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Sample records for cavitation bubble growth

  1. Mechanics of collapsing cavitation bubbles.

    PubMed

    van Wijngaarden, Leen

    2016-03-01

    A brief survey is given of the dynamical phenomena accompanying the collapse of cavitation bubbles. The discussion includes shock waves, microjets and the various ways in which collapsing bubbles produce damage. PMID:25890856

  2. Particle motion induced by bubble cavitation.

    PubMed

    Poulain, Stéphane; Guenoun, Gabriel; Gart, Sean; Crowe, William; Jung, Sunghwan

    2015-05-29

    Cavitation bubbles induce impulsive forces on surrounding substrates, particles, or surfaces. Even though cavitation is a traditional topic in fluid mechanics, current understanding and studies do not capture the effect of cavitation on suspended objects in fluids. In the present work, the dynamics of a spherical particle due to a cavitation bubble is experimentally characterized and compared with an analytical model. Three phases are observed: the growth of the bubble where the particle is pushed away, its collapse where the particle approaches the bubble, and a longer time scale postcollapse where the particle continues to move toward the collapsed bubble. The particle motion in the longer time scale presumably results from the asymmetric cavitation evolution at an earlier time. Our theory considering the asymmetric bubble dynamics shows that the particle velocity strongly depends on the distance from the bubble as an inverse-fourth-power law, which is in good agreement with our experimentation. This study sheds light on how small free particles respond to cavitation bubbles in fluids. PMID:26066438

  3. Discrete Bubble Modeling for Cavitation Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin-Keun; Chahine, Georges; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung

    2007-03-01

    Dynaflow, Inc. has conducted extensive studies on non-spherical bubble dynamics and interactions with solid and free boundaries, vortical flow structures, and other bubbles. From these studies, emerged a simplified Surface Averaged Pressure (SAP) spherical bubble dynamics model and a Lagrangian bubble tracking scheme. In this SAP scheme, the pressure and velocity of the surrounding flow field are averaged on the bubble surface, and then used for the bubble motion and volume dynamics calculations. This model is implemented using the Fluent User Defined Function (UDF) as Discrete Bubble Model (DBM). The Bubble dynamics portion can be solved using an incompressible liquid modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation or a compressible liquid modified Gilmore equation. The Discrete Bubble Model is a very suitable tool for the studies on cavitation inception of foils and turbo machinery, bubble nuclei effects, noise from the bubbles, and can be used in many practical problems in industrial and naval applications associated with flows in pipes, jets, pumps, propellers, ships, and the ocean. Applications to propeller cavitation, wake signatures of waterjet propelled ships, bubble-wake interactions, modeling of cavitating jets, and bubble entrainments around a ship will be presented.

  4. Cavitation inception from bubble nuclei.

    PubMed

    Mørch, K A

    2015-10-01

    The tensile strength of ordinary water such as tap water or seawater is typically well below 1 bar. It is governed by cavitation nuclei in the water, not by the tensile strength of the water itself, which is extremely high. Different models of the nuclei have been suggested over the years, and experimental investigations of bubbles and cavitation inception have been presented. These results suggest that cavitation nuclei in equilibrium are gaseous voids in the water, stabilized by a skin which allows diffusion balance between gas inside the void and gas in solution in the surrounding liquid. The cavitation nuclei may be free gas bubbles in the bulk of water, or interfacial gaseous voids located on the surface of particles in the water, or on bounding walls. The tensile strength of these nuclei depends not only on the water quality but also on the pressure-time history of the water. A recent model and associated experiments throw new light on the effects of transient pressures on the tensile strength of water, which may be notably reduced or increased by such pressure changes. PMID:26442138

  5. Acoustic Shielding by Cavitation Bubbles in Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Williams, James C.; Evan, Andrew P.

    2006-05-01

    Lithotripter pulses (˜7-10 μs) initiate the growth of cavitation bubbles, which collapse hundreds of microseconds later. Since the bubble growth-collapse cycle trails passage of the pulse, and is ˜1000 times shorter than the pulse interval at clinically relevant firing rates, it is not expected that cavitation will affect pulse propagation. However, pressure measurements with a fiber-optic hydrophone (FOPH-500) indicate that bubbles generated by a pulse can, indeed, shield the propagation of the negative tail. Shielding was detected within 1 μs of arrival of the negative wave, contemporaneous with the first observation of expanding bubbles by high-speed camera. Reduced negative pressure was observed at 2 Hz compared to 0.5 Hz firing rate, and in water with a higher content of dissolved gas. We propose that shielding of the negative tail can be attributed to loss of acoustic energy into the expansion of cavitation bubbles.

  6. Cavitation inception by the backscattering of pressure waves from a bubble interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahira, Hiroyuki; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Mori, Naoto; Tanaka, Moe

    2015-10-01

    The secondary cavitation that occurs by the backscattering of focused ultrasound from a primary cavitation bubble caused by the negative pressure part of the ultrasound (Maxwell, et al., 2011) might be useful for the energy exchange due to bubble oscillations in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). The present study is concerned with the cavitation inception by the backscattering of ultrasound from a bubble. In the present experiment, a laser-induced bubble which is generated by a pulsed focused laser beam with high intensity is utilized as a primary cavitation bubble. After generating the bubble, focused ultrasound is emitted to the bubble. The acoustic field and the bubble motion are observed with a high-speed video camera. It is confirmed that the secondary cavitation bubble clouds are generated by the backscattering from the laser-induced bubble. The growth of cavitation bubble clouds is analyzed with the image processing method. The experimental results show that the height and width of the bubble clouds grow in stepwise during their evolution. The direct numerical simulations are also conducted for the backscattering of incident pressure waves from a bubble in order to evaluate a pressure field near the bubble. It is shown that the ratio of a bubble collapse time t0 to a characteristic time of wave propagation tS, η = t0/ts, is an important determinant for generating negative pressure region by backscattering. The minimum pressure location by the backscattering in simulations is in good agreement with the experiment.

  7. Intensely oscillating cavitation bubble in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siew-Wan, Ohl; Tandiono; Klaseboer, Evert; Dave, Ow; Choo, Andre; Claus-Dieter, Ohl

    2015-12-01

    This study reports the technical breakthrough in generating intense ultrasonic cavitation in the confinement of a microfluidics channel [1], and applications that has been developed on this platform for the past few years [2,3,4,5]. Our system consists of circular disc transducers (10-20 mm in diameter), the microfluidics channels on PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane), and a driving circuitry. The cavitation bubbles are created at the gas- water interface due to strong capillary waves which are generated when the system is driven at its natural frequency (around 100 kHz) [1]. These bubbles oscillate and collapse within the channel. The bubbles are useful for sonochemistry and the generation of sonoluminescence [2]. When we add bacteria (Escherichia coli), and yeast cells (Pichia pastoris) into the microfluidics channels, the oscillating and collapsing bubbles stretch and lyse these cells [3]. Furthermore, the system is effective (DNA of the harvested intracellular content remains largely intact), and efficient (yield reaches saturation in less than 1 second). In another application, human red blood cells are added to a microchamber. Cell stretching and rapture are observed when a laser generated cavitation bubble expands and collapses next to the cell [4]. A numerical model of a liquid pocket surrounded by a membrane with surface tension which was placed next to an oscillating bubble was developed using the Boundary Element Method. The simulation results showed that the stretching of the liquid pocket occurs only when the surface tension is within a certain range.

  8. Observation of Microhollows Produced by Bubble Cloud Cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Miwa, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    When an ultrasonic wave with sound pressure less than the threshold level of bubble destruction irradiates microbubbles, the microbubbles aggregate by an acoustic radiation force and form bubble clouds. The cavitation of bubble clouds produces a large number of microhollows (microdips) on the flow channel wall. In this study, microhollow production by bubble cloud cavitation is evaluated using a blood vessel phantom made of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) gel. Microbubble dynamics in bubble cloud cavitation is observed by a microscope with a short pulse light emitted diode (LED) light source. Microhollows produced on the flow channel wall are evaluated by a confocal laser microscope with a water immersion objective. It is observed that a mass of low-density bubbles (bubble mist) is formed by bubble cloud cavitation. The spatial correlation between the bubble mist and the microhollows shows the importance of the bubble mist in microhollow production by bubble cloud cavitation.

  9. The inception of cavitation bubble clouds induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaojing; Wan, Mingxi

    2006-12-22

    In many therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) the appearance of cavitation bubbles is unavoidable, whereas the dynamics of the bubbles induced by HIFU have not been clarified. The objective of the present work is to observe the inception process of cavitation bubble clouds generated by HIFU transducer in water using high-speed photography. Sequential images captured within 600 micros after the onset of ultrasound transmission show the dynamics of cavitation bubbles' generation, growth, deformation, expansion and collapse in the focal region. However, when the observation time is narrowed to the initial 145 micros, both the still and streak images reveal that the cavitation bubbles astonishingly stay stable in the focal region for at least 60 micros. The results imply that through adjusting the HIFU exposure time while other physical parameters are appropriately chosen, it might be possible to control the generation of stable cavitation bubbles locally in the focal region. PMID:16782158

  10. Multiscale Modeling of Cavitating Bubbly Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Hsiao, C.-T.; Chahine, G. L.

    2013-03-01

    Modeling of cavitating bubbly flows is challenging due to the wide range of characteristic lengths of the physics at play: from micrometers (e.g., bubble nuclei radius) to meters (e.g., propeller diameter or sheet cavity length). To address this, we present here a multiscale approach which integrates a Discrete Bubble Model for dispersed microbubbles and a level set N-S solver for macro cavities, along with a mesoscale transition model to bridge the two. This approach was implemented in 3DYNAFScopyright and used to simulate sheet-to-cloud cavitation over a hydrofoil. The hybrid model captures well the full cavitation process starting from free field nuclei and nucleation from solid surfaces. In low pressure region of the foil small nuclei are seen to grow large and eventually merge to form a large scale sheet cavity. A reentrant jet forms under the cavity, travels upstream, and breaks it, resulting in a bubble cloud of a large amount of microbubbles as the broken pockets shrink and travel downstream. This is in good agreement with experimental observations based of sheet lengths and frequency of lift force oscillation. DOE-SBIR, ONR (monitored by Dr. Ki-Han Kim)

  11. Modeling of surface cleaning by cavitation bubble dynamics and collapse.

    PubMed

    Chahine, Georges L; Kapahi, Anil; Choi, Jin-Keun; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung

    2016-03-01

    Surface cleaning using cavitation bubble dynamics is investigated numerically through modeling of bubble dynamics, dirt particle motion, and fluid material interaction. Three fluid dynamics models; a potential flow model, a viscous model, and a compressible model, are used to describe the flow field generated by the bubble all showing the strong effects bubble explosive growth and collapse have on a dirt particle and on a layer of material to remove. Bubble deformation and reentrant jet formation are seen to be responsible for generating concentrated pressures, shear, and lift forces on the dirt particle and high impulsive loads on a layer of material to remove. Bubble explosive growth is also an important mechanism for removal of dirt particles, since strong suction forces in addition to shear are generated around the explosively growing bubble and can exert strong forces lifting the particles from the surface to clean and sucking them toward the bubble. To model material failure and removal, a finite element structure code is used and enables simulation of full fluid-structure interaction and investigation of the effects of various parameters. High impulsive pressures are generated during bubble collapse due to the impact of the bubble reentrant jet on the material surface and the subsequent collapse of the resulting toroidal bubble. Pits and material removal develop on the material surface when the impulsive pressure is large enough to result in high equivalent stresses exceeding the material yield stress or its ultimate strain. Cleaning depends on parameters such as the relative size between the bubble at its maximum volume and the particle size, the bubble standoff distance from the particle and from the material wall, and the excitation pressure field driving the bubble dynamics. These effects are discussed in this contribution. PMID:25982895

  12. On thermonuclear processes in cavitation bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigmatulin, R. I.; Lahey, R. T., Jr.; Taleyarkhan, R. P.; West, C. D.; Block, R. C.

