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1

A consideration of thermal effect on cavitation bubble growth  

SciTech Connect

The partial differential equation of heat transfer was solved by finite difference scheme with momentum equation (Rayleigh`s equation) for a spherical bubble. Cavitation bubble growth and development of thermal boundary layer were calculated for hot water, liquid hydrogen, and liquid nitrogen. The result agreed well both with Plesset and Zwick`s result and with Birkhoff`s result for a stepwise pressure change. Bubble growth under a sinusoidal pressure change was also calculated which was more complex and temperature in the boundary layer didn`t change monotonously. The analysis was extended to cluster bubbles. Calculation showed D / Ja (D: thermal diffusivity of liquid and Ja: Jakob number) was a governing parameter to judge whether the bubbles collide each other or not.

Kato, H.; Kayano, H.; Kageyama, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering

1994-12-31

2

Experimental study of temperature effect on the growth and collapse of cavitation bubbles near a rigid boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of temperature on the dynamics of a laser-induced cavitation bubble is studied experimentally. The growth and collapse of the cavitation bubble are measured by two sensitive fiber-optic sensors based on optical beam deflection (OBD). Cavitation bubble tests are performed in water at different temperatures, and the temperature ranges from freezing point (0°C) to near boiling point. The results indicate that both the maximum bubble radius and bubble lifetime are increased with the increase of temperature. During the stage of bubble rapidly collapsing in the vicinity of a solid surface, besides laser ablation effect, both the first and second liquid-jet-induced impulses are also observed. They are both increased with liquid temperature increasing, and then reach a peak, followed by a decrease. The peak appears at the temperature which is approximately the average of freezing and boiling points. The mechanism of liquid temperature influence on cavitation erosion is also discussed.

Liu, Xiu-mei; Long, Zheng; He, Jie; Li, Bei-bei; Liu, Xin-hua; Zhao, Ji-yun; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiao-wu

2013-07-01

3

Analysis of cavitation bubble dynamics in a liquid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General differential equations governing the dynamics of the cavitation bubbles in a liquid were derived. With the assumption of spherical symmetry the governing equations were simplified. Closed form solutions were obtained for simple cases, and numerical solutions were calculated for complicated ones. The growth and the collapse of the bubble were analyzed, oscillations of the bubbles were studied, and the stability of the cavitation bubbles were investigated. The results show that the cavitation bubbles are unstable, and the oscillation is not sinusoidal.

Fontenot, L. L.; Lee, Y. C.

1971-01-01

4

Simulation of heat transfer with the growth and collapse of a cavitation bubble near the heated wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth and collapse behaviors of a single cavitation bubble near a heated wall and its effect on the heat transfer are numerically investigated. The present study is designed to reveal the mechanism of cavitation enhanced heat transfer from a microscopic perspective. In the simulation, the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are solved in an axisymmetric two-dimensional domain. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is employed to track the liquid-gas interface. It is assumed that the gas inside the bubble is compressible vapor, and the surrounding liquid is incompressible water. Mass transfer between two phases is ignored. The calculated bubble profiles were compared to the available experimental data, and a good agreement was obtained. Then, the relationship among bubble motion, flow field and surface heat transfer coefficient was analyzed. On this basis, the effects of such factors as the initial distance between the bubble and the wall, the initial vapor pressure and the initial bubble nucleus size on the heat transfer enhancement are discussed. The present study is helpful to understand the heat transfer phenomenon in presence of cavitation bubble in liquid.

Liu, Bin; Cai, Jun; Li, Fengchao; Huai, Xiulan

2013-08-01

5

Stationary cavitation bubbles forming on a delta wing vortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vortex cavitation forming in the leading-edge vortices of a delta wing was examined to determine how the individual cavitation bubbles incepted, grew, interacted with the underlying vortical flow and produced acoustic tones. The non-cavitating vortical flow over the delta wing was chosen to be similar to those previously reported in the literature. It was found that vortex breakdown was unaffected by the presence of incipient and developed vortex cavitation bubbles in the vortex core. While some cavitation bubbles incepted, grew, and collapsed relatively quickly, others reached an equilibrium position wherein the bubble tip was stationary in the laboratory frame at a particular location along the vortex axis. For a given attack angle, the equilibrium location moved upstream with a reduction in free stream cavitation number. It is shown that the existence of these stationary vortex bubbles is possible when there is a balance between the axial growth of the bubble along the vortex axis and the opposite motion of the axial jetting flow in the vortex core, and only a single equilibrium position is possible along the axially evolving vortex for a given free stream cavitation number. These transient and stationary vortex bubbles emit significant cavitation noise upon inception, growth, and collapse. The spectral content of the noise produced was expected to be related to the interaction of the bubble with the surrounding vortical flow in a manner similar to that reported in previous studies, where sustained tones were similar to the underlying vortex frequency. However, in the present study, the dominant frequency and higher harmonics of the tones occur at a higher frequency than that of the underlying vortex. Hence, it is likely that the highly elongated stationary bubbles have higher-order volume oscillations compared to the two-dimensional radial mode of the vortex cores of vortex cavitation bubbles with much smaller diameter-to-length ratios.

Ganesh, Harish; Schot, Joost; Ceccio, Steven L.

2014-12-01

6

Dynamic behaviors of cavitation bubble for the steady cavitating flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, by introducing the flow velocity item into the classical Rayleigh-Plesset dynamic equation, a new equation,\\u000a which does not involve the time term and can describe the motion of cavitation bubble in the steady cavitating flow, has been\\u000a obtained. By solving the new motion equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order method with adaptive step size control, the dynamic\\u000a behaviors

Jun Cai; Xiulan Huai; Xunfeng Li

2009-01-01

7

Mixture segregation by an inertial cavitation bubble  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure diffusion is a mass diffusion process forced by pressure gradients. It has the ability to segregate two species of a mixture, driving the densest species toward high pressure zones, but requires very large pressure gradients to become noticeable. An inertial cavitation bubble develops large pressure gradients in its vicinity, especially as the bubble rebounds at the end of its

R. Grossier; O. Louisnard; Y. Vargas

2007-01-01

8

Modeling Heat and Mass Transfer in Bubbly Cavitating Flows and Shock Waves in Cavitating  

E-print Network

Modeling Heat and Mass Transfer in Bubbly Cavitating Flows and Shock Waves in Cavitating Nozzles. #12;v Abstract Two problems are considered in this thesis: the modeling of heat and mass diffusion effects on the dynamics of spherical bubbles, and the computation of unsteady, bubbly cavitating flows

Colonius, Tim

9

Observation of Microhollows Produced by Bubble Cloud Cavitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When an ultrasonic wave with sound pressure less than the threshold level of bubble destruction irradiates microbubbles, the microbubbles aggregate by an acoustic radiation force and form bubble clouds. The cavitation of bubble clouds produces a large number of microhollows (microdips) on the flow channel wall. In this study, microhollow production by bubble cloud cavitation is evaluated using a blood vessel phantom made of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) gel. Microbubble dynamics in bubble cloud cavitation is observed by a microscope with a short pulse light emitted diode (LED) light source. Microhollows produced on the flow channel wall are evaluated by a confocal laser microscope with a water immersion objective. It is observed that a mass of low-density bubbles (bubble mist) is formed by bubble cloud cavitation. The spatial correlation between the bubble mist and the microhollows shows the importance of the bubble mist in microhollow production by bubble cloud cavitation.

Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Miwa, Takashi

2012-07-01

10

Mixture segregation by an inertial cavitation bubble.  

PubMed

Pressure diffusion is a mass diffusion process forced by pressure gradients. It has the ability to segregate two species of a mixture, driving the densest species toward high pressure zones, but requires very large pressure gradients to become noticeable. An inertial cavitation bubble develops large pressure gradients in its vicinity, especially as the bubble rebounds at the end of its collapse, and it is therefore expected that a liquid mixture surrounding such a bubble would become segregated. Theory developed in an earlier paper shows that this is indeed the case for sufficiently large molecules or nano-particles. The main theoretical results are recalled and a possible implication of this segregation phenomenon on the well-known cavitation-enhanced crystals nucleation is proposed. PMID:17208505

Grossier, R; Louisnard, O; Vargas, Y

2007-04-01

11

Multiscale Modeling of Cavitating Bubbly Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of cavitating bubbly flows is challenging due to the wide range of characteristic lengths of the physics at play: from micrometers (e.g., bubble nuclei radius) to meters (e.g., propeller diameter or sheet cavity length). To address this, we present here a multiscale approach which integrates a Discrete Bubble Model for dispersed microbubbles and a level set N-S solver for macro cavities, along with a mesoscale transition model to bridge the two. This approach was implemented in 3DYNAFS^ and used to simulate sheet-to-cloud cavitation over a hydrofoil. The hybrid model captures well the full cavitation process starting from free field nuclei and nucleation from solid surfaces. In low pressure region of the foil small nuclei are seen to grow large and eventually merge to form a large scale sheet cavity. A reentrant jet forms under the cavity, travels upstream, and breaks it, resulting in a bubble cloud of a large amount of microbubbles as the broken pockets shrink and travel downstream. This is in good agreement with experimental observations based of sheet lengths and frequency of lift force oscillation.

Ma, J.; Hsiao, C.-T.; Chahine, G. L.

2013-03-01

12

A Simple Method for Efficient Generation of Standing Cavitation Bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have found a simple method for the efficient generation of standing cavitation bubbles. The method is simply inserting a punching metal plate into water irradiated by ultrasonic wave. The water depth and position of the punching plate are optimized. We have investigated the mechanism for the efficient generation of standing cavitation bubbles by measuring the distribution of the ultrasonic pressure and the transport dynamics of cavitation bubbles.

Iwata, Yushi; Takada, Noriharu; Sasaki, Koichi

2013-12-01

13

On thermonuclear processes in cavitation bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical and experimental foundations of so-called bubble nuclear fusion are reviewed. In the nuclear fusion process, a spherical cavitation cluster ? 10-2 m in diameter is produced of spherical bubbles at the center of a cylindrical chamber filled with deuterated acetone using a focused acoustic field having a resonant frequency of about 20 kHz. The acoustically-forced bubbles effectuate volume oscillations with sharp collapses during the compression stage. At the final stages of collapse, the bubble cluster emits 2.5 MeV D-D fusion neutron pulses at a rate of ? 2000 per second. The neutron yield is ? 10^5 s -1. In parallel, tritium nuclei are produced at the same yield. It is shown numerically that, for bubbles having sufficient molecular mass, spherical shock waves develop in the center of the cluster and that these spherical shock waves (microshocks) produce converging shocks within the interior bubbles, which focus energy on the centers of the bubbles. When these shock waves reflect from the centers of the bubbles, extreme conditions of temperature ( ? 10^8 K) and density ( ? 10^4 kg m -3) arise in a (nano)spherical region ( ? 10-7 m in size) that last for ? 10-12 s, during which time about ten D-D fusion neutrons and tritium nuclei are produced in the region. A paradoxical result in our experiments is that it is bubble cluster (not streamer) cavitation and the sufficiently high molecular mass of (and hence the low sound speed in) D-acetone ( C3D6O) vapor (as compared, for example, to deuterated water D2O) which are necessary conditions for the formation of convergent spherical microshock waves in central cluster bubbles. It is these waves that allow the energy to be sufficiently focused in the nanospherical regions near the bubble centers for fusion events to occur. The criticism to which the concept of 'bubble fusion' has been subjected in the literature, in particular, most recently in Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (Physics – Uspekhi) journal, is discussed.

Nigmatulin, R. I.; Lahey, R. T., Jr.; Taleyarkhan, R. P.; West, C. D.; Block, R. C.

2014-09-01

14

Cavitation erosion by single laser-produced bubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to elucidate the mechanism of cavitation erosion, the dynamics of a single laser-generated cavitation bubble in water and the resulting surface damage on a flat metal specimen are investigated in detail. The characteristic effects of bubble dynamics, in particular the formation of a high-speed liquid jet and the emission of shock waves at the moment of collapse are

A. Philipp; W. Lauterborn

1998-01-01

15

Cavitation  

SciTech Connect

Cavitation in fluid machines or flow passages can cause loss of performance or material damage due to erosion. This conference reports the results of world-wide research into all aspects of the study of cavitation. Contents include: Cavitation effects in machinery such as pumps, water turbines, propellers and positive displacement machinery; Cavitation in structures, flow passages, valves, flow meters and bearings; Cavitation erosion, noise and instability effects; Cavitation inception; Developed flows; Supercavitating flows and machines; Fundamentals; Bubble dynamics and thermodynamics of cavitation in various fluids; Test facilities and methods of cavitation research and testing; Special instrumentation for cavitation studies, and standards and recommendations for cavitation or erosion.

Not Available

1983-01-01

16

Cavitation Bubble Nucleation by Energetic Particles  

SciTech Connect

In the early sixties, experimental measurements using a bubble chamber confirmed quantitatively the thermal spike theory of bubble nucleation by energetic particles: the energy of the slow, heavy alpha decay recoils used in those experiments matched the calculated bubble nucleation energy to within a few percent. It was a triumph, but was soon to be followed by a puzzle. Within a couple of years, experiments on similar liquids, but well below their normal boiling points, placed under tensile stress showed that the calculated bubble nucleation energy was an order of magnitude less than the recoil energy. Why should the theory work so well in the one case and so badly in the other? How did the liquid, or the recoil particle, "know" the difference between the two experiments? Another mathematical model of the same physical process, introduced in 1967, showed qualitatively why different analyses would be needed for liquids with high and low vapor pressures under positive or negative pressures. But, the quantitative agreement between the calculated nucleation energy and the recoil energy was still poor--the former being smaller by a factor of two to three. In this report, the 1967 analysis is extended and refined: the qualitative understanding of the difference between positive and negative pressure nucleation, "boiling" and "cavitation" respectively, is retained, and agreement between the negative pressure calculated to be needed for nucleation and the energy calculated to be available is much improved. A plot of the calculated negative pressure needed to induce bubble formation against the measured value now has a slope of 1.0, although there is still considerable scatter in the individual points.

West, C.D.

1998-12-01

17

Cavitation Bubble Dynamics inside Liquid Drops in Microgravity  

E-print Network

We studied spark-generated cavitation bubbles inside water drops produced in microgravity. High-speed visualizations disclosed unique effects of the spherical and nearly isolated liquid volume. In particular, (1) toroidally collapsing bubbles generate two liquid jets escaping from the drop, and the "splash jet" discloses a remarkable broadening. (2) Shockwaves induce a strong form of secondary cavitation due to the particular shockwave confinement. This feature offers a novel way to estimate integral shockwave energies in isolated volumes. (3) Bubble lifetimes in drops are shorter than in extended volumes in remarkable agreement with herein derived corrective terms for the Rayleigh-Plesset equation.

Obreschkow, D; Dorsaz, N; De Bosset, A; Nicollier, C; Farhat, M

2006-01-01

18

Comparison of numerical simulations and laboratory studies of shock waves and cavitation bubble growth produced by optical breakdown in water  

SciTech Connect

In numerical calculations of idealized bubble dynamics test problems, Los Alamos computational tools perform well. A realistic equation of state must be used and geometrical features must be carefully modeled to simulate experiments accurately. In this work, we compare numerical simulations taking these features into account with experiments performed at the Medizinisches Laserzentrum Lubeck. We compare the measured and calculated positions of the shock front and of the bubble wall as a function of time in the laser optical breakdown of water produced by 30-ps 1-mJ Nd:YAG laser pulses.

Chapyak, E.J.; Godwin, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Vogel, A. [Medizinisches Laserzentrum Luebeck GmbH (Germany)

1997-04-01

19

Numerical Model and Validation for Cryogenic High-Speed Cavitating Flow Based on Bubble Size Distribution Model in Consideration of Rigorous Heat Transfer around Bubble and Bubble Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bubble size distribution model has been developed by the author for a cryogenic high-speed cavitating flow of a turbo-pump in a liquid fuel rocket engine. In this model, bubble growth/decay and bubble advection are solved for each class of the bubble size, strictly mass, when there are various mass bubbles in the same calculation region. The above calculations are treated as Eulerian approach with respect to the bubble mass. The numerical results based on this model have agreed with the experimental results as a whole, however, some inconsistency still remained. It is suspected that the model of the bubble growth/decay causes the difference between the numerical and experimental results because heat transfer around the bubble was approximately computed by an analytical solution of unsteady heat transfer based on the elapsed-time from the bubble nucleation. In this paper, a new bubble size distribution model was redeveloped, in which the bubble growth/decay calculations employ a new method combining two rigorous methods, namely, a Rayleigh-Plesset equation for bubble oscillation, and a heat conduction equation in a thermal boundary layer around the bubble to evaluate mass rate of evaporation/condensation.

Ito, Yutaka

20

On acoustic cavitation of slightly subcritical bubbles Anthony Harkin  

E-print Network

On acoustic cavitation of slightly subcritical bubbles Anthony Harkin Department of Mathematics than the Blake critical radius, in the presence of time-periodic acoustic pressure fields the accuracy of these predictions. Finally, the implications of these findings for acoustic pressure fields

Kaper, Tasso J.

21

Unsteady translation and repetitive jetting of acoustic cavitation bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-speed recordings reveal peculiar details of the oscillation and translation behavior of cavitation bubbles in the vicinity of an ultrasonic horn tip driven at 20 kHz. In particular, a forward jump during collapse that is due to the rapid reduction of virtual mass is observed. Furthermore, frequently a jetting in the translation direction during the collapse phase is resolved. In spite of strong aspherical deformations and frequent splitting, these bubbles survive the jetting collapse, and they rebound recollecting fragments. Because of incomplete restoration of the spherical shape within the following driving period, higher periodic volume oscillations can occur. This is recognized as a yet unknown source of subharmonic acoustic emission by cavitation bubbles. Numerical modeling can capture the essentials of the unsteady translation.

Nowak, Till; Mettin, Robert

2014-09-01

22

A Study of Cavitation-Ignition Bubble Combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the results of an experimental and computational study of the physics and chemistry of cavitation-ignition bubble combustion (CIBC), a process that occurs when combustible gaseous mixtures are ignited by the high temperatures found inside a rapidly collapsing bubble. The CIBC process was modeled using a time-dependent compressible fluid-dynamics code that includes finite-rate chemistry. The model predicts that gas-phase reactions within the bubble produce CO and other gaseous by-products of combustion. In addition, heat and mechanical energy release through a bubble volume-expansion phase are also predicted by the model. We experimentally demonstrate the CIBC process using an ultrasonically excited cavitation flow reactor with various hydrocarbon-air mixtures in liquid water. Low concentrations (< 160 ppm) of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from the ultrasonic reactor were measured, and found to be proportional to the acoustic excitation power. The results of the model were consistent with the measured experimental results. Based on the experimental findings, the computational model, and previous reports of the "micro-diesel effect" in industrial hydraulic systems, we conclude that CIBC is indeed possible and exists in ultrasonically- and hydrodynamically-induced cavitation. Finally, estimates of the utility of CIBC process as a means of powering an idealized heat engine are also presented.

Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Jacqmin, David A.

2005-01-01

23

Analysis of cavitation bubble dynamics by optical online monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and the dynamics of cavitation bubbles were investigated when applying pulsed mid-IR laser radiation in water. HeNe laser light reflected at the distal application fiber end was measured in order to probe refractive index changes during ablation. A Cr:Tm:YAG laser, (lambda) equals 2.01 micrometer, was operated in the free running and the Q- switched mode. The pulses were transmitted through a 400 micrometer low-OH quartz fiber into a water filled cuvette. In the Q-switched mode the reflected HeNe-laser power was found to be nearly constant during the cavitation bubble lifetime, whereas in the free running mode, transient changes of the reflected power were measured. Initial bubble wall velocities of 20 m/s in the free running mode and about 330 m/s in the Q- switched mode could be estimated using pulse energies of 110 mJ and 18 mJ, respectively. The lifetime of the cavitation bubble in both cases was measured to be about 300 microseconds. Relative to the reflected power when the fiber tip was in air, it was significantly lower during the lifetime of the bubble. The results indicate that condensation or sublimation of steam takes place on the fiber tip owing to low vapor temperature within the bubble. Rapid cooling due to adiabatic steam expansion and the Joule-Thompson effect at the onset of bubble formation are the most likely explanations for this unexpected result. A simple gas kinetic model predicts temperature gradients in the order of 200 degrees Celsius within the first microseconds. In conclusion, the optical on- line monitoring described is an excellent tool to investigate the kinetics of ablation in any medium in vitro as well as in vivo.

Brinkmann, Ralf; Hansen, Christoph

1998-01-01

24

Bubble nucleation and growth in open-cycle OTEC subsystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bubble nucleation and growth in the evaporator, condenser, upcomers, and feedwater distribution systems of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plants are examined. The phenomenon that will probably have the most impact on system design is cavitation in the warm water feed near the entrance of the evaporator. The critical bubble size for cavitation is about 105 microns. Sources of bubbles in the warm water feed are those entering from the ocean, those nucleating on suspended particles, and those nucleating on the upcomer wall. Analyses of bubble growth induced by changes in hydrostatic pressure, mass transfer, and coalescence are presented. Using available information for bubble size distribution in seawater at California locations, it is shown that cavitation will probably have a significant impact on evaporator performance unless a debubbler is provided upstream of the evaporator entrance.

Bugby, D. C.; Wassel, A. T.; Mills, A. F.

1983-05-01

25

Cavitation clouds created by shock scattering from bubbles during histotripsy  

PubMed Central

Histotripsy is a therapy that focuses short-duration, high-amplitude pulses of ultrasound to incite a localized cavitation cloud that mechanically breaks down tissue. To investigate the mechanism of cloud formation, high-speed photography was used to observe clouds generated during single histotripsy pulses. Pulses of 5?20 cycles duration were applied to a transparent tissue phantom by a 1-MHz spherically focused transducer. Clouds initiated from single cavitation bubbles that formed during the initial cycles of the pulse, and grew along the acoustic axis opposite the propagation direction. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that clouds form as a result of large negative pressure generated by the backscattering of shockwaves from a single bubble. The positive-pressure phase of the wave inverts upon scattering and superimposes on the incident negative-pressure phase to create this negative pressure and cavitation. The process repeats with each cycle of the incident wave, and the bubble cloud elongates toward the transducer. Finite-amplitude propagation distorts the incident wave such that the peak-positive pressure is much greater than the peak-negative pressure, which exaggerates the effect. The hypothesis was tested with two modified incident waves that maintained negative pressure but reduced the positive pressure amplitude. These waves suppressed cloud formation which supported the hypothesis. PMID:21973343

Maxwell, Adam D.; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Cain, Charles A.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Xu, Zhen

2011-01-01

26

Particle removal by a single cavitation bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper, the behavior of the particle acted by the oscillating bubble is studied using a high-speed video camera. The bubble is generated using a very low voltage of 55 V. Images are captured at a speed of 15000 fps (frames per second). It is found that the velocity of the particle is dependent on the liquid viscosity, particle size, and tube diameter. Particle velocity decreases with the increase of the glycron-water mixture viscosity. A model is presented to predict the velocity and verified by experimental results. These observations may be beneficial for the application in medical treatment.

Xu, Ming; Ji, Chen; Zou, Jun; Ruan, XiaoDong; Fu, Xin

2014-04-01

27

Cavitation bubble generation and control for HIFU transcranial adaptive focusing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brain treatment with High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) can be achieved by multichannel arrays through the skull using time-reversal focusing. Such a method requires a reference signal either sent by a real source embedded in brain tissues or computed from a virtual source, using the acoustic properties of the skull deduced from CT images. This noninvasive computational method allows precise focusing, but is time consuming and suffers from unavoidable modeling errors which reduce the accessible acoustic pressure at the focus in comparison with real experimental time-reversal using an implanted hydrophone. Ex vivo simulations with a half skull immersed in a water tank allow us to reach at low amplitude levels a pressure ratio of 83% of the reference pressure (real time reversal) at 1MHz. Using this method to transcranially focus a pulse signal in an agar gel (model for in vivo bubble formation), we induced a cavitation bubble that generated an ultrasonic wave received by the array. Selecting the 1MHz component, the signal was time reversed and re-emitted, allowing 97%±1.1% of pressure ratio to be restored. To target points in the vicinity of the geometrical focus, electronic steering from the reference signal has been achieved. Skull aberrations severely degrade the accessible pressure while moving away from the focus ( ˜90% at 10mm in the focal plane). Nevertheless, inducing cavitation bubbles close to the limit of the primary accessible zone allowed us to acquire multiple references signal to increase the electronic steering area by 50%.

Gâteau, J.; Marsac, L.; Pernot, M.; Aubry, J.-F.; Tanter, M.; Fink, M.

2009-04-01

28

A brief review on cavitation bubble collapse near a solid boundary  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of cavitation bubble collapse near a solid boundary includes a comprehensive bibliography with 67 citations of work published since 1960. The 67 references presented here deal almost solely with cavitation bubble collapse in the vicinity of a rigid wall or boundary.

Steinberg, D.J.

1987-06-01

29

Transcranial ultrasonic therapy based on time reversal of acoustically induced cavitation bubble signature  

E-print Network

Transcranial ultrasonic therapy based on time reversal of acoustically induced cavitation bubble skull at a single location. It has enabled the creation of a cavitation bubble at focus]. These effects decrease heat deposition at the focus and the spatial resolution, which can reduce therapeutic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

Observation of bubble dynamics within luminescent cavitation clouds: Sonoluminescence at the nano-scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A remarkable yet general aspect of continuous media is their ability to focus energy and stress when driven off equi- librium. Triboelectrification, fracture, and cavitation are some well-known examples. Cavitation, the formation and collapse of gas bubbles in liquids, spans a wide parameter space by itself @1#. The pressure drop in flow through a ven- turi tube creates bubbles which

K. R. Weninger; C. G. Camara; S. J. Putterman

2000-01-01

31

Numerical analysis of the effects of radiation heat transfer and ionization energy loss on the cavitation Bubble?s dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical scheme for simulating the acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation was developed. Bubble instantaneous radius was obtained using Gilmore equation which considered the compressibility of the liquid. A uniform temperature was assumed for the inside gas during the collapse. Radiation heat transfer inside the bubble and the heat conduction to the bubble was considered. The numerical code was validated with

M. Mahdi; R. Ebrahimi; M. Shams

2011-01-01

32

Synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging of cavitation bubbles in Al-Cu alloy melt.  

PubMed

Cavitation bubbles in Al-10 wt.%Cu melt has been investigated by adopting synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging technology. In-situ observation reveals that most of bubbles concentrate within an intense cavitation zone nearby the radiation face. The measured near-maximum bubble radii obey a similar truncated Gaussian distribution as in water but increase by nearly the magnitude of one order due to higher ultrasonic intensity applied in aluminum melt. PMID:24433976

Huang, Haijun; Shu, Da; Fu, Yanan; Wang, Jun; Sun, Baode

2014-07-01

33

[Cavitation and boiling of bubbles at the focal region during high intensity focused ultrasound exposure].  

PubMed

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a very complex transient process and can cause tissue coagulation necrosis. The cavitation and boiling behaviour of bubbles in the focal region play very important roles throughout an injury process. This paper reviews the research done by domestic and foreign scholars on behaviours of bubbles in HIFU irradiation process and summarizes in the focal region bubble cavitation and boiling generation, related detective means and relationships with hyperecho, temperature rise of the focus and injury shape. PMID:23198445

Zhong, Mingsong; Ai, Huijian; Li, Faqi

2012-10-01

34

Dynamic of cavitation bubble in a flowing liquid with a pressure gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a high energy pulsed laser is used to generate a millimetric cavitation bubble within a water flow over a symmetric hydrofoil. The bubble is initiated at different locations in the vicinity of the hydrofoil leading edge. A high speed camera is used to observe the motion of the bubble as it travels along the hydrofoil suction

Marc Tinguely; Mohamed Farhat

2009-01-01

35

Interactions of Cavitation Bubbles Observed by High-Speed Imaging in Shock Wave Lithotripsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-frame high-speed photography was used to investigate the dynamics of cavitation bubbles induced by a passage of a lithotripter shock wave in a water tank. Solitary bubbles in the free field each radiated a shock wave upon collapse, and typically emitted a micro-jet on the rebound following initial collapse. For bubbles in clouds, emitted jets were directed toward neighboring bubbles and could break the spherical symmetry of the neighboring bubbles before they in turn collapsed. Bubbles at the periphery of a cluster underwent collapse before the bubbles at the center. Observations with high-speed imaging confirm previous predictions that bubbles in a cavitation cloud do not cycle independently of one another but instead interact as a dynamic bubble cluster.

Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Bailey, Michael R.; McAteer, James A.; Williams, James C.; Evan, Andrew P.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Crum, Lawrence A.

2006-05-01

36

Efficient Generation of Cavitation Bubbles in Gel Phantom by Ultrasound Exposure with Negative-Followed by Positive-Peak-Pressure-Emphasized Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation bubbles have much potential for emphasizing therapeutic treatments such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment, histotripsy, and sonodynamic therapy. Their highly efficient as well as controlled generation is important to utilize them effectively as well as safely. However, producing negative pressure over the cavitation threshold by focused ultrasound is difficult because of the nonlinear propagation combined with the focal phase shift. We have suggested a dual-frequency ultrasound exposure method, in which N- and P-waves emphasizing either the peak negative or positive pressure, respectively, are synthesized by superimposing the second harmonic onto the fundamental frequency. In this study, high-speed camera observation demonstrated that the exposure with N-waves immediately followed by P-waves could generate cavitation bubbles most efficiently in gel phantom. Furthermore, the measured negative and positive pressure distributions of the N- and P-wave fields, respectively, agreed well with the optically observed distributions of cavitation inception and cavitation cloud growth.

Yasuda, Jun; Asai, Ayumu; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

2013-07-01

37

Experimental and theoretical study on cavitation inception and bubbly flow dynamics. Part 1. Design, development, and operation of a cavitation-susceptibility meter. Part 2. Linearized dynamics of bubbly and cavitating flows with bubble-dynamics effects. Doctoral thesis  

SciTech Connect

This theses presents the design, development and operations of a Cavitation Susceptibility Meter based on the use of a venturi tube for the measurement of the content of active cavitation nuclei in water samples. The pressure at the venturi throat is determined from the upstream pressure and the local flow velocity without corrections for viscous effects because the flow possesses a laminar potential core in all operational conditions. The detection ov cavitation and the measurement of the flow velocity are carried out optically. The apparatus comprises a Laser Doppler Velocimeter for the measurement of the flow velocity and the detection of cavitation, a custom-made electronic Signal Processor for real time generation and temporary storage of the data and a computerized system for the final acquisition and reduction of the collected data. The results of application of the Cavitation Susceptibility Meter to the measurement of the water quality of the tap water samples are presented. The results of an investigation are presented on the linearized dynamics of two-phase bubbly flows with the inclusion of bubble dynamics effects. Two flow configurations have been studied: the time dependent one-dimensional flow of a spherical bubble cloud subject to harmonic excitation of the far field external pressure and the steady state two-dimensional flow of a bubbly mixture on a slender profile of arbitrary shape.

D'Agostino, L.

1987-05-01

38

Ultrasound measurements of cavitation bubble radius for femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in water  

PubMed Central

A recently developed ultrasound technique is evaluated by measuring the behavior of a cavitation bubble that is induced in water by a femtosecond laser pulse. The passive acoustic emission during optical breakdown is used to estimate the location of the cavitation bubble’s origin. In turn, the position of the bubble wall is defined based on the active ultrasonic pulse-echo signal. The results suggest that the developed ultrasound technique can be used for quantitative measurements of femtosecond laser-induced microbubbles. PMID:18552957

Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Karpiouk, Andrei B.; Bourgeois, Frederic; Ben-Yakar, Adela; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

2008-01-01

39

LES numerical simulation of cavitation Bubble shedding on ALE 25 and ALE 15 hydrofoils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cavitation calculation scheme is developed and applied to ALE 15 and ALE 25 hydrofoils, based on the Bubble Two-phase Flow (BTF) cavity model with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methodology. The Navier-Stokes equations including cavitation bubble clusters are solved through the finite-volume approach with a time-marching scheme. Simulations are carried out in a 3-D field with a hydrofoil ALE

De-min LIU; Shu-hong LIU; Yu-lin WU; Hong-yuan XU

2009-01-01

40

Interaction of Impulsive Pressures of Cavitation Bubbles with Cell Membranes during Sonoporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs), are capable of enhancing non-invasive cytoplasmic molecular delivery in the presence of ultrasound. Collapse of UCAs may generate nano-scale cavitation bubbles, resulting in the transient permeabilization of the cell membrane. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of a cavitation bubble-induced shock wave with a cell membrane using acoustic theory and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation.

Tetsuya Kodama; Ken-ichiro Koshiyama; Yukio Tomita; Maiko Suzuki; Takeru Yano; Shigeo Fujikawa

2006-01-01

41

Quantitative ultrasound method to detect and monitor laser-induced cavitation bubbles  

PubMed Central

An ultrasound technique to measure the spatial and temporal behavior of the laser-induced cavitation bubble is introduced. The cavitation bubbles were formed in water and in gels using a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm. A focused, single-element, 25-MHz ultrasound transducer was employed both to detect the acoustic emission generated by plasma expansion and to acoustically probe the bubble at different stages of its evolution. The arrival time of the passive acoustic emission was used to estimate the location of the cavitation bubble’s origin and the time of flight of the ultrasound pulse-echo signal was used to define its spatial extent. The results of ultrasound estimations of the bubble size were compared and found to be in agreement with both the direct optical measurements of the stationary bubble and the theoretical estimates of bubble dynamics derived from the well-known Rayleigh model of a cavity collapse. The results of this study indicate that the proposed quantitative ultrasound technique, capable of detecting and accurately measuring laser-induced cavitation bubbles in water and in a tissue-like medium, could be used in various biomedical and clinical applications. PMID:18601556

Karpiouk, Andrei B.; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Bourgeois, Frederic; Ben-Yakar, Adela; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

2008-01-01

42

THE TEMPERATURE OF CAVITATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic irradiation of liquids causes acoustic cavitation: the\\u000a formation, growth, and implosive collapse of bubbles. Bubble collapse\\u000a during cavitation generates transient hot spots responsible for\\u000a high-energy chemistry and emission of light. Determination of the\\u000a temperatures reached in a cavitating bubble has remained a difficult\\u000a experimental problem. As a spectroscopic probe of the cavitation event,\\u000a sonoluminescence provides a solution. Sonoluminescence spectra

E. B. FLINT; K. S. SUSLICK

1991-01-01

43

The Correlation Between Bubble-Enhanced HIFU Heating and Cavitation Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been established that while the inherent presence of bubbles increases heat generation due to scattering and absorption, inertial cavitation is responsible for elevated heating during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) application. The contribution of bubble-induced heating can be an important factor to consider, as it can be several times greater than the expected heat deposition from absorption of energy

R. Glynn Holt; Ronald A. Roy

2010-01-01

44

On the effect of microbubble injection on cavitation bubble dynamics in liquid mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of microbubble injection has been studied numerically to clarify the role of injected bubbles in the experimentally observed suppression of cavitation in liquid mercury. Recently, we attempted to inject gas microbubbles into liquid mercury in order to mitigate cavitation damage on mercury vessels, a critical issue in spallation neutron sources. From an experimental study using an electromagnetically driven impact test machine and a bubble generator, we found that by injecting microbubbles, the magnitude of the negative pressure generated in liquid mercury is slightly decreased and cavitation damage is remarkably reduced. In this paper, we have performed a numerical study using a multibubble model and experimentally obtained pressure-time curves in order to thoroughly explain the experimental findings. We have found that the observed slight change in negative pressure has a strong impact on cavitation bubble dynamics and was caused by the positive pressure wave that the injected bubbles radiated. Also, we have examined whether the injected microbubbles can cause significant erosion, and found that their collapse intensity is much smaller than that of cavitation bubbles since their expansion ratio is relatively small. Additionally we have examined high-frequency pressure pulses observed experimentally only when microbubbles were injected, and clarified that they are due to the free oscillation of injected bubbles.

Ida, Masato; Naoe, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

2009-03-01

45

Visualization of ultrasound induced cavitation bubbles using the synchrotron x-ray Analyzer Based Imaging technique.  

PubMed

Observing cavitation bubbles deep within tissue is very difficult. The development of a method for probing cavitation, irrespective of its location in tissues, would improve the efficiency and application of ultrasound in the clinic. A synchrotron x-ray imaging technique, which is capable of detecting cavitation bubbles induced in water by a sonochemistry system, is reported here; this could possibly be extended to the study of therapeutic ultrasound in tissues. The two different x-ray imaging techniques of Analyzer Based Imaging (ABI) and phase contrast imaging (PCI) were examined in order to detect ultrasound induced cavitation bubbles. Cavitation was not observed by PCI, however it was detectable with ABI. Acoustic cavitation was imaged at six different acoustic power levels and six different locations through the acoustic beam in water at a fixed power level. The results indicate the potential utility of this technique for cavitation studies in tissues, but it is time consuming. This may be improved by optimizing the imaging method. PMID:25401957

Izadifar, Zahra; Belev, George; Izadifar, Mohammad; Izadifar, Zohreh; Chapman, Dean

2014-12-01

46

The correlation between bubble-enhanced HIFU heating and cavitation power.  

PubMed

It has been established that while the inherent presence of bubbles increases heat generation due to scattering and absorption, inertial cavitation is responsible for elevated heating during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) application. The contribution of bubble-induced heating can be an important factor to consider, as it can be several times greater than the expected heat deposition from absorption of energy from the primary ultrasound field. The temperature and cavitation signal near the focus were measured for 5.5-s continuous-wave 1.1-MHz HIFU sonications in tissue mimicking phantoms. The measured temperature was corrected for heating predicted from the primary ultrasound absorption to isolate the temperature rise from the bubble activity. The temperature rise induced from cavitation correlates well with a measurement of the instantaneous "cavitation power" as indicated by the mean square voltage output of a 15-MHz passive cavitation detector. The results suggest that careful processing of the cavitation signals can serve as a proxy for measuring the heating contribution from inertial cavitation. PMID:19651548

Farny, Caleb H; Glynn Holt, R; Roy, Ronald A

2010-01-01

47

A numerical method for the dynamics of non-spherical cavitation bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A boundary integral numerical method for the dynamics of nonspherical cavitation bubbles in inviscid incompressible liquids is described. Only surface values of the velocity potential and its first derivatives are involved. The problem of solving the Laplace equation in the entire domain occupied by the liquid is thus avoided. The collapse of a bubble in the vicinity of a solid wall and the collapse of three bubbles with collinear centers are considered.

Lucca, G.; Prosperetti, A.

1982-01-01

48

Interactions of Cavitation Bubbles Observed by High-Speed Imaging in Shock Wave Lithotripsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-frame high-speed photography was used to investigate the dynamics of cavitation bubbles induced by a passage of a lithotripter shock wave in a water tank. Solitary bubbles in the free field each radiated a shock wave upon collapse, and typically emitted a micro-jet on the rebound following initial collapse. For bubbles in clouds, emitted jets were directed toward neighboring

Yuri A. Pishchalnikov; Oleg A. Sapozhnikov; Michael R. Bailey; James A. McAteer; James C. Williams; Andrew P. Evan; Robin O. Cleveland; Lawrence A. Crum

49

Interactions of Cavitation Bubbles Observed by High-Speed Imaging in Shock Wave Lithotripsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-frame high-speed photography was used to investigate the dynamics of cavitation bubbles induced by a passage of a lithotripter shock wave in a water tank. Solitary bubbles in the free field each radiated a shock wave upon collapse, and typically emitted a micro-jet on the rebound following initial collapse. For bubbles in clouds, emitted jets were directed toward neighboring

Yuri A. Pishchalnikov; Oleg A. Sapozhnikov; Michael R. Bailey; James A. McAteer; James C. Williams; Andrew P. Evan; Robin O. Cleveland; Lawrence A. Crum

2006-01-01

50

A new active cavitation mapping technique for pulsed HIFU applications--bubble Doppler.  

PubMed

In this work, a new active cavitation mapping technique for pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) applications termed bubble Doppler is proposed and its feasibility is tested in tissue-mimicking gel phantoms. pHIFU therapy uses short pulses, delivered at low pulse repetition frequency, to cause transient bubble activity that has been shown to enhance drug and gene delivery to tissues. The current gold standard for detecting and monitoring cavitation activity during pHIFU treatments is passive cavitation detection (PCD), which provides minimal information on the spatial distribution of the bubbles. B-mode imaging can detect hyperecho formation, but has very limited sensitivity, especially to small, transient microbubbles. The bubble Doppler method proposed here is based on a fusion of the adaptations of three Doppler techniques that had been previously developed for imaging of ultrasound contrast agents-color Doppler, pulse-inversion Doppler, and decorrelation Doppler. Doppler ensemble pulses were interleaved with therapeutic pHIFU pulses using three different pulse sequences and standard Doppler processing was applied to the received echoes. The information yielded by each of the techniques on the distribution and characteristics of pHIFU-induced cavitation bubbles was evaluated separately, and found to be complementary. The unified approach-bubble Doppler-was then proposed to both spatially map the presence of transient bubbles and to estimate their sizes and the degree of nonlinearity. PMID:25265178

Li, Tong; Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; O'Donnell, Matthew; Hwang, Joo Ha

2014-10-01

51

Numerical analysis of the effects of radiation heat transfer and ionization energy loss on the cavitation Bubble's dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical scheme for simulating the acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation was developed. Bubble instantaneous radius was obtained using Gilmore equation which considered the compressibility of the liquid. A uniform temperature was assumed for the inside gas during the collapse. Radiation heat transfer inside the bubble and the heat conduction to the bubble was considered. The numerical code was validated with the experimental data and a good correspondence was observed. The dynamics of hydrofoil cavitation bubble were also investigated. It was concluded that the thermal radiation heat transfer rate strongly depended on the cavitation number, initial bubble radius and hydrofoil angle of attack.

Mahdi, M.; Ebrahimi, R.; Shams, M.

2011-06-01

52

Dynamics of cavitation bubble induced by 193 nm ArF excimer laser in concentrated sodium chloride solutions  

E-print Network

Dynamics of cavitation bubble induced by 193 nm ArF excimer laser in concentrated sodium chloride Jerusalem, 91120, and NanoMed Ltd., Jerusalem, Israel Yu. Kokotov Temech Ltd., Jerusalem, Israel Itzhak Hemo 1 February 1995; accepted for publication 20 November 1995 Cavitation bubbles were generated

Palanker, Daniel

53

A Thermodynamic Cavitation Model for Cavitating Flow Simulation in a Wide Range of Water Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermodynamic cavitation model is developed to simulate the cavitating water flow in a wide temperature range. The thermal effect on bubble growth during cavitation is introduced in the developed model by considering both pressure difference and heat transfer between the vapor and liquid phase. The cavitating turbulent flow over a NACA0015 hydrofoil has been simulated at various temperatures from

Yao Zhang; Xian-Wu Luo; Jibin; Shu-Hong Liu; Yu-Lin Wu; Hong-Yuan Xu

2010-01-01

54

Observation of bubble dynamics within luminescent cavitation clouds: Sonoluminescence at the nano-scale.  

PubMed

Measurements of acoustically driven cavitation luminescence indicate that this phenomenon is robust over a huge parameter space ranging from 10 kHz to >10 MHz. The minimum bubble radius achieved is an upper bound for the size of the light-emitting region and ranges from about 1 microm at 15 kHz to tens of nm at 11 MHz. Although lines can be discerned in the spectra of some cavitation clouds, they sit on top of a broadband continuum which can have greater spectral density in the ultraviolet than is observed for resonantly driven sonoluminescence from a single bubble. PMID:11304356

Weninger, K R; Camara, C G; Putterman, S J

2001-01-01

55

Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations of nucleation and stabilization of acoustic cavitation bubbles in water.  

PubMed

Qualitative explanation for a homogeneous nucleation of acoustic cavitation bubbles in the incompressible liquid water with simple phenomenological approach has been provided via the concept of the desorbtion of the dissolved gas and the vaporization of local liquid molecules. The liquid medium has been viewed as an ensemble of lattice structures. Validity of the lattice structure approach against the Brownian motion of molecules in the liquid state has been discussed. Criterion based on probability for nucleus formation has been defined for the vaporization of local liquid molecules. Energy need for the enthalpy of vaporization has been considered as an energy criterion for the formation of a vaporous nucleus. Sound energy, thermal energy of the liquid bulk (Joule-Thomson effect) and free energy of activation, which is associated with water molecules in the liquid state (Brownian motion) as per the modified Eyring's kinetic theory of liquid are considered as possible sources for the enthalpy of vaporization of water molecules forming a single unit lattice. The classical nucleation theory has then been considered for expressing further growth of the vaporous nucleus against the surface energy barrier. Effect of liquid property (temperature), and effect of an acoustic parameter (frequency) on an acoustic cavitation threshold pressure have been discussed. Kinetics of nucleation has been considered. PMID:17368069

Bapat, Pratap S; Pandit, Aniruddha B

2008-01-01

56

Analysis of Temperature Rise Induced by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound in Tissue-Mimicking Gel Considering Cavitation Bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) causes a selective temperature rise in tissue and is used as a noninvasive method for tumor treatment. However, there is a problem in that it typically takes several hours to treat a large tumor. The development of a highly efficient method is required to shorten the treatment time. It is known that cavitation bubbles generated by HIFU enhance HIFU heating. In this study, the enhancement of the heating effect by cavitation was estimated in a numerical simulation solving a bio-heat transfer equation (BHTE) by increasing the absorption coefficients in and out of the volume of cavitation bubbles. The absorption coefficients were obtained by a curve fitting the temperature rise near the focal point between experiment and simulation. The results show that cavitation bubbles caused the increase in ultrasonic absorption not only in but also near the volume of cavitation bubbles.

Asai, Ayumu; Okano, Hiroki; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

2013-07-01

57

The effect of cavitation bubbles on the removal of juvenile barnacles.  

PubMed

The effect of cavitation bubbles on the removal of juvenile barnacles was documented using high speed photography. Using spark generated bubbles, the interaction between barnacle and cavitation bubble was examined in detail. The liquid jet generated by the bubble collapse was observed to be directed towards barnacle at different impact intensities, which is related to the dimensionless distance H' (H'=H/Rm), where H is the distance between bubble formation point and the top of barnacle, and Rm is the maximum bubble radius. At lower values of H', higher speed liquid jet was produced; consequently a larger impact pressure was generated. In general, barnacles are more easily removed at a younger stage. In older barnacles, the liquid jet impact was only able to remove the barnacle shells, leaving the base plate attached to the surface. This study indicates that cavitation can be used to remove attached barnacles, and it would be more efficient if it is applied during early stages of fouling, before the formation of hard calcareous structures. PMID:23643919

Guo, Shifeng; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Lee, Heow Pueh

2013-09-01

58

A reduced-order, single-bubble cavitation model with applications to therapeutic ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Cavitation often occurs in therapeutic applications of medical ultrasound such as shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Because cavitation bubbles can affect an intended treatment, it is important to understand the dynamics of bubbles in this context. The relevant context includes very high acoustic pressures and frequencies as well as elevated temperatures. Relative to much of the prior research on cavitation and bubble dynamics, such conditions are unique. To address the relevant physics, a reduced-order model of a single, spherical bubble is proposed that incorporates phase change at the liquid-gas interface as well as heat and mass transport in both phases. Based on the energy lost during the inertial collapse and rebound of a millimeter-sized bubble, experimental observations were used to tune and test model predictions. In addition, benchmarks from the published literature were used to assess various aspects of model performance. Benchmark comparisons demonstrate that the model captures the basic physics of phase change and diffusive transport, while it is quantitatively sensitive to specific model assumptions and implementation details. Given its performance and numerical stability, the model can be used to explore bubble behaviors across a broad parameter space relevant to therapeutic ultrasound. PMID:22088026

Kreider, Wayne; Crum, Lawrence A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

2011-01-01

59

A reduced-order, single-bubble cavitation model with applications to therapeutic ultrasound.  

PubMed

Cavitation often occurs in therapeutic applications of medical ultrasound such as shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Because cavitation bubbles can affect an intended treatment, it is important to understand the dynamics of bubbles in this context. The relevant context includes very high acoustic pressures and frequencies as well as elevated temperatures. Relative to much of the prior research on cavitation and bubble dynamics, such conditions are unique. To address the relevant physics, a reduced-order model of a single, spherical bubble is proposed that incorporates phase change at the liquid-gas interface as well as heat and mass transport in both phases. Based on the energy lost during the inertial collapse and rebound of a millimeter-sized bubble, experimental observations were used to tune and test model predictions. In addition, benchmarks from the published literature were used to assess various aspects of model performance. Benchmark comparisons demonstrate that the model captures the basic physics of phase change and diffusive transport, while it is quantitatively sensitive to specific model assumptions and implementation details. Given its performance and numerical stability, the model can be used to explore bubble behaviors across a broad parameter space relevant to therapeutic ultrasound. PMID:22088026

Kreider, Wayne; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A

2011-11-01

60

Molecular dynamics simulations of bubble formation and cavitation in liquid metals.  

SciTech Connect

Thermodynamics and kinetics of nano-scale bubble formation in liquid metals such as Li and Pb were studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at pressures typical for magnetic and inertial fusion. Two different approaches to bubble formation were developed. In one method, radial densities, pressures, surface tensions, and work functions of the cavities in supercooled liquid lithium were calculated and compared with the surface tension experimental data. The critical radius of a stable cavity in liquid lithium was found for the first time. In the second method, the cavities were created in the highly stretched region of the liquid phase diagram; and then the stability boundary and the cavitation rates were calculated in liquid lead. The pressure dependences of cavitation frequencies were obtained over the temperature range 700-2700 K in liquid Pb. The results of MD calculations for cavitation rate were compared with estimates of classical nucleation theory (CNT).

