Rhinosporidiosis to the eye and adnexa is termed oculosporidiosis, in such cases, conjunctival mucosa is mostly involved; however in our case, it involved only the lacrimal sac and deeper periorbital tissue and presented as a case of orbital swelling. Surgical excision of the lesion was done, postoperatively dapsone therapy was given for 6 months, and the patient responded very well with no recurrence till date. PMID:27003980

  19. Periorbital adenocarcinoma in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Darrow, Brett G; Johnstone McLean, Nancy S; Russman, Shirley E; Schiller, Chris A

    2013-07-01

    A 4.5-year-old female bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) presented for periorbital swelling affecting the left eye. A well-organized, hypoechoic mass was noted ventral and medial to the globe on ocular ultrasound. The mass continued to grow despite antibiotic therapy, and an exenteration was performed. The mass was diagnosed via histopathology and immunohistochemical staining as a probable lacrimal gland carcinoma, although a Harderian gland origin could not definitively be ruled out. The tumor recurred following removal, and the lizard died 2 months postoperatively. PMID:23675816

  20. Immediate reaction to lidocaine with periorbital edema during upper blepharoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Presman, Benjamin; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Tocco-Tussardi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Blepharoplasty is the fourth most commonly performed cosmetic surgery in the US, with 207,000 operations in 2014. Lidocaine is the preferred anesthetic agent for blepharoplasty. Presentation of case We describe the unusual case of acute periorbital edema following local anesthesia with lidocaine for upper blepharoplasty. At present, only two other reports of periorbital reactions to lidocaine are present in the literature. The reactions observed are significant palpebral swelling and erythema with scaling of the cheek. Fortunately the swelling, although marked, is transient in nature and resolves almost spontaneously without affecting the visual acuity. Discussion Patients reporting adverse reactions should be screened for allergy according to the standard protocols, but skin testing has only been reported to be positive in less than 10% of all cases and allergy confirmation with IgE is even more rare. Conclusion In clinical practice, we recommend that patient should be informed about the possibility of recurrence of an adverse reaction in case of re-exposure to lidocaine, even in the vast majority of cases where true allergy could not be proven. In case of further need for local anesthesia with history of an adverse event, a different agent may be chosen even from the same class (another amide) as cross-reactions in the amide group are rare. Otherwise, an anesthetic from the ester group can also be safely used. PMID:26785079

  1. Popliteal Venous Aneurysm: A Rare Cause of Recurrent Pulmonary Emboli and Limb Swelling

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, David A. Robinson, Graham J.; Johnson, Brian F.

    2008-09-15

    Popliteal venous aneurysm is a rare cause of recurrent pulmonary embolism, although the true incidence of aneurysm is probably underestimated. One-third of patients suffer further embolic events despite therapeutic anticoagulation. We report the case of a 59-year-old male who presented with recurrent PEs over a period of 12 years despite anticoagulation therapy. A thrombophilia screen and abdominal ultrasound were normal at that time. He reattended with recurrent pulmonary emboli, left calf swelling, and a mass in his left popliteal fossa causing limitation of knee movement. Venous duplex and MRI of his popliteal fossa demonstrated a thrombosed true popliteal venous aneurysm with popliteal and superficial femoral vein occlusion. In view of the mass effect we proceeded to surgical excision of his aneurysm after prophylactic placement of an IVC filter. The patient regained normal knee function with intensive inpatient physiotherapy. He has been recommenced on lifelong anticoagulant. The presentation, investigation, and management of the condition are briefly discussed. We suggest that a bilateral lower limb duplex is performed to exclude venous aneurysm in all patients presenting with pulmonary embolism in which an underlying source cannot otherwise be identified and no thrombophilic tendency is detected.

  2. Periorbital Injectables: Understanding and Avoiding Complications.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    Periorbital rejuvenation with neurotoxins and dermal fillers address several aging changes. Safe and effective results require a thorough understanding of periorbital anatomy, proper injection techniques, and complications of these products. Prompt recognition and treatment of complications can minimize their adverse impacts. Complications can be divided into ischaemic and non-ischaemic effects. Hylauronidase, an enzyme that degrades hyaluronic acid, may improve outcomes after intravascular hyaluronic acid fillers. PMID:27398006

  3. Periorbital Injectables: Understanding and Avoiding Complications

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    Periorbital rejuvenation with neurotoxins and dermal fillers address several aging changes. Safe and effective results require a thorough understanding of periorbital anatomy, proper injection techniques, and complications of these products. Prompt recognition and treatment of complications can minimize their adverse impacts. Complications can be divided into ischaemic and non-ischaemic effects. Hylauronidase, an enzyme that degrades hyaluronic acid, may improve outcomes after intravascular hyaluronic acid fillers. PMID:27398006

  4. Low flow venous malformation lesion presented with medial canthal swelling simulating swelling of the lacrimal sac origin: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ALSwaina, Nayef F.; ALSuhaibani, Adel H.

    2015-01-01

    Low flow venous malformation lesions (e.g. cavernous venous malformations) are commonly seen in the orbit and peri-orbital area. Common conditions may present with unexpected presentation. Here we report a 50 years old male patient with low flow venous malformation lesion presented with medial canthal swelling similar to the swelling typically seen in lacrimal sac related pathologies. PMID:26309438

  5. Absolute Ethanol Embolization of Arteriovenous Malformations in the Periorbital Region

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Li-xin; Jia, Ren-Bing; Wang, De-Ming Lv, Ming-Ming Fan, Xin-dong

    2015-06-15

    ObjectiveArteriovenous malformations (AVMs) involving the periorbital region are technically challenging clinical entities to manage. The purpose of the present study was to present our initial experience of ethanol embolization in a series of 16 patients with auricular AVMs and assess the outcomes of this treatment.MethodsTranscatheter arterial embolization and/or direct percutaneous puncture embolization were performed in the 16 patients. Pure or diluted ethanol was manually injected. The follow-up evaluations included physical examination and angiography at 1- to 6-month intervals.ResultsDuring the 28 ethanol embolization sessions, the amount of ethanol used ranged from 2 to 65 mL. The obliteration of ulceration, hemorrhage, pain, infection, pulsation, and bruit in most of the patients was obtained. The reduction of redness, swelling, and warmth was achieved in all the 16 patients, with down-staging of the Schobinger status for each patient. AVMs were devascularized 100 % in 3 patients, 76–99 % in 7 patients, and 50–75 % in 6 patients, according to the angiographic findings. The most common complications were necrosis and reversible blister. No permanent visual abnormality was found in any of the cases.ConclusionEthanol embolization is efficacious and safe in the treatment of AVMs in the periorbital region and has the potential to be accepted as the primary mode of therapy in the management of these lesions.

  6. Optimizing Reconstruction with Periorbital Transplantation: Clinical Indications and Anatomic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Sosin, Michael; Mundinger, Gerhard S.; Dorafshar, Amir H.; Iliff, Nicholas T.; Christensen, Joani M.; Christy, Michael R.; Bojovic, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Complex periorbital subunit reconstruction is challenging because the goals of effective reconstruction vary from one individual to another. The purpose of this article is to explore the indications and anatomic feasibility of periorbital transplantation by reviewing our institutional repository of facial injury. Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center for a retrospective chart review conducted on patients with periorbital defects. Patient history, facial defects, visual acuity, and periorbital function were critically reviewed to identify indications for periorbital or total face (incorporating the periorbital subunit) vascularized composite allotransplantation. Cadaveric allograft harvest was then designed and performed for specific patient defects to determine anatomic feasibility. Disease conditions not captured by our patient population warranting consideration were reviewed. Results: A total of 7 facial or periorbital transplant candidates representing 6 different etiologies were selected as suitable indications for periorbital transplantation. Etiologies included trauma, burn, animal attack, and tumor, whereas proposed transplants included isolated periorbital and total face transplants. Allograft recovery was successfully completed in 4 periorbital subunits and 1 full face. Dual vascular supply was achieved in 5 of 6 periorbital subunits (superficial temporal and facial vessels). Conclusions: Transplantation of isolated periorbital structures or full face transplantation including periorbital structures is technically feasible. The goal of periorbital transplantation is to re-establish protective mechanisms of the eye, to prevent deterioration of visual acuity, and to optimize aesthetic outcomes. Criteria necessary for candidate selection and allograft design are identified by periorbital defect, periorbital function, ophthalmologic evaluation, and defect etiology. PMID:27014557

  7. Swelling during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... few months. This can cause slight swelling (called edema), particularly in the legs, feet and ankles, but ... few months. This can cause slight swelling (called edema), particularly in the legs, feet and ankles, but ...

  8. Coloration in different areas of facial skin is a cue to health: The role of cheek redness and periorbital luminance in health perception.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Porcheron, Aurélie; Sweda, Jennifer R; Morizot, Frederique; Russell, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Looking healthy is a desirable trait, and facial skin color is a predictor of perceived health. However, skin conditions that cause dissatisfaction with appearance are specific to particular facial areas. We investigated whether color variation in facial skin is related to perceived health. Study 1 defined three areas based on color differences between faces perceived as healthy or unhealthy: the forehead, periorbital areas, and the cheeks. Periorbital luminance and cheek redness predicted perceived health, as did global skin yellowness. In Study 2, increased luminance and redness caused faces to be perceived as healthier, but only when the increase was in the periorbital and cheek areas, respectively. Manipulating each area separately in Study 3 revealed cheek redness and periorbital luminance equally increased perceived health, with low periorbital luminance more negatively affecting perceptions. These findings show that color variation in facial skin is a cue for health perception in female faces. PMID:26967010

  9. Periorbital Dirofilariasis: A Rare Case from Western India

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Varsha

    2016-01-01

    Dirofilariasis is a zoonotic disease caused commonly by Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitus. The definitive hosts are domestic dogs and cats. Human beings are accidental dead end hosts, and acquire infestation through mosquito bites. So far, very few cases have been reported from western India. We report a case of a 27-year-old male who presented with preseptal cellulitis right eye and a firm mass in the lower lid. Histopathological examination after surgical excision of the mass revealed a diagnosis of dirofilariasis. Although rare in Western India a diagnosis of dirofilariasis should be considered in cases of preseptal cellulitis associated with a periorbital mass. PMID:27134918

  10. The Goodman swell: a lithospheric flexure caused by crustal loading along the Midcontinent rift system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Z.E.; Sims, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    Rb-Sr biotite ages of Archean and Early to Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks in northern Wisconsin and adjacent Upper Peninsula of Michigan describe a regionally systematic pattern related to differential uplift. An "age low' occurs in northern Wisconsin where values range from 1070-1172 Ma for rocks with crystallization ages of 1760 to 1865 Ma. These values overlap with the main episode of mafic igneous activity (1090 to 1120 Ma) along the Midcontinent rift system (MRS). We interpret these low biotite ages as registering closure due to cooling below the 300??C isotherm as a consequence of uplift and rapid erosion of an area that we are informally naming the Goodman swell. We interpret the swell to be a forebulge imposed on an elastic crust by loading of mafic igneous rocks along and within the axis of the MRS. -from Authors

  11. Periorbital cellulitis due to cutaneous anthrax.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, Grant; Starks, Victoria; Vrcek, Ivan; Gilliland, Connor

    2015-12-01

    Virgil's plague of the ancient world, Bacillus anthracis, is rare in developed nations. Unfortunately rural communities across the globe continue to be exposed to this potentially lethal bacterium. Herein we report a case of periorbital cutaneous anthrax infection in a 3-year-old girl from the rural area surrounding Harare, Zimbabwe with a brief review of the literature. PMID:25763844

  12. A masquerading subcutaneous swelling caused by Scedosporium apiospermum: an emerging pathogen.

    PubMed

    Malini, A; Madhusudan, N S; Sinhasan, Sankappa P; Harthimath, Basavanandswamy C

    2015-01-01

    Scedosporiasis is an emerging infection in immunocompromised individuals. We report a case of multiple subcutaneous swellings in a diabetic ketoacidotic patient, which was clinically diagnosed as lipoma. On fine-needle aspiration cytology, pus was aspirated, which showed septate branching hyphal elements. The pus culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar yielded Scedosporium apiospermum, which was identified based on its macroscopic and microscopic features. There are very few reports of scedosporiasis from India. The diagnosis of scedosporiasis is difficult and correct etiological diagnosis can help in better management of the patient. PMID:25673611

  13. Arteriolymphatic Fistula: An Unusual Cause of Spontaneous Swelling in the Left Supraclavicular Region.

    PubMed

    Karuppiah Viswanathan, Ashok Mithra; Irodi, Aparna; Keshava, Shyamkumar N; Aneez, Joseph; Karthik, Gunasekaran

    2016-09-01

    An abnormal fistulous communication between an artery and lymphatic system is a rare occurrence. We report a 38-year-old male presenting with sudden onset, spontaneous, pulsatile swelling in the left supraclavicular region following a recent cardiac catheterisation via right femoral arterial access. On evaluation, he was found to have a femoral arteriolymphatic fistula. He was managed conservatively with ultrasound-guided compression with complete resolution of symptoms at follow-up. This case describes a hitherto unknown complication of percutaneous vascular cannulation presenting in an unusual manner, diagnosed with Doppler Ultrasonography and CT angiography and managed effectively with a non-invasive therapeutic image-guided manoeuvre. PMID:27184364

  14. The swelling of mitochondria from nitrogen gas; a possible cause of reperfusion damage.

    PubMed

    VanDeripe, Donald R

    2004-01-01

    Electron photomicrograph evidence is presented which suggests that the in vivo swelling of mitochondria may result from the uptake of nitrogen gas bubbles which coalesce to fill the intramitochondrial space during tissue anoxia. These observations have led to the hypothesis that nitrogen-filled mitochondria are unable to take up oxygen resulting in cell death. A test of this hypothesis also represents a probable treatment for stroke, namely the total body washout of nitrogen. This can be achieved by the inhalation of an oxygen-helium mixture with exhaled gases shunted to ambient atmosphere. This washout should facilitate nitrogen egress from the interior of affected mitochondria, allow oxygen uptake and a resumption of oxidative metabolism. This hypothesis generally fits well with the literature on luxury perfusion following stroke. In cases of luxury perfusion the venous blood exiting the lesion is red indicating a decreased transfer of oxygen to the extracellular and cytosolic fluids. However, whereas luxury perfusion assumes blood flow adequate for delivery of oxygen to the tissues, this hypothesis interjects a blockade at the level of oxygen uptake into mitochondria, and unless this blockade is reversed it will lead to cell death and brain tissue necrosis in the affected regions. PMID:14962642

  15. Abuse of silver-nitrate solution for planing periorbital folds.

    PubMed

    Schepler, Hadrian; Kessler, Jens; Hartmann, Bernd

    2002-02-01

    When using a Hollensteinstift to treat periorbital folds a 28-year-old female patient perceived a chemical burn of the lower lids and the periorbital regions. The initial treatment was frequent washing with soap solution and topical panthenol ointment. This unusual case is demonstrated to show the risks of improper use of silver-nitrate solution and to discuss therapeutic options. PMID:11834338

  16. Lipoma Arborescens: Review of an Uncommon Cause for Swelling of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    De Vleeschhouwer, M.; Van Den Steen, E.; Vanderstraeten, G.; Huysse, W.; De Neve, J.; Vanden Bossche, L.

    2016-01-01

    Lipoma arborescens is a rare cause of chronic monoarticular arthritis, with only a few cases reported in the literature. It is most commonly seen in the knee, but cases in other joints such as the wrist, shoulder, and elbow have also been described. It is a benign condition, in which the subsynovial tissue is replaced diffusely by mature fat cells. We describe a case involving the knee and discuss the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:27293937

  17. Subcutaneous and periorbital emphysema following dental procedure.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, David; Davis, Richard M; Lee, Lyndon B

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous emphysema following a dental procedure is a relatively uncommon phenomenon that may produce a dramatic clinical presentation. The advent of high-powered dental equipment that uses directed and highly pressurized air has increased the risk of this complication, but few cases have been described in the ophthalmic literature. The authors present a case of subcutaneous periorbital emphysema in a young woman following a dental procedure. Aside from a temporary ptosis, there were no other ophthalmic complications. An attempt to decompress the air produced minimal relief. The condition resolved spontaneously within 1 week. PMID:24614564

  18. Trabeculectomy trapdoor separation with allergic periorbital dermatitis: an unusual late-onset complication of guarded filtration surgery.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Kenneth G-J; Adler, Paul A; Goldberg, Ivan

    2007-08-01

    Hypotony post trabeculectomy may be the result of excessive aqueous outflow. Herein a case of an elderly man with excessive filtration 2 years post trabeculectomy resulting from trapdoor separation associated with allergic periorbital dermatitis is presented. Quaternary ammonium compounds are a significant cause of allergic periorbital dermatitis. Chronic rubbing associated with allergies to multiple topical quaternary ammonium compound-containing ophthalmic preparations is likely to have contributed to the trapdoor autotrauma and separation in this man with a background of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:17760641

  19. Reconstruction of periorbital soft tissue defects.

    PubMed

    Berli, Jens U; Merbs, Shannath L; Grant, Michael P

    2014-10-01

    Because of the complex anatomy and fine mechanics of the periorbital soft tissues, the reconstruction of this region can be particularly daunting. Through a structured assessment of the defect, based on subunit analysis and thorough understanding of the surgical layers, we believe to allow the reconstructive surgeon to develop an algorithmic approach to these complex problems. The sequela of a suboptimal reconstruction do not only result in an inferior aesthetic result, but also have the potential for long-term functional problems such as epiphora, dry eye, ptosis, eyelid retraction, and thus requiring secondary surgery. There is no better time to aim for a perfect reconstruction than at the time of the initial surgery. In this chapter, we hope to encourage the reader to strengthen and recapitulate these analytical skills and present the most commonly used and studied techniques to help achieve a reproducible functional and aesthetically appealing result. PMID:25397712

  20. Comprehensive Treatment of Periorbital Region with Hyaluronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Bruna Souza Felix; Rocha, Camila Roos Mariano Da; Bastos, Julien Toni De; Silva, Priscila Mara Chaves E

    2015-06-01

    The periorbital subunit is one of the first facial regions to show signs of aging, primarily due to volume depletion of the soft tissue and bony resorption. Surgical and office-based nonsurgical procedures form an important basis for periorbital rejuvenation. It is important to make a detailed clinical evaluation of the patient to indicate the most appropriate procedure to be performed. With the objective of showing a nonsurgical procedure for the rejuvenation of the periorbital area, the authors describe a technique of applying fillers in the upper and lower periorbital regions, paying attention to the anatomy of this facial region and the type of product to be used besides the expected results of the procedure and its possible adverse effects and complications. The nonsurgical rejuvenation of the periorbicular region with hyaluronic acid is a new and innovative technique. In the opinion of the authors, it is a great aesthetic impact area and consequently brings high satisfaction to patients. PMID:26155325

  1. Comprehensive Treatment of Periorbital Region with Hyaluronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Camila Roos Mariano Da; Bastos, Julien Toni De; Silva, Priscila Mara Chaves e

    2015-01-01

    The periorbital subunit is one of the first facial regions to show signs of aging, primarily due to volume depletion of the soft tissue and bony resorption. Surgical and office-based nonsurgical procedures form an important basis for periorbital rejuvenation. It is important to make a detailed clinical evaluation of the patient to indicate the most appropriate procedure to be performed. With the objective of showing a nonsurgical procedure for the rejuvenation of the periorbital area, the authors describe a technique of applying fillers in the upper and lower periorbital regions, paying attention to the anatomy of this facial region and the type of product to be used besides the expected results of the procedure and its possible adverse effects and complications. The nonsurgical rejuvenation of the periorbicular region with hyaluronic acid is a new and innovative technique. In the opinion of the authors, it is a great aesthetic impact area and consequently brings high satisfaction to patients. PMID:26155325

  2. Ocular findings in a case of periorbital giant congenital melanocytic nevus

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Usha K.; Seth, Anisha; Gupta, Anika; Batta, Supriya

    2014-01-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevus (GCMN) is a large melanocytic nevus that rarely occurs in the periorbital region. Various systemic, as well as ophthalmic associations, have been reported with GCMN. However, there is only one case report describing ophthalmic findings in periorbital GCMN. We describe the ocular findings in a case of periorbital GCMN. PMID:25378884

  3. Avoiding and managing complications in the periorbital area and midface.

    PubMed

    Undavia, Satyen; Yoo, Donald B; Nassif, Paul S

    2015-05-01

    The eyes play a central role in the perception of facial beauty. The goal of periorbital rejuvenation surgery is to restore youthful proportions and focus attention on the eyes. Blepharoplasty is the third most common cosmetic procedure performed today. Because of the attention placed on the periorbital region, preventing and managing complications is important. Obtaining a thorough preoperative history and physical examination can significantly reduce the incidence of many of the complications. This article focuses on the preoperative evaluation as it relates to preventable complications, followed by common intraoperative and postoperative complications and their management. PMID:25921575

  4. [Cosmetic blepharoplasty complicated by necrotizing periorbital fasciitis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Laouar, K; Ruban, J-M; Baggio, E; Dupeyron, G

    2012-06-01

    Necrotizing periorbital or palpebro-orbital fasciitis represents a unique anatomical site for necrotizing fasciitis, which is an extremely rare and very severe, potentially devastating bacterial infection, rapidly leading to facial necrosis with loss of vision and even death of the patient from toxic shock. In this paper, we report a case of necrotizing periorbital fasciitis as a complication of cosmetic lower eyelid blepharoplasty. Necrotizing fasciitis most often affects the upper and lower limbs, the trunk and the perineal area. It is rarely observed in the facial region due to the rich blood supply in this area. The most commonly implicated pathogen is group A, β-hemolytic "pyogenic"Streptococcus, either alone or in combination with other bacteria, such as staphylococcus or pseudomonas. Mortality varies according to the series and anatomical site. The mortality rate for necrotizing fasciitis is approximately 28 %. It is slightly lower in the periorbital area (15 %). Risk factors for death include alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, immunocompromise, hematologic or pulmonary diseases, and the identity of the causative agent (group A Streptococcus), although approximately 50 % of patients have no predisposing conditions. Management of periorbital necrotizing fasciitis is based on early detection of initial symptoms and on aggressive multidisciplinary treatment including surgical debridement of necrotic areas and antibiotic coverage. The timeliness of treatment and the multidisciplinary approach are considered to be the two essential factors in influencing the mortality and morbidity of this condition. PMID:22633216

  5. Clinical outcome of surgical treatment for periorbital basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Ogawa, Yutaka; Suzuki, Kenji; Kushida, Satoshi; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has a predilection for the periorbital region, which is a special, prominent, cosmetic, functional area to protect the eyeball. For squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma, extensive resection with reconstruction is performed. In contrast, for BCC, resection is often confined to a small to medium-sized area, necessitating higher-quality reconstructive surgery. We analyze the surgical outcomes of treatment for periorbital BCC, and evaluate reconstruction method after resection. Forty-nine patients with periorbital BCC had surgery in our hospital over 20 years. Age, gender of the patients, and size, localization, and histology of the tumor, and surgical procedures, and their early and late complications were analyzed retrospectively. BCC was most frequently occurred in the lower lid (55%), followed by inner canthus (19%), upper lid (17%), and outer canthus (9%). The histologic classifications were solid (80%), morphea (7%), mix (7%), superficial (2%), keratotic (2%), and adenoid (2%). Recurrence of the tumor was observed in 2 advanced cases in patients treated with resection of the tumor including surrounding tissue 5 mm from the margin. A rotation advancement cheek flap procedure was most frequently applied. Horizontal shift of the skin was most effective to prevent postoperative lagophthalmos. BCC occurred most frequently in the lower lid within the periorbital area. Rotation advancement of cheek flap with horizontal shift of the skin is most effective procedure in both appearance and function of the eyelid. PMID:19801921

  6. Industrial-grade silicone injections causing intermittent bilateral malar swelling: review of safety and efficacy of techniques and products available.

    PubMed

    Seward, Austin C; Meara, Daniel J

    2013-07-01

    Silicone and other fillers have become a popular aid to increase soft tissue density, decrease static skin rhytids, and treat muscle wasting, particularly in the face. As a result, injectable silicone has become popular in patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has been postulated that highly active antiretroviral therapy detrimentally induces the physiologic process of fat atrophy of the temporal and buccal fat pads of the face and regional fat wasting of the arms, legs, and buttocks and that HIV protease inhibitors may induce fat atrophy by binding and inhibiting homologous human proteins that are involved in fat metabolism. The classic hollowed-out facial appearance linked to HIV positivity can have detrimental social implications in infected patients who are otherwise very functional. In consequence, facial implantation, fat transplantation, and dermal and subcutaneous fillers have been used to aid in the restoration of facial appearance. This report describes the case of a patient who underwent multiple rounds of silicone injections and complained of intermittent facial swelling and pain long after the injections. The authors report on the safety of specific medical-grade injectable fillers and techniques found to be safely effective, especially in the HIV-positive population. PMID:23522770

  7. Periorbital cellulits – a mistaken diagnosis!

    PubMed Central

    Fozard, Julia; Pandya, Nikila; Pulikot, Ashok; Fish, David; Malhotra, Raman; Lake, Damian

    2011-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl presented with a 1 week history of orbital swelling associated with granuloma, purulent discharge from the eye and preauricular and submandibular lymphadenopathy. Initial conventional treatment for presumed preseptal cellulitis was unsuccessful. Despite treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics, the preseptal cellulitis progressed to orbital cellulitis with restriction of eye movements in addition to the marked conjunctival chemosis and haemorrhage. A detailed history revealed she had been in close contact with newborn kittens at home and biopsy of the granuloma demonstrated Bartonella species, confirming the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. The child received a course of appropriate oral and topical antibiotics and steroids. Unfortunately eyesight in the right eye remains poor on follow-up. PMID:22688944

  8. Delayed Periorbital Abscess after Silicone Implant to Orbital Floor Fracture.

    PubMed

    Dedhia, Raj; Tollefson, Travis T

    2016-06-01

    There is a lack of consensus regarding preferred implant materials for orbital floor fracture reconstruction, leading to surgeon- and institution-dependent preferences. A variety of implants are used for orbital floor fracture reconstruction, each with their own complication profile. Knowledge of different implant materials is critical to identifying complications when they present. We report a delayed periorbital abscess 5 years after orbital floor reconstruction using a silicone implant. PMID:27162580

  9. A technique for periorbital syringomas: intralesional radiofrequency ablation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Leng; Wang, Xing-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Jiang, Tian-Yu; Lin, Bi-Weng

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy of intralesional radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of periorbital syringomas. METHODS We tried the intralesional radiofrequency ablation for 64 patients with periorbital syringomas from 2007 to 2011. The operation was performed under 2.5 loupe magnifications. The handpiece was assembled with a needle electrode and connected to the radiofrequency ablation apparatus. The electrode was then inserted into the target lesions in dermis and delivering injury to the base of these tumors. Results were assessed clinically by comparing pre- and post-treatment photographs and patient satisfaction rates. RESULTS Clinical improvement increased with each subsequent treatment session. The percent of patients whose clinic improvement grade were≥3 after each session was respectively 71.9%(Session1), 83.3%(Session2), and 100%(Session3). The statistical results indicated the concordance of the clinical assessment and the satisfaction level of patients (kappa=0.78 of the session1; kappa=0.82 of the session2). The majority of patients had good or excellent cosmetic results. Postoperatively, there were no permanent side effects or recurrences. CONCLUSION As a new technique of minimally invasion, the intralesional radiofrequency ablation was found to be an effective, inexpensive, highly precise and safe way of treating periorbital syringomas. PMID:22762046

  10. Dermafrac™: an innovative new treatment for periorbital melanosis in a dark-skinned male patient.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Kanika; Kassir, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Periorbital melanosis (under eye dark circles) is an often idiopathic cosmetically disturbing condition that is poorly responsive to currently available treatment modalities. We present the case of a 48-year-old man (skin phototype V) with significant idiopathic periorbital melanosis and who had good to excellent reduction in periorbital melanosis with the new DermaFrac™, which combines microneedling with simultaneous infusion of a serum containing active ingredients. The possible mechanisms of benefit are discussed. DermaFrac™ may be an innovative and effective new treatment option for patients with periorbital melanosis. PMID:24163534

  11. Dermafrac™: An Innovative New Treatment for Periorbital Melanosis in a Dark-Skinned Male Patient

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Kanika; Kassir, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Periorbital melanosis (under eye dark circles) is an often idiopathic cosmetically disturbing condition that is poorly responsive to currently available treatment modalities. We present the case of a 48-year-old man (skin phototype V) with significant idiopathic periorbital melanosis and who had good to excellent reduction in periorbital melanosis with the new DermaFrac™, which combines microneedling with simultaneous infusion of a serum containing active ingredients. The possible mechanisms of benefit are discussed. DermaFrac™ may be an innovative and effective new treatment option for patients with periorbital melanosis. PMID:24163534

  12. Balance of unidirectional monovalent ion fluxes in cells undergoing apoptosis: why does Na+/K+ pump suppression not cause cell swelling?