    2014-09-01

    The theoretical and experimental foundations of so-called bubble nuclear fusion are reviewed. In the nuclear fusion process, a spherical cavitation cluster ˜ 10-2 m in diameter is produced of spherical bubbles at the center of a cylindrical chamber filled with deuterated acetone using a focused acoustic field having a resonant frequency of about 20 kHz. The acoustically-forced bubbles effectuate volume oscillations with sharp collapses during the compression stage. At the final stages of collapse, the bubble cluster emits 2.5 MeV D-D fusion neutron pulses at a rate of ˜ 2000 per second. The neutron yield is ˜ 10^5 s -1. In parallel, tritium nuclei are produced at the same yield. It is shown numerically that, for bubbles having sufficient molecular mass, spherical shock waves develop in the center of the cluster and that these spherical shock waves (microshocks) produce converging shocks within the interior bubbles, which focus energy on the centers of the bubbles. When these shock waves reflect from the centers of the bubbles, extreme conditions of temperature ( ˜ 10^8 K) and density ( ˜ 10^4 kg m -3) arise in a (nano)spherical region ( ˜ 10-7 m in size) that last for ˜ 10-12 s, during which time about ten D-D fusion neutrons and tritium nuclei are produced in the region. A paradoxical result in our experiments is that it is bubble cluster (not streamer) cavitation and the sufficiently high molecular mass of (and hence the low sound speed in) D-acetone ( C3D6O) vapor (as compared, for example, to deuterated water D2O) which are necessary conditions for the formation of convergent spherical microshock waves in central cluster bubbles. It is these waves that allow the energy to be sufficiently focused in the nanospherical regions near the bubble centers for fusion events to occur. The criticism to which the concept of 'bubble fusion' has been subjected in the literature, in particular, most recently in Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (Physics - Uspekhi) journal, is

  13. Bubble proliferation in the cavitation field of a shock wave lithotripter.

    PubMed

    Pishchalnikov, Yuri A; Williams, James C; McAteer, James A

    2011-08-01

    Lithotripter shock waves (SWs) generated in non-degassed water at 0.5 and 2 Hz pulse repetition frequency (PRF) were characterized using a fiber-optic hydrophone. High-speed imaging captured the inertial growth-collapse-rebound cycle of cavitation bubbles, and continuous recording with a 60 fps camcorder was used to track bubble proliferation over successive SWs. Microbubbles that seeded the generation of bubble clouds formed by the breakup of cavitation jets and by bubble collapse following rebound. Microbubbles that persisted long enough served as cavitation nuclei for subsequent SWs, as such bubble clouds were enhanced at fast PRF. Visual tracking suggests that bubble clouds can originate from single bubbles. PMID:21877776

  14. Cavitation inception by the backscattering of pressure waves from a bubble interface

    SciTech Connect

    Takahira, Hiroyuki Ogasawara, Toshiyuki Mori, Naoto Tanaka, Moe

    2015-10-28

    The secondary cavitation that occurs by the backscattering of focused ultrasound from a primary cavitation bubble caused by the negative pressure part of the ultrasound (Maxwell, et al., 2011) might be useful for the energy exchange due to bubble oscillations in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). The present study is concerned with the cavitation inception by the backscattering of ultrasound from a bubble. In the present experiment, a laser-induced bubble which is generated by a pulsed focused laser beam with high intensity is utilized as a primary cavitation bubble. After generating the bubble, focused ultrasound is emitted to the bubble. The acoustic field and the bubble motion are observed with a high-speed video camera. It is confirmed that the secondary cavitation bubble clouds are generated by the backscattering from the laser-induced bubble. The growth of cavitation bubble clouds is analyzed with the image processing method. The experimental results show that the height and width of the bubble clouds grow in stepwise during their evolution. The direct numerical simulations are also conducted for the backscattering of incident pressure waves from a bubble in order to evaluate a pressure field near the bubble. It is shown that the ratio of a bubble collapse time t{sub 0} to a characteristic time of wave propagation t{sub S}, η = t{sub 0}/t{sub s}, is an important determinant for generating negative pressure region by backscattering. The minimum pressure location by the backscattering in simulations is in good agreement with the experiment.

  15. Nucleus factory on cavitation bubble for amyloid β fibril

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Kichitaro; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Adachi, Kanta; Noi, Kentaro; Hirao, Masahiko; Yagi, Hisashi; Goto, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    Structural evolution from monomer to fibril of amyloid β peptide is related to pathogenic mechanism of Alzheimer disease, and its acceleration is a long-running problem in drug development. This study reveals that ultrasonic cavitation bubbles behave as catalysts for nucleation of the peptide: The nucleation reaction is highly dependent on frequency and pressure of acoustic wave, and we discover an optimum acoustical condition, at which the reaction-rate constant for nucleation is increased by three-orders-of magnitudes. A theoretical model is proposed for explaining highly frequency and pressure dependent nucleation reaction, where monomers are captured on the bubble surface during its growth and highly condensed by subsequent bubble collapse, so that they are transiently exposed to high temperatures. Thus, the dual effects of local condensation and local heating contribute to dramatically enhance the nucleation reaction. Our model consistently reproduces the frequency and pressure dependences, supporting its essential applicability.

  16. Nucleus factory on cavitation bubble for amyloid β fibril

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Kichitaro; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Adachi, Kanta; Noi, Kentaro; Hirao, Masahiko; Yagi, Hisashi; Goto, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Structural evolution from monomer to fibril of amyloid β peptide is related to pathogenic mechanism of Alzheimer disease, and its acceleration is a long-running problem in drug development. This study reveals that ultrasonic cavitation bubbles behave as catalysts for nucleation of the peptide: The nucleation reaction is highly dependent on frequency and pressure of acoustic wave, and we discover an optimum acoustical condition, at which the reaction-rate constant for nucleation is increased by three-orders-of magnitudes. A theoretical model is proposed for explaining highly frequency and pressure dependent nucleation reaction, where monomers are captured on the bubble surface during its growth and highly condensed by subsequent bubble collapse, so that they are transiently exposed to high temperatures. Thus, the dual effects of local condensation and local heating contribute to dramatically enhance the nucleation reaction. Our model consistently reproduces the frequency and pressure dependences, supporting its essential applicability. PMID:26912021

  17. Nucleus factory on cavitation bubble for amyloid β fibril.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kichitaro; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Adachi, Kanta; Noi, Kentaro; Hirao, Masahiko; Yagi, Hisashi; Goto, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Structural evolution from monomer to fibril of amyloid β peptide is related to pathogenic mechanism of Alzheimer disease, and its acceleration is a long-running problem in drug development. This study reveals that ultrasonic cavitation bubbles behave as catalysts for nucleation of the peptide: The nucleation reaction is highly dependent on frequency and pressure of acoustic wave, and we discover an optimum acoustical condition, at which the reaction-rate constant for nucleation is increased by three-orders-of magnitudes. A theoretical model is proposed for explaining highly frequency and pressure dependent nucleation reaction, where monomers are captured on the bubble surface during its growth and highly condensed by subsequent bubble collapse, so that they are transiently exposed to high temperatures. Thus, the dual effects of local condensation and local heating contribute to dramatically enhance the nucleation reaction. Our model consistently reproduces the frequency and pressure dependences, supporting its essential applicability. PMID:26912021

  18. Importance of the implosion of ESWL-induced cavitation bubbles.

    PubMed

    Delacrétaz, G; Rink, K; Pittomvils, G; Lafaut, J P; Vandeursen, H; Boving, R

    1995-01-01

    The damage induced by an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter is observed with a fiber optic stress sensing technique. When a stone is placed in the focus, besides the expected stress induced by the incoming shock wave emitted by the ESWL apparatus, a second delayed stress is observed some hundreds of microseconds later. The second stress is induced by a shock wave generated at the collapse of a cavitation bubble. Partial reflection of the incoming shock wave at the stone boundary is at the origin of the large cavitation bubble formation. Sensing fiber fracture results always from the second shock wave due to the collapse of the cavitation bubble. Thus the largest stress is generated at the collapse. When no target is placed in the focus of the lithotripter, no large cavitation bubble is formed and no delayed shock wave is observed. Our results demonstrate unambiguously the decisive role of cavitation in ESWL procedures. PMID:7754583

  19. Cavitation Bubble Nucleation by Energetic Particles

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1998-12-01

    In the early sixties, experimental measurements using a bubble chamber confirmed quantitatively the thermal spike theory of bubble nucleation by energetic particles: the energy of the slow, heavy alpha decay recoils used in those experiments matched the calculated bubble nucleation energy to within a few percent. It was a triumph, but was soon to be followed by a puzzle. Within a couple of years, experiments on similar liquids, but well below their normal boiling points, placed under tensile stress showed that the calculated bubble nucleation energy was an order of magnitude less than the recoil energy. Why should the theory work so well in the one case and so badly in the other? How did the liquid, or the recoil particle, "know" the difference between the two experiments? Another mathematical model of the same physical process, introduced in 1967, showed qualitatively why different analyses would be needed for liquids with high and low vapor pressures under positive or negative pressures. But, the quantitative agreement between the calculated nucleation energy and the recoil energy was still poor--the former being smaller by a factor of two to three. In this report, the 1967 analysis is extended and refined: the qualitative understanding of the difference between positive and negative pressure nucleation, "boiling" and "cavitation" respectively, is retained, and agreement between the negative pressure calculated to be needed for nucleation and the energy calculated to be available is much improved. A plot of the calculated negative pressure needed to induce bubble formation against the measured value now has a slope of 1.0, although there is still considerable scatter in the individual points.

  20. Cavitation bubble dynamics in microfluidic gaps of variable height.

    PubMed

    Quinto-Su, Pedro A; Lim, Kang Y; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2009-10-01

    We study experimentally the dynamics of laser-induced cavitation bubbles created inside a narrow gap. The gap height, h , is varied from 15 to 400 microm and the resulting bubble dynamics is compared to a semiunbounded fluid. The cavitation bubbles are created with pulsed laser light at constant laser energy and are imaged with a high-speed camera. The bubble lifetime increases with decreasing gap height by up to 50% whereas the maximum projected bubble radius remains constant. Comparing the radial dynamics to potential flow models, we find that with smaller gaps, the bubble-induced flow becomes essentially planar, thus slower flows with reduced shear. These findings might have important consequences for microfluidic applications where it is desirable to tune the strength and range of the interactions such as in the case of cell lysis and cell membrane poration. PMID:19905487

  1. Controlled permeation of cell membrane by single bubble acoustic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Yang, K; Cui, J; Ye, J Y; Deng, C X

    2012-01-10

    Sonoporation is the membrane disruption generated by ultrasound and has been exploited as a non-viral strategy for drug and gene delivery. Acoustic cavitation of microbubbles has been recognized to play an important role in sonoporation. However, due to the lack of adequate techniques for precise control of cavitation activities and real-time assessment of the resulting sub-micron process of sonoporation, limited knowledge has been available regarding the detail processes and correlation of cavitation with membrane disruption at the single cell level. In the current study, we developed a combined approach including optical, acoustical, and electrophysiological techniques to enable synchronized manipulation, imaging, and measurement of cavitation of single bubbles and the resulting cell membrane disruption in real-time. Using a self-focused femtosecond laser and high frequency ultrasound (7.44MHz) pulses, a single microbubble was generated and positioned at a desired distance from the membrane of a Xenopus oocyte. Cavitation of the bubble was achieved by applying a low frequency (1.5MHz) ultrasound pulse (duration 13.3 or 40μs) to induce bubble collapse. Disruption of the cell membrane was assessed by the increase in the transmembrane current (TMC) of the cell under voltage clamp. Simultaneous high-speed bright field imaging of cavitation and measurements of the TMC were obtained to correlate the ultrasound-generated bubble activities with the cell membrane poration. The change in membrane permeability was directly associated with the formation of a sub-micrometer pore from a local membrane rupture generated by bubble collapse or bubble compression depending on ultrasound amplitude and duration. The impact of the bubble collapse on membrane permeation decreased rapidly with increasing distance (D) between the bubble (diameter d) and the cell membrane. The effective range of cavitation impact on membrane poration was determined to be D/d=0.75. The maximum mean

  2. Dual pulses for cavitation control in lithotripsy: Shock wave-bubble interactions and bioeffects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Dahlia L.