Insepov, Z.; Hassanein, A.; Bazhirov, T. T.; Norman, G. E.; Stegailov, V. V.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Inst. for High Energy Densities of Joint Inst. for High Temperatures of RAS

2007-11-01

61

A numerical investigation of unsteady bubbly cavitating nozzle flows A. T. Preston, T. Colonius,a)  

E-print Network

variation of pressure, velocity and void fraction for steady shockfree flows, and good agreement investigated the bifur- cation by varying the inlet void fraction; here we vary the cavitation number gas phase is to allow fluid compressibility which results in the bubbly mixture being treated

Dabiri, John O.

62

acoustic cavitation of slightly subcritical bubbles of Mathematics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215  

E-print Network

On acoustic cavitation of slightly subcritical bubbles Anthony ¡ Harkin Department radii are slightly less than the Blake critical radius, in the presence of time-periodic acoustic for acoustic pressure fields that consist of two frequencies © will be discussed. © 1999 American Institute

Harkin, Anthony

63

Localized removal of layers of metal, polymer, or biomaterial by ultrasound cavitation bubbles  

PubMed Central

We present an ultrasonic device with the ability to locally remove deposited layers from a glass slide in a controlled and rapid manner. The cleaning takes place as the result of cavitating bubbles near the deposited layers and not due to acoustic streaming. The bubbles are ejected from air-filled cavities micromachined in a silicon surface, which, when vibrated ultrasonically at a frequency of 200 kHz, generate a stream of bubbles that travel to the layer deposited on an opposing glass slide. Depending on the pressure amplitude, the bubble clouds ejected from the micropits attain different shapes as a result of complex bubble interaction forces, leading to distinct shapes of the cleaned areas. We have determined the removal rates for several inorganic and organic materials and obtained an improved efficiency in cleaning when compared to conventional cleaning equipment. We also provide values of the force the bubbles are able to exert on an atomic force microscope tip. PMID:23964308

Fernandez Rivas, David; Verhaagen, Bram; Seddon, James R. T.; Zijlstra, Aaldert G.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; van der Sluis, Luc W. M.; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef; Gardeniers, Han J. G. E.

2012-01-01

64

A New Unsteady Model for Dense Cloud Cavitation in Cryogenic Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: Background on thermal effects in cavitation. Physical properties of hydrogen. Multi-phase cavitation with thermal effect. Solution procedure. Cavitation model overview. Cavitation source terms. New cavitation model. Source term for bubble growth. One equation les model. Unsteady ogive simulations: liquid nitrogen. Unsteady incompressible flow in a pipe. Time averaged cavity length for NACA15 flowfield.

Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet

2005-01-01

65

Effect of static pressure on acoustic energy radiated by cavitation bubbles in viscous liquids under ultrasound.  

PubMed

The effect of static pressure on acoustic emissions including shock-wave emissions from cavitation bubbles in viscous liquids under ultrasound has been studied by numerical simulations in order to investigate the effect of static pressure on dispersion of nano-particles in liquids by ultrasound. The results of the numerical simulations for bubbles of 5 ?m in equilibrium radius at 20 kHz have indicated that the optimal static pressure which maximizes the energy of acoustic waves radiated by a bubble per acoustic cycle increases as the acoustic pressure amplitude increases or the viscosity of the solution decreases. It qualitatively agrees with the experimental results by Sauter et al. [Ultrason. Sonochem. 15, 517 (2008)]. In liquids with relatively high viscosity (?200 mPa s), a bubble collapses more violently than in pure water when the acoustic pressure amplitude is relatively large (?20 bar). In a mixture of bubbles of different equilibrium radius (3 and 5 ?m), the acoustic energy radiated by a 5 ?m bubble is much larger than that by a 3 ?m bubble due to the interaction with bubbles of different equilibrium radius. The acoustic energy radiated by a 5 ?m bubble is substantially increased by the interaction with 3 ?m bubbles. PMID:22087995

Yasui, Kyuichi; Towata, Atsuya; Tuziuti, Toru; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Kato, Kazumi

2011-11-01

66

Design of experimental setup for investigation of cavitation bubble collapse close to a solid wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article describes experimental setup for investigation of the impact load from collapsing cavitation bubble on a solid wall. A vapour bubble is generated inside a cubic chamber by local heating of water inside a thin channel in a button. The bubble collapse is initiated by a piezoelectric actuator attached to the flexible wall of the chamber. A laser diode with a linear CCD sensor are used to detect the bubble position during its buoyancy-driven rise to the upper wall of the chamber. The bubble collapse impact load is measured using a PVDF piezoelectric transducer glued to the upper wall of the chamber and recorded by high-speed CCD camera illuminated by a high-power LED diode. The pressure inside the chamber is measured by the dynamic pressure transducer. All the system components are controlled and synchronized by an oscilloscope and pulse generator using the LabView software.

Müller, Miloš; Zima, Patrik; Unger, Ji?í; Živný, Martin

2012-04-01

67

A model of bubble growth leading to xylem conduit embolism.  

PubMed

The dynamics of a gas bubble inside a water conduit after a cavitation event was modeled. A distinction was made between a typical angiosperm conduit with a homogeneous pit membrane and a typical gymnosperm conduit with a torus-margo pit membrane structure. For conduits with torus-margo type pits pit membrane deflection was also modeled and pit aspiration, the displacement of the pit membrane to the low pressure side of the pit chamber, was found to be possible while the emboli was still small. Concurrent with pit aspiration, the high resistance to water flow out of the conduit through the cell walls or aspirated pits will make the embolism process slow. In case of no pit aspiration and always for conduits with homogeneous pit membranes, embolism growth is more rapid but still much slower than bubble growth in bulk water under similar water tension. The time needed for the embolism to fill a whole conduit was found to be dependent on pit and cell wall conductance, conduit radius, xylem water tension, pressure rise in adjacent conduits due to water freed from the embolising conduit, and the rigidity and structure of the pits in the case of margo-torus type pit membrane. The water pressure in the conduit hosting the bubble was found to occur almost immediately after bubble induction inside a conduit, creating a sudden tension release in the conduit, which can be detected by acoustic and ultra-acoustic monitoring of xylem cavitation. PMID:17706683

Hölttä, T; Vesala, T; Nikinmaa, E

2007-11-01

68

Effects of cavitation bubble interaction with temporally separated fs-laser pulses.  

PubMed

We present a time-resolved photographic analysis of the pulse-to-pulse interaction. In particular, we studied the influence of the cavitation bubble induced by a fs-pulse on the optical focusing of the consecutive pulse and its cavitation bubble dynamics in dependence on temporal pulse separation in water. As a first result, by decreasing the temporal separation of laser pulses, there is a diminishment of the laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB) efficiency in terms of energy conversion, caused by disturbed focusing into persisting gas bubbles at the focal volume. A LIOB at the focal spot is finally suppressed by impinging the expanding or collapsing cavitation bubble of the preceding pulse. These results could be additionally confirmed in porcine gelatin solution with various concentrations. Hence, the interaction between the laser and transparent ophthalmic tissue may be accompanied by a raised central laser energy transmission, which could be observed in case of a temporal pulse overlap. In conclusion, our experimental results are of particular importance for the optimization of the prospective ophthalmic surgical process with future generation fs-lasers. PMID:24781592

Tinne, Nadine; Knoop, Gesche; Kallweit, Nicole; Veith, Sonja; Bleeker, Sebastian; Lubatschowski, Holger; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

2014-04-01

69

Dynamic and interaction of fs-laser induced cavitation bubbles for analyzing the cutting effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prominent laser based treatment in ophthalmology is the LASIK procedure which nowadays includes a cutting of the corneal tissue based on ultra short pulses. Focusing an ultra short laser pulse below the surface of biological tissue an optical breakdown is caused and hence a dissection is obtained. The laser energy of the laser pulses is absorbed by nonlinear processes. As a result a cavitation bubble expands and ruptures the tissue. Hence positioning of several optical breakdowns side by side generates an incision. Due to a reduction of the duration of the treatment the current development of ultra short laser systems points to higher repetition rates in the range of hundreds of KHz or even MHz instead of tens of kHz. This in turn results in a probable occurrence of interaction between different optical breakdowns and respectively cavitation bubbles of adjacent optical breakdowns. While the interaction of one single laser pulse with biological tissue is analyzed reasonably well experimentally and theoretically, the interaction of several spatial and temporal following pulses is scarcely determined yet. Thus the aim of this study is to analyse the dynamic and interaction of two cavitation bubbles by using high speed photography. The applied laser pulse energy, the energy ratio and the spot distance between different cavitation bubbles were varied. Depending on a change of these parameters different kinds of interactions such as a flattening and deformation of bubble shape or jet formation are observed. Based on these results a further research seems to be inevitable to comprehend and optimize the cutting effect of ultra short pulse laser systems with high (> 1 MHz) repetition rates.

Tinne, N.; Schumacher, S.; Nuzzo, V.; Ripken, T.; Lubatschowski, H.

2009-07-01

70

Single bubble perturbation in cavitation proximity of solid glass: hot spot versus distance.  

PubMed

A systematic study of the energy loss of a cavitation bubble in a close proximity of a glass surface is introduced for the first time in a low acoustic field (1.2-2.4 bar). Single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) is used as a tool to predict the temperature and pressure decrease of bubble (?m) versus surface distance. A glass as a model system is used to imitate the boundary conditions relevant for nano- or micromaterials. SBSL preequilibrated with 5% argon is perturbed by a glass rod with the tip (Z-perturbation) and with the long axis (X-perturbation) at a defined distance. From 2 mm to 500 ?m argon-SBSL lines monotonically narrow and the effective emission temperature decreases from 9000 K to 6800 K comparable to multiple bubbles. The electron density decreases by two orders of magnitude in Z-perturbation and is by a factor of two higher in X-perturbation than the unperturbed cavitating bubble. The perturbed single bubble sonoluminescence pressure decreases from 2700 atm to 1200 atm at 2.4 bar. In water new non-SBSL SiO molecular emission lines are observed and OH emission disappears. PMID:24068109

Radziuk, Darya; Möhwald, Helmuth; Suslick, Kenneth

2014-02-28

71

An acoustofluidic micromixer via bubble inception and cavitation from microchannel sidewalls.  

PubMed

During the deep reactive ion etching process, the sidewalls of a silicon mold feature rough wavy structures, which can be transferred onto a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel through the soft lithography technique. In this article, we utilized the wavy structures of PDMS microchannel sidewalls to initiate and cavitate bubbles in the presence of acoustic waves. Through bubble cavitation, this acoustofluidic approach demonstrates fast, effective mixing in microfluidics. We characterized its performance by using viscous fluids such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). When two PEG solutions with a resultant viscosity 54.9 times higher than that of water were used, the mixing efficiency was found to be 0.92, indicating excellent, homogeneous mixing. The acoustofluidic micromixer presented here has the advantages of simple fabrication, easy integration, and capability to mix high-viscosity fluids (Reynolds number: ~0.01) in less than 100 ms. PMID:24754496

Ozcelik, Adem; Ahmed, Daniel; Xie, Yuliang; Nama, Nitesh; Qu, Zhiguo; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Huang, Tony Jun

2014-05-20

72

Recent theories of cavitation damage including non-symmetrical bubble collapse effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theories of cavitation damage mechanisms are discussed. Photographic evidence has shown that the actual collapse of bubbles near a symmetry-destroying feature such as a nearby wall results in a toroidal-like collapse, with the final generation of a liquid microjet oriented toward the wall. Numerical analyses indicate that the shock wave intensity emitted during collapse is not likely to be strong enough to be damaging to most materials. It has been determined that actual damage is usually a result of a combination of impact effect of the microjet and the shock wave pressures generated by bubble rebounds.

Hammitt, F. G.

1974-01-01

73

Modelling and computation of cavitation and boiling bubbly flows with the NEPTUNE_CFD code  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the modelling and the numerical simulation with the NEPTUNE_CFD code of cavitation phenomena and boiling bubbly flows.Compressible, unsteady, turbulent 3D two-phase flow is computed by the NEPTUNE_CFD solver, developed jointly by EDF R&D and CEA. The numerical approach is based on a finite-volume co-located cell-centred approach and makes use of an original pressure-based multi-field coupling algorithm

S. Mimouni; M. Boucker; J. Laviéville; A. Guelfi; D. Bestion

2008-01-01

74

Observation of bubble dynamics within luminescent cavitation clouds: Sonoluminescence at the nano-scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of acoustically driven cavitation luminescence indicate that this phenomenon is robust over a huge parameter space ranging from 10 kHz to >10 MHz. The minimum bubble radius achieved is an upper bound for the size of the light-emitting region and ranges from about 1 mum at 15 kHz to tens of nm at 11 MHz. Although lines can be

K. R. Weninger; C. G. Camara; S. J. Putterman

2001-01-01

75

Cavitation bubbles induced by Erbium lasers: implications for dentistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With new fiber systems available for 3 ?m, Erbium lasers become more interesting for precise tissue ablation in a water environment enabling new application in e.g. dentistry. The dynamics of explosive bubble formation was investigated at 2.78 ?m (Er,Cr;YSGG) and 2.94 ?m (Er:YAG), in relation to energy (10-50 mJ), pulse length (20-150 ?s) and fiber tip shape (flat or taper). The dynamics of exploding and imploding vapor bubbles were captured with high speed imaging (10 - 300 ?s range). Increasing the pulse length and energy, the vapor bubble became more elongated with an opaque surface for flat tip fibers. Tapered fibers produced spherical vapor bubbles with an optically transparent surface expected to be more forceful for creating mechanical effects in both hard and soft tissues. There was no significant difference between bubbles formed at 2.78 ?m (Er,Cr;YSGG) and 2.94 ?m (Er:YAG).

Verleng, Marja; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; van der Veen, Albert; Lemberg, Vladimir; Boutoussov, Dmitri

2014-02-01

76

Incubation pit analysis and calculation of the hydrodynamic impact pressure from the implosion of an acoustic cavitation bubble.  

PubMed

An experimental study to evaluate cavitation bubble dynamics is conducted. The aim is to predict the magnitude and statistical distribution of hydrodynamic impact pressure generated from the implosion of various individual acoustic cavitation bubbles near to a rigid boundary, considering geometrical features of the pitted area. A steel sample was subjected to cavitation impacts by an ultrasonic transducer with a 5mm diameter probe. The pitted surface was then examined using high-precision 3D optical interferometer techniques. Only the incubation period where surface is plastically deformed without material loss is taken into account. The exposure time was adjusted in the range of 3-60 s to avoid pit overlapping and a special procedure for pit analysis and characterisation was then followed. Moreover, a high-speed camera device was deployed to capture the implosion mechanisms of cavitation bubbles near to the surface. The geometrical characteristics of single incubation pits as well as pit clusters were studied and their deformation patterns were compared. Consequently, a reverse engineering approach was applied in order the hydrodynamic impact pressure from the implosion of an individual cavitation bubble to be determined. The characteristic parameters of the cavitation implosion process such as hydrodynamic impact pressure and liquid micro-jet impact velocity as well as the hydrodynamic severity of the cavitation impacts were quantified. It was found that the length of the hypotenuse of the orthographic projections from the center of the pit, which basically represents the deformed area of the pit, increases with the hydrodynamic impact aggressiveness in a linear rate. Majority of the hydrodynamic impacts were in the range of 0.4-1 GPa while the corresponding micro-jet velocities were found to be in the range of 200-700 m/s. Outcomes of this study, contribute to further understanding the cavitation intensity from the implosion of acoustically generated bubbles and could certainly represent a significant step towards developing more accurate cavitation models. PMID:24176799

Tzanakis, I; Eskin, D G; Georgoulas, A; Fytanidis, D K

2014-03-01

77

Variations of bubble cavitation and temperature elevation during lesion formation by high-intensity focused ultrasound.  

PubMed

High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as an effective therapeutic modality in both thermal ablations for solid tumor/cancer and soft-tissue fragmentation. Mechanical and thermal effects, which play an important role in the HIFU treatment simultaneously, are dependent on the operating parameters and may vary with the progress of therapy. Mechanical erosion in the shape of a "squid," a "dumbbell" lesion with both mechanical and thermal lesions, or a "tadpole" lesion with mechanical erosion at the center and thermal necrosis on the boundary in the transparent gel phantom could be produced correspondingly with the pulse duration of 5-30?ms, which is much longer than histotripsy burst but shorter than the time for tissue boiling, and pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 0.2-5?Hz. Meanwhile, variations of bubble cavitation (both inertial and stable cavitation) and temperature elevation in the focal region (i.e., z?=?-2.5, 0, and 2.5?mm) were measured by passive cavitation detection (PCD) and thermocouples during the therapeutic procedure, respectively. Stable cavitation increased with the pulse duration, PRF, and the number of pulses delivered. However, inertial cavitation was found to increase initially and then decrease with long pulse duration and high PRF. Temperature in the pre-focal region is always higher than those at the focal and post-focal position in all tests. Great variations of PCD signals and temperature elevation are due to the generation and persistence of large bubble, which is resistant to collapse and occurs with the increase of pulse duration and PRF. Similar lesion pattern and variations were also observed in ex vivo porcine kidneys. Hyperechoes in the B-mode ultrasound image were comparable to the shape and size of lesions in the dissected tissue. Thermal lesion volume increased with the increase of pulse duration and PRF, but mechanical erosion reached its maximum volume with the pulse duration of 20?ms and PRF of 1?Hz. Altogether, bubble cavitation and thermal field vary with the progress of HIFU treatment with different sonication parameters, which provide insights into the interaction of ultrasound burst with the induced bubbles for both soft tissue fractionation and enhancement in thermal accumulation. Appropriate synergy and monitoring of mechanical and thermal effects would broaden the HIFU application and enhance its efficiency as well as safety. PMID:23927209

Zhou, Yufeng; Gao, Xiaobin Wilson

2013-08-01

78

Holmium laser ablation of cartilage: effects of cavitation bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ablation of fresh harvested porcine femur patellar groove cartilage by a 2.12 micrometers Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser in clinically used irradiation conditions was studied. Laser pulses were delivered via a 600 micrometers diameter fiber in isotonic saline. Ablation was investigated as a function of the angle of incidence of the delivery fiber with respect to the cartilage surface (0-90 degrees) and of radiant exposure. Laser pulses with energies of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 J and a duration of 250 microseconds were used. A constant fiber tip-tissue distance of 1 mm was maintained for all experiments. The dynamics of the induced vapor bubble and of the ablation process was monitored by time resolved flash videography with a 1 microseconds illumination. Acoustic transients were measured with a piezoelectric PVDF needle probe hydrophone. Bubble attachment to the cartilage surface during the collapse phase, leading to the direct exposition of the cartilage surface to the maximal pressure generated, was observed in all investigated irradiation conditions. Maximal pressure transients of up to 200 bars (at 1 mm distance from the collapse center) were measured at the bubble collapse at irradiation angles >= 60 degrees. No significant pressure variation was observed in perpendicular irradiation conditions as a function of radiant exposure. A significant reduction of the induced pressure for irradiation angles

Asshauer, Thomas; Jansen, Thomas; Oberthur, Thorsten; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Gerber, Bruno E.

1995-05-01

79

Dynamic of cavitation bubble in a flowing liquid with a pressure gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, a high energy pulsed laser is used to generate a millimetric cavitation bubble within a water flow over a symmetric hydrofoil. The bubble is initiated at different locations in the vicinity of the hydrofoil leading edge. A high speed camera is used to observe the motion of the bubble as it travels along the hydrofoil suction side. Besides the standoff parameter, we have found that the pressure gradient plays a major role on bubble dynamic and subsequent phenomena. For a specific initial location of the bubble, the micro-jet is no more directed towards the hydrofoil surface, as commonly observed in still water. In this case, we have also observed a spectacular behaviour of the cavity rebound, which migrates towards the solid surface despite of the outward direction of the micro-jet. This result differs from the behaviour of a bubble near a solid surface in water at rest or water flowing uniformly since the micro-jet is normally directed toward the solid.

Tinguely, Marc; Farhat, Mohamed

2009-11-01

80

Interaction Mechanisms of Cavitation Bubbles Induced by Spatially and Temporally Separated fs-Laser Pulses  

PubMed Central

The emerging use of femtosecond lasers with high repetition rates in the MHz regime together with limited scan speed implies possible mutual optical and dynamical interaction effects of the individual cutting spots. In order to get more insight into the dynamics a time-resolved photographic analysis of the interaction of cavitation bubbles is presented. Particularly, we investigated the influence of fs-laser pulses and their resulting bubble dynamics with various spatial as well as temporal separations. Different time courses of characteristic interaction effects between the cavitation bubbles were observed depending on pulse energy and spatio-temporal pulse separation. These ranged from merely no interaction to the phenomena of strong water jet formation. Afterwards, the mechanisms are discussed regarding their impact on the medical application of effective tissue cutting lateral to the laser beam direction with best possible axial precision: the mechanical forces of photodisruption as well as the occurring water jet should have low axial extend and a preferably lateral priority. Furthermore, the overall efficiency of energy conversion into controlled mechanical impact should be maximized compared to the transmitted pulse energy and unwanted long range mechanical side effects, e.g. shock waves, axial jet components. In conclusion, these experimental results are of great importance for the prospective optimization of the ophthalmic surgical process with high-repetition rate fs-lasers. PMID:25502697

Tinne, Nadine; Kaune, Brigitte; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

2014-01-01

81

Interaction Mechanisms of Cavitation Bubbles Induced by Spatially and Temporally Separated fs-Laser Pulses.  

PubMed

The emerging use of femtosecond lasers with high repetition rates in the MHz regime together with limited scan speed implies possible mutual optical and dynamical interaction effects of the individual cutting spots. In order to get more insight into the dynamics a time-resolved photographic analysis of the interaction of cavitation bubbles is presented. Particularly, we investigated the influence of fs-laser pulses and their resulting bubble dynamics with various spatial as well as temporal separations. Different time courses of characteristic interaction effects between the cavitation bubbles were observed depending on pulse energy and spatio-temporal pulse separation. These ranged from merely no interaction to the phenomena of strong water jet formation. Afterwards, the mechanisms are discussed regarding their impact on the medical application of effective tissue cutting lateral to the laser beam direction with best possible axial precision: the mechanical forces of photodisruption as well as the occurring water jet should have low axial extend and a preferably lateral priority. Furthermore, the overall efficiency of energy conversion into controlled mechanical impact should be maximized compared to the transmitted pulse energy and unwanted long range mechanical side effects, e.g. shock waves, axial jet components. In conclusion, these experimental results are of great importance for the prospective optimization of the ophthalmic surgical process with high-repetition rate fs-lasers. PMID:25502697

Tinne, Nadine; Kaune, Brigitte; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

2014-01-01

82

Simulation of the Final Stage of a Cavitation Bubble Collapsing Near a Rigid Wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the collapse of an initially spherical cavitation bubble near a rigid wall, a reentrant jet forms from the side of the bubble furthest from the wall. In the final stage of the collapse, this jet impacts and penetrates the bubble surface closest to the wall. During penetration a continuous liquid-liquid impact occurs, creating a shear layer along the penetration interface. This process is modeled with potential flow theory. Before penetration the bubble is treated as a regular surface and the conventional boundary integral equation is used in the numerical scheme. During penetration the bubble surface is transformed to a ring bubble attached to a vortex sheet (non-regular surface) which models the shear layer. To apply the boundary integral technique to this topology the conventional integral equation is modified and the hypersingular integral equation is introduced. The corresponding numerical scheme with an appropriate time stepping technique is developed to carry out the simulation of the final stage of bubble collapse continuously from before penetration into the penetration process. The characteristics of the penetration phenomenon revealed numerically are as follows: (1) a high pressure region around the penetration interface is generated by the impact causing a sudden change in pressure gradient in the flow field; (2) the normal velocity of the shear layer at the bubble axis of symmetry is always directed toward the wall at a speed less than the velocity of the reentrant jet before impact; (3) circulation is induced by the impact and remains constant during penetration for a path that pierces the vortex sheet once at the axis of symmetry and extends around the ring bubble; (4) the source of the circulation is divided between the vortex sheet and the ring bubble; (5) the energy loss due to the liquid -liquid impact can be as much as 13% of the total mechanical energy under certain conditions; (6) the details of the features of the penetration process strongly depend on Z_0, the initial distance of the bubble centroid to the wall.

Zhang, Sheguang

1992-09-01

83

Cavitation and multiphase flow forum--1990  

SciTech Connect

This book is covered under the following topics: Multiphase flow, Cavitation phenomena and review papers, Cavitation in fluid machinery and components, Cavitation and bubble dynamics, Bubble dynamics and cavitation damage.

Furuya, O. (Technologies, Inc. (US))

1990-01-01

84

Effect of acoustic cavitation on boiling heat transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boiling heat transfer on a horizontal circular copper tube in an acoustical field is investigated experimentally and the relation between the liquid cavitation, the boiling and the micro bubble radii are analyzed theoretically. The results show that cavitation bubbles have an important influence on the nucleation, growth and collapse of vapor embryo within cavities on the heat transfer surface and

D. W. Zhou; D. Y. Liu; X. G. Hu; C. F. Ma

2002-01-01

85

Bubble Growth and Detachment from a Needle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of bubbles from an underwater nozzle or orifice occurs in large number of applications, such as perforated plate columns, blood oxygenators and various methods of water treatment. It is also a widely used method in laboratory research on multiphase flow and acoustics for generating small bubbles in a controlled fashion. We studied experimentally the growth and pinch-off of

Michael Shusser; Edmond Rambod; Morteza Gharib

1999-01-01

86

Real-Time Monitoring and Quantitative Evaluation of Cavitation Bubbles Induced by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Using B-Mode Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A software-based method is proposed to eliminate the flooding interference strips in B-mode images, and to evaluate the cavitation bubbles generated during high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposures. In vitro tissue phantoms are exposed to 1.12 MHz HIFU pulses with a fixed 100 Hz pulse repetition frequency. HIFU-induced cavitation bubbles are detected as hyperechoic regions in B-mode images. The temporal evolution of cavitation bubbles, generated by HIFU pulses with varying driving amplitude and pulse length, is analyzed by measuring the time-varying area of the hyperechoic region. The results show that: first, it is feasible to monitor HIFU-induced cavitation bubble activity in real-time using B-mode imaging; second, more cavitation bubbles can be generated with higher acoustic energy delivered; third, the hyperechoic region is observed to shrink gradually after ceasing the HIFU pulses, which indicates the dissolution of cavitation bubbles. This work will be helpful for developing an effective tool to realize real-time monitoring and quantitative evaluation of HIFU-induced cavitation bubble activity using a current commercialized B-mode machine.

Yu, Jie; Chen, Chu-Yi; Chen, Gong; Guo, Xia-Sheng; Ma, Yong; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong

2014-03-01

87

Dynamics of cavitation bubbles generated by multi-pulse laser irradiation of a solid target in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the second and later pulses on the expansion dynamics of the cavitation bubble produced by multi-pulse microchip laser irradiation of a Cu target in water has been investigated. We clarified the bubble dynamics by taking shadowgraph images and measuring the bubble radius as a function of time. Shock waves were also measured to investigate the explosive expansion of the bubble. As a result, the second and later pulses did not cause an explosive expansion, and the ablation of the target by these pulses was rather mild, although they had a certain contribution to the expansion of the bubble. The energies given to the bubble expansion from the first pulse and also from the second pulse were estimated by comparing the experimental results with the calculation based on the Rayleigh model.

Tamura, Ayaka; Sakka, Tetsuo; Fukami, Kazuhiro; Ogata, Yukio H.

2013-07-01

88

Cavitation 91  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Symposium is to provide engineers and scientists working in various fields related to cavitation with an opportunity of assembling and discussing the state-of-art knowledge including its most recent advances, exchanging ideas, and determining future directions in cavitation research. Topics include: inception and bubble dynamic, foil, flow and propella cavitation, and erosion.

Kato, H. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan)); Furuya, O. (OF Technologies, Inc. (US))

1991-01-01

89

K.S. Suslick, W.B. McNamara III, Y. Didenko; "Hot Spot Conditions During Multi-Bubble Cavitation" in Sonochemistry and Sonoluminescence, Crum, L. A.; Mason, T. J.; Reisse, J.; Suslick, K.S., eds.  

E-print Network

of about 1000 atmospheres, and heating and cooling rates above 1010 K/s. In single bubble cavitation with the extraordinary heating and cooling rates generated by cavitation bubble collapse mean that ultrasound provides laser photolysis, cavitation heating is very short lived, but it occurs within condensed phases

Suslick, Kenneth S.

90

Cavitation mapping by sonochemiluminescence with less bubble displacement induced by acoustic radiation force in a 1.2 MHz HIFU.  

PubMed

An acoustic radiation force counterbalanced appliance was employed to map the cavitation distribution in water. The appliance was made up of a focused ultrasound transducer and an aluminum alloy reflector with the exactly same shape. They were centrosymmetry around the focus of the source transducer. Spatial-temporal dynamics of cavitation bubble clouds in the 1.2 MHz ultrasonic field within this appliance were observed in water. And they were mapped by sonochemiluminescence (SCL) recordings and high-speed photography. There were significant differences in spatial distribution and temporal evolution between normal group and counterbalanced group. The reflector could avoid bubble directional displacement induced by acoustic radiation force under certain electric power (?50 W). As a result, the SCL intensity in the pre-focal region was larger than that of normal group. In event of high electric power (?70 W), most of the bubbles were moving in acoustic streaming. When electric power decreased, bubbles kept stable and showed stripe structure in SCL images. Both stationary bubbles and moving bubbles have been captured, and exhibited analytical potential with respect to bubbles in therapeutic ultrasound. PMID:24409464

Yin, Hui; Qiao, Yangzi; Cao, Hua; Li, Zhaopeng; Wan, Mingxi

2014-03-01

91

Manipulation and Microrheology of Carbon Nanotubes with Laser-Induced Cavitation Bubbles P. A. Quinto-Su, X. H. Huang, S. R. Gonzalez-Avila, T. Wu, and C. D. Ohl  

E-print Network

Manipulation and Microrheology of Carbon Nanotubes with Laser-Induced Cavitation Bubbles P. A of differently sized laser-induced cavitation bubbles. The position and size of the bubbles are controlled/or rotation) and to probe (deflection) nano- tubes immersed in liquid. It involves a pair of laser

Ohl, Claus-Dieter

92

Contribution of stress wave and cavitation bubble in evaluation of cell-cell adhesion by femtosecond laser-induced impulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When an intense femtosecond laser is focused in a cell culture medium, shock wave, stress wave, and cavitation bubble are generated at the laser focal point. Cell-cell adhesion can be broken at the cellular level by the impacts of these factors. We have applied this breaking of the adhesion to an estimation of the cell-cell adhesion strength. In this application, it is important to identify which of these factors is the dominant factor that breaks the adhesion. Here we investigated this issue using streptavidin-coated microbeads adhering to a biotin-coated substrate as a mimic of the cell-cell adhesion. The results indicated that the break was induced mainly by the stress wave, not by the impact of the cavitation bubble.

Iino, Takanori; Li, Po-Lin; Wang, Wen-Zhe; Deng, Jia-Huei; Lu, Yun-Chang; Kao, Fu-Jen; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh

2014-10-01

93

Characterization of stable and transient cavitation bubbles in a milliflow reactor using a multibubble sonoluminescence quenching technique.  

PubMed

The bubble type, generated by an ultrasonic field, was studied in a batch and flow reactor using a multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) quenching technique with propanol and acetone. The influence of frequency and transducer configuration was evaluated using the same piezoelectric element in both setups. Results show that the bubble type not only depends on the frequency, but also on the input power or transducer configuration. Additionally, the effect of flow on sonoluminescence yield and bubble type was studied in the continuous setup at various frequencies. As the flow becomes turbulent, the sonoluminescence signal reaches a plateau for three out of four frequencies, and a transition from transient to stable cavitation occurs for frequencies below 200kHz. PMID:25218768

Gielen, B; Jordens, J; Janssen, J; Pfeiffer, H; Wevers, M; Thomassen, L C J; Braeken, L; Van Gerven, T

2014-09-01

94

Bubble growth in rhyolitic melt Yang Liu, Youxue Zhang *  

E-print Network

Bubble growth in rhyolitic melt Yang Liu, Youxue Zhang * The Department of Geological Sciences rhyolitic melt with 1.4^2.0 wt% initial total H2O at 0.1 MPa and 500^600³C. Growth of many bubbles. The average growth rate for bubbles growing in an infinite rhyolitic melt at a bubble radius of 25 Wm is V0

Zhang, Youxue

95

Controlled manipulation and in situ mechanical measurement of single co nanowire with a laser-induced cavitation bubble.  

PubMed

The flow induced by a single laser-induced cavitation bubble is used to manipulate individual Co nanowires. The short-lived (<20 ?s) bubble with a maximum size of 45 ?m is created in an aqueous solution with a laser pulse. Translation, rotation, and radial motion of the nanowire can be selectively achieved by varying the initial distance and orientation of the bubble with respect to the nanowire. Depending on the initial distance, the nanowire can be either pushed away or pulled toward the laser focus. No translation is observed for a distance further than approximately 60 ?m, while at closer distance, the nanowire can be bent as a result of the fast flow induced during the bubble collapse. Studying the dynamics of the shape recovery allows an estimation of the Young's modulus of the nanowire. The low measured Young's modulus (in a range from 9.6 to 13.0 GPa) of the Co nanowire is attributed to a softening effect due to structural defects and surface oxidation layer. Our study suggests that this bubble-based technique allows selectively transporting, orienting, and probing individual nanowires and may be exploited for constructing functional nanodevices. PMID:20804216

Huang, Xiaohu; Quinto-Su, Pedro A; Gonzalez-Avila, S Roberto; Wu, Tom; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

2010-10-13

96

Current Status in Cavitation Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cavitation is a common problem for many engineering devices in which the main working fluid is in liquid state. In turbomachinery applications, cavitation generally occurs on the inlet side of pumps. The deleterious effects of cavitation include: lowered performance, load asymmetry, erosion and pitting of blade surfaces, vibration and noise, and reduction of the overall machine life. Cavitation models in use today range from rather crude approximations to sophisticated bubble dynamics models. Details about bubble inception, growth and collapse are relevant to the prediction of blade erosion, but are not necessary to predict the performance of pumps. An engineering model of cavitation is proposed to predict the extent of cavitation and performance. The vapor volume fraction is used as an indicator variable to quantify cavitation. A two-phase flow approach is employed with the assumption of the thermal equilibrium between liquid and vapor. At present velocity slip between the two phases is selected. Preliminary analyses of 2D flows shows qualitatively correct results.

Singhal, Ashok K.; Avva, Ram K.

1993-01-01

97

Cavitation and multiphase flow forum -- 1993  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains papers presented at the 28th Cavitation and Multiphase Flow Forum of the Fluids Engineering Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. About 35 papers and 3 student papers were presented. The papers are divided into the following sections: Multiphase flow; Multiphase flow/Bubble dynamics; Vortex cavitations/Bubble cavitation/Cavitation erosion; Cavitation erosion/Bubble dynamics; Cavitation inception/Bubbles/Cavitation in fluid machinery; and Cavitation in fluid machinery. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Furuya, Okitsugu (ed.)

1993-01-01

98

Characterization of the shock pulse-induced cavitation bubble activities recorded by an optical fiber hydrophone.  

PubMed

A shock pressure pulse used in an extracorporeal shock wave treatment has a large negative pressure (<-5?MPa) which can produce cavitation. Cavitation cannot be measured easily, but may have known therapeutic effects. This study considers the signal recorded for several hundred microseconds using an optical hydrophone submerged in water at the focus of shock pressure field. The signal is characterized by shock pulse followed by a long tail after several microseconds; this signal is regarded as a cavitation-related signal (CRS). An experimental investigation of the CRS was conducted in the shock pressure field produced in water using an optical hydrophone (FOPH2000, RP Acoustics, Germany). The CRS was found to contain characteristic information about the shock pulse-induced cavitation. The first and second collapse times (t1 and t2) were identified in the CRS. The collapse time delay (tc?=?t2 - t1) increased with the driving shock pressures. The signal amplitude integrated for time from t1 to t2 was highly correlated with tc (adjusted R(2)?=?0.990). This finding suggests that a single optical hydrophone can be used to measure shock pulse and to characterize shock pulse-induced cavitation. PMID:24606257

Kang, Gwansuk; Cho, Sung Chan; Coleman, Andrew John; Choi, Min Joo

2014-03-01

99

Bubble dynamics in boiling under high heat flux pulse heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new theoretical model of bubble behavior in boiling water under high heat flux pulse is presented. The essence of the model is nucleation in the superheated liquid followed by instantaneous formation of a vapor film, rapid bubble growth due to the pressure impulse, and cavitation bubble collapse. To check the model, boiling of methanol under 5 â¼ 50 MW

A. Asai

1991-01-01

100

Dynamic Nucleation of Ice Induced by a Single Stable Cavitation Bubble  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic nucleation of ice induced by caviation bubble in undercooled water is observed using an acoustic levitation technique. The observation indicates that a high pressure pulse associated with a collapsing bubble is indeed responsible for the nucleation of a high pressure phase of ice.

Ohsaka, Kenichi; Trinh, Eugene H.

1997-01-01

101

Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates of spherical micro-implosions in cavitating liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquids irradiated with intense ultrasonic waves can generate small cavities or bubbles. Upon nonlinear expansion to a state of disequilibrium, wherein the externally imposed hydrostatic pressure far exceeds that of entrapped non-condensable gas, these bubbles undergo a rapid and violent collapse. This collapse, if symmetric, can generate high pressures and temperatures through a number of possible mechanisms. The simplest and

R. A. Krakowski

1995-01-01

102

Molecular dynamics simulations of bubble formation and cavitation in liquid metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamics and kinetics of nano-scale bubble formation in liquid metals such as Li and Pb were studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at pressures typical for magnetic and inertial fusion. Two different approaches to bubble formation were developed. In one method, radial densities, pressures, surface tensions, and work functions of the cavities in supercooled liquid lithium were calculated and compared

Z. Insepov; A. Hassanein; T. T. Bazhirov; G. E. Norman; V. V. Stegailov

2007-01-01

103

Time-resolved monitoring of cavitation activity in megasonic cleaning systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of acoustic cavitation in the cleaning liquid is a crucial precondition for the performance of megasonic cleaning systems. Hence, a fundamental understanding of the impact of different parameters of the megasonic process on cavitation activity is necessary. A setup capable of synchronously measuring sonoluminescence and acoustic emission originating from acoustically active bubbles is presented. The system also includes a high-speed-stroboscopic Schlieren imaging system to directly visualize the influence of cavitation activity on the Schlieren contrast and resolvable bubbles. This allows a thorough characterization of the mutual interaction of cavitation bubbles with the sound field and with each other. Results obtained during continuous sonication of argon-saturated water at various nominal power densities indicate that acoustic cavitation occurs in a cyclic manner, during which periods of stable and inertial cavitation activity alternate. The occurrence of higher and ultraharmonics in the acoustic emission spectra is characteristic for the stable cavitation state. The inertial cavitation state is characterized by a strong attenuation of the sound field, the explosive growth of bubbles and the occurrence of broadband components in the acoustic spectra. Both states can only be sustained at sufficiently high intensities of the sound field. At lower intensities, their occurrences are limited to short, random bursts. Cleaning activity can be linked to the cavitation activity through the measurement of particle removal on standard 200 mm silicon wafers. It is found that the particle removal efficiency is reduced, when a continuous state of cavitation activity ceases to exist.

Hauptmann, M.; Brems, S.; Struyf, H.; Mertens, P.; Heyns, M.; De Gendt, S.; Glorieux, C.

2012-03-01

104

Time-resolved monitoring of cavitation activity in megasonic cleaning systems.  

PubMed

The occurrence of acoustic cavitation in the cleaning liquid is a crucial precondition for the performance of megasonic cleaning systems. Hence, a fundamental understanding of the impact of different parameters of the megasonic process on cavitation activity is necessary. A setup capable of synchronously measuring sonoluminescence and acoustic emission originating from acoustically active bubbles is presented. The system also includes a high-speed-stroboscopic Schlieren imaging system to directly visualize the influence of cavitation activity on the Schlieren contrast and resolvable bubbles. This allows a thorough characterization of the mutual interaction of cavitation bubbles with the sound field and with each other. Results obtained during continuous sonication of argon-saturated water at various nominal power densities indicate that acoustic cavitation occurs in a cyclic manner, during which periods of stable and inertial cavitation activity alternate. The occurrence of higher and ultraharmonics in the acoustic emission spectra is characteristic for the stable cavitation state. The inertial cavitation state is characterized by a strong attenuation of the sound field, the explosive growth of bubbles and the occurrence of broadband components in the acoustic spectra. Both states can only be sustained at sufficiently high intensities of the sound field. At lower intensities, their occurrences are limited to short, random bursts. Cleaning activity can be linked to the cavitation activity through the measurement of particle removal on standard 200 mm silicon wafers. It is found that the particle removal efficiency is reduced, when a continuous state of cavitation activity ceases to exist. PMID:22462949

Hauptmann, M; Brems, S; Struyf, H; Mertens, P; Heyns, M; De Gendt, S; Glorieux, C

2012-03-01

105

Unorthodox bubbles when boiling in cold water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-speed movies are taken when bubbles grow at gold surfaces heated spotwise with a near-infrared laser beam heating water below the boiling point (60-70 °C) with heating powers spanning the range from very low to so high that water fails to rewet the surface after bubbles detach. Roughly half the bubbles are conventional: They grow symmetrically through evaporation until buoyancy lifts them away. Others have unorthodox shapes and appear to contribute disproportionately to heat transfer efficiency: mushroom cloud shapes, violently explosive bubbles, and cavitation events, probably stimulated by a combination of superheating, convection, turbulence, and surface dewetting during the initial bubble growth. Moreover, bubbles often follow one another in complex sequences, often beginning with an unorthodox bubble that stirs the water, followed by several conventional bubbles. This large dataset is analyzed and discussed with emphasis on how explosive phenomena such as cavitation induce discrepancies from classical expectations about boiling.

Parker, Scott; Granick, Steve

2014-01-01

106

Unorthodox bubbles when boiling in cold water.  

PubMed

High-speed movies are taken when bubbles grow at gold surfaces heated spotwise with a near-infrared laser beam heating water below the boiling point (60-70?°C) with heating powers spanning the range from very low to so high that water fails to rewet the surface after bubbles detach. Roughly half the bubbles are conventional: They grow symmetrically through evaporation until buoyancy lifts them away. Others have unorthodox shapes and appear to contribute disproportionately to heat transfer efficiency: mushroom cloud shapes, violently explosive bubbles, and cavitation events, probably stimulated by a combination of superheating, convection, turbulence, and surface dewetting during the initial bubble growth. Moreover, bubbles often follow one another in complex sequences, often beginning with an unorthodox bubble that stirs the water, followed by several conventional bubbles. This large dataset is analyzed and discussed with emphasis on how explosive phenomena such as cavitation induce discrepancies from classical expectations about boiling. PMID:24580324

Parker, Scott; Granick, Steve

2014-01-01

107

Interaction dynamics of fs-laser induced cavitation bubbles and their impact on the laser-tissue-interaction of modern ophthalmic laser systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A today well-known laser based treatment in ophthalmology is the LASIK procedure which nowadays includes cutting of the corneal tissue with ultra-short laser pulses. Instead of disposing a microkeratome for cutting a corneal flap, a focused ultra-short laser pulse is scanned below the surface of biological tissue causing the effect of an optical breakdown and hence obtaining a dissection. Inside the tissue, the energy of the laser pulses is absorbed by non-linear processes; as a result a cavitation bubble expands and ruptures the tissue. Hence, positioning of several optical breakdowns side by side generates an incision. Due to a reduction of the amount of laser energy, with a moderate duration of treatment at the same time, the current development of ultra-short pulse laser systems points to higher repetition rates in the range of even Megahertz instead of tens or hundreds of Kilohertz. In turn, this results in a pulse overlap and therefor a probable occurrence of interaction between different optical breakdowns and respectively cavitation bubbles of adjacent optical breakdowns. While the interaction of one single laser pulse with biological tissue is analyzed reasonably well experimentally and theoretically, the interaction of several spatial and temporal following pulses is scarcely determined yet. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyse the dynamic and interaction of two cavitation bubbles by using high speed photography. The applied laser pulse energy, the energy ratio and the spot distance between different cavitation bubbles were varied. Depending on a change of these parameters different kinds of interactions such as a flattening and deformation of bubble shape or jet formation are observed. The effects will be discussed regarding the medical ophthalmic application of fs-lasers. Based on these results a further research seems to be inevitable to comprehend and optimize the cutting effect of ultra-short pulse laser systems with high (> 500 kHz) repetition rates.

Tinne, N.; Ripken, T.; Lubatschowski, H.; Heisterkamp, A.

2011-07-01

108

Stability of bubbly liquids and its connection to the process of cavitation inception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a potential energy approach for the investigation of the stability of bubbly liquids. Using the system's free energy variations with respect to the void fraction as a stability criterion for the whole system, we consider that sudden bubble expansion occurs only when the bubble cluster expansion is energetically favorable. The results obtained provide new insight into the behavior of pre-nucleated liquids when the inception point is reached as well as a simple method to estimate the energy exchanges between a bubble cluster and its environment when the kinetic energy is negligible compared to the elastic energy stored during tension and compression processes. In addition to the radius of the initial nuclei, the concentration and polydispersity are shown to exert an important influence on the response of the system after inception.

Fuster, D.; Pham, K.; Zaleski, S.

2014-04-01

109

Bubble growth in visco-elastic magma: implications to magma fragmentation and bubble nucleation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a visco-elastic bubble growth model, accounting for viscous and elastic deformations and for volatile mass transfer between bubbles and melt. We define the borders between previous bubble growth models accounting for incompressible viscous melt, and our new model accounting also for elastic deformation; this is done by a set of end-member analytical solutions and numerical simulations. Elastic deformation is most prominent for magma of small vesicularity, where the growth regime depends on the shear modulus. For high shear modulus, bubble growth is slow and follows an exponential law in a viscous growth regime, while for low shear modulus bubbles quickly follow a square-root diffusive solution. Our model provides all the elastic components (stresses, strains and strain rates) required for defining criteria for failure and magma fragmentation. We suggest two failure criteria, a stress related one based on the internal friction and the Mohr-Coulomb failure theory, and a strain related one based on fibre elongation experiments. We argue that both criteria are equivalent if we consider their shear modulus dependency and its effect on magma rheology. Last, we apply our model to the process of bubble nucleation. In the incompressible case, following nucleation, growth is slow and leads to long incubation times during which bubbles may be dissolved back into the melt. The elastic response in magmas with low shear modulus results in a short incubation time, increasing the probability of survival. The above effects emphasize the significance of visco-elasticity for the dynamic processes occurring in magmas during volcanic activity.

Ittai, Kurzon; Vladimir, Lyakhovsky; Oded, Navon

2011-01-01

110

Vol. 22, No. 3, Aug. 1, 2002 Scientists measure energy dissipation in a single cavitating bubble  

E-print Network

. The ability of ultrasound to induce chemical reactions has been studied for industrial and medical. -- Like fireflies, bubbles trapped and energized by ultrasound emit light in a periodic rhythm. By holding Nature ­ have important implications for future work on the chemical and physical effects of ultrasound

Suslick, Kenneth S.

111

Dynamics of a single cavitating and reacting bubble Guillermo Hauke,* Daniel Fuster, and Cesar Dopazo  

E-print Network

results. In particular, it is found that water evaporation and condensation are fundamental transport included the diffusion of gases within the bubble and evaporation and condensation of water across restrictive approximations, such as using an ap- proximate formula for the interface temperature calculation

Fuster, Daniel

112

Nucleate boiling bubble growth and departure  

E-print Network

The vapor bubble formation on the heating surface during pool boiling has been studied experimentally. Experiments were made at the atmospheric pressure 28 psi and 40 psi, using degassed distilled water and ethanol. The ...

Staniszewski, Bogumil E.

1959-01-01

113

Numerical estimation of cavitation intensity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation may appear in turbomachinery and in hydraulic orifices, venturis or valves, leading to performance losses, vibrations and material erosion. This study propose a new method to predict the cavitation intensity of the flow, based on a post-processing of unsteady CFD calculations. The paper presents the analyses of cavitating structures' evolution at two different scales: • A macroscopic one in which the growth of cavitating structures is calculated using an URANS software based on a homogeneous model. Simulations of cavitating flows are computed using a barotropic law considering presence of air and interfacial tension, and Reboud's correction on the turbulence model. • Then a small one where a Rayleigh-Plesset software calculates the acoustic energy generated by the implosion of the vapor/gas bubbles with input parameters from macroscopic scale. The volume damage rate of the material during incubation time is supposed to be a part of the cumulated acoustic energy received by the solid wall. The proposed analysis method is applied to calculations on hydrofoil and orifice geometries. Comparisons between model results and experimental works concerning flow characteristic (size of cavity, pressure,velocity) as well as pitting (erosion area, relative cavitation intensity) are presented.

Krumenacker, L.; Fortes-Patella, R.; Archer, A.

2014-12-01

114

Jet formation and shock wave emission during collapse of ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles and their role in the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound.  