    PubMed

    Yurinskaya, Valentina E; Rubashkin, Andrey A; Vereninov, Alexey A

    2011-05-01

    Cells dying according to the apoptotic program, unlike cells dying via an unprogrammed mode, are able to avoid swelling and osmotic bursting with membrane disruption.There are indications that apoptosis is accompanied by suppression of the Na+/K+ pump and changes in the K+ and Cl− channels. It remains unclear how ion fluxes through individual ion pathways are integrated so as to induce loss of intracellular ions and concomitant apoptotic volume decrease. A decrease in activity of the sodium pump during apoptosis should cause cell swelling rather than shrinkage. We have made the first systemic analysis of the monovalent ion flux balance in apoptotic cells. Experimental data were obtained for human U937 cells treated with staurosporine for 4–5 h, which is known to induce apoptosis. The data include cellular Cl− content and fluxes, K+, Na+, water content and ouabain-sensitive and -resistant Rb+ fluxes.Unidirectional monovalent ion fluxeswere calculated using these data and a cell model comprising the double Donnan system with the Na+/K+ pump, Cl−, K+, Na+ channels, the Na+–K+–2Cl−cotransporter (NKCC), the Na+–Cl− cotransporter (NC), and the equivalent Cl−/Cl− exchange.Apoptotic cell shrinkage was found to be caused, depending on conditions, either by an increase in the integral channel permeability of membrane for K+ or by suppression of the pump coupledwith a decrease in the integral channel permeability of membrane for Na+. The decrease in the channel permeability of membrane for Na+ plays a crucial role in cell dehydration in apoptosis accompanied by suppression of the pump. Supplemental Table S1 is given for easy calculating flux balance under specified conditions. PMID:21486767

  13. Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the orbit presenting with massive bilateral periorbital tumors

    PubMed Central

    TŐRŐK-VISTAI, TÜNDE; BOJAN, ANCA; CUCUIANU, ANDREI; ZSOLDOS, ANDREA

    2013-01-01

    Extranodal onset can be seen in approximately 25–40% of the cases of non- Hodgkin lymphomas and diagnosis is often difficult due to nonspecific symptoms. Orbital lymphomas represent approximately 50% of the orbital malignancies. Common symptoms and signs at presentation are: palpable tumor, exophtalmia, dyplopia and decreased vision. Diagnosis can be made only by biopsy and early treatment is important in order to increase the chance of cure. We present the case of a patient whose diagnosis and treatment were delayed due to refusal of biopsy and, although complete remission of lymphoma was obtained, the vision loss was permanent because of prolonged compression on the optic nerves. A particularity of this case is the presence of massive periorbital tumors on admission to the hospital, incorporating the eye globes completely and causing impressive facial deformity. PMID:26527983

  14. Orbital and Periorbital Extension of Congenital Dacryocystoceles: Suggested Mechanism and Management.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Francesco P; Cetinkaya, Altug; Capris, Paolo; Rossi, Andrea; Kaynak, Pelin; Katowitz, James A

    2014-09-01

    Orbital and periorbital extension of congenital dacryocystoceles is rarely observed in neonatal infants. The authors describe 4 cases of congenital dacryocystocele that presented with extension to the orbital and periorbital regions. The first 3 newborns underwent marsupialization of the orbital and periorbital dacryocystoceles with aspiration of the purulent material followed by nasolacrimal duct probing after radiographic evidence of diffuse orbital or periorbital expansion. The fourth patient was successfully treated with an external dacryocystorhinostomy with excision of the enlarged cystic walls. Transconjunctival orbitotomy with sac marsupialization followed by nasolacrimal intubation can provide immediate and permanent resolutions of this unusual complication in most instances. External dacryocystorhinostomy may be required, however, when the orbital or periorbital dacryocystocele is complicated by acute or recurrent dacryocystitis. PMID:25186216

  15. How can periorbital oedema and ecchymose be reduced in rhinoplasty?

    PubMed

    Caglar, Erdem; Celebi, Saban; Topak, Murat; Develioglu, Necati Omer; Yalcin, Enis; Kulekci, Mehmet

    2016-09-01

    Oedema and ecchymose are frequent morbidities of septorhinoplasty, a facial surgical procedure for reforming the shape and functions of the nose. Periorbital oedema (PO) and periorbital ecchymose (PE) are normal occurrences, but are undesirable for patients undergoing the procedure for aesthetic purposes. The present study examined 65 patients who underwent open technique septorhinoplasty for aesthetic and functional complaints. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 patients underwent lateral osteotomy following tip plasty, at the end of the surgical operation; Group 2 patients underwent lateral osteotomy before tip plasty, at the beginning of the surgical operation. Patients were followed on the postoperative first, third and seventh days. PO and PE values of patients were scored from 0 to 4. The plastering time (Pt) was significantly shorter for Group I than Group II (p < 0.05). The total surgical time (T) showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). The PO value at the first, third and seventh days was significantly smaller for Group I than Group II (p < 0.05). The PE value at the first, third and seventh days was also significantly smaller for Group I than Group II (p < 0.05). The obtained data indicate that performing a lateral osteotomy in the final stages of surgery, and subsequently applying a nasal plaster and splint as rapidly as possible, decreases PO and PE in the postoperative period. PMID:26837508

  16. The Tricky Tear Trough: A Review of Topical Cosmeceuticals for Periorbital Skin Rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, Stacey J; Belden, Sarah; Miller, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing demand for noninvasive anti-aging products for which the periorbital region serves as a critical aspect of facial rejuvenation. This article reviews a multitude of cosmeceutical ingredients that have good scientific data, specifically for the periorbital region. Topical treatment options have exponentially grown from extensively studied retinoids, to recently developed technology, such as growth factors and peptides. With a focus on the periorbital anatomy, the authors review the mechanisms of action of topical cosmeceutical ingredients, effectiveness of ingredient penetration through the stratum corneum, and validity of clinical trials. PMID:26430490

  17. Periorbital varicella gangrenosa: A rare complication of chicken pox.

    PubMed

    Jain, Jagriti; Thatte, Shreya; Singhai, Prakhar

    2015-01-01

    A previously healthy six year old male child presented in pediatrics ICU in state of shock with history of fever and rashes and later was diagnosed as chicken pox. He developed right sided periorbital varicella gangrenosa which is a form of necrotizing fasciitis secondary to skin infection. Patient was treated with intravenous acyclovir, antibiotics, amphotericin B, extensive debridement and later reconstruction of upper eyelid with skin grafting. Aggressive treatment helped preventing the eyeball and orbital involvement which would have necessitated orbital exenteration. However delayed presentation resulted in necrosis of orbicularis oculi and underlying tissue which resulted in graft retraction and lid dysfunction. Clinicians should be aware of this rare but fulminating condition to minimise the sight and life threatening complications associated with it. PMID:25709281

  18. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  19. Physiological and lifestyle factors contributing to risk and severity of peri-orbital dark circles in the Brazilian population*

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Mary S; Schalka, Sérgio; Vanderover, Garrett; Fthenakis, Christina G.; Christopher, J; Bombarda, Patricia Camarano Pinto; Bueno, Juliana Regina; Viscomi, Bianca Lenci Inácio; Bombarda Júnior, Mário Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Peri-orbital dark circles are a cosmetic concern worldwide, and have been attributed to hyperpigmentation from allergy or atopic dermatitis, blood stasis, structural shadowing effects, and a thin epidermis/dermis under the eye. It is of interest to better understand lifestyle and demographic risk factors and the relative impact of melanin, blood and epidermal/dermal factors on the severity of Peri-orbital dark circles. OBJECTIVE To compare by non-invasive imaging the impact of biological factors to a visual grading scale for Peri-orbital dark circles, and test the correlation of various demographic factors with Peri-orbital dark circles. METHODS Subjects completed a lifestyle and health survey, and Peri-orbital dark circles severity was evaluated using standardized photographs. Hyperspectral image analysis was used to assess the contributions of melanin, blood volume, degree of blood oxygen saturation, and dermal scattering. RESULTS Family history was the most significant risk factor for Peri-orbital dark circles. The average age of onset was 24 years, and earlier onset correlated with higher severity scores. Asthma was significantly associated with Peri-orbital dark circles scores, but self-reported allergy was not. In this study, sleep was not correlated with Peri-orbital dark circles scores. Hyperspectral imaging indicated that melanin was the dominant correlate for Peri-orbital dark circles severity, while oxygen saturation was secondary. The difference between under-eye and cheek measurements for ∆L*and ∆E* were the most significant instrumental parameters correlated with visual assessment of Peri-orbital dark circles severity. CONCLUSION Although typically associated with lack of sleep, risk of Peri-orbital dark circles is primarily hereditary. The main factors contributing to the appearance of Peri-orbital dark circles are melanin and (deoxygenated) blood. PMID:26375218

  20. A temperature-sensitive allele of a putative mRNA splicing helicase down-regulates many cell wall genes and causes radial swelling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Howles, Paul A; Gebbie, Leigh K; Collings, David A; Varsani, Arvind; Broad, Ronan C; Ohms, Stephen; Birch, Rosemary J; Cork, Ann H; Arioli, Tony; Williamson, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    The putative RNA helicase encoded by the Arabidopsis gene At1g32490 is a homolog of the yeast splicing RNA helicases Prp2 and Prp22. We isolated a temperature-sensitive allele (rsw12) of the gene in a screen for root radial swelling mutants. Plants containing this allele grown at the restrictive temperature showed weak radial swelling, were stunted with reduced root elongation, and contained reduced levels of cellulose. The role of the protein was further explored by microarray analysis. By using both fold change cutoffs and a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to investigate coexpression of genes, we found that the radial swelling phenotype was not linked to genes usually associated with primary cell wall biosynthesis. Instead, the mutation has strong effects on expression of secondary cell wall related genes. Many genes potentially associated with secondary walls were present in the most significant WGCNA module, as were genes coding for arabinogalactans and proteins with GPI anchors. The proportion of up-regulated genes that possess introns in rsw12 was above that expected if splicing was unrelated to the activity of the RNA helicase, suggesting that the helicase does indeed play a role in splicing in Arabidopsis. The phenotype may be due to a change in the expression of one or more genes coding for cell wall proteins. PMID:27008640

  1. Bilateral parotid swelling: a radiological review

    PubMed Central

    Gadodia, A; Bhalla, A S; Sharma, R; Thakar, A; Parshad, R

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral parotid swelling is not an uncommon occurrence and may pose a challenge for clinicians and radiologists. Numerous causes of bilateral parotid swellings have been identified. The purpose of this pictorial review is to display this wide array with a focus on multimodality approach. PMID:21960397

  2. Vulval Swelling: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Sapre, Shilpa; Natu, Neeta

    2015-01-01

    Vulval swellings have always caused dilemmas in diagnosis and more so when they are huge in size. Sebaceous cysts are known to occur as a result of blocked pilo-sebaceous gland and duct or as a result of any injury to the skin. Face, neck, chest, back, scalp, and ears are known sites, however, they also occur over private parts. They are mostly asymptomatic but cause intense pain and discomfort if infected. Symptomatic cysts warrant removal. PMID:26538748

  3. Periorbital hyperpigmentation: review of etiology, medical evaluation, and aesthetic treatment.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Wendy E

    2014-04-01

    Periorbital hyperpigmentation (POH) is a common worldwide problem. It is challenging to treat, complex in pathogenesis, and lacking straightforward and repeatable therapeutic options. It may occur in the young and old, however the development of dark circles under the eyes in any age is of great aesthetic concern because it may depict the individual as sad, tired, stressed, and old. While "dark circles" are seen in all skin types, POH is often more commonly seen in skin of color patients worldwide. With a shifting US demographic characterized by growing number of aging patients as well as skin of color patients, we will encounter POH with greater frequency. As forecasted by the US Census, by 2030 1 in 5 Americans will be 65 plus years old and greater than 50% of the population will possess ethnic skin of color. The disparity in the medical community's understanding of POH versus popular demand for treatment is best illustrated when you have only 65 cited articles to date indexed on PubMed line compared to the 150,000,000 results on Google search engine. Most importantly POH may be a final common pathway of dermatitis, allergy, systemic disorders, sleep disturbances, or nutritional deficiences that lends itself to medical, surgical, and cosmeceutical treatments. A complete medical history with ROS and physical examination is encouraged prior to treating the aesthetic component. Sun protection is a cornerstone of therapy. Safety issues are of utmost concern when embarking upon treatments such as chemical peeling, filler injection, and laser therapy as not to worsen the pigmentation. Without intervention, POH usually progresses over time so early intervention and management is encouraged. The objective of this study was to review the current body of knowledge on POH, provide the clinician with a guide to the evaluation and treatment of POH, and to present diverse clinical cases of POH that have responded to different therapies including non-ablative fractional

  4. Comprehensive periorbital rejuvenation with resorbable endotine implants for trans-lid brow and midface elevation.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony P

    2007-05-01

    Periorbital rejuvenation can enhance a patient's appearance, with changes of only a few millimeters making a significant impact. Many patients undergoing blepharoplasty often have mild brow or midfacial changes for which they are unwilling to undergo additional concurrent forehead or midface procedures, however, because these procedures may be associated with an unacceptable postoperative recovery and may not provide adequate tissue fixation. This article describes limited incision procedures capable of providing excellent elevation and support to the brow and midface that can be incorporated easily into a comprehensive periorbital rejuvenation treatment plan using semi-permanent subperiosteal fixation devices. PMID:17544943

  5. Swelling-resistant nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Arsenlis, Athanasios; Satcher, Jr., Joe; Kucheyev, Sergei O.

    2011-12-27

    A nuclear fuel according to one embodiment includes an assembly of nuclear fuel particles; and continuous open channels defined between at least some of the nuclear fuel particles, wherein the channels are characterized as allowing fission gasses produced in an interior of the assembly to escape from the interior of the assembly to an exterior thereof without causing significant swelling of the assembly. Additional embodiments, including methods, are also presented.

  6. Swelling of Olympic Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, M.; Fischer, J.; Werner, M.; Sommer, J.-U.

    2014-06-01

    The swelling equilibrium of Olympic gels, which are composed of entangled cyclic polymers, is studied by Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast to chemically cross-linked polymer networks, we observe that Olympic gels made of chains with a larger degree of polymerization, N, exhibit a smaller equilibrium swelling degree, Q∝N-0.28ϕ0-0.72, at the same polymer volume fraction ϕ0 at network preparation. This observation is explained by a desinterspersion (reorganization with release of nontrapped entanglements) process of overlapping nonconcatenated rings upon swelling.

  7. Periorbital cellulitis in children: Analysis of outcome of intravenous antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rita; Menezes, Carlos; Machado, Rute; Ribeiro, Isabel; Lemos, José A

    2016-08-01

    Periorbital cellulitis is a relatively common ocular disease in the pediatric population. Early diagnosis of this disease with a prompt intervention is critical to avoid vision and life-threatening complications. In the last years, medical therapy has been expanding for the treatment of orbital cellulitis, instead of the standard surgical approach. The purpose of this study was to describe the outcome of treatment with intravenous antibiotic of periorbital cellulitis in children. A retrospective review of all children admitted with periorbital cellulitis in our hospital between January 2002 and July 2013 was conducted. Cases were divided in two subgroups, pre-septal and post-septal infection. The demographics, clinical findings, treatment and outcomes were analyzed. In total 110 children were included, 93 with pre-septal and 17 with post-septal cellulitis. The mean age was 3.5 years in children with pre-septal cellulitis and 5.5 years in those with post-septal cellulitis (p = 0.149). For both subgroups the most common predisposing factor was sinusitis. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was successful in all except one patient with an orbital abscess who required surgical intervention. In our study complete recovery was achieve in all (except for one) children with periorbital cellulitis treated with intravenous antibiotics only. PMID:27192038

  8. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    ... feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... 51. Trayes KP, Studdiford JS, Pickle S, Tully AS. Edema: Diagnosis and management. Am Fam Phys . 2013;88( ...

  9. Swelling of particle-encapsulating random manifolds.

    PubMed

    Haleva, Emir; Diamant, Haim

    2008-08-01

    We study the statistical mechanics of a closed random manifold of fixed area and fluctuating volume, encapsulating a fixed number of noninteracting particles. Scaling analysis yields a unified description of such swollen manifolds, according to which the mean volume gradually increases with particle number, following a single scaling law. This is markedly different from the swelling under fixed pressure difference, where certain models exhibit criticality. We thereby indicate when the swelling due to encapsulated particles is thermodynamically inequivalent to that caused by fixed pressure. The general predictions are supported by Monte Carlo simulations of two particle-encapsulating model systems: a two-dimensional self-avoiding ring and a three-dimensional self-avoiding fluid vesicle. In the former the particle-induced swelling is thermodynamically equivalent to the pressure-induced one, whereas in the latter it is not. PMID:18850811

  10. Bifurcated Superficial Temporal Artery Island Flap for the Reconstruction of a Periorbital Burn: An Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Elbatawy, Amr; Aly, Gaber M.; Ayad, Wael; Helmy, Yasser; Helmy, Emad; Sholkamy, Khallad; Dahshan, Hazem; Al-Hady, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Facial burns represent between one-fourth and one-third of all burns. The long-term sequelae of periorbital burns include significant ectropion and lagophthalmos as a result of secondary burn contractures in the lower and upper eyelids, in addition to complete or incomplete alopecia of the eyebrows. Methods: A retrospective study of 14 reconstructive procedures for 12 postburn faces was conducted with all procedures performed since 2010 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Al-Hussein University Hospital, and at the Craniofacial Unit, Nasser Institute Hospital. Four patients experienced chemical burns, and 8 patients experienced thermal burns. All patients underwent periorbital reconstruction using a bifurcated superficial temporal artery island flap to reconstruct the eyebrows, correct the lagophthalmos, and release the ectropion in both the upper and the lower eyelids. Two patients underwent bilateral periorbital flap reconstruction. The mean age of patients was 29 years, and the study was conducted on 8 males and 4 females. Patient satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire completed by all patients postoperatively. Results: The complete release of both the upper and the lower eyelids was achieved in all cases, together with ideal replacement of brow hair; no complications were noted, apart from one case in which a loss of hair density in the new eyebrow was observed, combined with the partial loss of the flap in the lower eyelid. Patient satisfaction results were collected and assembled in a table. Conclusion: A bifurcated superficial temporal artery island flap is an innovative flap for reconstructing both burned eyebrows and eyelids. PMID:27482487

  11. Diagnosis, management and treatment of orbital and periorbital cellulitis in children.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Fatima; Cannon, Anna; Heaton, Paul Anthony; Paul, Siba Prosad

    2016-04-01

    Children with red swollen eyes frequently present to emergency departments. Some patients will have orbital cellulitis, a condition that requires immediate diagnosis and treatment. Orbital cellulitis can be confused with the less severe, but more frequently encountered, periorbital cellulitis, which requires less aggressive management. Delayed recognition of the signs and symptoms of orbital cellulitis can lead to serious complications such as blindness, meningitis and cerebral abscess. This article describes the clinical features, epidemiology and outcomes of the condition, and discusses management and treatment. It also includes a case study. PMID:27056016

  12. Clinical Photography for Periorbital and Facial Aesthetic Practice

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Santhanam, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    External cutaneous photography involves photographic documentation, which helps in treatment planning, documentation of facial features, teaching, publishing and pre- and post-procedural comparisons. The key is not simply documenting, but documenting it the right way and ensuring that photography is standardised and reproducible. In this review, basic photography techniques, standardised and reproducible angles such as frontal, oblique and lateral views and specific photographic angles for conditions such as facial rejuvenation are discussed. Use of photography accessories and a few tips on how to click good photographs in the examination room and how to achieve consistency in standardised photography are also presented. External photography in ophthalmic and facial plastic surgery like any other speciality too has standardised guidelines. Even small variations cause a drastic change in the photos and it's clinical and research value. Unless stringent criteria are met, the photographs lose their relevance and impact. PMID:27398013

  13. The relationship between water content and swelling parameters of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samet Öngen, Ali; Abiddin Ergüler, Zeynal

    2016-04-01

    The level of swelling dependent damages of low-rising engineering structures constructed on and/or in unsaturated zone of soil deposits is generally controlled by mineralogical compositions and water content of soils. It is well known that seasonal or even daily variations in water content causes volumetric changes within unsaturated zone of a soil composed mainly of swelling type clay minerals. In this regard, in addition to mineralogical composition of soils, water content should be considered as another major factor for understanding swelling behavior of soils. It can be concluded from literature review that swelling parameters of soils were determined by performing experimental studies on dry samples or samples having natural water content without incorporating seasonal continuous variations in water content. Thus, the effect of variation in water content on swelling mechanism of soils is not yet sufficiently studied in previous studies. For achieving accurate understanding of swelling behavior at field conditions, a new approach is required to identify swelling parameter at different initial water content. For this purpose, a comprehensive study was performed to investigate the effect of water content on swelling behavior of soils and to find a new parameter for assessing swelling parameters of samples prepared at different initial water content conditions. Based on main objectives of this study, soil samples having wide range in terms of grain size distributions, mineralogical compositions and Atterberg limits were collected from different locations in Turkey. To minimize the effect of dry unit weight on swelling behavior of soils, samples were prepared at the same dry unit weight (14.6 kN/m3) and different initial water contents. It was determined that there is a linear relationship between initial water content and swelling parameters, and swelling parameters decrease with increasing initial water content conditions. By utilizing this relationship, a new

  14. [Severe stomatitis caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection].

    PubMed

    Barfod, T S; Pedersen, C

    1999-11-15

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is sometimes followed by systemic reactions such as erythema multiforme major/Stevens-Johnsons syndrome. In the described case, a 30 year-old man developed severe inflammation of the oral mucous membranes following respiratory infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae. There was also conjunctivitis and diarrhoea, and a target-like eruption was seen on the penis, but apart from slight perioral erythema and periorbital swelling, no further skin involvement was seen. The patient was treated with macrolide antibiotics for 14 days and gradually recovered. PMID:10611837

  15. The Swelling of Olympic Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Michael; Fischer, Jakob; Werner, Marco; Sommer, Jens-Uwe

    2014-03-01

    The swelling equilibrium of Olympic gels is studied by Monte Carlo Simulations. We observe that gels consisting of flexible cyclic molecules of a higher degree of polymerization N show a smaller equilibrium swelling degree Q ~N - 0 . 28φ0- 0 . 72 for the same monomer volume fraction φ0 at network preparation. This observation is explained by a disinterpenetration process of overlapping non-concatenated polymers upon swelling. In the limit of a sufficiently large number of concatenations per cyclic molecule we expect that the equilibrium degree of swelling becomes proportional to φ0- 1 / 2 independent of N. Our results challenge current textbook models for the equilibrium degree of swelling of entangled polymer networks. Now at: Bio Systems Analysis Group, Jena Centre for Bioinformatics (JCB) and Department for Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany.

  16. Ecthyma gangrenosum in the periorbital region in a previously healthy immunocompetent woman without bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Somenath; Patra, Arnab Kumar; Mondal, Madhumita

    2016-01-01

    Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is a cutaneous lesion classically associated with potentially fatal Pseudomonas septicemia in immunocompromised patients. Other bacterial and fungal pathogens have also been implicated. Although EG typically occurs in immunocompromised or neutropenic patients, it may occasionally affect a previously healthy person. The cutaneous findings are characteristic with small indurated papulovesicles progressing rapidly to necrotic ulcers with surrounding erythema and a central black Eschar. While lesions can occur at any site, most are commonly found over the buttocks, perineum, limbs, and axillae. We describe a case of EG in periorbital region in a previously healthy woman who responded to appropriate antibiotic treatment for Pseudomonas. It is very important to establish the diagnosis early so that appropriate systemic antibiotic therapy can be initiated to reduce morbidity and potential mortality. PMID:26955586

  17. Ecthyma gangrenosum in the periorbital region in a previously healthy immunocompetent woman without bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Somenath; Patra, Arnab Kumar; Mondal, Madhumita

    2016-01-01

    Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is a cutaneous lesion classically associated with potentially fatal Pseudomonas septicemia in immunocompromised patients. Other bacterial and fungal pathogens have also been implicated. Although EG typically occurs in immunocompromised or neutropenic patients, it may occasionally affect a previously healthy person. The cutaneous findings are characteristic with small indurated papulovesicles progressing rapidly to necrotic ulcers with surrounding erythema and a central black Eschar. While lesions can occur at any site, most are commonly found over the buttocks, perineum, limbs, and axillae. We describe a case of EG in periorbital region in a previously healthy woman who responded to appropriate antibiotic treatment for Pseudomonas. It is very important to establish the diagnosis early so that appropriate systemic antibiotic therapy can be initiated to reduce morbidity and potential mortality. PMID:26955586

  18. Foot swelling (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... buildup of fluid in the body is called edema. Edema is commonly seen in the feet and ankles, ... particularly noticeable in these locations. Common causes of edema are prolonged standing, prolonged sitting, pregnancy, being overweight, ...

  19. Neck Swelling (Symptom Checker)

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may have a viral illness or, rarely, GERMAN MEASLES (RUBELLA). If you have a facial rash, ... see your doctor. Stay away from pregnant women. German measles can harm unborn children and cause complications, ...

  20. Aetiopathology of maxillary swelling--a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Deb; Crank, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    A wide variety of lesions and not necessarily a malignant tumour can cause maxillary swelling. Non-specificity of clinical and radiological features of these maxillary lesions makes their diagnosis difficult. Review of literature adds a little regarding the aetiopathological distribution of the various lesions causing maxillary swelling. We present our finding regarding the relative distribution of various conditions causing maxillary swelling. The awareness of the spectrum of pathology related to maxillary swelling is essential for correct diagnosis and treatment. Forty-eight patients who presented with a swelling of the maxilla to our hospital between May 1998 and April 2001 were prospectively studied regarding the clinical presentations, radiological features and histological findings. Maxillary swelling was found to be caused by malignant tumours in 54.2%, benign neoplasms in 22.9% and non-neoplastic lesions in 22.9%. Overall squamous cell carcinoma (22.9%) was the commonest lesion, tumour of vascular origin was the commonest benign neoplasm and odontogenic cyst was the commonest among the non-neoplastic lesions. PMID:17611767

  1. Cavernous sinus thrombosis caused by a dental infection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Gi-Sung; Kim, Hyun Young; Kwak, Eun-Jung; Jung, Young-Soo; Park, Hyung-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Cavernous sinus thrombosis not only presents with constitutional symptoms including fever, pain and swelling but also with specific findings such as proptosis, chemosis, periorbital swelling, and cranial nerve palsies. It is known to occur secondary to the spread of paranasal sinus infections in the nose, ethmoidal and sphenoidal sinuses. However, paranasal sinus infection of dental origin is rare. The following is a case of cavernous sinus thrombosis due to the spread of an abscess in the buccal and pterygomandibular spaces via buccal mucosal laceration. PMID:25247150

  2. The superiority of combined continuous wave Doppler examination over periorbital Doppler for the detection of extracranial carotid disease.

    PubMed Central

    Trockel, U; Hennerici, M; Aulich, A; Sandmann, W

    1984-01-01

    Non-invasive examination of 431 vessels in 333 patients with cerebrovascular disease in all stages was performed in order to compare the reliability of the periorbital Doppler test alone and together with the more difficult insonation of the carotid arteries in the neck (combined Doppler). These findings were compared with those of subsequent arteriography. Extracranial obstructive (greater than 50%) carotid disease was detected with 100% sensitivity by the combined Doppler, but with only 48% sensitivity by the periorbital indirect test. The specific ability of both methods to identify non-stenotic carotid arteries (less than 50%) was similar at about 98%. Only the combined Doppler examination reliably differentiated various degrees of obstruction, comparable to that obtained with arteriography. Non-obstructive plaques could not be detected or excluded by either Doppler test. More refined methods will be necessary for their evaluation. Images PMID:6693913

  3. Rheological behavior of rat mesangial cells during swelling in vitro.

    PubMed

    Craelius, W; Huang, C J; Guber, H; Palant, C E

    1997-01-01

    The response of cells to mechanical forces depends on the rheological properties of their membranes and cytoplasm. To characterize those properties, mechanical and electrical responses to swelling were measured in rat mesangial cells (MC) using electrophysiologic and video microscopic techniques. Ion transport rates during hyposmotic exposures were measured with whole-cell recording electrodes. Results showed that cell swelling varied nonlinearly with positive internal pressure, consistent with a viscoelastic cytoplasm. The extrapolated area expansivity modulus for small deformations was estimated to be 450 dyne/cm. Cell swelling, caused either by positive pipet pressure or hyposmotic exposure (40-60 mOsm Kg-1), rapidly induced an outwardly rectifying membrane conductance with an outward magnitude 4-5 times the baseline conductance of 0.9 +/- 0.5 nS (p < .01). Swelling-induced (SI) current was weakly selective for K+ over Na+, partially reversed upon return to isotonicity, and was antagonized by 0.5 mM GdCl3 (p < 0.02; n = 6). Isolated cells treated with GdCl3 rapidly lysed after hypotonic exposure, in contrast to untreated cells that exhibited regulatory volume decrease (RVD). Our results indicate that volume regulation by MC depends upon a large swelling-induced K+ efflux, and suggest that swelling in MC is a viscoelastic process, with a viscosity dependent on the degree of swelling. PMID:9640355

  4. Cheek and periorbital peculiar discoid lupus erythematosus: rare clinical presentation mimicking tinea faciei, cutaneous granulomatous disease or blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Yamada, Tomoko; Umemoto, Naoka; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Wakatabi, Koji; Iida, Eri; Masaki, Masumi; Kakurai, Maki; Demitsu, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    We present clinically peculiar facial discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) that mimicked tinea faciei. Although DLE is a chronic autoimmune dermatosis, it has a variety of rare clinical presentations, including periorbital DLE, comedonic DLE and hypertrophic DLE recently. In this case, a scaly, erythematous lesion on the eyelid and the central healed, mildly elevated, annularly distributed facial DLE mimicked tinea faciei, complicating our diagnosis. PMID:25969679

  5. [Extensive swelling reaction after a pentavalent vaccination].