    2002-08-01

    Cavitation, the growth and collapse of gas/vapor bubbles, appears to play an important role in both stone comminution and tissue injury during shock wave lithotripsy, the clinical treatment in which focused, high amplitude shock pulses are used to comminute kidney stones. The goal of this research was to characterize in vitro cavitation activity and stone and cell damage in a novel system that uses converging dual pulses, produced by two identical, confocal lithotripters, to modify the cavitation field. The cavitation bubble dynamics were numerically calculated, and experiments were performed in a research electrohydraulic shock wave lithotripter to determine bubble size, lifetime, and pit depth created in aluminum foils by cavitation collapse. Furthermore, damage to model stones and to red blood cells was measured for both single and dual-pulses. A single shock pulse creates a ˜15 x 100 mm cloud of bubbles in water. The greatest cavitation activity and stone damage from single-pulses was found to occur 2 cm proximal to the geometric focus, F2, where the stone is normally aligned. Therefore, a 2 cm shift in stone alignment may potentially improve stone comminution and reduce tissue injury in clinical treatment. The dual-pulse lithotripter, on the other hand, generates a localized and intensified cavitation field that increased stone comminution efficiency at F2 by at least three times the maximum values achieved by single-pulses. At F2, acoustic pressure approximately doubled, as did bubble size, collapse time, and pit depth on foils. A significant reduction in comminution of stones suspended in glycerol indicates that cavitation activity, not the doubling of acoustic pressure, explains the increased comminution. On either side of F2, the second delayed pulse mitigated bubble collapse, resulting in little or no pitting on foils and reduced hemolysis, even when compared with single pulses. Numerical calculations of radial dynamics agreed with experimental findings

  3. Synchrotron quantification of ultrasound cavitation and bubble dynamics in Al-10Cu melts.

    PubMed

    Xu, W W; Tzanakis, I; Srirangam, P; Mirihanage, W U; Eskin, D G; Bodey, A J; Lee, P D

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of the kinetics of gas bubble formation and evolution under cavitation conditions in molten alloys is important for the control casting defects such as porosity and dissolved hydrogen. Using in situ synchrotron X-ray radiography, we studied the dynamic behaviour of ultrasonic cavitation gas bubbles in a molten Al-10 wt%Cu alloy. The size distribution, average radius and growth rate of cavitation gas bubbles were quantified under an acoustic intensity of 800 W/cm(2) and a maximum acoustic pressure of 4.5 MPa (45 atm). Bubbles exhibited a log-normal size distribution with an average radius of 15.3 ± 0.5 μm. Under applied sonication conditions the growth rate of bubble radius, R(t), followed a power law with a form of R(t)=αt(β), and α=0.0021 &β=0.89. The observed tendencies were discussed in relation to bubble growth mechanisms of Al alloy melts. PMID:26964960

  4. The recreation of a unique shrimp's mechanically induced cavitation bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Ryan; Dougherty, Christopher; Eliasson, Veronica; Khanolkar, Gauri

    2014-11-01

    The Alpheus heterochaelis, appropriately nicknamed the ``pistol shrimp,'' possesses an oversized claw that creates a cavitation bubble upon rapid closure. The implosion of this bubble results in a shock wave that can stun or even kill the shrimp's prey (Versluis et al., 2000). Additionally, the implosion is so violent that sonoluminescence may occur. This light implies extreme temperatures, which have been recorded to reach as high as 10,000 K (Roach, 2001). By developing an analogous mechanism to the oversized claw, the goal of this experiment is to verify that cavitation can be produced similar to that of the pistol shrimp in nature as well as to analyze the resulting shock wave and sonoluminescence. High-speed schlieren imaging was used to observe the shock dynamics. Furthermore, results on cavitation collapse and light emission will be presented. USC Provost Undergraduate Research Fellowship/Rose Hills Undergraduate Research Fellowship.

  5. Quantitative assessment of reactive oxygen sonochemically generated by cavitation bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Jun; Miyashita, Takuya; Taguchi, Kei; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2015-07-01

    Acoustic cavitation bubbles can induce not only a thermal bioeffect but also a chemical bioeffect. When cavitation bubbles collapse and oscillate violently, they produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause irreversible changes to the tissue. A sonosensitizer can promote such ROS generation. A treatment method using a sonosensitizer is called sonodynamic treatment. Rose bengal (RB) is one of the sonosensitizers whose in vivo and in vitro studies have been reported. In sonodynamic treatment, it is important to produce ROS at a high efficiency. For the efficient generation of ROS, a triggered high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) sequence has been proposed. In this study, cavitation bubbles were generated in a chamber where RB solution was sealed, and a high-speed camera captured the behavior of these cavitation bubbles. The amount of ROS was also quantified by a potassium iodide (KI) method and compared with high-speed camera pictures to investigate the effectiveness of the triggered HIFU sequence. As a result, ROS could be obtained efficiently by this sequence.

  6. Cavitation and bubble dynamics: the Kelvin impulse and its applications.

    PubMed

    Blake, John R; Leppinen, David M; Wang, Qianxi

    2015-10-01

    Cavitation and bubble dynamics have a wide range of practical applications in a range of disciplines, including hydraulic, mechanical and naval engineering, oil exploration, clinical medicine and sonochemistry. However, this paper focuses on how a fundamental concept, the Kelvin impulse, can provide practical insights into engineering and industrial design problems. The pathway is provided through physical insight, idealized experiments and enhancing the accuracy and interpretation of the computation. In 1966, Benjamin and Ellis made a number of important statements relating to the use of the Kelvin impulse in cavitation and bubble dynamics, one of these being 'One should always reason in terms of the Kelvin impulse, not in terms of the fluid momentum…'. We revisit part of this paper, developing the Kelvin impulse from first principles, using it, not only as a check on advanced computations (for which it was first used!), but also to provide greater physical insights into cavitation bubble dynamics near boundaries (rigid, potential free surface, two-fluid interface, flexible surface and axisymmetric stagnation point flow) and to provide predictions on different types of bubble collapse behaviour, later compared against experiments. The paper concludes with two recent studies involving (i) the direction of the jet formation in a cavitation bubble close to a rigid boundary in the presence of high-intensity ultrasound propagated parallel to the surface and (ii) the study of a 'paradigm bubble model' for the collapse of a translating spherical bubble, sometimes leading to a constant velocity high-speed jet, known as the Longuet-Higgins jet. PMID:26442141

  7. Cavitation in confined water: ultra-fast bubble dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Olivier; Marmottant, Philippe

    2012-02-01

    In the hydraulic vessels of trees, water can be found at negative pressure. This metastable state, corresponding to mechanical tension, is achieved by evaporation through a porous medium. It can be relaxed by cavitation, i.e. the sudden nucleation of vapor bubbles. Harmful for the tree due to the subsequent emboli of sap vessels, cavitation is on the contrary used by ferns to eject spores very swiftly. We will focus here on the dynamics of the cavitation bubble, which is of primary importance to explain the previously cited natural phenomena. We use the recently developed method of artificial tress, using transparent hydrogels as the porous medium. Our experiments, on water confined in micrometric hydrogel cavities, show an extremely fast dynamics: bubbles are nucleated at the microsecond timescale. For cavities larger than 100 microns, the bubble ``rings'' with damped oscillations at MHz frequencies, whereas for smaller cavities the oscillations become overdamped. This rich dynamics can be accounted for by a model we developed, leading to a modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Interestingly, this model predicts the impossibility to nucleate bubbles above a critical confinement that depends on liquid negative pressure and corresponds to approximately 100 nm for 20 MPa tensions.

  8. Spatial-temporal dynamics of cavitation bubble clouds in 1.2 MHz focused ultrasound field.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaojing; Wan, Mingxi

    2006-09-01

    Cavitation bubbles have been recognized as being essential to many applications of ultrasound. Temporal evolution and spatial distribution of cavitation bubble clouds induced by a focused ultrasound transducer of 1.2 MHz center frequency are investigated by high-speed photography. It is revealed that at a total acoustic power of 72 W the cavitation bubble cloud first emerges in the focal region where cavitation bubbles are observed to generate, grow, merge and collapse during the initial 600 micros. The bubble cloud then grows upward to the post-focal region, and finally becomes visible in the pre-focal region. The structure of the final bubble cloud is characterized by regional distribution of cavitation bubbles in the ultrasound field. The cavitation bubble cloud structure remains stable when the acoustic power is increased from 25 W to 107 W, but it changes to a more violent form when the acoustic power is further increased to 175 W. PMID:16571378

  9. Effect of supercritical water shell on cavitation bubble dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Wei-Hang; Chen, Wei-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Based on reported experimental data, a new model for single cavitation bubble dynamics is proposed considering a supercritical water (SCW) shell surrounding the bubble. Theoretical investigations show that the SCW shell apparently slows down the oscillation of the bubble and cools the gas temperature inside the collapsing bubble. Furthermore, the model is simplified to a Rayleigh-Plesset-like equation for a thin SCW shell. The dependence of the bubble dynamics on the thickness and density of the SCW shell is studied. The results show the bubble dynamics depends on the thickness but is insensitive to the density of the SCW shell. The thicker the SCW shell is, the smaller are the wall velocity and the gas temperature in the bubble. In the authors’ opinion, the SCW shell works as a buffering agent. In collapsing, it is compressed to absorb a good deal of the work transformed into the bubble internal energy during bubble collapse so that it weakens the bubble oscillations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174145 and 11334005).

  10. A Study of Cavitation-Ignition Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Jacqmin, David A.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of an experimental and computational study of the physics and chemistry of cavitation-ignition bubble combustion (CIBC), a process that occurs when combustible gaseous mixtures are ignited by the high temperatures found inside a rapidly collapsing bubble. The CIBC process was modeled using a time-dependent compressible fluid-dynamics code that includes finite-rate chemistry. The model predicts that gas-phase reactions within the bubble produce CO and other gaseous by-products of combustion. In addition, heat and mechanical energy release through a bubble volume-expansion phase are also predicted by the model. We experimentally demonstrate the CIBC process using an ultrasonically excited cavitation flow reactor with various hydrocarbon-air mixtures in liquid water. Low concentrations (< 160 ppm) of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from the ultrasonic reactor were measured, and found to be proportional to the acoustic excitation power. The results of the model were consistent with the measured experimental results. Based on the experimental findings, the computational model, and previous reports of the "micro-diesel effect" in industrial hydraulic systems, we conclude that CIBC is indeed possible and exists in ultrasonically- and hydrodynamically-induced cavitation. Finally, estimates of the utility of CIBC process as a means of powering an idealized heat engine are also presented.

  11. Cavitation bubble dynamics during thulium fiber laser lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Kennedy, Joshua D.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2016-02-01

    The Thulium fiber laser (TFL) is being explored for lithotripsy. TFL parameters differ from standard Holmium:YAG laser in several ways, including smaller fiber delivery, more strongly absorbed wavelength, low pulse energy/high pulse rate operation, and more uniform temporal pulse structure. High speed imaging of cavitation bubbles was performed at 105,000 fps and 10 μm spatial resolution to determine influence of these laser parameters on bubble formation. TFL was operated at 1908 nm with pulse energies of 5-75 mJ, and pulse durations of 200-1000 μs, delivered through 100-μm-core fiber. Cavitation bubble dynamics using Holmium laser at 2100 nm with pulse energies of 200-1000 mJ and pulse duration of 350 μs was studied, for comparison. A single, 500 μs TFL pulse produced a bubble stream extending 1090 +/- 110 μm from fiber tip, and maximum bubble diameters averaged 590 +/- 20 μm (n=4). These observations are consistent with previous studies which reported TFL ablation stallout at working distances < 1.0 mm. TFL bubble dimensions were five times smaller than for Holmium laser due to lower pulse energy, higher water absorption coefficient, and smaller fiber diameter used.

  12. Numerical simulation of cavitation bubble dynamics induced by ultrasound waves in a high frequency reactor.

    PubMed

    Servant, G; Caltagirone, J P; Gérard, A; Laborde, J L; Hita, A

    2000-10-01

    The use of high frequency ultrasound in chemical systems is of major interest to optimize chemical procedures. Characterization of an open air 477 kHz ultrasound reactor shows that, because of the collapse of transient cavitation bubbles and pulsation of stable cavitation bubbles, chemical reactions are enhanced. Numerical modelling is undertaken to determine the spatio-temporal evolution of cavitation bubbles. The calculus of the emergence of cavitation bubbles due to the acoustic driving (by taking into account interactions between the sound field and bubbles' distribution) gives a cartography of bubbles' emergence within the reactor. Computation of their motion induced by the pressure gradients occurring in the reactor show that they migrate to the pressure nodes. Computed bubbles levitation sites gives a cartography of the chemical activity of ultrasound. Modelling of stable cavitation bubbles' motion induced by the motion of the liquid gives some insight on degassing phenomena. PMID:11062879

  13. Shock wave emission during the collapse of cavitation bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garen, W.; Hegedűs, F.; Kai, Y.; Koch, S.; Meyerer, B.; Neu, W.; Teubner, U.

    2016-02-01

    Shock wave emission induced by intense laser pulses is investigated experimentally. The present work focuses on the conditions of shock wave emission in glycerine and distilled water during the first bubble collapse. Experimental investigations are carried out in liquids as a function of temperature and viscosity. Comparison is made with the theoretical work of Poritsky (Proc 1st US Natl Congress Appl Mech 813-821, 1952) and Brennen (Cavitation and bubble dynamics, Oxford University Press 1995). To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first experimental verification of those theories.