PubMed

The dynamics of inertial cavitation bubbles produced by short pulses of high-intensity focused ultrasound near a rigid boundary are studied to get a better understanding of the role of jet formation and shock wave emission during bubble collapse in the therapeutic applications of ultrasound. The bubble dynamics are investigated by high-speed photography with up to 2 million frames/s and acoustic measurements, as well as by numerical calculations. The significant parameter of this study is the dimensionless stand-off, gamma, which is defined as the distance of the bubble centre at its maximum expansion scaled by the maximum bubble radius. High-speed photography is applied to observe the bubble motion and the velocity of the liquid jet formed during bubble collapse. Hydrophone measurements are used to determine the pressure and the duration of the shock wave emitted during bubble rebound. Calculations yield the variation with time of the bubble wall, the maximum velocity and the kinetic energy of the re-entrant jet. The comparisons between experimental and numerical data are favourable with regard to both shape history and translational motion of the bubble. The acoustic energy constitutes the largest individual amount in the energy balance of bubble collapse. The ratio of the shock wave energy, measured at 10 mm from the emission centre, to the cavitation bubble energy was 1:2.4 at gamma = 1.55 and 1:3.5 at gamma = 1. At this distance, the shock wave pressure ranges from 0.122 MPa, at gamma = 1, to 0.162 MPa, at gamma = 1.55, and the temporal duration at the half maximum level is 87 ns. The maximum jet velocity ranges from 27 m s(-1), at gamma = 1, to 36 m s(-1), at gamma = 1.55. For gamma < 1.2, the re-entrant jet can generate an impact pressure on the nearby boundary larger than 50 MPa. We discuss the implications of the results for the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound. PMID:16204873

Brujan, E A; Ikeda, T; Matsumoto, Y

2005-10-21

115

Theoretical and experimental comparison of vapor cavitation in dynamically loaded journal bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor cavitation for a submerged journal bearing under dynamically loaded conditions was investigated. The observation of vapor cavitation in the laboratory was done by high-speed photography. It was found that vapor cavitation occurs when the tensile stress applied to the oil exceeded the tensile strength of the oil or the binding of the oil to the surface. The theoretical solution to the Reynolds equation is determined numerically using a moving boundary algorithm. This algorithm conserves mass throughout the computational domain including the region of cavitation and its boundaries. An alternating direction implicit (MDI) method is used to effect the time march. A rotor undergoing circular whirl was studied. Predicted cavitation behavior was analyzed by three-dimensional computer graphic movies. The formation, growth, and collapse of the bubble in response to the dynamic conditions is shown. For the same conditions of dynamic loading, the cavitation bubble was studied in the laboratory using high-speed photography.

Brewe, D. E.; Hamrock, B. J.; Jacobson, B. A.

1985-01-01

116

Aspherical bubble dynamics and oscillation times  

SciTech Connect

The cavitation bubbles common in laser medicine are rarely perfectly spherical and are often located near tissue boundaries, in vessels, etc., which introduce aspherical dynamics. Here, novel features of aspherical bubble dynamics are explored by time-resolved photography and numerical simulations. The growth-collapse period of cylindrical bubbles of large aspect ratio (length:diameter {approximately}20) differs only slightly from twice the Rayleigh collapse time for a spherical bubble with an equivalent maximum volume. This fact justifies using the temporal interval between the acoustic signals emitted upon bubble creation and collapse to estimate the maximum bubble volume. As a result, hydrophone measurements can provide an estimate of the bubble size and energy even for aspherical bubbles. The change of the oscillation period of bubbles near solid walls and elastic (tissue-like) boundaries relative to that of isolated spherical bubbles is also investigated.

Vogel, A.; Noack, J. [Meizinisches Laserzentrum Luebeck (Germany); Chapyak, E.J.; Godwin, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1999-06-01

117

Source Mergers and Bubble Growth During Reionization  

E-print Network

The recently introduced models of reionization bubbles based on extended Press-Schechter theory (Furlanetto, Zaldarriaga & Hernquist 2004) are generalized to include mergers of ionization sources. Sources with a recent major merger are taken to have enhanced photon production due to star formation, and accretion onto a central black hole if a black hole is present. This produces a scatter in the number of ionized photons corresponding to a halo of a given mass and a change in photon production over time for any given halo mass. Photon production histories, bubble distributions, and ionization histories are computed for several different parameter and recombination assumptions; the resulting distributions interpolate between previously calculated limiting cases.

J. D. Cohn; Tzu-Ching Chang

2006-03-16

118

Analogy between fluid cavitation and fracture mechanics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When the stresses imposed on a fluid are sufficiently large, rupture or cavitation can occur. Such conditions can exist in many two-phase flow applications, such as the choked flows, which can occur in seals and bearings. Nonspherical bubbles with large aspect ratios have been observed in fluids under rapid acceleration and high shear fields. These bubbles are geometrically similar to fracture surface patterns (Griffith crack model) existing in solids. Analogies between crack growth in solid and fluid cavitation are proposed and supported by analysis and observation (photographs). Healing phenomena (void condensation), well accepted in fluid mechanics, have been observed in some polymers and hypothesized in solid mechanics. By drawing on the strengths of the theories of solid mechanics and cavitation, a more complete unified theory can be developed.

Hendricks, R. C.; Mullen, R. L.; Braun, M. J.

1983-01-01

119

Bubble Evolution and Properties in Homogeneous Nucleation Simulations  

E-print Network

We analyze the properties of naturally formed nano-bubbles in Lennard-Jones molecular dynamics simulations of liquid-to-vapor nucleation in the boiling and the cavitation regimes. The large computational volumes provide a realistic environment at unchanging average temperature and liquid pressure, which allows us to accurately measure properties of bubbles from their inception as stable, critically sized bubbles, to their continued growth into the constant speed regime. Bubble gas densities are up to 50$\\%$ lower than the equilibrium vapor densities at the liquid temperature, yet quite close to the gas equilibrium density at the lower gas temperatures measured in the simulations: The latent heat of transformation results in bubble gas temperatures up to 25$\\%$ below those of the surrounding bulk liquid. In the case of rapid bubble growth - typical for the cavitation regime - compression of the liquid outside the bubble leads to local temperature increases of up to 5$\\%$, likely significant enough to alter the...

Angélil, Raymond; Tanaka, Kyoko; Tanaka, Hidekazu

2014-01-01

120

Optimization of centrifugal pump cavitation performance based on CFD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to further improve the cavitation performance of a centrifugal pump, slots on impeller blade near inlet were studied and six groups of hydraulic model were designed. Base on cavitating flow feature inside a centrifugal pump, bubble growth and implosion are calculated from the Rayleigh-Plesset equation which describes the dynamic behavior of spherical bubble and RNG ?-epsilon model was employed to simulate and analyze the internal two-phase flow of the model pump under the same conditions. The simulation results show that slots on blade near inlet could improve the cavitation performance and cavitation performance improvement of the second group was more obvious. Under the same conditions, the pressure on the back of blade near inlet was higher than the pressure on the back of unmodified blade near inlet, and energy distribution in the flow channel between the two blades was more uniform with a small change of head.

Xie, S. F.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z. C.; Zhu, Z. T.; Ning, C.; Zhao, L. F.

2015-01-01

121

Acoustic cavitation and its chemical consequences  

E-print Network

: compression of a gas generates heat. When the compression of bubbles occurs during cavitation, heating is more of bubbles caused by cavitation produces intense local heating and high pressures, with very short lifetimesAcoustic cavitation and its chemical consequences By Kenneth S. Suslick, Yuri Didenko, Ming M. Fang

Suslick, Kenneth S.

122

Visualization and simulation of bubble growth in pore networks  

SciTech Connect

Bubble nucleation and bubble growth in porous media is an important problem encountered in processes, such as pressure depletion and boiling. To understand its basic aspects, experiments and numerical simulations in micromodel geometries were undertaken. Experiments of bubble growth by pressure depletion were carried out in 2-D etched-glass micromodels and in Hele-Shaw cells. Nucleation of bubbles and the subsequent growth of gas clusters were visualized. Contrary to the bulk or to Hele-Shaw cells, gas clusters in the micromodel have irregular and ramified shapes and share many of the features of an external invasion process (e.g. of percolation during drainage). A pore network numerical model was developed to simulate the growth of multiple gas clusters under various conditions. The model is based on the solution of the convection-diffusions equation and also accounts for capillary and viscous forces, which play an important role in determining the growth patterns. Numerical simulation resulted in good agreement with the experimental results.

Li, Xuehai; Yortsos, Y.C.

1994-03-01

123

Bubble growth in rhyolitic melts: experimental and numerical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bubble growth controlled by mass transfer of water from hydrated rhyolitic melts at high pressures and temperatures was studied\\u000a experimentally and simulated numerically. Rhyolitic melts were hydrated at 150?MPa, 780–850??C to uniform water content of\\u000a 5.5–5.3?wt%. The pressure was then dropped and held constant at 15–145?MPa. Upon the drop bubbles nucleated and were allowed\\u000a to grow for various periods of

Vladimir Lyakhovsky; Shaul Hurwitz; Oded Navon

1996-01-01

124

Gold nanoparticle targeted photoacoustic cavitation for potential deep tissue imaging and therapy  

PubMed Central

The laser generation of vapor bubbles around plasmonic nanoparticles can be enhanced through the application of an ultrasound field; a technique referred to as photoacoustic cavitation. The combination of light and ultrasound allows for bubble formation at lower laser fluence and peak negative ultrasound pressure than can be achieved using either modality alone. The growth and collapse of these bubbles leads to local mechanical disruption and acoustic emission, and can potentially be used to induce and monitor tissue therapy. Photoacoustic cavitation is investigated for a broad range of ultrasound pressures and nanoparticle concentrations for gold nanorods and nanospheres. The cavitation threshold fluences for both nanoparticle types are found to drastically reduce in the presence of an ultrasound field. The results indicate that photoacoustic cavitation can potentially be produced at depth in biological tissue without exceeding the safety limits for ultrasound or laser radiation at the tissue surface. PMID:23304648

Ju, Hengyi; Roy, Ronald A.; Murray, Todd W.

2012-01-01

125

Effects of pulsed ultrasound on the adsorption of n-alkyl anionic surfactants at the gas/solution interface of cavitation bubbles.  

PubMed

Sonolysis of argon-saturated aqueous solutions of the nonvolatile surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium 1-pentanesulfonate (SPSo) was investigated at three ultrasonic frequencies under both continuous wave (CW) and pulsed ultrasound. Secondary carbon-centered radicals were detected by spin trapping using 3,5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzenesulfonic acid (DBNBS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Following sonolysis, -*CH- radicals were observed for both surfactants under both sonication modes. Under CW at 354 kHz, the maximum plateau -*CH- radical yield was higher for SPSo than for SDS, indicating that SDS, which is more surface active under equilibrium conditions, accumulates at the gas/solution interface of cavitation bubbles to a lesser degree, compared with the less surface active surfactant, SPSo. However, after sonolysis (354 kHz) under pulsed ultrasound with a pulse length of 100 ms and an interval of 500 ms, the -*CH- radical yield at the plateau concentrations was higher for SDS than for SPSo due to increased amounts of SDS accumulation on the bubble surfaces. In contrast to the findings following sonolysis at 354 kHz, sonolysis of aqueous surfactant solutions at 620 kHz and 803 kHz showed a higher -*CH- radical yield for SDS compared with SPSo under CW but lower -*CH- radical yield with increasing pulsing interval, indicating a frequency dependence on accumulation. Results indicate that pulsing the ultrasonic wave has a significant effect on the relative adsorption ability of n-alkyl surfactants at the gas/solution surface of cavitation bubbles. PMID:17249713

Yang, Limei; Sostaric, Joe Z; Rathman, James F; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Weavers, Linda K

2007-02-15

126

Gas Bubble Growth Dynamics in a Supersaturated Solution: Henry's and Sievert's Solubility Laws  

E-print Network

Theoretical description of diffusion growth of a gas bubble after its nucleation in supersaturated liquid solution is presented. We study the influence of Laplace pressure on the bubble growth. We consider two different solubility laws: Henry's law, which is fulfilled for the systems where no gas molecules dissociation takes place and Sievert's law, which is fulfilled for the systems where gas molecules completely dissociate in the solvent into two parts. We show that the difference between Henry's and Sievert's laws for chemical equilibrium conditions causes the difference in bubble growth dynamics. Assuming that diffusion flux of dissolved gas molecules to the bubble is steady we obtain differential equations on bubble radius for both solubility laws. For the case of homogeneous nucleation of a bubble, which takes place at a significant pressure drop bubble dynamics equations for Henry's and Sievert's laws are solved analytically. For both solubility laws three characteristic stages of bubble growth are mar...

Gor, Gennady Yu; Kuni, Fedor M

2012-01-01

127

Cavitation in a metallic liquid: Homogeneous nucleation and growth of nanovoids  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate homogeneous nucleation and growth of nanovoids during cavitation in liquid Cu. We characterize in detail the atomistic cavitation processes by following the temporal evolution of cavities or voids, analyze the nucleation behavior with the mean first-passage time (MFPT) and survival probability (SP) methods, and discuss the results against classical nucleation theory (CNT), the Tolman equation for surface energy, independent calculation of surface tension via integrating the stress profiles, the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) growth law, and the power law for nucleus size distributions. Cavitation in this representative metallic liquid is a high energy barrier Poisson processes, and the steady-state nucleation rates obtained from statistical runs with the MFPT and SP methods are in agreement. The MFPT method also yields the critical nucleus size and the Zeldovich factor. Fitting with the Tolman's equation to the MD simulations yields the surface energy of a planar interface (?0.9 J m{sup ?2}) and the Tolman length (0.4–0.5 Å), and those values are in accord with those from integrating the stress profiles of a planar interface. Independent CNT predictions of the nucleation rate (10{sup 33?34} s{sup ?1} m{sup ?3}) and critical size (3–4 Å in radius) are in agreement with the MFPT and SP results. The JMA law can reasonably describe the nucleation and growth process. The size distribution of subcritical nuclei appears to follow a power law with an exponent decreasing with increasing tension owing to coupled nucleation and growth, and that of the supercritical nuclei becomes flattened during further stress relaxation due to void coalescence.

Cai, Y. [Department of Modern Mechanics, CAS Key Laboratory of Materials Behavior and Design, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Wu, H. A., E-mail: wuha@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Mechanics, CAS Key Laboratory of Materials Behavior and Design, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Luo, S. N., E-mail: sluo@pims.ac.cn [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China)

2014-06-07

128

Cavitation in a metallic liquid: homogeneous nucleation and growth of nanovoids.  

PubMed

Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate homogeneous nucleation and growth of nanovoids during cavitation in liquid Cu. We characterize in detail the atomistic cavitation processes by following the temporal evolution of cavities or voids, analyze the nucleation behavior with the mean first-passage time (MFPT) and survival probability (SP) methods, and discuss the results against classical nucleation theory (CNT), the Tolman equation for surface energy, independent calculation of surface tension via integrating the stress profiles, the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) growth law, and the power law for nucleus size distributions. Cavitation in this representative metallic liquid is a high energy barrier Poisson processes, and the steady-state nucleation rates obtained from statistical runs with the MFPT and SP methods are in agreement. The MFPT method also yields the critical nucleus size and the Zeldovich factor. Fitting with the Tolman's equation to the MD simulations yields the surface energy of a planar interface (~0.9 J m?²) and the Tolman length (0.4-0.5 Å), and those values are in accord with those from integrating the stress profiles of a planar interface. Independent CNT predictions of the nucleation rate (10(33 - 34) s(-1) m(-3)) and critical size (3-4 Å in radius) are in agreement with the MFPT and SP results. The JMA law can reasonably describe the nucleation and growth process. The size distribution of subcritical nuclei appears to follow a power law with an exponent decreasing with increasing tension owing to coupled nucleation and growth, and that of the supercritical nuclei becomes flattened during further stress relaxation due to void coalescence. PMID:24908018

Cai, Y; Wu, H A; Luo, S N

2014-06-01

129

Bubble evolution and properties in homogeneous nucleation simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the properties of naturally formed nanobubbles in Lennard-Jones molecular dynamics simulations of liquid-to-vapor nucleation in the boiling and the cavitation regimes. The large computational volumes provide a realistic environment at unchanging average temperature and liquid pressure, which allows us to accurately measure properties of bubbles from their inception as stable, critically sized bubbles, to their continued growth into the constant speed regime. Bubble gas densities are up to 50 % lower than the equilibrium vapor densities at the liquid temperature, yet quite close to the gas equilibrium density at the lower gas temperatures measured in the simulations: The latent heat of transformation results in bubble gas temperatures up to 25 % below those of the surrounding bulk liquid. In the case of rapid bubble growth—typical for the cavitation regime—compression of the liquid outside the bubble leads to local temperature increases of up to 5 %, likely significant enough to alter the surface tension as well as the local viscosity. The liquid-vapor bubble interface is thinner than expected from planar coexistence simulations by up to 50 % . Bubbles near the critical size are extremely nonspherical, yet they quickly become spherical as they grow. The Rayleigh-Plesset description of bubble-growth gives good agreement in the cavitation regime.

Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg; Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Tanaka, Hidekazu

2014-12-01

130

Vulnerability to cavitation, hydraulic efficiency, growth and survival in an insular pine (Pinus canariensis)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims It is widely accepted that hydraulic failure due to xylem embolism is a key factor contributing to drought-induced mortality in trees. In the present study, an attempt is made to disentangle phenotypic plasticity from genetic variation in hydraulic traits across the entire distribution area of a tree species to detect adaptation to local environments. Methods A series of traits related to hydraulics (vulnerability to cavitation and hydraulic conductivity in branches), growth performance and leaf mass per area were assessed in eight Pinus canariensis populations growing in two common gardens under contrasting environments. In addition, the neutral genetic variability (FST) and the genetic differentiation of phenotypic variation (QST) were compared in order to identify the evolutionary forces acting on these traits. Key Results The variability for hydraulic traits was largely due to phenotypic plasticity. Nevertheless, the vulnerability to cavitation displayed a significant genetic variability (approx. 5 % of the explained variation), and a significant genetic × environment interaction (between 5 and 19 % of the explained variation). The strong correlation between vulnerability to cavitation and survival in the xeric common garden (r = –0·81; P < 0·05) suggests a role for the former in the adaptation to xeric environments. Populations from drier sites and higher temperature seasonality were less vulnerable to cavitation than those growing at mesic sites. No trade-off between xylem safety and efficiency was detected. QST of parameters of the vulnerability curve (0·365 for P50 and the slope of the vulnerability curve and 0·452 for P88) differed substantially from FST (0·091), indicating divergent selection. In contrast, genetic drift alone was found to be sufficient to explain patterns of differentiation for xylem efficiency and growth. Conclusions The ability of P. canariensis to inhabit a wide range of ecosystems seemed to be associated with high phenotypic plasticity and some degree of local adaptations of xylem and leaf traits. Resistance to cavitation conferred adaptive potential for this species to adapt successfully to xeric conditions. PMID:23644361

López, Rosana; López de Heredia, Unai; Collada, Carmen; Cano, Francisco Javier; Emerson, Brent C.; Cochard, Hervé; Gil, Luis

2013-01-01

131

Bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vanitas vanitatum et omnia vanitas: bubbles are emptiness, non-liquid, a tiny cloud shielding a mathematical singularity. Born from chance, a violent and brief life ending in the union with the (nearly) infinite. But a wealth of phenomena spring forth from this nothingness: underwater noise, sonoluminescence, boiling, and many others. Some recent results on a "blinking bubble" micropump and vapor bubbles in sound fields are outlined. The last section describes Leonardo da Vinci's observation of the non-rectlinear ascent of buoyant bubbles and justifies the name Leonardo's paradox recently attributed to this phenomenon.

Prosperetti, Andrea

2004-06-01

132

Unidirectional bubble growth in microchannels with asymmetric surfacefeatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of vapor bubbles is studied numerically in a microchannel\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009with asymmetric surface features. The channel design is chosen such\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009that evaporation results in vapor bubbles growing only along a predefined\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009direction. The principle relies on capillary forces and the pinning\\/depinning\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009of three-phase contact lines at sharp edges of the wall geometry.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009Analytical expressions are derived predicting the direction

Steffen Hardt; Stefan Herbert; Christian Kunkelmann; ShadiMahjoob; Peter Stephan

2012-01-01

133

{open_quotes}Bubble fusion{close_quotes}: Preliminary estimates of spherical micro-implosions in cavitating liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquids irradiated with intense ultrasonic waves can generate small cavities or bubbles. Upon nonlinear expansion to a state of disequilibrium, wherein the externally imposed hydrostatic pressure far exceeds that of entrapped non-condensable gas, these bubbles undergo a rapid and violent collapse. This collapse, if symmetric, can generate high pressures and temperatures through a number of possible mechanisms. The simplest and

Krakowski

1995-01-01

134

Stability of bubbly liquids and its connection to the process of cavitation inception D. Fuster, K. Pham, and S. Zaleski  

E-print Network

of the stability of bubbly liquids. Using the system's free energy variations with respect to the void fraction is negligible compared to the elastic energy stored during tension and compression processes. In addition

Fuster, Daniel

135

Numerical method for predicting ship propeller cavitation noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

During ship travels in high-velocity, propeller cavitation noise predominates in the radiated noise sources. However, experiential data regress method was use to predicate propeller cavitation noise in the past. In this article, propeller cavitation noise has been calculated by numerical computation method. From the engineering point of view, ship propeller has been disposed as a dipole bubble. Bubble volume pulse

Yong-Kun Zhang; Ying Xiong

2011-01-01

136

Plasma and Cavitation Dynamics during Pulsed Laser Microsurgery in vivo  

SciTech Connect

We compare the plasma and cavitation dynamics underlying pulsed laser microsurgery in water and in fruit fly embryos (in vivo)--specifically for nanosecond pulses at 355 and 532 nm. We find two key differences. First, the plasma-formation thresholds are lower in vivo --especially at 355 nm--due to the presence of endogenous chromophores that serve as additional sources for plasma seed electrons. Second, the biological matrix constrains the growth of laser-induced cavitation bubbles. Both effects reduce the disrupted region in vivo when compared to extrapolations from measurements in water.

Hutson, M. Shane; Ma Xiaoyan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B no. 351807, Nashville, Tennessee 37235-1807 (United States)

2007-10-12

137

Theory of multiple bubble growth in porous media by solute diffusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a theoretical analysis of bubble growth in porous media by solute diffusion. Based on visualization experiments, a theoretical model is developed for bubble growth driven by a constant or a time-varying supersaturation in the far-field. It is shown that in porous media, gas evolution (patterns and rates) is much different than in the bulk. Patterns and rates of

X. Li; Y. C. Yortsos

1995-01-01

138

Numerical study of bubble growth and wall heat transfer during flow boiling in a microchannel  

E-print Network

Numerical study of bubble growth and wall heat transfer during flow boiling in a microchannel A 2011 Accepted 27 January 2011 Available online 12 April 2011 Keywords: Flow boiling Microchannels during growth of a vapor bubble inside a microchannel. The microchannel is of 200 lm square cross section

Kandlikar, Satish

139

Modelling of single bubble growth in carbon nanofibre filled mesophase pitch during carbonization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single bubble growth model is presented for bubble growth in mesophase pitch during carbonization. This model is distinguished from typical polymer foaming models in its design to be used over a wider temperature range, its accounting for mass transfer from the liquid to the bubble, and the incorporation of reaction sites in the melt which produce volatile gases. The effect of nanofibre loading on growth is investigated in terms of viscosity, density and volatile concentration. It is found that the viscosity change is the controlling factor in altering the bubble growth rate in this system. Comparison with experimental data shows that a single bubble growth model is a reasonable assumption for carbon nanofibre loading of 1 wt% or below.

Calebrese, Christopher; Schadler, Linda S.; Lewis, Daniel J.

2010-06-01

140

Observations of bubble growth in rhyolite using hot-stage microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bubble growth in rhyolitic melts is a primary control on some of the largest explosive eruptions, but growth dynamics remain controversial. We have used hot-stage microscopy to directly observe vesiculation of a Chaiten rhyolite melt (containing ~1.38 wt. % H 2O) at atmospheric pressure. Thin wafers of obsidian were held from 5 minutes up to 2 days in the hot-stage at temperatures between 575 oC and 875 oC. The growth of many individual bubbles was measured using image tracking code within MATLAB. We found that bubble growth rates increased with both temperature and bubble size. The average growth rate at the highest temperature of 875 oC is ~1.27 ?m s-1, compared with the lowest observed growth rate of ~0.02 ?m s-1 at 725 oC; below this temperature no growth was observed. Average growth rate V r follows an exponential relationship with temperature and melt viscosity where V r ~ exp (0.0169T) and V r ~ exp (-1.202?). Comparison of these measured rates with existing bubble growth models (e.g. Navon, Proussevitch and Sahagian) indicates slower growth than expected at the highest temperatures. The extent of diffusive degassing of H 2O and OH- from wafer surfaces during experiments was estimated with simple diffusion models. It was found to be negligible during brief high-temperature experiments but became increasingly important for slower, lower-temperature experiments. Several stages of bubble growth were directly observed, including initial relaxation of deformed existing bubbles into spheres, extensive growth of spheres, and, at higher temperatures, close packing and foam formation. An advantage of the imaging techniques used here is that bubble-bubble interactions can be observed in-situ at relatively high resolution. Bubble deformation due to bubble-bubble interaction and coalescence was observed in most experiments. Evolving bubble number densities (BND) with time were determined, allowing nucleation rates to be estimated. Maximum observed BNDs were 3.4 x 1012 m-3 with maximum increases of around 143 % observed in samples with a lower initial vesicularity <5.7 x 1011 m-3. The experiments described can be used to effectively retrace the vesiculation history of samples, providing a useful tool for aiding in the interpretation of end member products. Figure 1. Nucleation, growth and coalescence of bubbles Summary of findings from vesiculation experiments;

Browning, J.; Tuffen, H.; James, M. R.

2012-12-01

141

Cavitating vortex generation by a submerged jet  

SciTech Connect

The surface geometry of a cavitating vortex is determined in the limit of inviscid incompressible flow. The limit surface is an ovaloid of revolution with an axis ratio of 5: 3. It is shown that a cavitating vortex ring cannot develop if the cavitation number is lower than a certain critical value. Experiments conducted at various liquid pressures and several jet exit velocities confirm the existence of a critical cavitation number close to 3. At cavitation numbers higher than the critical one, the cavitating vortex ring does not develop. At substantially lower cavitation numbers (k {<=} 0.1), an elongated asymmetric cavitation bubble is generated, with an axial reentrant jet whose length can exceed the initial jet length by several times. This flow structure is called an asymmetric cavitating vortex, even though steady motion of this structure has not been observed.

Belyakov, G. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Dynamics of Geospheres (Russian Federation); Filippov, A. N. [Moscow State University of Food Production (Russian Federation)], E-mail: a.filippov@mgupp.ru

2006-05-15

142

Molecular dynamics investigation of nanoscale cavitation dynamics.  

PubMed

We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the cavitation dynamics around intensely heated solid nanoparticles immersed in a model Lennard-Jones fluid. Specifically, we study the temporal evolution of vapor nanobubbles that form around the solid nanoparticles heated over ps time scale and provide a detail description of the following vapor formation and collapse. For 8 nm diameter nanoparticles we observe the formation of vapor bubbles when the liquid temperature 0.5-1 nm away from the nanoparticle surface reaches ?90% of the critical temperature, which is consistent with the onset of spinodal decomposition. The peak heat flux from the hot solid to the surrounding liquid at the bubble formation threshold is ?20 times higher than the corresponding steady state critical heat flux. Detailed analysis of the bubble dynamics indicates adiabatic formation followed by an isothermal final stage of growth and isothermal collapse. PMID:25527949

Sasikumar, Kiran; Keblinski, Pawel

2014-12-21

143

Molecular dynamics investigation of nanoscale cavitation dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the cavitation dynamics around intensely heated solid nanoparticles immersed in a model Lennard-Jones fluid. Specifically, we study the temporal evolution of vapor nanobubbles that form around the solid nanoparticles heated over ps time scale and provide a detail description of the following vapor formation and collapse. For 8 nm diameter nanoparticles we observe the formation of vapor bubbles when the liquid temperature 0.5-1 nm away from the nanoparticle surface reaches ˜90% of the critical temperature, which is consistent with the onset of spinodal decomposition. The peak heat flux from the hot solid to the surrounding liquid at the bubble formation threshold is ˜20 times higher than the corresponding steady state critical heat flux. Detailed analysis of the bubble dynamics indicates adiabatic formation followed by an isothermal final stage of growth and isothermal collapse.

Sasikumar, Kiran; Keblinski, Pawel

2014-12-01

144

Combined effect of viscosity and vorticity on single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability bubble growth  

SciTech Connect

The combined effect of viscosity and vorticity on the growth rate of the bubble associated with single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated. It is shown that the effect of viscosity on the motion of the lighter fluid associated with vorticity accumulated inside the bubble due to mass ablation may be such as to reduce the net viscous drag on the bubble exerted by the upper heavier fluid as the former rises through it.

Banerjee, Rahul; Mandal, Labakanta; Roy, S.; Khan, M.; Gupta, M. R. [Department of Instrumentation Science and Centre for Plasma Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

2011-02-15

145

Bubble Bubble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With magic bubble solution, a boy discovers that he can blow any kind of bubble imaginable: a kangaroo, a bird, a car, or a boat. Mercer Mayer's colorful illustrations enliven this engaging tale of mysterious bubbles.

Mayer, Mercer

2009-11-11

146

Bubble growth on an impulsively powered microheater , A. Prosperetti a,b,*, J. Kim c  

E-print Network

Bubble growth on an impulsively powered microheater Z. Yin a , A. Prosperetti a,b,*, J. Kim c, The Netherlands c Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA deals with vapor bubbles which are nucleated by impulsive heating, grow, and collapse after the heating

Kim, Jungho

147

Gas-bubble growth mechanisms in the analysis of metal fuel swelling  

SciTech Connect

During steady-state irradiation, swelling rates associated with growth of fission-gas bubbles in metallic fast reactor fuels may be expected to remain small. As a consequence, bubble-growth mechanisms are not a major consideration in modeling the steady-state fuel behavior, and it is usually adequate to consider the gas pressure to be in equilibrium with the external pressure and surface tension restraint. On transient time scales, however, various bubble-growth mechanisms become important components of the swelling rate. These mechanisms include growth by diffusion, for bubbles within grains and on grain boundaries; dislocation nucleation at the bubble surface, or ''punchout''; and bubble growth by creep. Analyses of these mechanisms are presented and applied to provide information on the conditions and the relative time scales for which the various processes should dominate fuel swelling. The results are compared to a series of experiments in which the swelling of irradiated metal fuel was determined after annealing at various temperatures and pressures. The diffusive growth of bubbles on grain boundaries is concluded to be dominant in these experiments.

Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.

1986-06-01

148

A New Unsteady Model for Dense Cloud Cavitation in Cryogenic Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new unsteady, cavitation model is presented wherein the phase change process (bubble growth/collapse) is coupled to the acoustic field in a cryogenic fluid. It predicts the number density and radius of bubbles in vapor clouds by tracking both the aggregate surface area and volume fraction of the cloud. Hence, formulations for the dynamics of individual bubbles (e.g. Rayleigh-Plesset equation) may be integrated within the macroscopic context of a dense vapor cloud i.e. a cloud that occupies a significant fraction of available volume and contains numerous bubbles. This formulation has been implemented within the CRUNCH CFD, which has a compressible real fluid formulation, a multi-element, unstructured grid framework, and has been validated extensively for liquid rocket turbopump inducers. Detailed unsteady simulations of a cavitating ogive in liquid nitrogen are presented where time-averaged mean cavity pressure and temperature depressions due to cavitation are compared with experimental data. The model also provides the spatial and temporal history of the bubble size distribution in the vapor clouds that are shed, an important physical parameter that is difficult to measure experimentally and is a significant advancement in the modeling of dense cloud cavitation.

Hosangadi, A.; Ahuja, V.

2005-01-01

149

Computer simulation of boundary effects on bubble growth in metals due to He.  

SciTech Connect

Atomistic simulation methods were used to investigate and identify the relevant physical mechanisms necessary to describe the growth of helium gas bubbles within a metal lattice. Specifically, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to examine the material defects that originate from growing spherical He bubbles in a palladium crystal. These simulations consist of a model system containing bubbles within a metal and near a free surface. The simulation code employed was ParaDyn using the Embedded Atom Method to model the constitutive properties of Pd atoms in a FCC lattice. The results of these simulations are compared with previously run calculations of He bubbles in a bulk lattice [l]. These simulations show the influence of the free surface on defect creation and evolution. Features compared include the formation of inter-bubble dislocations, bubble pressure and swelling as functions of He to metal (He/M) concentration.

Zimmerman, Jonathan A.

2003-03-01

150

Skin formation and bubble growth during drying process of polymer solution.  

PubMed

When a polymer solution with volatile solvent is dried, skins are often formed at the surface of the solution. It has been observed that after the skin is formed, bubbles often appear in the solution. We conducted experiments to clarify the relation between the skin formation and the bubble formation. We measured the time dependence of the thickness of the skin layer, the size of the bubbles, and the pressure in the solution. From our experiments, we concluded that i) the gas in the bubble is a mixture of solvent vapor and air dissolved in the solution, ii) the bubble nucleation is assisted by the pressure decrease in the solution covered by the skin layer, and iii) the growth of the bubbles is diffusion limited, mainly limited by the diffusion of air molecules dissolved in the solution. PMID:22772595

Arai, S; Doi, M

2012-07-01

151

Aerator Combined With Bubble Remover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System produces bubble-free oxygen-saturated water. Bubble remover consists of outer solid-walled tube and inner hydrophobic, porous tube. Air bubbles pass from water in outer tube into inner tube, where sucked away. Developed for long-term aquaculture projects in space. Also applicable to terrestrial equipment in which entrained bubbles dry membranes or give rise to cavitation in pumps.

Dreschel, Thomas W.

1993-01-01

152

A suppressor to prevent direct wave-induced cavitation in shock wave therapy devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation plays a varied but important role in lithotripsy. Cavitation facilitates stone comminution, but can also form an acoustic barrier that may shield stones from subsequent shock waves. In addition, cavitation damages tissue. Spark-gap lithotripters generate cavitation with both a direct and a focused wave. The direct wave propagates as a spherically diverging wave, arriving at the focus ahead of the focused shock wave. It can be modeled with the same waveform (but lower amplitude) as the focused wave. We show with both simulations and experiments that bubbles are forced to grow in response to the direct wave, and that these bubbles can still be large when the focused shock wave arrives. A baffle or ``suppressor'' that blocks the propagation of the direct wave is shown to significantly reduce the direct wave pressure amplitude, as well as direct wave-induced bubble growth. These results are applicable to spark-gap lithotripters and extracorporeal shock wave therapy devices, where cavitation from the direct wave may interfere with treatment. A simple direct-wave suppressor might therefore be used to improve the therapeutic efficacy of these devices.

Matula, Thomas J.; Hilmo, Paul R.; Bailey, Michael R.

2005-07-01

153

The role of gas in ultrasonically driven vapor bubble growth.  

PubMed

In this paper we study both experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of an ultrasound-driven vapor bubble of perfluoropentane (PFP) inside a droplet of the same liquid, immersed in a water medium superheated with respect to the PFP boiling point. We determine the temporal evolution of the bubble radius with ultra-high speed imaging at 20 million frames per second. In addition, we model the vapor-gas bubble dynamics, based on a Rayleigh-Plesset-type equation, including thermal and gas diffusion inside the liquid. We compare the numerical results with the experimental data and find good agreement. We underline the fundamental role of gas diffusion in order to prevent total recondensation of the bubble at collapse. PMID:23528293

Shpak, Oleksandr; Stricker, Laura; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef

2013-04-21

154

The role of gas in ultrasonically driven vapor bubble growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study both experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of an ultrasound-driven vapor bubble of perfluoropentane (PFP) inside a droplet of the same liquid, immersed in a water medium superheated with respect to the PFP boiling point. We determine the temporal evolution of the bubble radius with ultra-high speed imaging at 20 million frames per second. In addition, we model the vapor-gas bubble dynamics, based on a Rayleigh-Plesset-type equation, including thermal and gas diffusion inside the liquid. We compare the numerical results with the experimental data and find good agreement. We underline the fundamental role of gas diffusion in order to prevent total recondensation of the bubble at collapse.

Shpak, Oleksandr; Stricker, Laura; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef

2013-04-01

155

Deformed bubble growth and coalescence in polymer foam processing  

E-print Network

the geometrical constraints imposed by the existence of neighboring growing bubbles. The viscoelastic behavior of the polymer melt as well as the effect of the intermolecular forces on foam stability are investigated. An analysis of the results indicates...

Allaboun, Hussein Raji

2012-06-07

156

Effects of microgravity on Marangoni convection and growth characteristic of a single bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on previous experiments and the volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase model, the growth characteristics of a single bubble have been numerically investigated in a rectangular pool (10×10×25 mm3) under microgravity. The transport of mass and energy during phase change was realized by source terms of the mass and energy equations through user-defined functions (UDF). Under microgravity, the results show that the temperature and the streamline field distribution around the bubble are significantly changed as compared to the ones of terrestrial conditions. The temperature profile at the two-phase interface is no longer a uniform distribution, and the Marangoni flows are more obvious at the two-phase interface. The effects of gravity on the detachment of the bubble are significant: the bubble does not immediately detach from the heating wall under microgravity conditions. The surface tension gradient caused by the Marangoni effect is more significant at lower microgravity. Bubble growth is more complex under microgravity conditions than normal gravity conditions, and it is related to the magnitude of the microgravity: the lower the microgravity, the higher the bubble growth rate. Furthermore, under microgravity, the bubble diameter changes differently, and the fluctuation amplitude of the heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing microgravity.

Yang, Yan; Pan, Liang-ming; Xu, Jian-jun

2014-07-01

157

Taxing the rich: recombinations and bubble growth during reionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reionization is inhomogeneous for two reasons: the clumpiness of the intergalactic medium (IGM), and clustering of the discrete ionizing sources. While numerical simulations can in principle take both into account, they are at present limited by small box sizes. On the other hand, analytic models have only examined the limiting cases of a clumpy IGM (with uniform ionizing emissivity) and clustered sources (embedded in a uniform IGM). Here, we present the first analytic model that includes both factors. At first, recombinations can be ignored and ionized bubbles grow primarily through major mergers, because at any given moment the bubbles have a well-defined characteristic size. As a result, reionization resembles `punctuated equilibrium,' with a series of well-separated sharp jumps in the ionizing background. These features are local effects and do not reflect similar jumps in the global ionized fraction. We then combine our bubble model with a simple description of recombinations in the IGM. We show that the bubbles grow until recombinations balance ionizations, when their expansion abruptly halts. If the IGM density structure is similar to that at moderate redshifts, this limits the bubble radii to ~20 comoving Mpc; however, if the IGM is significantly clumpier at higher redshifts (because of minihalo formation, for example), the limit could be much smaller. Once a bubble reaches saturation, that region of the Universe has for all intents and purposes entered the `post-overlap' stage. Because different HII regions saturate over a finite time interval, the overlap epoch actually has a finite width. Our model also predicts a mean recombination rate several times larger than expected for a uniformly illuminated IGM. This picture naturally explains the substantial large-scale variation in Lyman-series opacity along the lines of sight to the known z > 6 quasars. More quasar spectra will shed light on the transition between the `bubble-dominated' topology characteristic of reionization and the `web-dominated' topology characteristic of the later Universe.

Furlanetto, Steven R.; Oh, S. Peng

2005-11-01

158

Evaporation-induced cavitation in nanofluidic channels  

E-print Network

Cavitation, known as the formation of vapor bubbles when liquids are under tension, is of great interest both in condensed matter science as well as in diverse applications such as botany, hydraulic engineering, and medicine. ...

Karnik, Rohit N.

159

Vortex and Cavitation Flows in Hydraulic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental study of vortex and cavitation nonuniform flows in hydraulic heat generators demonstrated that the heating rate decreases with increasing liquid temperature because of the growing saturation vapor pressure in the cavitation bubbles. Voltage, electric current, slight radioactivity, and an increased water pH were detected in these flows. It was shown by mathematical modeling that the heat produced in the

E. P. Zaporozhets; L. P. Kholpanov; G. K. Zibert; A. V. Artemov

2004-01-01

160

Cavitation milling of natural cellulose to nanofibrils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cavitation holds the promise of a new and exciting approach to fabricate both top down and bottom up nanostructures. Cavitation bubbles are created when a liquid boils under less than atmospheric pressure. The collapse process occurs supersonically and generates a host of physical and chemical effects. We have made an attempt to fabricate natural cellulose material using hydrodynamic as well

Dipak Vitthal Pinjari; Aniruddha B. Pandit

2010-01-01

161

Taxing the Rich: Recombinations and Bubble Growth During Reionization  

E-print Network

Reionization is inhomogeneous for two reasons: the clumpiness of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and clustering of the discrete ionizing sources. While numerical simulations can in principle take both into account, they are at present limited by small box sizes. On the other hand, analytic models have only examined the limiting cases of a clumpy IGM (with uniform ionizing emissivity) and clustered sources (embedded in a uniform IGM). Here, we present an analytic model for the evolving topology of reionization that includes both factors. At first, recombinations can be ignored and ionized bubbles grow primarily through major mergers. As a result, reionization resembles "punctuated equilibrium," with a series of well-separated sharp jumps in the ionizing background. These features are local effects and do not reflect similar jumps in the global ionized fraction. We then combine our bubble model with a simple description of recombinations in the IGM. We show that the bubbles stop growing when recombinations balance ionizations. If the IGM density structure is similar to that at moderate redshifts, this limits the bubble radii to ~20 comoving Mpc; however, it may be much smaller if the IGM is significantly clumpier at higher redshifts. Once a bubble reaches saturation, that region of the universe has for all intents and purposes entered the "post-overlap" stage, so the overlap epoch actually has a finite width. This picture naturally explains the substantial large-scale variation in Lyman-series opacity along the lines of sight to the known z>6 quasars. More quasar spectra will shed light on the transition between the "bubble-dominated" topology characteristic of reionization and the "web-dominated" topology characteristic of the later universe. [Abridged

Steven R. Furlanetto; S. Peng Oh

2005-05-03

162

Growth of a gas bubble in a supersaturated and slightly compressible liquid at low Mach number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the growth of a gas bubble in a supersaturated and slightly compressible liquid is discussed. The mathematical model is solved analytically by using the modified Plesset and Zwick method. The growth process is affected by: sonic speed in the liquid, polytropic exponent, diffusion coefficient, initial concentration difference, surface tension, viscosity, adjustment factor and void fraction. The famous formula of Plesset and Zwick is produced as a special case of the result at some values of the adjustment factor. Moreover, the resultant formula is implemented to the case of the growth of underwater gas bubble.

Mohammadein, S. A.; Mohamed, K. G.

2011-12-01

163

Interaction of two differently sized oscillating bubbles in a free field  

E-print Network

Most real life bubble dynamics applications involve multiple bubbles, for example, in cavitation erosion prevention, ultrasonic baths, underwater warfare, and medical applications involving microbubble contrast agents. ...

Chew, Lup Wai

164

A simple cavitation model for unsteady simulation and its application to cavitating flow in two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a simple cavitation model is developed under the framework of homogeneousone-fluid model, in which the perfect mixture of liquid and vapor phases is assumed. In most of conventional models, the vapor phase is considered as a dispersed phase against the liquid phase as a continuous phase, while in the present model, two extreme conditions are considered: for low void fraction, dispersed vapor bubbles in continuous liquid phase, while for high void fraction, dispersed droplets in continuous vapor phase. The growth of bubbles and droplets are taken into account in the mass transfer between vapor and liquid phases, and are switched according to the local void fraction. The model is applied for the simulation of cavitating flow in a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle, and the result is compared with that using a conventional model. To enhance the unsteadiness of cavitation due to the instability at the cavity interphase, the turbulent shear stress is modified depending upon the continuous phases in combination with the proposed cavitation model, which drastically reduces the turbulent viscosity for high void fraction region. As a result, the unsteadiness of cavitation observed in experiments is well reproduced.

Yamamoto, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Tsuda, S. I.

2015-01-01

165

Optical and acoustic study of nucleation and growth of bubbles at a liquid-solid interface induced by nanosecond-pulsed-laser heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of liquid-vapor phase-change in the nanosecond time-scale induced by pulsed-laser heating of a liquid on a solid sample is studied by means of optical reflectance and scattering measurements, and the piezoelectric detection technique. The liquids studied include water, ethanol, methanol, IsoproPropyl Alcohol (IPA), and mixtures of water and IPA. The threshold fluence for nucleation is determined with high accuracy using the optical and acoustic signals. Heat diffusion calculations performed for the threshold fluences indicate that the liquids are sufficiently superheated before nucleation sets on. The transient optical reflectance signal is analyzed by an effective-medium theory to provide bubble-growth kinetics, so that the bubble-growth velocity for the test liquids could be estimated. In addition, it is observed that, following the thermally induced nucleation, repetitive acoustic cavitation at the surface of the solid sample occurs, with a time interval related to the speed of sound in the liquid.

Yavas, O.; Leiderer, P.; Park, H. K.; Grigoropoulos, C. P.; Poon, C. C.; Leung, W. P.; Do, N.; Tam, A. C.

1994-04-01

166

The microjetting behavior from single laser-induced bubbles generated above a solid boundary with a through hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inertial bubble collapsing near a solid boundary generates a fast impulsive microjet directed toward the boundary. The jet impacts the solid boundary at a high velocity, and this effect has been taken advantage of in industrial cleaning such as when tiny bubbles are driven ultrasonically to cavitate around machined parts to produce jets that are believed to induce the cleaning effect. In this experimental investigation, we are interested in the jetting from single cavities near a boundary. By introducing a through hole in the boundary beneath a laser-induced bubble, it is hypothesized that the forming jet, upon bubble implosion, will proceed to penetrate through the hole to the other side and that it may be utilized in useful applications such as precise surgeries. It was found that the growth of the bubble induced a fast flow through the hole and lead to the formation of secondary hydrodynamic cavitation. The experiments also showed the formation of a counter jet directed away from the hole and into the bubble. During the growth phase of the bubble, and near the point of maximum expansion, the bubble wall bulged out toward the hole in a `bulb' like formation, which sometimes resulted in the pinching-off of a secondary small bubble. This was ensued by the inward recoiling of the primary bubble wall near the pinch-off spot, which developed into a counter jet seen to move away from the hole and inward into the bubble.

Abboud, Jack E.; Oweis, Ghanem F.

2012-12-01

167

The microjetting behavior from single laser-induced bubbles generated above a solid boundary with a through hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inertial bubble collapsing near a solid boundary generates a fast impulsive microjet directed toward the boundary. The jet impacts the solid boundary at a high velocity, and this effect has been taken advantage of in industrial cleaning such as when tiny bubbles are driven ultrasonically to cavitate around machined parts to produce jets that are believed to induce the cleaning effect. In this experimental investigation, we are interested in the jetting from single cavities near a boundary. By introducing a through hole in the boundary beneath a laser-induced bubble, it is hypothesized that the forming jet, upon bubble implosion, will proceed to penetrate through the hole to the other side and that it may be utilized in useful applications such as precise surgeries. It was found that the growth of the bubble induced a fast flow through the hole and lead to the formation of secondary hydrodynamic cavitation. The experiments also showed the formation of a counter jet directed away from the hole and into the bubble. During the growth phase of the bubble, and near the point of maximum expansion, the bubble wall bulged out toward the hole in a `bulb' like formation, which sometimes resulted in the pinching-off of a secondary small bubble. This was ensued by the inward recoiling of the primary bubble wall near the pinch-off spot, which developed into a counter jet seen to move away from the hole and inward into the bubble.

Abboud, Jack E.; Oweis, Ghanem F.

2013-01-01

168

Helium bubble nucleation and growth in ?-Fe: insights from first-principles simulations.  

PubMed

We have carried out a first-principles study on the nucleation and early-stage growth of He bubbles in Fe. The energetics, atomic and electronic structure of He-vacancy complexes, involving both a monovacancy and a nine-vacancy cluster, are examined. Based on the energetics, we then perform thermodynamics analysis to gain deeper insights into He bubble nucleation and growth. We have determined the energy cost for the nucleation of He bubbles and found that up to eight He atoms can be trapped at a single vacancy. In order to capture more He atoms, the vacancy has to emit Frenkel pairs to release the substantial stress building on the surrounding Fe lattice. Compared to the monovacancy, the nine-vacancy cluster has a lower energy cost for He bubble nucleation and growth. He atoms at the vacancy repel the surrounding electronic charge and redistribute it on the neighboring Fe atoms. The thermodynamic analysis reveals that He chemical potential provides a driving force for He bubble nucleation and growth. There are two critical He chemical potentials that are of particular importance: one of them marks the transition from single He occupation to multiple He occupation at a monovacancy while the other sets off He-induced superabundant vacancy formation. PMID:24871542

Xiao, W; Zhang, X; Geng, W T; Lu, G

2014-06-25

169

Development of a simplified bubble growth model for flash boilingsprays in direct injection spark ignition engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate modeling of bubble growth is needed to design fuel injectors\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009that take full advantage of the potential of flash boiling sprays\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009to reduce drop sizes and to promote fuel vaporization in direct injection\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009spark ignition (DISI) engines. A new simplified bubble growth model\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009has been developed to substantially reduce the computational cost\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009of capturing the bubble size and growth

Dar-Lon Chang; Chia-Fon F. Lee

2005-01-01

170

Scaling of single-bubble growth in a porous medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass-transfer driven growth of a single gas cluster in a porous medium under the application of a supersaturation in the far field is examined. We discuss the growth pattern and its growth rate. Contrary to compact (spherical) growth in the bulk, growth patterns in porous media are disordered and vary from percolation to diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) as the cluster size

C. Satik; X. Li; Y. C. Yortsos

1995-01-01

171

Bubble Combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM, a computational model developed at Glenn, that simulates the cavitational collapse of a single bubble in a liquid (water) and the subsequent combustion of the gaseous contents inside the bubble. The model solves the time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations in one-dimension with finite-rate chemical kinetics using the CHEMKIN package. Specifically, parameters such as frequency, pressure, bubble radius, and the equivalence ratio were varied while examining their effect on the maximum temperature, radius, and chemical species. These studies indicate that the radius of the bubble is perhaps the most critical parameter governing bubble combustion dynamics and its efficiency. Based on the results of the parametric studies, we plan on conducting experiments to study the effect of ultrasonic perturbations on the bubble generation process with respect to the bubble radius and size distribution.

Corrigan, Jackie

2004-01-01

172

Thursday 21 October 1999 physics : Bubbling hot  

E-print Network

the squeeze when the tension is succeeded by a wave of compression, and their contents heat up dramatically. Theory predicts that temperatures in bubbles generated by this process, known as 'acoustic cavitation, acoustic cavitation presents a few experimental challenges: good measurements inside a hot, cavitating

Suslick, Kenneth S.