    PubMed

    Gébus, M; Barbier, C; Bost-Bru, C; Michard-Lenoir, A P; Plantaz, D

    2015-09-01

    Injection site reactions (ISRs) are quite common side effects defined by a local adverse drug reaction directly caused by a vaccine. Twenty-four hours after an intramuscular injection (in the deltoid muscle) of the diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenza type b (DTPCa-Hib) combined vaccine, a 3-year-old boy developed fever. A few hours later, local redness and swelling appeared at the injection site, with rapid extension to the entire limb, it was pain-free, and no other clinical anomalies were present. The patient received intravenous antibiotics for suspected cellulitis. The progression was favorable in 12h (apyrexia and decreased limb swelling), allowing the intravenous antibiotic treatment to be discontinued. Since the child was in excellent general health and recovery was fast, an ISR was diagnosed. Extensive limb swelling is frequent, mostly after the fourth dose of DTPCa-Hib. Deltoid muscle injection of DTP vaccine increases the risk of ISR compared to injection in the thigh, before the age of 3 years. The introduction of acellular pertussis vaccine decreased the risk of general side effects but may increase the risk of ISR. These reactions disappear with symptomatic treatment and do not contraindicate the product. PMID:26239287

  6. Malignant hair follicle tumors of the periorbital region: A review of literature and suggestion of a management guideline.

    PubMed

    Sia, Paul Ikgan; Figueira, Edwin; Allende, Alexandra; Selva, Dinesh

    2016-06-01

    Malignant hair follicle tumors are rare skin adnexal malignancies that have a predilection for the head and neck region. They can be categorized into a number of different subtypes. Histologically, they are distinct from their benign counterpart. To the best of our knowledge, there is no extensive review of these malignancies, especially in the periorbital region. We aim to provide a literature review and a guideline for management of these malignant tumors in the periorbital region. Database from Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were consulted. A total of 16 cases from the literature on hair follicle malignancies in the periorbital region were included in this review. The clinical presentations, diagnostic patterns, investigations used, and best management approach of these tumors are discussed. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7(th) edition carcinoma of the eyelid staging system was used to describe their behaviors. We recommend wide excision surgery and a close follow-up for these tumors. Tumors presenting with a late stage require work-up for distant metastasis and consideration for exenteration procedures. The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in this context is still uncertain. PMID:27171562

  7. Managing Local Swelling Following Intratumoral Electro-Chemo-Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cutrera, Jeffry; King, Glenn; Jones, Pamela; Gumpel, Elias; Xia, Xueqing

    2014-01-01

    Summary Delivering genes and other materials directly into the tumor tissue causes specifically localized and powerfully enhanced efficacy of treatments; however, these specific effects can cause rapid, drastic changes in the appearance, texture, and consistency of the tumor. These changes complicate clinical response measurements which can confound the results and render recurring treatments difficult to perform and clinical response measurements nearly impossible to accurately obtain. One of these complicating issues is local swelling. Here, we will demonstrate how swelling caused by intratumoral gene treatments can confound the clinical results and impede further treatments, and we will demonstrate an easy technique to help to overcome this potential hurdle. PMID:24510827

  8. Postoperative Submandibular Gland Swelling following Craniotomy under General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Haruka; Tono, Tetsuya; Ibusuki, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Reporting of a rare case of postoperative submandibular gland swelling following craniotomy. Case Report. A 33-year-old male underwent resection for a brain tumor under general anesthesia. The tumor was resected via a retrosigmoid suboccipital approach and the patient was placed in a lateral position with his face down and turned to the right. Slight swelling of the right submandibular gland was observed just after the surgery. Seven hours after surgery, edematous change around the submandibular gland worsened and he required emergent reintubation due to airway compromise. The cause of submandibular gland swelling seemed to be an obstruction of the salivary duct due to surgical positioning. Conclusion. Once submandibular swelling and edematous change around the submandibular gland occur, they can worsen and compromise the air way within several hours after operation. Adequate precaution must be taken for any predisposing skull-base surgery that requires strong cervical rotation and flexion. PMID:26697254

  9. Rate dependence of swelling in lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, KY; Siegel, JB; Secondo, L; Kim, SU; Samad, NA; Qin, JW; Anderson, D; Garikipati, K; Knobloch, A; Epureanu, BI; Monroe, CW; Stefanopoulou, A

    2014-12-01

    Swelling of a commercial 5 Ah lithium-ion cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. In combination with sensitive displacement measurements, knowledge of the electrode configuration within this prismatic cell's interior allows macroscopic deformations of the casing to be correlated to electrochemical and mechanical transformations in individual anode/separator/cathode layers. Thermal expansion and interior charge state are both found to cause significant swelling. At low rates, where thermal expansion is negligible, the electrode sandwich dilates by as much as 1.5% as the charge state swings from 0% to 100% because of lithium-ion intercalation. At high rates a comparably large residual swelling was observed at the end of discharge. Thermal expansion caused by joule heating at high discharge rate results in battery swelling. The changes in displacement with respect to capacity at low rate correlate well with the potential changes known to accompany phase transitions in the electrode materials. Although the potential response changes minimally with the C-rate, the extent of swelling varies significantly, suggesting that measurements of swelling may provide a sensitive gauge for characterizing dynamic operating states. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. DCPIB is a novel selective blocker of ICl,swell and prevents swelling-induced shortening of guinea-pig atrial action potential duration

    PubMed Central

    Decher, Niels; Lang, Hans J; Nilius, Bernd; Brüggemann, Andrea; Busch, Andreas E; Steinmeyer, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    We identified the ethacrynic-acid derivative DCPIB as a potent inhibitor of ICl,swell, which blocks native ICl,swell of calf bovine pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells with an IC50 of 4.1 μM. Similarly, 10 μM DCPIB almost completely inhibited the swelling-induced chloride conductance in Xenopus oocytes and in guinea-pig atrial cardiomyocytes. Block of ICl,swell by DCPIB was fully reversible and voltage independent.DCPIB (10 μM) showed selectivity for ICl,swell and had no significant inhibitory effects on ICl,Ca in CPAE cells, on chloride currents elicited by several members of the CLC-chloride channel family or on the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (hCFTR) after heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. DCPIB (10 μM) also showed no significant inhibition of several native anion and cation currents of guinea pig heart like ICl,PKA, IKr, IKs, IK1, INa and ICa.In all atrial cardiomyocytes (n=7), osmotic swelling produced an increase in chloride current and a strong shortening of the action potential duration (APD). Both swelling-induced chloride conductance and AP shortening were inhibited by treatment of swollen cells with DCPIB (10 μM). In agreement with the selectivity for ICl,swell, DCPIB did not affect atrial APD under isoosmotic conditions.Preincubation of atrial cardiomyocytes with DCPIB (10 μM) completely prevented both the swelling-induced chloride currents and the AP shortening but not the hypotonic cell swelling.We conclude that swelling-induced AP shortening in isolated atrial cells is mainly caused by activation of ICl,swell. DCPIB therefore is a valuable pharmacological tool to study the role of ICl,swell in cardiac excitability under pathophysiological conditions leading to cell swelling. PMID:11724753

  11. A recent case of periorbital necrotizing fasciitis--presentation to definitive reconstruction within an in-theater combat hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Casey, Kevin; Cudjoe, Peter; Green, J Marshall; Valerio, Ian L

    2014-07-01

    First described in 1924, necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rapidly progressing, severe suppurative infection of the superficial fascia, often associated with vascular thrombosis and necrosis of the overlying skin. Despite advances in medical therapy, the mortality remains high, with rates exceeding 25 to 50% in some studies. Early diagnosis and treatment is paramount in the management of this serious infection and should include wide surgical debridement and drainage of all necrotic tissues, coupled with aggressive parenteral antibiotics. This infectious process has been commonly associated with traumatic events in patients with compromised immune systems, diabetes, chronic steroid use, and alcoholism. The common microbacterial organisms associated with necrotizing fasciitis include Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and less commonly, facultative and anaerobic microorganisms. Most cases typically present in the extremities, trunk, and/or groin regions. Although this virulent soft tissue infection can occur within the face and neck areas, cases of isolated periorbital NF have been relatively uncommon. However, head and neck cases of NF have had high associated morbidity and mortality rates. In recent publications, the reported mortality rate for isolated periorbital NF was not insignificant, ranging from 8.5 to 12.5%. The prognosis, morbidity, and mortality rates will be greatly increased in those patients who present late in the infectious phase, have a delay in diagnosis and/or treatment, or who demonstrate extension of this virulent infection into the face, cervical, or sternal/mediastinal regions. An aggressive multimodal approach is required in treating periorbital necrotizing infection, with the main tenant remaining wide and adequate surgical debridement of affected tissues. This difficult clinical situation can create a subsequent challenge with respect to achieving good functional and cosmetic outcomes in those patients with periorbital NF

  12. The Freestyle Facial Artery Perforator Flap for Reconstruction of Simultaneous Periorbital and Cheek Defects.

    PubMed

    Horta, Ricardo; Teixeira, Sergio; Nascimento, Ricardo; Silva, Alvaro; Amarante, Jose

    2016-07-01

    The reconstruction of defects involving the nasolabial, paranasal, and periorbital regions may be challenging, because they often involve more than one facial aesthetic unit, and can lead to functional problems. An average of 5 facial artery perforators of caliber >0.5 mm can be found above the mandible. A reference point for the location of the most constantly encountered perforator was suggested as being 1.5 cm lateral to the oral commissure, and at its same level in height or slightly inferior to the commissure. Based on injection studies, it is known that these perforators can supply an average area of 8 cm. The authors have extended the use of the freestyle perforator flap in a 87-year-old woman presented with an advanced melanoma of the paranasal area and nasolabial region (Breslow depth: 9 mm; Clark level V). Complete resection of the lesion with 3 cm oncological margins was performed. One-stage reconstruction with superior cosmetic results was achieved. The need for a perforator dissection is not necessarily a drawback, and classic concerns should be abandoned. The face is highly vascularized, and flap congestion is a rare event, usually a consequence of excessive pedicle trimming. Although technically more demanding, it should become one of the first reconstructive options when dealing with similar defects, if our results are confirmed in larger series. PMID:27391517

  13. Periorbital Lipogranuloma after Facial Autologous Fat Injection and Its Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate periorbital lipogranuloma cases that developed after autologous fat injection and to determine various treatment outcomes from these cases. Methods This retrospective study involved 27 patients who presented with periocular mass (final diagnosis of lipogranuloma) and had history of facial autologous fat injection. The collected data included information on patient sex, age, clinical presentation, number and site of fat injections, interval between injections, duration from injection to symptom onset, fat harvesting site, use of cryopreservation, and treatment outcome. Results The most common presenting symptom was palpable mass (92.6%), followed by blepharoptosis and eyelid edema. The mean time from injection to symptom onset was 13.6 ± 29.2 months (range, 2 to 153 months). Patients were managed by intralesional triamcinolone injection (six patients) and surgical excision (three patients); 18 patients were followed without treatment. Among the six patients who underwent intralesional triamcinolone injection, five showed complete resolution, and one showed partial resolution. Among the 18 patients who were followed without management, three showed spontaneous resolution over a 5-month follow-up period. Conclusions Lipogranuloma can develop in the eyelid after autologous fat injection into the face. Both surgical excision and intralesional triamcinolone injection yield relatively good outcomes. Simple observation can be a good option because spontaneous resolution can occur in a subset of patients. PMID:26865798

  14. A Comparative Study of Two Modalities, 4% Hydroquinone Versus 30% Salicylic Acid in Periorbital Hyperpigmentation and Assessment of Quality of Life Before and After Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Rashmi; Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Tanvi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periorbital hyperpigmentation (POH) is a common hyperpigmentary problem of the face, which can be psychologically distressing and it can influence an individual's quality of life. However, this condition has received less attention in literature. Aims and Objectives: To study the clinico-etiological features and the effect of two therapeutic modalities on the quality of life in patients of POH before and after treatment. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients attending the outpatient clinic of Dermatology Department, with clinically evident POH were included. All patients were divided randomly into two groups of 25 each and one group was treated with 4% hydroquinone and another group with 30% salicylic acid for 12 weeks. Assessment with visual analog scale (VAS) was done at 4, 6, and 12 weeks, and outcome of the patients was analyzed statistically. Results: Majority of the cases, i.e. 26 (52%) were in the age group of 20–30 years. Females comprised 74% of the study population. On VAS, most of the patients showed mild improvement (10–30%) at 12 weeks of treatment in both the groups. Separately, both the treatments significantly improved the dermatological life quality index of the patients although there was no significant difference found between the two groups. Conclusion: POH is less responsive to standard treatments due to its multifactorial etiology and deposition of melanin in both dermis and epidermis. However, even the mild to moderate improvement in appearance can cause an improvement in the quality of life of the patients. PMID:27512187

  15. Swelling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Collier DS, Bryan S, eds. Signs and Symptoms in Family Medicine: A Literature-Based Approach . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ... Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, ...

  16. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and ... at one time. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid retention) Weigh yourself. l Weigh yourself at the ...

  17. Bilateral lower extremity swelling: black pearl.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Clinton C; Ham, Jared C; Juergens, Andrew L

    2015-12-01

    Iatrogenic pneumothorax secondary to thoracentesis is relatively uncommon but does present to the emergency department (ED). Iatrogenic pneumothoraces developing tension physiology are rare. We report a case of an elderly female patient presenting to the ED with an isolated chief complaint of bilateral leg swelling, beginning the day after a thoracentesis, which was performed 3 days prior for pleural effusions secondary to lung cancer. Given that the patient was hemodynamically stable, not hypoxic, and had a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and recent history of pleural effusions with diminished lung sounds throughout, this was a radiologic diagnosis. Immediately upon diagnosis, a 10F intrapleural catheter was inserted at the second intercostal space in the midclavicular line with successful resolution of the tension phenomenon. The patient tolerated the procedure well, and the catheter was removed on hospital day 2 without recurrence of the pneumothorax. She experienced resolution of her lower extremity swelling and was discharged from the hospital 2 days later. Isolated inferior vena cava syndrome secondary to a subacute tension pneumothorax was likely the cause of the patient's symptoms. This presentation is very rare and is undocumented in the literature. A high degree of suspicion for acute chest pathology should exist in every patient presenting to the ED with history of recent pleural violation. PMID:26003746

  18. Scrotal Swelling in the Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Basta, Amaya M.; Courtier, Jesse; Phelps, Andrew; Copp, Hillary L.; MacKenzie, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Discovery of scrotal swelling in a neonate can be a source of anxiety for parents, clinicians, and sonologists alike. This pictorial essay provides a focused review of commonly encountered scrotal masses and mimics specific to the neonatal setting. Although malignancy is a concern, it is very uncommon, as most neonatal scrotal masses are benign. Key discriminating features and management options are highlighted to improve the radiologist’s ability to diagnose neonatal scrotal conditions and guide treatment decisions. Neonatal scrotal processes ranging from common to uncommon will be discussed. PMID:25715370

  19. Swell Sleeves for Testing Explosive Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkel, Todd J.; Dean, Richard J.; Hohmann, Carl W.; Hacker, Scott C.; Harrington, Douglas W.; Bacak, James W.

    2003-01-01

    A method of testing explosive and pyrotechnic devices involves exploding the devices inside swell sleeves. Swell sleeves have been used previously for measuring forces. In the present method, they are used to obtain quantitative indications of the energy released in explosions of the devices under test. A swell sleeve is basically a thick-walled, hollow metal cylinder threaded at one end to accept a threaded surface on a device to be tested (see Figure 1). Once the device has been tightly threaded in place in the swell sleeve, the device-and-swell-sleeve assembly is placed in a test fixture, then the device is detonated. After the explosion, the assembly is removed from the test fixture and placed in a coordinate-measuring machine for measurement of the diameter of the swell sleeve as a function of axial position. For each axial position, the original diameter of the sleeve is subtracted from the diameter of the sleeve as swollen by the explosion to obtain the diametral swelling as a function of axial position (see Figure 2). The amount of swelling is taken as a measure of the energy released in the explosion. The amount of swelling can be compared to a standard amount of swelling to determine whether the pyrotechnic device functioned as specified.

  20. Study of sorption and swelling on block coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Shijie; Chen, Guoqing; Yang, Jianli; Shen, Wenzhong; Li, Yunmei; Niu, Hongxian; Busch, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Reducing CO2 emission into atmosphere is very important for the mitigation of global climate change. Many processes have been proposed for this purpose, including CO2 sequestration in un-minable coalbeds and enhance coalbed methane production (CO2-ECBM). Several theoretical studies and worldwide demonstration sites have illustrated the potential of the process.Most of these projects experienced permeability reduction of the coalbed with time, leading to operational difficulties because of the loss of injectability. The permeability reduction is generally considered to be caused by the coal swelling that is induced by gas sorption, because it can narrow or close the cleat of the coalbed. As a result, the migration of injected CO2 in coal pore or cleat becomes more difficult. Therefore, sorption and swelling characterizations are important issues for forecasting the performance of aimed coalbed. In this work, CO2/CH4sorption and swelling isotherms of two Chinese block coals (QS and YQ) were measured simultaneously under different temperature and pressure conditions. It was found that the swelling ratio of coal block by CO2 sorption increased with the increase of the gas sorption amount until it approached to a value of ~3 mmol-gas/g-coal and decreased slightly afterwards for both coals; while the swelling ratio of coal block by CH4 sorption increased with the increase of the gas sorption amount in the entire test region for both coals. By correlating the gas sorption amount and the corresponding swelling ratio, it was found that the swelling ratio of coal block is independent of temperature and coal type when the gas sorption amount is less than ~2mmol/g-coal. The differential profile of the swelling ratio with respect to sorption amount is appeared with a maximum value at ~1 mmol/g-coal for CH4 and at ~1.8 mmol/g-coal for CO2. Based on the theories related to gas sorption and solid surface energy, a mathematical model which correlates sorption and swelling behavior

  1. Malignant cerebral swelling following cranioplasty.

    PubMed

    Honeybul, S; Damodaran, O; Lind, C R P; Lee, G

    2016-07-01

    Over the past few years there have been a number of case reports and small cohort studies that have described so called "malignant" cerebral swelling following an uneventful cranioplasty procedure. The pathophysiology remains to be established however it has been suggested that it may be related to a combination of failure of autoregulation and the use of closed vacuum suction drainage. The current study presents three further patients who had had a decompressive hemicraniectomy for ischaemic stroke. If decompressive craniectomy is utilised in the management of neurological emergencies, close attention and wider reporting of this type of complication is required not only to focus attention on possible management strategies, but also to determine which patients are at most risk of this devastating complication. PMID:27189792

  2. The cellular mechanisms of neuronal swelling underlying cytotoxic edema.

    PubMed

    Rungta, Ravi L; Choi, Hyun B; Tyson, John R; Malik, Aqsa; Dissing-Olesen, Lasse; Lin, Paulo J C; Cain, Stuart M; Cullis, Pieter R; Snutch, Terrance P; MacVicar, Brian A

    2015-04-23

    Cytotoxic brain edema triggered by neuronal swelling is the chief cause of mortality following brain trauma and cerebral infarct. Using fluorescence lifetime imaging to analyze contributions of intracellular ionic changes in brain slices, we find that intense Na(+) entry triggers a secondary increase in intracellular Cl(-) that is required for neuronal swelling and death. Pharmacological and siRNA-mediated knockdown screening identified the ion exchanger SLC26A11 unexpectedly acting as a voltage-gated Cl(-) channel that is activated upon neuronal depolarization to membrane potentials lower than -20 mV. Blockade of SLC26A11 activity attenuates both neuronal swelling and cell death. Therefore cytotoxic neuronal edema occurs when sufficient Na(+) influx and depolarization is followed by Cl(-) entry via SLC26A11. The resultant NaCl accumulation causes subsequent neuronal swelling leading to neuronal death. These findings shed light on unique elements of volume control in excitable cells and lay the ground for the development of specific treatments for brain edema. PMID:25910210

  3. Prediction of swelling rocks strain in tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsapour, D.; Fahimifar, A.

    2016-05-01

    Swelling deformations leading to convergence of tunnels may result in significant difficulties during the construction, in particular for long term use of tunnels. By extracting an experimental based explicit analytical solution for formulating swelling strains as a function of time and stress, swelling strains are predicted from the beginning of excavation and during the service life of tunnel. Results obtained from the analytical model show a proper agreement with experimental results. This closed-form solution has been implemented within a numerical program using the finite element method for predicting time-dependent swelling strain around tunnels. Evaluating effects of swelling parameters on time-dependent strains and tunnel shape on swelling behavior around the tunnel according to this analytical solution is considered. The ground-support interaction and consequent swelling effect on the induced forces in tunnel lining is considered too. Effect of delay in lining installation on swelling pressure which acting on the lining and its structural integrity, is also evaluated. A MATLAB code of " SRAP" is prepared and applied to calculate all swelling analysis around tunnels based on analytical solution.

  4. Reliability of Arch dams subject to concrete swelling

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, J.M.; Silva, H.S.; Pinho, S. de

    1995-12-31

    In this report, results of several studies are presented. The main aim of those studies was to assess the reliability of the three arch dams, in which swelling occurred due to alkali- aggregate reactions in various stages of development and having different effects on their reliability: the Cahora-Bassa dam, in Mozambique, where swelling accumulated up to the moment are very moderate and their development is apparently homogeneous; Santa-Luzia dam, in Portugal, where accumulated swelling have already considerable magnitude, nevertheless, important fissuration has not been observed up to the moment due to the homogeneous development of the swelling process; Alto-Ceira dam, also in Portugal, where accumulated swelling have also considerable magnitude but with a heterogeneous development, causing in conjunction with thermal variations important fissuration. Mention is made of mineralogical, chemical and petrographic analyses carried out for identification of the nature of reactions developed in each case and the back-analysis and other technics used in the assessment of the magnitude and distribution of swelling. Results are presented of measurement tests of the ultrasonic pulse velocity, used both in the assessment of alterations in the physical properties of concretes and in the determination of the depth of fissuration. Results are also presented of tests for characterisation of the rheology of integral concrete. Lastly, considerations are made about the reliability of the works on the basis of studies and the results of analyses of the state of stress, performed by means of the finite element method, by assuming for either visco-elastic or visco-elastic-plastic behaviour.

  5. Swelling of Clay-Sulfate Rocks: A Review of Processes and Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butscher, Christoph; Mutschler, Thomas; Blum, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    The swelling of clay-sulfate rocks is a major threat in tunnel engineering, causing serious damage to tunnels and producing high additional costs during tunnel construction and operation. The swelling problem is also known from other geotechnical fields, such as road and bridge construction, and in conjunction with geothermal drillings. The planning of counter measures that would stop or minimize the swelling is extremely difficult, and it is currently impossible to predict the swelling behavior of an actual geotechnical project. One of the reasons is our limited knowledge of the processes involved in the swelling of clay-sulfate rocks, and of the geological, mineralogical, chemical, hydraulic and mechanical controls of the swelling. This article presents a literature review of processes in swelling clay-sulfate rocks and associated controls. Numerical models that aim at simulating the processes and controls are also included in this review, and some of the remaining open questions are pointed out. By focusing on process-related work in this review, the article intends to stimulate further research across disciplines in the field of swelling clay-sulfate rocks to finally get a step further in managing the swelling problem in geotechnical projects.

  6. A rare cause of severe periorbital edema and dermonecrotic ulcer of the eyelid in a child: brown recluse spider bite.

    PubMed

    Taşkesen, Mustafa; Akdeniz, Sedat; Taş, Taşkin; Keklikçi, Uğur; Taş, Mehmet Ali

    2011-01-01

    Spider bites are a worldwide problem. Brown recluse spider bites can lead to severe local or systemic clinical effects, such as edema, necrotic ulcer, rashes, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, malaise, arthralgia, myalgia, hemolysis, leukocytosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, renal failure, and death. Eyelid bites from brown recluse spiders are rare. We report a child with severe facial edema and a dermonecrotic ulcer on the eyelid. Upon laboratory examination, leukocytosis with a significant left shift was detected. The patient was treated with antibiotics, systemic corticosteroid and conservative therapy that included saline compresses and ocular lubrication. No surgical excision was required. Vision was not impaired. A dermonecrotic ulcer is a severe complication of brown recluse spider bites. Since the diagnosis is difficult, clinical and epidemiological findings and a detailed history are important for an accurate diagnosis. PMID:21534346

  7. Periorbital Hyperpigmentation: A Study of its Prevalence, Common Causative Factors and its Association with Personal Habits and Other Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Pratik B; Shah, Hiral A; Dave, Jayendra N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periorbital hyperpigmentation (POH) is one of the most commonly encountered conditions in routine dermatology practice. There are only few published studies about its prevalence, classification, and pathogenesis but none showing its association with habits, and other medical conditions in Indian patients. Aims: To determine prevalence and type of POH, common causative factors, and its association with personal habits and other disorders within various age and sex groups. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients attending the dermatology OPD were included in study and were subjected to detailed history, careful clinical and Wood's lamp examination, eyelid stretch test and laboratory investigations. Clinical photographs of all patients were taken. Results: POH was most prevalent in 16-25 years age group (47.50%) and in females (81%) of which majority were housewives (45.50%). Commonest form of POH was constitutional (51.50%) followed by post inflammatory (22.50%). Lower eyelids were involved in 72.50%. Grade 2 POH was seen in 58%. Wood's lamp examination showed POH to be dermal in 60.50%. Faulty habits were observed viz. lack of adequate sleep (40%), frequent cosmetic use (36.50%), frequent eye rubbing (32.50%), and lack of correction for errors of refraction like myopia in 12% patients. Strong association of POH with stress (71%), atopy (33%) and family history (63%) was noted. Conclusions: Periorbital hyperpigmentation is a multi-factorial entity. It is absolutely essential to classify the type of POH and determine underlying causative factors in order to direct appropriate measures for better and successful outcome in future. PMID:24700933

  8. The swelling of nitrile rubber by selected species in a synthetic jet turbine fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, John Lynn

    The swelling of nitrile O-ring seals in petroleum distillate fuels has long been attributed to the aromatic species in these fuels. This presents a problem for synthetic fuels as they typically do not contain these aromatic species and thus may cause O-ring seals to shrink and fail. The composition of petroleum distillate fuels is extremely complex and it is not clear whether the swelling property originates from the aromatics in general, or if certain aromatics contribute more swelling character than others. Consequently, developing a general description of an efficient swelling promoter for O-rings in liquid hydrocarbon fuels will allow an unambiguous selection of candidate swelling agents for synthetic fuels. To accomplish this, a study was undertaken of the swelling of nitrile rubber (the most widely used O-ring material) in JP-5 (the jet propulsion fuel used by the U.S. Navy) and its synthetic equivalent S-5. Briefly, examining the molecular structure of nitrile rubber showed the fuel resistance of this polymer resides in the polar character of the cyano group suggesting that polar species in general, and hydrogen-bonded species in particular, should serve as efficient swelling promoters. A thorough test program utilizing a unique optical dilatometry method to provide temporal volume swell data, a GC-MS method for measuring the polymer/fuel partitioning, and a spectroscopic examination of thin nitrile rubber films confirmed this hypothesis. This program also showed that swelling character increases with decreasing molar volume which is consistent with previous work and general theories of solubility. Overall, this study showed that the most efficient aromatic swelling promoters for nitrile rubber are naphthalenes and asymmetrically substituted alkyl benzenes. However, polar species such as ketones and alcohols can be more efficient than aromatics while phenols and aromatic alcohols represent the most efficient potential swelling promoters for nitrile rubber in

  9. Specific Effects of Fiber Size and Fiber Swelling on Biomass Substrate Surface Area and Enzymatic Digestibility

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Xiaohui; Grego, Courtnee; Zhang, Xiao

    2013-09-01

    To clarify the specific effect of biomass substrate surface area on its enzymatic digestibility, factors of fiber size reduction and swelling changes were investigated by using poplar substrates with controlled morphological and chemical properties after modified chemical pulping. Results showed that fiber size changes had insignificant influence on enzymatic hydrolysis, although the external surface area increased up to 41% with the reduction of fiber size. Swelling changes caused by increased biomass fiber porosities after PFI refining showed a significant influence on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. It is also found that chemical properties such as xylan and lignin content can influence the swelling effect. Xylan is confirmed to facilitate substrate hydrolysability by swelling, while lignin restricts swelling effect and thus minimizes the enzyme accessibility to substrates.

  10. Late onset distal axonal swelling in YFP-H transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Katherine E; Berg, Nicola; Adalbert, Robert; Babetto, Elisabetta; Dias, Tatyana; Spillantini, Maria-Grazia; Ribchester, Richard R; Coleman, Michael P

    2009-02-01

    Axonal swellings, or spheroids, are a feature of central nervous system (CNS) axon degeneration during normal aging and in many disorders. The direct cause and mechanism are unknown. The use of transgenic mouse line YFP-H, which expresses yellow-fluorescent protein (YFP) in a subset of neurons, greatly facilitates longitudinal imaging and live imaging of axonal swellings, but it has not been established whether long-term expression of YFP itself contributes to axonal swelling. Using conventional methods to compare YFP-H mice with their YFP negative littermates, we found an age-related increase in swellings in discrete CNS regions in both genotypes, but the presence of YFP caused significantly more swellings in mice aged 8 months or over. Increased swelling was found in gracile tract, gracile nucleus and dorsal roots but not in lateral columns, olfactory bulb, motor cortex, ventral roots or peripheral nerve. Thus, long-term expression of YFP accelerates age-related axonal swelling in some axons and data reliant on the presence of YFP in these CNS regions in older animals needs to be interpreted carefully. The ability of a foreign protein to exacerbate age-related axon pathology is an important clue to the mechanisms by which such pathology can arise. PMID:17658198

  11. Swelling of lignites in organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    R.G. Makitra; D.V. Bryk

    2008-10-15

    Data on the swelling of Turkish lignites can be summarized using linear multiparameter equations that take into account various properties of solvents. Factors responsible for the amounts of absorbed solvents are the basicity and cohesion energy density of the solvents.