  14. Evidence for liquid phase reactions during single bubble acoustic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Troia, A; Madonna Ripa, D; Lago, S; Spagnolo, R

    2004-07-01

    We extended the recent experiment by Lepoint et al. [Sonochemistry and Sonoluminescence, NATO ASI Series, Series C 524, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London, 1999, p. 285], involving a so-called single bubble sonochemistry process, to a three-phase system. We have found experimental evidence that a single cavitating bubble can activate the oxidation of I- ions after the injection of a CCl4 liquid drop in the bubble trapping apparatus. The solvent drop (CCl4 is almost water insoluble) is pushed towards the bubble position and forms a thin film on the bubble surface. When the acoustic pressure drive is increased above 100 kPa, the three-phase system gives rise to a dark filament, indicating the complexation reaction between starch (added to the water phase) and I2. I2 species is the product of surface reactions involving bubble-induced decomposition of CCl4. Further increase of the acoustic drive causes the thin CCl4 film to separate from the bubble and stops I2 production. The study of the chemical activity of this three-phase system could give new advances on dynamics of the bubble collapse. PMID:15157862

  15. Drop fragmentation by laser-induced cavitation bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-A, S. Roberto; Kerssens, Pjotr; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2015-11-01

    The fragmentation of water droplets by a short laser pulse has received significant attention since the 70's. The fundamental understanding of droplet vaporization/fragmentation is of interest in laser beam propagation in the atmosphere, in situ analysis of combustion products -a great concern due to its ecological implications- and more recently driven by a better understanding of the drop shaping by a laser pulse which is of interest in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) machines. In this presentation we discuss about the incipient events that lead to the fragmentation of a drop produced by a cavitation bubble. When the bubble expands, it stretches the drop into a thin liquid film; this liquid film is eventually ruptured and a shockwave and small droplets are ejected as fast as 4 times the speed of sound in air. Interestingly, we also observe bubbles on the surface of the stretched film. Numerical simulations of a shock wave propagating inside a droplet show that cavitation bubbles appear when counter propagating shock waves that rebound from the walls of the drop meet. We also show different fragmentation scenarios recorded with high-speed video, one of them being a jelly fish like liquid film that eventually fragments into smaller drops.

  16. Bubbles in drops: from cavitation to exploding stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobel, Philippe; Obreschkow, Danail; Dorsaz, Nicolas; de Bosset, Aurele; Tinguely, Marc; Farhat, Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    We performed an experiment to generate single cavitation bubbles inside centimetric quasi-spherical water drops. To produce such drops, our experiment was realized under microgravity conditions (42nd ESA parabolic flight campaign). The ultra-fast recording of the bubble collapse and ensuing dynamics revealed consequences of the unique geometry of the drop's free surface. We obtained the first visualizations of a jet pair escaping the drop after the collapse of eccentrically-placed bubbles. The high quality of the images also disclosed some features of the inner drop dynamics. Due to their confinement within the isolated drop volume, shock waves emitted at the bubble collapse bounce back and forth thereby exciting gas nuclei into sub-millimetric bubbles. When located beneath the free surface, the collapse of these bubbles gives rise to narrow ``hair-like'' jets on the surface. Here we briefly describe the physics underlying these observations while discussing possible analogies with various astrophysical processes from the Sun (spicules) to asymmetric supernovae.

  17. Modeling and experimental analysis of acoustic cavitation bubbles for Burst Wave Lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Kazuki; Kreider, Wayne; Maxwell, Adam; Cunitz, Bryan; Colonius, Tim; Bailey, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Cavitation bubbles initiated by focused ultrasound waves are investigated through experiments and modeling. Pulses of focused ultrasound with a frequency of 335 kHz and a peak negative pressure of 8 MPa is generated in a water tank by a piezoelectric transducer to initiate cavitation. The pressure field is modeled by solving the Euler equations and used to simulate single bubble oscillation. The characteristics of cavitation bubbles observed by highspeed photography qualitatively agree with the simulation results. Finally, bubble clouds are captured using acoustic B-mode imaging that works synchronized with high-speed photography.

  18. Modeling and experimental analysis of acoustic cavitation bubbles for Burst Wave Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Kazuki; Colonius, Tim; Kreider, Wayne; Maxwell, Adam; Cunitz, Bryan; Bailey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A combined modeling and experimental study of acoustic cavitation bubbles that are initiated by focused ultrasound waves is reported. Focused ultrasound waves of frequency 335 kHz and peak negative pressure 8 MPa are generated in a water tank by a piezoelectric transducer to initiate cavitation. The resulting pressure field is obtained by direct numerical simulation (DNS) and used to simulate single bubble oscillation. The characteristics of cavitation bubbles observed by high-speed photography qualitatively agree withs the simulation result. Finally, bubble clouds are captured using acoustic B-mode imaging that works in synchronization with high-speed photography. PMID:27087826

  19. Hysteresis of inertial cavitation activity induced by fluctuating bubble size distribution.

    PubMed

    Muleki Seya, Pauline; Desjouy, Cyril; Béra, Jean-Christophe; Inserra, Claude

    2015-11-01

    Amongst the variety of complex phenomena encountered in nonlinear physics, a hysteretic effect can be expected on ultrasound cavitation due to the intrinsic nonlinearity of bubble dynamics. When applying successive ultrasound shots for increasing and decreasing acoustic intensities, a hysteretic behaviour is experimentally observed on inertial cavitation activity, with a loop area sensitive to the inertial cavitation threshold. To get a better insight of the phenomena underlying this hysteretic effect, the evolution of the bubble size distribution is studied numerically by implementing rectified diffusion, fragmentation process, rising and dissolution of bubbles from an initial bubble size distribution. When applying increasing and decreasing acoustic intensities, the numerical distribution exhibits asymmetry in bubble number and distribution. The resulting inertial cavitation activity is assessed through the numerical broadband noise of the emitted acoustic radiation of the bubble cloud dynamics. This approach allows obtaining qualitatively the observed hysteretic effect and its interest in terms of control is discussed. PMID:26186844

  20. Cavitation bubble generation and control for HIFU transcranial adaptive focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gâteau, J.; Marsac, L.; Pernot, M.; Aubry, J.-F.; Tanter, M.; Fink, M.

    2009-04-01

    Brain treatment with High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) can be achieved by multichannel arrays through the skull using time-reversal focusing. Such a method requires a reference signal either sent by a real source embedded in brain tissues or computed from a virtual source, using the acoustic properties of the skull deduced from CT images. This noninvasive computational method allows precise focusing, but is time consuming and suffers from unavoidable modeling errors which reduce the accessible acoustic pressure at the focus in comparison with real experimental time-reversal using an implanted hydrophone. Ex vivo simulations with a half skull immersed in a water tank allow us to reach at low amplitude levels a pressure ratio of 83% of the reference pressure (real time reversal) at 1MHz. Using this method to transcranially focus a pulse signal in an agar gel (model for in vivo bubble formation), we induced a cavitation bubble that generated an ultrasonic wave received by the array. Selecting the 1MHz component, the signal was time reversed and re-emitted, allowing 97%±1.1% of pressure ratio to be restored. To target points in the vicinity of the geometrical focus, electronic steering from the reference signal has been achieved. Skull aberrations severely degrade the accessible pressure while moving away from the focus ( ˜90% at 10mm in the focal plane). Nevertheless, inducing cavitation bubbles close to the limit of the primary accessible zone allowed us to acquire multiple references signal to increase the electronic steering area by 50%.

  1. Experimental investigation on dynamic characteristics and strengthening mechanism of laser-induced cavitation bubbles.

    PubMed

    Ren, X D; He, H; Tong, Y Q; Ren, Y P; Yuan, S Q; Liu, R; Zuo, C Y; Wu, K; Sui, S; Wang, D S

    2016-09-01

    The dynamic features of nanosecond laser-induced cavitation bubbles near the light alloy boundary were investigated with the high-speed photography. The shock-waves and the dynamic characteristics of the cavitation bubbles generated by the laser were detected using the hydrophone. The dynamic features and strengthening mechanism of cavitation bubbles were studied. The strengthening mechanisms of cavitation bubble were discussed when the relative distance parameter γ was within the range of 0.5-2.5. It showed that the strengthening mechanisms caused by liquid jet or shock-waves depended on γ much. The research results provided a new strengthening method based on laser-induced cavitation shotless peening (CSP). PMID:27150764

  2. Hydrodynamics of an endothermic gas with application to bubble cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsko, James F.

    2006-10-01

    The hydrodynamics for a gas of hard spheres which sometimes experience inelastic collisions resulting in the loss of a fixed, velocity-independent, amount of energy Δ is investigated with the goal of understanding the coupling between hydrodynamics and endothermic chemistry. The homogeneous cooling state of a uniform system and the modified Navier-Stokes equations are discussed and explicit expressions given for the pressure, cooling rates, and all transport coefficients for D dimensions. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically for the case of a two-dimensional gas subject to a circular piston so as to illustrate the effects of the enegy loss on the structure of shocks found in cavitating bubbles. It is found that the maximal temperature achieved is a sensitive function of Δ with a minimum occurring near the physically important value of Δ ˜12000K˜1eV.

  3. Shockwave and cavitation bubble dynamics of atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leela, Ch.; Bagchi, S.; Tewari, Surya P.; Kiran, P. Prem

    2013-11-01

    The generation and evolution of laser induced shock waves (SWs) and the hot core plasma (HCP) created by focusing 7 ns, 532 nm laser pulses in ambient air is studied using time resolved shadowgraphic imaging technique. The dynamics of rapidly expanding plasma releasing SWs into the ambient atmosphere were studied for time delays ranging from nanoseconds to milliseconds with ns temporal resolution. The SW is observed to get detached from expanding HCP at around 3μs. Though the SWs were found to expand spherically following the Sedov-Taylor theory, the rapidly expanding HCP shows asymmetric expansion during both the expansion and cooling phase similar to that of inertial cavitation bubble (CB) dynamics. The asymmetric expansion of HCP leads to oscillation of the plasma boundary, eventually leading to collapse by forming vortices formed by the interaction of ambient air.

  4. Relationship between thrombolysis efficiency induced by pulsed focused ultrasound and cavitation bubble size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Liu, X.; Wang, S.; Wan, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the relationship between the efficiency of pulsed focused ultrasound (FUS)-induced thrombolysis and the size distribution of cavitation bubbles has been studied. Firstly, the thrombolysis efficiency, evaluated by degree of mechanical fragmentation was investigated with varying duty cycle. Secondly, the size distribution of cavitation bubbles after the 1st, 103th and 105th pulse during experiments for various duty cycles was studied. It was revealed that the thrombolysis efficiency was highest when the cavitation bubble size distribution was centred around linear resonance radius of the emission frequency of the FUS transducer. Therefore, in cavitation enhanced therapeutic applications, the essential of using a pulsed FUS may be controlling the size distribution of cavitation nuclei within an active size range so as to increase the treatment efficiency.

  5. Efficient Generation of Cavitation Bubbles in Gel Phantom by Ultrasound Exposure with Negative-Followed by Positive-Peak-Pressure-Emphasized Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Jun; Asai, Ayumu; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2013-07-01

    Cavitation bubbles have much potential for emphasizing therapeutic treatments such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment, histotripsy, and sonodynamic therapy. Their highly efficient as well as controlled generation is important to utilize them effectively as well as safely. However, producing negative pressure over the cavitation threshold by focused ultrasound is difficult because of the nonlinear propagation combined with the focal phase shift. We have suggested a dual-frequency ultrasound exposure method, in which N- and P-waves emphasizing either the peak negative or positive pressure, respectively, are synthesized by superimposing the second harmonic onto the fundamental frequency. In this study, high-speed camera observation demonstrated that the exposure with N-waves immediately followed by P-waves could generate cavitation bubbles most efficiently in gel phantom. Furthermore, the measured negative and positive pressure distributions of the N- and P-wave fields, respectively, agreed well with the optically observed distributions of cavitation inception and cavitation cloud growth.

  6. Hollow nanoparticle generation on laser-induced cavitation bubbles via bubble interface pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zijie; Bao, Ruqiang; Wright, Roger N.; Chrisey, Douglas B.

    2010-09-01

    We report the self-assembly of ZnOx (0≤x≤1) (and permalloy) nanoclusters into hollow nanoparticles using pulsed laser ablation of bulk Zn (or permalloy) in ethanol-water binary mixture. The self-assembly is due to the trapping of laser-produced nanoclusters by the interfaces of cavitation bubbles and the bonding of the nanoclusters by capillary attraction. It was found that the bubbles generated in the mixture have significantly longer lifetimes compared to water alone, which provide an increasing chance to absorb diffusive nanoclusters. The mixture could be adjusted by adding viscous surfactant that makes the pulsed laser ablation in liquid a promising method for the discovery and fabrication of other hollow geometries.

  7. Acceleration of lithotripsy using cavitation bubbles induced by second-harmonic superimposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuga, Masamizu; Yasuda, Jun; Jimbo, Hayato; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy potentially produces residual stone fragments too large to pass through ureters and significant injury to the normal tissue surrounding the stone. Previous works have shown that the collapse of cavitation bubbles induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound can produce small stone fragments via cavitation erosion. However, the erosion rate is hypothesized to be reduced by ultrasound attenuation by excessively generated bubble clouds. If so, it is important to generate the bubbles only on the stone surface. The effects of peak-negative-enhanced (PNE) and peak-positive-enhanced (PPE) waves obtained by second-harmonic superimposition were investigated to control cavitation bubbles. With the PNE waves, the bubbles were generated only on the stone surface and the maximum erosion rate was 232 ± 32 mg/min. All the fragments were smaller than 2 mm, which makes them pass through ureters naturally. The proposed method shows the potential to significantly improve the speed of lithotripsy.