173

RF power coupler—Combined cavitation diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to identify safe operating regimes and to investigate the hydraulic behavior of the Input Power Coupler, which is a part of the radio frequency cavities used at the Synchrotron Light Source Facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute, a special research program was established. Since 2005, 10 leak events occurred which led to accelerator down-times up to several days. The aim of the research program was to perform conditional monitoring and to diagnose fault regimes, which may lead to water-to-air and water-to-vacuum leak accidents. Since fault detection and identification are tasks of high importance for safe operation, practical options for data collection, cavitation and possible structural rupture detection are discussed. The instrumentation, which was used for detection of cavitation and observation of structural behavior, consists of acoustic emission and structural acceleration sensors and a microphone. Noisy signals with captured cavitation (bubble growth and collapse) events have been analyzed by various advanced time-frequency methods.

Milenkovi?, R.; Dementjevs, S.; Stingelin, L.; Bopp, M.

2012-12-01

174

Observations and measurements in cloud cavitating flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this study is to shed light on the cloud cavitating flow and associated characteristic of pressure fluctuation near wall. A simultaneous sampling technique is used to synchronize the observations of cavitation instantaneous behaviour and the measurements of pressure signals near wall in a convergent-divergent channel. The results show that, a typical quasi-periodical sheet/cloud cavitation can be categorized into three stages: (1) the growth of attached cavity; (2) the shedding of the attached cavity; (3) the development and collapse of the detached cavities. At the stage one, the magnitudes of pressure fluctuation under the attached cavity are limited. However, they become significant in the closure region of attached cavity, especially, when attached cavity reaches its maximum length. At the stage two, the attached cavity begins to shed small detached cavity, leading to the generation of small local pressure fluctuations with higher frequency. At the stage three, a large detached cavity is gradually formed in the rear of the channel. When it collapses rapidly in the downstream, pressure pulses with the magnitudes of the order of several atmospheres are detected. The propagation speeds of pressure pulses in different region are found to be related with the bubble density in the flow field.

Chen, G. H.; Wang, G. Y.; Hu, C. L.; Huang, B.; Zhang, M. D.

2015-01-01

175

MTBE degradation by hydrodynamic induced cavitation.  

PubMed

Hydrodynamic induced cavitation generates imploding cavitation bubbles which can lead to degradation or even mineralisation of water constituents without addition of any chemicals. This technology overcomes the problems of ultrasound irradiation by the local production of a cavitation cloud close to the sonotrodes. Hydrodynamic cavitation can be stabilised downstream of the nozzle depending on the ambient pressure conditions. If the pressure is kept low, the imploding cavitation bubbles generate new cavities, analogous to a chain reaction, and elevate the radical synthesis inside the apparatus. During the pilot tests MTBE and ETBE were degraded and complete mineralisation started at a time delay of app. 30 min. The specific energy demand for MTBE degradation lies in the range of app. 200 Wh/ppm in the investigated concentration range of about 30 ppm. PMID:20453332

Schmid, A

2010-01-01

176

EXPERIMENTS AND MODELLING OF CAVITATING FLOWS IN VENTURI: ATTACHED SHEET CAVITATION  

E-print Network

and Brennen [11] who used silver epoxy electrodes flush-mounted on an hydrofoil surface for individual bubble of the cavitation sheet existing on a hydrofoil model. It is clear that PIV-LIF is a particularly performing tool

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

CAVITATION DAMAGE STUDY VIA A NOVEL REPETITIVE PRESSURE PULSE APPROACH  

SciTech Connect

Cavitation damage can significantly affect system performance. Thus, there is great interest in characterizing cavitation damage and improving materials resistance to cavitation damage. In this paper, we present a novel methodology to simulate cavitation environment. A pulsed laser is utilized to induce optical breakdown in the cavitation media, with the emission of shock wave and the generation of bubbles. The pressure waves induced by the optical breakdown fluctuate/propagate within the media, which enables the cavitation to occur and to further develop cavitation damage at the solid boundary. Using the repetitive pulsed-pressure apparatus developed in the current study, cavitation damage in water media was verified on stainless steel and aluminum samples. Characteristic cavitation damages such as pitting and indentation are observed on sample surfaces using scanning electron microscopy.

Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Ren, Fei [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL

2010-01-01

178

Application of signal analysis to cavitation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diagnostic facilities of the cross power spectrum and the coherence function have been employed to enhance the identification of not only the inception of cavitation, but also its level. Two piezoelectric pressure transducers placed in the downstream chamber of a model spool valve undergoing various levels of cavitation allowed for the use of both functions - the phase angle of the complex cross spectrum and the dimensionless coherence function - to sense clearly the difference between noise levels associated with a noncavitating jet from those once cavitation inception is attained. The cavitation noise within the chamber exhibited quite a regular character in terms of the phase difference between instruments for limited cavitation. Varying cavitation levels clearly illustrated the effect of bubble size on the attendant frequency range for which there was an extremely high coherence or nearly perfect causality.

Martin, C. S.; Veerabhadra Rao, P.

1984-01-01

179

Growth of a gas bubble in a supersaturated and slightly compressible liquid at low Mach number  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the growth of a gas bubble in a supersaturated and slightly compressible liquid is discussed. The mathematical\\u000a model is solved analytically by using the modified Plesset and Zwick method. The growth process is affected by: sonic speed\\u000a in the liquid, polytropic exponent, diffusion coefficient, initial concentration difference, surface tension, viscosity, adjustment\\u000a factor and void fraction. The famous

S. A. Mohammadein; K. G. Mohamed

180

Limited cavitation and the related scale effects problem.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is indicated that the study of limited cavitation can be divided into two parts, namely, the factors which influence the pressure field, and those which influence the bubble dynamics. Major aspects of cavitation nuclei and bubble dynamics are summarized. An analysis is presented of the effects of velocity, size and fluid properties, including the thermodynamic effect. The effects of turbulence, roughness and polymer additives are presented. These include new data on roughness and estimates of the effects of turbulence and polymer additives on jets. An analysis of nonvaporous cavitation with new data on vortex cavitation is presented. Implications concerning scale effects are given.

Holl, J. W.; Arndt, R. E. A.; Billet, M. L.

1972-01-01

181

Scaling of bubble growth in a porous medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processes involving liquid-to-gas phase change in porous media are routinely encountered. Growth of a gas phase by solute diffusion in the liquid is typical of the `solution gas-drive` process for the recovery of oil. The growth of a single gas cluster in a porous medium driven by a constant supersaturation is examined. Patterns and rates of growth are derived. It

C. Satik; X. Li; Y. C. Yortsos

1994-01-01

182

Enhanced Generic Phase-field Model of Irradiation Materials: Fission Gas Bubble Growth Kinetics in Polycrystalline UO2  

SciTech Connect

Experiments show that inter-granular and intra-granular gas bubbles have different growth kinetics which results in heterogeneous gas bubble microstructures in irradiated nuclear fuels. A science-based model predicting the heterogeneous microstructure evolution kinetics is desired, which enables one to study the effect of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system on gas bubble microstructure evolution kinetics and morphology, improve the understanding of the formation mechanisms of heterogeneous gas bubble microstructure, and provide the microstructure to macroscale approaches to study their impact on thermo-mechanical properties such as thermo-conductivity, gas release, volume swelling, and cracking. In our previous report 'Mesoscale Benchmark Demonstration, Problem 1: Mesoscale Simulations of Intra-granular Fission Gas Bubbles in UO2 under Post-irradiation Thermal Annealing', we developed a phase-field model to simulate the intra-granular gas bubble evolution in a single crystal during post-irradiation thermal annealing. In this work, we enhanced the model by incorporating thermodynamic and kinetic properties at grain boundaries, which can be obtained from atomistic simulations, to simulate fission gas bubble growth kinetics in polycrystalline UO2 fuels. The model takes into account of gas atom and vacancy diffusion, vacancy trapping and emission at defects, gas atom absorption and resolution at gas bubbles, internal pressure in gas bubbles, elastic interaction between defects and gas bubbles, and the difference of thermodynamic and kinetic properties in matrix and grain boundaries. We applied the model to simulate gas atom segregation at grain boundaries and the effect of interfacial energy and gas mobility on gas bubble morphology and growth kinetics in a bi-crystal UO2 during post-irradiation thermal annealing. The preliminary results demonstrate that the model can produce the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and the morphology of gas bubbles at grain boundaries for given grain boundary properties. More validation of the model capability in polycrystalline is underway.

Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin

2012-05-30

183

Dissolved water distribution in vesicular magmatic glass records both decompressive bubble growth and quench resorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water distribution in magma varies over the lifetime of an eruption due to a variety of processes, including decompressive degassing of the melt, cooling during the quench from melt to glass, and post-emplacement hydration under ambient conditions. Correct interpretation of water distributions in erupted pyroclasts can therefore offer crucial insights into the dynamics of eruption mechanisms and emplacement histories. Volcanic eruptions are driven by the nucleation and growth of bubbles in magma. Bubbles grow as volatile species in the melt, of which water is volumetrically the most important, diffuse down a concentration gradient towards and across the bubble wall. On cooling, the melt quenches to glass, preserving the spatial distribution of water concentration around the bubbles (now vesicles). We use Backscatter Scanning Electron Microscopy (BSEM), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) to measure the spatial distribution of water around vesicles in experimentally-vesiculated samples. We find that, contrary to expectation, the total water concentration increases (by up to 2 wt.%) in the ~30 microns closest to the vesicle wall. Our samples record significant resorption of water back into the melt around bubbles during the quench process, a process which represents ';regassing' of the magma. We propose that the observed total water resorption profiles result from the increase in the equilibrium solubility of water as temperature decreases during the quench to glass, and that this resorption locally overprints the pre-existing concentration total water profile resulting from bubble growth during decompression. This resorption occurs over the very short timescales of rapid experimental quench (3-10 seconds) resulting in strongly disequilibrium water speciation. Water re-enters the melt as molecular water leading to enrichment in molecular water around vesicles, while the distribution of hydroxyl groups remains relatively unaltered during quench, thus preserving information about syn-experimental (or syn-eruptive) degassing. Our work demonstrates the effectiveness of two tools for deciphering the water contents of pyroclasts. BSEM imaging of glassy pyroclasts offers an easy, qualitative assessment of whether glass has been affected by quench resorption or secondary alteration processes, which becomes quantitative if calibrated by a technique such as SIMS. FTIR speciation data, meanwhile, enables the cause of bubble resorption to be identified, since resorption caused by pressure increase and by temperature decrease will result in distinctly different distributions of water species. We present here data extracted using these tools that demonstrate the potential impact of temperature-controlled quench resorption, which can reduce bubble volumes and sample porosities by a factor of two and reintroduce significant amounts of water back into the melt, with implications for obsidian and rheomorphic flow mechanisms.

McIntosh, I. M.; Llewellin, E.; Humphreys, M.; Nichols, A. R.; Burgisser, A.; Schipper, C.

2013-12-01

184

Single Bubble SonoLuminescence of Particles model M. ADAMA MAIGA  

E-print Network

(Single Bubble SonoLuminescence, SBSL) highlighted by [2]. Bubbles can be produced during a cavitation the evidence of some phenomena following the sonoluminescence (mass and heat transfer between the bubble

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Helium defects interactions and mechanism of helium bubble growth in tungsten: A molecular dynamics simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the interactions between helium (He) and defects in tungsten (W). The binding energy between He and He cluster is shown to be positive, which increases with increasing He cluster size. Both the W self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and the vacancy can promote the He cluster formation. The binding energies of a He, a vacancy and an SIA W to a He-vacancy cluster (HenVm) in W are also investigated, which depend on the n/m ratio. According to these results, we propose the formation and growth mechanism of He bubbles, which involves the procedures of He-vacancy cluster formation, the capturing of vacancies, then He atoms, and vacancies again. The mechanism provides a good reference to understand the initial stage of the He bubble formation and growth in W.

Li, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Yi-Nan; Yu, Yi; Luo, Guang-Nan; Shu, Xiaolin; Lu, Guang-Hong

2014-08-01

186

Observations of cavitation erosion pit formation.  

PubMed

Previous investigations showed that a single cavitation bubble collapse can cause more than one erosion pit (Philipp & Lauterborn [1]). But our preliminary study showed just the opposite - that in some cases a single cavitation pit can result from more than one cavitation event. The present study shows deeper investigation of this phenomenon. An investigation of the erosion effects of ultrasonic cavitation on a thin aluminum foil was made. In the study we observed the formation of individual pits by means of high speed cameras (>1000 fps) and quantitatively evaluated the series of images by stereoscopy and the shape from shading method. This enabled the reconstruction of the time evolution of the pit shape. Results show how the foil is deformed several times before a hole is finally punctured. It was determined that larger single pits result from several impacts of shock waves on the same area, which means that they are merely special cases of pit clusters (pit clusters where pits overlap perfectly). Finally it was shown that a thin foil, which is subjected to cavitation, behaves as a membrane. It was concluded that the physics behind erosion depends significantly on the means of generating cavitation (acoustic, hydrodynamic, laser light) and the specimen characteristics (thin foil, massive specimen), which makes comparison of results of materials resistance to cavitation from different experimental set-ups questionable. Further development of the shape from shading method in the scope of cavitation erosion testing will enable better evaluation of cavitation erosion models. PMID:23403307

Dular, Matevž; Delgosha, Olivier Coutier; Petkovšek, Martin

2013-07-01

187

Modèle multi-bulles pour la cavitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we propose new multi-bubble model for cavitation, in which, to simulate the interactions within a cloud of cavitation at the initial stage, the dynamic behaviour of two nonidentical bubbles localised in a volume of control is studied. The presence of two bubbles introduces an instability in which the exchange of volume seems an additional degree of freedom. Depending on the conditions of expansion, the small bubble can disappear or not. If the small bubble disappears, the volume of control is readjusted to introduce a new small bubble and to continue calculation in a new sequence. The model makes it possible for many small bubbles to disappear as in the appearance of cavitation, which is at the origin of certain phenomena observed in the zone of the appearance, such as emission of the noise. The model reveals especially the pressure rather like a result than a datum. The comparison of the size of the bubbles and the pressure varying in time, obtained with the model are coherent with the measurements taken by Ohl [Phys. Fluids 14 (10) (2002) 3512-3521]. To cite this article: M. Adama Maiga, D. Buisine, C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

Adama Maiga, Mahamadou; Buisine, Daniel

2009-11-01

188

Ultrasonic cavitation for disruption of microalgae.  

PubMed

Challenges with mid-stream fractionation steps in proposed microalgae biofuel pathways arise from the typically dilute cell density in growth media, micron scale cell sizes, and often durable cell walls. For microalgae to be a sustainable source of biofuels and co-products, efficient fractionation by some method will be necessary. This study evaluates ultrasonic cell disruption as a processing step that fractionates microalgae. A range of species types with different sizes and cell wall compositions were treated. The initial seconds of sonication offered the most significant disruption, even for the more durable Nannochloropsis cells. Following this initial period, diminishing effectiveness was attributed, by acoustic measurements, to attenuation of the ultrasound in the ensuing cloud of cavitating bubbles. At longer exposure times, differences between species were more pronounced. Processing higher concentrations of Isochrysis slowed cell disintegration only marginally, making the expenditure of energy more worthwhile. PMID:25435064

Greenly, Justin M; Tester, Jefferson W

2014-11-15

189

Bubble formation in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive experimental program was initiated for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms leading to bubble generation during fluid handling procedures in a microgravity environment. Several key fluid handling procedures typical for PCG experiments were identified for analysis in that program. Experiments were designed to specifically understand how such procedures can lead to bubble formation. The experiments were then conducted aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft which is capable of simulating a low gravity environment by executing a parabolic flight attitude. However, such a flight attitude can only provide a low gravity environment of approximately 10-2go for a maximum period of 30 seconds. Thus all of the tests conducted for these experiments were designed to last no longer than 20 seconds. Several experiments were designed to simulate some of the more relevant fluid handling procedures during protein crystal growth experiments. These include submerged liquid jet cavitation, filling of a cubical vessel, submerged surface scratch, attached drop growth, liquid jet impingement, and geysering experiments. To date, four separate KC-135 flight campaigns were undertaken specifically for performing these experiments. However, different experiments were performed on different flights.

Antar, Basil N.

1996-01-01

190

A numerical treatment for attached cavitation  

SciTech Connect

A new numerical treatment has been developed for the prediction of the flowfield resulting from an attached cavitation region. The cavitation model has been implemented in a viscous calculation which is an improvement over previous inviscid results. The model requires no a priori knowledge of the wall detachment point or bubble length and comparisons with experimental data indicate good predictions of these quantities for a variety of different body shapes and cavitation numbers. Furthermore, wall pressure distributions are also predicted quite accurately using this method. While the treatment has been applied to an axisymmetric calculation, the approach should be applicable to two-dimensional flows.

Chen, Y.; Heister, S.D. (Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Aeronautics and Astronautics)

1994-09-01

191

Enhancement of heat and mass transfer by cavitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a brief summary of effects of cavitation on the heat and mass transfer are given. The fundamental studies of cavitation bubbles, including its nonlinearity, rectified heat and mass diffusion, are initially introduced. Then selected topics of cavitation enhanced heat and mass transfer were discussed in details including whales stranding caused by active sonar activity, pool boiling heat transfer, oscillating heat pipe and high intensity focused ultrasound treatment.

Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. N.; Du, X. Z.; Xian, H. Z.

2015-01-01

192

Enhancement of Localized Heating by Ultrasonically Induced Cavitation in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are reports that ultrasonically induced cavitation bubbles locally enhance tissue heating in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. In this study, a high-intensity burst (named ``a triggering pulse'') above the cavitation threshold was used to trigger cavitation. Immediately after that, CW ultrasound (named ``heating waves''), at an intensity level and duration typical for conventional HIFU ablation was irradiated. Before

Ryo Takagi; Shin Yoshizawa; Shin-ichiro Umemura

2010-01-01

193

Simultaneous pressure measurement and high-speed photography study of cavitation in a dynamically loaded journal bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cavitation of the oil film in a dynamically loaded journal bearing was studied using high-speed photography and pressure measurement simultaneously. Comparison of the visual and pressure data provided considerable insight into the occurrence and nonoccurrence of cavitation. It was found that (1) for the submerged journal bearing, cavitation typically occurred in the form of one bubble with the pressure in the cavitation bubble close to the absolute zero; and (2) for cavitation-producing operating conditions, cavitation did not always occur; with the oil film then supporting a tensile stress.

Sun, D. C.; Brewe, David E.; Abel, Philip B.

1994-01-01

194

Simultaneous pressure measurement and high-speed photography study of cavitation in a dynamically loaded journal bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cavitation of the oil film in a dynamically loaded journal bearing was studied using high-speed photography and pressure measurement simultaneously. Comparison of the visual and pressure data provided considerable insight into the occurence and non-occurrence of cavitation. It was found that (1), cavitation typically occurred in the form of one bubble with the pressure in the cavitation bubble close to the absolute zero; and (2), for cavitation-producing operating conditions, cavitation did not always occur; with the oil film then supporting a tensile stress.

Sun, D. C.; Brewe, D. E.; Abel, P. B.

1993-01-01

195

Radiation induced cavitation: A possible phenomenon in liquid targets?  

SciTech Connect

The proposed design of a new, short-pulse spallation neutron source includes a liquid mercury target irradiated with a 1 GeV proton beam. This paper explores the possibility that cavitation bubbles may be formed in the mercury and briefly discusses some design features that could avoid harmful effects should cavitation take place.

West, C.D.

1998-07-01

196

Passive imaging of cavitational acoustic emissions with ultrasound arrays  

E-print Network

bubble activity plays a role in ultrasound ablation, monitoring cavitation may assist in therapy guidance therapies including shock-wave lithotripsy [1], thrombolysis [2], targeted drug delivery [3], and thermal ablation [4]. During ultrasound ablation, cavitation results in enhanced tissue heating [5], but also

Mast, T. Douglas

197

Activating molecules, ions, and solid particles with acoustic cavitation.  

PubMed

The chemical and physical effects of ultrasound arise not from a direct interaction of molecules with sound waves, but rather from the acoustic cavitation: the nucleation, growth, and implosive collapse of microbubbles in liquids submitted to power ultrasound. The violent implosion of bubbles leads to the formation of chemically reactive species and to the emission of light, named sonoluminescence. In this manuscript, we describe the techniques allowing study of extreme intrabubble conditions and chemical reactivity of acoustic cavitation in solutions. The analysis of sonoluminescence spectra of water sparged with noble gases provides evidence for nonequilibrium plasma formation. The photons and the "hot" particles generated by cavitation bubbles enable to excite the non-volatile species in solutions increasing their chemical reactivity. For example the mechanism of ultrabright sonoluminescence of uranyl ions in acidic solutions varies with uranium concentration: sonophotoluminescence dominates in diluted solutions, and collisional excitation contributes at higher uranium concentration. Secondary sonochemical products may arise from chemically active species that are formed inside the bubble, but then diffuse into the liquid phase and react with solution precursors to form a variety of products. For instance, the sonochemical reduction of Pt(IV) in pure water provides an innovative synthetic route for monodispersed nanoparticles of metallic platinum without any templates or capping agents. Many studies reveal the advantages of ultrasound to activate the divided solids. In general, the mechanical effects of ultrasound strongly contribute in heterogeneous systems in addition to chemical effects. In particular, the sonolysis of PuO2 powder in pure water yields stable colloids of plutonium due to both effects. PMID:24747272

Pflieger, Rachel; Chave, Tony; Virot, Matthieu; Nikitenko, Sergey I

2014-01-01

198

The Role of Cavitation in Liposome Formation  

PubMed Central

Liposome size is a vital parameter of many quantitative biophysical studies. Sonication, or exposure to ultrasound, is used widely to manufacture artificial liposomes, yet little is known about the mechanism by which liposomes are affected by ultrasound. Cavitation, or the oscillation of small gas bubbles in a pressure-varying field, has been shown to be responsible for many biophysical effects of ultrasound on cells. In this study, we correlate the presence and type of cavitation with a decrease in liposome size. Aqueous lipid suspensions surrounding a hydrophone were exposed to various intensities of ultrasound and hydrostatic pressures before measuring their size distribution with dynamic light scattering. As expected, increasing ultrasound intensity at atmospheric pressure decreased the average liposome diameter. The presence of collapse cavitation was manifested in the acoustic spectrum at high ultrasonic intensities. Increasing hydrostatic pressure was shown to inhibit the presence of collapse cavitation. Collapse cavitation, however, did not correlate with decreases in liposome size, as changes in size still occurred when collapse cavitation was inhibited either by lowering ultrasound intensity or by increasing static pressure. We propose a mechanism whereby stable cavitation, another type of cavitation present in sound fields, causes fluid shearing of liposomes and reduction of liposome size. A mathematical model was developed based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation of bubble dynamics and principles of acoustic microstreaming to estimate the shear field magnitude around an oscillating bubble. This model predicts the ultrasound intensities and pressures needed to create shear fields sufficient to cause liposome size change, and correlates well with our experimental data. PMID:17766335

Richardson, Eric S.; Pitt, William G.; Woodbury, Dixon J.

2007-01-01

199

Improvement of growth rate of plants by bubble discharge in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of bubble discharge in water on the growth rate of plants was investigated experimentally for application to plant cultivation systems. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), radish (Raphanus sativus var. sativus), and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) were used as specimens to clarify the effect of the discharge treatment on edible parts of the plants. The specimens were cultivated in pots filled with artificial soil, which included chicken manure charcoal. Distilled water was sprayed on the artificial soil and drained through a hole in the pots to a water storage tank. The water was circulated from the water storage tank to the cultivation pots after 15 or 30 min discharge treatment on alternate days. A magnetic compression-type pulsed power generator was used to produce the bubble discharge with a repetition rate of 250 pps. The plant height in the growth phase and the dry weight of the harvested plants were improved markedly by the discharge treatment in water. The soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value of the plants also improved in the growth phase of the plants. The concentration of nitrate nitrogen, which mainly contributed to the improvement of the growth rate, in the water increased with the discharge treatment. The Brix value of edible parts of Fragaria × ananassa increased with the discharge treatment. The inactivation of bacteria in the water was also confirmed with the discharge treatment.

Takahata, Junichiro; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Fujio, Takuya; Sasaki, Yuji

2015-01-01

200

Cavitation separation of nano-and microscale monomineral fractions from polymineral microparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible cavitation disintegration of polymineral microparticles placed into a liquid as a result of interaction of particles\\u000a with collapsed cavitation bubbles is shown for the minerals most abundant in gold ore. The bubbles are generated by shock\\u000a loading of the liquid heated to the boiling temperature. The possibility of cavitation separation of nano-and microscale monomineral\\u000a fractions from polymineral microparticles is

V. V. Adushkin; S. N. Andreev; S. I. Popel

2007-01-01

201

Inertial confinement fusion based on the ion-bubble trigger  

SciTech Connect

Triggering the ion-bubble in an inertial confinement fusion, we have developed a novel scheme for the fast ignition. This scheme relies on the plasma cavitation by the wake of an intense laser pulse to generate an ion-bubble. The bubble acts both as an intense electron accelerator and as an electron wiggler. Consequently, the accelerated electrons trapped in the bubble can emit an intense tunable laser light. This light can be absorbed by an ablation layer on the outside surface of the ignition capsule, which subsequently drills it and thereby produces a guide channel in the pellet. Finally, the relativistic electron beam created in the bubble is guided through the channel to the high density core igniting the fusion fuel. The normalized beam intensity and beam energy required for triggering the ignition have been calculated when core is heated by the e-beam. In addition, through solving the momentum transfer, continuity and wave equations, a dispersion relation for the electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been analytically derived. The variations of growth rate with the ion-bubble density and electron beam energy have been illustrated. It is found that the growth rates of instability are significantly controlled by the ions concentration and the e-beam energy in the bubble.

Jafari, S., E-mail: SJafari@guilan.ac.ir; Nilkar, M.; Ghasemizad, A. [Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht 41335-1914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehdian, H. [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-10-15

202

Inertial confinement fusion based on the ion-bubble trigger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triggering the ion-bubble in an inertial confinement fusion, we have developed a novel scheme for the fast ignition. This scheme relies on the plasma cavitation by the wake of an intense laser pulse to generate an ion-bubble. The bubble acts both as an intense electron accelerator and as an electron wiggler. Consequently, the accelerated electrons trapped in the bubble can emit an intense tunable laser light. This light can be absorbed by an ablation layer on the outside surface of the ignition capsule, which subsequently drills it and thereby produces a guide channel in the pellet. Finally, the relativistic electron beam created in the bubble is guided through the channel to the high density core igniting the fusion fuel. The normalized beam intensity and beam energy required for triggering the ignition have been calculated when core is heated by the e-beam. In addition, through solving the momentum transfer, continuity and wave equations, a dispersion relation for the electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been analytically derived. The variations of growth rate with the ion-bubble density and electron beam energy have been illustrated. It is found that the growth rates of instability are significantly controlled by the ions concentration and the e-beam energy in the bubble.

Jafari, S.; Nilkar, M.; Ghasemizad, A.; Mehdian, H.

2014-10-01

203

Effect of vibration amplitude on vapor cavitation in journal bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational movies were used to analyze the formation and collapse of vapor cavitation bubbles in a submerged journal bearing. The effect of vibration amplitude on vapor cavitation was studied for a journal undergoing circular whirl. The boundary conditions were implemented using Elrod's algorithm, which conserves mass flow through the cavitation bubble as well as through the oil-film region of the bearing. The vibration amplitudes for the different cases studied resulted in maximum eccentricity ratios ranging from 0.4 to 0.9. The minimum eccentricity ratio reached in each case was 0.1. For the least vibration amplitude studied in which the eccentricity ratio varied between 0.1 and 0.4, no vapor cavitation occurred. The largest vibration amplitude (i.e., eccentricity ratios of 0.1 to 0.9) resulted in vapor cavitation present 76 percent of one complete orbit.

Brewe, D. E.; Jacobson, B. O.

1986-01-01

204

Validation of Bubble Distribution Measurements of the ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer with High Speed Video Photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Measurement,of the bubble size distribution in a liquid is very important for cavitation inception studies. In this paper we describe an acoustics based device, the ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer? that measures bubble size distributions and void fractions in liquids based on the ,measurement ,of sound ,propagation through the tested liquid. Short monochromatic,bursts of sound at different frequencies are generated

G. L. Chahine; K. M. Kalumuck; J Y Cheng; G. S. Frederick

205

Numerical investigation of volume of fluid and level set interface capturing methods for bubble growth and detachment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The injection of an air bubble in a liquid at rest is an interface flow problem where surface tension and its modeling at solid boundaries is a key factor. It is the subject of this study. Numerical simulations have been performed to study 3D axi-symmetrical bubble growth from an orifice through a horizontal wall. The gas inflow velocity used was sufficiently small to ensure that the bubble growth is quasi-static so that surface tension and buoyancy forces are dominant. The wall was considered non-wettable to avoid spreading of the interface along the wall. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved with two different interface capturing methods based on Volume of Fluid (VOF) and Level Set (LS) as well as coupled CVOFLS. In the VOF method the bubble interface was tracked using either an algebraic solver which results in some diffusion of the interface (compressive scheme implemented in OpenFOAM), or it was determined using a geometric reconstruction scheme (Geo-Reconstruct Scheme from Fluent). The TransAT code was used for the LS model which captures the interface using signed distance function. The bubble volume and center of gravity have been investigated during the growth using the three solvers and numerical results have been assessed against experimental data. These results have shown that reconstructing the interface using the LS method gives good agreement with the experiments. In VOF (compressive scheme), the bubble detaches at earlier times resulting in a smaller detachment volume. The coupled CVOFLS-GeoReconstruct was found to be more computationally expensive than the VOF-GeoReconstruct and to present bubble oscillation during the growth.

Albadawi, Abdulaleem; Delauré, Yan; Donoghue, David B.; Robinson, Anthony; Murray, Darina B.

2012-11-01

206

Removal of Residual Nuclei Following a Cavitation Event using Low-Amplitude Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Microscopic residual bubble nuclei can persist on the order of 1 second following a cavitation event. These bubbles can limit the efficacy of ultrasound therapies such as shock wave lithotripsy and histotripsy, as they attenuate pulses that arrive subsequent to their formation and seed repetitive cavitation activity at a discrete set of sites (cavitation memory). Here, we explore a strategy for the removal of these residual bubbles following a cavitation event, using low amplitude ultrasound pulses to stimulate bubble coalescence. All experiments were conducted in degassed water and monitored using high speed photography. In each case, a 2 MHz histotripsy transducer was used to initiate cavitation activity (a cavitational bubble cloud), the collapse of which generated a population of residual bubble nuclei. This residual nuclei population was then sonicated using a 1 ms pulse from a separate 500 kHz transducer, which we term the ‘bubble removal pulse.’ Bubble removal pulse amplitudes ranging from 0 to 1.7 MPa were tested, and the backlit area of shadow from bubbles remaining in the field following bubble removal was calculated to quantify efficacy. It was found that an ideal amplitude range exists (roughly 180 – 570 kPa) in which bubble removal pulses stimulate the aggregation and subsequent coalescence of residual bubble nuclei, effectively removing them from the field. Further optimization of bubble removal pulse sequences stands to provide an adjunct to cavitation-based ultrasound therapies such as shock wave lithotripsy and histotripsy, mitigating the effects of residual bubble nuclei that currently limit their efficacy. PMID:25265172

Duryea, Alexander P.; Cain, Charles A.; Tamaddoni, Hedieh A.; Roberts, William W.; Hall, Timothy L.

2014-01-01

207

Controlled Cavitation for Scale-Free Heating, Gum Hydration and Emulsification in Food and Consumer Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cavitation is defined as the sudden formation and collapse of bubbles in liquid by means of a mechanical force. As bubbles\\u000a rapidly form and collapse, pressurized shock waves, localized heating events and tremendous shearing forces occur. As microscopic\\u000a cavitation bubbles are produced and collapse, shockwaves are given off into the liquid, which can result in heating and\\/or\\u000a mixing, similar to

Douglas G. Mancosky; Paul Milly

2011-01-01

208

PIV Analysis of Cavitation Flow Characteristics of He II  

SciTech Connect

In the present experimental study cavitation phenomena in both He I and He II flows were investigated through the application of the PIV technique and visual observation under the saturated vapor pressure condition. The cavitation flow was generated in the downstream regions of a Venturi channel and a converging jet nozzle driven by a contracting metal bellows. It is seen that cavitation inception is a kind of stochastic process and has definite temperature dependence. The spatial distribution of the cavitation bubble velocity is measured by using the PIV technique. Some differences in the cavitating flow pattern and the void fraction are found between He II and He I cavitating flows. The PIV result indicates that the void fraction for He II flow is larger than that for He I flow.

Harada, K.; Murakami, M. [Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8573 (Japan)

2006-04-27

209

Dissolved gas and ultrasonic cavitation--a review.  

PubMed

The physics and chemistry of nonlinearly oscillating acoustic cavitation bubbles are strongly influenced by the dissolved gas in the surrounding liquid. Changing the gas alters among others the luminescence spectrum, and the radical production of the collapsing bubbles. An overview of experiments with various gas types and concentration described in literature is given and is compared to mechanisms that lead to the observed changes in luminescence spectra and radical production. The dissolved gas type changes the bubble adiabatic ratio, thermal conductivity, and the liquid surface tension, and consequently the hot spot temperature. The gas can also participate in chemical reactions, which can enhance radical production or luminescence of a cavitation bubble. With this knowledge, the gas content in cavitation can be tailored to obtain the desired output. PMID:22705074

Rooze, Joost; Rebrov, Evgeny V; Schouten, Jaap C; Keurentjes, Jos T F

2013-01-01

210

Numerical study of nucleation and growth of bubbles in viscous magmas  

SciTech Connect

The nucleation and growth processes of bubbles in viscous magmas with a constant decompression rate have been numerically investigated based on a formation which accounts for effects of viscosity, as well as diffusivity, interfacial tension, and decompression rate. The numerical solutions show two regimes in the nucleation and growth process, a diffusion-controlled regime and a viscosity-controlled regime, mainly depending on the decompression rate, initial saturation pressure and viscosity. The basic mechanism common to both regimes is that growth governs nucleation through depletion of degassing components. In basaltic eruptions the vesiculation is essentially controlled by diffusion, and the viscosity-controlled regime is limited to very high decompression rate and very small water content. When andesitic magma saturated by water at 10 MPa is decompressed through the propagation of rarefraction wave induced by a landslide, as took place in the Mount St. Helens 1980 eruption, the vesiculation is controlled by the viscosity up to 100 m depth. On the other hand, in a rhyolitic magma for the same situation, vesiculation is controlled by the viscosity over the whole depth of the magma column. In the viscosity-controlled regime, the vesicularity may be 90% or less as seen in silicic pumice, whereas in the diffusion-controlled regime the vesicularity equals or exceeds 98% such as in reticulite in Hawaiian basalt. An observed variation of the number density of bubbles by several orders of magnitude in plinian eruptions and the correlation with the SiO2 content can be attributed approximately to the dependence of diffusivity of viscosity on SiO2 content and temperature, assuming the apparent correlation between SiO2 content and temperature of magma.

Toramaru, A. [Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan)] [Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan)

1995-02-01

211

Optic cavitation with CW lasers: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most common method to generate optic cavitation involves the focusing of short-pulsed lasers in a transparent liquid media. In this work, we review a novel method of optic cavitation that uses low power CW lasers incident in highly absorbing liquids. This novel method of cavitation is called thermocavitation. Light absorbed heats up the liquid beyond its boiling temperature (spinodal limit) in a time span of microseconds to milliseconds (depending on the optical intensity). Once the liquid is heated up to its spinodal limit (˜300 °C for pure water), the superheated water becomes unstable to random density fluctuations and an explosive phase transition to vapor takes place producing a fast-expanding vapor bubble. Eventually, the bubble collapses emitting a strong shock-wave. The bubble is always attached to the surface taking a semi-spherical shape, in contrast to that produced by pulsed lasers in transparent liquids, where the bubble is produced at the focal point. Using high speed video (105 frames/s), we study the bubble's dynamic behavior. Finally, we show that heat diffusion determines the water superheated volume and, therefore, the amplitude of the shock wave. A full experimental characterization of thermocavitation is described.

Padilla-Martinez, J. P.; Berrospe-Rodriguez, C.; Aguilar, G.; Ramirez-San-Juan, J. C.; Ramos-Garcia, R.

2014-12-01

212

Do not drop: mechanical shock in vials causes cavitation, protein aggregation, and particle formation.  

PubMed

Industry experience suggests that g-forces sustained when vials containing protein formulations are accidentally dropped can cause aggregation and particle formation. To study this phenomenon, a shock tower was used to apply controlled g-forces to glass vials containing formulations of two monoclonal antibodies and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). High-speed video analysis showed cavitation bubbles forming within 30 ?s and subsequently collapsing in the formulations. As a result of echoing shock waves, bubbles collapsed and reappeared periodically over a millisecond time course. Fluid mechanics simulations showed low-pressure regions within the fluid where cavitation would be favored. A hydroxyphenylfluorescein assay determined that cavitation produced hydroxyl radicals. When mechanical shock was applied to vials containing protein formulations, gelatinous particles appeared on the vial walls. Size-exclusion chromatographic analysis of the formulations after shock did not detect changes in monomer or soluble aggregate concentrations. However, subvisible particle counts determined by microflow image analysis increased. The mass of protein attached to the vial walls increased with increasing drop height. Both protein in bulk solution and protein that became attached to the vial walls after shock were analyzed by mass spectrometry. rhGH recovered from the vial walls in some samples revealed oxidation of Met and/or Trp residues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:602-611, 2015. PMID:25418950

Randolph, Theodore W; Schiltz, Elise; Sederstrom, Donn; Steinmann, Daniel; Mozziconacci, Olivier; Schöneich, Christian; Freund, Erwin; Ricci, Margaret S; Carpenter, John F; Lengsfeld, Corrine S

2015-02-01

213

Application of the "Full Cavitation Model" to the fundamental study of cavitation in liquid metal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic cavitation treatment of melt significantly improves the downstream properties and quality of conventional and advanced metallic materials. However, the transfer of this technology has been hindered by difficulties in treating large volumes of liquid metal. To improve the understanding of cavitation processing efficiency, the Full Cavitation Model, which is derived from a reduced form of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, is modified and applied to the two-phase problem of bubble propagation in liquid melt. Numerical simulations of the sound propagation are performed in the microsecond time scale to predict the maximum and minimum acoustic pressure amplitude fields in the domain. This field is applied to the source term of the bubble transport equation to predict the generation and destruction of cavitation bubbles in a time scale relevant to the fluid flow. The use of baffles to limit flow speed in a launder conduit is studied numerically, to determine the optimum configuration that maximizes the residence time of the liquid in high cavitation activity regions. With this configuration, it is then possible to convert the batch processing of liquid metal into a continuous process. The numerical simulations will be validated against water and aluminium alloy experiments, carried out at Brunel University.

Lebon, G. S. B.; Pericleous, K.; Tzanakis, I.; Eskin, D.

2015-01-01

214

Cavitation and acoustic emission around laser-heated microparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied transient cavitation bubble formation and acoustic emission around individual laser-heated microparticles using subnanosecond time-resolved microscopy. Microcavitation bubbles were observed as early as 0.5 ns after the particles were heated by a 30 ps laser pulse. The bubbles expanded to a few micrometers in size and collapsed on the time scale of 0.1-1 musec. We discuss microcavitation as the

Charles P. Lin; Michael W. Kelly

1998-01-01

215

Cavitation and acoustic emission around laser-heated microparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied transient cavitation bubble formation and acoustic emission around individual laser-heated microparticles using subnanosecond time-resolved microscopy. Microcavitation bubbles were observed as early as 0.5 ns after the particles were heated by a 30 ps laser pulse. The bubbles expanded to a few micrometers in size and collapsed on the time scale of 0.1–1 ?sec. We discuss microcavitation as the

Charles P. Lin; Michael W. Kelly

1998-01-01

216

Degradation of carbamazepine in environmentally relevant concentrations in water by Hydrodynamic-Acoustic-Cavitation (HAC).  

PubMed

The antiepileptic drug carbamazepine is one of the most abundant pharmaceuticals in the German aquatic environment. The effect of low carbamazepine concentrations (1-50 ?g L(-1)) is discussed controversially, but ecotoxicological studies revealed reproduction toxicity, decreased enzymatic activity and bioaccumulation in different test organisms. Therefore, as a preventive step, an efficient and cost-effective technique for wastewater treatment plants is needed to stop the entry of pharmaceuticals into the aquatic environment. Cavitation, the formation, growth, and subsequent collapse of gas- or vapor-filled bubbles in fluids, was applied to solve this problem. The technique of Hydrodynamic-Acoustic-Cavitation was used showing high synergistic effect. Under optimized conditions carbamazepine (5 ?g L(-1)) was transformed by pseudo-first order kinetics to an extent of >96% within 15 min (27% by hydrodynamic cavitation, 33% by acoustic cavitation). A synergistic effect of 63% based on the sum of the single methods was calculated. Carbamazepine concentrations were monitored by a sensitive and selective immunoassay and after 60 min no known metabolites were detectable by LC-MS/MS. PMID:22365175

Braeutigam, Patrick; Franke, Marcus; Schneider, Rudolf J; Lehmann, Andreas; Stolle, Achim; Ondruschka, Bernd

2012-05-01

217

Plasticization Effects on Bubble Growth During Polymer Xiaopeng Chen, James J. Feng,  

E-print Network

the melt viscosity, gas diffusivity in the melt, and the gas­melt interfacial tension. In this paper, we incorporating gas diffusion, momentum transfer, melt viscoelasticity, and bubble­bubble interactions via a cell of temperature, the blowing agent separates from the melt and aggregates into gas bubbles. This paper

Feng, James J.

218

High-speed motion picture camera experiments of cavitation in dynamically loaded journal bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-speed camera was used to investigate cavitation in dynamically loaded journal bearings. The length-diameter ratio of the bearing, the speeds of the shaft and bearing, the surface material of the shaft, and the static and dynamic eccentricity of the bearing were varied. The results reveal not only the appearance of gas cavitation, but also the development of previously unsuspected vapor cavitation. It was found that gas cavitation increases with time until, after many hundreds of pressure cycles, there is a constant amount of gas kept in the cavitation zone of the bearing. The gas can have pressures of many times the atmospheric pressure. Vapor cavitation bubbles, on the other hand, collapse at pressures lower than the atmospheric pressure and cannot be transported through a high-pressure zone, nor does the amount of vapor cavitation in a bearing increase with time. Analysis is given to support the experimental findings for both gas and vapor cavitation.

Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.

1982-01-01

219

Numerical simulation of shock propagation in a polydisperse bubbly liquid Keita Ando  

E-print Network

bubbly flow equations coupled to a single-bubble-dynamic equation that incorporates the effects of heat popula- tions, the interaction with structures often produces tension waves that can cause cavitation

Colonius, Tim

220

Dynamics of cavitating cascades. [transfer functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unsteady dynamics of cavitating cascades and inducer pumps were studied with a view to understanding (and possibly predicting) the dynamic characteristics of these devices. The chronology of the research is summarized as well as the final conculsions for each task. The construction of a dynamic pump test facility and its use in making experimental measurements of the transfer function is described as well as tests conducted using a scale model of the low pressure liquid oxygen turbopump inducer in the shuttle main engine. Auto-oscillation and unsteady inlet flow characteristics are discussed in addition to blade cavity influence and bubbly cavitation.

Brennen, C. E.; Acosta, A. J.

1980-01-01

221

Bursting Bubbles and Bilayers  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses various interactions between ultrasound, phospholipid monolayer-coated gas bubbles, phospholipid bilayer vesicles, and cells. The paper begins with a review of microbubble physics models, developed to describe microbubble dynamic behavior in the presence of ultrasound, and follows this with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict inertial cavitation profiles. Predicted sensitivities of inertial cavitation to changes in the values of membrane properties, including surface tension, surface dilatational viscosity, and area expansion modulus, indicate that area expansion modulus exerts the greatest relative influence on inertial cavitation. Accordingly, the theoretical dependence of area expansion modulus on chemical composition - in particular, poly (ethylene glyclol) (PEG) - is reviewed, and predictions of inertial cavitation for different PEG molecular weights and compositions are compared with experiment. Noteworthy is the predicted dependence, or lack thereof, of inertial cavitation on PEG molecular weight and mole fraction. Specifically, inertial cavitation is predicted to be independent of PEG molecular weight and mole fraction in the so-called mushroom regime. In the “brush” regime, however, inertial cavitation is predicted to increase with PEG mole fraction but to decrease (to the inverse 3/5 power) with PEG molecular weight. While excellent agreement between experiment and theory can be achieved, it is shown that the calculated inertial cavitation profiles depend strongly on the criterion used to predict inertial cavitation. This is followed by a discussion of nesting microbubbles inside the aqueous core of microcapsules and how this significantly increases the inertial cavitation threshold. Nesting thus offers a means for avoiding unwanted inertial cavitation and cell death during imaging and other applications such as sonoporation. A review of putative sonoporation mechanisms is then presented, including those involving microbubbles to deliver cargo into a cell, and those - not necessarily involving microubbles - to release cargo from a phospholipid vesicle (or reverse sonoporation). It is shown that the rate of (reverse) sonoporation from liposomes correlates with phospholipid bilayer phase behavior, liquid-disordered phases giving appreciably faster release than liquid-ordered phases. Moreover, liquid-disordered phases exhibit evidence of two release mechanisms, which are described well mathematically by enhanced diffusion (possibly via dilation of membrane phospholipids) and irreversible membrane disruption, whereas liquid-ordered phases are described by a single mechanism, which has yet to be positively identified. The ability to tune release kinetics with bilayer composition makes reverse sonoporation of phospholipid vesicles a promising methodology for controlled drug delivery. Moreover, nesting of microbubbles inside vesicles constitutes a truly “theranostic” vehicle, one that can be used for both long-lasting, safe imaging and for controlled drug delivery. PMID:23382772

Wrenn, Steven P.; Dicker, Stephen M.; Small, Eleanor F.; Dan, Nily R.; Mleczko, Micha?; Schmitz, Georg; Lewin, Peter A.

2012-01-01

222

Bursting bubbles and bilayers.  

PubMed

This paper discusses various interactions between ultrasound, phospholipid monolayer-coated gas bubbles, phospholipid bilayer vesicles, and cells. The paper begins with a review of microbubble physics models, developed to describe microbubble dynamic behavior in the presence of ultrasound, and follows this with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict inertial cavitation profiles. Predicted sensitivities of inertial cavitation to changes in the values of membrane properties, including surface tension, surface dilatational viscosity, and area expansion modulus, indicate that area expansion modulus exerts the greatest relative influence on inertial cavitation. Accordingly, the theoretical dependence of area expansion modulus on chemical composition-- in particular, poly (ethylene glyclol) (PEG)--is reviewed, and predictions of inertial cavitation for different PEG molecular weights and compositions are compared with experiment. Noteworthy is the predicted dependence, or lack thereof, of inertial cavitation on PEG molecular weight and mole fraction. Specifically, inertial cavitation is predicted to be independent of PEG molecular weight and mole fraction in the so-called mushroom regime. In the "brush" regime, however, inertial cavitation is predicted to increase with PEG mole fraction but to decrease (to the inverse 3/5 power) with PEG molecular weight. While excellent agreement between experiment and theory can be achieved, it is shown that the calculated inertial cavitation profiles depend strongly on the criterion used to predict inertial cavitation. This is followed by a discussion of nesting microbubbles inside the aqueous core of microcapsules and how this significantly increases the inertial cavitation threshold. Nesting thus offers a means for avoiding unwanted inertial cavitation and cell death during imaging and other applications such as sonoporation. A review of putative sonoporation mechanisms is then presented, including those involving microbubbles to deliver cargo into a cell, and those--not necessarily involving microubbles--to release cargo from a phospholipid vesicle (or reverse sonoporation). It is shown that the rate of (reverse) sonoporation from liposomes correlates with phospholipid bilayer phase behavior, liquid-disordered phases giving appreciably faster release than liquid-ordered phases. Moreover, liquid-disordered phases exhibit evidence of two release mechanisms, which are described well mathematically by enhanced diffusion (possibly via dilation of membrane phospholipids) and irreversible membrane disruption, whereas liquid-ordered phases are described by a single mechanism, which has yet to be positively identified. The ability to tune release kinetics with bilayer composition makes reverse sonoporation of phospholipid vesicles a promising methodology for controlled drug delivery. Moreover, nesting of microbubbles inside vesicles constitutes a truly "theranostic" vehicle, one that can be used for both long-lasting, safe imaging and for controlled drug delivery. PMID:23382772

Wrenn, Steven P; Dicker, Stephen M; Small, Eleanor F; Dan, Nily R; Mleczko, Micha?; Schmitz, Georg; Lewin, Peter A

2012-01-01

223

The role of acoustic cavitation in enhanced ultrasound- induced heating in a tissue-mimicking phantom  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete understanding of high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced temperature changes in tissue requires insight into all potential mechanisms for heat deposition. Applications of therapeutic ultrasound often utilize acoustic pressures capable of producing cavitation activity. Recognizing the ability of bubbles to transfer acoustic energy into heat generation, a study of the role bubbles play in tissue hyperthermia becomes necessary. These bubbles are

Patrick Lee Edson

2001-01-01

224

Understanding crack versus cavitation in pressure-sensitive adhesives: the role of kinetics  

E-print Network

We perform traction experiments on viscous liquids highly confined between parallel plates, a geometry known as the probe-tack test in the adhesion community. Direct observation during the experiment coupled to force measurement shows the existence of several mechanisms for releasing the stress. Bubble nucleation and instantaneous growth had been observed in a previous work. Upon increasing further the traction velocity or the viscosity, the bubble growth is progressively delayed. At high velocities, cracks at the interface between the plate and the liquid appear before the bubbles have grown to their full size. Bubbles and cracks are thus observed concomitantly. At even higher velocities, cracks develop fully so early that the bubbles are not even visible. We present a theoretical model that describes these regimes, using a Maxwell fluid as a model for the actual fluid, a highly viscous silicon oil. We present the resulting phase diagramme for the different force peak regimes. The predictions are compatible with the data. Our results show that in addition to cavitation, interfacial cracks are encountered in a probe-tack traction test with viscoelastic, \\emph{liquid} materials and not solely with viscoelastic solids like adhesives.