  12. Acquired, Idiopathic, Patterned Facial Pigmentation (AIPFP) Including Periorbital Pigmentation and Pigmentary Demarcation Lines on Face Follows the Lines of Blaschko on Face

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Nilendu; Chakraborty, Sayantani; Bhattacharya, Sneha Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acquired, non-nevoid, apparently idiopathic facial pigmentation are distributed over some specific locations like periorbital area, zygomatic area, malar area, root of nose, perioral and mandibular area. Periorbital pigmentation is the most well known entity in this group. These are bilaterally distributed homogenously diffuse gray to dark gray or slate-gray colored patches showing progressive intensification of pigmentation. These are often considered as physiologic or constitutional pigmentation. Some portions of the margins of these patches were described previously as pigmentary demarcation line (PDL- F, G, H). Aim: To analyze the distributional patterns of acquired, apparently idiopathic facial pigmentations and to evaluate the etiologic aspects of these conditions. Materials and Methods: Spatial patterns, distribution, and orientation were analyzed among 187 individuals with idiopathic non-nevoid, facial pigmentation. Observed patterns were compared with various pigmentary nevi and Blaschko's lines on face. Results: It was found that most of the idiopathic facial pigmentary alterations including periorbital pigmentation and PDL on face had specific patterned distribution that had high similarity to that of the pigmentary nevi and Blaschko's lines on face. Conclusion: It is hypothesized here that phenotypic expression of acquired patterned pigmentation (AIFPFP) is due to genetically determined increased pigmentary functional activity to various known and unknown yet natural factors like UV rays and aging. Mosaicism was a definite possibility. We also consider that the patterns actually reflected the normal patterns of embryological human pigmentation on face. PMID:24470659

  13. Sternoclavicular joint swellings: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Searle, A E; Gluckman, P; Sanders, R; Breach, N M

    1991-01-01

    Five patients with sternoclavicular swellings are described. The group presents a variety of diagnoses which highlight the need for thorough investigation and appropriate management of swellings around the sternoclavicular joint. Although frequently assumed to be benign, this series demonstrates the potential occurrence of malignant disease, and the dangers of pursuing a simple conservative course. Conversely, a substantiated benign diagnosis may avoid the use of unnecessary surgical treatment. PMID:1933108

  14. Monitoring austral and cyclonic swells in the "Iles Eparses" (Mozambique channel) from microseismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barruol, Guilhem; Davy, Céline; Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Schlindwein, V.; Sigloch, K.

    2016-04-01

    We deployed five broadband three-components seismic stations in the Iles Eparses in the south-west Indian Ocean and on Mayotte Island, between April 2011 and January 2014. These small and remote oceanic islands suffer the effects of strong ocean swells that affect their coastal environments but most islands are not instrumented by wave gauges to characterize the swells. However, wave action on the coast causes high levels of ground vibrations in the solid earth, so-called microseismic noise. We use this link between the solid earth and ocean wave activity to quantify the swells locally. Spectral analyses of the continuous seismic data show clear peaks in the 0.05-0.10 Hz frequency band (periods between 10 and 20 s), corresponding to the ocean wave periods of the local swells. We analyze an example of austral swell occurring in August 2013 and a cyclonic event (Felleng) that developed in January 2013, and quantify the ground motion at each station induced by these events. In both cases, we find a linear polarization in the horizontal plane with microseismic amplitude directly correlated to the swell height (as predicted by the global swell model WaveWatchIII), and a direction of polarization close to the predicted swell propagation direction. Although this analysis has not been performed in real time, it demonstrates that terrestrial seismic stations can be efficiently used as wave gauges, and are particularly well suited for quantifying extreme swell events. This approach may therefore provide useful and cheaper alternatives to wave buoys for monitoring swells and the related environmental processes such as beach erosion or coral reef damages.

  15. Penis swelling due to foreign body reaction after injection of silicone.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Tobias; Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2010-09-01

    A 19-year-old man presented with phimosis and painful swelling of the penis four weeks after augmentation with silicone in Thailand. Histology revealed a foreign body reaction to silicone. Infectious causes were ruled out. Granulomatous foreign body reactions to silicone are common, but there are few case reports on reactions following silicone injection for penis enlargement. Foreign body reactions should be included in the differential diagnosis of penis swelling. PMID:20337774

  16. Episodic swell growth inferred from variable uplift of the Cape Verde hotspot islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramalho, R.; Helffrich, G.; Cosca, M.; Vance, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Schmidt, D.N.

    2010-01-01

    On the Beagle voyage, Charles Darwin first noted the creation and subsidence of ocean islands, establishing in geology's infancy that island freeboard changes with time. Hotspot ocean islands have an obvious mechanism for freeboard change through the growth of the bathymetric anomaly, or swell, on which the islands rest. Models for swell development indicate that flexural, thermal or dynamic pressure contributions, as well as spreading of melt residue from the hotspot, can all contribute to island uplift. Here we test various models for swell development using the uplift histories for the islands of the Cape Verde hotspot, derived from isotopic dating of marine terraces and subaerial to submarine lava-flow morphologies. The island uplift histories, in conjunction with inter-island spacing, uplift rate and timing differences, rule out flexural, thermal or dynamic pressure contributions. We also find that uplift cannot be reconciled with models that advocate the spreading of melt residue in swell development unless swell growth is episodic. Instead, we infer from the uplift histories that two processes have acted to raise the islands during the past 6 Myr. During an initial phase, mantle processes acted to build the swell. Subsequently, magmatic intrusions at the island edifice caused 350 m of local uplift at the scale of individual islands. Finally, swell-wide uplift contributed a further 100 m of surface rise.

  17. Episodic swell growth inferred from variable uplift of the Cape Verde hotspot islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalho, R.; Helffrich, G.; Cosca, M.; Vance, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Schmidt, D. N.

    2010-11-01

    On the Beagle voyage, Charles Darwin first noted the creation and subsidence of ocean islands, establishing in geology's infancy that island freeboard changes with time. Hotspot ocean islands have an obvious mechanism for freeboard change through the growth of the bathymetric anomaly, or swell, on which the islands rest. Models for swell development indicate that flexural, thermal or dynamic pressure contributions, as well as spreading of melt residue from the hotspot, can all contribute to island uplift. Here we test various models for swell development using the uplift histories for the islands of the Cape Verde hotspot, derived from isotopic dating of marine terraces and subaerial to submarine lava-flow morphologies. The island uplift histories, in conjunction with inter-island spacing, uplift rate and timing differences, rule out flexural, thermal or dynamic pressure contributions. We also find that uplift cannot be reconciled with models that advocate the spreading of melt residue in swell development unless swell growth is episodic. Instead, we infer from the uplift histories that two processes have acted to raise the islands during the past 6Myr. During an initial phase, mantle processes acted to build the swell. Subsequently, magmatic intrusions at the island edifice caused 350m of local uplift at the scale of individual islands. Finally, swell-wide uplift contributed a further 100m of surface rise.

  18. Phenomenological force and swelling models for rechargeable lithium-ion battery cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.; Siegel, Jason B.; Stefanopoulou, Anna G.

    2016-04-01

    Three phenomenological force and swelling models are developed to predict mechanical phenomena caused by Li-ion intercalation: a 1-D force model, a 1st order relaxation model, and a 3-D swelling model. The 1-D force model can estimate the Li-ion intercalation induced force for actual pack conditions with preloads. The model incorporates a nonlinear elastic stiffness to capture the mechanical consequences of Li-ion intercalation swelling. The model also separates the entire state of charge range into three regions considering phase transitions. The 1st order relaxation model predicts dynamic swelling during relaxation periods. A coefficient of relaxation is estimated from dynamic and quasi-static swelling at operational conditions. The 3-D swelling model predicts the swelling shape on the battery surface for all states of charge. This model introduces an equivalent modulus of elasticity, which is dependent on the state of charge, to capture material transformations of the electrodes, and the orthotropic expansion of the jellyroll in a direction perpendicular to the electrode surfaces. Considering the simplicity of the measurements and direct physical correlations between stress and strain, the proposed models can enhance battery management systems and power management strategies.

  19. Influence of different alcohols on the swelling behaviour of hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althans, Daniel; Langenbach, Kai; Enders, Sabine

    2012-06-01

    The swelling equilibrium of cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) hydrogels in alcohol solutions as a function of temperature, alcohol concentration, kind of alcohol (C1OH-C3OH) and gel properties was investigated experimentally. Additionally, the swelling degree as a function of the alcohol concentration was modelled with the UNIQUAC-Free Volume model in combination with the Phantom Network theory. The experiments show that, in pure water, the transition temperature is between 303.15 and 308.15 K depending on the properties of the gel and hence on the polymerization conditions. The transition from a swollen to a shrunken state is caused by the polymeric network and the change of polymer chain localization. In a system with hydrogel + water + alcohol, the swelling degree decreases with increasing alcohol concentration until the shrunken state is reached and increases again by further addition of alcohol at constant temperature. With increasing carbon number of the alcohols, the transition from a swollen to a shrunken state and vice versa shifts to lower concentrations at constant temperature. The use of the UNIQUAC-Free Volume model with Phantom Network theory leads to results in good agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Stress-enhanced swelling of metal during irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, F.A.; Gilbert, E.R.; Porter, D.L.

    1980-04-01

    Data are available which show that stress plays a major role in the development of radiation-induced void growth in AISI 316 and many other alloys. Earlier experiments came to the opposite conclusion and are shown to have investigated stress levels which inadvertantly cold-worked the material. Stress-affected swelling spans the entire temperature range in fast reactor irradiations and accelerates with increasing irradiatin temperature. It also appears to operate in all alloy starting conditions investigated. Two major microstructural mechanisms appear to be causing the enhancement of swelling, which for tensile stresses is manifested primarily as a decrease in the incubation period. These mechanisms are stress-induced changes in the interstitial capture efficiency of voids and stress-induced changes in the vacancy emission rate of various microstructural components. There also appears to be an enhancement of intermetallic phase formation with applied stress and this is shown to increase swelling by accelerating the microchemical evolution that precedes void growth at high temperature. This latter consideration complicates the extrapolation of these data to compressive stress states.

  1. Morphing of geometric composites via residual swelling.

    PubMed

    Pezzulla, Matteo; Shillig, Steven A; Nardinocchi, Paola; Holmes, Douglas P

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and controlling the shape of thin, soft objects has been the focus of significant research efforts among physicists, biologists, and engineers in the last decade. These studies aim to utilize advanced materials in novel, adaptive ways such as fabricating smart actuators or mimicking living tissues. Here, we present the controlled growth-like morphing of 2D sheets into 3D shapes by preparing geometric composite structures that deform by residual swelling. The morphing of these geometric composites is dictated by both swelling and geometry, with diffusion controlling the swelling-induced actuation, and geometric confinement dictating the structure's deformed shape. Building on a simple mechanical analog, we present an analytical model that quantitatively describes how the Gaussian and mean curvatures of a thin disk are affected by the interplay among geometry, mechanics, and swelling. This model is in excellent agreement with our experiments and numerics. We show that the dynamics of residual swelling is dictated by a competition between two characteristic diffusive length scales governed by geometry. Our results provide the first 2D analog of Timoshenko's classical formula for the thermal bending of bimetallic beams - our generalization explains how the Gaussian curvature of a 2D geometric composite is affected by geometry and elasticity. The understanding conferred by these results suggests that the controlled shaping of geometric composites may provide a simple complement to traditional manufacturing techniques. PMID:26076671

  2. Swelling, mechanical and friction properties of PVA/PVP hydrogels after swelling in osmotic pressure solution.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Xiong, Dangsheng; Liu, Yuntong; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Xiaoduo

    2016-08-01

    The potential of polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVA/PVP) hydrogels as articular cartilage replacements was in vitro evaluated by using a macromolecule-based solution to mimic the osmotic environment of cartilage tissue. The effects of osmotic pressure solution on the morphology, crystallinity, swelling, mechanical and friction properties of PVA/PVP hydrogels were investigated by swelling them in non-osmotic and osmotic pressure solutions. The results demonstrated that swelling ratio and equilibrium water content were greatly reduced by swelling in osmotic solution, and the swelling process was found to present pseudo-Fickian diffusion character. The crystallization degree of hydrogels after swelling in osmotic solution increased more significantly when it compared with that in non-osmotic solution. After swelling in osmotic solution for 28days, the compressive tangent modulus and storage modulus of hydrogels were significantly increased, and the low friction coefficient was reduced. However, after swelling in the non-osmotic solution, the compressive tangent modulus and friction coefficient of hydrogels were comparable with those of as-prepared hydrogels. The better material properties of hydrogels in vivo than in vitro evaluation demonstrated their potential application in cartilage replacement. PMID:27157740

  3. Brain Swelling and Death in Children with Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Seydel, Karl B.; Kampondeni, Samuel D.; Valim, Clarissa; Potchen, Michael J.; Milner, Danny A.; Muwalo, Francis W.; Birbeck, Gretchen L.; Bradley, William G.; Fox, Lindsay L.; Glover, Simon J.; Hammond, Colleen A.; Heyderman, Robert S.; Chilingulo, Cowles A.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Taylor, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Case fatality rates among African children with cerebral malaria remain in the range of 15 to 25%. The key pathogenetic processes and causes of death are unknown, but a combination of clinical observations and pathological findings suggests that increased brain volume leading to raised intracranial pressure may play a role. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) became available in Malawi in 2009, and we used it to investigate the role of brain swelling in the pathogenesis of fatal cerebral malaria in African children. METHODS We enrolled children who met a stringent definition of cerebral malaria (one that included the presence of retinopathy), characterized them in detail clinically, and obtained MRI scans on admission and daily thereafter while coma persisted. RESULTS Of 348 children admitted with cerebral malaria (as defined by the World Health Organization), 168 met the inclusion criteria, underwent all investigations, and were included in the analysis. A total of 25 children (15%) died, 21 of whom (84%) had evidence of severe brain swelling on MRI at admission. In contrast, evidence of severe brain swelling was seen on MRI in 39 of 143 survivors (27%). Serial MRI scans showed evidence of decreasing brain volume in the survivors who had had brain swelling initially. CONCLUSIONS Increased brain volume was seen in children who died from cerebral malaria but was uncommon in those who did not die from the disease, a finding that suggests that raised intracranial pressure may contribute to a fatal outcome. The natural history indicates that increased intracranial pressure is transient in survivors. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and Wellcome Trust U.K.) PMID:25785970

  4. Swelling and swelling resistance possibilities of austenitic stainless steels in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Fusion reactor helium generation rates in stainless steels are intermediate to those found in EBR-II and HFIR, and swelling in fusion reactors may differ from the fission swelling behavior. Advanced titanium-modified austenitic stainless steels exhibit much better void swelling resistance than AISI 316 under EBR-II (up to approx. 120 dpa) and HFIR (up to approx. 44 dpa) irradiations. The stability of fine titanium carbide (MC) precipitates plays an important role in void swelling resistance for the cold-worked titanium-modified steels irradiated in EBR-II. Futhermore, increased helium generation in these steels can (a) suppress void conversion, (b) suppress radiation-induced solute segregation (RIS), and (c) stabilize fine MC particles, if sufficient bubble nucleation occurs early in the irradation. The combined effects of helium-enhanced MC stability and helium-suppressed RIS suggest better void swelling resistance in these steels for fusion service than under EBR-II irradiation.

  5. Mechanisms affecting swelling in alloys with precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Mansur, L.K.; Haynes, M.R.; Lee, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    In alloys under irradiation many mechanisms exist that couple phase instability to cavity swelling. These are compounded with the more familiar mechanisms associated with point defect behavior and the evolution of microstructure. The mechanisms may be classified according to three modes of operation. Some affect cavity swelling directly by cavity-precipitate particle association, others operate indirectly by precipitate-induced changes in sinks other than cavities and finally there are mechanisms that are mediated by precipitate-induced changes in the host matrix. The physics of one mechanism of each type is developed in detail and the results compared where possible to experimental measurements. In particular, we develop the theory necessary to treat the effects on swelling of precipitation-induced changes in overall sink density; precipitation-induced changes in point defect trapping by solute depletion and creation of precipitate particle-matrix interfacial trap sites.

  6. Swelling of p H -sensitive hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, A. D.; deClaville Christiansen, J.

    2015-02-01

    A model is derived for the elastic response of polyelectrolyte gels subjected to unconstrained and constrained swelling. A gel is treated as a three-phase medium consisting of a solid phase (polymer network), solvent (water), and solutes (mobile ions). Transport of solvent and solutes is modeled as their diffusion through the network accelerated by an electric field formed by ions and accompanied by chemical reactions (dissociation of functional groups attached to the chains). Constitutive equations (including the van't Hoff law for ionic pressure and the Henderson-Hasselbach equation for ionization of chains) are derived by means of the free energy imbalance inequality. Good agreement is demonstrated between equilibrium swelling diagrams on several pH-sensitive gels and results of simulation. It is revealed that swelling of polyelectrolyte gels is driven by electrostatic repulsion of bound charges, whereas the effect of ionic pressure is of secondary importance.

  7. Postoperative pectoral swelling after shoulder arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    ERCIN, ERSIN; BILGILI, MUSTAFA GOKHAN; ONES, HALIL NADIR; KURAL, CEMAL

    2015-01-01

    Fluid extravasation is possibly the most common complication of shoulder arthroscopy. Shoulder arthroscopy can lead to major increases in the compartment pressure of adjacent muscles and this phenomenon is significant when an infusion pump is used. This article describes a case of pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy. A 24-year-old male underwent an arthroscopic Bankart repair for recurrent shoulder dislocation. The surgery was performed in the beach chair position and lasted two hours. At the end of the procedure, the patient was found to have left pectoral swelling. A chest radiography showed no abnormality. Pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy has not previously been documented. PMID:26889473

  8. Swelling and Stress Relaxation in Portland Brownstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, I.; Scherer, G.

    2003-04-01

    Portland Brownstone (PB) is an arkose sandstone extensively used in the northeast-ern USA during the nineteenth century. This reddish-brown stone contains a fraction of swelling clays that are thought to contribute to its degradation upon cycles of wet-ting and drying. During drying events, contraction of the drying surface leads to stresses approaching the tensile strength of the stone. However, we have found that the magnitude of these stresses is limited by the ability of the stone to undergo stress relaxation. In this paper we describe novel methods to determine the magnitude of the stresses and the rate at which they develop and relax. We also discuss the influ-ence of surfactants on the magnitude of swelling and the rate of the stress relaxation of PB. The implications of our findings for the understanding of damage due to swelling of clays are discussed.

  9. Effects of granule swelling on starch saccharification by granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaofeng; Cai, Liming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2014-08-13

    The effects of granule swelling on enzymatic saccharification of normal corn starch by granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme were investigated. After swelling, Km values for the saccharification of granular starch decreased compared with native granular starch, indicating that granule swelling caused granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme to have higher affinity for starch granules. The partial swelling of starch granules enhanced starch saccharification. Furthermore, the enhancement at an earlier stage of enzymatic reaction was much more significant than that at later stages. For granular starch pretreated at 67.5 °C for 30 min, conversions to glucose after incubation with the enzyme at 32 °C for 4 and 24 h were approximately 3-fold and 26% higher than for native granular starch, respectively. As a result, proper heat pretreatment of granular starch before simultaneous saccharification and fermentation has great potential to facilitate industrial production of ethanol by use of granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme. PMID:25039418

  10. [Soft tissue swelling of the sternoclavicular joint].

    PubMed

    Kloth, J K; Weber, M-A

    2012-05-01

    A 73-year-old woman presented with a swelling of the right sternoclavicular joint the size of a hens egg which had persisted for 2 years. After a corticosteroid injection 8 months previously the swelling was asymptomatic. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed synovialitis of the sternoclavicular joint with edema of the adjacent bone. The constellation is indicative of Tietze syndrome, an inflammation of costochondral junctions of the ribs or chondrosternal joints. The treatment is usually directed at pain relief and benign conditions are often self-limiting. PMID:22584483

  11. NMR imaging and cryoporometry of swelling clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvinskikh, Sergey V.; Szutkowski, Kosma; Petrov, Oleg V.; Furó, István.

    2010-05-01

    Compacted bentonite clay is currently attracting attention as a promising "self-sealing" buffer material to build in-ground barriers for the encapsulation of radioactive waste. It is expected to fill up the space between waste canister and surrounding ground by swelling and thus delay flow and migration from the host rock to the canister. In environmental sciences, evaluation and understanding of the swelling properties of pre-compacted clay are of uttermost importance for designing such buffers. Major goal of present study was to provide, in a non-invasive manner, a quantitative measure of bentonite distribution in extended samples during different physical processes in an aqueous environment such as swelling, dissolution, and sedimentation on the time scale from minutes to years. The propagation of the swelling front during clay expansion depending on the geometry of the confining space was also studied. Magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were adapted and used as main experimental techniques. With this approach, spatially resolved movement of the clay/water interface as well as clay particle distributions in gel phase can be monitored [1]. Bulk samples with swelling in a vertical tube and in a horizontal channel were investigated and clay content distribution profiles in the concentration range over five orders of magnitude and with sub-millimetre spatial resolution were obtained. Expansion rates for bulk swelling and swelling in narrow slits were compared. For sodium-exchanged montmorillonite in contact with de-ionised water, we observed a remarkable acceleration of expansion as compared to that obtained in the bulk. To characterize the porosity of the clay a cryoporometric study [2] has been performed. Our results have important implications to waste repository designs and for the assessment of its long-term performance. Further research exploring clay-water interaction over a wide variety of clay composition and water ionic

  12. Subconjuctival Loa loa with Calabar swelling.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hee-Yoon; Lee, Yoon-Jung; Shin, Sun-Young; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2008-08-01

    Loa loa is unique among the human filariae in that adult worms are occasionally visible during subconjunctival migration. A 29-yr-old African female student, living in Korea for the past 5 yr without ever visiting her home country, presented with acute eyelid swelling and a sensation of motion on the left eyeball. Her symptoms started one day earlier and became worse over time. Examination revealed a threadlike worm beneath the left upper bulbar conjunctiva with mild eyelid swelling as well as painless swelling of the right forearm. Upon exposure to slit-lamp illumination, a sudden movement of the worm toward the fornix was noted. After surgical extraction, parasitologic analysis confirmed the worm to be a female adult Loa loa with the vulva at the extreme anterior end. On blood smear, the microfilariae had characteristic features of Loa loa, including sheath and body nuclei up to the tip of the tail. The patient also showed eosinophilia (37%) measuring 4,100/microL. She took ivermectin (200 microg/kg) as a single dose and suffered from a mild fever and chills for one day. This patient, to the best of our knowledge, is the first case of subconjunctival loiasis with Calabar swelling in Korea. PMID:18756067

  13. Oyster shell calcium induced parotid swelling

    PubMed Central

    Palaniappan, Muthiah; Selvarajan, Sandhiya; Srinivasamurthy, Sureshkumar; Chandrasekaran, Adithan

    2014-01-01

    A 59 year old female consumer was started on therapy with oyster shell calcium in combination with vitamin D3 and she presented with swelling below the ear, after two doses. She stopped the drug by herself and the swelling disappeared in one day. She started the drug one day after recovery and again she developed the swelling. She was advised to stop the drug with a suggestion to take lemon to enhance parotid secretion and the swelling subsided. Calcium plays major role in salivary secretion and studies have shown reduced parotid secretion in rats, deficient of vitamin D. But in humans involvement of calcium and vitamin D3 in parotid secretion is unknown. However, the patient had no history of reaction though she had previously taken vitamin D3 with calcium carbonate which was not from oyster shell. Hence, we ruled out vitamin D3 in this reaction and suspecting oyster shell calcium as a culprit. This adverse drug reaction (ADR) was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) causality assessment, Naranjo's and Hartwig severity scales. As per WHO causality assessment scale, the ADR was classified as “certain”. This reaction was analyzed as per Naranjo's algorithm and was classified as probable. According to Hartwig's severity scale the reaction was rated as mild. Our case is an example of a mild but rare adverse effect of oyster shell calcium carbonate which is widely used. PMID:25422569

  14. Fibromatosis colli - a rare cytological diagnosis in infantile neck swellings.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sabina; Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba; Husain, Musharraf

    2014-11-01

    Fibromatosis colli or sternocleidomastoid tumour is a rare cause of benign neck mass in infants. It is a self limiting fibroblastic lesion usually presenting with torticollis and a history of birth trauma.It is one of the few causes in which Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is indicated in a neonate to confirm the diagnosis and to differentiate it from other congenital, inflammatory and neoplastic causes. FNAC provides a rapid, cost-effective, reliable, non invasive method of diagnosis resulting in conservative management of these lesions. We present two interesting cases of neck swelling in infants where FNAC performed as the first diagnostic procedure was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis of fibromatosis colli thus avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention. PMID:25584233

  15. Stress-strain relations for swelling anhydritic clay rocks – A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Simon; Blum, Philipp; Butscher, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    The swelling of clay-sulfate rocks is a major threat in tunnel engineering, causing serious damage to tunnels and producing high additional costs during tunnel construction and operation. The swelling leads to geomechanical processes that may result in heave of the tunnel invert, destruction of the lining or uplift of the entire tunnel section. Heave-pressure-time relations are needed when predictions should be made about the mechanical behavior of swelling rock. For pure clay rocks, there is a linear relation between the swelling heave (strain) and the logarithm of pressure (Grob 1972). A generally accepted relation for clay-sulfate rocks, however, is still lacking to date. Therefore, finding appropriate and sustainable counter measures for an actual tunneling project affected by swelling remains extremely difficult. Grob (1972) proposed the linear relation between heave and the logarithm of pressure ("semi-logarithmic swelling law") not only for clay rocks, but also for clay-sulfate rocks. Pimentel (2007), however, presented laboratory experiments indicating that the semi-logarithmic swelling law may be inadequate for describing the swelling of clay-sulfate rocks. The laboratory tests revealed three different stages in the swelling process, including minimal deformation and prevented gypsum crystallization at high pressures (> 6 MPa); large deformation and gypsum crystallization at medium pressures; and only small deformation, possibly along with gypsum dissolution, at low pressures (< 4 MPa). He pointed at a "tri-linear" relation to describe the different stages. Kirschke (1995) generally doubts the existence of a fixed relation between swelling strain and (final) pressure. According to him, swelling pressures and their temporal development are controlled by water inflow into the rock, which cannot be reflected by general strain-stress relations. The present study critically reviews stress-strain relations for swelling anhydritic clay rocks proposed by various

  16. [Swelling of the submandibular and parotid glands : A description of possible differential diagnoses].

    PubMed

    Hofauer, B; Chaker, A; Strenger, T; Bas, M; Mansour, N; Knopf, A

    2016-05-01

    Swelling of single or multiple major salivary glands can be caused by various local or systemic diseases. In differential diagnosis, congenital cystic or vascular malformations should be considered, as well as infectious or tumorous alterations. Salivary duct obstructions due to sialolithiasis or stenosis can cause salivary gland enlargement. Multiple systemic diseases can have manifestations in the parotid or submandibular glands. As therapy varies from cause to cause, knowledge of the different potential diagnoses is crucial. PMID:27160691

  17. Size distribution of black spot defects and their contribution to swelling in irradiated SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyburska-Püschel, B.; Zhai, Y.; He, L.; Liu, C.; Boulle, A.; Voyles, P. M.; Szlufarska, I.; Sridharan, K.

    2016-08-01

    Experimental and modeling efforts were combined to investigate the role of black spot defects (BSD) in swelling of carbon- and krypton-irradiated 4H-SiC. Samples were exposed to conditions favoring BSD formation: irradiation at temperatures 600-950 °C and damage levels of 0.4-0.8 dpa. The maximum XRD swelling values, corrected for the effect of the rigid substrate, of 0.58% for C and 0.75% for Kr-irradiation were measured at the lowest irradiation temperature of 600 °C and decreased with increasing temperature. The swelling values estimated from TEM are on the same order of magnitude, but usually 40-70% lower than those measured by XRD. The contribution of BSDs to the overall swelling is 62% and the remainder of the swelling is caused by isolated point defects. The obtained results contribute to understanding of what defect types account for swelling and how their concentration evolves with the irradiation temperature and damage level.

  18. Reliability and validity of measurements of facial swelling with a stereophotogrammetry optical three-dimensional scanner.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Wicher J; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Visser, Anita; Vissink, Arjan; Ren, Yijin

    2014-12-01

    Volume changes in facial morphology can be assessed using the 3dMD DSP400 stereo-optical 3-dimensional scanner, which uses visible light and has a short scanning time. Its reliability and validity have not to our knowledge been investigated for the assessment of facial swelling. Our aim therefore was to assess them for measuring changes in facial contour, in vivo and in vitro. Twenty-four healthy volunteers with and without an artificial swelling of the cheek were scanned, twice in the morning and twice in the afternoon (in vivo measurements). A mannequin head was scanned 4 times with and without various externally applied artificial swellings (in vitro measurements). The changes in facial contour caused by the artificial swelling were measured as the change in volume of the cheek (with and without artificial swelling in place) using 3dMD Vultus software. In vivo and in vitro reliability expressed in intraclass correlations were 0.89 and 0.99, respectively. In vivo and in vitro repeatability coefficients were 5.9 and 1.3 ml, respectively. The scanner underestimated the volume by 1.2 ml (95% CI -0.9 to 3.4) in vivo and 0.2 ml (95% CI 0.02 to 0.4) in vitro. The 3dMD stereophotogrammetry scanner is a valid and reliable tool to measure volumetric changes in facial contour of more than 5.9 ml and for the assessment of facial swelling. PMID:25219776

  19. Pinch and swell structures: evidence for brittle-viscous behaviour in the middle crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, R.; Piazolo, S.; Daczko, N.