  8. Quantification of optison bubble size and lifetime during sonication dominant role of secondary cavitation bubbles causing acoustic bioeffects.

    PubMed

    Kamaev, Pavel P; Hutcheson, Joshua D; Wilson, Michelle L; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2004-04-01

    Acoustic cavitation has been shown to deliver molecules into viable cells, which is of interest for drug and gene delivery applications. To address mechanisms of these acoustic bioeffects, this work measured the lifetime of albumin-stabilized cavitation bubbles (Optison) and correlated it with desirable (intracellular uptake of molecules) and undesirable (loss of cell viability) bioeffects. Optison was exposed to 500 kHz ultrasound (acoustic pressures of 0.6-3.0 MPa and energy exposures of 0.2-200 J/cm2) either with or without the presence of DU145 prostate cancer cells (10(6) cells/ml) bathed in calcein, a cell-impermeant tracer molecule. Bubble lifetime was determined using a Coulter counter and flow cytometer, while bioeffects were evaluated by flow cytometry. The lifetime of Optison cavitation nuclei was found to decrease and bioeffects (molecular uptake and loss of cell viability) were found to increase with increasing acoustic energy exposure. These bioeffects correlated well with the disappearance of bubbles, suggesting that contrast agent destruction either directly or indirectly affected cells, probably involving unstabilized cavitation nuclei created upon the destruction of Optison. Because Optison solutions presonicated to destroy all detectable bubbles also caused significant bioeffects, the indirect mechanism involving secondary cavitation bubbles is more likely. PMID:15101659

  9. Optical measurements of gas bubbles in oil behind a cavitating micro-orifice flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iben, Uwe; Wolf, Fabian; Freudigmann, Hans-Arndt; Fröhlich, Jochen; Heller, Winfried

    2015-06-01

    In hydraulic systems, it is common for air release to occur behind valves or throttles in the form of bubbles. These air bubbles can affect the behavior and the performance of these systems to a substantial extent. In the paper, gas release in a liquid flow behind an orifice is analyzed by optical methods for various operation points. The bubbles are observed with a digital camera, and a detection algorithm based on the Hough transformation is used to determine their number and size. The appearance of gas bubbles is very sensitive to the inlet and outlet pressure of the orifice. Gas bubbles are only observed if choking cavitation occurs. An empirical relationship between an adjusted cavitation number and the appearance of gas release is presented. It is assumed that the observed bubbles contain mostly air. With the applied pressure differences, up to 30 % of the dissolved air was degassed in the form of bubbles.

  10. Cloud cavitation induced by shock-bubble interaction in a viscoelastic solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, Ryota; Ando, Keita

    2015-12-01

    We experimentally study a shock-bubble interaction problem in a viscoelastic solid, which is relevant to shock wave lithotripsy. A gas bubble is produced by focusing an infrared laser pulse into gelatin. A spherical shock is then created, through rapid expansion of plasma that results from the laser focusing, in the vicinity of the gas bubble. The shock-bubble interaction is recorded by a CCD camera with flash illumination of a nanosecond green laser pulse. The observation captures cavitation inception in the gelatin under tension that results from acoustic impedance mismatching at the bubble wall. Namely, the shock reflects at the bubble interface as a rarefaction wave, which induces the nucleation of cavitation bubbles as a result of rupturing the gelatin.

  11. High-speed observation of cavitation bubble clouds near a tissue boundary in high-intensity focused ultrasound fields.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaojing; Wan, Mingxi; Wang, Supin

    2009-03-01

    Cavitation bubble clouds generated near a tissue boundary by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) were studied using high-speed photography. In all, 171 image series were captured during the initial 100 ms of continuous HIFU exposure, which showed that cavitation bubble clouds at the tissue boundary organized into two structures - "cone-shape bubble cloud structure" recorded in 146 image series and "crown-shape bubble cloud structure" recorded in 18 image series. The remaining 7 image series showed the interchanging of these two structures. It was found that when cavitation bubbles first appeared at the tissue boundary, they developed to cone-shape bubble cloud. The cone-shape bubble cloud structure was characterized by a nearly fixed tip in front of the tissue boundary. When the cavitation bubbles initially appeared away from the tissue boundary they evolved into a crown-shape bubble cloud. Deformation of tissue boundary was shown in all the recorded image series. PMID:19041998

  12. High-contrast active cavitation imaging technique based on multiple bubble wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shukuan; Xu, Shanshan; Liu, Runna; Hu, Hong; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a unique method that combines the ultrafast active cavitation imaging technique with multiple bubble wavelet transform (MBWT) for improving cavitation detection contrast was presented. The bubble wavelet was constructed by the modified Keller-Miksis equation that considered the mutual effect among bubbles. A three-dimensional spatial model was applied to simulate the spatial distribution of multiple bubbles. The effects of four parameters on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of cavitation images were evaluated, including the following: initial radii of bubbles, scale factor in the wavelet transform, number of bubbles, and the minimum inter-bubble distance. And the other two spatial models and cavitation bubble size distributions were introduced in the MBWT method. The results suggested that in the free-field experiments, the averaged SNR of images acquired by the MBWT method was improved by 7.16 ± 0.09 dB and 3.14 ± 0.14 dB compared with the values of images acquired by the B-mode and single bubble wavelet transform (SBWT) methods. In addition, in the tissue experiments, the averaged cavitation-to-tissue ratio of cavitation images acquired by the MBWT method was improved by 4.69 ± 0.25 dB and 1.74± 0.29 dB compared with that of images acquired by B-mode and SBWT methods. PMID:27586732

  13. A two-dimensional nonlinear model for the generation of stable cavitation bubbles.

    PubMed

    Vanhille, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Bubbles appear by acoustic cavitation in a liquid when rarefaction pressures attain a specific threshold value in a liquid. Once they are created, the stable cavitation bubbles oscillate nonlinearly and affect the ultrasonic field. Here we present a model developed for the study of bubble generation in a liquid contained in a two-dimensional cavity in which a standing ultrasonic field is established. The model considers dissipation and dispersion due to the bubbles. It also assumes that both the ultrasonic field and the bubble oscillations are nonlinear. The numerical experiments predict where the bubbles are generated from a population of nuclei distributed in the liquid and show how they affect the ultrasonic field. PMID:26964990

  14. Visualization of ultrasound induced cavitation bubbles using the synchrotron x-ray Analyzer Based Imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izadifar, Zahra; Belev, George; Izadifar, Mohammad; Izadifar, Zohreh; Chapman, Dean

    2014-12-01

    Observing cavitation bubbles deep within tissue is very difficult. The development of a method for probing cavitation, irrespective of its location in tissues, would improve the efficiency and application of ultrasound in the clinic. A synchrotron x-ray imaging technique, which is capable of detecting cavitation bubbles induced in water by a sonochemistry system, is reported here; this could possibly be extended to the study of therapeutic ultrasound in tissues. The two different x-ray imaging techniques of Analyzer Based Imaging (ABI) and phase contrast imaging (PCI) were examined in order to detect ultrasound induced cavitation bubbles. Cavitation was not observed by PCI, however it was detectable with ABI. Acoustic cavitation was imaged at six different acoustic power levels and six different locations through the acoustic beam in water at a fixed power level. The results indicate the potential utility of this technique for cavitation studies in tissues, but it is time consuming. This may be improved by optimizing the imaging method.

  15. A New Active Cavitation Mapping Technique for Pulsed HIFU Applications – Bubble Doppler

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tong; Khokhlova, Tatiana; Sapozhnikov, Oleg; Hwang, Joo Ha; Sapozhnikov, Oleg; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a new active cavitation mapping technique for pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) applications termed bubble Doppler is proposed and its feasibility tested in tissue-mimicking gel phantoms. pHIFU therapy uses short pulses, delivered at low pulse repetition frequency, to cause transient bubble activity that has been shown to enhance drug and gene delivery to tissues. The current gold standard for detecting and monitoring cavitation activity during pHIFU treatments is passive cavitation detection (PCD), which provides minimal information on the spatial distribution of the bubbles. B-mode imaging can detect hyperecho formation, but has very limited sensitivity, especially to small, transient microbubbles. The bubble Doppler method proposed here is based on a fusion of the adaptations of three Doppler techniques that had been previously developed for imaging of ultrasound contrast agents – color Doppler, pulse inversion Doppler, and decorrelation Doppler. Doppler ensemble pulses were interleaved with therapeutic pHIFU pulses using three different pulse sequences and standard Doppler processing was applied to the received echoes. The information yielded by each of the techniques on the distribution and characteristics of pHIFU-induced cavitation bubbles was evaluated separately, and found to be complementary. The unified approach - bubble Doppler – was then proposed to both spatially map the presence of transient bubbles and to estimate their sizes and the degree of nonlinearity. PMID:25265178

  16. Study of cavitation bubble dynamics during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy by high-speed camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian J.; Xuan, Jason R.; Yu, Honggang; Devincentis, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    Although laser lithotripsy is now the preferred treatment option for urolithiasis, the mechanism of laser pulse induced calculus damage is still not fully understood. This is because the process of laser pulse induced calculus damage involves quite a few physical and chemical processes and their time-scales are very short (down to sub micro second level). For laser lithotripsy, the laser pulse induced impact by energy flow can be summarized as: Photon energy in the laser pulse --> photon absorption generated heat in the water liquid and vapor (super heat water or plasma effect) --> shock wave (Bow shock, acoustic wave) --> cavitation bubble dynamics (oscillation, and center of bubble movement , super heat water at collapse, sonoluminscence) --> calculus damage and motion (calculus heat up, spallation/melt of stone, breaking of mechanical/chemical bond, debris ejection, and retropulsion of remaining calculus body). Cavitation bubble dynamics is the center piece of the physical processes that links the whole energy flow chain from laser pulse to calculus damage. In this study, cavitation bubble dynamics was investigated by a high-speed camera and a needle hydrophone. A commercialized, pulsed Ho:YAG laser at 2.1 mu;m, StoneLightTM 30, with pulse energy from 0.5J up to 3.0 J, and pulse width from 150 mu;s up to 800 μs, was used as laser pulse source. The fiber used in the investigation is SureFlexTM fiber, Model S-LLF365, a 365 um core diameter fiber. A high-speed camera with frame rate up to 1 million fps was used in this study. The results revealed the cavitation bubble dynamics (oscillation and center of bubble movement) by laser pulse at different energy level and pulse width. More detailed investigation on bubble dynamics by different type of laser, the relationship between cavitation bubble dynamics and calculus damage (fragmentation/dusting) will be conducted as a future study.

  17. Numerical simulation of cavitation erosion on a NACA0015 hydrofoil based on bubble collapse strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, V.; Luo, X.; Escaler, X.; Huang, R.; Valencia, E.

    2015-12-01

    The prediction of erosion under unsteady cavitation is crucial to prevent damage in hydraulic machinery. The present investigation deals with the numerical simulation of erosive partial cavitation around a NACA0015 hydrofoil. The study presents the calculation of the bubble collapse strength, Sb, based on the bubble potential energy to identify the surface areas with highest risk of damage. The results are obtained with a numerical scheme assuming homogeneous mixture flow, implicit LES and Zwart cavitation model. The 3D unsteady flow simulation has been solved using OpenFOAM. Python language and OpenFOAM calculator (foamCalcEx) have been used to obtain and represent Sb. The obtained results clearly show the instants of erosive bubble collapse and the affected surface areas.

  18. The dynamic behavior and compliance of a stream of cavitating bubbles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennen, C.

    1973-01-01

    Study of the dynamic response of streams of cavitating bubbles to imposed pressure fluctuations to determine the role played by turbopump cavitation in the POGO instability of liquid rockets. Both quasi-static and more general linearized dynamic analyses are made of the perturbations to a cavitating flow through a region of reduced pressure in which the bubbles first grow and then collapse. The results, when coupled with typical bubble number density distribution functions, yield compliances which compare favorably with the existing measurements. Since the fluids involved are frequently cryogenic, a careful examination was made of the thermal effects both on the mean flow and on the perturbations. As a result, the discrepancy between theory and experiment for particular engines could be qualitatively ascribed to reductions in the compliance caused either by these thermal effects or by relatively high reduced frequencies.