Jérémie Teisseire; F. Nallet; P. Fabre; Cyprien Gay

2006-09-18

225

The Behavior of Acoustic Cloud Cavitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HIFU (High Intensity Focused Ultrasound) has attracted much attention recently in industrial and medical applications. However, the behavior of acoustic cavitation with HIFU has not been clarified. In this study, it is assumed that the acoustic cavitation forms spherical bubble cloud which consists of many microbubbles, and ultrasound focusing in the cloud is simulated numerically. The compressibility of liquid, the evaporation and condensation of liquid at the bubble wall, heat transfer through the bubble wall are considered in the simulation. Initial cloud radius is equal to 0.5 mm, bubble radius is 1 ?m, void fraction is 0.1 MHz for amplitudes of 10 kPa, 25 kPa, 50 kPa, 75 kPa, 100 kPa or 125 kPa. The pressure wave focuses to the center of the cloud and the pressures inside the bubbles increase extremely when the frequency is near the natural frequency of the cloud. Especially, in the case of 100 kPa and 125 kPa pressure amplitudes, the high pressures appear even when the frequency is much lower than the natural frequency due to the strong nonlinearity of the bubble cloud.

Matsumoto, Yoichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin

2003-11-01

226

Numerical investigations of shock–bubble interactions in mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bubble collapse induced by the shock–bubble interactions in mercury is investigated numerically to evaluate the cavitation damage. The ghost fluid method (GFM) is applied to the present analysis. Riemann solutions are utilized to correct the values at boundary nodes to suppress the pressure oscillations near the interface. The interactions between an air bubble and a plane shock wave in

Hiroyuki Takahira; Takahiro Matsuno; Keisuke Shuto

2008-01-01

227

Validation of Bubble Distribution Measurements of the ABS Acoustic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of the bubble size distribution in a liquid is very important for cavitation inception studies. In this paper we describe an acoustics based device, the ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer? that measures bubble size distributions and void fractions in liquids based on the measurement of sound propagation through the tested liquid. Short monochromatic bursts of sound at different frequencies are

Bubble Spectrometer; G. L. Chahine; K. M. Kalumuck; J-Y Cheng; G. S. Frederick

228

Synchronized passive imaging of single cavitation events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive cavitation detection techniques are usually of relatively low sensitivity to single cavitation events. Moreover, a single-element transducer is generally used, so that the spatial localization of these cavitation events is not possible, or is limited to the probing volume. To both detect and localize single cavitation events over an extended volume, the following experimental set-up has been used and validated: cavitation is induced with a focused single-element transducer (mean frequency 660 kHz, f? = 1) driven by a high power (up to 5 kW) electric burst of a few cycles, and the acoustic emission of the bubbles is recorded on a standard linear array (4-7 MHz), mounted on the side of the single element to probe its focal spot. Both the frequencies and the geometry used are appropriate to in vivo implementation. The recording of ultrasonic radio-frequency (RF) data was performed simultaneously on 64 channels of the array and was synchronized with the pulsed excitation. A single cavitation event results in a high frequency and coherent wave front on the RF data. Thanks to synchronization, these RF data are beam-formed to localize the event with a axial resolution of 0.3 mm. A small number of discrete events could also be separated with this method. Besides, B-mode images obtained with the linear array prior to passive detection allowed the positioning of the events within the tissue structure. This technique has been used first ex vivo on freshly harve pig and sheep thigh muscle: with a two cycle excitation, a 9 MPa cavitation threshold was found. Cavitation detection was also achieved in vivo with a five cycle burst excitation in sheep thigh muscle for a peak acoustic pressure of 11MPa. This technique could provide useful information in order to better understand, control and monitor the initiation phase of the histotripsy process.

Gateau, Jérôme; Aubry, Jean-François; Pernot, Mathieu; Chauvet, Daurian; Boch, Anne-Laure; Fink, Mathias; Tanter, Mickaël

2011-09-01

229

Cavitation milling of natural cellulose to nanofibrils.  

PubMed

Cavitation holds the promise of a new and exciting approach to fabricate both top down and bottom up nanostructures. Cavitation bubbles are created when a liquid boils under less than atmospheric pressure. The collapse process occurs supersonically and generates a host of physical and chemical effects. We have made an attempt to fabricate natural cellulose material using hydrodynamic as well as acoustic cavitation. The cellulose material having initial size of 63 micron was used for the experiments. 1% (w/v) slurry of cellulose sample was circulated through the hydrodynamic cavitation device or devices (orifice) for 6h. The average velocity of the fluid through the device was 10.81m/s while average pressure applied was 7.8 kg/cm(2). Cavitation number was found to be 2.61. The average particle size obtained after treatment was 1.36 micron. This hydrodynamically processed sample was sonicated for 1h 50 min. The average size of ultrasonically processed particles was found to be 301 nm. Further, the cellulose particles were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to see the effect of cavitation on crystallinity (X(c)) as well as on melting temperature (T(m)). Cellulose structures consist of amorphous as well as crystalline regions. The initial raw sample was 86.56% crystalline but due to the effect of cavitation, the crystallinity reduced to 37.76%. Also the melting temperature (T(m)) was found to be reduced from 101.78 degrees C of the original to 60.13 degrees C of the processed sample. SEM images for the cellulose (processed and unprocessed) shows the status and fiber-fiber alignment and its orientation with each other. Finally cavitation has proved to be very efficient tool for reduction in size from millimeter to nano scale for highly crystalline materials. PMID:20362487

Pinjari, Dipak Vitthal; Pandit, Aniruddha B

2010-06-01

230

Calcium Is a Major Determinant of Xylem Vulnerability to Cavitation  

PubMed Central

Xylem vulnerability to cavitation is a key parameter in the drought tolerance of trees, but little is known about the control mechanisms involved. Cavitation is thought to occur when an air bubble penetrates through a pit wall, and would hence be influenced by the wall's porosity. We first tested the role of wall-bound calcium in vulnerability to cavitation in Fagus sylvatica. Stems perfused with solutions of oxalic acid, EGTA, or sodium phosphate (NaPO4) were found to be more vulnerable to cavitation. The NaPO4-induced increase in vulnerability to cavitation was linked to calcium removal from the wall. In contrast, xylem hydraulic conductance was unaffected by the chemical treatments, demonstrating that the mechanisms controlling vulnerability to cavitation and hydraulic resistance are uncoupled. The NaPO4 solution was then perfused into stems from 13 tree species possessing highly contrasted vulnerability to cavitation. Calcium was found to be a major determinant of between-species differences in vulnerability to cavitation. This was evidenced in angiosperms as well as conifer species, thus supporting the hypothesis of a common mechanism in drought-induced cavitation. PMID:20547703

Herbette, Stephane; Cochard, Herve

2010-01-01

231

Passive spatial mapping of inertial cavitation during HIFU exposure.  

PubMed

A novel method for mapping inertial cavitation activity during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposure is presented. Inertial cavitation has been previously shown to result in increased heat deposition and to be associated with broadband noise emissions that can be readily monitored using a passive receiver without interference from the main HIFU signal. In the present study, the signals received passively by each of 64 elements on a standard diagnostic array placed coaxially with the HIFU transducer are combined using time exposure acoustics to generate maps of inertially cavitating regions during HIFU exposure of an agar-based tissue-mimicking material. The technique is shown to be effective in localizing single-bubble activity, as well as contiguous and disjoint cavitating regions instigated by creating regions of lower cavitation threshold within the tissue phantom. The cavitation maps obtained experimentally are also found to be in good agreement with computational simulations and theoretical predictions. Unlike B-mode imaging, which requires interleaving with the HIFU pulse, passive array-based mapping of cavitation activity is possible during HIFU exposure. If cavitating regions can be directly correlated to increased tissue damage, this novel cavitation mapping technique could enable real-time HIFU treatment monitoring. PMID:19628450

Gyöngy, Miklós; Coussios, Constantin-C

2010-01-01

232

FOREWORD: International Symposium of Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Symposium on Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014) was held in Beijing, China during 18th-21st October, 2014, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China. The co-organizer was the State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Beijing, China. Cavitation and multiphase flow is one of paramount topics of fluid mechanics with many engineering applications covering a broad range of topics, e.g. hydraulic machinery, biomedical engineering, chemical and process industry. In order to improve the performances of engineering facilities (e.g. hydraulic turbines) and to accelerate the development of techniques for medical treatment of serious diseases (e.g. tumors), it is essential to improve our understanding of cavitation and Multiphase Flow. For example, the present development towards the advanced hydrodynamic systems (e.g. space engine, propeller, hydraulic machinery system) often requires that the systems run under cavitating conditions and the risk of cavitation erosion needs to be controlled. The purpose of the ISCM 2014 was to discuss the state-of-the-art cavitation and multiphase flow research and their up-to-date applications, and to foster discussion and exchange of knowledge, and to provide an opportunity for the researchers, engineers and graduate students to report their latest outputs in these fields. Furthermore, the participants were also encouraged to present their work in progress with short lead time and discuss the encountered problems. ISCM 2014 covers all aspects of cavitation and Multiphase Flow, e.g. both fundamental and applied research with a focus on physical insights, numerical modelling and applications in engineering. Some specific topics are: Cavitating and Multiphase Flow in hydroturbines, pumps, propellers etc. Numerical simulation techniques Cavitation and multiphase flow erosion and anti-erosion techniques Measurement techniques for cavitation and multiphase flow detection Fluid-structure interaction induced by cavitation and multiphase flow Multi-scale modelling of cavitating flows and Multiphase Flow Cavitation nuclei: theory and experiments Supercavitation and its applications Synergetic effects of cavitation and silt-laden erosion Shock waves and microjets generated by cavitation Nonlinear oscillations of gas and vapour bubbles Fundamentals of physics of acoustic cavitation Sonochemistry and sonoluminescence Biomedical applications of cavitation effects Ultrasonic cavitation for molten metal treatment Cavitation for enhanced heat transfer The ISCM 2014 brought together 95 scientists, researchers and graduate students from 11 countries, affiliated with universities, technology centers and industrial firms to debate topics related to advanced technologies for cavitation and Multiphase Flow, which would enhance the sustainable development of cavitation and Multiphase Flow in interdisciplinary sciences and technology. The technical committee selected 54 technical papers on the following topics: (i) Hydrodynamic Cavitation, (ii) Super Cavitation, (iii) Pump Cavitation, (iv) Acoustic Cavitation, (v) Interdisciplinary Research of Cavitation and Multi-Phase Flows, and 13 invited plenary and invited forum lectures, which were presented at the symposium, to be included in the proceedings. All the papers of ISCM 2014, which are published in this Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, had been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the ISCM 2014, those are Yulin WU, Shouqi YUAN, Zhengwei WANG, Shuhong LIU, Xingqi LUO, Fujun WANG and Guoyu WANG. The papers published in this Volume include 54 technical papers and 3 full length texts of the invited lectures. We sincerely hope that the International Symposium on Cavitation and Multiphase Flow is a significant step forward in the world wide efforts to address the present challenges in the modern science and technology. Professor Yulin WU Chairman of the Local Organizing Committee International Symposium on Cavitat

Wu, Yulin

2015-01-01

233

Probability of cavitation for single ultrasound pulses applied to tissues and tissue-mimicking materials  

PubMed Central

In this article, the negative pressure values at which inertial cavitation consistently occurs in response to a single, 2-cycle, focused ultrasound pulse were measured in several media relevant to cavitation-based ultrasound therapy. The pulse was focused into a chamber containing one of the media, which included liquids, tissue-mimicking materials, and ex-vivo canine tissue. Focal waveforms were measured by two separate techniques using a fiber-optic hydrophone. Inertial cavitation was identified by high-speed photography in optically transparent media and an acoustic passive cavitation detector. The probability of cavitation (Pcav) for a single pulse as a function of peak negative pressure (p?) followed a sigmoid curve, with the probability approaching 1 when the pressure amplitude was sufficient. The statistical threshold (defined as Pcav = 0.5) was between p? = 26.0–30.0 MPa in all samples with a high water content, but varied between p? = 13.7 to > 36 MPa for other media. A model for radial cavitation bubble dynamics was employed to evaluate the behavior of cavitation nuclei at these pressure levels. A single bubble nucleus with an inertial cavitation threshold of p? = 28.2 MPa was estimated to have a 2.5 nm radius in distilled water. These data may be valuable for cavitation-based ultrasound therapy to predict the likelihood of cavitation at different pressure levels and dimensions of cavitation-induced lesions in tissue. PMID:23380152

Maxwell, Adam D.; Cain, Charles A.; Hall, Timothy L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Xu, Zhen

2012-01-01

234

Microbubble Cavitation Imaging  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound cavitation of microbubble contrast agents has a potential for therapeutic applications such as sonothrombolysis (STL) in acute ischemic stroke. For safety, efficacy, and reproducibility of treatment, it is critical to evaluate the cavitation state (moderate oscillations, stable cavitation, and inertial cavitation) and activity level in and around a treatment area. Acoustic passive cavitation detectors (PCDs) have been used to this end but do not provide spatial information. This paper presents a prototype of a 2-D cavitation imager capable of producing images of the dominant cavitation state and activity level in a region of interest. Similar to PCDs, the cavitation imaging described here is based on the spectral analysis of the acoustic signal radiated by the cavitating microbubbles: ultraharmonics of the excitation frequency indicate stable cavitation, whereas elevated noise bands indicate inertial cavitation; the absence of both indicates moderate oscillations. The prototype system is a modified commercially available ultrasound scanner with a sector imaging probe. The lateral resolution of the system is 1.5 mm at a focal depth of 3 cm, and the axial resolution is 3 cm for a therapy pulse length of 20 µs. The maximum frame rate of the prototype is 2 Hz. The system has been used for assessing and mapping the relative importance of the different cavitation states of a microbubble contrast agent. In vitro (tissue-mimicking flow phantom) and in vivo (heart, liver, and brain of two swine) results for cavitation states and their changes as a function of acoustic amplitude are presented. PMID:23549527

Vignon, Francois; Shi, William T.; Powers, Jeffry E.; Everbach, E. Carr; Liu, Jinjin; Gao, Shunji; Xie, Feng; Porter, Thomas R.

2014-01-01

235

Influence of cathodic and anodic currents on cavitation erosion  

SciTech Connect

A vibratory-type cavitation test rig was constructed to study the effect of polarizing currents applied to a cavitating body. The generation of gas by electrolysis reduced mechanical damage suffered by a cavitating body because of bubble collapse cushioning. However, the net effect on overall damage depended on several factors, including the intensity of mechanical attack, corrosion rate, and surface geometrical effects. A cathodic current was shown to always decrease the total volume loss rate, but the volume loss rate sometimes was increased and sometimes was reduced in the anodic current range.

Auret, J.G.; Damm, O.F.R.A.; Wright, G.J. (CSIR, Pretoria (South Africa). Div. of Materials Science and Technology); Robinson, F.P.A. (Univ. of the Witwatersrand (South Africa). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering)

1993-11-01

236

AN EFFICIENT TREATMENT STRATEGY FOR HISTOTRIPSY BY REMOVING CAVITATION MEMORY  

PubMed Central

Cavitation memory effects occur when remnants of cavitation bubbles (nuclei) persist in the host medium and act as seeds for subsequent events. In pulsed cavitational ultrasound therapy, or histotripsy, this effect may cause cavitation to repeatedly occur at these seeded locations within a target volume, producing inhomogeneous tissue fractionation or requiring an excess number of pulses to completely homogenize the target volume. We hypothesized that by removing the cavitation memory, i.e., the persistent nuclei, the cavitation bubbles could be induced at random locations in response to each pulse; therefore, complete disruption of a tissue volume may be achieved with fewer pulses. To test the hypothesis, the cavitation memory was passively removed by increasing the intervals between successive pulses, ?t, from 2, 10, 20, 50 and 100, to 200 ms. Histotripsy treatments were performed in red blood cell tissue phantoms and ex vivo livers using 1-MHz ultrasound pulses of 10 cycles at P?/P+ pressure of 21/59 MPa. The phantom study allowed for direct visualization of the cavitation patterns and the lesion development process in real time using high-speed photography; the ex vivo tissue study provided validation of the memory effect in real tissues. Results of the phantom study showed an exponential decrease in the correlation coefficient between cavitation patterns in successive pulses from 0.5 ± 0.1 to 0.1 ± 0.1 as ?t increased from 2–200 ms; correspondingly, the lesion was completely fractionated with significantly fewer pulses for longer ?ts. In the tissue study, given the same number of therapy pulses, complete and homogeneous tissue fractionation with well-defined lesion boundaries was achieved only for ?t ? 100 ms. These results indicated that the removal of the cavitation memory resulted in more efficient treatments and homogeneous lesions. PMID:22402025

Wang, Tzu-Yin; Xu, Zhen; Hall, Timothy L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A.

2012-01-01

237

Influence of electric field on single gas-bubble growth and detachment in microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of electric and gravitational field on detachment and motion of gas bubbles was studied by injecting nitrogen in a fluoroinert liquid (FC-72) at ambient temperature and pressure through an orifice (about 0.1 mm diameter) drilled in a horizontal tube. In such a way, it was possible to investigate the mechanical effects in bubble dynamics separately from the thermal

P Di Marco; W Grassi; G Memoli; T Takamasa; A Tomiyama; S Hosokawa

2003-01-01

238

Vapor-Gas Bubble Evolution and Growth in Extremely Viscous Fluids Under Vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Formation of vapor and gas bubbles and voids is normal and expected in flow processes involving extremely viscous fluids in normal gravity. Practical examples of extremely viscous fluids are epoxy-like filler materials before the epoxy fluids cure to their permanent form to create a mechanical bond between two substrates. When these fluids flow with a free liquid interface exposed to vacuum, rapid bubble expansion process may ensue. Bubble expansion might compromise the mechanical bond strength. The potential sources for the origin of the gases might be incomplete out-gassing process prior to filler application; regasification due to seal leakage in the filler applicator; and/or volatiles evolved from cure reaction products formed in the hardening process. We embarked on a study that involved conducting laboratory experiments with imaging diagnostics in order to deduce the seriousness of bubbling caused by entrained air and volatile fluids under space vacuum and low gravity environment. We used clear fluids with the similar physical properties as the epoxy-like filler material to mimic the dynamics of bubbles. Another aspect of the present study was to determine the likelihood of bubbling resulting from dissolved gases nucleating from solution. These experimental studies of the bubble expansion are compared with predictions using a modified Rayleigh- Plesset equation, which models the bubble expansion.

Kizito, John; Balasubramaniam, R.; Nahra, Henry; Agui, Juan; Truong, Duc

2008-01-01

239

Numerical simulation on enhancement of natural convection heat transfer by acoustic cavitation in a square enclosure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural convection heat transfer of liquid in a square enclosure with and without acoustic cavitation is numerically investigated. In order to model the effect of sound field, a prescribed periodic change pressure is imposed on liquid in the region with ultrasonic beam. The cavitation model which takes into consideration such effects as phase change, bubble dynamics, and noncondensable gases is

Jun Cai; Xiulan Huai; Runsheng Yan; Yanjun Cheng

2009-01-01

240

On the role of cavitation in particle collection in flotation – A critical review. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in applying hydrodynamic cavitation to recovery of natural resources during the last decade is reviewed. The existence and formation of tiny bubbles or gas nuclei (with diameter from microns down to nano sizes) in natural water were verified from both direct and in-direct measurements, thus providing a foundation for applying hydrodynamic cavitation to flotation systems. The interactions between tiny

Z. A. Zhou; Zhenghe Xu; J. A. Finch; J. H. Masliyah; R. S. Chow

2009-01-01

241

Preliminary experience with a new compact disk apparatus for cavitation erosion studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

When bubbles collapse near solid surfaces, cavitation damage can occur. Two are the already known erosion mechanisms: liquid micro-jets impingement and shock waves. These micro-jets and shock waves are responsible for material loss from the surface, basically by wear failure. In the rotating disk device, a disk with cavitation inducers and specimens fixed on it rotates inside a water chamber

G. Bazanini; J. D. Bressan

2007-01-01

242

Experimental study and modeling of swelling and bubble growth in carbon nanofiber filled mesophase pitch during carbonization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphite and all carbon bipolar plates show corrosion resistance in fuel cells and provide good electrical conductivity. These materials typically need to be individually machined, a time consuming and costly process. Mesophase pitch is used to manufacture carbon fibers and carbon-carbon composites. This material provides a good starting point for the production of a moldable, all carbon bipolar plate. However, processing of mesophase pitch to produce all carbon materials requires a time intensive oxidation step to prevent swelling during carbonization. In this work, carbon nanofibers were used to reduce swelling in mesophase pitch. It was found that the increase in viscosity with the addition of carbon nanofibers was responsible for the reduction in swelling. The influence of the filler became apparent above the percolation threshold. At loadings below the percolation threshold, the swelling of the mesophase pitch was not reduced after carbonization. The swelling of the mesophase pitch at a given carbon nanofiber loading was also dependent on the length of the carbon nanofibers. Longer carbon nanofibers led to greater increases in the viscosity of the melt and thus led to greater reduction in swelling. The final carbon product was evaluated for use as a low temperature fuel cell bipolar plate material. Constraining the mesophase pitch during carbonization led to a final product with strength and electrical conductivity comparable to current composite bipolar plate materials. The addition of micron size chopped glass fibers with a softening point near 850°C and carbon nanofibers led to a final product with air permeability less than that of graphite. A spherically symmetric, single bubble growth model was also developed. The model included temperature dependence, liquid to bubble mass transfer and reactions in the system. Results from simulations showed that that the increase in viscosity due to the addition of carbon nanofibers slows the growth of bubbles, but that the time scale of single bubble growth is much shorter than the time over which the foam grows. The single bubble growth model was deemed to be applicable to low loadings of carbon nanofiber, where the bubble size distribution in the final foam is narrow.

Calebrese, Christopher

243

Air emission into a water shear layer through porous media. Part 2: Cavitation induced pressure attenuation  

SciTech Connect

Cavitation near the casing of a hydroturbine can lead to damage through both cavitation erosion and mechanical vibration of the casing and the associated piping. Cavitation erosion results from the collapse of cavitation bubbles on or near a surface such as the casing wall. Mechanical vibrations transmitted to the casing directly through the collapse of bubbles on the casing wall indirectly through a coupling of the acoustic pressure pulse due to a nearby collapse on the turbine blade. Air emission along the casing can reduce the intensity of the tip vortex and the gap cavitation through ventilation of the cavity. Reduction in the machinery vibration is obtained by reduction of the intensity of cavitation bubble collapse and attenuation and scattering of the radiated acoustic pressure. This requires a bubble layer which may be introduced in the vicinity of the turbine blade tips. This layer remains for some distance downstream of the blades and is effective for attenuation of tip vortex induced noise and blade surface cavitation noise. For the purpose of characterizing this bubble layer within a water pipe, the authors spanned a pipe with a two dimensional hydrofoil and emitted air through porous media (20 and 100 micron porosity sintered stainless steel) into the shear flow over the hydrofoil. This paper is limited to an investigation of the attenuation of acoustic pressure propagating to the casing rather than the reduction in acoustic source level due to collapse cushioning effects.

Myer, E.C.; Marboe, R.C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Applied Research Laboratory

1994-12-31

244

The Role of Acoustic Cavitation in Ultrasound-triggered Drug Release from Echogenic Liposomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and globally. CVD-related mortality, including coronary heart disease, heart failure, or stroke, generally occurs due to atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaques build up within arterial walls, potentially causing blockage or rupture. Targeted therapies are needed to achieve more effective treatments. Echogenic liposomes (ELIP), which consist of a lipid membrane surrounding an aqueous core, have been developed to encapsulate a therapeutic agent and/or gas bubbles for targeted delivery and ultrasound image enhancement. Under certain conditions ultrasound can cause nonlinear bubble growth and collapse, known as "cavitation." Cavitation activity has been associated with enhanced drug delivery across cellular membranes. However, the mechanisms of ultrasound-mediated drug release from ELIP have not been previously investigated. Thus, the objective of this dissertation is to elucidate the role of acoustic cavitation in ultrasound-mediated drug release from ELIP. To determine the acoustic and physical properties of ELIP, the frequency-dependent attenuation and backscatter coefficients were measured between 3 and 30 MHz. The results were compared to a theoretical model by measuring the ELIP size distribution in order to determine properties of the lipid membrane. It was found that ELIP have a broad size distribution and can provide enhanced ultrasound image contrast across a broad range of clinically-relevant frequencies. Calcein, a hydrophilic fluorescent dye, and papaverine, a lipophilic vasodilator, were separately encapsulated in ELIP and exposed to color Doppler ultrasound pulses from a clinical diagnostic ultrasound scanner in a flow system. Spectrophotometric techniques (fluorescence and absorbance measurements) were used to detect calcein or papaverine release. As a positive control, Triton X-100 (a non-ionic detergent) was added to ELIP samples not exposed to ultrasound in order to release encapsulated agents completely. Also, sham samples without Triton X-100 or ultrasound exposure were used as negative controls. Color Doppler ultrasound did not release encapsulated calcein or papaverine from ELIP even though there was a complete loss of echogenicity. In subsequent experiments, calcein and rosiglitazone, a hydrophobic anti-diabetic drug, were separately encapsulated in ELIP and exposed to pulsed Doppler ultrasound in a flow system while monitoring cavitation. Samples were exposed to ultrasound pressures above and below cavitation thresholds. In addition, Triton X-100 was used for positive control samples and sham samples were also tested without ultrasound exposure. Adding Triton X-100 resulted in complete release of encapsulated calcein or rosiglitzone. However, Doppler ultrasound exposure did not induce calcein or rosiglitazone release from ELIP in the flow system even when there was persistent cavitation activity and a loss of echogenicity. The results of this dissertation indicate that cavitation of encapsulated bubbles in ELIP solutions is not sufficient to induce drug release. It is possible that ultrasoundmediated thermal processes may have a stronger effect on ELIP permeability than cavitation activity. Perhaps ultrasound-triggered drug release will be possible by improving the ELIP formulation or encapsulating a different gas instead of air. However, cavitation is not a reliable indicator of ultrasound-mediated drug release with the ELIP formulations used in this dissertation.

Kopechek, Jonathan A.

245

Magnetic resonance imaging of velocity fields, the void fraction and gas dynamics in a cavitating liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In acoustic cavitation, the relationship between the bubble dynamics on the microscale and the flow properties on the macroscale is critical in determining sonochemical reaction kinetics. A new technique was developed to measure the void fraction and estimate water mobility in the vicinity of cavitating bubbles using phase-encoded magnetic resonance imaging with short characteristic measurement timescales (0.1-1 ms). The exponential

Igor V. Mastikhin; Aidin Arbabi; Benedict Newling; Abdelhaq Hamza; Alexander Adair

2011-01-01

246

Non-Newtonian effects on flow-generated cavitation and on cavitation in a pressure field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations are presented which show that the stresses in a flow field of very dilute polymer are not well enough described by the Navier-Stokes equations to accurately predict cavitation. The contitutive equation for the particular polymer and concentration used is needed. The second-order fluid form in which accelerations are relatively important appears capable of explaining observed cavitation suppression by changing the pressure field due to flow. Bubble dynamics in stationary dilute polymer solutions are also examined and found to be little different from those in water.

Ellis, A. T.; Ting, R. Y.

1974-01-01

247

Feasibility of noninvasive cavitation-guided blood-brain barrier opening using focused ultrasound and microbubbles in nonhuman primates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo transcranial and noninvasive cavitation detection with blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening in nonhuman primates is hereby reported. The BBB in monkeys was opened transcranically using focused ultrasound (FUS) in conjunction with microbubbles. A passive cavitation detector, confocal with the FUS transducer, was used to identify and monitor the bubble behavior. During sonication, the cavitation spectrum, which was found to be region-, pressure-, and bubble-dependent, provided real-time feedback regarding the opening occurrence and its properties. These findings demonstrate feasibility of transcranial, cavitation-guided BBB opening using FUS and microbubbles in noninvasive human applications.

Tung, Yao-Sheng; Marquet, Fabrice; Teichert, Tobias; Ferrera, Vincent; Konofagou, Elisa E.

2011-04-01

248

A description of bubble growth and gas release during thermal annealing of helium implanted copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an investigation into the migration and coalescence of equilibrium bubbles in helium implanted copper. Using computer simulation methods, the results indicate that when the swelling averaged over the implant depth approached 12%, the subsequent migration and coalescence leads to the unexpected formation of relatively massive bubbles with radii of the order of the helium range (˜130 nm), some 10 times the average bubble radius. Such behaviour would appear to provide an explanation for the surface pores and the large helium loss during annealing observed in the experimental results of Escobar Galindo et al. [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B, in press].

Evans, J. H.; Escobar Galindo, R.; van Veen, A.

2004-04-01

249

The growth and collapse of a micro-bubble under pulse heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using a micro-thermal bubble, generated by a micro-heater under pulse heating, as an actuator for applications in micro-bio-analytical systems is investigated in this paper. The perturbation force, generated when the micro-thermal bubble is formed instantaneously, can be used to promote such actions as mixing in the solution of a micro-reactor. Under pulse heating, a specially designed non-uniform

Peigang Deng; Yi-Kuen Lee; Ping Cheng

2003-01-01

250

Influence of Pb impurities on He-bubble formation and growth in Al studied by positron annihilation and transmission electron microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positron-lifetime and transmission-electron-microscopy measurements are reported for He (4.5 at. ppm), in pure Al, and Pb-contaminated (~1 at. ppm) Al:0.5 wt. % Ni alloy. The observed He-bubble growth in pure Al was found to follow at t1/5 dependence, i.e., was in good agreement with previously published data. The Pb-contaminated alloy exhibited accelerated He agglomerate and bubble growth. Bubbles observed by transmission electron microscopy in the Pb-contaminated alloy were found to have precipitates attached to them. No precipitates were observed that were not associated with bubbles and no bubbles observed that did not have a precipitate attached. Agglomerate and bubble radii were calculated using the positron-lifetime data. Again the results for pure Al were found to be in good agreement with previously published data. In the Pb-contaminated alloy agglomeration and coalescence occurred at temperatures as low as ~80 °C, while accrual of free volume started at ~180 °C. An increase in bubble growth rate, which occurred between ~350° and ~400 °C, was tentatively associated with the melting of Pb precipitates.

Usmar, S. G.; Wright, R. N.

1992-07-01

251

Elasticity effects on cavitation in a squeeze film damper undergoing noncentered circular whirl  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elasticity of the liner and its effects on cavitation were numerically determined for a squeeze film damper subjected to dynamic loading. The loading was manifested as a prescribed motion of the rotor undergoing noncentered circular whirl. The boundary conditions were implemented using Elrod's algorithm which conserves lineal mass flux through the moving cavitation bubble as well as the oil film region of the damper. Computational movies were used to analyze the rapidly changing pressures and vapor bubble dynamics throughout the dynamic cycle for various flexibilities in the damper liner. The effects of liner elasticity on cavitation were only noticeable for the intermediate and high values of viscosity used in this study.

Brewe, David E.

1988-01-01

252

Cavitating Flow over a Mini Hydrofoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a cavitating flow over a mini hydrofoil (foil profile: Clark-Y-11.7) having a 14 mm chord length in a cavitation tunnel at various cavitation numbers. Experimental observations show that cavitating flows over a miniature hydrofoil display several types of cavitation behavior, such as cavitation inception, sheet cavitation, cloud cavitation and super cavitation with the decreasing cavitation number. Under the same cavitation conditions, cavitation over a mini hydrofoil would be suppressed in comparison to cavitation over an ordinary hydrofoil. This cavitation scale effect is suspected to be caused by the Reynolds number.

Luo, Xian-Wu; Ji, Bin; Zhang, Yao; Xu, Hong-Yuan

2012-01-01

253

Application of computational fluid dynamics on cavitation in journal bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Journal bearings are applied in internal combustion engines due to their favourable wearing quality and operating characteristics. Under certain operating conditions damage of the journal bearing can occur caused by cavitation. The cavitation reduces the load capacity and leads to material erosion. Experimental investigations of cavitating flows in dimension of real journal bearing are difficult to realize or almost impossible caused by the small gap and transient flow conditions. Therefore numerical simulation is a very helpful engineering tool to research the cavitation behaviour. The CFD-Code OpenFOAM is used to analyse the flow field inside the bearing. The numerical cavitation model based on a bubble dynamic approach and requires necessary initial parameter for the calculation, such as nuclei bubble diameter, the number of nuclei and two empirical constants. The first part of this paper shows the influence of these parameters on the solution. For the adjustment of the parameters an experiment of Jakobsson et.al. [1] was used to validate the numerical flow model. The parameters have been varied according to the method Design of Experiments (DoE). With a defined model equation the parameters determined, to identify the parameter for CFD-calculations in comparison to the experimental values. The second part of the paper presents investigations on different geometrical changes in the bearing geometry. The effect of these geometrical changes on cavitation was compared with experimental results from Wollfarth [2] and Garner et.al. [3].

Riedel, Marco; Schmidt, Marcus; Reinke, Peter; Nobis, Matthias; Redlich, Marcel

2014-03-01

254

Jet orientation of a collapsing bubble near a solid wall with an attached air bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between a cavitation bubble and a non-oscillating air bubble attached to a horizontal polyvinyl chloride plate submerged in de-ionized water is investigated using a low-voltage spark-discharge setup. The attached air bubble is approximately hemi-spherical in shape, and its proximity to a spark-induced oscillating bubble (represented by the dimensionless stand-off distance H') determines whether or not a jet is formed in the oscillating bubble during its collapse. When the oscillating bubble is created close to the plate, it jets towards or away from the plate. The ratio of oscillating bubble oscillation time and the wall-attached bubble oscillation time (T ') is found to be an important parameter for determining the jet direction. This is validated with numerical simulations using an axial-symmetrical boundary element model. Our study highlights prospects in reducing cavitation damage with a stationary bubble, and in utilizing a cavitation collapse jet by controlling the jet's direction.

Goh, B. H. T.; Ohl, S. W.; Klaseboer, E.; Khoo, B. C.

2014-04-01

255

Effect of dilute polymer additives on the acoustic cavitation threshold of water  

SciTech Connect

Measurements are presented of the variation of the acoustic cavitation threshold of water with concentration of the polymer additives polyethylene oxide and guar gum. It was found that small amounts of these additives could significantly increase the cavitation threshold. A theoretical model, based upon nucleation of a gas bubble from a Harvey-type crevice in a mote or solid particle, is developed that gives good agreement with the measurements. The applicability of this approach to an explanation of cavitation index reduction in flow-generated or confined jet cavitation, when polymer additives are introduced, is discussed.

Crum, L.A.; Brosey, J.E.

1984-02-01

256

Control of inertial acoustic cavitation in pulsed sonication using a real-time feedback loop system.  

PubMed

Owing to the complex behavior of ultrasound-induced bubble clouds (nucleation, linear and nonlinear oscillations, collapse), acoustic cavitation remains a hardly controllable phenomenon, leading to poorly reproducible ultrasound-based therapies. A better control of the various aspects of cavitation phenomena for in vivo applications is a key requirement to improve emerging ultrasound therapies. Previous publications have reported on systems performing regulation of acoustic cavitation in continuous sonication when applied in vitro, but the main challenge today is to achieve real-time control of cavitation activity in pulsed sonication when used in vivo. The present work aims at developing a system to control acoustic cavitation in a pulsed wave condition using a real-time feedback loop. The experimental setup consists of a water bath in which is submerged a focused transducer (pulsed waves, frequency 550?kHz) used for sonication and a hydrophone used to listen to inertial cavitation. The designed regulation process allows the cavitation activity to be controlled through a 300??s feedback loop. Without regulation, cavitation exhibits numerous bursts of intense activity and large variations of inertial cavitation level over time. In a regulated regime, the control of inertial cavitation activity within a pulse leads to consistent cavitation levels over time with an enhancement of the reproducibility. PMID:23927204

Desjouy, Cyril; Poizat, Adrien; Gilles, Bruno; Inserra, Claude; Bera, Jean-Christophe

2013-08-01

257

Cavitational hydrothermal oxidation: A new remediation process. Annual progress report, September 1996--August 1997  

SciTech Connect

'During the past year, the authors have continued to make substantial scientific progress on the understanding of cavitation phenomena in aqueous media and applications of cavitation to remediation processes. The efforts have focused on three separate areas: sonoluminescence as a probe of conditions created during cavitational collapse in aqueous media, the use of cavitation for remediation of contaminated water, and an addition of the use of ultrasound in the synthesis of novel heterogeneous catalysts for hydrodehalogenation of halocarbons under mild conditions. In order to gain further understanding of the conditions present during cavitation, the author has continued his studies of sonoluminescence. He has made recent breakthroughs in the use of emission spectroscopy for temperature and pressure measurement of cavitation events, which he expects to publish shortly. He has been able to measure for the first time the temperature of cavitation in water during multi-bubble cavitation in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. The emission from excited states of C{sub 2} in water gives temperatures that are consistent with adiabatic compressional heating, with maximum temperatures of 4,300 K. Prior measurements of cavitation temperatures in low vapor pressure nonaqueous media gave somewhat higher temperatures of 5,000 K. This work lays permanently to rest exotic mechanisms for cavitational chemistry, at least for cavitation fields.'

Suslick, K.S.

1997-11-21

258

Cavitational hydrothermal oxidation: A new remediation process. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The primary goal is to develop a quantitative understanding of cavitation phenomena in aqueous media and the development of applications of cavitation to remediation processes. Efforts have focused on three separate areas: sonoluminescence as a probe of conditions created during cavitational collapse in aqueous media, the use of cavitation for remediation of contaminated water, and an addition of the use of ultrasound in the synthesis of novel heterogeneous catalysts for hydrodehalogenation of halocarbons under mild conditions. This report summarizes work after one year of a three year project. In order to gain further understanding of the conditions present during cavitation, the author has continued his studies of sonoluminescence. He has made recent breakthroughs in the use of emission spectroscopy for temperature and pressure measurement of cavitation events, which he expects to publish shortly. He has been able to measure for the first time the temperature of cavitation in water during multi-bubble cavitation in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. The emission from excited states of C{sub 2} in water gives temperatures that are consistent with adiabatic compressional heating, with maximum temperatures of 4,300 K. Prior measurements of cavitation temperatures in low vapor pressure nonaqueous media gave somewhat higher temperatures of 5,000 K. This work lays permanently to rest exotic mechanisms for cavitational chemistry, at least for cavitation fields.'

Suslick, K.S.

1998-06-01

259

Evaluation and interpretation of bubble size distributions in pulsed megasonic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of acoustic cavitation is incorporating a multitude of interdependent effects that strongly depend on the bubble size. Therefore, bubble size control would be beneficial for biological and industrial processes that rely on acoustic cavitation. A pulsed acoustic field can result in bubble size control and the repeated dissolution and reactivation ("recycling") of potentially active bubbles. As a consequence, a pulsed field can strongly enhance cavitation activity. In this paper, we present a modified methodology for the evaluation of the active bubble size distribution by means of a combination of cavitation noise measurements and ultrasonic pulsing. The key component of this modified methodology is the definition of an upper size limit, below which bubbles—in between subsequent pulses—have to dissolve, in order to be sustainably recycled. This upper limit makes it possible to explain and link the enhancement of cavitation activity to a bubble size distribution. The experimentally determined bubble size distributions for different power densities are interpreted in the frame of numerical calculations of the oscillatory responses of the bubbles to the intermittent driving sound field. The distributions are found to be shaped by the size dependent interplay between bubble pulsations, rectified diffusion, coalescence, and the development of parametrically amplified shape instabilities. Also, a phenomenological reactivation-deactivation model is proposed to explain and quantify the observed enhancement of cavitation activity under pulsed, with respect to continuous sonication. In this model, the pulse-duration determines the magnitude of the reactivation of partially dissolved bubbles and the deactivation of activated bubbles by coalescence. It is shown that the subsequent recycling of previously active bubbles leads to an accumulation of cavitation activity, which saturates after a certain number of pulses. The model is fitted to the experimental data for the cavitation activity measured by means of ultraharmonic cavitation noise as a function of the pulse duration. Measurements of the development of the cavitation noise and sonochemiluminescence over a sequence of pulses for different pulse durations and separations confirm the general validity of the proposed model. Size distributions of the larger, inactive bubbles that were extracted from High-speed images of the cavitation field, relate the deactivation of activated bubbles by coalescence to the increase in volume concentrations of larger bubbles as observed by others.

Hauptmann, M.; Struyf, H.; De Gendt, S.; Glorieux, C.; Brems, S.

2013-05-01

260

ON THE DYNAMICS AND ACOUSTICS OF CLOUD CAVITATION ON AN OSCILLATING HYDROFOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations have been made of the growth and collapse of surface and cloud cavitation on a finite aspect ratio hydrofoil oscillating in pitch. The cavitation was recorded using both still and high-speed motion picture photography, and the variations with cavitation number and reduced frequency of oscillation were investigated. The noise generated by the cavity collapse was also measured and analyzed.

E. A. McKenney; Christopher E. Brennen

261

Effect of micro/nano-particles in cavitation erosion.  

PubMed

The tests in de-ionized water with micro/nano CeO2 particles are carried out to study the effect of the micro/nano particles in inception of cavitation erosion. The existence of micro/nano particles is found to be the requisite factor and the degree of cavitation erosion is related to the sizes of the particles. Particles in the micro/nano scale may act as the transporters of micro bubbles to keep or get close to the solid surface together and the pressure fluctuation induced by the surface roughness causes the collapse of bubbles and erosion of the surface. Discrete phase models are employed to simulation the moving tracks of the particles. The sizes of the particles affect their capabilities of keeping and getting close to the surface. The effect of the particles of a certain size in cavitation erosion is determined by the combinational action of the two. PMID:19441392

Li, Y J; Chen, H S; Chen, D R; Wang, J D

2009-02-01

262

Cavitation pressure in liquid helium F. Caupin and S. Balibar  

E-print Network

intensity acoustic wave in bulk liquid helium, far from any wall. If one wants to approach the spin- odalCavitation pressure in liquid helium F. Caupin and S. Balibar Laboratoire de Physique Statistique nucleation of bubbles occurs in liquid helium near the calculated spinodal limit. This was done in pure

Balibar, Sébastien

263

Time-resolved imaging of cavitation effects during laser lithotripsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We devised a diagnostic technique based on a pump-and-probe scheme that provided time- resolved imaging of photofragmentation effects during laser lithotripsy. The evolution of the cavitation bubble induced on kidney stone samples by underwater irradiation with a XeCl excimer laser is presented and analyzed.

S. Siano; Roberto Pini; Renzo Salimbeni; Matteo Vannini

1995-01-01

264

Investigation of noninertial cavitation produced by an ultrasonic horn  

E-print Network

Investigation of noninertial cavitation produced by an ultrasonic horn Peter R. Birkin,a) Douglas G by collating the data from a range of measurements of bubbles trapped on a solid surface in this noninertial of the complex environment produced below an operating ultrasonic horn outside of the region where inertial

Sóbester, András

265

Separating nonlinear propagation and cavitation effects in HIFU  

Microsoft Academic Search

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can destroy tumors or stop internal bleeding. The primary physical mechanism in HIFU is the conversion of acoustic energy to heat, which as HIFU amplitude increases is enhanced by nonlinear acoustic propagation and nonlinear scattering from bubbles. The goal of this work is to study and separate the effects of nonlinear propagation and cavitation during

Justin A. Reed; Michael R. Bailey; Marie Nakazawa; Lawrence A. Crum; Vera A. Khokhlova

2003-01-01

266

Sound field measurement in a double layer cavitation cluster by rugged miniature needle hydrophones.  

PubMed

During multi-bubble cavitation the bubbles tend to organize themselves into clusters and thus the understanding of properties and dynamics of clustering is essential for controlling technical applications of cavitation. Sound field measurements are a potential technique to provide valuable experimental information about the status of cavitation clouds. Using purpose-made, rugged, wide band, and small-sized needle hydrophones, sound field measurements in bubble clusters were performed and time-dependent sound pressure waveforms were acquired and analyzed in the frequency domain up to 20MHz. The cavitation clusters were synchronously observed by an electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) camera and the relation between the sound field measurements and cluster behaviour was investigated. Depending on the driving power, three ranges could be identified and characteristic properties were assigned. At low power settings no transient and no or very low stable cavitation activity can be observed. The medium range is characterized by strong pressure peaks and various bubble cluster forms. At high power a stable double layer was observed which grew with further increasing power and became quite dynamic. The sound field was irregular and the fundamental at driving frequency decreased. Between the bubble clouds completely different sound field properties were found in comparison to those in the cloud where the cavitation activity is high. In between the sound field pressure amplitude was quite small and no collapses were detected. PMID:24953962

Koch, Christian

2014-06-01

267

ELSEVIER Earth and Planetary Science Letters 160 (1998) 763776 Bubble growth in highly viscous melts: theory, experiments, and  

E-print Network

bubbles observed in melt pockets between large bubbles in pumice represent a second nucleation event: vesicular texture; experimental studies; numerical models; shield volcanoes; pumice 1. Introduction

Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

268

Impact of bubble size on growth and CO2 uptake of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis KMMCC CY-007.  

PubMed

Optimisation of cyanobacterial cell productivity should consider the key factors light cycle and carbon source. We studied the influence of CO2 bubble size on carbon uptake and fixation, on basis of mRNA expression levels in Arthrospira platensis KMMCC CY-007 at 30°C (light intensity: 40?molm(-2)s(-1); 1% CO2). Growth rate, carbon fixation and lipid accumulation were examined over 7days under fine bubble (FB) (100?m Ø) bulk bubble (BB) (5000?m Ø) and non-CO2 (NB) aeration. The low affinity CO2 uptake mRNA (NDH-I4 complex) was stronger expressed than the high affinity NDH-I3 complex (bicA and sbtA) under 1% CO2 and FB conditions, with no expression of bicA1 and sbtA1 after 4days. The high affinity CO2 uptake mRNA levels corresponded to biomass, carbon content and lipid accumulation, and increase in NDH-I3 complex (9.72-fold), bicA (5.69-fold), and sbtA (10.61-fold), compared to NB, or BB conditions. PMID:25151075

Kim, Kisok; Choi, Jaeho; Ji, Yosep; Park, Soyoung; Do, Hyungki; Hwang, Cherwon; Lee, Bongju; Holzapfel, Wilhelm

2014-10-01

269

The Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Cavitation Evolution Induced by Pressure Wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study is focused on the numerical simulation of pressure wave propagation through the cavitating compressible liquid flow, its interaction with cavitation bubble and the resulting unsteady cavitation evolution. The compressibility effects of liquid water are taken into account and the cavitating flow is governed by one-fluid cavitation model which is based on the compressible Euler equations with the assumption that the cavitation is the homogeneous mixture of liquid and vapour which are locally under both kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium. Several aspects of the method employed to solve the governing equations are outlined. The unsteady features of cavitating flow due to the external perturbation, such as the cavitation deformation and collapse and consequent pressure increase are resolved numerically and discussed in detail. It is observed that the cavitation bubble collapse is accompanied by the huge pressure surge of order of 100 bar, which is thought to be responsible for the material erosion, noise, vibration and loss of efficiency of operating underwater devices.

Khoo, B. C.; Zheng, J. G.

2014-11-01

270

Experimental and numerical analysis of cavitating flow around a hydrofoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes experiments carried out in the cavitation tunnel with the rectangular test section of 150 × 150 × 500 mm and the maximum test section inlet velocity of 25 m/s. These experiments have been aimed to visualize the cavitation phenomena as well as to quantify the erosion potential using pitting tests evaluated during the incubation period for the cast-iron prismatic hydrofoil with the modified NACA profile. A bypass section installed in the tunnel has allowed to measure the nuclei content in the inlet flow to the test section using the acoustic spectrometer. The measured data have been compared with the CFD analysis of the cavitation phenomena on the hydrofoil as well as the numerically determined location and magnitude of the first calculated collapses of the cavitating bubbles with a good agreement.

Sedlá?, Milan; Komárek, Martin; Vyroubal, Michal; Müller, Miloš

2012-04-01

271

A real-time controller for sustaining thermally relevant acoustic cavitation during ultrasound therapy.  