    2015-04-01

    The flow properties of middle to lower crustal rocks are commonly represented by viscous flow. However, examples of pinch and swell structures found in a mid-crustal high strain zone at St. Anne Point (Fiordland, New Zealand) suggest pinch and swell structures are initiated by brittle failure of the more competent layer in conjunction with material softening. On this basis we develop a flexible numerical model using brittle-viscous flow where Mohr-Coulomb failure is utilised to initiate pinch and swell structure development. Results show that pinch and swell structures develop in a competent layer in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian flow provided the competent layer has enough viscosity contrast and initially fails brittlely. The degree of material softening after initial failure is shown to impact pinch and swell characteristics with high rates of material softening causing the formation of thick necks between swells by limiting the successful localisation of strain. The flow regime and yielding characteristics of the matrix do not impact pinch and swell structure formation itself, so long as the matrix is less competent. To aid analysis of the structures and help derive the flow properties of rocks in the field, we define three stages of pinch and swell development and offer suggestions for measurements to be made in the field. Our study suggests that Mohr-Coulomb behaviour combined with viscous flow is an appropriate way to represent the heterogeneous rocks of the middle to lower crust. This type of mid-crustal rheological behaviour has significant influence on the localization of strain at all scales. For example, inclusion of Mohr-Coulomb brittle failure with viscous flow in just some mid-crustal layers within a crustal scale model will result in strain localisation throughout the whole crustal section allowing the development of through-going high strain structures from the upper crust into the middle and lower crust. This localization then has a significant

  20. Evaluating the geochemically induced swelling/shrinkage of the near-field host clay rock using a THC model and the diffuse double layer theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.; Liu, H.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Houseworth, J. E.; Sonnenthal, E. L.

    2011-12-01

    One advantage of emplacing nuclear waste in a clay formation is the potential self-sealing capability due to clay swelling. The swelling properties of the near-field host clay rock can be altered due to geochemical factors, including changes in groundwater geochemistry, proportions of exchangeable cations, and swelling clay mineral abundances. The clay host rock can also undergo geochemical changes due to the interaction with the engineered barrier system (EBS) materials. In this paper, coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) models are linked with a swelling model based on diffuse double layer (DDL) theory and changes in the swelling properties of clay host rocks in the near field area are evaluated. Findings based on THC simulations using the reaction-transport code TOUGHREACT include: 1) Significant changes in the swelling pressure could be expected depending on various hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions. The change of hydration rate of the EBS (via the adjustment of tortuosity) could have significant effect on the swelling pressure. 2) Geochemically-induced swelling/shrinkage only occurs in the near-field area, within a few meters from the EBS interface. 3) Swelling/shrinkage induced porosity change is generally much smaller than that caused by mineral precipitation/dissolution. 4) The geochemically-induced swelling/shrinkage of host clay rock is the combined effect of variation in the pore water geochemistry, exchangeable cations, and smectite abundance. Neglecting any of these three latter factors might lead to a miscalculation of the geochemically-induced swelling pressure.

  1. Facial and Periorbital Cellulitis due to Skin Peeling with Jet Stream by an Unauthorized Person

    PubMed Central

    Kaptanoglu, Asli Feride; Mullaaziz, Didem; Suer, Kaya

    2014-01-01

    Technologies and devices for cosmetic procedures are developing with each passing day. However, increased and unauthorized use of such emerging technologies may also lead to increases in unexpected results and complications as well. Here, we report a case of facial cellulitis after a “beauty parlor” session of skin cleaning with jet stream peeling device in 19-year old female patient for the first time. Complications due to improper and unauthorized use of jet stream peeling devices may also cause doubts about the safety and impair the reputation of the technology as well. In order to avoid irreversible complications, local authorities should follow the technology and update the regulations where the dermatologists should take an active role. PMID:24822131

  2. Facial and Periorbital Cellulitis due to Skin Peeling with Jet Stream by an Unauthorized Person.

    PubMed

    Kaptanoglu, Asli Feride; Mullaaziz, Didem; Suer, Kaya

    2014-01-01

    Technologies and devices for cosmetic procedures are developing with each passing day. However, increased and unauthorized use of such emerging technologies may also lead to increases in unexpected results and complications as well. Here, we report a case of facial cellulitis after a "beauty parlor" session of skin cleaning with jet stream peeling device in 19-year old female patient for the first time. Complications due to improper and unauthorized use of jet stream peeling devices may also cause doubts about the safety and impair the reputation of the technology as well. In order to avoid irreversible complications, local authorities should follow the technology and update the regulations where the dermatologists should take an active role. PMID:24822131

  3. Morphological effect on swelling behaviour of hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yacob, Norzita; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks that are capable of imbibing large amounts of water. In this work, hydrogels prepared from natural and synthetic polymers were irradiated by using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of hydrogel inter-polymeric network (IPN) was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal correlations between pore sizes of IPN with degree of cross-linking. This relation also has an effect on swelling properties of the hydrogel. The results indicated that hydrogel with smaller pore size, as a result of much dense IPN, would decrease water uptake capacity. Combination of natural and synthetic polymers to form hydrogel affects the pore size and swelling property of the hydrogel as compared to each component of polymer.

  4. Morphological effect on swelling behaviour of hydrogel

    SciTech Connect

    Yacob, Norzita; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2014-02-12

    Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks that are capable of imbibing large amounts of water. In this work, hydrogels prepared from natural and synthetic polymers were irradiated by using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of hydrogel inter-polymeric network (IPN) was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal correlations between pore sizes of IPN with degree of cross-linking. This relation also has an effect on swelling properties of the hydrogel. The results indicated that hydrogel with smaller pore size, as a result of much dense IPN, would decrease water uptake capacity. Combination of natural and synthetic polymers to form hydrogel affects the pore size and swelling property of the hydrogel as compared to each component of polymer.

  5. Bilateral Parotid Swelling in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yakubov, Yakov; Mandel, Louis

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is recognized by the presence of polycystic ovaries, irregular menstruation, and increased androgen levels. Many patients have insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance and an associated development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A patient with PCOS is presented whose cosmetic concerns centered on the prolonged existence of substantial bilateral parotid swelling. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of sialosis are discussed. PMID:26657398

  6. Swelling of phospholipids by monovalent salt

    PubMed Central

    Petrache, Horia I.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Harries, Daniel; Kučerka, Norbert; Nagle, John F.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Critical to biological processes such as membrane fusion and secretion, ion-lipid interactions at the membrane-water interface still raise many unanswered questions. Using reconstituted phosphatidylcholine membranes, we confirm here that multilamellar vesicles swell in salt solutions, a direct indication that salt modifies the interactions between neighboring membranes. By varying sample histories, and by comparing with data from ion carrier-containing bilayers, we eliminate the possibility that swelling is an equilibration artifact. Although both attractive and repulsive forces could be modified by salt, we show experimentally that swelling is driven primarily by weakening of the van der Waals attraction. To isolate the effect of salt on van der Waals interactions, we focus on high salt concentrations at which any possible electrostatic interactions are screened. By analysis of X-ray diffraction data, we show that salt does not alter membrane structure or bending rigidity, eliminating the possibility that repulsive fluctuation forces change with salt. By measuring changes in interbilayer separation with applied osmotic stress, we have determined, using the standard paradigm for bilayer interactions, that 1 M concentrations of KBr or KCl decrease the van der Waals strength by 50%. By weakening van der Waals attractions, salt increases energy barriers to membrane contact, possibly affecting cellular communication and biological signaling. PMID:16267342

  7. Evolution of midplate hotspot swells: Numerical solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Mian; Chase, Clement G.

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of midplate hotspot swells on an oceanic plate moving over a hot, upwelling mantle plume is numerically simulated. The plume supplies a Gaussian-shaped thermal perturbation and thermally-induced dynamic support. The lithosphere is treated as a thermal boundary layer with a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity. The two fundamental mechanisms of transferring heat, conduction and convection, during the interaction of the lithosphere with the mantle plume are considered. The transient heat transfer equations, with boundary conditions varying in both time and space, are solved in cylindrical coordinates using the finite difference ADI (alternating direction implicit) method on a 100 x 100 grid. The topography, geoid anomaly, and heat flow anomaly of the Hawaiian swell and the Bermuda rise are used to constrain the models. Results confirm the conclusion of previous works that the Hawaiian swell can not be explained by conductive heating alone, even if extremely high thermal perturbation is allowed. On the other hand, the model of convective thinning predicts successfully the topography, geoid anomaly, and the heat flow anomaly around the Hawaiian islands, as well as the changes in the topography and anomalous heat flow along the Hawaiian volcanic chain.

  8. Controlling morphology in swelling-induced wrinkled surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breid, Derek Ronald

    ranging from 50--1000 μm were fabricated using the same material system. Upon wrinkling, the hemispheres formed complex hierarchical assemblies reminiscent of naturally occurring structures. The curvature of a surface exhibited a correlation with its critical buckling stress, independent of other factors. This enables the surface curvature to be used as an independent control over the dimple-to-ridge transition which occurs as a function of overstress. As in the flat buckling surfaces, this transition was shown to occur at an overstress value of ˜2. Surface curvature was also shown to improve the observed hexagonal ordering of the dimple arrays, resulting in the formation of regular "golf ball" structures. Geometric effects in finite flat plates were also examined. Using circular masks during the oxidation process, plates with radii ranging from 0.4--8.6 mm were created. Upon wrinkling, a dimple-to-ridge transition was observed with increasing plate size, with the morphological switch occurring at a radius of ˜2 mm. This observed transition was not found to be due to the inherent mechanics of plates of different sizes, but instead to a reduction in the oxide conversion due to shadowing or stagnation caused by the masking process, which lowered the applied overstress. The shape of the finite plate was found to have little impact on the resulting wrinkle morphologies. Kinetic aspects of wrinkling were qualitatively characterized by observing the wrinkling process over the course of swelling. Wrinkling was observed to frontally propagate across the surface, and the ordering of the patterns which developed showed a qualitative correlation with the degree of uniformity in the advancing wrinkle front. Swelling with different solvents was found to lead to the formation of different patterns, based on the swelling kinetics of the UVO-treated PDMS upon exposure to each solvent.

  9. Focal axonal swellings and associated ultrastructural changes attenuate conduction velocity in central nervous system axons: a computer modeling study.

    PubMed

    Kolaric, Katarina V; Thomson, Gemma; Edgar, Julia M; Brown, Angus M

    2013-08-01

    The constancy of action potential conduction in the central nervous system (CNS) relies on uniform axon diameter coupled with fidelity of the overlying myelin providing high-resistance, low capacitance insulation. Whereas the effects of demyelination on conduction have been extensively studied/modeled, equivalent studies on the repercussions for conduction of axon swelling, a common early pathological feature of (potentially reversible) axonal injury, are lacking. The recent description of experimentally acquired morphological and electrical properties of small CNS axons and oligodendrocytes prompted us to incorporate these data into a computer model, with the aim of simulating the effects of focal axon swelling on action potential conduction. A single swelling on an otherwise intact axon, as occurs in optic nerve axons of Cnp1 null mice caused a small decrease in conduction velocity. The presence of single swellings on multiple contiguous internodal regions (INR), as likely occurs in advanced disease, caused qualitatively similar results, except the dimensions of the swellings required to produce equivalent attenuation of conduction were significantly decreased. Our simulations of the consequences of metabolic insult to axons, namely, the appearance of multiple swollen regions, accompanied by perturbation of overlying myelin and increased axolemmal permeability, contained within a single INR, revealed that conduction block occurred when the dimensions of the simulated swellings were within the limits of those measured experimentally, suggesting that multiple swellings on a single axon could contribute to axonal dysfunction, and that increased axolemmal permeability is the decisive factor that promotes conduction block. PMID:24303138

  10. Focal axonal swellings and associated ultrastructural changes attenuate conduction velocity in central nervous system axons: a computer modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Kolaric, Katarina V; Thomson, Gemma; Edgar, Julia M; Brown, Angus M

    2013-01-01

    The constancy of action potential conduction in the central nervous system (CNS) relies on uniform axon diameter coupled with fidelity of the overlying myelin providing high-resistance, low capacitance insulation. Whereas the effects of demyelination on conduction have been extensively studied/modeled, equivalent studies on the repercussions for conduction of axon swelling, a common early pathological feature of (potentially reversible) axonal injury, are lacking. The recent description of experimentally acquired morphological and electrical properties of small CNS axons and oligodendrocytes prompted us to incorporate these data into a computer model, with the aim of simulating the effects of focal axon swelling on action potential conduction. A single swelling on an otherwise intact axon, as occurs in optic nerve axons of Cnp1 null mice caused a small decrease in conduction velocity. The presence of single swellings on multiple contiguous internodal regions (INR), as likely occurs in advanced disease, caused qualitatively similar results, except the dimensions of the swellings required to produce equivalent attenuation of conduction were significantly decreased. Our simulations of the consequences of metabolic insult to axons, namely, the appearance of multiple swollen regions, accompanied by perturbation of overlying myelin and increased axolemmal permeability, contained within a single INR, revealed that conduction block occurred when the dimensions of the simulated swellings were within the limits of those measured experimentally, suggesting that multiple swellings on a single axon could contribute to axonal dysfunction, and that increased axolemmal permeability is the decisive factor that promotes conduction block. PMID:24303138

  11. Polymer-Induced Swelling of Solid-Supported Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Martin; Trapp, Marcus; Dahint, Reiner; Steitz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the interaction of charged polymers with solid-supported 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) membranes by in-situ neutron reflectivity. We observe an enormous swelling of the oligolamellar lipid bilayer stacks after incubation in solutions of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) in D2O. The positively charged polyelectrolyte molecules interact with the lipid bilayers and induce a drastic increase in their d-spacing by a factor of ~4. Temperature, time, and pH influence the swollen interfacial lipid linings. From our study, we conclude that electrostatic interactions introduced by the adsorbed PAH are the main cause for the drastic swelling of the lipid coatings. The DMPC membrane stacks do not detach from their solid support at T > Tm. Steric interactions, also introduced by the PAH molecules, are held responsible for the stabilizing effect. We believe that this novel system offers great potential for fundamental studies of biomembrane properties, keeping the membrane’s natural fluidity and freedom, decoupled from a solid support at physiological conditions. PMID:26703746

  12. Shape instability on swelling of a stretched nematic elastomer filament.

    PubMed

    Cheewaruangroj, N; Terentjev, E M

    2015-10-01

    Liquid crystalline elastomers combine the ordering properties of liquid crystals with elasticity of crosslinked polymer networks. In monodomain (permanently aligned) elastomers, altering the orientational (nematic) order causes changes in the equilibrium sample length, which is the basis of the famous effect of large-amplitude reversible mechanical actuation. The stimulus for this effect could be a change in temperature, or illumination by light in photosensitized elastomers, but equally the nematic order changes by mixing with a solvent. This work theoretically investigates a competition between the spontaneous contraction on swelling of a monodomain nematic elastomer and the externally imposed stretching. We find that this competition leads to bistability in the system and allows a two-phase separation between a nematic state with lower swelling and an isotropic state with higher solvent concentration. We calculated the conditions in which the instability occurs as well as the mechanical and geometric parameters of equilibrium states. Being able to predict how this instability arises will provide opportunities for exploiting nematic elastomer filaments. PMID:26565260

  13. Induced swelling in radiation damaged ZrSiO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exarhos, G. J.

    1984-02-01

    A hydrothermal gelation method was used to prepare phase pure polycrystalline ZrSiO 4 which was sintered to 95% theoretical density. Actinide doped samples containing 10 wt% 238Pu were prepared by an analogous procedure and incurred bulk radiation damage through internal alpha-decay processes. Undoped samples were subjected to external irradiation from 5.5 MeV alpha sources, and from a 60Co gamma source. Actinide doped ZrSiO 4 exhibits dose dependent swelling caused by displacement processes leading to ingrowth of amorphous regions. Bulk density and XRD measurements, as a function of dose, showed first order exponential ingrowth behavior similar to that observed in other actinide doped materials. Results are compared with reported data for naturally damaged crystals subjected to significantly lower alpha decay rates. No significant dose rate dependence on damage ingrowth has been observed. Kinetic models for the observed dose dependent swelling are proposed and rate constants for damage ingrowth in synthetic and natural crystals are compared. To study localized damage induced by both external alpha and gamma irradiation, vibrational Raman measurements were obtained for several accumulated doses. Results indicate that the initial stage of damage ingrowth is confined to the silicate sublattice. Vibrational results will be discussed in terms of microstructural changes which result from irradiation.

  14. Integrated hydrogeological and geochemical processes in swelling clay-sulfate rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, Daniel; Butscher, Christoph; Blum, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    The swelling of clay-sulfate rocks is a well-known problem in tunnel engineering where it poses a severe threat to important infrastructure. However, recently it was also encountered in an entirely different setting: The inaccurate implementation of geothermal installations in the town Staufen, Germany, led to water inflow into clay-sulfate rocks, resulting in heavy swelling. The swelling caused uplift rates of the ground surface exceeding 1 cm month-1, and severely damaged over 250 houses. The underlying processes of clay-sulfate rock swelling are complex and not yet sufficiently understood. In particular, hydraulic and geochemical processes in the zone of swelling are difficult to assess and the additional impact of constructional measures, such as borehole drilling, remains mostly unknown. The transformation of anhydrite into gypsum as a result of water influx is considered to be the main mechanism contributing to the swelling process, leading to an increase in volume of up to 60 %. This transformation process is decoupled: Anhydrite is dissolved and the pore-water concentration of sulfate increases; the dissolved sulfate may be transported with groundwater flow and finally precipitates as gypsum. Hence, groundwater flow and geochemistry of the pore-water play an essential role in the swelling processes. In fact, the swelling of clay-sulfate rocks is likely initiated by a change in geochemistry brought about by a change in hydraulic conditions. Thus, the main objective of this project is to quantify groundwater flux and geochemical reactions within swelling zones influenced by engineering activities, such as geothermal drillings. Additionally, reaction rates of anhydrite dissolution and gypsum precipitation at the field scale are to be compared with reaction rates determined in laboratory experiments. This study investigates the significance of (1) the local geological setting, (2) hydrology and geochemistry of the swelling zone and (3) their modification upon

  15. Baboon sexual swellings: information content of size and color.

    PubMed

    Higham, James P; MacLarnon, Ann M; Ross, Caroline; Heistermann, Michael; Semple, Stuart

    2008-03-01

    Primate sexual swellings are hormone-dependent sexual signals that play a key role in determining patterns of behavior. They are among the most conspicuous signals exhibited by any mammal, and their large size and bright coloration have fascinated evolutionary biologists for well over a century. A number of different adaptive hypotheses have been proposed for the evolution of sexual swellings, and there have been several recent attempts to test some of these using precise swelling measurements made in the field. Most of these studies have focused only on the size element of the swelling, and those that have measured other aspects of swellings, such as color, have done so only crudely. A focus solely on swelling size is inconsistent with most theoretical models of mate choice, which emphasize the importance of multiple cues within sexual signals. Here, we present data on baboon (Papio hamadryas anubis) sexual swellings, including measures of both swelling size and color, measured objectively using digital photography at Gashaka-Gumti National Park, Nigeria. We combined these measurements with detailed data on fecal progestogen and estrogen levels, and estimates of the timing of ovulation and the fertile period around ovulation based on those levels. We show that swelling color and size vary independently, and that, consistent with results in other species, swelling size contains information about the timing of ovulation and the fertile period. However, we show that swelling color does not contain such information. In addition, swelling size contains information about female parity, and we found some evidence to suggest that color may also contain such information. These results indicate that baboon sexual swellings may contain information about multiple aspects of female fertility. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the nature of swellings as behavioral signals, and the role of swellings in mate choice. PMID:18206889

  16. Urinary retention secondary to acute vasculitic penile swelling in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Nicholas; Black, John; Gupta, Ashish

    2016-03-01

    Acute urinary retention secondary to vasculitic penile swelling in children is extremely rare. Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a self-limiting IgA-mediated cutaneous vasculitis, which can cause soft tissue edema. Acute urinary retention requires urgent intervention to prevent obstructive uropathy. Suprapubic catheterization provides an effective management strategy in the emergency setting. PMID:27014447

  17. Peculiarities in gel permeation chromatography of flexible-chain polymers on macroporous swelling sorbents.

    PubMed

    Belenkii, B G; Vilenchik, L Z; Nesterov, V V; Kolegov, V J; Frenkel, S Y

    1975-06-18

    In gel permeation chromatography on macroporous swelling sorbents, deviations from the Benoit principle of universal calibration were observed. It is suggested that these are caused by different degrees of thermodynamic compatibility of the eluted polymers with the sorbent matrix. PMID:1150817

  18. Swelling induced by alpha decay in monazite and zirconolite ceramics: A XRD and TEM comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschanels, X.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A. M.; Magnin, V.; Mesbah, A.; Tribet, M.; Moloney, M. P.; Serruys, Y.; Peuget, S.

    2014-05-01

    Zirconolite and monazite matrices are potential ceramics for the containment of actinides (Np, Cm, Am, Pu) which are produced over the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Actinides decay mainly through the emission of alpha particles, which in turn causes most ceramics to undergo structural and textural changes (amorphization and/or swelling). In order to study the effects of alpha decays on the above mentioned ceramics two parallel approaches were set up. The first involved the use of an external irradiation source, Au, which allowed the deposited recoil energy to be simulated. The second was based on short-lived actinide doping with 238Pu, (i.e. an internal source), via the incorporation of plutonium oxide into both the monazite and zirconolite structures during synthesis. In both types of irradiation experiments, the zirconolite samples became amorphous at room temperature with damage close to 0.3 dpa; corresponding to a critical dose of 4 × 1018 α g-1 (i.e. ∼1.3 × 1021 keV cm-3). Both zirconolite samples also showed the same degree of macroscopic swelling at saturation (∼6%), with ballistic processes being the predominant damaging effect. In the case of the monazite however, the macroscopic swelling and amorphization were dependent on the nature of the irradiation. Externally, (Au), irradiated samples became amorphous while also demonstrating a saturation swelling of up to 8%. In contrast to this, the swelling of the 238Pu doped samples was much smaller at ∼1%. Also, unlike the externally (Au) irradiated monazite these 238Pu doped samples remained crystalline up to 7.5 × 1018 α g-1 (0.8 dpa). XRD, TEM and swelling measurements were used to fully characterize and interpret this behavior. The low swelling and the conservation of the crystalline state of 238Pu doped monazite samples indicates that alpha annealing took place within this material.

  19. [Species Determination and Spectral Characteristics of Swelling Clay Minerals in the Pliocene Sandstones in Xinghai, Qinghai].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-wen; Chen, Jiang-jun; Fang, Qian; Yin, Ke; Hong, Han-lie

    2015-10-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) were conducted to deepen our research on specific species and spectral characteristics of swelling clay minerals in the Pliocene sandstones in Xinghai, Qinghai province. XRD results show that swelling clay minerals are dominant clay minerals in the sandstones, which can be up to 97% in percentage. XRD patterns show 060 reflections of the samples occur both remarkably at 1.534 Å and 1.498 Å, indicating the samples contain physical mixtures of trioctahedral and dioctahedral swelling clay minerals, respectively. Further treatment of Li-300 degrees C heat and glycerol saturation shows the swelling clay minerals collapse to 9.3-9.9 Å with a partial expansion to -18 Å. This indicates the swelling clay minerals dominate montmorillonite and contain minor saponite. The montmorillonite shows no swelling after Li-300 degrees C heat and glycerol saturation because of Li+ inserting into the octahedral layers, which balances the layer charge caused by the substitution of Mg to Al. FTIR results show the samples are composed of a kind of phyllosilicate with absorbed and structural water, which is in agreement with the results of XRD. Absorbed peaks at 913, 842, 880 cm(-1), corresponding to OH associated with Al-Al, Al-Mg, and Al-Fe pairs, further indicates the minerals are dominant dioctahedron in structure. Meanwhile, absorbed peaks at 625 and 519 cm(-1), corresponding to coupled Si-O and Al-O-Si deformation, indicates parts of Si is replaced by Al in tetrahedron. The spectral characteristics of the samples are against the presence of beidellite and nontronite based on the results of XRD and FTIR, while demonstrating an,existence of montmorillonite. This study, to distinguish the specific species of swelling clay species in clay minerals, would be of great importance when using clay mineralogy to interpret provenance and climatic information. PMID:26904841

  20. [Throat ache ans swelling of the neck: first symptoms of Lemierre's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ybema, A; de Lange, J; Baas, E M

    2014-03-01

    Lemierre's syndrome, a thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein, is a rare disorder, usually caused by the microorganism Fusobacterium necrophorum. Throat ache and swelling of the neck are often the first symptoms. Without adequate treatment, Lemierre's syndrome may result in thrombosis of the internal jugular vein and metastatic lung abscesses, with a mortality rate of 18%. On the basis of 2 cases, Lemierre's syndrome is described here. In cases where Lemierre's syndrome is suspected, hospitalization often follows, with the administration of intravenous antibiotics and drainage of the abscesses. One should be on the alert for Lemierre's syndrome when a patient is presented with swelling in the neck following an oropharyngeal infection. PMID:24684132

  1. ATP Dependence of the ICl, swell Channel Varies with Rate of Cell Swelling

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Tamara; Basavappa, Srisaila; Christensen, Michael; Strange, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Swelling-induced activation of the outwardly rectifying anion current, ICl, swell, is modulated by intracellular ATP. The mechanisms by which ATP controls channel activation, however, are unknown. Whole cell patch clamp was employed to begin addressing this issue. Endogenous ATP production was inhibited by dialyzing N1E115 neuroblastoma cells for 4–5 min with solutions containing (μM): 40 oligomycin, 5 iodoacetate, and 20 rotenone. The effect of ATP on current activation was observed in the absence of intracellular Mg2+, in cells exposed to extracellular metabolic inhibitors for 25–35 min followed by intracellular dialysis with oligomycin, iodoacetate, and rotenone, after substitution of ATP with the nonhydrolyzable analogue AMP-PNP, and in the presence of AMP-PNP and alkaline phosphatase to dephosphorylate intracellular proteins. These results demonstrate that the ATP dependence of the channel requires ATP binding rather than hydrolysis and/or phosphorylation reactions. When cells were swollen at 15–55%/min in the absence of intracellular ATP, current activation was slow (0.3–0.8 pA/pF per min). ATP concentration increased the rate of current activation up to maximal values of 4–6 pA/pF per min, but had no effect on the sensitivity of the channel to cell swelling. Rate of current activation was a saturable, hyperbolic function of ATP concentration. The EC50 for ATP varied inversely with the rate of cell swelling. Activation of current was rapid (4–6 pA/pF per min) in the absence of ATP when cells were swollen at rates ≥65%/min. Intracellular ATP concentration had no effect on current activation induced by high rates of swelling. Current activation was transient when endogenous ATP was dialyzed out of the cytoplasm of cells swollen at 15%/min. Rundown of the current was reversed by increasing the rate of swelling to 65%/min. These results indicate that the channel and/or associated regulatory proteins are capable of sensing the rate of cell volume

  2. Swelling of thermo-responsive hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Drozdov, A D

    2014-10-01

    A model is developed for the elastic response and solvent diffusion through a thermo-responsive gel under an arbitrary deformation with finite strains. The constitutive equations involve the stress-strain relation, the nonlinear diffusion equation for solvent molecules, the heat conduction equation, and the Allen-Cahn equation for an order parameter (proportional to the concentration of hydrophilic segments in polymer chains). Material constants are found by fitting swelling diagrams for PNIPA gels under uniaxial tension. Numerical analysis demonstrates good agreement between predictions of the model and observations in tests with stress- and strain-controlled programs. PMID:25326783

  3. Effects of dose rate on microsturctural evolution and swelling in austenitic steels under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okita, T.; Kamada, T.; Sekimura, N.

    2000-12-01

    Effects of dose rate on microstructural evolution in a simple model austenitic ternary alloy are examined. Annealed specimens are irradiated with fast neutrons at several positions in the core and above core in FFTF/MOTA between 390°C and 435°C in a wide range of doses and dose rates. In Fe-15Cr-16Ni, swelling seems to increase linearly with dose without incubation dose. Cavities are observed even in the specimens irradiated to 0.07 dpa at 1.9×10-9 dpa/s. Both cavity nucleation and growth are enhanced by low dose rates. These are mainly caused by accelerated formation of dislocation loops at lower dose rates. Low dose rates enhance swelling by shortening incubation dose for the onset of steady-state swelling. In the specimens irradiated at higher dose rates to higher doses, high density of dislocation increases average cavity diameter, however decreases cavity density.