  19. Cavitation and bubble cloud dynamics in a high-intensity focused ultrasonic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yuan; Katz, Joseph; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2011-11-01

    We focus a high power (200 W max, 500 kHz) ultrasonic beam to generate cavitation in quiescent water, and observe the process using high-speed holography. The intense pressure fluctuations cause corresponding variations in water density and refractive index, generating diffraction patterns that are evident in the holograms. These enable us to map the instantaneous spatial structures of the pressure field, and resolve its mean features, such as pressure nodes in a partial standing wave. At low powers, we observe slow growth of bubbles and their migration to the nodes due to the primary Bjerknes force. At high powers, this process persists in the periphery of the focal zone, but bubble clouds grow explosively near the center of the beam. These clouds travel in the sound propagation direction at a velocity of up to 5 m/s, but slow down briefly at the pressure nodes, while growing and shrinking. The bubbles contain mostly vapor, as the clouds vanishes in <100 μ s when the sound is turned off. Likely causes for these phenomena include acoustic streaming, Bjerknes forces, and attenuation of sound in the clouds.

  20. Optical observation of shock waves and cavitation bubbles in high intensity laser-induced shock processes

    SciTech Connect

    Marti-Lopez, L.; Ocana, R.; Porro, J. A.; Morales, M.; Ocana, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    We report an experimental study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of shock waves, cavitation bubbles, and sound waves generated in water during laser shock processing by single Nd:YAG laser pulses of nanosecond duration. A fast ICCD camera (2 ns gate time) was employed to record false schlieren photographs, schlieren photographs, and Mach-Zehnder interferograms of the zone surrounding the laser spot site on the target, an aluminum alloy sample. We recorded hemispherical shock fronts, cylindrical shock fronts, plane shock fronts, cavitation bubbles, and phase disturbance tracks.

  1. Bubble Growth in Lunar Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2009-05-01

    Although Moon is usually said to be volatile-"free", lunar basalts are often vesicular with mm-size bubbles. The vesicular nature of the lunar basalts suggests that they contained some initial gas concentration. A recent publication estimated volatile concentrations in lunar basalts (Saal et al. 2008). This report investigates bubble growth on Moon and compares with that on Earth. Under conditions relevant to lunar basalts, bubble growth in a finite melt shell (i.e., growth of multiple regularly-spaced bubbles) is calculated following Proussevitch and Sahagian (1998) and Liu and Zhang (2000). Initial H2O content of 700 ppm (Saal et al. 2008) or lower is used and the effect of other volatiles (such as carbon dioxide, halogens, and sulfur) is ignored. H2O solubility at low pressures (Liu et al. 2005), concentration-dependent diffusivity in basalt (Zhang and Stolper 1991), and lunar basalt viscosity (Murase and McBirney 1970) are used. Because lunar atmospheric pressure is essentially zero, the confining pressure on bubbles is completely supplied by the overlying magma. Due to low H2O content in lunar basaltic melt (700 ppm H2O corresponds to a saturation pressure of 75 kPa), H2O bubbles only grow in the upper 16 m of a basalt flow or lake. A depth of 20 mm corresponds to a confining pressure of 100 Pa. Hence, vesicular lunar rocks come from very shallow depth. Some findings from the modeling are as follows. (a) Due to low confining pressure as well as low viscosity, even though volatile concentration is very low, bubble growth rate is extremely high, much higher than typical bubble growth rates in terrestrial melts. Hence, mm-size bubbles in lunar basalts are not strange. (b) Because the pertinent pressures are so low, bubble pressure due to surface tension plays a main role in lunar bubble growth, contrary to terrestrial cases. (c) Time scale to reach equilibrium bubble size increases as the confining pressure increases. References: (1) Liu Y, Zhang YX (2000) Earth

  2. Studies on the tempo of bubble formation in recently cavitated vessels: a model to predict the pressure of air bubbles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujie; Pan, Ruihua; Tyree, Melvin T

    2015-06-01

    A cavitation event in a vessel replaces water with a mixture of water vapor and air. A quantitative theory is presented to argue that the tempo of filling of vessels with air has two phases: a fast process that extracts air from stem tissue adjacent to the cavitated vessels (less than 10 s) and a slow phase that extracts air from the atmosphere outside the stem (more than 10 h). A model was designed to estimate how water tension (T) near recently cavitated vessels causes bubbles in embolized vessels to expand or contract as T increases or decreases, respectively. The model also predicts that the hydraulic conductivity of a stem will increase as bubbles collapse. The pressure of air bubbles trapped in vessels of a stem can be predicted from the model based on fitting curves of hydraulic conductivity versus T. The model was validated using data from six stem segments each of Acer mono and the clonal hybrid Populus 84 K (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). The model was fitted to results with root mean square error less than 3%. The model provided new insight into the study of embolism formation in stem tissue and helped quantify the bubble pressure immediately after the fast process referred to above. PMID:25907963

  3. High Speed Imaging of Bubble Clouds Generated in Pulsed Ultrasound Cavitational Therapy—Histotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Raghavan, Mekhala; Hall, Timothy L.; Chang, Ching-Wei; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Our recent studies have demonstrated that mechanical fractionation of tissue structure with sharply demarcated boundaries can be achieved using short (<20 μs), high intensity ultrasound pulses delivered at low duty cycles. We have called this technique histotripsy. Histotripsy has potential clinical applications where noninvasive tissue fractionation and/or tissue removal are desired. The primary mechanism of histotripsy is thought to be acoustic cavitation, which is supported by a temporally changing acoustic backscatter observed during the histotripsy process. In this paper, a fast-gated digital camera was used to image the hypothesized cavitating bubble cloud generated by histotripsy pulses. The bubble cloud was produced at a tissue-water interface and inside an optically transparent gelatin phantom which mimics bulk tissue. The imaging shows the following: 1) Initiation of a temporally changing acoustic backscatter was due to the formation of a bubble cloud; 2) The pressure threshold to generate a bubble cloud was lower at a tissue-fluid interface than inside bulk tissue; and 3) at higher pulse pressure, the bubble cloud lasted longer and grew larger. The results add further support to the hypothesis that the histotripsy process is due to a cavitating bubble cloud and may provide insight into the sharp boundaries of histotripsy lesions. PMID:18019247

  4. A reduced-order, single-bubble cavitation model with applications to therapeutic ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Wayne; Crum, Lawrence A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    2011-01-01

    Cavitation often occurs in therapeutic applications of medical ultrasound such as shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Because cavitation bubbles can affect an intended treatment, it is important to understand the dynamics of bubbles in this context. The relevant context includes very high acoustic pressures and frequencies as well as elevated temperatures. Relative to much of the prior research on cavitation and bubble dynamics, such conditions are unique. To address the relevant physics, a reduced-order model of a single, spherical bubble is proposed that incorporates phase change at the liquid-gas interface as well as heat and mass transport in both phases. Based on the energy lost during the inertial collapse and rebound of a millimeter-sized bubble, experimental observations were used to tune and test model predictions. In addition, benchmarks from the published literature were used to assess various aspects of model performance. Benchmark comparisons demonstrate that the model captures the basic physics of phase change and diffusive transport, while it is quantitatively sensitive to specific model assumptions and implementation details. Given its performance and numerical stability, the model can be used to explore bubble behaviors across a broad parameter space relevant to therapeutic ultrasound. PMID:22088026

  5. Analysis of Temperature Rise Induced by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound in Tissue-Mimicking Gel Considering Cavitation Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Ayumu; Okano, Hiroki; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2013-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) causes a selective temperature rise in tissue and is used as a noninvasive method for tumor treatment. However, there is a problem in that it typically takes several hours to treat a large tumor. The development of a highly efficient method is required to shorten the treatment time. It is known that cavitation bubbles generated by HIFU enhance HIFU heating. In this study, the enhancement of the heating effect by cavitation was estimated in a numerical simulation solving a bio-heat transfer equation (BHTE) by increasing the absorption coefficients in and out of the volume of cavitation bubbles. The absorption coefficients were obtained by a curve fitting the temperature rise near the focal point between experiment and simulation. The results show that cavitation bubbles caused the increase in ultrasonic absorption not only in but also near the volume of cavitation bubbles.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations of bubble formation and cavitation in liquid metals.

    SciTech Connect

    Insepov, Z.; Hassanein, A.; Bazhirov, T. T.; Norman, G. E.; Stegailov, V. V.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Inst. for High Energy Densities of Joint Inst. for High Temperatures of RAS

    2007-11-01

    Thermodynamics and kinetics of nano-scale bubble formation in liquid metals such as Li and Pb were studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at pressures typical for magnetic and inertial fusion. Two different approaches to bubble formation were developed. In one method, radial densities, pressures, surface tensions, and work functions of the cavities in supercooled liquid lithium were calculated and compared with the surface tension experimental data. The critical radius of a stable cavity in liquid lithium was found for the first time. In the second method, the cavities were created in the highly stretched region of the liquid phase diagram; and then the stability boundary and the cavitation rates were calculated in liquid lead. The pressure dependences of cavitation frequencies were obtained over the temperature range 700-2700 K in liquid Pb. The results of MD calculations for cavitation rate were compared with estimates of classical nucleation theory (CNT).

  7. Interaction of lithotripter shockwaves with single inertial cavitation bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Klaseboer, Evert; Fong, Siew Wan; Turangan, Cary K.; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Szeri, Andrew J.; Calvisi, Michael L.; Sankin, Georgy N.; Zhong, Pei

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic interaction of a shockwave (modelled as a pressure pulse) with an initially spherically oscillating bubble is investigated. Upon the shockwave impact, the bubble deforms non-spherically and the flow field surrounding the bubble is determined with potential flow theory using the boundary-element method (BEM). The primary advantage of this method is its computational efficiency. The simulation process is repeated until the two opposite sides of the bubble surface collide with each other (i.e. the formation of a jet along the shockwave propagation direction). The collapse time of the bubble, its shape and the velocity of the jet are calculated. Moreover, the impact pressure is estimated based on water-hammer pressure theory. The Kelvin impulse, kinetic energy and bubble displacement (all at the moment of jet impact) are also determined. Overall, the simulated results compare favourably with experimental observations of lithotripter shockwave interaction with single bubbles (using laser-induced bubbles at various oscillation stages). The simulations confirm the experimental observation that the most intense collapse, with the highest jet velocity and impact pressure, occurs for bubbles with intermediate size during the contraction phase when the collapse time of the bubble is approximately equal to the compressive pulse duration of the shock wave. Under this condition, the maximum amount of energy of the incident shockwave is transferred to the collapsing bubble. Further, the effect of the bubble contents (ideal gas with different initial pressures) and the initial conditions of the bubble (initially oscillating vs. non-oscillating) on the dynamics of the shockwave–bubble interaction are discussed. PMID:19018296

  8. Interaction of lithotripter shockwaves with single inertial cavitation bubbles.

    PubMed

    Klaseboer, Evert; Fong, Siew Wan; Turangan, Cary K; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Szeri, Andrew J; Calvisi, Michael L; Sankin, Georgy N; Zhong, Pei

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic interaction of a shockwave (modelled as a pressure pulse) with an initially spherically oscillating bubble is investigated. Upon the shockwave impact, the bubble deforms non-spherically and the flow field surrounding the bubble is determined with potential flow theory using the boundary-element method (BEM). The primary advantage of this method is its computational efficiency. The simulation process is repeated until the two opposite sides of the bubble surface collide with each other (i.e. the formation of a jet along the shockwave propagation direction). The collapse time of the bubble, its shape and the velocity of the jet are calculated. Moreover, the impact pressure is estimated based on water-hammer pressure theory. The Kelvin impulse, kinetic energy and bubble displacement (all at the moment of jet impact) are also determined. Overall, the simulated results compare favourably with experimental observations of lithotripter shockwave interaction with single bubbles (using laser-induced bubbles at various oscillation stages). The simulations confirm the experimental observation that the most intense collapse, with the highest jet velocity and impact pressure, occurs for bubbles with intermediate size during the contraction phase when the collapse time of the bubble is approximately equal to the compressive pulse duration of the shock wave. Under this condition, the maximum amount of energy of the incident shockwave is transferred to the collapsing bubble. Further, the effect of the bubble contents (ideal gas with different initial pressures) and the initial conditions of the bubble (initially oscillating vs. non-oscillating) on the dynamics of the shockwave-bubble interaction are discussed. PMID:19018296

  9. The penetration of acoustic cavitation bubbles into micrometer-scale cavities.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Haresh Anant; Ertunç, Özgür; Lichtenegger, Thomas; Delgado, Antonio; Skupin, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The penetration of acoustically induced cavitation bubbles in micrometer-scale cavities is investigated experimentally by means of high-speed photography and acoustic measurements. Micrometer-scale cavities of different dimensions (width=40 μm, 80 μm, 10 mm and depth=50 μm) are designed to replicate the cross section of microvias in a PCB. The aim here is to present a method for enhancing mass transfer due to the penetration of bubbles in such narrow geometries under the action of ultrasound. The micrometer-scale cavities are placed in a test-cell filled with water and subjected to an ultrasound excitation at 75 kHz. A cavitation bubble cluster is generated at the mouth of the cavity which acts as a continuous source of bubbles that penetrate into the cavity. The radial oscillation characteristics and translation of these bubbles are investigated in detail here. It is observed that the bubbles arrange themselves into streamer-like structures inside the cavity. Parameters such as bubble population and size distribution and their correlation with the phase of the incident ultrasound radiation are investigated in detail here. This provides a valuable insight into the dynamics of bubbles in narrow confined spaces. Mass transfer investigations show that fresh liquid can be continuously introduced in the cavities under the action of ultrasound. Our findings may have important consequences in optimizing the filling processes for microvias with high aspect ratios. PMID:26763751

  10. Localized removal of layers of metal, polymer, or biomaterial by ultrasound cavitation bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez Rivas, David; Verhaagen, Bram; Seddon, James R. T.; Zijlstra, Aaldert G.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; van der Sluis, Luc W. M.; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef; Gardeniers, Han J. G. E.