PubMed

A novel method for sustaining inertial cavitation during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposure in an agar-based tissue-mimicking material is presented. Inertial cavitation occurs during HIFU therapy when the local rarefaction pressure exceeds the inertial cavitation threshold of the insonated medium, and is characterized by broadband acoustic emissions which can be easily detected non-invasively using a passive cavitation detector (PCD). Under the right conditions, inertial cavitation has been previously shown to greatly enhance the rate of heat deposition by redistributing part of the energy carried at the fundamental HIFU frequency to higher frequencies, which are more readily absorbed by visco-elastic media such as soft tissue. However, in the absence of any cavitation control, inertial cavitation activity at the focus decays rapidly over a few seconds of exposure because of the combined effects of cavitation nuclei depletion, bubble dissolution, bubble-bubble interactions, increased vapor pressure caused by heating, and focal shielding caused by pre-focal bubble activity. The present work describes the design, validation, and testing of a real-time adaptive controller, with integrated passive localization capabilities, for sustaining inertial cavitation within the focal region of a HIFU transducer by modulation of the HIFU amplitude. Use of the controller in agar gel, originally at room temperature, has enabled therapeutically relevant temperatures in excess of 55°C to be maintained continuously in the focal region for more than 20 s using significantly less acoustic energy than is required to achieve the same temperature rise in the absence of cavitation control. PMID:21156364

Hockham, Natalie; Coussios, Constantin C; Arora, Manish

2010-12-01

272

Repeated growth and bubbling transfer of graphene with millimetre-size single-crystal grains using platinum  

PubMed Central

Large single-crystal graphene is highly desired and important for the applications of graphene in electronics, as grain boundaries between graphene grains markedly degrade its quality and properties. Here we report the growth of millimetre-sized hexagonal single-crystal graphene and graphene films joined from such grains on Pt by ambient-pressure chemical vapour deposition. We report a bubbling method to transfer these single graphene grains and graphene films to arbitrary substrate, which is nondestructive not only to graphene, but also to the Pt substrates. The Pt substrates can be repeatedly used for graphene growth. The graphene shows high crystal quality with the reported lowest wrinkle height of 0.8 nm and a carrier mobility of greater than 7,100 cm2 V?1 s?1 under ambient conditions. The repeatable growth of graphene with large single-crystal grains on Pt and its nondestructive transfer may enable various applications. PMID:22426220

Gao, Libo; Ren, Wencai; Xu, Huilong; Jin, Li; Wang, Zhenxing; Ma, Teng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Lian-Mao; Bao, Xinhe; Cheng, Hui-Ming

2012-01-01

273

Comparison between phase field simulations and experimental data from intragranular bubble growth in UO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we used the phase field method to simulate the post-irradiation annealing of UO{sub 2} described in the experimental work by Kashibe et al., 1993 [1]. The simulations were carried out in 2D and 3D using the MARMOT FEM-based phase-field modeling framework. The 2-D results compared fairly well with the experiments, in spite of the assumptions made in the model. The 3-D results compare even more favorably to experiments, indicating that diffusion in all three directions must be considered to accurate represent the bubble growth. (authors)

Tonks, M. R.; Biner, S. B.; Mille, P. C. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625 MS 3830, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Andersson, D. A. [MST-8, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2013-07-01

274

Detecting cavitation in vivo from shock-wave therapy devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) has been used as a treatment for plantar faciitis, lateral epicondylitis, shoulder tendonitis, non-unions, and other indications where conservative treatments have been unsuccessful. However, in many areas, the efficacy of SW treatment has not been well established, and the mechanism of action, particularly the role of cavitation, is not well understood. Research indicates cavitation plays an important role in other ultrasound therapies, such as lithotripsy and focused ultrasound surgery, and in some instances, cavitation has been used as a means to monitor or detect a biological effect. Although ESWT can generate cavitation easily in vitro, it is unknown whether or not cavitation is a significant factor in vivo. The purpose of this investigation is to use diagnostic ultrasound to detect and monitor cavitation generated by ESWT devices in vivo. Diagnostic images are collected at various times during and after treatment. The images are then post-processed with image-processing algorithms to enhance the contrast between bubbles and surrounding tissue. The ultimate goal of this research is to utilize cavitation as a means for optimizing shock wave parameters such as amplitude and pulse repetition frequency. [Work supported by APL internal funds and NIH DK43881 and DK55674.

Matula, Thomas J.; Yu, Jinfei; Bailey, Michael R.

2005-04-01

275

Bubble shrinkage and growth: A solution to carbon dioxide dissolution and solubility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic and equilibrium aspects of carbon dioxide transport across gas-liquid interfaces impact a wide range of technical, physiological and geological applications. We investigate carbon dioxide transport by continuously guiding a train of uniformly sized carbon dioxide bubbles and non-saturated liquid segments through a microchannel. The bubbles initially shrink and later expand. We quantitatively link the evolution of the bubble size to kinetic and equilibrium characteristics of carbon dioxide dissolution. While the initial velocity of carbon dioxide bubbles and the length of liquid segments significantly affect the dissolution of carbon dioxide, these parameters cannot be externally imposed, due to the dynamic nature of microscale gas-liquid flows. We use an automated microfluidic platform (gas impermeable) in combination with an image-based feedback control strategy to keep the dependent parameters constant and systematically determine the rate of carbon dioxide dissolution and the equilibrium solubility of carbon dioxide-liquid mixtures for a wide range of pressures, temperatures and liquids in a flowable format.

Abolhasani, Milad; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Guenther, Axel

2011-11-01

276

Monitoring bubble growth in supersaturated blood and tissue ex vivo and the relevance to  

E-print Network

, and Thomas J. Matula Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University, and blood. Bubble detection was achieved with a diagnostic ultrasound scanner. Under the conditions by diagnostic ultrasound systems, used routinely worldwide to image the progress of healthy as well

277

Bubbles of Metamorphosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metamorphosis presents a puzzling challenge where, triggered by a signal, an organism abruptly transforms its entire shape and form. Here I describe the role of physical fluid dynamic processes during pupal metamorphosis in flies. During early stages of pupation of third instar larvae into adult flies, a physical gas bubble nucleates at a precise temporal and spatial location, as part of the normal developmental program in Diptera. Although its existence has been known for the last 100 years, the origin and control of this ``cavitation'' event has remained completely mysterious. Where does the driving negative pressure for bubble nucleation come from? How is the location of the bubble nucleation site encoded in the pupae? How do molecular processes control such a physical event? What is the role of this bubble during development? Via developing in-vivo imaging techniques, direct bio-physical measurements in live insect pupal structures and physical modeling, here I elucidate the physical mechanism for appearance and disappearance of this bubble and predict the site of nucleation and its exact timing. This new physical insight into the process of metamorphosis also allows us to understand the inherent design of pupal shell architectures in various species of insects.

Prakash, Manu

2011-11-01

278

Cav03-GS-2-013 Fifth International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2003) Osaka, Japan, November 1-4, 2003  

E-print Network

Cav03-GS-2-013 Fifth International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2003) Osaka, Japan, November 1 intensive to implement into a continuum model for bubbly cavitating flows, since the diffusion equations of the aver- age heat and mass transfer coefficients. The model captures the damping effects of the diffusion

Dabiri, John O.

279

Macroscopic ESWL-induced cavitation: in vitro studies.  

PubMed

The rarefaction shock wave results in a liquid failure at the target/fluid interface. In the wake of the reflected ESWL-induced shock wave, a macroscopic cavity is generated in filtered water. The cavity implosion induces a large shock wave, divulging the bubble existence and lifetime. The existence of this shock wave is revealed by the diffraction of a He-Ne laser beam. The induced cavitation bubbles are registered by a camera, illuminated by an externally triggered stroboscope (exposure time 10 microseconds). The radius of the large cavity bubble, generated at the stone surface, is time dependent as theoretically predicted. PMID:7645130

Pittomvils, G; Lafaut, J P; Vandeursen, H; De Ridder, D; Baert, L; Boving, R

1995-01-01

280

Approximations for acoustically excited bubble cluster dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the effect of interaction on the expansion of a bubble in a regular monodisperse cluster is investigated. By a geometric construction a two-dimensional ordinary differential equation with an exact expression for first-order bubble interactions is derived for an n-bubble model. An approximate equation is derived for the rapid expansion of the bubble which can be solved yielding an analytic expression for the collapse of a bubble which undergoes inertial cavitation. It is then demonstrated that the maximum volume of a bubble in a cluster is considerably less than that of a single bubble. This result is of significance as typically the dispersion relationship, the wave speed and the co-efficient of attenuation are calculated using a single bubble model and summed for the total number of bubbles to yield the void fraction. Furthermore it is shown that the maximum radius of a bubble in the cluster is considerably smaller than that of a single bubble, yet the duration of the collapse phase is only weakly dependent on the number of bubbles. Hence, it is conjectured that the likelihood of fragmentation due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability is reduced. The results from the analysis are in good agreement with full numerical simulations of multi-bubble dynamics, as well as experimental observations

Sinden, D.; Stride, E.; Saffari, N.

2012-03-01

281

Bubble Proliferation in Shock Wave Lithotripsy Occurs during Inertial Collapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), firing shock pulses at slow pulse repetition frequency (0.5 Hz) is more effective at breaking kidney stones than firing shock waves (SWs) at fast rate (2 Hz). Since at fast rate the number of cavitation bubbles increases, it appears that bubble proliferation reduces the efficiency of SWL. The goal of this work was to determine

Yuri A. Pishchalnikov; James A. McAteer; Irina V. Pishchalnikova; James C. Williams; Michael R. Bailey; Oleg A. Sapozhnikov

2008-01-01

282

Bubble Proliferation in Shock Wave Lithotripsy Occurs during Inertial Collapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), firing shock pulses at slow pulse repetition frequency (0.5Hz) is more effective at breaking kidney stones than firing shock waves (SWs) at fast rate (2Hz). Since at fast rate the number of cavitation bubbles increases, it appears that bubble proliferation reduces the efficiency of SWL. The goal of this work was to determine the basis

Yuri A. Pishchalnikov; James A. McAteer; Irina V. Pishchalnikova; James C. Williams; Michael R. Bailey; Oleg A. Sapozhnikov

283

Onset of cavitation in the quark-gluon plasma  

E-print Network

We study the onset of bubble formation (cavitation) in the quark-gluon plasma as a result of the reduction of the effective pressure from bulk-viscous corrections. By calculating velocity gradients in typical models for quark-gluon plasma evolution in heavy-ion collisions, we obtain results for the critical bulk viscosity above which cavitation occurs. Since present experimental data for heavy-ion collisions seems inconsistent with the presence of bubbles above the phase transition temperature of QCD, our results may be interpreted as an upper limit of the bulk viscosity in nature. Our results indicate that bubble formation is consistent with the expectation of hadronisation in low-temperature QCD.

Mathis Habich; Paul Romatschke

2014-05-08

284

Cavitation Inception in the Frequency Range of Relevance to Diagnostic Ultrasound.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation is generated in distilled water by 2.46 MHz and 4.3 MHz acoustic waves. Several different sizes of polystyrene particle are added as potential nuclei. An improved Active Cavitation Detector (ACD) is used to detect the cavitation by transmitting a tone burst and receiving a backscattered signal from the cavitation. The Mechanical Indices(MIs) corresponding to the cavitation thresholds are calculated. Measured cavitation thresholds and the corresponding MIs are in the range of commercial diagnostic ultrasound equipment. A theory for the transient Doppler frequency shift from a tone burst scattering from a dynamic bubble is developed to lay the ground for extracting cavitation information from a noisy environment. Both digital methods and an analog method are applied to analyze the frequency information from the backscattered signal. The digital methods give quantitative information, whereas the analog method is superior for real time applications. Ultrasound at 2.46 MHz is used to cause cavitation in blood samples of different volume fractions of red blood cell (RBC). The cavitation thresholds, which are measured by the ACD, increase linearly with the concentration of RBC. The measured cavitation thresholds and the corresponding MI are also in the upper range of commercial diagnostic ultrasound systems.

Xu, Qihong

1994-01-01

285

Bubble Mania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners practice measurement skills as they examine a soap bubble print. Learners follow a recipe to make a soap bubble solution. They use the soapy solution to blow large bubbles with a plastic drinking straw until the bubbles pop, leaving behind circular prints. Learners find the diameter, circumference, and area of the bubble print.

Pbs

2012-01-01

286

Experimental determination of cavitation thresholds in liquid water and mercury  

SciTech Connect

It is well-known that fluids (like solids) will break apart or form voids when put under sufficient tension. The present study has been motivated by the need to evaluate the impact of fluid cavitation in spallation neutron source target systems, more specifically for the proposed 1-MW Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project, which is being designed in collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory. Indeed, results of SNS-specific simulations have indicated that the onset of cavitation could play a very significant role in reducing imposed stresses in structural components of the SNS. In general, the cavitation of fluids is target systems is important to consider for a variety of reasons. Its occurrence can have significant impact on heat transfer, pressure pulse generation, fluid jetting on to structures, surface erosion, stresses induced in enclosures, etc. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the threshold pressure under which the fluid in tension will undergo cavitation. Another major aspect concerns the possible onset of cavitation in an oscillating pressure field; i.e., one would need to know if fluids such as mercury and water will cavitate if the imposed tensile pressure in the fluid is of short duration. If indeed it takes sufficiently long for cavitation bubbles to nucleate, then it would be possible to disregard the complexities involved with addressing cavitation-related issues. This paper provides an overview of preliminary work done to date to derive information on cavitation onset in a relatively static and in a high-frequency environment.

Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Gulec, K.; West, C.D.; Haines, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-09-01

287

Can Cavitation Be Anticipated?  

SciTech Connect

The major problem with cavitation in pumps and hydraulic systems is that there is no effective (conventional) method for detecting or predicting its inception. The traditional method of recognizing cavitation in a pump is to declare the event occurring when the total head drops by some arbitrary value (typically 3%) in response to a pressure reduction at the pump inlet. However, the device is already seriously cavitating when this happens. What is actually needed is a practical method to detect impending rather than incipient cavitation. Whereas the detection of incipient cavitation requires the detection of features just after cavitation starts, the anticipation of cavitation requires the detection and identification of precursor features just before it begins. Two recent advances that make this detection possible. The first is acoustic sensors with a bandwidth of 1 MHz and a dynamic range of 80 dB that preserve the fine details of the features when subjected to coarse vibrations. The second is the application of Bayesian parameter estimation which makes it possible to separate weak signals, such as those present in cavitation precursors, from strong signals, such as pump vibration. Bayesian parameter estimation derives a model based on cavitation hydrodynamics and produces a figure of merit of how well it fits the acquired data. Applying this model to an anticipatory engine should lead to a reliable method of anticipating cavitation before it occurs. This paper reports the findings of precursor features using high-performance sensors and Bayesian analysis of weak acoustic emissions in the 100-1000kHz band from an experimental flow loop.

Allgood, G.O.; Dress, W.B.; Hylton, J.O.; Kercel, S.W.

1999-04-25

288

Concentration Evolution of Gas Species within a Collapsing Bubble in a Liquid Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study numerical methods are used to investigate the relationship between chemical concentration of gas species within a cavitating bubble, equilibrium radius of the gas bubble and pressure variations in the ambient liquid. For this purpose, governing equations are developed to describe the dynamic equilibrium of a bubble in a flowing fluid and mass transfer between gas and liquid

Wonyong Jang; Mustafa M. Aral

2003-01-01

289

Cavitation by spall fracture of solid walls in liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments are carried out to investigate the cavitation process induced by the spill-off from material from a surface in a liquid environment. Therefore, a simplified physical model was designed which allows the optical observation of the process next to a transparent glass rod submerged in a liquid where the rod is forced to fracture at a pre-defined groove. High-speed shadow-imaging and refractive index matching allow observation of the dynamics of the cavitation generation and cavitation bubble breakdown together with the flow. The results show that the initial phase of spill-off is a vertical lift-off of the rod from the surface that is normal to the direction of pendulum impact. A cavitation bubble is immediately formed during spill-off process and grows in size until lateral motion of the rod sets in. While the rod is transported away, the bubble shrinks into hyperbolic shape and finally collapses. This process is regarded as one contributing factor to the high efficiency of hydro-abrasive wear.

Mikulich, V.; Brücker, Ch.

2014-07-01

290

Cavitation in flowing superfluid helium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flowing superfluid helium cavitates much more readily than normal liquid helium, and there is a marked difference in the cavitation behavior of the two fluids as the lambda point is traversed. Examples of cavitation in a turbine meter and centrifugal pump are given, together with measurements of the cavitation strength of flowing superfluid helium. The unusual cavitation behavior of superfluid helium is attributed to its immense thermal conductivity .

Daney, D. E.

1988-01-01

291

Acoustic cavitation studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary thrust of this study was toward a more complete understanding of general aspects of acoustic cavitation. The effect of long-chain polymer additives on the cavitation threshold was investigated to determine if they reduced the acoustic cavitation threshold in a similar manner to the observed reduction in the cavitation index in hydrodynamic cavitation. Measurements were made of the acoustic cavitation threshold as a function of polymer concentration for additives such as guar gum and polyethelene oxide. The measurements were also made as a function of dissolved gas concentration, surface tension and viscosity. It was determined that there was a significant increase in the acoustic cavitation threshold for increased concentrations of the polymer additives (measurable effects could be obtained for concentrations as low as a few parts per million). One would normally expect that an additive that reduces surface tension to decrease the pressure required to cause a cavity to grow and thus these additives, at first thought, should reduce the threshold. However, even in the hydrodynamic case, the threshold was increased. In both of the hydrodynamic cases considered, the explanation for the increased threshold was given in terms of changed fluid dynamics rather than changed physical properties of the fluid.

Crum, L. A.

1981-09-01

292

Effect of geometrical parameters on submerged cavitation jet discharged from profiled central-body nozzle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow characteristics of cavitation jets are essential issues among relevant studies. The physical properties of the jet are largely determined by the geometrical parameters of the nozzle. The structure and cavitation jets characteristics of the angular-nozzle and the self-resonating cavitation nozzle have been extensively studied, but little research is conducted in the central-body cavitation nozzle mainly because of its hard processing and the cavitation jet effect not satisfactory. In this paper, a novel central-body nozzle (a non-plunger central-body nozzle with square outlet) is studied to solve above problems. Submerged jets discharged from the novel central-body nozzle are simulated, employing the full cavitation model. The impact of nozzle configuration on jet properties is analyzed. The analysis results indicate that when central-body relative diameter keeps constant, there is an optimal contraction degree of nozzle's outlet, which can induce intense cavitation in the jet. The central-body relative diameter also affects jet profiles. In the case of large central-body relative diameter, most of the bubbles settle in the jet core. On the contrary, a smaller relative diameter makes bubbles concentrate in the interface between the jet and its surrounding fluid. Moreover, the shorter outlet part allows the cavitation zone further extend in both the axial and racial directions. The research results further consummate the study on the central-body nozzles and the correlation between cavitation jet and the structure, and elementarily reveal the mechanism of cavitation jet produced in a non-plunger novel central-body nozzle and the effect of the structure parameters on the cavitation jet, moreover, provide the theoretical basis for the optimal design of the nozzle.

Yang, Minguan; Xiao, Shengnan; Kang, Can; Wang, Yuli

2013-05-01

293

Numerical Study on the Inhibition of Cavitation in Piping Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abrupt closing valve in piping systems is sometimes resulted in cavitation due to the occurrence of high pressure difference. The bubbles generating by cavitation influence operating pressure and then those generate shock wave and vibration. These phenomena can consequentially cause to corrosion and erosion. So, the cavitation is the important factor to consider reliability of piping systems and mechanical lifetime. This paper investigated the various inhibition methods of cavitation in piping systems in which butterfly valves are installed. To prevent cavitation occurrence, it is desirable to analyze its characteristics between the upstream and downstream of process valve. Results show that the fluid velocity is fast when a working fluid passed through butterfly valve. The pressure of these areas was not only under saturation vapor pressure of water, but also cavitation was continuously occurred. We confirmed that the effect of existence of inserted orifice and influence to break condition under saturation vapor pressure of water. Results were graphically depicted by pressure distribution, velocity distribution, and vapor volume fraction.

Byeon, Sun Seok; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Youn-Jea

294

Detecting vapour bubbles in simulations of metastable water.  

PubMed

The investigation of cavitation in metastable liquids with molecular simulations requires an appropriate definition of the volume of the vapour bubble forming within the metastable liquid phase. Commonly used approaches for bubble detection exhibit two significant flaws: first, when applied to water they often identify the voids within the hydrogen bond network as bubbles thus masking the signature of emerging bubbles and, second, they lack thermodynamic consistency. Here, we present two grid-based methods, the M-method and the V-method, to detect bubbles in metastable water specifically designed to address these shortcomings. The M-method incorporates information about neighbouring grid cells to distinguish between liquid- and vapour-like cells, which allows for a very sensitive detection of small bubbles and high spatial resolution of the detected bubbles. The V-method is calibrated such that its estimates for the bubble volume correspond to the average change in system volume and are thus thermodynamically consistent. Both methods are computationally inexpensive such that they can be used in molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations of cavitation. We illustrate them by computing the free energy barrier and the size of the critical bubble for cavitation in water at negative pressure. PMID:25399176

González, Miguel A; Menzl, Georg; Aragones, Juan L; Geiger, Philipp; Caupin, Frederic; Abascal, Jose L F; Dellago, Christoph; Valeriani, Chantal

2014-11-14

295

Detecting vapour bubbles in simulations of metastable water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation of cavitation in metastable liquids with molecular simulations requires an appropriate definition of the volume of the vapour bubble forming within the metastable liquid phase. Commonly used approaches for bubble detection exhibit two significant flaws: first, when applied to water they often identify the voids within the hydrogen bond network as bubbles thus masking the signature of emerging bubbles and, second, they lack thermodynamic consistency. Here, we present two grid-based methods, the M-method and the V-method, to detect bubbles in metastable water specifically designed to address these shortcomings. The M-method incorporates information about neighbouring grid cells to distinguish between liquid- and vapour-like cells, which allows for a very sensitive detection of small bubbles and high spatial resolution of the detected bubbles. The V-method is calibrated such that its estimates for the bubble volume correspond to the average change in system volume and are thus thermodynamically consistent. Both methods are computationally inexpensive such that they can be used in molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations of cavitation. We illustrate them by computing the free energy barrier and the size of the critical bubble for cavitation in water at negative pressure.

González, Miguel A.; Menzl, Georg; Aragones, Juan L.; Geiger, Philipp; Caupin, Frederic; Abascal, Jose L. F.; Dellago, Christoph; Valeriani, Chantal

2014-11-01

296

Mercury Cavitation Phenomenon in Pulsed Spallation Neutron Sources  

SciTech Connect

Innovative researches will be performed at Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility in J-PARC, in which a mercury target system will be installed as MW-class pulse spallation neutron sources. Proton beams will be injected into mercury target to induce the spallation reaction. At the moment the intense proton beam hits the target, pressure waves are generated in the mercury because of the abrupt heat deposition. The pressure waves interact with the target vessel leading to negative pressure that may cause cavitation along the vessel wall. Localized impacts by micro-jets and/or shock waves which are caused by cavitation bubble collapse impose pitting damage on the vessel wall. The pitting damage which degrades the structural integrity of target vessels is a crucial issue for high power mercury targets. Micro-gas-bubbles injection into mercury may be useful to mitigate the pressure wave and the pitting damage. The visualization of cavitation-bubble and gas-bubble collapse behaviors was carried out by using a high-speed video camera. The differences between them are recognized.

Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan); Kawai, Masayoshi [KEK Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 305-0801 (Japan)

2008-06-24

297

Processing of Microalgae: Acoustic Cavitation and Hydrothermal Conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of energy dense fuels from renewable algal biomass feedstocks -- if sustainably developed at a sufficiently large scale -- may reduce the consumption of petroleum from fossil fuels and provide many environmental benefits. Achieving economic feasibility has several technical engineering challenges that arise from dilute concentration of growing algae in aqueous media, small cell sizes, and durable cell walls. For microalgae to be a sustainable source of biofuels and co-products, efficient fractionation and conversion of the cellular contents is necessary. Research was carried out to address two processing options for efficient microalgae biofuel production: 1. Ultrasonic cavitation for cell disruption and 2. Hydrothermal conversion of a model algal triglyceride. 1. Ultrasonic cell disruption, which relies on cavitating bubbles in the suspension to produce damaging shock waves, was investigated experimentally over a range of concentrations and species types. A few seconds of high intensity sonication at fixed frequency yielded significant cell disruption, even for the more durable cells. At longer exposure times, effectiveness was seen to decline and was attributed, using acoustic measurements, to ultrasonic power attenuation in the ensuing cloud of cavitating bubbles. Processing at higher cell concentrations slowed cell disintegration marginally, but increased the effectiveness of dissipating ultrasonic energy. A theoretical study effectively predicted optimal conditions for a variety of parameters that were inaccessible in this experimental investigation. In that study, single bubble collapse was modeled to identify operating conditions that would increase cavitation, and thus cell disruption. Simulations were conducted by varying frequency and pressure amplitude of the ultrasound wave, and initial bubble size. The simulation results indicated that low frequency, high sound wave amplitudes, and small initial bubble size generate the highest shock wave pressures. 2. Hydrolysis of a pure model triglyceride compound was experimentally examined for the first time at hydrothermal conditions -- from 225 to 300°C. Lipid product composition assessed by GC-FID was compared to previous studies with mixed vegetable oils and used to develop a kinetic model for this oil phase reaction.

Greenly, Justin Michael

298

OPTIC CAVITATION W. Lauterborn  

E-print Network

. Acoustics entered the field later in the history of cavitation mainly in connection with sonar systems. When the necessary intensity and energy in a short time like ruby, neodymium and of course any laser planned for nu

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

Measurements of void fraction distribution in cavitating pipe flow using x-ray CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring the void fraction distribution is still one of the greatest challenges in cavitation research. In this paper, a measurement technique for the quantitative void fraction characterization in a cavitating pipe flow is presented. While it is almost impossible to visualize the inside of the cavitation region with visible light, it is shown that with x-ray computed tomography (CT) it is possible to capture the time-averaged void fraction distribution in a quasi-steady pipe flow. Different types of cavitation have been investigated including cloud-like cavitation, bubble cavitation and film cavitation at very high flow rates. A specially designed nozzle was employed to induce very stable quasi-steady cavitation. The obtained results demonstrate the advantages of the measurement technique compared to other ones; for example, structures were observed inside the cavitation region that could not be visualized by photographic images. Furthermore, photographic images and pressure measurements were used to allow comparisons to be made and to prove the superiority of the CT measurement technique.

Bauer, D.; Chaves, H.; Arcoumanis, C.

2012-05-01

300

Cavitation Simulation with Consideration of the Viscous Effect at Large Liquid Temperature Variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase change due to cavitation is not only driven by the pressure difference between the local pressure and vapor saturated pressure, but also affected by the physical property changes in the case of large liquid temperature variation. The present work simulates cavitation with consideration of the viscous effect as well as the local variation of vapor saturated pressure, density, etc. A new cavitation model is developed based on the bubble dynamics, and is applied to analyze the cavitating flow around an NACA0015 hydrofoil at different liquid temperatures from 25°C to 150°C. The results by the proposed model, such as the pressure distribution along the hydrofoil wall surface, vapor volume fraction, and source term of the mass transfer rate due to cavitation, are compared with the available experimental data and the numerical results by an existing thermodynamic model. It is noted that the numerical results by the proposed cavitation model have a slight discrepancy from the experimental results at room temperature, and the accuracy is better than the existing thermodynamic cavitation model. Thus the proposed cavitation model is acceptable for the simulation of cavitating flows at different liquid temperatures.

Yu, An; Luo, Xian-Wu; Ji, Bin; Huang, Ren-Fang; Hidalgo, Victor; Kim, Song Hak

2014-08-01

301

Stable tridimensional bubble clusters in multi-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL).  

PubMed

In the present work, stable clusters made of multiple sonoluminescent bubbles are experimentally and theoretically studied. Argon bubbles were acoustically generated and trapped using bi-frequency driving within a cylindrical chamber filled with a sulfuric acid aqueous solution (SA85w/w). The intensity of the acoustic pressure field was strong enough to sustain, during several minutes, a large number of positionally and spatially fixed (without pseudo-orbits) sonoluminescent bubbles over an ellipsoidally-shaped tridimensional array. The dimensions of the ellipsoids were studied as a function of the amplitude of the applied low-frequency acoustic pressure (PAc(LF)) and the static pressure in the fluid (P0). In order to explain the size and shape of the bubble clusters, we performed a series of numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic forces acting over the bubbles. In both cases the observed experimental behavior was in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The simulations revealed that the positionally stable region, mainly determined by the null primary Bjerknes force (F?Bj), is defined as the outer perimeter of an axisymmetric ellipsoidal cluster centered in the acoustic field antinode. The role of the high-frequency component of the pressure field and the influence of the secondary Bjerknes force are discussed. We also investigate the effect of a change in the concentration of dissolved gas on the positional and spatial instabilities through the cluster dimensions. The experimental and numerical results presented in this paper are potentially useful for further understanding and modeling numerous current research topics regarding multi-bubble phenomena, e.g. forces acting on the bubbles in multi-frequency acoustic fields, transient acoustic cavitation, bubble interactions, structure formation processes, atomic and molecular emissions of equal bubbles and nonlinear or unsteady acoustic pressure fields in bubbly media. PMID:24974006

Rosselló, J M; Dellavale, D; Bonetto, F J

2015-01-01

302

Investigation of a Method to Reduce Cavitation in Diesel Engine Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sonoluminescence is the effect of producing light from sound and occurs when a gas bubble is trapped in a fluid filled cavity and is forced to collapse under a barrage of sound waves. Frenzel and Schultes discovered this phenomenon in 1934 while exposing acoustic waves to photographic plates. This effect was not well understood until 1988 when Crum and Gaitan discovered the necessary conditions for producing single bubble sonoluminescence in the laboratory. The luminescence is a result of the bubble violently collapsing from sound waves and this shares a close association with vibratory cavitation. Cavitation erosion is known to cause damage to rotational machinery when the collapse is near to surfaces due to the high pressures associated with bubble collapse. With these high pressures and temperatures there is a considerable amount of damage to the outside layer of a bearing, thereby, reducing its useful life. An experiment was constructed to generate sonoluminescence in the laboratory in order to obtain a greater understanding of this phenomenon and its association with bubble cavitation. Most of the research was done to investigate how to obtain single bubble sonoluminescence under different conditions and to determine how to detect it. Success in this has inspired several theories on how to use the methods for generating sonoluminescence to control cavitation in fluids under industrial conditions.

Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Honaker, Robert W.

1998-01-01

303

Superheating and Homogeneous Single Bubble Nucleation in a Solid-State Nanopore Gaku Nagashima,1  

E-print Network

nucleation and dynamics associated with the phenomena of cavitation [16], sonoluminescence [17,18], laser induced heating of nano- particles [19], and heterogeneous bubble formation in macroscopic pores [20] have

Golovchenko, Jene A.

304

Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. many mechamistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, reearch, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

McDeavitt, Sean; Shao, Lin; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Wirth, Brian; Kennedy, Rory

2014-04-07

305

Cavitation erosion of silver plated coating at different temperatures and pressures  

SciTech Connect

Cavitation often occurs in inducer pumps used for space rockets. Silver plated coating on the inducer liner faces the damage of cavitation. Therefore, it is important to study about the cavitation erosion resistance for silver plated coating at several operating conditions in the inducer pumps. In this study, the cavitation erosion tests were carried for silver plated coating in deionized water and ethanol at several liquid temperatures (273K–400K) and pressures (0.10MPa–0.48MPa). The mass loss rate is evaluated in terms of thermodynamic parameter ? proposed by Brennen [9], suppression pressure p–p{sub v} (p{sub v}: saturated vapor pressure) and acoustic impedance ?c (?: density and c: sound speed). Cavitation bubble behaviors depending on the thermodynamic effect and the liquid type were observed by high speed video camera. The mass loss rate is formulated by thermodynamic parameter ?, suppression pressure p–p{sub v} and acoustic impedance ?c.

Hattori, Shuji; Motoi, Yoshihiro [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fuku-shi, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Kikuta, Kengo; Tomaru, Hiroshi [IHI Corperation, TOYOSU IHI BUILDING, 1-1, Toyosu 3-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 1358710 (Japan)

2014-04-11

306

Shock-induced collapse of a bubble inside a deformable vessel.  

PubMed

Shockwave lithotripsy repeatedly focuses shockwaves on kidney stones to induce their fracture, partially through cavitation erosion. A typical side effect of the procedure is hemorrhage, which is potentially the result of the growth and collapse of bubbles inside blood vessels. To identify the mechanisms by which shock-induced collapse could lead to the onset of injury, we study an idealized problem involving a preexisting bubble in a deformable vessel. We utilize a high-order accurate, shock- and interface-capturing, finite-volume scheme and simulate the three-dimensional shock-induced collapse of an air bubble immersed in a cylindrical water column which is embedded in a gelatin/water mixture. The mixture is a soft tissue simulant, 10% gelatin by weight, and is modeled by the stiffened gas equation of state. The bubble dynamics of this model configuration are characterized by the collapse of the bubble and its subsequent jetting in the direction of the propagation of the shockwave. The vessel wall, which is defined by the material interface between the water and gelatin/water mixture, is invaginated by the collapse and distended by the impact of the jet. The present results show that the highest measured pressures and deformations occur when the volumetric confinement of the bubble is strongest, the bubble is nearest the vessel wall and/or the angle of incidence of the shockwave reduces the distance between the jet tip and the nearest vessel surface. For a particular case considered, the 40 MPa shockwave utilized in this study to collapse the bubble generated a vessel wall pressure of almost 450 MPa and produced both an invagination and distention of nearly 50% of the initial vessel radius on a (10) ns timescale. These results are indicative of the significant potential of shock-induced collapse to contribute to the injury of blood vessels in shockwave lithotripsy. PMID:24015027

Coralic, Vedran; Colonius, Tim

2013-07-01

307

Numerical simulations of the aspherical collapse of laser and acoustically generated bubbles.  

PubMed

The details of nonlinear axisymmetric oscillations and collapse of bubbles subject to large internal or external pressure disturbances, are studied via a boundary integral method. Weak viscous effects on the liquid side are accounted for by integrating the equations of motion across the boundary layer that is formed adjacent to the interface. Simulations of single-cavitation bubble luminescence (SCBL) and single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) are performed under conditions similar to reported experimental observations, aiming at capturing the details of bubble collapse. It is shown that any small initial deviation from sphericity, modeled through a small initial elongation along the axis of symmetry, may result in the formation and impact of two counter-propagating jets during collapse of the bubble, provided the amplitude of the initial disturbance is large enough and the viscosity of the surrounding fluid is small enough. Comparison between simulations and experimental observations show that this is the case for bubbles induced via a nano-second laser pulse (SCBL) during a luminescence event. In a similar fashion, simulations show that loss of sphericity accompanied with jet formation and impact during collapse is also possible with acoustically trapped bubbles in a standing pressure wave (SBSL), due to the many afterbounces of the bubble during its collapse phase. In both cases jet impact occurs as a result of P(2) growth in the form of an afterbounce instability. When the sound amplitude is decreased or liquid viscosity is increased the intensity of the afterbounce is decreased and jet impact is suppressed. When the sound amplitude is increased jet formation is superceded by Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In the same context stable luminescence is quenched in experimental observations. In both SCBL and SBSL simulations the severity of jet impact during collapse is quite large, and its local nature quite distinct. This attests to the fact that it is an energy focusing mechanism whose importance in generating the conditions under which a luminescence event is observed should be further investigated. PMID:17208501

Tsiglifis, Kostas; Pelekasis, Nikos A

2007-04-01

308

A High-Speed Imaging and Modeling Study of Dendrite Fragmentation Caused by Ultrasonic Cavitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic behavior of ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles and their effect on the fragmentation of dendritic grains of a solidifying succinonitrile 1 wt pct camphor organic transparent alloy have been studied experimentally using high-speed digital imaging and complementary numerical analysis of sound wave propagation, cavitation dynamics, and the velocity field in the vicinity of an imploding cavitation bubble. Real-time imaging and analysis revealed that the violent implosion of bubbles created local shock waves that could shatter dendrites nearby into small pieces in a few tens of milliseconds. These catastrophic events were effective in breaking up growing dendritic grains and creating abundant fragmented crystals that may act as embryonic grains; therefore, these events play an important role in grain refinement of metallurgical alloys.

Shu, Da; Sun, Baode; Mi, Jiawei; Grant, Patrick S.

2012-10-01

309

Numerical analysis of a gas bubble near bio-materials in an ultrasound field.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic cavitation bubble phenomena play a key role in numerous medical procedures such as ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty, phacoemulsification, lithotripsy, brain tumor surgery, muscle and bone therapies and intraocular or transdermal drug delivery. This study investigates numerically the interaction of a bubble with a bio-material (fat, skin, cornea, brain, muscle, cartilage or bone) involved in the treatments mentioned when subjected to an ultrasound field. A range of frequencies is used to study the bubble behavior in terms of its growth and collapse shapes, and the maximum jet velocity attained. Simulation results show complex dynamic behaviors of the bubble. In several cases a jet is formed directed away from the bio-material while in others, toward it. In certain cases, the bubble eventually breaks into two, with or without the formation of opposite penetrating jets. Very high maximum velocities of jets directing away or toward the bio-materials can be observed in some cases (700 to 900 ms(-1)). PMID:16785014

Fong, Siew Wan; Klaseboer, Evert; Turangan, Cary K; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Hung, Kin Chew

2006-06-01

310

Cavitation guide for control valves  

SciTech Connect

This guide teaches the basic fundamentals of cavitation to provide the reader with an understanding of what causes cavitation, when it occurs, and the potential problems cavitation can cause to a valve and piping system. The document provides guidelines for understanding how to reduce the cavitation and/or select control valves for a cavitating system. The guide provides a method for predicting the cavitation intensity of control valves, and how the effect of cavitation on a system will vary with valve type, valve function, valve size, operating pressure, duration of operation and details of the piping installation. The guide defines six cavitation limits identifying cavitation intensities ranging from inception to the maximum intensity possible. The intensity of the cavitation at each limit Is described, including a brief discussion of how each level of cavitation influences the valve and system. Examples are included to demonstrate how to apply the method, including making both size and pressure scale effects corrections. Methods of controlling cavitation are discussed providing information on various techniques which can be used to design a new system or modify an existing one so it can operate at a desired level of cavitation.

Tullis, J.P. [Tullis Engineering Consultants, Logan, UT (United States)

1993-04-01

311

Disruption of cultured cells by nitrogen cavitation.  

PubMed

Cell disruption by nitrogen decompression from a pressurized vessel is a rapid and effective way to homogenize cells and tissues, to release intact organelles, and to prepare cell membranes. Cells are placed in a pressure vessel and large quantities of oxygen-free nitrogen are dissolved in the cells under high pressure (~5500 kilopascals [kPa], equivalent to 800 pounds per square inch [psi]). When the pressure is released suddenly, the nitrogen bubbles out of solution, rupturing the cell membrane and releasing the cell contents. Nitrogen cavitation is well suited for mammalian and plant cells and fragile bacteria, but is less effective with yeast, fungi, spores, or other cell types with tough cell walls. The chemical and physical stresses imposed by nitrogen cavitation on enzymes and subcellular compartments are minimized compared with ultrasonic and mechanical homogenizing methods. Unlike lysis methods relying on shear stresses and friction, there is no heat damage to proteins and organelles during nitrogen cavitation. Indeed, the method is accompanied by an adiabatic expansion that cools the sample instead. Also, labile cell components are protected from oxidation by the inert nitrogen gas. Furthermore, nitrogen does not alter the pH of the suspending medium. The process is fast and uniform because the same disruptive forces are applied within each cell and throughout the sample, ensuring reproducible cell-free homogenates. Finally, variable sample sizes (e.g., from ~1 mL to 1 L or more) can be accommodated with most commercial systems. PMID:21041386

Simpson, Richard J

2010-11-01

312

Possibility of quantitative prediction of cavitation erosion without model test  

SciTech Connect

A scenario for quantitative prediction of cavitation erosion was proposed. The key value is the impact force/pressure spectrum on a solid surface caused by cavitation bubble collapse. As the first step of prediction, the authors constructed the scenario from an estimation of the cavity generation rate to the prediction of impact force spectrum, including the estimations of collapsing cavity number and impact pressure. The prediction was compared with measurements of impact force spectra on a partially cavitating hydrofoil. A good quantitative agreement was obtained between the prediction and the experiment. However, the present method predicted a larger effect of main flow velocity than that observed. The present scenario is promising as a method of predicting erosion without using a model test.

Kato, Hiroharu; Konno, Akihisa; Maeda, Masatsugu; Yamaguchi, Hajime [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering

1996-09-01

313

Theory of supercompression of vapor bubbles and nanoscale thermonuclear fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides the theoretical basis for energetic vapor bubble implosions induced by a standing acoustic wave. Its primary goal is to describe, explain, and demonstrate the plausibility of the experimental observations by Taleyarkhan et al. [Science 295, 1868 (2002); Phys. Rev. E 69, 036109 (2004)] of thermonuclear fusion for imploding cavitation bubbles in chilled deuterated acetone. A detailed description and analysis of these data, including a resolution of the criticisms that have been raised, together with some preliminary HYDRO code simulations, has been given by Nigmatulin et al. [Vestnik ANRB (Ufa, Russia) 4, 3 (2002); J. Power Energy 218-A, 345 (2004)] and Lahey et al. [Adv. Heat Transfer (to be published)]. In this paper a hydrodynamic shock (i.e., HYDRO) code model of the spherically symmetric motion for a vapor bubble in an acoustically forced liquid is presented. This model describes cavitation bubble cluster growth during the expansion period, followed by a violent implosion during the compression period of the acoustic cycle. There are two stages of the bubble dynamics process. The first, low Mach number stage, comprises almost all the time of the acoustic cycle. During this stage, the radial velocities are much less than the sound speeds in the vapor and liquid, the vapor pressure is very close to uniform, and the liquid is practically incompressible. This process is characterized by the inertia of the liquid, heat conduction, and the evaporation or condensation of the vapor. The second, very short, high Mach number stage is when the radial velocities are the same order, or higher, than the sound speeds in the vapor and liquid. In this stage high temperatures, pressures, and densities of the vapor and liquid take place. The model presented herein has realistic equations of state for the compressible liquid and vapor phases, and accounts for nonequilibrium evaporation/condensation kinetics at the liquid/vapor interface. There are interacting shock waves in both phases, which converge toward and reflect from the center of the bubble, causing dissociation, ionization, and other related plasma physics phenomena during the final stage of bubble collapse. For a vapor bubble in a deuterated organic liquid (e.g., acetone), during the final stage of collapse there is a nanoscale region (diameter ˜100nm) near the center of the bubble in which, for a fraction of a picosecond, the temperatures and densities are extremely high (˜108K and ˜10g/cm3, respectively) such that thermonuclear fusion may take place. To quantify this, the kinetics of the local deuterium/deuterium (D/D) nuclear fusion reactions was used in the HYDRO code to determine the intensity of the fusion reactions. Numerical HYDRO code simulations of the bubble implosion process have been carried out for the experimental conditions used by Taleyarkhan et al. [Science 295, 1868 (2002); Phys. Rev. E 69, 036109 (2004)] at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The results show good agreement with the experimental data on bubble fusion that was measured in chilled deuterated acetone.

Nigmatulin, Robert I.; Akhatov, Iskander Sh.; Topolnikov, Andrey S.; Bolotnova, Raisa Kh.; Vakhitova, Nailya K.; Lahey, Richard T.; Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

2005-10-01

314

Theory of supercompression of vapor bubbles and nanoscale thermonuclear fusion  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides the theoretical basis for energetic vapor bubble implosions induced by a standing acoustic wave. Its primary goal is to describe, explain, and demonstrate the plausibility of the experimental observations by Taleyarkhan et al. [Science 295, 1868 (2002); Phys. Rev. E 69, 036109 (2004)] of thermonuclear fusion for imploding cavitation bubbles in chilled deuterated acetone. A detailed description and analysis of these data, including a resolution of the criticisms that have been raised, together with some preliminary HYDRO code simulations, has been given by Nigmatulin et al. [Vestnik ANRB (Ufa, Russia) 4, 3 (2002); J. Power Energy 218-A, 345 (2004)] and Lahey et al. [Adv. Heat Transfer (to be published)]. In this paper a hydrodynamic shock (i.e., HYDRO) code model of the spherically symmetric motion for a vapor bubble in an acoustically forced liquid is presented. This model describes cavitation bubble cluster growth during the expansion period, followed by a violent implosion during the compression period of the acoustic cycle. There are two stages of the bubble dynamics process. The first, low Mach number stage, comprises almost all the time of the acoustic cycle. During this stage, the radial velocities are much less than the sound speeds in the vapor and liquid, the vapor pressure is very close to uniform, and the liquid is practically incompressible. This process is characterized by the inertia of the liquid, heat conduction, and the evaporation or condensation of the vapor. The second, very short, high Mach number stage is when the radial velocities are the same order, or higher, than the sound speeds in the vapor and liquid. In this stage high temperatures, pressures, and densities of the vapor and liquid take place. The model presented herein has realistic equations of state for the compressible liquid and vapor phases, and accounts for nonequilibrium evaporation/condensation kinetics at the liquid/vapor interface. There are interacting shock waves in both phases, which converge toward and reflect from the center of the bubble, causing dissociation, ionization, and other related plasma physics phenomena during the final stage of bubble collapse. For a vapor bubble in a deuterated organic liquid (e.g., acetone), during the final stage of collapse there is a nanoscale region (diameter {approx}100 nm) near the center of the bubble in which, for a fraction of a picosecond, the temperatures and densities are extremely high ({approx}10{sup 8} K and {approx}10 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively) such that thermonuclear fusion may take place. To quantify this, the kinetics of the local deuterium/deuterium (D/D) nuclear fusion reactions was used in the HYDRO code to determine the intensity of the fusion reactions. Numerical HYDRO code simulations of the bubble implosion process have been carried out for the experimental conditions used by Taleyarkhan et al. [Science 295, 1868 (2002); Phys. Rev. E 69, 036109 (2004)] at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The results show good agreement with the experimental data on bubble fusion that was measured in chilled deuterated acetone.

Nigmatulin, Robert I.; Akhatov, Iskander Sh.; Topolnikov, Andrey S.; Bolotnova, Raisa Kh.; Vakhitova, Nailya K.; Lahey, Richard T. Jr.; Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. [Institute of Mechanics, Ufa Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 6 Karl Marx Street, Ufa 450000 (Russian Federation); Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States); School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1290 (United States)

2005-10-01

315

Creep cavitation in 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep cavitation in 304 stainless steel at 0.5 T\\/sub m\\/ was investigated. Two specially developed techniques were used to study the nucleation and growth of grain-boundary cavities. It was found that cavities nucleated heterogeneously throughout the creep history and those observed were well in their growth stage. Comparison of these observations with the theory for cavity nucleation requires that a

I. W. Chen; A. S. Argon

1981-01-01

316

Adaptation of the Advanced Spray Combustion Code to Cavitating Flow Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A very important consideration in turbopump design is the prediction and prevention of cavitation. Thus far conventional CFD codes have not been generally applicable to the treatment of cavitating flows. Taking advantage of its two-phase capability, the Advanced Spray Combustion Code is being modified to handle flows with transient as well as steady-state cavitation bubbles. The volume-of-fluid approach incorporated into the code is extended and augmented with a liquid phase energy equation and a simple evaporation model. The strategy adopted also successfully deals with the cavity closure issue. Simple test cases will be presented and remaining technical challenges will be discussed.

Liang, Pak-Yan

1993-01-01

317

Numerical investigation on cavitation in pressure relief valve for coal liquefaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pressure relief valve for regulating the level of the high-pressure separator works under a pressure difference up to 15 MPa in the temperature of 415 °C. Severe cavitation erosion and particle impact lead to the valve disc's mass loss. In this paper, three-dimensional turbulent cavitating flows in the pressure relief valve are numerically simulated to reveal the mechanism of mass loss at valve disc. The RNG k-epsilon turbulence model and the mixture model with a mass transfer for cavitation are employed to simulate the cavitating flow in the pressure relief valve. The result shows that there is phase change in the pressure relief process and cavitation bubbles would be transported by high-velocity backflow to the head of valve disc. For the local pressure higher than the saturated vapor pressure, the bubbles collapse at the head of disc and cavitation erosion is formed at the head of the disc. By comparing the cases of opening of 40%, 50%, and 60%, backflow velocity and cavitation region in front of the disc decrease with the opening increase. Therefore, during the actual operation, the pressure relief valve should be kept to a relatively large opening.

Ou, G. F.; Li, W. Z.; Xiao, D. H.; Zheng, Z. J.; Dou, H. S.; Wang, C.

2015-01-01

318

Histotripsy-Induced Cavitation Cloud Initiation Thresholds in Tissues of Different Mechanical Properties  

PubMed Central

Histotripsy is an ultrasound ablation method that depends on the initiation and maintenance of a cavitation bubble cloud to fractionate soft tissue. This paper studies how tissue properties impact the pressure threshold to initiate the cavitation bubble cloud. Our previous study showed that shock scattering off one or more initial bubbles, expanded to sufficient size in the focus, plays an important role in initiating a dense cavitation cloud. In this process, the shock scattering causes the positive pressure phase to be inverted, resulting in a scattered wave that has the opposite polarity of the incident shock. The inverted shock is superimposed on the incident negative pressure phase to form extremely high negative pressures, resulting in a dense cavitation cloud growing toward the transducer. We hypothesize that increased tissue stiffness impedes the expansion of initial bubbles, reducing the scattered tensile pressure, and thus requiring higher initial intensities for cloud initiation. To test this hypothesis, 5-cycle histotripsy pulses at pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) of 10, 100, or 1000 Hz were applied by a 1-MHz transducer focused inside mechanically tunable tissue-mimicking agarose phantoms and various ex vivo porcine tissues covering a range of Young’s moduli. The threshold to initiate a cavitation cloud and resulting bubble expansion were recorded using acoustic backscatter detection and optical imaging. In both phantoms and ex vivo tissue, results demonstrated a higher cavitation cloud initiation threshold for tissues of higher Young’s modulus. Results also demonstrated a decrease in bubble expansion in phantoms of higher Young’s modulus. These results support our hypothesis, improve our understanding of the effect of histotripsy in tissues with different mechanical properties, and provide a rational basis to tailor acoustic parameters for fractionation of specific tissues. PMID:24474139

Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Maxwell, Adam; Warnez, Matthew; Johnsen, Eric; Cain, Charles A.; Xu, Zhen

2014-01-01

319

Histotripsy-induced cavitation cloud initiation thresholds in tissues of different mechanical properties.  