  4. Severe facial swelling in a pregnant woman after using hair dye

    PubMed Central

    van Genderen, Michel E; Carels, Ginette; Lonnee, Edward R; Dees, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    A 33-year-old Caucasian pregnant woman (26 weeks’ gestation) presented to the emergency department. She had a 2-day history of severe itching of the scalp and steadily worsening swelling of the face over the previous 12 h, which had extended to the neck. She had no difficulty breathing. The itching and swelling had developed 3 days after she had used hair dye. The patient had no history of allergic responses to hair dye or black henna tattoos. A diagnosis of type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction was made. Permanent hair dyes are the most frequently used professional hair dyes and are most commonly based on paraphenylenediamine (PPD) or related chemicals. PPD is known to be one of the most potent allergens which cause allergic contact dermatitis. After treatment with intravenous antihistamines and steroids, the facial swelling reduced and the patient had completely recovered by the following day. PMID:24686800

  5. Sarcoidosis detected due to tattoo swellings in an Indian female.

    PubMed

    Ghorpade, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    A female patient presented with asymptomatic swellings in old blue-black tattoo marks of her forearms. On careful skin examination, few raised erythematous, circular plaques were also found on the non-tattooed skin on her back, about which she was unaware. The diagnosis of cutaneous and systemic sarcoidosis was confirmed after classical histopathological findings from skin lesions from her non tattooed back and from papulonodular tattooed lesions, ruling out other causes of granulomas and supported by a negative Mantoux test, raised serum angiotensin converting enzyme level, high resolution computed tomography thorax, etc. She responded well to oral steroid therapy. The importance of a careful skin examination, easy access provided by skin lesions in suspected cases of cutaneous/systemic sarcoidosis, the value of sudden tattoo changes in the diagnosis here and the possible contribution of tattoos toward the causation of cutaneous and/or systemic sarcoidosis are highlighted. PMID:26275266

  6. Mathematical model of the effect of ischemia-reperfusion on brain capillary collapse and tissue swelling.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Mokhtarudin, M J; Payne, S J

    2015-05-01

    Restoration of an adequate cerebral blood supply after an ischemic attack is a primary clinical goal. However, the blood-brain barrier may break down after a prolonged ischemia causing the fluid in the blood plasma to filtrate and accumulate into the cerebral tissue interstitial space. Accumulation of this filtration fluid causes the cerebral tissue to swell, a condition known as vasogenic oedema. Tissue swelling causes the cerebral microvessels to be compressed, which may further obstruct the blood flow into the tissue, thus leading to the no-reflow phenomenon or a secondary ischemic stroke. The actual mechanism of this however is still not fully understood. A new model is developed here to study the effect of reperfusion on the formation of vasogenic oedema and cerebral microvessel collapse. The formation of vasogenic oedema is modelled using the capillary filtration equation while vessel collapse is modelled using the tube law of microvessel. Tissue swelling is quantified in terms of displacement, which is modelled using poroelastic theory. The results show that there is an increase in tissue displacement and interstitial pressure after reperfusion. In addition, the results also show that vessel collapse can occur at high value of reperfusion pressure, low blood osmotic pressure, high cerebral capillary permeability and low cerebral capillary stiffness. This model provides insight on the formation of ischemia-reperfusion injury by tissue swelling and vessel collapse. PMID:25749185

  7. Swelling, microstructural development and helium effects in type 316 stainless steel irradiated in HFIR and EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Grossbeck, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    This work examines the swelling and microstructural development of a single heat of 20%-cold-worked type 316 stainless steel irradiated to produce displacement damage and a high, continuous helium generation rate, in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Similar irradiation of the same heat of steel in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR)-II is used as a base line for comparing displacement damage accompanying a very low continuous helium generation rate. At temperatures above and below the void swelling regime (approx. 350 to 625/sup 0/C) swelling is greater in HFIR than in EBR-II. In the temprature range of 350 to 625/sup 0/C, cavity formation, precipitation and dislocation recovery are both enhanced and accelerated in HFIR, often causing swelling at lower dose than in EBR-II. In HFIR, however, cavities appear to be bubbles rather than voids. They are about 10 times smaller and 20 to 50 times more numerous than voids in EBR-II. Thus, the swelling becomes greater in EBR-II than in HFIR for 20%-CW 316 in the void swelling temperature ranges as fluence increases. Such differences in swelling and microstructural behavior must be understood in order to anticipate the behavior of materials during fusion irradiation.

  8. Improvement of the Dimensional Stability of Powder Injection Molded Compacts by Adding Swelling Inhibitor into the Debinding Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yang-Liang; Hwang, Kuen-Shyang; Su, Shao-Chin

    2008-02-01

    Defects are frequently found in powder injection molded (PIM) compacts during solvent debinding due to the swelling of the binders. This problem can be alleviated by adjusting the composition of the debinding solvent. In this study, 10 vol pct swelling inhibitors were added into heptane, and the in-situ amounts of swelling and sagging of the specimen in the solvent were recorded using a noncontacting laser dilatometer. The results show that the addition of ethanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol reduced the amounts of swelling by 31, 21, 17, and 11 pct, respectively. This was because the small molecule alcohols, which do not dissolve paraffin wax (PW) or stearic acid (SA) in the binder system, could diffuse easily into the specimen and increased the portion of the swelling inhibitor inside. The amount of the extracted PW and SA also decreased, but only by 8.3, 6.1, 4.3, and 2.4 pct, respectively. The solubility parameters of 1-bromopropane (n-PB) and ethyl acetate (EA) are between those of heptane and alcohols, and they also yielded a slight reduction in the amounts of swelling by 6 and 11 pct, respectively. These results suggest that to reduce defects caused by binder swelling during solvent debinding, alcohols with high solubility parameters can be added into heptane without sacrificing significantly on the debinding rate.

  9. Irradiation creep relaxation of void swelling-driven stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Swelling-driven-creep test specimens are used to measure the compressive stresses that develop due to constraint of irradiation void swelling. These specimens use a previously non-irradiated 20% CW Type 316 stainless steel holder to axially restrain two Type 304 stainless steel tubular specimens that were previously irradiated in the US Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) at 490 °C. One specimen was previously irradiated to fluence levels in the void nucleation regime (9 dpa) and the other in the quasi-steady void growth regime (28 dpa). A lift-off compliance measurement technique was used post-irradiation to determine compressive stresses developed during reirradiation of the two specimen assemblies in Row 7 of EBR-II at temperatures of 547 °C and 504 °C, respectively, to additional damage levels each of about 5 dpa. Results obtained on the higher fluence swelling-driven-creep specimen show that compressive stress due to constraint of swelling retards void swelling to a degree that is consistent with active load uniaxial compression specimens that were irradiated as part of a previously reported multiaxial in-reactor creep experiment. Swelling results obtained on the lower fluence swelling-driven creep specimen show a much larger effect of compressive stress in reducing swelling, demonstrating that the larger effect of stress on swelling is on void nucleation as compared to void growth. Test results are analyzed using a recently proposed multiaxial creep-swelling model.

  10. Release of Water Soluble Drugs from Dynamically Swelling POLY(2-HYDROXYETHYL Methacrylate - CO - Methacrylic Acid) Hydrogels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Jim Hwai-Cher

    In this study, ionizable copolymers of HEMA and methacrylic acid (MA) are investigated for their potential use in developing pH dependent oral delivery systems. Because of the MA units, these gels swell extensively at high pH. Since solute diffusion in the hydrophilic polymers depends highly on the water content of the matrix, it is anticipated that the release rate will be modulated by this pH induced swelling. From a practical point of view, the advantage of the present system is that one can minimize drug loss in the stomach and achieve a programmed release in intestine. This approach is expected to improve delivery of acid labile drugs or drugs that cause severe gastrointestinal side effects. This work mainly focuses on the basic understanding of the mechanism involved in drug release from the poly(HEMA -co- MA) gels, especially under dynamic swelling conditions. Equilibrium swelling is first characterized since water content is the major determinant of transport properties in these gels. Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is chosen as the model drug for the release study and its diffusion characteristics in the gel matrix determined. The data obtained show that the PPA diffusivity follows the free volume theory of Yasuda, which explains the accelerating effect of swelling on drug release. A mathematical model based on a diffusion mechanism has been developed to describe PPA release from the swelling gels. Based on this model, several significant conclusions can be drawn. First, the release rate can be modulated by the aspect ratio of the cylindrical geometry, and this has a practical implication in dosage form design. Second, the release rate can be lowered quite considerably if the dimensional increase due to swelling is significant. Consequently, it is the balance between the drug diffusivity increase and the gel dimensional growth that determines the release rate from the swelling matrix. Third, quasi-steady release kinetics, which are characteristic of swelling

  11. Time-dependent response of hydrogels under constrained swelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, A. D.; Sommer-Larsen, P.; Christiansen, J. deClaville; Sanporean, C.-G.

    2014-06-01

    Constitutive equations are developed for the viscoplastic behavior of covalently cross-linked hydrogels subjected to swelling. The ability of the model to describe the time-dependent response is confirmed by comparison of results of simulation with observations on partially swollen poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) gel specimens in uniaxial tensile tests with a constant strain rate and tensile relaxation tests. The stress-strain relations are applied to study the kinetics of unconstrained and constrained swelling. The following conclusions are drawn from numerical analysis: (i) maximum water uptake under constrained swelling a viscoplastic hydrogel is lower than that for unconstrained swelling of its elastic counterpart and exceeds maximum water uptake under constrained swelling of the elastic gel, (ii) when the rate of water diffusion exceeds the rate of plastic flow in a polymer network, swelling curves (mass uptake versus time) for viscoplastic gels under constraints demonstrate characteristic features of non-Fickian diffusion.

  12. Laser-induced swelling of transparent glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logunov, S.; Dickinson, J.; Grzybowski, R.; Harvey, D.; Streltsov, A.

    2011-08-01

    We describe the process of forming bumps on the surface of transparent glasses such as display glasses with moderate thermal expansion ˜3.2 × 10 -6 K -1 and high coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) glasses, e.g. soda-lime glasses with CTE ˜9 × 10 -6 K -1 using high-power ultra-violet (UV) lasers at a wavelength where glass is transparent. We characterize the effect with optical dynamic measurements. The process relies on increased glass absorption from color-center generation and leads to glass swelling with bumps formation. The bump height may constitute more than 10% of the thickness of the glass sample. The required exposure time is relatively short ˜1 s, and depends on the glass properties, laser power, its repetition rate, and focusing conditions. A brief review of the potential applications for these bumps is provided.

  13. Disease prevalence and snail predation associated with swell-generated damage on the threatened coral, Acropora palmata (Lamarck)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Allan J.; Rogers, Caroline S.; Brandt, Marilyn E.; Muller, Erinn; Smith, Tyler B.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances such as tropical storms cause coral mortality and reduce coral cover as a direct result of physical damage. Storms can be one of the most important disturbances in coral reef ecosystems, and it is crucial to understand their long-term impacts on coral populations. The primary objective of this study was to determine trends in disease prevalence and snail predation on damaged and undamaged colonies of the threatened coral species, Acropora palmata, following an episode of heavy ocean swells in the US Virgin Islands (USVI). At three sites on St. Thomas and St. John, colonies of A. palmata were surveyed monthly over 1 year following a series of large swells in March 2008 that fragmented 30–93% of colonies on monitored reefs. Post-disturbance surveys conducted from April 2008 through March 2009 showed that swell-generated damage to A. palmata caused negative indirect effects that compounded the initial direct effects of physical disturbance. During the 12 months after the swell event, white pox disease prevalence was 41% higher for colonies that sustained damage from the swells than for undamaged colonies (df = 207, p = 0.01) with greatest differences in disease prevalence occurring during warm water months. In addition, the corallivorous snail, Coralliophila abbreviata, was 46% more abundant on damaged corals than undamaged corals during the 12 months after the swell event (df = 207, p = 0.006).

  14. Tracking the attenuation and nonbreaking dissipation of swells using altimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Haoyu; Stopa, Justin E.; Wang, He; Husson, Romain; Mouche, Alexis; Chapron, Bertrand; Chen, Ge

    2016-02-01

    A method for systematically tracking swells across oceanic basins is developed by taking advantage of high-quality data from space-borne altimeters and wave model output. The evolution of swells is observed over large distances based on 202 swell events with periods ranging from 12 to 18 s. An empirical attenuation rate of swell energy of about 4 × 10-7 m-1 is estimated using these observations, and the nonbreaking energy dissipation rates of swells far away from their generating areas are also estimated using a point source model. The resulting acceptance range of nonbreaking dissipation rates is -2.5 to 5.0 × 10-7 m-1, which corresponds to a dissipation e-folding scales of at least 2000 km for steep swells, to almost infinite for small-amplitude swells. These resulting rates are consistent with previous studies using in-situ and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations. The frequency dispersion and angular spreading effects during swell propagation are discussed by comparing the results with other studies, demonstrating that they are the two dominant processes for swell height attenuation, especially in the near field. The resulting dissipation rates from these observations can be used as a reference for ocean engineering and wave modeling, and for related studies such as air-sea and wind-wave-turbulence interactions.

  15. Processes and controls in swelling anhydritic clay rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutschler, Thomas; Blum, Philipp; Butscher, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Referring to the swelling of anhydritic clay rocks in tunneling, Leopold Müller-Salzburg noted in the third volume on tunneling of his fundamental text book on rock engineering that "a truly coherent explanation of these phenomena is still owing" (Müller-Salzburg 1978, p. 306). This valuation is still true after more than three decades of research in the field of swelling anhydritic clay rocks. One of the reasons is our limited knowledge of the processes involved in the swelling of such rocks, and of the geological, mineralogical, hydraulic, chemical and mechanical controls of the swelling. In this contribution, a review of processes in swelling anhydritic clay rocks and of associated controls is presented. Also numerical models that aim at simulating the swelling processes and controls are included in this review, and some of the remaining open questions are pointed out. By focusing on process-oriented work in this review, the presentation intends to stimulate further research across disciplines in the field of swelling anhydritic clay rocks to finally get a step further in managing the swelling problem in geotechnical engineering projects. Keywords: swelling; anhydritic clay rocks; review

  16. Elastic, Permeability and Swelling Properties of Human Intervertebral Disc Tissues: A Benchmark for Tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Daniel H.; Jacobs, Nathan T.; DeLucca, John F.; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of functional tissue engineering is to repair and replace tissues that have a biomechanical function, i.e., connective orthopaedic tissues. To do this, it is necessary to have accurate benchmarks for the elastic, permeability, and swelling (i.e., biphasic-swelling) properties of native tissues. However, in the case of the intervertebral disc, the biphasic-swelling properties of individual tissues reported in the literature exhibit great variation and even span several orders of magnitude. This variation is probably caused by differences in the testing protocols and the constitutive models used to analyze the data. Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the human lumbar disc annulus fibrosus (AF), nucleus pulposus (NP), and cartilaginous endplates (CEP) biphasic-swelling properties using a consistent experimental protocol and analyses. The testing protocol was composed of a swelling period followed by multiple confined compression ramps. To analyze the confined compression data, the tissues were modeled using a biphasic-swelling model, which augments the standard biphasic model through the addition of a deformation-dependent osmotic pressure term. This model allows considering the swelling deformations and the contribution of osmotic pressure in the analysis of the experimental data. The swelling stretch was not different between the disc regions (AF: 1.28±0.16; NP: 1.73±0.74; CEP: 1.29±0.26), with a total average of 1.42. The aggregate modulus (Ha) of the matrix was higher in the CEP (390 kPa) compared to the NP (100 kPA) or AF (30 kPa). The permeability was very different across tissues regions, with the AF permeability (80 E−4 mm4/Ns) higher than the NP and CEP (6-7 E−16 m4/Ns). Additionally, a normalized time-constant (3000 sec) for the stress relaxation was similar for all the disc tissues. The properties measured in this study are important as benchmarks for tissue engineering and for modeling the disc's mechanical

  17. Directional control of diffusion and swelling in megamolecular polysaccharide hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Joshi, G; Okeyoshi, K; Okajima, M K; Kaneko, T

    2016-07-01

    Directional control of diffusion and swelling in megamolecular polysaccharide hydrogels is demonstrated by focusing on the anisotropic structures for water absorption. Due to the presence of a layered structure in the hydrogel, the directional control for diffusion parallel to the planar direction and swelling in the lateral direction are possible. PMID:27223843

  18. Observations of swell influence on ocean surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Paul A.

    2008-12-01

    Field measurements of the ocean surface wave spectrum focusing on the slope-contributing components are used to construct a spectral model of the ocean surface roughness. The spectral parameterization is established with the observed empirical power law relation between the dimensionless wave spectral density and wind speed. The power law parameters (proportionality coefficient and exponent) are shown to be modified by swell. Discussions are presented on the swell effects of spectral properties, including their wind speed dependence and swell modification of roughness components characterizing Bragg resonance and surface tilting in radar application. Several notable results include the following: (1) With increasing swell intensity, the spectral density increases in the long-wave portion and decreases in the short-wave portion of the intermediate-scale waves. (2) There is a nodal point with respect to swell impact in the wave number dependence of the coefficient and exponent of the spectral parameterization function in the vicinity of wave number near 3 rad/m, suggesting that waves about a couple of meters long are insensitive to swell influence. (3) Spectral density in the decimeter length scale becomes less sensitive to wind speed variation as swell intensity increases. (4) Increasing swell influence shifts wave breaking toward shorter and broader scales.

  19. Modeling Coal Matrix Shrinkage and Differential Swelling with CO2 Injection for Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery and Carbon Sequestration Applications

    SciTech Connect

    L. J. Pekot; S. R. Reeves

    2002-03-31

    Matrix shrinkage and swelling can cause profound changes in porosity and permeability of coalbed methane reservoirs during depletion or when under CO{sub 2} injection processes, with significant implication for primary or enhanced methane recovery. Two models that are used to describe these effects are discussed. The first was developed by Advanced Resources International (ARI) and published in 1990 by Sawyer, et al. The second model was published by Palmer and Mansoori in 1996. This paper shows that the two provide equivalent results for most applications. However, their differences in formulation cause each to have relative advantages and disadvantages under certain circumstances. Specifically, the former appears superior for undersaturated coalbed methane reservoirs while the latter would be better if a case is found where matrix swelling is strongly disproportional to gas concentration. Since its presentation in 1996, the Palmer and Mansoori model has justifiably received much critical praise. However, the model developed by ARI for the COMET reservoir simulation program has been in use since 1990, and has significant advantages in certain settings. A review of data published by Levine in 1996 reveals that carbon dioxide causes a greater degree of coal matrix swelling compared to methane, even when measured on a unit of concentration basis. This effect is described in this report as differential swelling. Differential swelling may have important consequences for enhanced coalbed methane and carbon sequestration projects. To handle the effects of differential swelling, an extension to the matrix shrinkage and swelling model used by the COMET simulator is presented and shown to replicate the data of Levine. Preliminary field results from a carbon dioxide injection project are also presented in support of the extended model. The field evidence supports that considerable changes to coal permeability occur with CO{sub 2} injection, with significant implication for

  20. Electrostatic swelling of bicontinuous cubic lipid phases.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Arwen I I; Barriga, Hanna M G; Parsons, Edward S; McCarthy, Nicola L C; Ces, Oscar; Law, Robert V; Seddon, John M; Brooks, Nicholas J

    2015-04-28

    Lipid bicontinuous cubic phases have attracted enormous interest as bio-compatible scaffolds for use in a wide range of applications including membrane protein crystallisation, drug delivery and biosensing. One of the major bottlenecks that has hindered exploitation of these structures is an inability to create targeted highly swollen bicontinuous cubic structures with large and tunable pore sizes. In contrast, cubic structures found in vivo have periodicities approaching the micron scale. We have been able to engineer and control highly swollen bicontinuous cubic phases of spacegroup Im3m containing only lipids by (a) increasing the bilayer stiffness by adding cholesterol and (b) inducing electrostatic repulsion across the water channels by addition of anionic lipids to monoolein. By controlling the composition of the ternary mixtures we have been able to achieve lattice parameters up to 470 Å, which is 5 times that observed in pure monoolein and nearly twice the size of any lipidic cubic phase reported previously. These lattice parameters significantly exceed the predicted maximum swelling for bicontinuous cubic lipid structures, which suggest that thermal fluctuations should destroy such phases for lattice parameters larger than 300 Å. PMID:25790335

  1. Propionate induces cell swelling and K+ accumulation in shark rectal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, G.M.; Ziyadeh, F.N.; Mills, J.W.; Booz, G.W.; Kleinzeller, A. )

    1989-08-01

    Small organic anions have been reported to induce cell solute accumulation and swelling. To investigate the mechanism of swelling, we utilized preparations of rectal gland cells from Squalus acanthias incubated in medium containing propionate. Propionate causes cells to swell by diffusing across membranes in its nonionic form, acidifying cell contents, and activating the Na+-H+ antiporter. The Na+-H+ exchange process tends to correct intracellular pH (pHi), and thus it maintains a favorable gradient for propionic acid diffusion and allows propionate to accumulate. Activation of the Na+-H+ antiport also facilitates Na+ entry into the cell and Nai accumulation. At the same time Na+-K+-ATPase activity, unaffected by propionate, replaces Nai with Ki, whereas the K+ leak rate, decreased by propionate, allows Ki to accumulate. As judged by {sup 86}Rb+ efflux, the reduction in K+ leak was not due to propionate-induced cell acidification or reduction in Cli concentration. Despite inducing cell swelling, propionate did not disrupt cell structural elements and F actin distribution along cell membranes.

  2. In situ HVEM investigation of catastrophic swelling in uranium intermetallic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Birtcher, R.C.; Allen, C.W.; Hofman, G.L.; Rehn, L.E.

    1988-02-01

    The swelling of intermetallic materials depends upon the crystalline or amorphous state of the material. When U/sub 3/Si is irradiated at temperatures above its amorphization limit, it remains crystalline and does not suffer extraordinary swelling. However, when it is irradiated at temperatures below its amorphization limit, body forces associated with the irradiation cause any internal free volume to suffer a rapid growth, and the material swells at an anomalously fast rate. As has been previously noted, fission-gas bubbles are not directly responsible for this swelling; however, once formed, the bubble volume, as any interior volume, may increase rapidly. An unusual and important result is that once U/sub 3/Si has been irradiated to a high fluence, (above 2 /times/ 10/sup 20/ Kr m/sup /minus/2/), the irradiation behavior appropriate for the initial irradiation temperature is locked in, at least temporarily, and that behavior persists even at irradiation temperatures that normally result in the opposite behavior. For example, after a 620/degree/K irradiation, the crystalline state is retained during subsequent irradiation at 420/degree/K to more than ten times the fluence required to amorphize unirradiated material at 420/degree/K. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Ion irradiation studies on the void swelling behavior of a titanium modified D9 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, S.; Mohan, Sruthi; Amirthapandian, S.; Chinnathambi, S.; David, C.; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2015-12-01

    The sensitivity of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) for probing vacancy defects and their environment is well known. Its applicability in determination of swelling and the peak swelling temperature was put to test in our earlier work on ion irradiated D9 alloys [1]. Upon comparison with the peak swelling temperature determined by conventional step height measurements it was found that the peak swelling temperature determined using PAS was 50 K higher. It was conjectured that the positrons trapping in the irradiation induced TiC precipitation could have caused the shift. In the present work, D9 alloys have been implanted with 100 appm helium ions and subsequently implanted with 2.5 MeV Ni ions up to peak damage of 100 dpa. The nickel implantations have been carried out through a range of temperatures between 450 °C and 650 °C. The evolution of cavities and TiC precipitates at various temperatures has been followed by TEM and this report provides an experimental verification of the conjecture.

  4. Hyperspectral laboratory and airborne measurements as tools for local mapping of swelling soils in Orléans area (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles; Dufrechou, Gregory; Hohmann, Audrey

    2013-04-01

    Swelling soils contain clay minerals that change volume with water content and cause extensive and expensive damage on infrastructures. Based on spatial distribution of infrastructure damages and existing geological maps, the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM, the French Geological Survey) published in 2010 a 1:50 000 swelling hazard map of France. This map indexes the territory to low, intermediate, or high swell susceptibility, but does not display smallest and isolated clays lithologies. At local scale, identification of clay minerals and characterization of swell potential of soils using conventional soil analysis (DRX, chemical, and geotechnical analysis) are slow, expensive, and does not permit integrated measurements. Shortwave infrared (SWIR: 1100-2500 nm) spectral domains are characterized by significant spectral absorption bands that provide an underused tool for estimate the swell potential of soils. Reflectance spectroscopy, using an ASD Fieldspec Pro spectrometer, permits a rapid and less expensive measurement of soil reflectance spectra in the field and laboratory. In order to produce high precision map of expansive soils, the BRGM aims to optimize laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for mapping swelling soils. Geotechnical use of laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for local characterization of swell potential of soils could be assessable from an economical point of view. A new high resolution airborne hyperspectral survey (covering ca. 280 km², 380 channels ranging from 400 to 2500 nm) located at the W of Orléans (Loiret, France) will also be combined with field and laboratory measurements to detect and map swelling soils.

  5. Pinch and swell structures: evidence for strain localisation by brittle-viscous behaviour in the middle crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, R. L.; Piazolo, S.; Daczko, N. R.

    2015-09-01

    The flow properties of middle crustal rocks are commonly represented by viscous flow. Examples of pinch and swell structures found in a high strain zone at St. Anne Point (Fiordland, New Zealand) and Wongwibinda (N.S.W., Australia) suggest pinch and swell structures may be initiated by brittle failure of the more competent layer in conjunction with subsequent material softening. On this basis we develop a numerical model where Mohr-Coulomb constitutive strain localising behaviour is utilised to initiate pinch and swell structure development. Results show that pinch and swell structures develop in a competent layer in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian flow, provided the competent layer has sufficient viscosity contrast and can localise strain to form shear bands. The flow regime and strain localising characteristics of the surrounding country rock appear not to impact pinch and swell structure formation. The degree of material softening after the initial strain localising behaviour is shown to impact pinch and swell characteristics, while extensive material softening causes the formation of thick necks between swells by limiting the focused localisation of strain into shear bands. To aid analysis of the structures and help derive the flow properties of rocks in the field, we define three stages of pinch and swell development and offer suggestions for measurements to be made in the field. Our study suggests that Mohr-Coulomb strain localising behaviour combined with viscous flow is a viable alternative representation of the heterogeneous rheological behaviour of rocks seen in the middle crust. This type of mid-crustal rheological behaviour can have significant influence on the localisation of strain at all scales. For example, inclusion of Mohr-Coulomb strain localising behaviour with viscous flow in just some mid-crustal layers within a crustal-scale model can result in significant strain localisation, extending from the upper crust into the middle crust. This

  6. Method for making measurements of the chemical swelling effect of a fluid on a shale

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, T.R.; Bonner, R.B.; Clark, R.K.

    1982-11-23

    The drilling or treating of subterranean shale-containing earth formations is improved by adjusting the composition of the fluid used to reduce the positive shale swelling strain it causes when a shale sample is first equilibrated with fluid under conditions simulating those in the earth formation and the equilibrating fluid is replaced by the fluid being tested without otherwise significantly altering the conditions of the equilibration.

  7. Dissecting anode swelling in commercial lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ningxin; Tang, Huaqiong

    2012-11-01

    An innovative method is applied to investigate anode swelling during electrochemical processes in commercial lithium-ion batteries. Cathode surface is partially covered with a piece of paste to block the transportation of lithium ion from active material during charging/discharging, and the corresponding part on the anode film shows no formation of Li-graphite compounds during different electrochemical processes, which is confirmed by XRD analysis. The increases of anode thickness within and outside lithiated zone are measured, and defined as electrochemical swelling and physical swelling respectively. The microscopic lattice expansion of graphite due to lithiation process correlates to mesoscopic electrochemical swelling synchronically, while physical swelling tends to decrease steadily with time. The relationship among the microscopic stress due to lithium-ion intercalation, the mesoscopic stress resulting in anode swelling, and the macroscopic rippling of pouch cell after a large number of cycle test, is analyzed and correlated in terms of stress evolution across different scales, and suggestions for solving anode swelling are provided.

  8. Dynamics of swelling and drying in a spherical gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Thibault; MacMinn, Christopher W.; Mukhopadhyay, Shomeek; Peixinho, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Swelling is a fundamental process in biology, engineering, and the earth sciences. Macroscopically, swelling is a volumetric-growth process in which a porous material expands due to the spontaneous imbibition of additional pore fluid. However, swelling is distinct from other growth processes because it is inherently poromechanical: Local expansion of the pore structure requires that additional fluid be drawn from elsewhere in the material, or into the material from across the boundaries. Here, we study the swelling and subsequent drying of a sphere of hydrogel. Despite the apparent simplicity of this problem, no model has yet shown satisfying quantitative agreement with experiments in terms of the dynamics of swelling and drying. We develop a dynamic model based on large-deformation poromechanics and we compare the predictions of the model with a series of experiments performed with polyacrylamide spheres. We use the model and the experiments to study the dynamics of swelling and drying, and to highlight the fundamental differences between these two processes. Although we assume spherical symmetry, the model also provides insight into the transient patterns that form and then vanish during swelling, as well as the tendency of large spheres to fracture during drying.