    2012-01-01

    We present an ultrasonic device with the ability to locally remove deposited layers from a glass slide in a controlled and rapid manner. The cleaning takes place as the result of cavitating bubbles near the deposited layers and not due to acoustic streaming. The bubbles are ejected from air-filled cavities micromachined in a silicon surface, which, when vibrated ultrasonically at a frequency of 200 kHz, generate a stream of bubbles that travel to the layer deposited on an opposing glass slide. Depending on the pressure amplitude, the bubble clouds ejected from the micropits attain different shapes as a result of complex bubble interaction forces, leading to distinct shapes of the cleaned areas. We have determined the removal rates for several inorganic and organic materials and obtained an improved efficiency in cleaning when compared to conventional cleaning equipment. We also provide values of the force the bubbles are able to exert on an atomic force microscope tip. PMID:23964308

  11. Effect of static pressure on acoustic energy radiated by cavitation bubbles in viscous liquids under ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Kyuichi; Towata, Atsuya; Tuziuti, Toru; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Kato, Kazumi

    2011-11-01

    The effect of static pressure on acoustic emissions including shock-wave emissions from cavitation bubbles in viscous liquids under ultrasound has been studied by numerical simulations in order to investigate the effect of static pressure on dispersion of nano-particles in liquids by ultrasound. The results of the numerical simulations for bubbles of 5 μm in equilibrium radius at 20 kHz have indicated that the optimal static pressure which maximizes the energy of acoustic waves radiated by a bubble per acoustic cycle increases as the acoustic pressure amplitude increases or the viscosity of the solution decreases. It qualitatively agrees with the experimental results by Sauter et al. [Ultrason. Sonochem. 15, 517 (2008)]. In liquids with relatively high viscosity (∼200 mPa s), a bubble collapses more violently than in pure water when the acoustic pressure amplitude is relatively large (∼20 bar). In a mixture of bubbles of different equilibrium radius (3 and 5 μm), the acoustic energy radiated by a 5 μm bubble is much larger than that by a 3 μm bubble due to the interaction with bubbles of different equilibrium radius. The acoustic energy radiated by a 5 μm bubble is substantially increased by the interaction with 3 μm bubbles. PMID:22087995

  12. Effects of Tissue Stiffness, Ultrasound Frequency, and Pressure on Histotripsy-induced Cavitation Bubble Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Lin, Kuang-Wei; Warnez, Matthew; Singh, Rahul; Mancia, Lauren; Putnam, Andrew J.; Johnsen, Eric; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Histotripsy is an ultrasound ablation method that controls cavitation to fractionate soft tissue. In order to effectively fractionate tissue, histotripsy requires cavitation bubbles to rapidly expand from nanometer-sized initial nuclei into bubbles often larger than 50 microns. Using a negative pressure high enough to initiate a bubble cloud and expand bubbles to a sufficient size, histotripsy has been shown capable of completely fractionating soft tissue into acelluar debris resulting in effective tissue removal. Previous work has shown that the histotripsy process is affected by tissue mechanical properties with stiffer tissues showing increased resistance to histotripsy fractionation, which we hypothesize to be caused by impeded bubble expansion in stiffer tissues. In this study, the hypothesis that increases in tissue stiffness causes a reduction in bubble expansion was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. High speed optical imaging was used to capture a series of time delayed images of bubbles produced inside mechanically tunable agarose tissue phantoms using histotripsy pulses produced by 345 kHz, 500 kHz, 1.5 MHz, and 3 MHz histotripsy transducers. The results demonstrated a significant decrease in maximum bubble radius (Rmax) and collapse time (tc) with both increasing Young’s modulus and increasing frequency. Furthermore, results showed that Rmax was not increased by raising the pressure above the intrinsic threshold. Finally, this work demonstrated the potential of using a dual-frequency strategy to modulate the expansion of histotripsy bubbles. Overall, the results of this study improve our understanding of how tissue stiffness and ultrasound parameters affect histotripsy-induced bubble behavior and provide a rational basis to tailor acoustic parameters for treatment of the specific tissues of interest. PMID:25715732

  13. Effects of tissue stiffness, ultrasound frequency, and pressure on histotripsy-induced cavitation bubble behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Lin, Kuang-Wei; Warnez, Matthew T.; Singh, Rahul; Mancia, Lauren; Putnam, Andrew J.; Johnsen, Eric; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2015-03-01

    Histotripsy is an ultrasound ablation method that controls cavitation to fractionate soft tissue. In order to effectively fractionate tissue, histotripsy requires cavitation bubbles to rapidly expand from nanometer-sized initial nuclei into bubbles often larger than 50 µm. Using a negative pressure high enough to initiate a bubble cloud and expand bubbles to a sufficient size, histotripsy has been shown capable of completely fractionating soft tissue into acelluar debris resulting in effective tissue removal. Previous work has shown that the histotripsy process is affected by tissue mechanical properties with stiffer tissues showing increased resistance to histotripsy fractionation, which we hypothesize to be caused by impeded bubble expansion in stiffer tissues. In this study, the hypothesis that increases in tissue stiffness cause a reduction in bubble expansion was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. High speed optical imaging was used to capture a series of time delayed images of bubbles produced inside mechanically tunable agarose tissue phantoms using histotripsy pulses produced by 345 kHz, 500 kHz, 1.5 MHz, and 3 MHz histotripsy transducers. The results demonstrated a significant decrease in maximum bubble radius (Rmax) and collapse time (tc) with both increasing Young’s modulus and increasing frequency. Furthermore, results showed that Rmax was not increased by raising the pressure above the intrinsic threshold. Finally, this work demonstrated the potential of using a dual-frequency strategy to modulate the expansion of histotripsy bubbles. Overall, the results of this study improve our understanding of how tissue stiffness and ultrasound parameters affect histotripsy-induced bubble behavior and provide a rational basis to tailor acoustic parameters for treatment of the specific tissues of interest.

  14. Interaction dynamics of temporal and spatial separated cavitation bubbles in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinne, N.; Ripken, T.; Lubatschowski, H.

    2010-02-01

    The LASIK procedure is a well established laser based treatment in ophthalmology. Nowadays it includes a cutting of the corneal tissue bases on ultra short pulses which are focused below the tissue surface to create an optical breakdown and hence a dissection of the tissue. The energy of the laser pulse is absorbed by non-linear processes that result in an expansion of a cavitation bubble and rupturing of the tissue. Due to a reduction of the duration of treatment the current development of ultra short laser systems points to higher repetition rates. This in turn results in a probable interaction between different cavitation bubbles of adjacent optical breakdowns. While the interaction of one single laser pulse with biological tissue is analyzed reasonably well experimentally and theoretically, the interaction of several spatial and temporal following pulses is scarcely determined yet. We present a high-speed photography analysis of cavitation bubble interaction for two spatial separated laser-induced optical breakdowns varying the laser pulse energy as well as the spatial distance. Depending on a change of these parameters different kinds of interactions such as a flattening and deformation of bubble shape, asymmetric water streams and jet formation were observed. The results of this research can be used to comprehend and optimize the cutting effect of ultra short pulse laser systems with high repetition rates (> 1 MHz).

  15. Effects of cavitation bubble interaction with temporally separated fs-laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Tinne, Nadine; Knoop, Gesche; Kallweit, Nicole; Veith, Sonja; Bleeker, Sebastian; Lubatschowski, Holger; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2014-04-01

    We present a time-resolved photographic analysis of the pulse-to-pulse interaction. In particular, we studied the influence of the cavitation bubble induced by a fs-pulse on the optical focusing of the consecutive pulse and its cavitation bubble dynamics in dependence on temporal pulse separation in water. As a first result, by decreasing the temporal separation of laser pulses, there is a diminishment of the laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB) efficiency in terms of energy conversion, caused by disturbed focusing into persisting gas bubbles at the focal volume. A LIOB at the focal spot is finally suppressed by impinging the expanding or collapsing cavitation bubble of the preceding pulse. These results could be additionally confirmed in porcine gelatin solution with various concentrations. Hence, the interaction between the laser and transparent ophthalmic tissue may be accompanied by a raised central laser energy transmission, which could be observed in case of a temporal pulse overlap. In conclusion, our experimental results are of particular importance for the optimization of the prospective ophthalmic surgical process with future generation fs-lasers. PMID:24781592

  16. Ultrasonic emissions reveal individual cavitation bubbles in water-stressed wood

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarenko, A.; Vincent, O.; Pietriga, A.; Cochard, H.; Badel, É.; Marmottant, P.

    2014-01-01

    Under drought conditions, the xylem of trees that conducts ascending sap produces ultrasonic emissions whose exact origin is not clear. We introduce a new method to record simultaneously both acoustic events and optical observation of the xylem conduits within slices of wood that were embedded in a transparent material setting a hydric stress. In this article, we resolved the rapid development of all cavitation bubbles and demonstrated that each ultrasound emission was linked to the nucleation of one single bubble, whose acoustic energy is an increasing function of the size of the conduit where nucleation occurred and also of the hydric stress. We modelled these observations by the fact that water columns in conduits store elastic energy and release it into acoustic waves when they are broken by cavitation bubbles. Water columns are thus elastic, and not rigid, ‘wires of water’ set under tension by hydric stresses. Cavitation bubbles are at the origin of an embolism, whose development was followed in our experiments. Such an embolism of sap circulation can result in a fatal condition for living trees. These findings provide new insights for the non-destructive monitoring of embolisms within trees, and suggest a new approach to study porous media under hydric stress. PMID:25056212

  17. Single bubble perturbation in cavitation proximity of solid glass: hot spot versus distance.

    PubMed

    Radziuk, Darya; Möhwald, Helmuth; Suslick, Kenneth

    2014-02-28

    A systematic study of the energy loss of a cavitation bubble in a close proximity of a glass surface is introduced for the first time in a low acoustic field (1.2-2.4 bar). Single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) is used as a tool to predict the temperature and pressure decrease of bubble (μm) versus surface distance. A glass as a model system is used to imitate the boundary conditions relevant for nano- or micromaterials. SBSL preequilibrated with 5% argon is perturbed by a glass rod with the tip (Z-perturbation) and with the long axis (X-perturbation) at a defined distance. From 2 mm to 500 μm argon-SBSL lines monotonically narrow and the effective emission temperature decreases from 9000 K to 6800 K comparable to multiple bubbles. The electron density decreases by two orders of magnitude in Z-perturbation and is by a factor of two higher in X-perturbation than the unperturbed cavitating bubble. The perturbed single bubble sonoluminescence pressure decreases from 2700 atm to 1200 atm at 2.4 bar. In water new non-SBSL SiO molecular emission lines are observed and OH emission disappears. PMID:24068109

  18. Dynamic and interaction of fs-laser induced cavitation bubbles for analyzing the cutting effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinne, N.; Schumacher, S.; Nuzzo, V.; Ripken, T.; Lubatschowski, H.

    2009-07-01

    A prominent laser based treatment in ophthalmology is the LASIK procedure which nowadays includes a cutting of the corneal tissue based on ultra short pulses. Focusing an ultra short laser pulse below the surface of biological tissue an optical breakdown is caused and hence a dissection is obtained. The laser energy of the laser pulses is absorbed by nonlinear processes. As a result a cavitation bubble expands and ruptures the tissue. Hence positioning of several optical breakdowns side by side generates an incision. Due to a reduction of the duration of the treatment the current development of ultra short laser systems points to higher repetition rates in the range of hundreds of KHz or even MHz instead of tens of kHz. This in turn results in a probable occurrence of interaction between different optical breakdowns and respectively cavitation bubbles of adjacent optical breakdowns. While the interaction of one single laser pulse with biological tissue is analyzed reasonably well experimentally and theoretically, the interaction of several spatial and temporal following pulses is scarcely determined yet. Thus the aim of this study is to analyse the dynamic and interaction of two cavitation bubbles by using high speed photography. The applied laser pulse energy, the energy ratio and the spot distance between different cavitation bubbles were varied. Depending on a change of these parameters different kinds of interactions such as a flattening and deformation of bubble shape or jet formation are observed. Based on these results a further research seems to be inevitable to comprehend and optimize the cutting effect of ultra short pulse laser systems with high (> 1 MHz) repetition rates.