PubMed

Histotripsy is an ultrasound ablation method that depends on the initiation and maintenance of a cavitation bubble cloud to fractionate soft tissue. This paper studies how tissue properties impact the pressure threshold to initiate the cavitation bubble cloud. Our previous study showed that shock scattering off one or more initial bubbles, expanded to sufficient size in the focus, plays an important role in initiating a dense cavitation cloud. In this process, the shock scattering causes the positive pressure phase to be inverted, resulting in a scattered wave that has the opposite polarity of the incident shock. The inverted shock is superimposed on the incident negative pressure phase to form extremely high negative pressures, resulting in a dense cavitation cloud growing toward the transducer. We hypothesize that increased tissue stiffness impedes the expansion of initial bubbles, reducing the scattered tensile pressure, and thus requiring higher initial intensities for cloud initiation. To test this hypothesis, 5-cycle histotripsy pulses at pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) of 10, 100, or 1000 Hz were applied by a 1-MHz transducer focused inside mechanically tunable tissue-mimicking agarose phantoms and various ex vivo porcine tissues covering a range of Young's moduli. The threshold to initiate a cavitation cloud and resulting bubble expansion were recorded using acoustic backscatter detection and optical imaging. In both phantoms and ex vivo tissue, results demonstrated a higher cavitation cloud initiation threshold for tissues of higher Young's modulus. Results also demonstrated a decrease in bubble expansion in phantoms of higher Young's modulus. These results support our hypothesis, improve our understanding of the effect of histotripsy in tissues with different mechanical properties, and provide a rational basis to tailor acoustic parameters for fractionation of specific tissues. PMID:24474139

Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Maxwell, Adam; Warnez, Matthew; Johnsen, Eric; Cain, Charles A; Xu, Zhen

2014-02-01

320

Nano-scale thermonuclear fusion in imploding vapor bubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the specific features of violent vapor cavitation bubble implosion induced by an energetic acoustic standing wave in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) experiments performed using deuterated acetone [Taleyarkhan, R.P., West, C.D., Cho, J.S., Lahey Jr., R.T., Nigmatulin, R.I., Block, R.C., 2002. Evidence for nuclear emissions during acoustic cavitation. Science 295, 1868; Taleyarkhan, R.P., West, C.D., Cho,

Robert Nigmatulin

2005-01-01

321

Detecting Cavitation Pitting Without Disassembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique for detecting cavitation pitting in pumps, turbines, and other machinery uses low-level nuclear irradiation. Isotopes concentrated below surface emit gamma radiation, a portion of which is attenuated by overlying material. Where there are cavitation pits, output of gamma-ray detector fluctuates as detector is scanned near pits. Important to detect cavitation pits because nozzle, turbine blade, or other pump component weakened by cavitation could fail catastrophically and cause machine to explode.

Barkhoudarian, S.

1986-01-01

322

Prediction of pump cavitation performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for predicting pump cavitation performance with various liquids, liquid temperatures, and rotative speeds is presented. Use of the method requires that two sets of test data be available for the pump of interest. Good agreement between predicted and experimental results of cavitation performance was obtained for several pumps operated in liquids which exhibit a wide range of properties. Two cavitation parameters which qualitatively evaluate pump cavitation performance are also presented.

Moore, R. D.

1974-01-01

323

Buoyant Bubbles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What keeps bubbles and other things, like airplanes, floating or flying in the air? In this activity, learners blow bubbles and wave 3x5 cards above, below and on different sides of the bubbles to keep them afloat as long as possible. The Did You Know section explains the Bernoulli principle: how waving cards above the bubbles helps keep them afloat because faster moving air exerts less pressure to push the bubbles down. The activity can be extended by having learners wave their bubbles through an obstacle course they design themselves.

Science, Lawrence H.

2009-01-01

324

In vivo observation of cavitation on prosthetic heart valves.  

PubMed

In this study, a method to determine the existence of prosthetic heart valve cavitation in vivo is presented. Pennsylvania State University Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVADs) were implanted in two separate calves for this study. Björk-Shiley Monostrut (Irvine, CA) 27 mm and 25 mm valves with Delrin occluders were used in the mitral and aortic positions, respectively. A high fidelity, piezoelectric pressure transducer was mounted approximately 1.25 cm proximal to the mitral valve and measured the high frequency pressure fluctuations caused by cavitation bubble formation and collapse after valve closure. The root mean square (RMS) value of the mitral pressure signal during a 5 ms interval after valve closure was used as a measure of cavitation intensity. The pressure signals observed in vivo were similar to ones observed in vitro with the same type of pressure transducer and were associated with the visually observed cavitation. The percentage of beats with cavitation increased from 20.3% to 67.7% when pump filling was decreased by increasing beat rate. A blood test conducted during post-operative days 1-3 showed a significant increase in plasma hemoglobin during the low filling condition. However, blood tests conducted later (post-operative days 7-44) did not show a significant change in plasma hemoglobin during low filling conditions. PMID:8944940

Zapanta, C M; Stinebring, D R; Sneckenberger, D S; Deutsch, S; Geselowitz, D B; Tarbell, J M; Synder, A J; Rosenberg, G; Weiss, W J; Pae, W E; Pierce, W S

1996-01-01

325

Effect of tensile stress on cavitation damage formation in mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation erosion or so called pitting damage was investigated under tensile stress conditions in mercury. In MW-class liquid metal spallation targets, pitting damage is a critical issue to satisfy required power and/or lifetime of the target vessel. Cavitation occurs by negative pressure which is induced through pressure wave propagation due to proton beam injection. Pitting damage is formed by microjet and/or shock wave during cavitation bubble collapse. A mercury target vessel suffers tensile stress due to thermal stress or welding. In order to investigate the effect of tensile stress on pitting damage formation, cavitation erosion tests were performed using stress imposed specimens in mercury. An ultrasonic vibratory horn and electro-Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM) were used to vary the cavitation intensity. In the incubation period of pitting damage, damaged area was slightly increased with increasing imposed tensile stress. In the steady state period, a mean depth of erosion was increased by the tensile stress. Additionally, in order to quantitatively evaluate the effect of tensile stress, an indentation test with Vickers indenter was carried out to quasi-statically simulate the impact load. From the measurement of the diagonal length of the indent aspect ratio and hardness, it is recognized that the threshold of the deformation, i.e. pitting damage formation, was decreased by the tensile stress.

Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshihito; Futakawa, Masatoshi

2010-03-01

326

Assessment of shock wave lithotripters via cavitation potential.  

PubMed

A method to characterize shock wave lithotripters by examining the potential for cavitation associated with the lithotripter shock wave (LSW) has been developed. The method uses the maximum radius achieved by a bubble subjected to a LSW as a representation of the cavitation potential for that region in the lithotripter. It is found that the maximum radius is determined by the work done on a bubble by the LSW. The method is used to characterize two reflectors: an ellipsoidal reflector and an ellipsoidal reflector with an insert. The results show that the use of an insert reduced the -6 dB volume (with respect to peak positive pressure) from 1.6 to 0.4 cm(3), the -6 dB volume (with respect to peak negative pressure) from 14.5 to 8.3 cm(3), and reduced the volume characterized by high cavitation potential (i.e., regions characterized by bubbles with radii larger than 429 µm) from 103 to 26 cm(3). Thus, the insert is an effective way to localize the potentially damaging effects of shock wave lithotripsy, and suggests an approach to optimize the shape of the reflector. PMID:19865493

Iloreta, Jonathan I; Zhou, Yufeng; Sankin, Georgy N; Zhong, Pei; Szeri, Andrew J

2007-01-01

327

Assessment of shock wave lithotripters via cavitation potential  

PubMed Central

A method to characterize shock wave lithotripters by examining the potential for cavitation associated with the lithotripter shock wave (LSW) has been developed. The method uses the maximum radius achieved by a bubble subjected to a LSW as a representation of the cavitation potential for that region in the lithotripter. It is found that the maximum radius is determined by the work done on a bubble by the LSW. The method is used to characterize two reflectors: an ellipsoidal reflector and an ellipsoidal reflector with an insert. The results show that the use of an insert reduced the ?6 dB volume (with respect to peak positive pressure) from 1.6 to 0.4 cm3, the ?6 dB volume (with respect to peak negative pressure) from 14.5 to 8.3 cm3, and reduced the volume characterized by high cavitation potential (i.e., regions characterized by bubbles with radii larger than 429 µm) from 103 to 26 cm3. Thus, the insert is an effective way to localize the potentially damaging effects of shock wave lithotripsy, and suggests an approach to optimize the shape of the reflector. PMID:19865493

Iloreta, Jonathan I.; Zhou, Yufeng; Sankin, Georgy N.; Zhong, Pei; Szeri, Andrew J.

2008-01-01

328

High-speed motion picture camera experiments of cavitation in dynamically loaded journal bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-speed camera was used to investigate cavitation in dynamically loaded journal bearings. The length-diameter ratio of the bearing, the speeds of the shaft and bearing, the surface material of the shaft, and the static and dynamic eccentricity of the bearing were varied. The results reveal not only the appearance of gas cavitation, but also the development of previously unsuspected vapor cavitation. It was found that gas cavitation increases with time until, after many hundreds of pressure cycles, there is a constant amount of gas kept in the cavitation zone of the bearing. The gas can have pressures of many times the atmospheric pressure. Vapor cavitation bubbles, on the other hand, collapse at pressures lower than the atmospheric pressure and cannot be transported through a high-pressure zone, nor does the amount of vapor cavitation in a bearing increase with time. Analysis is given to support the experimental findings for both gas and vapor cavitation. Previously announced in STAR as N82-20543

Hamrock, B. J.; Jacobson, B. O.

1983-01-01

329

Best Bubbles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners experiment with creating various types of bubble solutions and testing which ingredients form longer-lasting bubbles. Learners investigate how surface tension works and the importance of using a surfactant to make bubbles. This activity includes a video about NASA astronaut Don Pettit, who used candy corn to conduct science experiments during his stint aboard the International Space Station.

Saltz, Austen

2010-01-01

330

A Study of Cavitation Erosion  

SciTech Connect

The authors performed experimental study for the purpose of the following two items from a viewpoint of cavitation erosion of a cylindrical orifice in view of a problem at the letdown orifice in PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor). 1. To get the critical cavitation parameter of the cylindrical orifice to establish the design criteria for prevention of cavitation erosion, and 2. to ascertain the erosion rate in such an eventuality that the cavitation erosion occurs with the orifice made of stainless steel with precipitation hardening (17-4-Cu hardening type stainless steel), so that we confirm the appropriateness of the design criteria. Regarding the 1. item, we carried out the cavitation tests to get the critical cavitation parameters inside and downstream of the orifice. The test results showed that the cavitation parameter at inception is independent of the length or the diameter of the orifice. Moreover, the design criteria of cavitation erosion of cylindrical orifices have been established. Regarding the 2. item, we tested the erosion rate under high-pressure conditions. The cavitation erosion actually occurred in the cylindrical orifice at the tests that was strongly resemble to the erosion occurred at the plant. It will be seldom to reproduce resemble cavitation erosion in a cylindrical orifice with the hard material used at plants. We could establish the criteria for preventing the cavitation erosion from the test results. (authors)

Hiromu Isaka [Kansai Electric Power Company (Japan); Masatsugu Tsutsumi; Tadashi Shiraishi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (Japan); Hiroyuki Kobayashi [Japan Atomic Power Company (Japan)

2002-07-01

331

Bubble instability in overheated liquid Helium-3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation and the growth of vapor bubbles in metastable liquid Helium-3 are studied. The finite diffuse layer of vapor bubble, the temperature dependence of the surface tension and the relaxation processes are taken into consideration. We show that the growth of bubble in overheated liquid Helium-3 is significantly influenced by the memory effects caused by the dynamic Fermi-surface distortions. In particular, the increase of bubble is strongly hindered and accompanied by the characteristic oscillations of the bubble radius. The oscillations of the bubble radius disappear in a short relaxation-time limit where the memory effects are negligible.

Kolomietz, V. M.

2014-11-01

332

DNA denaturation bubbles at criticality  

E-print Network

The equilibrium statistical properties of DNA denaturation bubbles are examined in detail within the framework of the Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois model. Bubble formation in homogeneous DNA is found to depend crucially on the presence of nonlinear base-stacking interactions. Small bubbles extending over less than 10 base pairs are associated with much larger free energies of formation per site than larger bubbles. As the critical temperature is approached, the free energy associated with further bubble growth becomes vanishingly small. An analysis of average displacement profiles of bubbles of varying sizes at different temperatures reveals almost identical scaled shapes in the absence of nonlinear stacking; nonlinear stacking leads to distinct scaled shapes of large and small bubbles.

Theodorakopoulos, Nikos

2008-01-01

333

Cavitation on a semicircular leading-edge plate and NACA0015 hydrofoil: Visualization and velocity measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using high-speed visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV), cavitating flows near a plane plate with a rounded leading edge and NACA0015 hydrofoil at angles of attack from 0° to 9° are studied. In the experiments, several known types of cavitation, as well as some differences, were detected with variation of the cavitation number. In particular, at small angles of attack (up to 3°), cavitation on the plate appears in the form of a streak array; on the hydrofoil, it appears in the form of individual bubbles. For the NACA0015 hydrofoil, isolated and intermittent streaks are divided and grow in regimes with developed cavitation; then, however, they merge in bubble clouds and form an extremely regular cellular structure. With an increase in the angle of attack to 9°, the structure of the cavitation cavity on the hydrofoil is changed by the streak structure, like in the case with the plate. In this work, it is shown that PIV permits one to measure the velocity in cavitating flows, in particular, within the gas-vapor phase. It was established from the analysis of distributions of the average flow velocity and moments of velocity fluctuations that the cavitation generation is caused by the development of the carrier fluid flow near the leading edge of the hydrofoil. Down the stream, however, the flow structure strongly depends on the cavitation regime, which is seen from the comparison of the distributions with the case of a single-phase flow. The presented measurements qualitatively verify general trends and show some quantitative distinctions for the two considered flowpast bodies.

Kravtsova, A. Yu.; Markovich, D. M.; Pervunin, K. S.; Timoshevskii, M. V.; Hanjali?, K.

2014-12-01

334

The sonically induced cavitation of liquid helium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The onset of sonically induced cavitation in liquid helium at frequencies between 30 and 40 kHz has been studied. In helium II, two types of cavitation activity were identified: acoustic cavitation whose characteristic noise can be detected, and visible cavitation in which vaporous cavities grow to visible size. The onset of acoustic cavitation is statistical in nature with increasing event

P. D. Jarman; K. J. Taylort

1970-01-01

335

Correlation between simulations and cavitation-induced erosion damage in Spallation Neutron Source target modules after operation  

SciTech Connect

An explicit finite element (FE) technique developed for estimating dynamic strain in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) mercury target module vessel is now providing insight into cavitation damage patterns observed in used targets. The technique uses an empirically developed material model for the mercury that describes liquid-like volumetric stiffness combined with a tensile pressure cut-off limit that approximates cavitation. The longest period each point in the mercury is at the tensile cut-off threshold is denoted its saturation time. Now, the pattern of saturation time can be obtained from these simulations and is being positively correlated with observed damage patterns and is interpreted as a qualitative measure of damage potential. Saturation time has been advocated by collaborators at J-Parc as a factor in predicting bubble nuclei growth and collapse intensity. The larger the ratio of maximum bubble size to nucleus, the greater the bubble collapse intensity to be expected; longer saturation times result in greater ratios. With the recent development of a user subroutine for the FE solver saturation time is now provided over the entire mercury domain. Its pattern agrees with spots of damage seen above and below the beam axis on the SNS inner vessel beam window and elsewhere. The other simulation result being compared to observed damage patterns is mercury velocity at the wall. Related R&D has provided evidence for the damage mitigation that higher wall velocity provides. In comparison to observations in SNS targets, inverse correlation of high velocity to damage is seen. In effect, it is the combination of the patterns of saturation time and low velocity that seems to match actual damage patterns.

Riemer, Bernie [ORNL] [ORNL; McClintock, David A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaminskas, Saulius [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

336

Recalcitrant bubbles  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate that thermocapillary forces may drive bubbles against liquid flow in ‘anomalous' mixtures. Unlike ‘ordinary' liquids, in which bubbles migrate towards higher temperatures, we have observed vapour bubbles migrating towards lower temperatures, therefore against the flow. This unusual behaviour may be explained by the temperature dependence of surface tension of these binary mixtures. Bubbles migrating towards their equilibrium position follow an exponential trend. They finally settle in a stationary position just ‘downstream' of the minimum in surface tension. The exponential trend for bubbles in ‘anomalous' mixtures and the linear trend in pure liquids can be explained by a simple model. For larger bubbles, oscillations were observed. These oscillations can be reasonably explained by including an inertial term in the equation of motion (neglected for smaller bubbles). PMID:24740256

Shanahan, Martin E. R.; Sefiane, Khellil

2014-01-01

337

Dynamics of multiple bubbles, excited by a femtosecond filament in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using shadow photography we observed the evolution of multiple cavitation bubbles, excited by a femtosecond laser pulse in water, up to the microsecond time scale. In the tight focusing geometry a single filament is formed. The filament becomes the center of the cavitation region formation. When aberrations were added to the optical scheme, aberration hot spots along the filament axis are formed. At high energies (more than 40??J) the filaments in the aberration hot spots are fired. Thereby a complex pattern of the cavitation bubbles is created. The bubbles can be isolated from each other or can form an exotic ‘drop-shaped’ cavitation region, whose evolution at the end of its ‘life’, before the final collapse, contains the jet emission. The dynamics of the cavitation pattern were investigated from the pulse energy and the focusing. An increase of the numerical aperture of the focusing optics leads to an increase of the cavitation area length. A strong interaction between the bubbles was also found. This leads to a significant change in the bubbles’ evolution, which is not yet in accordance with the Rayleigh model.

Potemkin, F. V.; Mareev, E. I.

2015-01-01

338

CAVITATION AND CETACEAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bubbles are the most acoustically active naturally occurring entities in the ocean, and cetaceans are the most intelligent. Having evolved over tens of millions of years to cope with the underwater acoustic environment, cetaceans may have developed techniques from which we could learn. This paper outlines some of the possible interactions, ranging from the exploitation of acoustics in bubble nets

Timothy G. Leighton

339

Attached cavitation at a small diameter ultrasonic horn tip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids, for instance, for cell disruption or sonochemical reactions. They are operated typically in the frequency range up to about 50 kHz and have tip diameters from some mm to several cm. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e., below the acoustic driving frequency. Here, we present a systematic study of the cavitation dynamics in water at a 20 kHz horn tip of 3 mm diameter. The system was investigated by high-speed imaging with simultaneous recording of the acoustic emissions. Measurements were performed under variation of acoustic power, air saturation, viscosity, surface tension, and temperature of the liquid. Our findings show that the liquid properties play no significant role in the dynamics of the attached cavitation at the small ultrasonic horn. Also the variation of the experimental geometry, within a certain range, did not change the dynamics. We believe that the main two reasons for the peculiar dynamics of cavitation on a small ultrasonic horn are the higher energy density on a small tip and the inability of the big tip to "wash" away the gaseous bubbles. Calculation of the somewhat adapted Strouhal number revealed that, similar to the hydrodynamic cavitation, values which are relatively low characterize slow cavitation structure dynamics. In cases where the cavitation follows the driving frequency this value lies much higher - probably at Str > 20. In the spirit to distinguish the observed phenomenon with other cavitation dynamics at ultrasonic transducer surfaces, we suggest to term the observed phenomenon of attached cavities partly covering the full horn tip as "acoustic supercavitation." This reflects the conjecture that not the sound field in terms of acoustic (negative) pressure in the liquid is responsible for nucleation, but the motion of the transducer surface.

Žnidar?i?, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Cairós, Carlos; Dular, Matevž

2014-02-01

340

Numerical investigation on the cavitating flow in Annular Jet Pump under different flow rate ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nozzle of annular jet pump (AJP) is annular and the secondary flow is encircled by the primary flow which is of great differences with that of central jet pump (CJP). Since the high velocity working flow soaring out the annular nozzle adheres to the inner wall, the cavitation is considerably easy to be induced at the intersection of the suction chamber and the throat. This paper mainly investigated the inception and development of the cavitation in an AJP under different flow rate ratio q by numerical methods and the results was validated by the experimentation. The turbulent model is set as Realizable k-? model, which combined with the mixture multiphase model and the Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model. The SIMPLEC algorithm is applied to solve the coupling of pressure and velocity. The simulated results confirms well with experimental data. As the working condition varies, specifically when the pressure of the outlet decreases to a certain value, the intersection of the suction chamber and the throat sees the inception and development of the cavitation and the bubble generates there adheres to the inner wall. With the decreasing outlet pressure, the cavitation region expands to the diffuser along the inner wall, and also to the axis. When the cavitation region develops to the axis and the pressure there reaches to the critical cavitation pressure (generally vapor pressure), the pump turns into the operation limits and the efficiency drops abruptly. Furthermore, when the flow rate ratio q is considerably low (generally <0.2), the shearing layer and the center of the recirculation also experience the cavitation inception. It is for this reason that the relationship between the critical cavitation number qc and the cavitation flow rate ratio qc can be divided into two parts. When ?c<0.31, it varies little with the increasing qc, while it increases linearly with the increasing qc when ranging from 0.31 to 1.58.

Xiao, L. Z.; Long, X. P.; Lyu, Q.; Hu, Y.; Wang, Q. Q.

2014-12-01

341

Laser-induced cavitation in nanoemulsion with gold nanospheres for blood clot disruption: in vitro results.  

PubMed

Optically activated cavitation in a nanoemulsion contrast agent is proposed for therapeutic applications. With a 56°C boiling point perfluorohexane core and highly absorptive gold nanospheres at the oil-water interface, cavitation nuclei in the core can be efficiently induced with a laser fluence below medical safety limits (70 mJ/cm2 at 1064 nm). This agent is also sensitive to ultrasound (US) exposure and can induce inertial cavitation at a pressure within the medical diagnostic range. Images from a high-speed camera demonstrate bubble formation in these nanoemulsions. The potential of using this contrast agent for blood clot disruption is demonstrated in an in vitro study. The possibility of simultaneous laser and US excitation to reduce the cavitation threshold for therapeutic applications is also discussed. PMID:24784055

Wei, Chen-wei; Xia, Jinjun; Lombardo, Michael; Perez, Camilo; Arnal, Bastien; Larson-Smith, Kjersta; Pelivanov, Ivan; Matula, Thomas; Pozzo, Lilo; O'Donnell, Matthew

2014-05-01

342

Numerical investigation of unsteady cavitation around a NACA 66 hydrofoil using OpenFOAM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction and control of cavitation damage in pumps, propellers, hydro turbines and fluid machinery in general is necessary during the design stage. The present paper deals with a numerical investigation of unsteady cloud cavitation around a NACA 66 hydrofoil. The current study is focused on understanding the dynamic pressures generated during the cavity collapses as a fundamental characteristic in cavitation erosion. A 2D and 3D unsteady flow simulation has been carried out using OpenFOAM. Then, Paraview and Python programming language have been used to characterize dynamic pressure field. Adapted Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Zwart cavitation model have been implemented to improve the analysis of cloud motion and to visualize the bubble expansions. Additional results also confirm the correlation between cavity formation and generated pressures.

Hidalgo, V. H.; Luo, X. W.; Escaler, X.; Ji, J.; Aguinaga, A.

2014-12-01

343

Bubble dynamics under acoustic excitation with multiple frequencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of its magnificent mechanical and chemical effects, acoustic cavitation plays an important role in a broad range of biomedical, chemical and mechanical engineering problems. Particularly, irradiation of the multiple frequency acoustic wave could enhance the effects of cavitation. The advantages of employment of multi-frequency ultrasonic field include decreasing the cavitation thresholds, promoting cavitation nuclei generation, increasing the mass transfer and improving energy efficiency. Therefore, multi-frequency ultrasonic systems are employed in a variety of applications, e.g., to enhance the intensity of sonoluminenscence, to increase efficiency of sonochemical reaction, to improve the accuracy of ultrasound imaging and the efficiency of tissue ablation. Compared to single-frequency systems, a lot of new features of bubble dynamics exist in multi-frequency systems, such as special properties of oscillating bubbles, unique resonances in the bubble response curves, and unusual chaotic behaviours. In present paper, the underlying mechanisms of the cavitation effects under multi-frequency acoustical excitation are also briefly introduced.

Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. N.; Li, S. C.

2015-01-01

344

Enhancing gas-liquid mass transfer rates in non-newtonian fermentations by confining mycelial growth to microbeads in a bubble column  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a penicillin fermentation was assessed in a laboratory-scale bubble column fermentor, with mycelial growth confined to the pore matrix of celite beads. Final cell densities of 29 g/L and penicillin titres of 5.5 g/L were obtained in the confined cell cultures. In comparison, cultures of free mycelial cells grown in the absence of beads experienced dissolved oxygen limitations in the bubble column, giving only 17 g/L final cell concentrations with equally low penicillin titres of 2 g/L. The better performance of the confined cell cultures was attributed to enhanced gas liquid mass transfer rates, with mass transfer coefficients (k /SUB L/ a) two to three times higher than those determined in the free cell cultures. Furthermore, the confined cell cultures showed more efficient utilization of power input for mass transfer, providing up to 50% reduction in energy requirements for aeration.

Gbewonyo, K.; Wang, D.I.C.

1983-12-01

345

Mechanoluminescence and sonoluminescence from acoustic cavitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intense shock wave launched from collapsing bubbles during the sonication of slurries allows for the study of chemical and physical events that occur when a solid is stressed or fractured. One such event is mechanoluminescence (ML): light produced by any mechanical action on a solid. ML has been studied for over 400 years, but much is still not known about it because the emission is inherently weak. Sonicating slurries of mechanoluminescent crystals (such as sucrose, sodium chloride, resorcinol, m-aminophenol, or coumarin) in long chain alkanes has produced very bright ML, up to 1,000 fold more intense than from manual grinding. The large increase in intensity has revealed a number of new emitting species including C2, CH, CO, CO+, CO2+, H, and He+, many of which have not been reported from ML before. In addition, the emission products show that gas phase reactions are occurring within the plasma generated from the ML discharge. The intense ML induced by acoustic cavitation allowed the plasma to be characterized in terms of heavy atom temperature of ˜400 K, electron density of 1014 cm-1, and electron energy of ˜3.5 eV. These conditions are very similar to other highly reactive microdischarges. To further extend the knowledge of the conditions generated within a cloud of cavitating bubbles, multi-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) of sulfuric acid has been studied. The MBSL spectrum from 95 wt % H2SO 4 consists of a broad continuum extending into the UV with SO and Ar emission lines also observed. The Ar lines were used to determine an effective emission temperature of ˜8,000 K, which is substantially greater than in other low vapor pressure systems (e.g., silicone oil, where MBSL emission temperature is only ˜5,000 K). The observation of Ar lines at this temperature also indicates that a hot plasma core is probably generated during multi-bubble cavitation in sulfuric acid. In addition, the effect of solution composition was studied by varying the acid concentration. The effect of single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) intensity and spectral profile from the addition of low concentrations of organics to sulfuric acid has been investigated. It was found that the addition of small quantities of organics to sulfuric acid greatly reduced the total SBSL intensity. The addition of small quantities of organics resulted in intense carbon-containing molecular emission lines in the SBSL spectrum. The spectral profile of the molecular emission lines was found to be dependent on concentration of the organic and the applied acoustic pressure. At low concentration, the molecular emission bands showed a rotational temperature of ˜280 K with high energy vibrational population, while at higher concentrations and higher acoustic pressure the molecular emission bands indicated thermodynamic equilibrium with rotational and vibrational temperatures of ˜5,800 K. By analyzing the spectral profile of the molecular emission bands it was determined that at very low concentration the emitting molecular species were excited by electron impact of the organic molecules within the interfacial layer of the bubble while at higher concentration and higher acoustic pressure thermal emission dominated.

Eddingsaas, Nathan C.

346

Bubble Suspension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners observe as soap bubbles float on a cushion of carbon dioxide gas. Learners blow bubbles into an aquarium filled with a slab of dry ice. Learners will be amazed as the bubbles hover on the denser layer of carbon dioxide gas, then begin to expand and sink before freezing on the dry ice. Use this activity to discuss sublimation, density, and osmosis as well as principles of buoyancy, semipermeability, and interference.

Exploratorium, The

2011-10-11

347

Analysis of cavitation behaviour in a centrifugal pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation is a well-known problem in centrifugal pumps, causing serious damage and substantial head losses. However, the reason for the sudden head drop in cavitation curves is not fully understood. In this paper, the transient three-dimensional cavitating flow field in a centrifugal pump was calculated using RNG k-? turbulence model and Rayleigh Plesset cavitation model. The NPSH-H curve and the cavitation development in the whole passage were predicted. The blade loading and energy transfer are analyzed for various cavitation conditions. The results show that the existing of the cavities changes the load distribution on blades. With the decrease of NPSH the loads on blades tend to increases in the rear part but decreases in the front part. If NPSH is not so low, sometimes the overall torque may increase slightly, thus the head may also increase slightly. But if the NPSH become low and reach a threshold value, the overall torque will also decrease. At the same time, the energy dissipation in the vortices increases greatly because of the growth of the cavities. These two reasons make the head drop rapidly.

He, M.; Fu, L. P.; Zhou, L. J.; Guo, Q.; Wang, Z. W.

2012-11-01

348

Periodic shock-emission from acoustically driven cavitation clouds: a source of the subharmonic signal.  

PubMed

Single clouds of cavitation bubbles, driven by 254kHz focused ultrasound at pressure amplitudes in the range of 0.48-1.22MPa, have been observed via high-speed shadowgraphic imaging at 1×10(6) frames per second. Clouds underwent repetitive growth, oscillation and collapse (GOC) cycles, with shock-waves emitted periodically at the instant of collapse during each cycle. The frequency of cloud collapse, and coincident shock-emission, was primarily dependent on the intensity of the focused ultrasound driving the activity. The lowest peak-to-peak pressure amplitude of 0.48MPa generated shock-waves with an average period of 7.9±0.5?s, corresponding to a frequency of f0/2, half-harmonic to the fundamental driving. Increasing the intensity gave rise to GOC cycles and shock-emission periods of 11.8±0.3, 15.8±0.3, 19.8±0.2?s, at pressure amplitudes of 0.64, 0.92 and 1.22MPa, corresponding to the higher-order subharmonics of f0/3, f0/4 and f0/5, respectively. Parallel passive acoustic detection, filtered for the fundamental driving, revealed features that correlated temporally to the shock-emissions observed via high-speed imaging, p(two-tailed) < 0.01 (r=0.996, taken over all data). Subtracting the isolated acoustic shock profiles from the raw signal collected from the detector, demonstrated the removal of subharmonic spectral peaks, in the frequency domain. The larger cavitation clouds (>200?m diameter, at maximum inflation), that developed under insonations of peak-to-peak pressure amplitudes >1.0MPa, emitted shock-waves with two or more fronts suggesting non-uniform collapse of the cloud. The observations indicate that periodic shock-emissions from acoustically driven cavitation clouds provide a source for the cavitation subharmonic signal, and that shock structure may be used to study intra-cloud dynamics at sub-microsecond timescales. PMID:25015000

Johnston, Keith; Tapia-Siles, Cecilia; Gerold, Bjoern; Postema, Michiel; Cochran, Sandy; Cuschieri, Alfred; Prentice, Paul

2014-12-01

349

Radiation Damping at a Bubble Wall  

E-print Network

The first order phase transition proceeds via nucleation and growth of true vacuum bubbles. When charged particles collide with the bubble they could radiate electromagnetic wave. We show that, due to an energy loss of the particles by the radiation, the damping pressure acting on the bubble wall depends on the velocity of the wall even in a thermal equilibrium state.

Jae-weon Lee; Kyungsub Kim; Chul H. Lee; Ji-ho Jang

1999-09-27

350

Radiation Damping at a Bubble Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first order phase transition proceeds via nucleation and growth of true vacuum bubbles. When charged particles collide with the bubble they could radiate electromagnetic wave. We show that, due to an energy loss of the particles by the radiation, the damping pressure acting on the bubble wall depends on the velocity of the wall even in a thermal equilibrium

Jae-weon Lee; Kyungsub Kim; Chul H. Lee; Ji-ho Jang

1999-01-01

351

Radiation Damping at a Bubble Wall  

E-print Network

The first order phase transition proceeds via nucleation and growth of true vacuum bubbles. When charged particles collide with the bubble they could radiate electromagnetic wave. We show that, due to an energy loss of the particles by the radiation, the damping pressure acting on the bubble wall depends on the velocity of the wall even in a thermal equilibrium state.

Lee, J; Lee, C H; Jang, J; Lee, Jae-weon; Kim, Kyungsub; Lee, Chul H.; Jang, Ji-ho

1999-01-01

352

Bubble Tray  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use simple materials to create giant bubbles. Learners will explore what gives bubbles their shape, what makes them break or last, what causes the colors and patterns in the soap film, and why do they change? Use this activity to introduce the concepts of surface tension and interference.

Exploratorium, The

2012-06-26

353

Dynamics of a Spherical Vapor\\/Gas Bubble in Varying Pressure Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is developed to simulate the radial motion of cavitation bubbles. The heat and mass transports including phase change are formulated precisely. In order to reduce the computational cost without loss of the important thermo-fluid phenomena, two simplifications are employed: time-dependent bubble radius is described using the Rayleigh-Plesset equation; the pressure in the bubble is assumed to be

Hisanobu Kawashima; Masaharu Kameda

2008-01-01

354

The role of cavitation microjets in the therapeutic applications of ultrasound.  

PubMed

The dynamics of a gas bubble situated in a sound-irradiated liquid and near a rigid boundary was studied theoretically to get a better understanding of the role of cavitation microjets in the therapeutic applications of ultrasound (US). The boundary integral method was adopted to simulate the temporal development of the bubble shape, jet formation during bubble collapse and bubble migration. It was found that the dynamic behaviour of the jet and the migratory characteristics of the bubble depend not only on the distance between bubble and boundary but, also, on the properties of the acoustic field. For frequencies of sound fields smaller than or equal to the resonance frequency of the bubble, jet formation and bubble migration toward the boundary are the main features of the interaction. No jet formation was observed for frequencies of sound fields larger than the resonance frequency of the bubble, and the bubble kept its initial position from the boundary throughout its motion. The pressure generated by the impact of the jet developed during bubble collapse close to the boundary may result in the fragmentation of brittle objects, such as renal calculi, dental tartar or intraocular lens. PMID:15063520

Brujan, E A

2004-03-01

355

Cavitation Fatigue. Embolism and Refilling Cycles Can Weaken the Cavitation Resistance of Xylem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although cavitation and refilling cycles could be common in plants, it is unknown whether these cycles weaken the cavitation resistance of xylem. Stem or petiole segments were tested for cavitation resistance before and after a controlled cavitation-refilling cycle. Cavitation was induced by centrifugation, air drying of shoots, or soil drought. Except for droughted plants, material was not significantly water stressed

Uwe G. Hacke; Volker Stiller; John S. Sperry; Jarmila Pittermann; Katherine A. McCulloh

2001-01-01

356

Homogeneous bubble nucleation driven by local hot spots: a molecular dynamics study.  

PubMed

We report a molecular dynamics study of homogeneous bubble nucleation in a Lennard-Jones fluid. The rate of bubble nucleation is estimated using forward-flux sampling (FFS). We find that cavitation starts with compact bubbles rather than with ramified structures, as had been suggested by Shen and Debenedetti (J. Chem. Phys. 1999, 111, 3581). Our estimate of the bubble-nucleation rate is higher than predicted on the basis of classical nucleation theory (CNT). Our simulations show that local temperature fluctuations correlate strongly with subsequent bubble formation; this mechanism is not taken into account in CNT. PMID:19007279

Wang, Zun-Jing; Valeriani, Chantal; Frenkel, Daan

2009-03-26

357

Acoustic and Cavitation Fields of Shock Wave Therapy Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is considered a viable treatment modality for orthopedic ailments. Despite increasing clinical use, the mechanisms by which ESWT devices generate a therapeutic effect are not yet understood. The mechanistic differences in various devices and their efficacies might be dependent on their acoustic and cavitation outputs. We report acoustic and cavitation measurements of a number of different shock wave therapy devices. Two devices were electrohydraulic: one had a large reflector (HMT Ossatron) and the other was a hand-held source (HMT Evotron); the other device was a pneumatically driven device (EMS Swiss DolorClast Vet). Acoustic measurements were made using a fiber-optic probe hydrophone and a PVDF hydrophone. A dual passive cavitation detection system was used to monitor cavitation activity. Qualitative differences between these devices were also highlighted using a high-speed camera. We found that the Ossatron generated focused shock waves with a peak positive pressure around 40 MPa. The Evotron produced peak positive pressure around 20 MPa, however, its acoustic output appeared to be independent of the power setting of the device. The peak positive pressure from the DolorClast was about 5 MPa without a clear shock front. The DolorClast did not generate a focused acoustic field. Shadowgraph images show that the wave propagating from the DolorClast is planar and not focused in the vicinity of the hand-piece. All three devices produced measurable cavitation with a characteristic time (cavitation inception to bubble collapse) that varied between 95 and 209 ?s for the Ossatron, between 59 and 283 ?s for the Evotron, and between 195 and 431 ?s for the DolorClast. The high-speed camera images show that the cavitation activity for the DolorClast is primarily restricted to the contact surface of the hand-piece. These data indicate that the devices studied here vary in acoustic and cavitation output, which may imply that the mechanisms by which they generate therapeutic effects are different.

Chitnis, Parag V.; Cleveland, Robin O.

2006-05-01

358

Techniques for Generating Centimetric Drops in Microgravity and Application to Cavitation Studies  

E-print Network

This paper describes the techniques and physical parameters used to produce stable centimetric water drops in microgravity, and to study single cavitation bubbles inside such drops (Parabolic Flight Campaigns, European Space Agency ESA). While the main scientific results have been presented in a previous paper, we shall herein provide the necessary technical background, with potential applications to other experiments. First, we present an original method to produce and capture large stable drops in microgravity. This technique succeeded in generating quasi-spherical water drops with volumes up to 8 ml, despite the residual g-jitter. We find that the equilibrium of the drops is essentially dictated by the ratio between the drop volume and the contact surface used to capture the drop, and formulate a simple stability criterion. In a second part, we present a setup for creating and studying single cavitation bubbles inside those drops. In addition, we analyze the influence of the bubble size and position on the...

Kobel, Philippe; de Bosset, Aurèle; Dorsaz, Nicolas; Farhat, M

2010-01-01

359

Two reference time scales for studying the dynamic cavitation of liquid films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two formulas, one for the characteristic time of filling a void with the vapor of the surrounding liquid, and one of filling the void by diffusion of the dissolved gas in the liquid, are derived. By comparing these time scales with that of the dynamic operation of oil film bearings, it is concluded that the evaporation process is usually fast enough to fill the cavitation bubble with oil vapor; whereas the diffusion process is much too slow for the dissolved air to liberate itself and enter the cavitation bubble. These results imply that the formation of a two phase fluid in dynamically loaded bearings, as often reported in the literature, is caused by air entrainment. They further indicate a way to simplify the treatment of the dynamic problem of bubble evolution.

Sun, D. C.; Brewe, D. E.

1992-01-01

360

A method for predicting the number of active bubbles in sonochemical reactors.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the number of active bubbles in acoustic cavitation field is very important for the prediction of the performance of ultrasonic reactors toward most chemical processes induced by ultrasound. The literature in this field is scarce, probably due to the complicated nature of the phenomena. We introduce here a relatively simple semi-empirical method for predicting the number of active bubbles in an acoustic cavitation field. By coupling the bubble dynamics in an acoustical field with chemical kinetics occurring in the bubble during oscillation, the amount of the radical species OH and HO2 and molecular H2O2 released by a single bubble was estimated. Knowing that the H2O2 measured experimentally during sonication of water comes from the recombination of hydroxyl (OH) and perhydroxyl (HO2) radicals in the liquid phase and assuming that in sonochemistry applications, the cavitation is transient and the bubble fragments at the first collapse, the number of bubbles formed per unit time per unit volume is then easily determined using material balances for H2O2, OH and HO2 in the liquid phase. The effect of ultrasonic frequency on the number of active bubbles was examined. It was shown that increasing ultrasonic frequency leads to a substantial increase in the number of bubbles formed in the reactor. PMID:25127247

Merouani, Slimane; Ferkous, Hamza; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Rezgui, Yacine; Guemini, Miloud

2015-01-01

361

Hydraulic Pulsed Cavitating Jet-Assisted Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to improve drilling rate in deep wells has been a hot subject. Based on modulating pulse jet and cavitating jet, a new drilling tool is designed which couples advantages of both pulse jet and cavitating jet. When drilling fluid flows through the tool during the drilling process, fluid is modulated to pulse and cavitate. Thus, pulse cavitating jet is

G. Li; H. Shi; H. Liao; Z. Shen; J. Niu; Z. Huang; H. Luo

2009-01-01

362

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF VAPOR BUBBLE GROWTH AND WALL HEAT TRANSFER DURING FLOW BOILING OF WATER IN A MICROCHANNEL  

E-print Network

IN A MICROCHANNEL Abhijit Mukherjee axmeme@rit.edu Rochester Institute of Technology 76, Lomb Memorial Drive of a vapor bubble inside a microchannel. The microchannel is of 200 µm square cross section and a vapor boundary layer development. INTRODUCTION Microchannel heat sinks with liquid cooling are extensively used

Kandlikar, Satish

363

Enhanced cavitation by using two consecutive ultrasound waves at different frequencies.  

PubMed

Efficient and noninvasive generation of cavitation bubbles in soft tissue is a challenging task due to the lack of cavitation nuclei (i.e., pre-existing gas bubbles). In this study, we present a method to generate and enhance cavitation activity based on the utilization of two consecutive ultrasound waves at different frequencies. First, a high frequency (5 MHz) high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) wave was applied to a tissue-mimicking phantom to induce a rapid temperature rise in the ultrasound focal region. Immediately following the high frequency HIFU wave, a low frequency (1?MHz) HIFU wave was applied to the same focal region to induce acoustic cavitation. We found that cavitation activity was enhanced when the temperature in the tissue-mimicking phantom was first elevated by the high frequency HIFU wave. The enhancement was greater when a higher intensity of high frequency HIFU wave was applied. This result may be due to the temporary super-saturation of air in the initially air-saturated test samples and the reduction of surface tension at an elevated temperature. PMID:25425746

Yang, Xinmai; Jo, Janggun

2014-11-10

364

Cavitation-resistant inducer  

DOEpatents

An improvement in an inducer for a pump wherein the inducer includes a hub, a plurality of radially extending substantially helical blades and a wall member extending about and encompassing an outer periphery of the blades. The improvement comprises forming adjacent pairs of blades and the hub to provide a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow area which cross-sectional flow area decreases from the inlet end of the inducer to a discharge end of the inducer, resulting in increased inducer efficiency improved suction performance, reduced susceptibility to cavitation, reduced susceptibility to hub separation and reduced fabrication costs.

Dunn, Charlton (Calabasas, CA); Subbaraman, Maria R. (Canoga Park, CA)

1989-01-01

365

High-speed jetting and spray formation from bubble collapse.  

PubMed

A method to create impacting jets at the micrometer length scale by means of a collapsing cavitation bubble is presented. A focused shock wave from a lithotripter leads to the nucleation of a cavitation bubble below a hole of 25 ?m diameter etched in a silicon plate. The plate is placed at an air-water interface. The expansion and collapse of the bubble leads to two separate jets--an initial slow jet of velocity ?10 m/s and a later faster jet of velocity ?50 m/s. The jets subsequently impact coaxially, resulting in a circular sheet of liquid in the plane perpendicular to their axis. The sheet is characterized by a ring of droplets at its rim and breaks up into a spray as the shock pressure is increased. The results demonstrate an approach to create a high-speed jet and fine spray on demand at the micrometer scale. PMID:22400617

Karri, Badarinath; Avila, Silvestre Roberto Gonzalez; Loke, Yee Chong; O'Shea, Sean J; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

2012-01-01

366

High-speed jetting and spray formation from bubble collapse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to create impacting jets at the micrometer length scale by means of a collapsing cavitation bubble is presented. A focused shock wave from a lithotripter leads to the nucleation of a cavitation bubble below a hole of 25 ?m diameter etched in a silicon plate. The plate is placed at an air-water interface. The expansion and collapse of the bubble leads to two separate jets—an initial slow jet of velocity ˜10 m/s and a later faster jet of velocity ˜50 m/s. The jets subsequently impact coaxially, resulting in a circular sheet of liquid in the plane perpendicular to their axis. The sheet is characterized by a ring of droplets at its rim and breaks up into a spray as the shock pressure is increased. The results demonstrate an approach to create a high-speed jet and fine spray on demand at the micrometer scale.

Karri, Badarinath; Avila, Silvestre Roberto Gonzalez; Loke, Yee Chong; O'Shea, Sean J.; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

2012-01-01

367

Identifying the Inertial Cavitation Pressure Threshold and Skull Effects in a Vessel Phantom Using Focused Ultrasound and Microbubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Focused Ultrasound (FUS) and microbubbles to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been shown promising for brain drug delivery. However, the exact mechanism behind the opening remains unknown. Here, the effects of the murine skull on the threshold of inertial cavitation were investigated. In order to investigate the pressure threshold for inertial cavitation of preformed microbubbles during sonication, passive cavitation detection in conjunction with B-mode imaging was used. A cylindrical vessel with a 610-?m diameter inside a polyacrylamide gel was generated within a polyacrylamide gel to simulate large blood vessels. Definity® (Lantheus Medical Imaging, MA, USA) microbubbles with a 1.1-3.3 ?m in diameter at 2.5×107 bubbles/mL were injected into the channel before sonication (frequency: 1.525 MHz; pulse length: 100 cycles; PRF: 10 Hz; sonication duration: 2 s) through an excised mouse skull. A cylindrically focused hydrophone, confocal with the FUS transducer, acted as a passive cavitation detector (PCD) to identify the threshold. A 7.5 MHz linear array with the field-of-view perpendicular to the axial length of the FUS beam was also used to image the occurrence of bubble fragmentation. The broadband spectral response acquired at the passive cavitation detector (PCD) and the B-mode images identified the occurrence and location of the inertial cavitation, respectively. Findings indicated that the peak-rarefactional pressure threshold was approximately equal to 0.45 MPa at the presence or the absence of the skull. However, the skull induced 10-50% lower inertial cavitation dose. Mouse skulls did not affect the pressure threshold of inertial cavitation but resulted in a lower inertial cavitation dose. The broadband response could be captured through the murine skull, so the same PCD setup can be used in future in vivo applications.

Tung, Yao-Sheng; Choi, James J.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

2010-03-01

368

Liquid jet generated by thermocavitation bubbles within a droplet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-speed video imaging was used to study the dynamic behavior of cavitation bubbles induced by a continuous wave (CW) laser into highly absorbing droplets water containing copper nitrate (CuNO4). The droplet lays horizontally on a glass surface and the laser beam (?=975 nm) propagates vertically from underneath, across the glass and into the droplet. This beam is focused ?=400 ?m above the glass-liquid interface in order to produce the largest bubble as possible (Rmax ~ 1mm). In our experiment the thermocavitation bubbles are always in contact with the substrate, taking a hemispherical shape, regardless of where the laser focal point is, as opposed to the other methods that involved nano and picosecond laser pulses, where bubbles may nucleate and grow within the bulk of the fluid. We focus on the liquid jet which emerges out the droplet at velocities of about 3 m/s, due to the acoustic pressure wave (APW) emitted immediately after the bubble collapse, and after it breaks up into a secondary droplet or droplets depending of the droplet's volume, showing an alternative way of droplet generator that is simplest, light and cheaper. The dynamics of cavitation bubbles in confined geometries (drops) offers a rich hydrodynamic and the liquid jet generated after the bubble collapse could be used like acoustic waveguide, as was showed by Nicolas Bertin et. al.

Padilla-Martinez, J. P.; Banks, Darren; Ramirez-San-Juan, J. C.; Aguilar, G.; Ramos-Garcia, R.

2013-03-01

369

Drying by Cavitation and Poroelastic Relaxations in Porous Media with Macroscopic Pores Connected by Nanoscale Throats  

E-print Network

We investigate the drying dynamics of porous media with two pore diameters separated by several orders of magnitude. Nanometer-sized pores at the edge of our samples prevent air entry, while drying proceeds by heterogeneous nucleation of vapor bubbles (cavitation) in the liquid in micrometer-sized voids within the sample. We show that the dynamics of cavitation and drying are set by the interplay of the deterministic poroelastic mass transport in the porous medium and the stochastic nucleation process. Spatio-temporal patterns emerge in this unusual reaction-diffusion system, with temporal oscillations in the drying rate and variable roughness of the drying front.

Olivier Vincent; David A. Sessoms; Erik J. Huber; Jules Guioth; Abraham D. Stroock

2014-02-27

370

Drying by Cavitation and Poroelastic Relaxations in Porous Media with Macroscopic Pores Connected by Nanoscale Throats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the drying dynamics of porous media with two pore diameters separated by several orders of magnitude. Nanometer-sized pores at the edge of our samples prevent air entry, while drying proceeds by heterogeneous nucleation of vapor bubbles—cavitation—in the liquid in micrometer-sized voids within the sample. We show that the dynamics of cavitation and drying are set by the interplay of the deterministic poroelastic mass transport in the porous medium and the stochastic nucleation process. Spatiotemporal patterns emerge in this unusual reaction-diffusion system, with temporal oscillations in the drying rate and variable roughness of the drying front.

Vincent, Olivier; Sessoms, David A.; Huber, Erik J.; Guioth, Jules; Stroock, Abraham D.