  9. Influence of Shrinkage and Swelling Properties of Coal on Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Gondle, R.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-05-01

    The potential for enhanced methane production and geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in coalbeds needs to be evaluated before large-scale sequestration projects are undertaken. Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep unmineable coal seams with the potential for enhanced coalbed methane production has become a viable option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The coal matrix is believed to shrink during methane production and swell during the injection of carbon dioxide, causing changes in tlie cleat porosity and permeability of the coal seam. However, the influence of swelling and shrinkage, and the geomechanical response during the process of carbon dioxide injection and methane recovery, are not well understood. A three-dimensional swelling and shrinkage model based on constitutive equations that account for the coupled fluid pressure-deformation behavior of a porous medium was developed and implemented in an existing reservoir model. Several reservoir simulations were performed at a field site located in the San Juan basin to investigate the influence of swelling and shrinkage, as well as other geomechanical parameters, using a modified compositional coalbed methane reservoir simulator (modified PSU-COALCOMP). The paper presents numerical results for interpretation of reservoir performance during injection of carbon dioxide at this site. Available measured data at the field site were compared with computed values. Results show that coal swelling and shrinkage during the process of enhanced coalbed methane recovery can have a significant influence on the reservoir performance. Results also show an increase in the gas production rate with an increase in the elastic modulus of the reservoir material and increase in cleat porosity. Further laboratory and field tests of the model are needed to furnish better estimates of petrophysical parameters, test the applicability of thee model, and determine the need for further refinements to the mathematical

  10. Development of an Operational Typhoon Swell Forecasting and Coastal Flooding Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y. M.; Wu, L. C.; Doong, D. J.; Kao, C. C.; Wang, J. H.

    2012-04-01

    Coastal floods and typhoon swells are a consistent threat to oceanfront countries, causing major human suffering and substantial economic losses, such as wrecks, ship capsized, and marine construction failure, etc. Climate change is exacerbating the problem. An early warning system is essential to mitigate the loss of life and property from coastal flooding and typhoon swells. The purpose of this study is to develop a typhoon swell forecasting and coastal flooding early warning system by integrating existing sea-state monitoring technology, numerical ocean forecasting models, historical database and experiences, as well as computer science. The proposed system has capability offering data for the past, information for the present, and for the future. The system was developed for Taiwanese coast due to its frequent threat by typhoons. An operational system without any manual work is the basic requirement of the system. Integration of various data source is the system kernel. Numerical ocean models play the important role within the system because they provide data for assessment of possible typhoon swell and flooding. The system includes regional wave model (SWAN) which nested with the large domain wave model (NWW III), is operationally set up for coastal waves forecasting, especially typhoon swell forecasting before typhoon coming, and the storm surge predicted by a POM model. Data assimilation technology is incorporated for enhanced accuracy. A warning signal is presented when the storm water level that accumulated from astronomical tide, storm surge, and wave-induced run-up exceeds the alarm sea level. This warning system has been in practical use for coastal flooding damage mitigation in Taiwan for years. Example of the system operation during Typhoon Haitung struck Taiwan in 2005 is illustrated in this study.

  11. Influence of network topology on the swelling of polyelectrolyte nanogels.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, L G; Levin, Y

    2016-03-21

    It is well-known that the swelling behavior of ionic nanogels depends on their cross-link density; however, it is unclear how different topologies should affect the response of the polyelectrolyte network. Here we perform Monte Carlo simulations to obtain the equilibrium properties of ionic nanogels as a function of salt concentration Cs and the fraction f of ionizable groups in a polyelectrolyte network formed by cross-links of functionality z. Our results indicate that the network with cross-links of low connectivity result in nanogel particles with higher swelling ratios. We also confirm a de-swelling effect of salt on nanogel particles. PMID:27004897

  12. Swelling and Contraction of Phaseolus Hypocotyl Mitochondria 1

    PubMed Central

    Earnshaw, M. J.; Truelove, B.

    1968-01-01

    Isolated Phaseolus mitochondria will swell spontaneously in buffered KCl and contract with an oxidizable substrate or ATP + Mg2+. The conditions under which the mitochondria are swollen affect subsequent contraction, substrate oxidation and ion accumulation, but not their oxidative phosphorylation ability. Bovine serum albumin reduces the rate of swelling and promotes substrate oxidation, contraction and ion accumulation. Swelling of these mitochondria is associated with the release of malic dehydrogenase and a loss of membrane integrity. The beneficial effects of bovine serum albumin in preserving the energy linked functions of Phaseolus mitochondria is discussed. PMID:16656729

  13. Seasonality of Ankle Swelling: Population Symptom Reporting Using Google Trends.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangwei; Allan, G Michael; Korownyk, Christina; Kolber, Michael; Flook, Nigel; Sternberg, Harvey; Garrison, Scott

    2016-07-01

    In our experience, complaints of ankle swelling are more common in summer, typically from patients with no obvious cardiovascular disease. Surprisingly, this observation has never been reported. To objectively establish this phenomenon, we sought evidence of seasonality in the public's Internet searches for ankle swelling. Our data, obtained from Google Trends, consisted of all related Google searches in the United States from January 4, 2004, to January 26, 2016. Consistent with our expectations and confirmed by similar data for Australia, Internet searches for information on ankle swelling are highly seasonal (highest in midsummer), with seasonality explaining 86% of search volume variability. PMID:27401424

  14. Geologic report on the San Rafael Swell Drilling Project, San Rafael Swell, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bluhm, C.T.; Rundle, J.G.

    1981-08-01

    Twenty-two holes totaling 34,874 feet (10,629.6 meters) were rotary and core drilled on the northern and western flanks of the San Rafael Swell to test fluvial-lacustrine sequences of the Morrison Formation and the lower part of the Chinle Formation. The objective of the project was to obtain subsurface data so that improved uranium resource estimates could be determined for the area. Although the Brushy Basin and the Salt Wash Members of the Morrison Formation are not considered favorable in this area for the occurrence of significant uranium deposits, uranium minerals were encountered in several of the holes. Some spotty or very low-grade mineralization was also encountered in the White Star Trunk area. The lower part of the Chinle Formation is considered to be favorable for potentially significant uranium deposits along the west flank of the San Rafael Swell. One hole (SR-202) east of Ferron, Utah, intersected uranium, silver, molybdenum, and copper mineralization. More exploratory drilling in the vicinity of this hole is recommended. As a result of the study of many geochemical analyses and a careful determination of the lithology shown by drilling, a sabkha environment is suggested for the concentration of uranium, zinc, iron, lead, copper, silver, and perhaps other elements in parts of the Moody Canyon Member of the Moenkopi Formation.

  15. MOELCULAR SIZE EXCLUSION BY SOIL ORGANIC MATERIALS ESTIMATED FROM THEIR SWELLING IN ORGANIC SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A published method previously developed to measure the swelling characteristics of pow dered coal samples has been adapted for swelling measurements on various peat, pollen, chain, and cellulose samples The swelling of these macromolecular materials is the volumetric manifestatio...

  16. Cinnamon polyphenols attenuate cell swelling and mitochondrial dysfunction following oxygen-glucose deprivation in glial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astrocyte swelling is an integral component of cytotoxic brain edema in ischemic injury. While mechanisms underlying astrocyte swelling are likely multifactorial, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are hypothesized to contribute to such swelling. We investigated the protective effects of...

  17. Swelling-induced and controlled curving in layered gel beams.

    PubMed

    Lucantonio, A; Nardinocchi, P; Pezzulla, M

    2014-11-01

    We describe swelling-driven curving in originally straight and non-homogeneous beams. We present and verify a structural model of swollen beams, based on a new point of view adopted to describe swelling-induced deformation processes in bilayered gel beams, that is based on the split of the swelling-induced deformation of the beam at equilibrium into two components, both depending on the elastic properties of the gel. The method allows us to: (i) determine beam stretching and curving, once assigned the characteristics of the solvent bath and of the non-homogeneous beam, and (ii) estimate the characteristics of non-homogeneous flat gel beams in such a way as to obtain, under free-swelling conditions, three-dimensional shapes. The study was pursued by means of analytical, semi-analytical and numerical tools; excellent agreement of the outcomes of the different techniques was found, thus confirming the strength of the method. PMID:25383031

  18. Swelling-induced and controlled curving in layered gel beams

    PubMed Central

    Lucantonio, A.; Nardinocchi, P.; Pezzulla, M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe swelling-driven curving in originally straight and non-homogeneous beams. We present and verify a structural model of swollen beams, based on a new point of view adopted to describe swelling-induced deformation processes in bilayered gel beams, that is based on the split of the swelling-induced deformation of the beam at equilibrium into two components, both depending on the elastic properties of the gel. The method allows us to: (i) determine beam stretching and curving, once assigned the characteristics of the solvent bath and of the non-homogeneous beam, and (ii) estimate the characteristics of non-homogeneous flat gel beams in such a way as to obtain, under free-swelling conditions, three-dimensional shapes. The study was pursued by means of analytical, semi-analytical and numerical tools; excellent agreement of the outcomes of the different techniques was found, thus confirming the strength of the method. PMID:25383031

  19. Mechanically robust, negative-swelling, mussel-inspired tissue adhesives.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Devin G; Bushnell, Grace G; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2013-05-01

    Most synthetic polymer hydrogel tissue adhesives and sealants swell considerably in physiologic conditions, which can result in mechanical weakening and adverse medical complications. This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of mechanically tough zero- or negative-swelling mussel-inspired surgical adhesives based on catechol-modified amphiphilic poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers. The formation, swelling, bulk mechanical, and tissue adhesive properties of the resulting thermosensitive gels were characterized. Catechol oxidation at or below room temperature rapidly resulted in a chemically cross-linked network, with subsequent warming to physiological temperature inducing a thermal hydrophobic transition in the PPO domains and providing a mechanism for volumetric reduction and mechanical toughening. The described approach can be easily adapted for other thermally sensitive block copolymers and cross-linking strategies, representing a general approach that can be employed to control swelling and enhance mechanical properties of polymer hydrogels used in a medical context. PMID:23184616

  20. Swelling of ultrathin crosslinked polyamide water purification membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Edwin; Stafford, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Polyamide (PA) ultrathin films represent the state-of-the-art nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes used in water desalination. The performance of these materials, such as permselectivity, is intimately linked with extent of swelling of the PA network. Thus, quantifying their swelling behavior would be a useful and simple route to understanding the specific network structural parameters that control membrane performance. In this work, we measure the swelling behavior of PA ultrathin films using X-ray reflectivity as a function of water hydration. By applying the Flory-Rehner theory used to describe the swelling behavior of polymer networks, we quantify the PA network properties including Flory interaction parameter and the monomer units between crosslinks. Finally, we demonstrate application of this measurement approach for characterizing the network properties of different types of PA ultrathin films relevant to water purification and discuss the relationship between network and transport properties. Materials Science and Engineering Division

  1. Fission induced swelling of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Jeong, G. Y.; Park, J. M.; Robinson, A. B.

    2015-10-01

    Fission-induced swelling of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel meat was measured using microscopy images obtained from post-irradiation examination. The data of reduced-size plate-type test samples and rod-type test samples were employed for this work. A model to predict the meat swelling of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel was developed. This model is composed of several submodels including a model for interaction layer (IL) growth between U-Mo and Al matrix, a model for IL thickness to IL volume conversion, a correlation for the fission-induced swelling of U-Mo alloy particles, a correlation for the fission-induced swelling of IL, and models of U-Mo and Al consumption by IL growth. The model was validated using full-size plate data that were not included in the model development.

  2. Synthesis and swelling behavior of xanthan-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Vania Blasques; Bentini, Ricardo; Catalani, Luiz Henrique; Petri, Denise Freitas Siqueira

    2013-02-15

    In this work xanthan chains were crosslinked by esterification reaction at 165 °C either in the absence or in the presence of citric acid. Higher crosslinking density was obtained using citric acid, as evidenced by its lower swelling degree. Tensiometry, a very precise and sensitive technique, was applied to study swelling rates and diffusion mechanisms of water, which was initially quasi-Fickian, controlled by wicking properties, changing to Fickian or Anomalous, depending on hydrogel composition. Hydrogels swelling degree increased at high pH values, due to electrostatic repulsion and ester linkages rupture. Equilibrium swelling degree was affected by salts, depending on gel composition and kind of salt. Effects could be explained by interaction between ions and polymeric chains, EPA/EPD ability of water or osmotic gradient. PMID:23399133

  3. Competition between adsorption-induced swelling and elastic compression of coal at CO2 pressures up to 100 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hol, Sander; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2012-11-01

    Enhanced Coalbed Methane production (ECBM) by CO2 injection frequently proves ineffective due to rapidly decreasing injectivity. Adsorption-induced swelling of the coal matrix has been identified as the principal factor controlling this reduction. To improve understanding of coal swelling in response to exposure to CO2 at high pressures, numerous laboratory studies have been performed in the past decades. These studies consistently reveal an increase in swelling with CO2 pressure. However, it remains unclear what the relative contributions are of adsorption-induced swelling versus elastic compression of the coal framework, and hence what is the true relationship between adsorption-induced swelling and CO2 uptake. Here, we report the results of dilatometry experiments conducted on unconfined, cylindrical coal matrix samples (˜4 mm long and 4 mm in diameter) of high volatile bituminous coal, where we aim to measure the effective volumetric effect of CO2 and to separate this into a component caused by adsorption-induced swelling and a component caused by elastic compression. The experiments were performed using a high pressure eddy current dilatometer that was used to measure one-dimensional sample expansion or contraction (resolution <50 nm). The tests were conducted at a constant temperature of 40 °C, and CO2 pressures up to 100 MPa. Our results show that the matrix samples reveal anisotropic expansion over the full range of CO2 pressures used. Expansion perpendicular to the bedding was about 1.4 times the average expansion measured in the bedding plane. Net volumetric strains, which were computed from the net linear strain in all directions measured, reveal that the response of coal is characterised by an expansion-dominated stage below 10-20 MPa of CO2 pressure and a contraction-dominated stage at higher CO2 pressures. Our data demonstrate direct competition between adsorption-induced swelling and elastic compression in the coal matrix. We propose a model for

  4. Lepromatous leprosy presenting as a swelling in the neck.

    PubMed

    Dogra, D; Verma, K K; Sood, A; Handa, R

    1999-01-01

    A 25-year-old electrician presented with gradually, asymptomatic swelling on left of the neck since 2 years. The swelling which was initially diagnosed as cervical lymphadenitis by the internist represented the enlarged left great auricular nerve. Cutaneous examination revealed an ill-defined, hypoaesthetic macule with minimal atrophy on the pinna of the left ear. The histopathology of the nerve showed a lepromatous neuritis with bacteriological index (BI) of 5+. PMID:20921641

  5. The hypo-osmotic swelling test for evaluation of sperm membrane integrity.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Sivakumar; Jeyendran, Rajasingam S

    2013-01-01

    A functional membrane is requisite for the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa, as it plays an integral role in sperm capacitation, acrosome reaction, and binding of the spermatozoon to the egg surface. The hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test evaluates the functional integrity of the sperm's plasma membrane and also serves as a useful indicator of fertility potential of sperm. The HOS test predicts membrane integrity by determining the ability of the sperm membrane to maintain equilibrium between the sperm cell and its environment. Influx of the fluid due to hypo-osmotic stress causes the sperm tail to coil and balloon or "swell." A higher percentage of swollen sperm indicates the presence of sperm having a functional and intact plasma membrane. Here, we present the detailed protocol for performing the HOS test and explain the results for interpretation. PMID:22992900

  6. Unusual case of focal neck swelling: Phlebectasia of internal jugular vein with intracranial extension

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Virender; Kumari, Abha; Murthy, TVSP

    2015-01-01

    Internal jugular vein (IJV) phlebectasia is rare in occurrence and is frequently misdiagnosed and managed inappropriately. It commonly presents as a unilateral neck swelling which typically increases in size with valsalva maneuver. Although, the most common cause of a focal neck swelling, which increases in size with valsalva maneuver is laryngocele, the possibility of phlebectasia of IJV should always be borne in mind, especially in child. Owing to the rarity of this condition, a high index of suspicion is required to recognize the same and managed appropriately. We present a case of phlebectasia of the right IJV with intracranial extension and discuss its management. The case is being reported in view of its clinical rarity (the intracranial extension being extremely rare) and to highlight the available management strategies. PMID:25664271

  7. Hydrogel-swelling driven delivery device for corrosion resistance of metal in water.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Yang, Li-Ming; Chen, Jie; Wang, Ling-Ling; Chen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion on steel and copper pipes in industry can trigger pollution and weakness due to undesired chemical and biochemical reactions. Too much or too little inhibitor can decrease its efficiency, even causing waste and pollution. In this contribution, an innovative delivery device driven by hydrogel swelling, mainly consisting of a semi-permeable membrane, a hydrogel-swelling force drive and a release orifice, was developed to control the release of inhibitor in a water system at a constant rate, leading the amount of inhibitor to maintain a proper concentration. The effects of hydrogel mass and orifice dimension on release property were studied for controlling release rate. Moreover, a weight loss experiment on carbon steels was carried out to show the incredible anti-corrosion function of the system. PMID:26676016

  8. Swelling of four glove materials challenged by six metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhai; Que Hee, Shane S

    2008-01-01

    The performance of protective gloves against metalworking fluids (MWFs) has rarely been studied because of the difficult chemical analysis associated with complex MWFs. In the present study, glove swelling was used as a screening parameter of glove compatibility after challenge of the outer surfaces of chloroprene, latex, nitrile, and vinyl disposable gloves by six MWF concentrates for 2 hours in an ASTM F-739-type permeation cell without collection medium. Swelling relative to original thickness was up to 39% for latex, 7.6% for chloroprene, and 3.5% for nitrile. Shrinking up to 9.3% occurred for vinyl. Chloroprene and latex did not swell significantly for the semisynthetic and synthetic MWFs. Vinyl, previously not tested, was a good candidate for MWFs other than the soluble oil type. Although nitrile was recommended by the National Institute for the Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for all types of MWFs, its swelling after 2-hour challenge was significant with Student t-tests for the soluble oil, synthetic, and semisynthetic MWFs. Glove swelling can be used as a screening chemical degradation method for mixtures such as MWFs with difficult chemical analysis. Further studies need to be conducted on the relationship between permeation and glove swelling. PMID:17680173

  9. What can asymmetry tell us? Investigation of asymmetric versus symmetric pinch and swell structures in nature and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Robyn; Piazolo, Sandra; Daczko, Nathan

    2015-04-01

    Pinch and swell structures occur from microscopic to landscape scales where a more competent layer in a weaker matrix is deformed by pure shear, often in rifting environments. The Anita Shear Zone (ASZ) in Fiordland, New Zealand has an example of landscape scale (1 km width) asymmetric pinch and swell structures developed in ultramafic rocks. Field work suggests that the asymmetry is a result of variations in the surrounding 'matrix' flow properties as the ultramafic band is surrounded to the east by an orthogneiss (Milford Orthogneiss) and to the west by a paragneiss (Thurso Paragneiss). In addition, there is a narrow and a much wider shear zone between the ultramafics and the orthogneiss and paragneiss, respectively. Detailed EBSD analysis of samples from a traverse across the pinch and swell structure indicate the ultramafics in the shear zone on the orthogneiss side have larger grain size than the ultramafics in the shear zone on the paragneiss side. Ultramafic samples from the highly strained paragneiss and orthogneiss shear zones show dislocation creep behaviour, and, on the paragneiss side, also significant deformation by grain boundary sliding. To test if asymmetry of pinch and swell structures can be used to derive the rheological properties of not only the pinch and swell lithologies, but also of the matrix, numerical simulations were performed. Numerical modelling of pure shear (extension) was undertaken with (I) initially three layers and then (II) five layers by adding soft high strain zones on both sides of the rheological hard layer. The matrix was given first symmetric, then asymmetric viscosity. Matrix viscosity was found to impact the formation of pinch and swell structures with the weaker layer causing increased tortuosity of the competent layer edge due to increased local differential stress. Results highlight that local, rheologically soft layers and the relative viscosity of matrix both impact significantly the shape and symmetry of developing

  10. A study of the kinetics of swelling in cylindrical polystyrene gels: Mechanical behavior and final properties after swelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakiki, Abdelkrim; Herz, Jean E.

    1994-11-01

    Mechanical properties of cylindrical polystyrene gels were investigated both by the kinetics of swelling and uniaxial elastic modulus. These gels were prepared by specific chemical reactions using well-defined difunctional and precursor polymers. From the data of the kinetics of swelling we determined the cooperative diffusion coefficient of the gel and the related mesh size. Experimental results were found to be consistent with the theory of Tanaka et al. Elastic moduli were interpreted on the basis of the phantom and affine models.

  11. Cytological diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis presented as a subcutaneous swelling in the cubital fossa: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pinki; Dixit, Alok; Chandra, Subrat; Tanwar, Aparna

    2015-04-01

    Filariasis is a disabling parasitic disease and the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is quite high in India. However, W. bancrofti presenting as a subcutaneous swelling and a demonstration of microfilariae in cytological smears from upper extremity lesions is extremely rare. We report a case of 20-year-old male who presented with a small subcutaneous swelling near medial aspect of the left cubital fossa. The wet mount preparation showed many motile microfilariae. Cytology smears revealed a large number of sheathed microfilariae with the tail tip free of nucleus, identified as W. bancrofti without significant inflammatory cell infiltrate. Indirect ELISA was highly positive for specific recombinant W. bancrofti filarial antigen (WL-L2). The role of cytology cannot be underestimated in clinically unanticipated cases of bancroftian filariasis, especially with the amicrofilaremic state. Filariasis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis during cytological evaluation of any swelling, especially in endemic areas. PMID:26634138

  12. Swelling of phospholipid membranes by divalent metal ions depends on the location of the ions in the bilayers.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Richard J; Maria Schober, Rafaëla; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2016-08-10

    The Hofmeister series illustrates how salts produce a wide range of effects in biological systems, which are not exclusively explained by ion charge. In lipid membranes, charged ions have been shown to bind to lipids and either hydrate or dehydrate lipid head groups, and also to swell the water layer in multi-lamellar systems. Typically, Hofmeister phenomena are explained by the interaction of the ions with water, as well as with biological interfaces, such as proteins or membranes. We studied the effect of the divalent cations Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Fe(2+), and Zn(2+) on oriented, stacked, phospholipid bilayers made of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). Using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, we observed that the cations lead to a swelling of the water layer between the bilayers, without causing significant changes to the bilayer structure. The cations swelled the bilayers in different amounts, in the order Fe(2+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) > Zn(2+). By decomposing the total bilayer electron density into different molecular groups, Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) were found to interact with the glycerol groups of the lipid molecules and cause minor swelling of the bilayers. Mg(2+) and Fe(2+) were found to position near the phosphate groups and cause a strong increase in the number of hydration water molecules. Our results present a molecular mechanism-of-action for the Hofmeister series in phospholipid membranes. PMID:27453289

  13. Coupled thermo-hydro-chemical models of swelling bentonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samper, Javier; Mon, Alba; Zheng, Liange; Montenegro, Luis; Naves, Acacia; Pisani, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste in deep geological repositories is based on the multibarrier concept of retention of the waste by a combination of engineered and geological barriers. The engineered barrier system (EBS) includes the solid conditioned waste-form, the waste container, the buffer made of materials such as clay, grout or crushed rock that separate the waste package from the host rock and the tunnel linings and supports. The geological barrier supports the engineered system and provides stability over the long term during which time radioactive decay reduces the levels of radioactivity. The strong interplays among thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes during the hydration, thermal and solute transport stages of the engineered barrier system (EBS) of a radioactive waste repository call for coupled THMC models for the metallic overpack, the unsaturated compacted bentonite and the concrete liner. Conceptual and numerical coupled THMC models of the EBS have been developed, which have been implemented in INVERSE-FADES-CORE. Chemical reactions are coupled to the hydrodynamic processes through chemical osmosis (C-H coupling) while bentonite swelling affects solute transport via changes in bentonite porosity changes (M-H coupling). Here we present THMC models of heating and hydration laboratory experiments performed by CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) on compacted FEBEX bentonite and numerical models for the long-term evolution of the EBS for 1 Ma. The changes in porosity caused by swelling are more important than those produced by the chemical reactions during the early evolution of the EBS (t < 100 years). For longer times, however, the changes in porosity induced by the dissolution/precipitation reactions are more relevant due to: 1) The effect of iron mineral phases (corrosion products) released by the corrosion of the carbon steel canister; and 2) The hyper alkaline plume produced by the concrete liner. Numerical results show that

  14. Dissolution/swelling behavior of cycloolefin polymers in aqueous base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Allen, Robert D.; Opitz, Juliann; Wallow, Thomas I.; Truong, Hoa D.; Hofer, Donald C.; Varanasi, Pushkara R.; Jordhamo, George M.; Jayaraman, Saikumar; Vicari, Richard

    2000-06-01

    Polycycloolefins prepared by addition polymerization of norbornene derivatives are quite different from hydroxystyrene-based polymers in terms of their interaction with aqueous base. Their dissolution kinetics monitored on a quartz crystal microbalance is not a smooth function of the ratio of the polar to nonpolar functionalities in polymer but abruptly changes from very fast dissolution to massive swelling within a narrow range of composition. The maximum swelling is a function of thickness and the entire film thickness can swell in a few seconds at > 3,000 angstroms/sec or at immeasurably fast rates. The initial concentration of a pendant carboxylic acid in polymer has to be selected to minimize swelling and the concentration of an acid-labile group to induce fast dissolution in the exposed area. Furthermore, swelling which occurs in the partially- exposed regions must be minimized by incorporating a third monomer unit or by adding a dissolution modifying agent (DMA) such as t-butyl cholate. However, the function of DMA which is also acid-labile is quite complex; depending on the matrix polymer composition and its dissolution/swelling behavior, DMA could function as a swelling suppressor or promoter and a carboxylic acid generated by acidolysis of DMA as a dissolution or swelling promoter. Photochemically generated sulfonic acid could also affect the dissolution/swelling behavior. Base hydrolysis of anhydride during development is controlled by the polarity (carboxylic acid concentration) in polymer film, which has been demonstrated in an unequivocal fashion by IR spectroscopy under the condition strongly mimicking the development process and thus could boost development contrast but could hurt performance as well. Thus, incorporation of carboxylic acid in the form of methacrylic acid, for example, in radical copolymerization of norbornene with maleic anhydride must be handled carefully as it would increase the susceptibility of the anhydride hydrolysis and could

  15. Exercise-induced heart mitochondrial cholesterol depletion influences the inhibition of mitochondrial swelling.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowski, Wieslaw; Vadhana M S, Dhivya; Kaczor, Jan Jacek; Olek, Robert Antoni; Flis, Damian Jozef; Halon, Malgorzata; Wozniak, Michal; Fedeli, Donatella; Carloni, Manuel; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2013-10-01

    The significance of the reduction of the cholesterol pool in heart mitochondria after exercise is still unknown. Recently, published data have suggested that cholesterol may influence the components of mitochondrial contact site and affect mitochondrial swelling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the decreased cholesterol content in heart mitochondria caused by prolonged swimming may provoke changes in their bioenergetics and result in an increased resistance to calcium chloride-induced mitochondrial swelling. Male Wistar rats were divided into a sedentary control group and an exercise group. The rats exercised for 3 h, burdened with an additional 3% of their body weight. Their hearts were removed immediately after completing the exercise. The left ventricle was divided and used for experiments. Mitochondrial cholesterol content, membrane fluidity and mitochondrial bioenergetics were measured in the control and exercised rat heart mitochondria. To assess whether mitochondrial modifications are linked to disruption of lipid microdomains, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, a well-known lipid microdomain-disrupting agent and cholesterol chelator, was applied to the mitochondria of the control group. Cholesterol depletion, increased membrane fluidity and increased resistance to calcium chloride-induced swelling were observed in postexercise heart crude mitochondrial fraction. Similar results were achieved in control mitochondria treated with 2% methyl-β-cyclodextrin. All of the mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters were similar between the groups. Therefore, the disruption of raft-like microdomains appears to be an adaptive change in the rat heart following exercise. PMID:23733522

  16. South Pacific hotspot swells dynamically supported by mantle flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Claudia; Yoshida, Masaki; Isse, Takehi; Suetsugu, Daisuke; Fukao, Yoshio; Barruol, Guilhem

    2010-05-01

    The dynamics of mantle plumes and the origin of their associated swells remain some of the most controversial topics in geodynamics. According to the plume theory, originally proposed by Morgan, the hotspot volcanoes are created by jets of hot material (plumes) rising from the deep mantle. With later studies, troubling inconsistencies began to emerge and other phenomena are invoked to explain intraplate volcanism, thus tending to nail the plume coffin. However, the problems encountered may simply be "the maturing of a valid theory to deal with the complexity of the real planet". This alternative is tested here by studying the dynamics of the South Pacific plumes through a new numerical model of mantle flow based on a highly-resolved seismic tomography model. We show here, for the first time, that a direct link exists between the surface observations and the mantle flow. We find indeed outstanding correlations between the observed and the modelled swells and between the modelled flow pattern and the active volcanism. This shows that at a first order, the morphology of the volcanic chains and their associated swells is controlled by the mantle flows. The excellent correlation we find between the buoyancy fluxes obtained from our numerical model and the ones deduced from the swells morphology has even broader implications. It implies indeed that we can accurately evaluate the heat transported by mantle plumes from a careful estimation of the swell morphology. We show that the heat transported by the South Pacific plumes accounts for 13% of the total plume heat flux.

  17. Tropical inter-annual SST oscillations and Southern Ocean swells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yalin; Rogers, Erick; Jensen, Tommy

    2016-04-01

    The possibility of teleconnections between Southern Ocean swells and sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on inter-annual time scales in the Eastern Pacific Niño3 region and southeastern Indian Ocean is investigated using numerical wave models. Two alternative parameterizations for swell dissipation are used. It is found that swell dissipation in the models is not directly correlated with large inter-annual variations such as the El Nino - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). However, using one of the two swell dissipation parameterizations, a correlation is found between observed SST anomalies and the modification of turbulent kinetic energy flux (TKEF) by Southern Ocean swells due to the damping of short wind waves: modeled reduction of TKEF is in opposite phase with the SST anomalies in the Niño-3 region, indicating a potential positive feedback. The modeled bi-monthly averaged TKEF reduction in the southeastern Indian Ocean is also well correlated with the IOD mode.