2014-09-01

371

Cavitation Inception on Microparticles: A Self-Propelled Particle Accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrugated, hydrophilic particles with diameters between 30 and 150 mum are found to cause cavitation inception at their surfaces when they are exposed to a short, intensive tensile stress wave. The growing cavity accelerates the particle into translatory motion until the tensile stress decreases, and subsequently the particle separates from the cavity. The cavity growth and particle detachment are modeled

Manish Arora; Claus-Dieter Ohl; Knud Aage Mørch

2004-01-01

372

EFFECT OF CAVITATION CONDITIONS ON AMORPHOUS METAL SYNTHESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic cavitation is an effective means of concentrating energy and\\u000a can be used to drive a variety of chemical reactions. By changing the\\u000a experimental parameters that control conditions during bubble collapse,\\u000a different chemical environments can be created. The sonochemical\\u000a reactions associated with metal carbonyls in alkane solvents are quite\\u000a diverse and illustrate this phenomena. For example, ultrasonic\\u000a irradiation of iron

MW GRINSTAFF; AA CICHOWLAS; SB CHOE; KS SUSLICK

1992-01-01

373

Dynamic response of cavitating turbomachines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stimulated by the pogo instability encountered in many liquid propellant rockets, the dynamic behavior of cavitating inducers is discussed. An experimental facility where the upstream and downstream flows of a cavitating inducer could be perturbed was constructed and tested. The upstream and downstream pressure and mass flow fluctuations were measured. Matrices representing the transfer functions across the inducer pump were calculated from these measurements and from the hydraulic system characteristics for two impellers in various states of cavitation. The transfer matrices when plotted against the perturbing frequency showed significant departure from steady state or quasi-steady predictions especially at higher frequencies.

Ng, S. L.

1976-01-01

374

Plastic deformation of a magnesium oxide 001-plane surface produced by cavitation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted to examine plastic deformation of a cleaved single-crystal magnesium oxide 001-plane surface exposed to cavitation. Cavitation damage experiments were carried out in distilled water at 25 C by using a magnetostrictive oscillator in close proximity (2 mm) to the surface of the cleaved specimen. The dislocation-etch-pit patterns induced by cavitation were examined and compared with that of microhardness indentations. The results revealed that dislocation-etch-pit patterns around hardness indentations contain both screw and edge dislocations, while the etch-pit patterns on the surface exposed to cavitation contain only screw dislocations. During cavitation, deformation occurred in a thin surface layer, accompanied by work-hardening of the ceramic. The row of screw dislocations underwent a stable growth, which was analyzed crystallographically.

Hattori, S.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Okada, T.

1986-01-01

375

Design approach for cavitation tolerant hydrofoils and blades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation inception and growth on conventional shape hydrofoils and blades leads initially to a jump of their flow-induced noise, further to an amplification of flow-induced vibration with frequently assisted erosion and finally, to a lift/thrust decrease combined with the drag increase. These undesirable cavitation effects can be mitigated or even suppressed for stable partial cavities experiencing no tail pulsations. A design approach enhancing performance of cavitating hydrofoils/blades by maintaining stable partial cavities is described. Experimental data manifesting an increase of hydrofoil lift with reduction of its drag and of force pulsations by such design are provided. Application of this design approach to propeller/turbine blades and advantages of its employment for blades operating in non-uniform incoming flows are analyzed. The possibility of an increase of the lift to drag ratio and of a reduction of the cavity volume oscillation in gust flows for blade sections is numerically manifested.

Amromin, E. L.

2014-02-01

376

The dynamics of underwater bubbles near deformable boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bubble hydrodynamic simulations including re-entrant jet impact and penetration are performed using domain partitioning methods along with traditional boundary element techniques. By combining the new multi-subdomain scheme with the boundary conditions for jet impact and penetration presented by Zhang, Duncan and Chahine (1), continuous simulations of the jet impact and penetration process are achieved. The strategy is verified through comparisons with theoretical and numerical potential flow problems, and proves to be more stable than existing jet impact and penetration models (1). The fluid model is used to study bubble-bubble interactions and bubble-structure interaction phenomena. The fluid model is coupled to a nonlinear finite element code through fully nonlinear coupling equations. For the first time, stable fluid-structure interaction calculations with jet impact are performed. The method is used to simulate the interaction between a small explosion bubble and aluminum plates of different thicknesses. The results are compared with experimental results (2, 3), and the predicted bubble motions prior to and during jet penetration are in agreement with the measurements. In the experiments, secondary cavities form on the surface of the thinnest plate. The secondary cavitation is not rigorously modeled in the numerical scheme but reasonable agreement between predicted and measured plate strain was achieved. The simulations help identify the role of secondary cavitation in the interaction process. The multi-subdomain fluid model is also used to simulate the interaction between two explosion bubbles generated with a time delay between the two explosive detonations. The approach is verified through direct comparisons with experimental results (4, 5). The numerical model shows that when the time delay between the two detonations is small, the inertia of the fluid around each bubble is comparable, so the bubbles act as images of each other. For larger time delays between detonations, the behavior becomes quite different. The first bubble is repulsed by the expanding second bubble and becomes becomes flat on the side closest the second bubble, while the second bubble becomes elongated in the direction of the first bubble. Eventually a high speed jet directed away from the second bubble forms in the first bubble. When impact of the jet occurs, a micro-jet forms in the second bubble.

Milligan, Charles Dean

377

Role of H2O2 in the fluctuating patterns of COD (chemical oxygen demand) during the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using pilot scale triple frequency ultrasound cavitation reactor.  

PubMed

Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a highly contaminating wastewater due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Conventional treatment methods require longer residence time (10-15 days) and higher operating cost. Owing to this, finding a suitable and efficient method for the treatment of POME is crucial. In this investigation, ultrasound cavitation technology has been used as an alternative technique to treat POME. Cavitation is the phenomenon of formation, growth and collapse of bubbles in a liquid. The end process of collapse leads to intense conditions of temperature and pressure and shock waves which assist various physical and chemical transformations. Two different ultrasound systems i.e. ultrasonic bath (37 kHz) and a hexagonal triple frequency ultrasonic reactor (28, 40 and 70 kHz) of 15 L have been used. The results showed a fluctuating COD pattern (in between 45,000 and 60,000 mg/L) while using ultrasound bath alone, whereas a non-fluctuating COD pattern with a final COD of 27,000 mg/L was achieved when hydrogen peroxide was introduced. Similarly for the triple frequency ultrasound reactor, coupling all the three frequencies resulted into a final COD of 41,300 mg/L compared to any other individual or combination of two frequencies. With the possibility of larger and continuous ultrasonic cavitational reactors, it is believed that this could be a promising and a fruitful green process engineering technique for the treatment of POME. PMID:24485395

Manickam, Sivakumar; Abidin, Norhaida binti Zainal; Parthasarathy, Shridharan; Alzorqi, Ibrahim; Ng, Ern Huay; Tiong, Timm Joyce; Gomes, Rachel L; Ali, Asgar

2014-07-01

378

Current research in cavitating fluid films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the current research of cavitation in fluid films is presented. Phenomena and experimental observations include gaseous cavitation, vapor cavitation, and gas entrainment. Cavitation in flooded, starved, and dynamically loaded journal bearings, as well as squeeze films are reviewed. Observations of cavitation damage in bearings and the possibility of cavitation between parallel plates with microasperities were discussed. The transcavity fluid transport process, meniscus motion and geometry or form of the film during rupture, and reformation were summarized. Performance effects were related to heat transfer models in the cavitated region and hysteresis influence on rotor dynamics coefficients. A number of cavitation algorithms was presented together with solution procedures using the finite difference and finite element methods. Although Newtonian fluids were assumed in most of the discussions, the effect of non-Newtonian fluids on cavitation was also discussed.

Brewe, D. E. (editor); Ball, J. H. (editor); Khonsari, M. M. (editor)

1990-01-01

379

Magnetic resonance imaging of velocity fields, the void fraction and gas dynamics in a cavitating liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In acoustic cavitation, the relationship between the bubble dynamics on the microscale and the flow properties on the macroscale is critical in determining sonochemical reaction kinetics. A new technique was developed to measure the void fraction and estimate water mobility in the vicinity of cavitating bubbles using phase-encoded magnetic resonance imaging with short characteristic measurement timescales (0.1-1 ms). The exponential behavior of the NMR signal decay indicated the fast diffusion regime, with the relationship between local mechanical dispersion D mix and the average bubble radius R, D_mix? 2R^2/10^{-4s}, resulting in dispersion of orders of magnitude greater than diffusion in quiescent water. For two different samples (water and a surfactant solution), the independent measurements of three-dimensional void fraction and velocity fields permitted the calculation of compressibility, divergence and vorticity of the cavitating medium. The measured dynamics of the dissolved gas, compared with that of the surrounding liquid, reflected the difference in the bubble coalescence and lifetimes and correlated with the macroscopic flow parameters.

Mastikhin, Igor V.; Arbabi, Aidin; Newling, Benedict; Hamza, Abdelhaq; Adair, Alexander

2012-01-01

380

Analysis of freeze-thaw embolism in conifers. The interaction between cavitation pressure and tracheid size.  

PubMed

Ice formation in the xylem sap produces air bubbles that under negative xylem pressures may expand and cause embolism in the xylem conduits. We used the centrifuge method to evaluate the relationship between freeze-thaw embolism and conduit diameter across a range of xylem pressures (Px) in the conifers Pinus contorta and Juniperus scopulorum. Vulnerability curves showing loss of conductivity (embolism) with Px down to -8 MPa were generated with versus without superimposing a freeze-thaw treatment. In both species, the freeze-thaw plus water-stress treatment caused more embolism than water stress alone. We estimated the critical conduit diameter (Df) above which a tracheid will embolize due to freezing and thawing and found that it decreased from 35 microm at a Px of -0.5 MPa to 6 microm at -8 MPa. Further analysis showed that the proportionality between diameter of the air bubble nucleating the cavitation and the diameter of the conduit (kL) declined with increasingly negative Px. This suggests that the bubbles causing cavitation are smaller in proportion to tracheid diameter in narrow tracheids than in wider ones. A possible reason for this is that the rate of dissolving increases with bubble pressure, which is inversely proportional to bubble diameter (La Place's law). Hence, smaller bubbles shrink faster than bigger ones. Last, we used the empirical relationship between Px and Df to model the freeze-thaw response in conifer species. PMID:16377751

Pittermann, Jarmila; Sperry, John S

2006-01-01

381

The Speed of Axial Propagation of a Cylindrical Bubble Through a Cylindrical Vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inspired by the rapid elongation of air columns injected into vortices by dolphins, we present an exact inviscid solution for the axial speed (assumed steady) of propagation of the tip of a semi-infinite cylindrical bubble along the axis of a cylindrical vortex. The bubble is assumed to be held at constant pressure by being connected to a reservoir, the lungs of the dolphin, say. For a given bubble pressure, there is a modest critical rotation rate above which steadily propagating bubbles exist. For a bubble at ambient pressure, the propagation speed of the bubble (relative to axial velocity within the vortex) varies between 0.5 and 0.6 of the maximum rotational speed of the vortex. Surprisingly, the bubble tip can propagate (almost as rapidly) even when the pressure minimum in the vortex core is greater than the bubble pressure; in this case, solutions exhibit a dimple on the nose of the bubble. A situation important for incipient vortex cavitation, and one which dolphins also demonstrate, is elongation of a free bubble, i.e., one whose internal pressure may vary. Under the assumption that the acceleration term is small (checked a posteriori), the steady solution is applied at each instant during the elongation. Three types of behavior are then possible depending on physical parameters and initial conditions: (A) Unabated elongation with slowly increasing bubble pressure, and nearly constant volume. Volume begins to decrease in the late stages. (B1) Elongation with decreasing bubble pressure. A limit point of the steady solution is encountered at a finite bubble length. (B2) Unabated elongation with decreasing bubble pressure and indefinite creation of volume. This is made possible by the existence of propagating solutions at bubble pressures below the minimum vortex pressure. As the bubble stretches, its radius initially decreases but then becomes constant; this is also observed in experiments on incipient vortex cavitation.

Shariff, Karim; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

382

THE EFFECT OF WATER QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS ON CAVITATION NOISE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of seawater on cavitation noise using a water jet test, a two-dimensional wing test, and a three-dimensional wing test. A model propeller cavitation test was conducted in a cavitation tunnel using seawater, in order to determine the effects of propeller cavitation more precisely. In the cavitation tests, measured propeller performance for both cavitation noise inception

Hikaru Kamiirisa

383

Cavitation flow. 1976-May, 1980 (citations from the international aerospace abstracts data base). Report for 1976-May 80  

SciTech Connect

These citations from the international literature concern various aspects of cavitation flow. Articles dealing with bubble behavior relating to two phase flow, oscillating flow, unsteady flow, wall flow, and flow stability are cited. (This updated bibliography contains 348 citations, 154 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Zollars, G.F.

1980-07-01

384

Dual-frequency focused ultrasound using optoacoustic and piezoelectric transmitters for single-pulsed free-field cavitation in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed ultrasonic cavitation is a promising modality for non-contact targeted therapy, enabling mechanical ablation of the tissue. We demonstrate a spatio-temporal superposition approach of two ultrasound pulses (high and low frequencies) producing a tight cavitation zone of 100 ?m in water, which is an-order-of-magnitudes smaller than those obtained by the existing high-amplitude transducers. Particularly, laser-generated focused ultrasound (LGFU) was employed for the high-frequency operation (15 MHz). As demonstrated, LGFU plays a primary role to define the cavitation zone. The generation rate of cavitation bubbles could be dramatically increased up to 4.1% (cf. 0.06% without the superposition) with moderated threshold requirement.

Baac, Hyoung Won; Lee, Taehwa; Ok, Jong G.; Hall, Timothy; Jay Guo, L.

2013-12-01

385

Cavitation in a Mercury Target  

SciTech Connect

Recent theoretical work on the formation of bubble nucleation centers by energetic particles leads to some reasonably credible calculations of the maximum negative pressure that might be sustained without bubble formation in the mercury target of the Spallation Neutron Source.

West, C.D.

2000-09-01

386

"Cavitation in a Mercury Target"  

SciTech Connect

Recent theoretical work on the formation of bubble nucleation centers by energetic particles leads to some reasonably credible calculations of the maximum negative pressure that might be sustained without bubble formation in the mercury target of the Spallation Neutron Source.

West, C.D.

2000-09-06

387

Dynamics of Vapour Bubbles in Nucleate Boiling. 2; Evolution of Thermally Controlled Bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The previously developed dynamic theory of growth and detachment of vapour bubbles under conditions of nucleate pool boiling is applied to study motion and deformation of a bubble evolving at a single nucleation site. The bubble growth is presumed to be thermally controlled, and two components of heat transfer to the bubble are accounted of: the one from the bulk of surrounding liquid and the one due to heat conduction across a liquid microlayer formed underneath the bubble. Bubble evolution is governed by the buoyancy and an effective surface tension force, both the forces making the bubble centre of mass move away from the wall and, thus, assisting its detachment. Buoyancy-controlled and surface-tension-controlled regimes are considered separately in a meticulous way. The duration of the whole process of bubble evolution till detachment, the rate of growth, and the bubble departure size are found as functions of time and physical and operating parameters. Some repeatedly observed phenomena, such as an influence of gravity on the growth rate, are explained. Inferences of the model agree qualitatively with available experimental evidence, and conclusions pertaining to the dependence on gravity of the bubble radius at detachment and the whole time of the bubble development when being attached to the wall are confirmed quantitatively.

Buyevich, Yu A.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Callaway, Robert (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

388

Submicron-Bubble-Enhanced Focused Ultrasound for Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption and Improved CNS Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

The use of focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles has been proven to induce transient blood–brain barrier opening (BBB-opening). However, FUS-induced inertial cavitation of microbubbles can also result in erythrocyte extravasations. Here we investigated whether induction of submicron bubbles to oscillate at their resonant frequency would reduce inertial cavitation during BBB-opening and thereby eliminate erythrocyte extravasations in a rat brain model. FUS was delivered with acoustic pressures of 0.1–4.5 MPa using either in-house manufactured submicron bubbles or standard SonoVue microbubbles. Wideband and subharmonic emissions from bubbles were used to quantify inertial and stable cavitation, respectively. Erythrocyte extravasations were evaluated by in vivo post-treatment magnetic resonance susceptibility-weighted imaging, and finally by histological confirmation. We found that excitation of submicron bubbles with resonant frequency-matched FUS (10 MHz) can greatly limit inertial cavitation while enhancing stable cavitation. The BBB-opening was mainly caused by stable cavitation, whereas the erythrocyte extravasation was closely correlated with inertial cavitation. Our technique allows extensive reduction of inertial cavitation to induce safe BBB-opening. Furthermore, the safety issue of BBB-opening was not compromised by prolonging FUS exposure time, and the local drug concentrations in the brain tissues were significantly improved to 60 times (BCNU; 18.6 µg versus 0.3 µg) by using chemotherapeutic agent-loaded submicron bubbles with FUS. This study provides important information towards the goal of successfully translating FUS brain drug delivery into clinical use. PMID:24788566

Ting, Chien-Yu; Lee, Ya-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Ying; Ma, Yan-Jung; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

2014-01-01

389

Submicron-bubble-enhanced focused ultrasound for blood-brain barrier disruption and improved CNS drug delivery.  

PubMed

The use of focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles has been proven to induce transient blood-brain barrier opening (BBB-opening). However, FUS-induced inertial cavitation of microbubbles can also result in erythrocyte extravasations. Here we investigated whether induction of submicron bubbles to oscillate at their resonant frequency would reduce inertial cavitation during BBB-opening and thereby eliminate erythrocyte extravasations in a rat brain model. FUS was delivered with acoustic pressures of 0.1-4.5 MPa using either in-house manufactured submicron bubbles or standard SonoVue microbubbles. Wideband and subharmonic emissions from bubbles were used to quantify inertial and stable cavitation, respectively. Erythrocyte extravasations were evaluated by in vivo post-treatment magnetic resonance susceptibility-weighted imaging, and finally by histological confirmation. We found that excitation of submicron bubbles with resonant frequency-matched FUS (10 MHz) can greatly limit inertial cavitation while enhancing stable cavitation. The BBB-opening was mainly caused by stable cavitation, whereas the erythrocyte extravasation was closely correlated with inertial cavitation. Our technique allows extensive reduction of inertial cavitation to induce safe BBB-opening. Furthermore, the safety issue of BBB-opening was not compromised by prolonging FUS exposure time, and the local drug concentrations in the brain tissues were significantly improved to 60 times (BCNU; 18.6 µg versus 0.3 µg) by using chemotherapeutic agent-loaded submicron bubbles with FUS. This study provides important information towards the goal of successfully translating FUS brain drug delivery into clinical use. PMID:24788566

Fan, Ching-Hsiang; Liu, Hao-Li; Ting, Chien-Yu; Lee, Ya-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Ying; Ma, Yan-Jung; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

2014-01-01

390

Using cavitation to probe pressure fluctuations in a turbulent flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-invasive measurements of the pressure in a turbulent flow are difficult to obtain due to constrains associated with conventional pressure sensors. We report experiments in which cavitation is used to detect and analyze large negative pressure fluctuations in a turbulent flow between counter-rotating disks. The large Reynolds number water flow (R_? <= 2000) is seeded with small gas bubbles (d ? 100?m) and the hydrostatic pressure is adjusted so that negative pressure fluctuations go below the vapor pressure and thus trigger cavitation. We associate the cavitation with regions of high vorticity. This allows us to use fast video imaging of the scattered light to visualize the dynamics of coherent structures. Using a photodiode to collect light scattered from a small sub-region of the flow, we measure the probability distribution of large negative pressure fluctuations. >From these probability distributions, we can estimate the scaling with Reynolds number of the negative tail of the pressure distribution. (Additional information is available at http:// milou.msc.cornell.edu/turbulence.html.)

La Porta, A.; Voth, Greg; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Moisy, Frédéric

1998-11-01

391

Effect of shaft frequency on cavitation in a journal bearing for noncentered circular whirl  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of shaft frequency on the performance of a submerged journal undergoing noncentered circular whirl is examined. The main emphasis of the paper is on the behavior of the vapor cavitation bubble and its effect on the bearing performance as a function of frequency. A cavitation algorithm due to Elrod was implemented in a computer program which solves a time-dependent Reynolds equation. This algorithm automatically handles the boundary conditions by using a switch function and a control volume approach which conserves mass throughout the entire flow. The shaft frequencies in this investigation ranged from 0 rad/s (squeeze-film damper) to -104 rad/s (a case in which oil-whip condition was produced momentarily). For the particular vibration amplitude chosen in this investigation it was observed that vapor cavitation had an effect on the load components for the full range of shaft frequencies investigated.

Brewe, David E.; Khonsari, M. M.

1987-01-01

392

CFD VALIDATION OF HYDROFOIL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS IN CAVITATING AND NON-CAVITATING FLOWS  

E-print Network

CFD VALIDATION OF HYDROFOIL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS IN CAVITATING AND NON-CAVITATING FLOWS 6102 Dear Sir: I submit this report entitled "CFD Validation of Hydrofoil Performance CharacteristicsFOAM to assess the performance characteristics of a hydrofoil in both sub-cavitating and fully cavitating flows

393

Optical and acoustic monitoring of bubble cloud dynamics at a tissue-fluid interface in ultrasound tissue erosion  

PubMed Central

Short, high-intensity ultrasound pulses have the ability to achieve localized, clearly demarcated erosion in soft tissue at a tissue-fluid interface. The primary mechanism for ultrasound tissue erosion is believed to be acoustic cavitation. To monitor the cavitating bubble cloud generated at a tissue-fluid interface, an optical attenuation method was used to record the intensity loss of transmitted light through bubbles. Optical attenuation was only detected when a bubble cloud was seen using high speed imaging. The light attenuation signals correlated well with a temporally changing acoustic backscatter which is an excellent indicator for tissue erosion. This correlation provides additional evidence that the cavitating bubble cloud is essential for ultrasound tissue erosion. The bubble cloud collapse cycle and bubble dissolution time were studied using the optical attenuation signals. The collapse cycle of the bubble cloud generated by a high intensity ultrasound pulse of 4–14 ?s was ~40–300 ?s depending on the acoustic parameters. The dissolution time of the residual bubbles was tens of ms long. This study of bubble dynamics may provide further insight into previous ultrasound tissue erosion results. PMID:17471753

Xu, Zhen; Hall, Timothy L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A.

2009-01-01

394

Leverage bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leverage is strongly related to liquidity in a market and lack of liquidity is considered a cause and/or consequence of the recent financial crisis. A repurchase agreement is a financial instrument where a security is sold simultaneously with an agreement to buy it back at a later date. Repurchase agreement (repo) market size is a very important element in calculating the overall leverage in a financial market. Therefore, studying the behavior of repo market size can help to understand a process that can contribute to the birth of a financial crisis. We hypothesize that herding behavior among large investors led to massive over-leveraging through the use of repos, resulting in a bubble (built up over the previous years) and subsequent crash in this market in early 2008. We use the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of rational expectation bubbles and behavioral finance to study the dynamics of the repo market that led to the crash. The JLS model qualifies a bubble by the presence of characteristic patterns in the price dynamics, called log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior. We show that there was significant LPPL behavior in the market before that crash and that the predicted range of times predicted by the model for the end of the bubble is consistent with the observations.

Yan, Wanfeng; Woodard, Ryan; Sornette, Didier

2012-01-01

395

Tiny Bubbles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple oxygen-collecting device (easily constructed from glass jars and a lid) can show bubbles released by water plants during photosynthesis. Suggestions are given for: (1) testing the collected gas; (2) using various carbon dioxide sources; and (3) measuring respiration. (DH)

Kim, Hy

1985-01-01

396

Mercury Bubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HAVE on several occasions noticed the beautiful bubbles described by Mr. Wright and Sir William Crookes (pp. 8 and 37). On each occasion I was purifying mercury in the following way. I half filled a rather large Woulffe's bottle with mercury and poured on to it weak nitric acid. Then, in order to keep, the whole in a state

A. T. Hare

1908-01-01

397

On the dynamics and acoustics of cloud cavitation on an oscillating hydrofoil  

SciTech Connect

Observations have been made of the growth and collapse of surface and cloud cavitation on a finite aspect ratio hydrofoil oscillating in pitch. The cavitation was recorded using both still and high-speed motion picture photography, and the variations with cavitation number and reduced frequency of oscillation were investigated. The noise generated by the cavity collapse was also measured and analyzed. The acoustic signals associated with individual cavity collapse events have been synchronized with the motion pictures, providing insights into the correspondence between the flow structures involved in the cavity collapse process and the sound generated by them.

McKenney, E.A.; Brennen, C.E. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1994-12-31

398

Spatial Separation of Cavitating Bubble Populations: The Nanodroplet Injection Model  

E-print Network

(SBSL) and MBSL in sulfuric acid revealed that an optically opaque plasma core was generated nonvolatile metal ions are present in an aqueous solution irradiated with ultrasound, excited-state metal atom in Figure 1. In the shell model, the metal ions in the initially liquid interfacial region are reduced

Suslick, Kenneth S.

399

Numerical and experimental investigations on cavitation erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is proposed to predict cavitation damage from cavitating flow simulations. For this purpose, a numerical process coupling cavitating flow simulations and erosion models was developed and applied to a two-dimensional (2D) hydrofoil tested at TUD (Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany) [1] and to a NACA 65012 tested at LMH-EPFL (Lausanne Polytechnic School) [2]. Cavitation erosion tests (pitting tests) were carried out and a 3D laser profilometry was used to analyze surfaces damaged by cavitation [3]. The method allows evaluating the pit characteristics, and mainly the volume damage rates. The paper describes the developed erosion model, the technique of cavitation damage measurement and presents some comparisons between experimental results and numerical damage predictions. The extent of cavitation erosion was correctly estimated in both hydrofoil geometries. The simulated qualitative influence of flow velocity, sigma value and gas content on cavitation damage agreed well with experimental observations.

Fortes Patella, R.; Archer, A.; Flageul, C.

2012-11-01

400

Spatial control of cavitation in therapeutic ultrasound  

E-print Network

Inertial cavitation has been implicated as the primary mechanism for a host of emerging applications. In all these applications, the main concern is to induce cavitation in perfectly controlled locations in the field; this ...

Gauthier, Thomas P., 1980-

2005-01-01

401

Cavitation effect of holmium laser pulse applied to ablation of hard tissue underwater.  

PubMed

To overcome the inconsecutive drawback of shadow and schlieren photography, the complete dynamics of cavitation bubble oscillation or ablation products induced by a single holmium laser pulse [2.12 microm, 300 micros (FWHM)] transmitted in different core diameter (200, 400, and 600 microm) fibers is recorded by means of high-speed photography. Consecutive images from high-speed cameras can stand for the true and complete process of laser-water or laser-tissue interaction. Both laser pulse energy and fiber diameter determine cavitation bubble size, which further determines acoustic transient amplitudes. Based on the pictures taken by high-speed camera and scanned by an optical coherent microscopy (OCM) system, it is easily seen that the liquid layer at the distal end of the fiber plays an important role during the process of laser-tissue interaction, which can increase ablation efficiency, decrease heat side effects, and reduce cost. PMID:20799845

Lü, Tao; Xiao, Qing; Xia, Danqing; Ruan, Kai; Li, Zhengjia

2010-01-01

402

Ostwald Ripening in Multiple-Bubble Nuclei  

E-print Network

The ostwald ripening of bubbles is studied by molecular dynamics simulations involving up to 679 million Lennard-Jones particles. Many bubbles appear after depressurizing a system that is initially maintained in the pure-liquid phase, and the coarsening of bubbles follows. The self-similarity of the bubble-size distribution function predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory is directly confirmed. The total number of bubbles decreases asymptotically as $t^{-x}$ with scaling exponent $x$. As the initial temperature increases, the exponent changes from $x=3/2$ to $1$, which implies that the growth of bubbles changes from interface-limited (the $t^{1/2}$ law) to diffusion-limited (the $t^{1/3}$ law) growth.

Watanabe, Hiroshi; Inaoka, Hajime; Ito, Nobuyasu

2014-01-01

403

Ostwald Ripening in Multiple-Bubble Nuclei  

E-print Network

The ostwald ripening of bubbles is studied by molecular dynamics simulations involving up to 679 million Lennard-Jones particles. Many bubbles appear after depressurizing a system that is initially maintained in the pure-liquid phase, and the coarsening of bubbles follows. The self-similarity of the bubble-size distribution function predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory is directly confirmed. The total number of bubbles decreases asymptotically as $t^{-x}$ with scaling exponent $x$. As the initial temperature increases, the exponent changes from $x=3/2$ to $1$, which implies that the growth of bubbles changes from interface-limited (the $t^{1/2}$ law) to diffusion-limited (the $t^{1/3}$ law) growth.

Hiroshi Watanabe; Masaru Suzuki; Hajime Inaoka; Nobuyasu Ito

2014-07-01

404

Ostwald ripening in multiple-bubble nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ostwald ripening of bubbles is studied by molecular dynamics simulations involving up to 679 × 106 Lennard-Jones particles. Many bubbles appear after depressurizing a system that is initially maintained in the pure-liquid phase, and the coarsening of bubbles follows. The self-similarity of the bubble-size distribution function predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory is directly confirmed. The total number of bubbles decreases asymptotically as t-x with scaling exponent x. As the initial temperature increases, the exponent changes from x = 3/2 to 1, which implies that the growth of bubbles changes from interface-limited (the t1/2 law) to diffusion-limited (the t1/3 law) growth.

Watanabe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masaru; Inaoka, Hajime; Ito, Nobuyasu

2014-12-01

405

Ostwald ripening in multiple-bubble nuclei.  

PubMed

The Ostwald ripening of bubbles is studied by molecular dynamics simulations involving up to 679 × 10(6) Lennard-Jones particles. Many bubbles appear after depressurizing a system that is initially maintained in the pure-liquid phase, and the coarsening of bubbles follows. The self-similarity of the bubble-size distribution function predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory is directly confirmed. The total number of bubbles decreases asymptotically as t(-x) with scaling exponent x. As the initial temperature increases, the exponent changes from x = 3/2 to 1, which implies that the growth of bubbles changes from interface-limited (the t(1/2) law) to diffusion-limited (the t(1/3) law) growth. PMID:25527953

Watanabe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masaru; Inaoka, Hajime; Ito, Nobuyasu

2014-12-21

406

Detection of cavitation vortex in hydraulic turbines using acoustic techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation phenomena are known for their destructive capacity in hydraulic machineries and are caused by the pressure decrease followed by an implosion when the cavitation bubbles find an adverse pressure gradient. A helical vortex appears in the turbine diffuser cone at partial flow rate operation and can be cavitating in its core. Cavity volumes and vortex frequencies vary with the under-pressure level. If the vortex frequency comes close to one of the eigen frequencies of the turbine, a resonance phenomenon may occur, the unsteady fluctuations can be amplified and lead to important turbine and hydraulic circuit damage. Conventional cavitation vortex detection techniques are based on passive devices (pressure sensors or accelerometers). Limited sensor bandwidths and low frequency response limit the vortex detection and characterization information provided by the passive techniques. In order to go beyond these techniques and develop a new active one that will remove these drawbacks, previous work in the field has shown that techniques based on acoustic signals using adapted signal content to a particular hydraulic situation, can be more robust and accurate. The cavitation vortex effects in the water flow profile downstream hydraulic turbines runner are responsible for signal content modifications. Basic signal techniques use narrow band signals traveling inside the flow from an emitting transducer to a receiving one (active sensors). Emissions of wide band signals in the flow during the apparition and development of the vortex embeds changes in the received signals. Signal processing methods are used to estimate the cavitation apparition and evolution. Tests done in a reduced scale facility showed that due to the increasing flow rate, the signal -- vortex interaction is seen as modifications on the received signal's high order statistics and bandwidth. Wide band acoustic transducers have a higher dynamic range over mechanical elements; the system's reaction time is reduced, resulting in a faster detection of the unwanted effects. The paper will present an example of this new investigation technique on a vortex generator in the test facility that belongs to ICPE- CA.

Candel, I.; Bunea, F.; Dunca, G.; Bucur, D. M.; Ioana, C.; Reeb, B.; Ciocan, G. D.

2014-12-01

407

Development of a cavitation erosion model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of visual and erosion effects of cavitation on simple single hydrofoil configurations in a cavitation tunnel was made. A thin copper foil, applied to the surface of the hydrofoils, was used as an erosion sensor. The cavitation phenomenon on hydrofoils at different flow conditions (system pressure, water gas content, flow velocity) was observed. Results that showed a significant

Matevž Dular; Bernd Stoffel; Brane Širok

2006-01-01

408

Seismically Initiated Carbon Dioxide Gas Bubble Growth in Groundwater: A Mechanism for Co-seismic Borehole Water Level Rise and Remotely Triggered Secondary Seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualization experiments, core-scale laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations were conducted to examine the transient effect of dilational seismic wave propagation on pore fluid pressure in aquifers hosting groundwater that is near saturation with respect to dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. Groundwater can become charged with dissolved CO2 through contact with gas-phase CO2 in the Earth's crust derived from magma degasing, metamorphism, and biogenic processes. The propagation of dilational seismic waves (e.g., Rayleigh and p-waves) causes oscillation of the mean normal confining stress and pore fluid pressure. When the amplitude of the pore fluid pressure oscillation is large enough to drive the pore fluid pressure below the bubble pressure, an aqueous-to-gas-phase transition can occur in the pore space, which causes a buildup of pore fluid pressure and reduces the inter-granular effective stress under confined conditions. In visualization experiments conducted in a Hele-Shaw cell representing a smooth-walled, vertically oriented fracture, millisecond-scale pressure perturbations triggered bubble nucleation and growth lasting tens of seconds, with resulting pore fluid overpressure proportional to the magnitude of the pressure perturbation. In a Berea sandstone core flooded with initially under-saturated aqueous CO2 under conditions representative of a confined aquifer, rapid reductions in confining stress triggered transient pore pressure rise up to 0.7 MPa (100 psi) overpressure on a timescale of ~10 hours. The rate of pore pressure buildup in the first 100 seconds was proportional to the saturation with respect to dissolved CO 2 at the pore pressure minimum. Sinusoidal confining stress oscillations on a Berea sandstone core produced excess pore fluid pressure after the oscillations were terminated. Confining stress oscillations in the 0.1-0.4 MPa (15-60 psi) amplitude range and 0.05-0.30 Hz frequency band increased the pore fluid pressure by 13-60 cm of freshwater. Co-seismic borehole water level increases of the same magnitude were observed in Parkfield, California, and Long Valley caldera, California, in response to the propagation of a Rayleigh wave in the same amplitude and frequency range produced by the June 28, 1992 MW 7.3 Landers, California, earthquake. Co-seismic borehole water level rise is well documented in the literature, but the mechanism is not well understood, and the results of core-scale experiments indicate that seismically initiated CO2 gas bubble nucleation and growth in groundwater is a reasonable mechanism. Remotely triggered secondary seismicity is also well documented, and the reduction of effective stress due to CO2 bubble nucleation and growth in critically loaded faults may potentially explain how, for example, the June 28, 1992 MW 7.3 Landers, California, earthquake triggered seismicity as far away as Yellowstone, Wyoming, 1250 km from the hypocenter. A numerical simulation was conducted using Euler's method and a first-order kinetic model to compute the pore fluid pressure response to confining stress excursions on a Berea sandstone core flooded with initially under-saturated aqueous CO2. The model was calibrated on the pore pressure response to a rapid drop and later recovery of the confining stress. The model predicted decreasing overpressure as the confining stress oscillation frequency increased from 0.05 Hz to 0.30 Hz, in contradiction with the experimental results and field observations, which exhibit larger excess pore fluid pressure in response to higher frequency oscillations. The limitations of the numerical model point to the important influence of non-ideal behavior arising from a discontinuous gas phase and complex dynamics at the gas-liquid interface.

Crews, Jackson B.

409

A theoretical model for ice primary nucleation induced by acoustic cavitation.  

PubMed

The modelling and simulation of ice nucleation triggered by acoustic cavitation was addressed in this study. The objective was to evaluate the number of nuclei generated by a single gas bubble and afterwards by a multi-bubble system as function of the acoustic pressure (ultrasound wave amplitude) and supercooling level (liquid temperature). According to our calculations, the nucleation could be initiated with moderated acoustic pressure amplitude (around one bar) even at low supercooling levels (around few degrees). These results may provide a sound basis for the control of ice crystal size and morphology which is a key issue in industrial freezing and freeze-drying processes. PMID:19482538

Saclier, Mathieu; Peczalski, Roman; Andrieu, Julien

2010-01-01

410

Numerical investigation of the effect of properties of the liquid on cavitation at solid surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical calculations were carried out on a computer with Mercon's method to investigate the effect of properties of the liquid, namely, density, pressure of the saturated vapor (gas content in a bubble), surface tension, viscosity, and wave resistance, on the instantaneous radius, velocity, and shape of the surface of a compressed cavitation bubble for various distances between two parallel solid walls confining the liquid, times, and angular coordinates. The theoretical relations found agree with earlier experimental data. Recommendations are given for using the present results in practical development of technological sonication processes and in operation of ultrasonic equipment and hydrosystems.

Kuvshinov, G. I.; Ernetti, G.; Francescutto, A.; Cuti, P.; Prokhorenko, P. P.

1994-04-01

411

Cavitation effect of holmium laser pulse applied to ablation of hard tissue underwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

To overcome the inconsecutive drawback of shadow and schlieren photography, the complete dynamics of cavitation bubble oscillation or ablation products induced by a single holmium laser pulse [2.12 mum, 300 mus (FWHM)] transmitted in different core diameter (200, 400, and 600 mum) fibers is recorded by means of high-speed photography. Consecutive images from high-speed cameras can stand for the true

Tao Lü; Qing Xiao; Danqing Xia; Kai Ruan; Zhengjia Li

2010-01-01

412

Cavitation-enhanced ultrasound thermal therapy by combined low- and high-frequency ultrasound exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates a novel approach for enhancing ultrasound-induced heating by the introduction of acoustic cavitation using simultaneous sonication with low- and high-frequency ultrasound. A spherical focused transducer (566 or 1155 kHz) was used to generate the thermal lesions, and a low-frequency planar transducer (40 or 28 kHz) was used to enhance the bubble activity. Ex vivo fresh porcine muscles

Hao-Li Liu; Wen-Shiang Chen; Jhao-Syong Chen; Tzu-Ching Shih; Yung-Yaw Chen; Win-Li Lin

2006-01-01

413

CAVITATION-ENHANCED ULTRASOUND THERMAL THERAPY BY COMBINED LOW AND HIGH-FREQUENCY ULTRASOUND EXPOSURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates a novel approach for enhancing ultrasound-induced heating by the intro- duction of acoustic cavitation using simultaneous sonication with low- and high-frequency ultrasound. A spherical focused transducer (566 or 1155 kHz) was used to generate the thermal lesions, and a low-frequency planar transducer (40 or 28 kHz) was used to enhance the bubble activity. Ex vivo fresh porcine

HAO-LI LIU; WEN-SHIANG CHEN; JHAO-SYONG CHEN; TZU-CHING SHIH; YUNG-YAW CHEN; WIN-LI LIN

2006-01-01

414

Simulation of the effects of cavitation and anatomy in the shock path of model lithotripters  

PubMed Central

We report on recent efforts to develop predictive models for the pressure and other flow variables in the focal region of shock wave lithotripters. Baseline simulations of three representative lithotripters (electrohydraulic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric) compare favorably with in vitro experiments (in a water bath). We proceed to model and investigate how shock focusing is altered by the presence of material interfaces associated with different types of tissue encountered along the shock path, and by the presence of cavitation bubbles that are excited by tensile pressures associated with the focused shock wave. We use human anatomical data, but simplify the description by assuming that the tissue behaves as a fluid, and by assuming cylindrical symmetry along the shock path. Scattering by material interfaces is significant, and regions of high pressure amplitudes (both compressive and tensile) are generated almost 4 cm postfocus. Bubble dynamics generate secondary shocks whose strength depends on the density of bubbles and the pulse repetition frequency (PRF). At sufficiently large densities, the bubbles also attenuate the shock. Together with experimental evidence, the simulations suggest that high PRF may be counter-productive for stone comminution. Finally, we discuss how the lithotripter simulations can be used as input to more detailed physical models that attempt to characterize the mechanisms by which collapsing cavitation models erode stones, and by which shock waves and bubbles may damage tissue. PMID:21063697

Krimmel, Jeff; Colonius, Tim; Tanguay, Michel

2011-01-01

415

High speed observation of HIFU-induced cavitation cloud near curved rigid boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the experimental study of the influence of surface curvature to the behaviour of HIFU-induced cavitation cloud. A Q-switched ruby pulse laser is used to induce cavitation nuclei in deionized water. A piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer (1.7 MHz) provides a focused ultrasound field to inspire the nucleus to cavitation cloud. A PZT probe type hydrophone is applied for measuring the HIFU sound field. It was observed that the motion of cavitation cloud located near the boundary is significantly influenced by the distance between cloud and boundary, as well as the curvature of the boundary. The curvature was defined by parameters ? and ?. Convex boundary, concave boundary, and flat boundary correspond to ? <1, ? >1 and ? = 1, respectively. Different behaviours of the cloud, including the migration of the cloud, the characteristics of oscillation, etc., were observed under different boundary curvatures by high-speed photography. Sonoluminescence of the acoustic cavitation bubble clouds were also studied to illustrate the characteristics of acoustic streaming.

Zuo, Z. G.; Wang, F. B.; Liu, S. H.; Wu, S. J.

2015-01-01

416

Temporal effect of inertial cavitation with and without microbubbles on surface deformation of agarose S gel in the presence of 1-MHz focused ultrasound.  

PubMed

Sonoporation has the potential to deliver extraneous molecules into a target tissue non-invasively. There have been numerous investigations of cell membrane permeabilization induced by microbubbles, but very few studies have been carried out to investigate sonoporation by inertial cavitation, especially from a temporal perspective. In the present paper, we show the temporal variations in nano/micro-pit formations following the collapse of inertial cavitation bubbles, with and without Sonazoid® microbubbles. Using agarose S gel as a target material, erosion experiments were conducted in the presence of 1-MHz focused ultrasound applied for various exposure times, Tex (0.002-60 s). Conventional microscopy was used to measure temporal variations in micrometer-scale pit numbers, and atomic force microscopy utilized to detect surface roughness on a nanometer scale. The results demonstrated that nanometer-scale erosion was predominantly caused by Sonazoid® microbubbles and C4F10 gas bubbles for 0.002 scavitation bubbles such as C4F10 gas bubbles and vapor bubbles, increased exponentially with increasing Tex in the range 0.1 scavitation-induced sonoporation can produce various pore sizes in membranes, enabling the delivery of external molecules of differing sizes into cells or tissues. PMID:25130135

Tomita, Y; Matsuura, T; Kodama, T

2015-01-01

417

Periodic Orbit Theory Applied to a Chaotically Oscillating Gas Bubble in Water G. Simon 1 , P. Cvitanovi c 2 , M. T. Levinsen 3 , I. Csabai 4 , and  

E-print Network

. As a result the gas inside the bubble compresses and heats up to the extent that light emission occurs [4 model in the context of acoustic cavitation [14] and showed that the radial oscillations of a gas bubble by the assumptions of ideal gas law, absence of heat transfer, and negligence of surface tension e#11;ects. One

Levinsen, Mogens T.

418

Rotating Behavior Observation of Cavitation in Inducer with Suction Axi-Asymmetrical Plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attachment of inducer in front of main impeller is a powerful method to improve cavitation performance. In operating condition at partial flow rate and extremely low suction pressure, cavitation surge oscillation occurs and the stable operating range becomes narrower. It has been found from previous experimental study of authors that the cavitation surge oscillation with low frequency occurs with close relation between the inlet back-flow cavitation and the growth of blade cavity to the throat section of blade passage. One method, which is to install an axi-asymmetrical plate upstream of inducer, has been proposed to suppress the cavitation surge oscillation. It is considered conceptually to be the suppression mechanism of oscillation that the inlet flow distortion by suction axi-asymmetric plate avoids the flow at all throat sections getting unstable simultaneously. In the present study, in order to clarify the suppression mechanism experimentally observation of rotating behavior of cavitation in the inducer is performed with distributing multi cameras circumferentially, recording simultaneously and arranging the pictures to show the entire view of the flow around the linear cascade. The observed cavitation behavior is utilized for discussion on the suppression mechanism of oscillation with other measuring results such as casing wall pressure distribution and velocity distributions with LDV. Then the suppression mechanism of oscillation by installing the axi-asymmetrical plate will be clarified in more details.

Kim, Jun-Ho; Atono, Takashi; Ishizaka, Koichi; Watanabe, Satoshi; Furukawa, Akinori

419

Suppressing bubble shielding effect in shock wave lithotripsy by low intensity pulsed ultrasound.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been used as an effective modality to fragment kidney calculi. Because of the bubble shielding effect in the pre-focal region, the acoustic energy delivered to the focus is reduced. Low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) will be applied to dissolve these bubbles for better stone comminution efficiency. In this study, low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) beam was aligned perpendicular to the axis of a shock wave (SW) lithotripter at its focus. The light transmission was used to evaluate the compressive wave and cavitation induced by SWs without or with a combination of LIPUS for continuous sonication. It is found that bubble shielding effect becomes dominated with the SW exposure and has a greater significant effect on cavitation than compressive wave. Using the combined wave scheme, the improvement began at the 5th pulse and gradually increased. Suppression effect on bubble shielding is independent on the trigger delay, but increases with the acoustic intensity and pulse duration of LIPUS. The peak negative and integral area of light transmission signal, which present the compressive wave and cavitation respectively, using our strategy at PRF of 1 Hz are comparable to those using SW alone at PRF of 0.1 Hz. In addition, high-speed photography confirmed the bubble activities in both free field and close to a stone surface. Bubble motion in response to the acoustic radiation force by LIPUS was found to be the major mechanism of suppressing bubble shielding effect. There is a 2.6-fold increase in stone fragmentation efficiency after 1000 SWs at PRF of 1 Hz in combination with LIPUS. In summary, combination of SWs and LIPUS is an effective way of suppressing bubble shielding effect and, subsequently, improving cavitation at the focus for a better outcome. PMID:25173067

Wang, Jen-Chieh; Zhou, Yufeng

2015-01-01

420

Cavitation erosion size scale effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Size scaling in cavitation erosion is a major problem confronting the design engineers of modern high speed machinery. An overview and erosion data analysis presented in this paper indicate that the size scale exponent n in the erosion rate relationship as a function of the size or diameter can vary from 1.7 to 4.9 depending on the type of device used. There is, however, a general agreement as to the values of n if the correlations are made with constant cavitation number.

Rao, P. V.; Buckley, D. H.

1984-01-01

421

Preventing cavitation in butterfly valves  

SciTech Connect

Some of the mechanical problems that plagued butterfly valves in the past are discussed. The authors suggest integrated packages to alleviate these problems. These packages include such innovations as backlash-free stem connections, allenclosed actuator packages, and torque-compensated vanes. Some disadvantages to these packages are outlined and examined, including: high noise levels with compressible fluids, and an increased tendency to cavitate with liquids. A discussion follows on cavitation--how it is caused, just how much of it can be tolerated, and how it can be avoided or reduced.

Baumann, H.D.

1985-03-18

422

Mechanistic analysis of cavitation assisted transesterification on biodiesel characteristics.  

PubMed

The influence of sonoluminescence transesterification on biodiesel physicochemical properties was investigated and the results were compared to those of traditional mechanical stirring. This study was conducted to identify the mechanistic features of ultrasonication by coupling statistical analysis of the experiments into the simulation of cavitation bubble. Different combinations of operational variables were employed for alkali-catalysis transesterification of palm oil. The experimental results showed that transesterification with ultrasound irradiation could change the biodiesel density by about 0.3kg/m(3); the viscosity by 0.12mm(2)/s; the pour point by about 1-2°C and the flash point by 5°C compared to the traditional method. Furthermore, 93.84% of yield with alcohol to oil molar ratio of 6:1 could be achieved through ultrasound assisted transesterification within only 20min. However, only 89.09% of reaction yield was obtained by traditional macro mixing/heating under the same condition. Based on the simulated oscillation velocity value, the cavitation phenomenon significantly contributed to generation of fine micro emulsion and was able to overcome mass transfer restriction. It was found that the sonoluminescence bubbles reached the temperature of 758-713K, pressure of 235.5-159.55bar, oscillation velocity of 3.5-6.5cm/s, and equilibrium radius of 17.9-13.7 times greater than its initial size under the ambient temperature of 50-64°C at the moment of collapse. This showed that the sonoluminescence bubbles were in the condition in which the decomposition phenomena were activated and the reaction rate was accelerated together with a change in the biodiesel properties. PMID:24981808

Sajjadi, Baharak; Abdul Aziz, A R; Ibrahim, Shaliza

2015-01-01

423

Dynamics of Vapour Bubbles in Nucleate Boiling. 1; Basic Equations of Bubble Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider the behaviour of a vapour bubble formed at a nucleation site on a heated horizontal wall. There is no forced convection of an ambient liquid, and the bubble is presumably separated from the wall by a thin liquid microlayer. The energy conservation law results in a variational equation for the mechanical energy of the whole system consisting of the bubble and liquid. It leads to a set of two strongly nonlinear equations which govern bubble expansion and motion of its centre of mass. A supplementary equation to find out the vapour temperature follows from consideration of heat transfer to the bubble, both from the bulk of surrounding liquid and through the microlayer. The average thickness of the microlayer is shown to increase monotonously with time as the bubble meniscus spreads along the wall. Bubble expansion is driven by the pressure head between vapour inside and liquid far away from the bubble, with due allowance for surface tension and gravity effects. It is resisted by inertia of liquid being placed into motion as the bubble grows. The inertia originates also a force that presses the bubble to the wall. This force is counteracted by the buoyancy and an effective surface tension force that tends to transform the bubble into a sphere. The analysis brings about quite a new formulation of the familiar problem of bubble growth and detachment under conditions of nucleate pool boiling.

Buyevich, Yu A.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Callaway, Robert (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

424

Measuring the surface tension of soap bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives are for students to gain an understanding of surface tension, to see that pressure inside a small bubble is larger than that inside a large bubble. These concepts can be used to explain the behavior of liquid foams as well as precipitate coarsening and grain growth. Equipment, supplies, and procedures are explained.

Sorensen, Carl D.

1992-01-01