  18. Swelling behavior of bisensitive interpenetrating polymer networks for microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Krause, A T; Zschoche, S; Rohn, M; Hempel, C; Richter, A; Appelhans, D; Voit, B

    2016-07-01

    Bisensitive interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels of temperature sensitive net-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and pH sensitive net-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) for microfluidic applications were prepared via a sequential synthesis using free radical polymerization. The IPN indicated a suitable reversible alteration of swelling in response to the change in pH and temperature. The adequate change of the hydrogel volume is a basic requirement for microfluidic applications. Using the introduced correction factor f, it is possible to determine the cooperative diffusion coefficient (Dcoop) of cylindrical samples at any aspect ratio. The determined cooperative diffusion coefficient allowed the evaluation of varying swelling processes of different network structures. The presence of the second sub-network of the IPN improved the swelling behaviour of the first sub-network compared to the individual networks. PMID:27174740

  19. Geoid height versus topography for oceanic plateaus and swells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, David T.; Mackenzie, Kevin R.

    1989-01-01

    Gridded geoid height data (Marsh et al.l, 1986) and gridded bathymetry data (Van Wykhouse, 1973) are used to estimate the average compensation depths of 53 oceanic swells and plateaus. The relationship between geoid height and topography is examined using Airy and thermal compensation models. It is shown that geoid height is linearly related to topography between wavelengths of 400 and 4000 m as predicted by isostatic compensation models. The geoid/topography ratio is dependent on the average depth of compensation. The intermediate geoid/topography ratios of most thermal swells are interpreted as a linear combination of the decaying thermal swell signature and that of the persisting Airy-compensated volcanic edifice.

  20. Depleting depletion: Polymer swelling in poor solvent mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Debashish; Marques, Carlos; Stuehn, Torsten; Kremer, Kurt

    A polymer collapses in a solvent when the solvent particles dislike monomers more than the repulsion between monomers. This leads to an effective attraction between monomers, also referred to as depletion induced attraction. This attraction is the key factor behind standard polymer collapse in poor solvents. Strikingly, even if a polymer exhibits poor solvent condition in two different solvents, it can also swell in mixtures of these two poor solvents. This collapse-swelling-collapse scenario is displayed by poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in aqueous alcohol. Using molecular dynamics simulations of a thermodynamically consistent generic model and theoretical arguments, we unveil the microscopic origin of this phenomenon. Our analysis suggests that a subtle interplay of the bulk solution properties and the local depletion forces reduces depletion effects, thus dictating polymer swelling in poor solvent mixtures.

  1. Synchrotron X-ray microtomographic study of tablet swelling.

    PubMed

    Laity, P R; Cameron, R E

    2010-06-01

    Tablet swelling behaviour was investigated by following the movements of embedded glass microsphere tracers, using X-ray microtomography (XmicroT) with intense illumination from a synchrotron. Specimens were prepared using combinations of hydroxypropyl-methyl-cellulose (HPMC) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) or pre-gelatinised starch (PGS), three materials commonly used as excipients for compacted tablets. The results revealed significant differences in swelling behaviour due to excipient type and compaction conditions. In particular, a sudden change was observed from gel-forming behaviour of formulations containing PGS or high HPMC content, to more rapid expansion and disintegration for formulations above 70% MCC. Although some radial expansion was observable with the higher PGS formulations and during later stages of swelling, axial expansion (i.e. the reverse of the compaction process) appeared to dominate in most cases. This was most pronounced for the 10/90 HPMC/MCC specimens, which rapidly increased in thickness, while the diameter remained almost unchanged. The expansion appeared to be initiated by hydration and may be due to the relaxation of residual compaction stress. This occurred within 'expansion zones', which initially appeared as thin bands close to the compacted (upper and lower) faces, but gradually advanced towards the centre and spread around the sides of the tablets. These zones exhibited lower X-ray absorbance, probably because they contained significant amounts of bubbles, which were formed by air released from the swelling excipients. Although, in most cases, these bubbles were too small to be resolved (<60 microm), larger bubbles (diameter up to 1mm) were clearly evident in the rapidly swelling 10/90 HPMC/MCC specimens. It is suggested that the presence of these bubbles may affect subsequent water ingress, by increasing the tortuosity and occluding part of the gel, which may affect the apparent diffusion kinetics (i.e. Fickian or Case II

  2. Non-breaking swell dissipation from synthethic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopa, Justin; Husson, Romain; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Collard, Fabrice; Chapron, Bertrand

    2015-04-01

    Swells have the unique ability to propagate away from their generation region with very little attenuation. Only one study exists in the ocean wave literature that measures the decay rate by following a swell with in-situ measurements along its great circle route. More recently used space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to measure the attenuation. They estimated the dissipation rate from SAR with a limited number of cases: 11 storms with 22 total events. The present work extrapolates their technique to more events since ENVISAT has collected SAR data from 2002-2012. The dissipation rate is then determined in a two step process. First swell sources are identified from density maps of back-propagated waves at their group velocity along great circles. Next a "point-source" model is assumed and the waves from all directions and frequencies are propagated forward to find matching SAR observations. Relatively small directional bins are used to group observations creating transects from a given swell event. This ensemble of tracks is the basic dataset used to calculate a more statistically robust measure of the dissipation rate. Individual tracks and the swell behavior are explored through this dataset. Our results are in agreement with previous findings and it is verified that swells are very persistent with e-folding scales larger than 20,000 km and they behave nonlinearly as a function of wave frequency. The results are discussed in terms of their implications in spectral wave models as well as identify limitations of the remotely sensed wave spectra. The wind's role on the dissipation rate cannot be determined from this analysis stressing the need for concurrent wind and wave observations.

  3. The physicochemical properties of polyurethane membranes determined by swelling measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Carja, Gabriela; Apostolescu, Gabriela; Apostolescu, Nicolae

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we have dispersed SAPO-5 zeolite particles in polyurethane matrix for preparation of porous mixed matrix membranes. The goal of work is the determination of the cohesive energy density for unfilled- and zeolite - filled polyurethane membranes. Experimental determination of cohesive energy density values for the prepared membranes is obtained by measuring the swelling coefficients in water and several alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol). The solubility parameters of the membranes are also calculated. For the unfilled membranes the corresponded values of cohesive energy density and solubility parameter increase in comparison to those of the filled membranes. All the tested membranes show a tendency to swell with ethanol.

  4. Shrinkage and Swelling of Coal Induced by Desorption and Sorption of Fluids: Theoretical Model and Interpretation of a Field Project

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Gondle, R.K.; Smith, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic sequestration in deep unmineable coal seams and enhanced coalbed methane production is a promising choice, economically and environmentally, to reduce anthropogenic gases such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Unmineable coal seams are typically known to adsorb large amounts of carbon dioxide in comparison to the sizeable amounts of sorbed methane, which raises the potential for large scale sequestration projects. During the process of sequestration, carbon dioxide is injected into the coalbed and desorbed methane is produced. The coal matrix is believed to shrink when a gas is desorbed and swell when a gas is sorbed, sometimes causing profound changes in the cleat porosity and permeability of the coal seam. These changes may have significant impact on the reservoir performance. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the combined influence of swelling and shrinkage, and geomechanical properties including elastic modulus, cleat porosity, and permeability of the reservoir. The present paper deals with the influence of swelling and shrinkage on the reservoir performance, and the geomechanical response of the reservoir system during the process of geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide and enhanced coalbed methane production in an actual field project located in northern New Mexico. A three-dimensional swelling and shrinkage model was developed and implemented into an existing reservoir model to understand the influence of geomechanical parameters, as well as swelling and shrinkage properties, on the reservoir performance. Numerical results obtained from the modified simulator were compared to available measured values from that site and previous studies. Results show that swelling and shrinkage, and the combination of geomechanical and operational parameters, have a significant influence on the performance of the reservoir system.

  5. Lupus erythematosus--a case of facial swelling.

    PubMed

    Loescher, A; Edmondson, H D

    1988-04-01

    A case is reported of acute facial swelling following tooth extraction that failed to respond in a normal manner. The patient developed systemic signs and symptoms ultimately revealing the diagnosis of lupus erythematosus. The possibility of soft tissue lesions arising in some forms of lupus is emphasised by this report. PMID:3163493

  6. [A smoker with hoarseness and a swelling of his neck].

    PubMed

    van der Poel, N A; Vleming, M; Bok, J W

    2016-01-01

    A 68-year-old man was referred to the Department of Otolaryngology because of a swelling of his neck and hoarseness. CT imaging of his neck revealed a cystic mass in the larynx as well as in the neck, with an air-fluid level. The diagnosis 'laryngopyocele' was made. PMID:27096477

  7. [A premature neonate with a right pre-auricular swelling].

    PubMed

    Schene, Kiry M; Schiering, Irene A M; Mallant, Maarten P J H

    2015-01-01

    We present a 14-day-old premature born girl with a temperature of 37.8°C and a swelling and redness of the right parotid gland. Laboratory tests revealed a CRP of 79 mg/l and ultrasound examination confirmed a parotitis. Treatment with augmentin i.v. resolved the condition. PMID:26043253

  8. Impedimetric transduction of swelling in pH-responsive hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Mac Kenna, Nicky; Calvert, Paul; Morrin, Aoife

    2015-05-01

    A pH-responsive hydrogel composed of an aliphatic diamine cross-linked with polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) using a single, rapid polymerisation step has been used to detect glucose by entrapping glucose oxidase (GOx) within its cationic network. The swelling response of hydrogel disks on exposure to glucose were optimised through variation of factors including the cross-linking density of the network, GOx loading and the addition of catalase. Hydrogel-modified carbon cloth electrodes were also prepared and characterised using voltammetric and impedimetric techniques. Non-faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and gravimetry were both employed to track the swelling response of the gels quantitatively. The clear potential of utilising impedance to transduce hydrogel swelling was demonstrated where a linear decrease in gel resistance (Rgel) corresponding to the swelling response was observed in the range 1 to 100 μM. A dramatic increase in the limit of detection of six orders of magnitude over the gravimetric measurement was achieved (from 0.33 mM to 0.08 μM). This increased sensitivity, coupled with the textile-based electrode substrate approach opens the potential applicability of this system for monitoring glucose concentration via the skin by sweat or interstitial fluid (ISF). PMID:25768307

  9. Swelling of polyelectrolyte and polyzwitterion brushes by humid vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzer, Jan; Galvin, Casey; Dimitriou, Michael; Satija, Sushil

    2015-03-01

    Swelling behavior of polyelectrolyte and polyzwitterion brushes derived from poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) in water vapor is investigated using a combination of neutron and X-ray reflectivity and spectroscopic ellipsometry over a wide range of relative humidity (RH) levels. The extent of swelling depends strongly on the nature of the side-chain chemistry. For parent PDMAEMA, there is an apparent enrichment of vapor at the polymer/air interface. Despite extensive swelling at high humidity level, no evidence of charge repulsion is found in weak or strong polyelectrolyte brushes. Polyzwitterionic brushes swell to a greater extent than the quaternized brushes studied. However, for RH levels beyond 70%, the polyzwitterionic brushes start to exclude water molecules, leading to a decline in water volume fraction from the maximum of 0.30 down to 0.10. Using a gradient in polymer chain grafting density, we provide evidence that this behavior stems from the formation of inter- and intramolecular zwitterionic complexes.

  10. Anomalous swelling behavior of FM 5055 carbon phenolic composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, E. H.

    1992-01-01

    The swelling response of a typical carbon phenolic composite was measured in the three primary material directions. The data obtained sugrest that at low and high relative humidities the incremental increase in moisture absorption can be attributed primarily to the resin. At intermediate relative humidities, the water is moving largely into the carbonized fibers.

  11. Shrink-swell behavior of soil across a vertisol catena

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrinking and swelling of soils and the associated formation and closing of cracks can vary spatially within the smallest hydrologic unit subdivision utilized in surface hydrology models. Usually in the application of surface hydrology models, cracking is not considered to vary within a hydrologic u...

  12. Swelling and drug release from oral thin films (OTFs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrover, A.; Casadei, M. A.; Paolicelli, P.; Petralito, S.; Varani, G.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the characteristic time-scales for swelling and drug release from polymeric thin films for buccal delivery. In this work, novel OTFs were prepared combining Gellan gum, a natural polysaccharide well known in the pharmaceutical field, along with Glycerol, used as plasticizer. A new millifluidic flow-through device is adopted for in-vitro release tests.

  13. [A former bodybuilder with a swelling on the forearm].

    PubMed

    Strijbos, Ruben M; Zwaard, Ton M

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old man came to the general practitioner with a solitary compressible swelling on his left forearm, which enlarged during exercise. The patient reported a history of bodybuilding and he worked as a plasterer. Physical examination revealed primary varicose of the upper extremity, a rare localisation of a common vascular disease. PMID:25804109

  14. Modulation of ocean skin temperature by swell waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessup, A. T.; Hesany, V.

    1996-03-01

    Infrared measurements of sea surface temperature from R/P Flip in the deep ocean show that there is significant modulation of ocean skin temperature by swell waves and that the wind plays a dominant role in the process. The squared coherence and the magnitude of the transfer function between the skin temperature and surface displacement respond to the wind speed, while its phase is determined by the direction of the wind relative to the swell. When the swell and wind are in the same direction, the transfer function phase indicates that the maximum skin temperature occurs on the forward face, which, in this case, is also the downwind side. Remarkably, the phase changes by roughly 180° when the wind direction reverses from going with the swell to going against it, so that the maximum switches to the rear face, which is again downwind. The peak-to-peak modulation T0 is found to be correlated with the bulk-skin temperature difference ΔT. Furthermore, T0 is of the same order as ΔT, suggesting that small-scale wave breaking due to longwave/shortwave interaction may dominate the phenomenon.

  15. A 47-year-old man with tongue swelling.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Roa, Maristely; Nazario, Sylvette; Ramos, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Intermittent tongue angioedema can be the initial presentation of several disorders including angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor induced angioedema and hereditary angioedema. Persistent angioedema on the other hand, can be associated with amyloidosis, tumors, thyroid disorders and acromegaly. We present a case of intermittent episodes of tongue swelling progressing to macroglossia. PMID:27401321

  16. How does a flexible chain of active particles swell?

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Andreas; Babel, Sonja; ten Hagen, Borge; von Ferber, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-03-28

    We study the swelling of a flexible linear chain composed of active particles by analytical theory and computer simulation. Three different situations are considered: a free chain, a chain confined to an external harmonic trap, and a chain dragged at one end. First, we consider an ideal chain with harmonic springs and no excluded volume between the monomers. The Rouse model of polymers is generalized to the case of self-propelled monomers and solved analytically. The swelling, as characterized by the spatial extension of the chain, scales with the monomer number defining a Flory exponent ν which is ν = 1/2, 0, 1 in the three different situations. As a result, we find that activity does not change the Flory exponent but affects the prefactor of the scaling law. This can be quantitatively understood by mapping the system onto an equilibrium chain with a higher effective temperature such that the chain swells under an increase of the self-propulsion strength. We then use computer simulations to study the effect of self-avoidance on active polymer swelling. In the three different situations, the Flory exponent is now ν = 3/4, 1/4, 1 and again unchanged under self-propulsion. However, the chain extension behaves non-monotonic in the self-propulsion strength. PMID:25833607

  17. How does a flexible chain of active particles swell?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Babel, Sonja; ten Hagen, Borge; von Ferber, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-03-01

    We study the swelling of a flexible linear chain composed of active particles by analytical theory and computer simulation. Three different situations are considered: a free chain, a chain confined to an external harmonic trap, and a chain dragged at one end. First, we consider an ideal chain with harmonic springs and no excluded volume between the monomers. The Rouse model of polymers is generalized to the case of self-propelled monomers and solved analytically. The swelling, as characterized by the spatial extension of the chain, scales with the monomer number defining a Flory exponent ν which is ν = 1/2, 0, 1 in the three different situations. As a result, we find that activity does not change the Flory exponent but affects the prefactor of the scaling law. This can be quantitatively understood by mapping the system onto an equilibrium chain with a higher effective temperature such that the chain swells under an increase of the self-propulsion strength. We then use computer simulations to study the effect of self-avoidance on active polymer swelling. In the three different situations, the Flory exponent is now ν = 3/4, 1/4, 1 and again unchanged under self-propulsion. However, the chain extension behaves non-monotonic in the self-propulsion strength.

  18. Demonstration of Solvent Differences by Visible Polymer Swelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Joseph H.

    1983-01-01

    Effect of the "polarity" of low-polarity solvents on the amount of swelling produced in a solid polymer (demonstrated in an organic chemistry lecture) is also suitable as a laboratory experiment. Students can be assigned to a small group of solvents from the list provided. Procedures and materials needed are included. (Author/JN)

  19. [A toddler with a swelling of his penis].

    PubMed

    Staps, P; Smeets, C C J M

    2016-01-01

    A 4-year-old boy presented with a subcutaneous, yellowish swelling of 0.8 by 1.5 cm on his penis. We made the diagnosis of a smegma retention cyst. This cyst is the result of a physiologic phenomenon that originates from the separation of the foreskin. PMID:27405570

  20. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W. ); Gutterman, C. ); Chander, S. )

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  1. Corn Mitochondrial Swelling and Contraction—an Alternate Interpretation 1

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Carl; Koeppe, D. E.; Miller, Raymond J.

    1974-01-01

    Mitochondria isolated from 3-day-old etiolated corn shoots (Zea mays L.) can be categorized into three separate groups, each group characteristic of the cell type from which the mitochondria were isolated. Phloem sieve tubes and some adjacent parenchyma cells contain mitochondria that have few cristae and little amorphous matrix. Mitochondria from meristematic and undifferentiated cells have more cristae and matrix. Vaculate and differentiated cells have mitochondria with well-developed cristae and abundant matrix. Each mitochondrial type exhibits typical in vitro spontaneous swelling and substrate-induced contraction responses. characterized by change or lack of change in cristae size and in density of amorphous material. For the second and third types of mitochondria, swelling and contraction are characterized by a change in degree of cristae size and in matrix density. The first type undergoes few changes upon swelling or contraction. Radical changes of the inner membrane, withdrawal and infolding, are associated with cell differentiation and not with swelling and contraction of isolated corn shoot mitochondria. Images PMID:16658816

  2. Absorption and swelling characteristics of silver (I) antimicrobial wound dressings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important characteristic of moist wound dressings is their ability to swell and absorb exudates from the wound, while maintaining a moist atmosphere at the wound site. At the Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC), we have previously developed antimicrobial silver-sodium-carboxymethylated (CM)-...

  3. Irradiated PVAl membrane swelled with chitosan solution as dermal equivalent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodas, A. C. D.; Ohnuki, T.; Mathor, M. B.; Lugao, A. B.

    2005-07-01

    Synthetic membranes as dermal equivalent can be applied at in vitro studies for developing new transdermal drugs or cosmetics. These membranes could be composed to mimic the dermis and seed cultivated keratinocytes as epidermal layer on it. The endothelial cells ingrowth to promote neovascularization and fibroblasts ingrowth to promote the substitution of this scaffold by natural components of the dermis. As, they can mimic the scaffold function of dermis; the membranes with biological interaction could be used for in vivo studies as dermal equivalent. For this application, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAl) membranes crosslinked by gamma radiation were swelled with chitosan solution. PVAl do not interact with the organism when implanted and is intended to mimic the mechanical characteristics of the dermal scaffold. The chitosan as a biocompatible biosynthetic polysaccharide were incorporated into PVAl membranes to improve the organism response. Degradation of chitosan by the organism occurs preferably by hydrolysis or enzymatic action, for example, by lysozyme. For this purpose the swelling kinetic of PVAl membranes with chitosan solution were performed and it was verified their degradation in vitro. The results showed that the swelling equilibrium of the PVAl membranes with chitosan membranes was reached in 120 h with average swelling of 1730%. After swelling, PVAl and chitosan/PVAl membranes were dried and immersed in phosphate buffer solution pH 5.7 and pH 7.4, with and without lysozyme, as those pH values are the specific physiologic pH for external skin and the general physiological pH for the organism, respectively. It was verified that the pure PVAl membrane did not showed change in their mass during 14 days. PVAl membranes swelled with chitosan solution showed mass decrease from 1 to 14 days inside these solutions. The highest mass decrease was verified at pH 5.7 in phosphate buffer solution without lysozyme. The smallest mass decrease was verified at pH 7.4 in

  4. Highly swelling hydrogels from ordered galactose-based polyacrylates.

    PubMed

    Martin, B D; Linhardt, R J; Dordick, J S

    1998-01-01

    High swelling galactose-based hydrogels have been prepared using a chemoenzymatic procedure. Regioselective acylation of beta-O-methyl-galactopyranoside in nearly anhydrous pyridine with lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia yields the 6-acryloyl derivative (Compound I). Further lipase-catalysed acylation of the monoacrylate derivative in nearly anhydrous acetone yielded 2,6-diacryloyl-beta-O-methyl galactopyranoside (Compound II) that can act as a cross-linker with a structure similar to that of the sugar-based monomer. The high selectivity of enzyme catalysis yielded apparently highly regular hydrogel networks with swelling ratios at equilibrium ranging from 170 to 1100. elastic moduli ranging from 0.005 to 0.088 MPa and calculated mesh sizes ranging from 1160 to 6600 A. These values are far higher than conventional uncharged or lightly charged hydrogels at similar elastic moduli. Gel swelling was fast, with 75% of the equilibrium swelling value reached in a fractional time of 0.17. Non-selective chemical acryloylation of beta-O-methyl galactopyranoside followed by polymerization yielded a far lower-swelling hydrogel than that obtained using selective enzyme catalysis. These results indicate that the highly regular polymer structure achieved by regioselective enzyme-catalysed acylation yields relatively strong and highly swellable materials. Sugar-based hydrogels, such as those described herein, may find particular use as biomaterials because of their high water content, homogeneity, stability and expected non-toxicity. A wide range of pore sizes can be attained, suggesting that they may also be especially useful as matrices for enzyme immobilization and controlled delivery of biological macromolecules. PMID:9678852

  5. South Pacific hotspot swells dynamically supported by mantle flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, M.; Adam, C.; Isse, T.; Suetsugu, D.; Fukao, Y.; Barruol, G.

    2009-12-01

    The dynamics of mantle plumes and the origin of their associated swells remain some of the most controversial topics in geodynamics. According to the plume theory, originally proposed by Morgan, the hotspot volcanoes are created by jets of hot material (plumes) rising from the deep mantle. With later studies, troubling inconsistencies began to emerge and other phenomena are invoked to explain intraplate volcanism, thus tending to nail the plume coffin. However, the problems encountered may simply be “the maturing of a valid theory to deal with the complexity of the real planet”. This alternative is tested here by studying the dynamics of the South Pacific plumes through a new numerical model of mantle flow based on a highly-resolved seismic tomography model. We show here, for the first time, that a direct link exists between the surface observations and the mantle flow. We find indeed outstanding correlations between the observed and the modelled swells and between the modelled flow pattern and the active volcanism. This shows that at a first order, the morphology of the volcanic chains and their associated swells is controlled by the mantle flows. The excellent correlation we find between the buoyancy fluxes obtained from our numerical model and the ones deduced from the swells morphology has even broader implications. It implies indeed that we can accurately evaluate the heat transported by mantle plumes from a careful estimation of the swell morphology. We show that the heat transported by the South Pacific plumes accounts for 13% of the total plume heat flux.

  6. Swellings of the angle of the mandible in 32 horses (1997-2011).

    PubMed

    Dixon, P M; Loh, N; Barakzai, S Z

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of the horizontal ramus (body) of the equine mandible are well reported, but there is minimal documentation of disorders of the angle of mandible. A retrospective examination of the records of Edinburgh University Equine Hospital (1997-2011) showed that 32 horses were referred due to swellings of the angle of the mandible. The aetiology of these swellings was identified in just 13/32 cases (41%) including fractures (n=2), traumatic, localised periosteal/cortical lesions (n=4), traumatic soft tissue lesions (n=2), neoplasia (n=3), and inflammation of the adjacent salivary gland (n=1) and masseter muscle (n=1). The remaining 19 (59%) cases without a definitive diagnosis showed two patterns of lesions. Twelve cases had localised periosteal/cortical lesions of the ventral aspect of the angle of mandible that were most likely traumatic in origin. The remaining seven undiagnosed cases without mandibular bony changes all had sinus tracts/chronic soft tissue infections on the medial aspect of the angle of the mandible which were believed to be caused by a draining retro-pharyngeal lesion in five cases. Surgical excision of abnormal soft tissues (if present) and bone curettage was the most successful treatment. It was concluded that the aetiology of swellings of the angle of the equine mandible are often obscure; most appear to be traumatic in origin, yet horses seldom develop gross fractures at this site due to the support of the dense surrounding musculo-tendinous structures. A smaller proportion are caused by draining retropharyngeal lesions that respond poorly to medical therapy, but respond well to surgical treatment. PMID:24290988

  7. Pluronic-P123-Templated Synthesis of Silica with Cubic Ia3d Structure in the Presence of Micelle Swelling Agent.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinhui; Kruk, Michal

    2015-07-14

    The syntheses of silicas with highly ordered cubic Ia3d structure templated by Pluronic P123 (EO20PO70EO20) block copolymer surfactant and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) additive in the presence of swelling agents are demonstrated. It was found that the cubic Ia3d silica forms at 25 °C when a moderate amount of a swelling agent, such as 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene (TIPB), 1,4-diisopropylbenzene (DIPB), or 1,3,5-triethylbenzene (TEB), is added. However, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene was not found suitable, suggesting that the success of the synthesis requires a careful selection of a swelling agent. An increase in the relative amount of the swelling agent in a limited range tends to cause an increase in the unit-cell size, while a further unit cell parameter increase can be accomplished with TIPB through a concomitant decrease in the synthesis temperature and increase in the relative amount of the swelling agent. Many of the cubic Ia3d products, including those with the largest attained unit-cell sizes, were highly ordered. When TIPB was used as a swelling agent, the products typically had unusually high mesopore volumes. The latter was largely independent of the ratio of the silica precursor to the Pluronic P123 surfactant for high quality products obtained under particular conditions, which suggests that the cubic Ia3d structure forms at a nearly constant silica-to-surfactant ratio. PMID:26090923

  8. In situ microscopy reveals reversible cell wall swelling in kelp sieve tubes: one mechanism for turgor generation and flow control?

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Jan; Tepler Drobnitch, Sarah; Peters, Winfried S; Knoblauch, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Kelps, brown algae (Phaeophyceae) of the order Laminariales, possess sieve tubes for the symplasmic long-distance transport of photoassimilates that are evolutionarily unrelated but structurally similar to the tubes in the phloem of vascular plants. We visualized sieve tube structure and wound responses in fully functional, intact Bull Kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana [K. Mertens] Postels & Ruprecht 1840). In injured tubes, apparent slime plugs formed but were unlikely to cause sieve tube occlusion as they assembled at the downstream side of sieve plates. Cell walls expanded massively in the radial direction, reducing the volume of the wounded sieve elements by up to 90%. Ultrastructural examination showed that a layer of the immediate cell wall characterized by circumferential cellulose fibrils was responsible for swelling and suggested that alginates, abundant gelatinous polymers of the cell wall matrix, were involved. Wall swelling was rapid, reversible and depended on intracellular pressure, as demonstrated by pressure-injection of silicon oil. Our results revive the concept of turgor generation and buffering by swelling cell walls, which had fallen into oblivion over the last century. Because sieve tube transport is pressure-driven and controlled physically by tube diameter, a regulatory role of wall swelling in photoassimilate distribution is implied in kelps. PMID:26991892

  9. Ion implantation induced swelling in 6H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Nipoti, R.; Albertazzi, E.; Bianconi, M.; Lotti, R.; Lulli, G.; Cervera, M.; Carnera, A.

    1997-06-01

    Ion implantation induced surface expansion (swelling) of 6H-SiC was investigated through the measurement of the step height between implanted and unimplanted areas. The samples were irradiated at room temperature with 500 keV Al{sup +} ions in the dose range 1.25{times}10{sup 14}{endash}3{times}10{sup 15}ionscm{sup {minus}2}. Swelling was related to dose and the area density of ion-induced damage measured by Rutherford backscattering channeling technique. The observed trend is consistent with the hypothesis that the volume expansion of the ion damaged crystal is proportional to the area density of displaced atoms, plus an additional relaxation occurring at the onset of the crystalline to amorphous transition. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Modeling the rapid de-swelling of toroidal hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Chang, Ya-Wen; Alexeev, Alexander; Fernandez de Las Nieves, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    The utilization of synthetic hydrogel networks as 3-D cell culture platforms has allowed researchers to more effectively study how epigenetic factors affect cell growth and physiology. As a whole, this has emphasized the biomechanical role of scaffold structures and led to a number of advances in tissue engineering. Our current research focuses on modeling temperature activated shape transformations of toroidal poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) pNIPAM gels. We use dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to simulate the steady (slow heating rates) and unsteady (fast heating rates) de-swelling behavior of these thermo-sensitive gels. Our simulations show that for slow heating rates the aspect ratio of the tori remains constant during de-swelling. For rapid heating rates we observe buckling instabilities. Our simulations agree with the experimental observations. Financial support by NSF CAREER Award DMR-1255288 is gratefully acknowledged.