  19. Dynamic features of a laser-induced cavitation bubble near a solid boundary.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan Xiang; Wang, Qian Xi; Keat, T S

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with detailed features of bubble dynamics near a solid boundary. The cavitation bubble was created by using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser pulse and observed using a high-speed camera (up to 100,000 frames per second). A hydrophone system was employed to monitor the acoustic signals generated by the transient pressure impulses and estimate the bubble oscillation periods. Experimental observations were carried out for bubbles with various maximum expanded radius Rmax (between 1.0mm and 1.6mm) and stand-off distances, ds (defined as the distance between the solid boundary and the bubble center at inception) of 0.4≤γ≤3.0, and γ=ds/Rmax. The existence of a solid boundary created asymmetry in the flow field and forced the bubble to collapse non-spherically, which finally brought forth the jet impact phenomenon. The dimensionless first and second oscillation periods were dependent on γ. A series of expansion and collapse of the bubble with cascading loss of energy were observed after the bubble had been generated. This study revealed that most bubbles lost about two-thirds of the total energy from the first maximum expansion to the second maximum expansion. PMID:23411165

  20. Effect of picosecond laser induced cavitation bubbles generated on Au targets in a nanoparticle production set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiberi, M.; Simonelli, A.; Cristoforetti, G.; Marsili, P.; Giammanco, F.; Giorgetti, E.

    2013-03-01

    This work is aimed at an analysis of the influence on the efficiency of nanoparticle production of a cavitation bubble (CB), which forms during the laser ablation process in high-fluence regime. The CB is produced on an Au metal target immersed in water by 1064 nm ps Nd:YAG laser pulses at different fluences. Its time-space evolution is monitored by a shadowgraphic set-up, while the Au nanoparticles production rate is tagged by the growth of the plasmon resonance, which is detected by measuring shot-by-shot the UV-Vis absorbance. We analyze the dependence of bubble size on the experimental parameters. Our results appear of interest to enhance the nanoparticle production efficiency in a liquid medium.

  1. Cavitation bubbles induced by Erbium lasers: implications for dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verleng, Marja; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; van der Veen, Albert; Lemberg, Vladimir; Boutoussov, Dmitri

    2014-02-01

    With new fiber systems available for 3 μm, Erbium lasers become more interesting for precise tissue ablation in a water environment enabling new application in e.g. dentistry. The dynamics of explosive bubble formation was investigated at 2.78 μm (Er,Cr;YSGG) and 2.94 μm (Er:YAG), in relation to energy (10-50 mJ), pulse length (20-150 μs) and fiber tip shape (flat or taper). The dynamics of exploding and imploding vapor bubbles were captured with high speed imaging (10 - 300 μs range). Increasing the pulse length and energy, the vapor bubble became more elongated with an opaque surface for flat tip fibers. Tapered fibers produced spherical vapor bubbles with an optically transparent surface expected to be more forceful for creating mechanical effects in both hard and soft tissues. There was no significant difference between bubbles formed at 2.78 μm (Er,Cr;YSGG) and 2.94 μm (Er:YAG).

  2. A New Unsteady Model for Dense Cloud Cavitation in Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Background on thermal effects in cavitation. Physical properties of hydrogen. Multi-phase cavitation with thermal effect. Solution procedure. Cavitation model overview. Cavitation source terms. New cavitation model. Source term for bubble growth. One equation les model. Unsteady ogive simulations: liquid nitrogen. Unsteady incompressible flow in a pipe. Time averaged cavity length for NACA15 flowfield.

  3. An Acoustofluidic Micromixer via Bubble Inception and Cavitation from Microchannel Sidewalls

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    During the deep reactive ion etching process, the sidewalls of a silicon mold feature rough wavy structures, which can be transferred onto a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel through the soft lithography technique. In this article, we utilized the wavy structures of PDMS microchannel sidewalls to initiate and cavitate bubbles in the presence of acoustic waves. Through bubble cavitation, this acoustofluidic approach demonstrates fast, effective mixing in microfluidics. We characterized its performance by using viscous fluids such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). When two PEG solutions with a resultant viscosity 54.9 times higher than that of water were used, the mixing efficiency was found to be 0.92, indicating excellent, homogeneous mixing. The acoustofluidic micromixer presented here has the advantages of simple fabrication, easy integration, and capability to mix high-viscosity fluids (Reynolds number: ∼0.01) in less than 100 ms. PMID:24754496

  4. Acoustic cavitation bubbles in the kidney induced by focused shock waves in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kambe, K.; Taguchi, K.; Saito, T.; Igarashi, M.; Shirai, S.; Orikasa, S.; Takayama, K.

    1990-07-01

    On an ultrasonic imaging system a hyperechoic region was observed in a focal area of fucused shock waves in the dog kidney. This study was performed to learn whether cavitation bubbles are responsible for this hyperechoic region. The ultrasonic images in water of varying temperatures were not markedly different. In the flowing stream of distilled water, the stream was demonstrated as a hyperechoic region only with a mixture of air bubbles. Streams of 5%-50% glucose solutions were also demonstrated as a hyperechoic region. However, such concentration changes in living tissue, as well as thermal changes, are hardly thought to be induced. The holographic interferometry showed that the cavitation bubbles remained for more than 500 msec. in the focal area in water. This finding indicate that the bubble can remain for longer period than previously supposed. These results support the contentions that cavitation bubbles are responsible for the hyperechoic region in the kidney in situ.

  5. Reduction of Bubble Cavitation by Modifying the Diffraction Wave from a Lithotripter Aperture

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose A new method was devised to suppress the bubble cavitation in the lithotripter focal zone to reduce the propensity of shockwave-induced renal injury. Materials and Methods An edge extender was designed and fabricated to fit on the outside of the ellipsoidal reflector of an electrohydraulic lithotripter to disturb the generation of diffraction wave at the aperture, but with little effect on the acoustic field inside the reflector. Results Although the peak negative pressures at the lithotripter focus using the edge extender at 20 kV were similar to that of the original configuration (-11.1±0.9 vs −10.6±0.7 MPa), the duration of the tensile wave was shortened significantly (3.2±0.54 vs 5.83±0.56 μs, P<0.01). There is no difference, however, in both the amplitude and duration of the compressive shockwaves between these two configurations as well as the −6 dB beam width in the focal plane. The significant suppression effect of bubble cavitation was confirmed by the measured bubble collapse time using passive cavitation detection. At the lithotripter focus, while only about 30 shocks were needed to rupture a blood vessel phantom using the original HM-3 reflector at 20 kV, no damage could be produced after 300 shocks using the edge extender. Meanwhile, the original HM-3 lithotripter at 20 kV can achieve a stone comminution efficiency of 50.4±2.0% on plaster-of-Paris stone phantom after 200 shocks, which is comparable to that of using the edge extender (46.8±4.1%, P=0.005). Conclusions Modifying the diffraction wave at the lithotripter aperture can suppress the shockwave-induced bubble cavitation with significant reduced damage potential on the vessel phantom but satisfactory stone comminution ability. PMID:22332839

  6. Variations of bubble cavitation and temperature elevation during lesion formation by high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yufeng; Gao, Xiaobin Wilson

    2013-08-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as an effective therapeutic modality in both thermal ablations for solid tumor/cancer and soft-tissue fragmentation. Mechanical and thermal effects, which play an important role in the HIFU treatment simultaneously, are dependent on the operating parameters and may vary with the progress of therapy. Mechanical erosion in the shape of a "squid," a "dumbbell" lesion with both mechanical and thermal lesions, or a "tadpole" lesion with mechanical erosion at the center and thermal necrosis on the boundary in the transparent gel phantom could be produced correspondingly with the pulse duration of 5-30 ms, which is much longer than histotripsy burst but shorter than the time for tissue boiling, and pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 0.2-5 Hz. Meanwhile, variations of bubble cavitation (both inertial and stable cavitation) and temperature elevation in the focal region (i.e., z = -2.5, 0, and 2.5 mm) were measured by passive cavitation detection (PCD) and thermocouples during the therapeutic procedure, respectively. Stable cavitation increased with the pulse duration, PRF, and the number of pulses delivered. However, inertial cavitation was found to increase initially and then decrease with long pulse duration and high PRF. Temperature in the pre-focal region is always higher than those at the focal and post-focal position in all tests. Great variations of PCD signals and temperature elevation are due to the generation and persistence of large bubble, which is resistant to collapse and occurs with the increase of pulse duration and PRF. Similar lesion pattern and variations were also observed in ex vivo porcine kidneys. Hyperechoes in the B-mode ultrasound image were comparable to the shape and size of lesions in the dissected tissue. Thermal lesion volume increased with the increase of pulse duration and PRF, but mechanical erosion reached its maximum volume with the pulse duration of 20 ms and PRF of 1

  7. Holmium laser ablation of cartilage: effects of cavitation bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asshauer, Thomas; Jansen, Thomas; Oberthur, Thorsten; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Gerber, Bruno E.

    1995-05-01

    The ablation of fresh harvested porcine femur patellar groove cartilage by a 2.12 micrometers Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser in clinically used irradiation conditions was studied. Laser pulses were delivered via a 600 micrometers diameter fiber in isotonic saline. Ablation was investigated as a function of the angle of incidence of the delivery fiber with respect to the cartilage surface (0-90 degrees) and of radiant exposure. Laser pulses with energies of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 J and a duration of 250 microseconds were used. A constant fiber tip-tissue distance of 1 mm was maintained for all experiments. The dynamics of the induced vapor bubble and of the ablation process was monitored by time resolved flash videography with a 1 microseconds illumination. Acoustic transients were measured with a piezoelectric PVDF needle probe hydrophone. Bubble attachment to the cartilage surface during the collapse phase, leading to the direct exposition of the cartilage surface to the maximal pressure generated, was observed in all investigated irradiation conditions. Maximal pressure transients of up to 200 bars (at 1 mm distance from the collapse center) were measured at the bubble collapse at irradiation angles >= 60 degrees. No significant pressure variation was observed in perpendicular irradiation conditions as a function of radiant exposure. A significant reduction of the induced pressure for irradiation angles

  8. Wavelet-transform-based active imaging of cavitation bubbles in tissues induced by high intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Runna; Xu, Shanshan; Hu, Hong; Huo, Rui; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-08-01

    Cavitation detection and imaging are essential for monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapies. In this paper, an active cavitation imaging method based on wavelet transform is proposed to enhance the contrast between the cavitation bubbles and surrounding tissues. The Yang-Church model, which is a combination of the Keller-Miksis equation with the Kelvin-Voigt equation for the pulsations of gas bubbles in simple linear viscoelastic solids, is utilized to construct the bubble wavelet. Experiments with porcine muscles demonstrate that image quality is associated with the initial radius of the bubble wavelet and the scale. Moreover, the Yang-Church model achieves a somewhat better performance compared with the Rayleigh-Plesset-Noltingk-Neppiras-Poritsky model. Furthermore, the pulse inversion (PI) technique is combined with bubble wavelet transform to achieve further improvement. The cavitation-to-tissue ratio (CTR) of the best tissue bubble wavelet transform (TBWT) mode image is improved by 5.1 dB compared with that of the B-mode image, while the CTR of the best PI-based TBWT mode image is improved by 7.9 dB compared with that of the PI-based B-mode image. This work will be useful for better monitoring of cavitation in HIFU-induced therapies. PMID:27586712

  9. Bubble-induced sheet cavitation inception on an isolated roughness element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rijsbergen, Martijn; Slot, Jesse

    2015-12-01

    The nucleation process on an isolated roughness element, located at the point of minimum pressure of a NACA 0015 hydrofoil was studied experimentally and computationally. The objective of this study was to investigate the working mechanism of bubble-induced sheet cavitation inception. High-speed micro-scale observations show the generation of a streak of cavitation—attached to the roughness element—in the wake of the bubble. Below its critical diameter, the bubble can detach from the streak cavity and travel on while the streak cavity remains. The solutions of a Rayleigh-Plesset equation along a streamline extracted from a RANS calculation show strong similarities with the experimental observations, but a factor 5 to 10 higher frame rate is needed to validate the calculations.

  10. Sonoporation at Small and Large Length Scales: Effect of Cavitation Bubble Collapse on Membranes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Haohao; Comer, Jeffrey; Cai, Wensheng; Chipot, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasound has emerged as a promising means to effect controlled delivery of therapeutic agents through cell membranes. One possible mechanism that explains the enhanced permeability of lipid bilayers is the fast contraction of cavitation bubbles produced on the membrane surface, thereby generating large impulses, which, in turn, enhance the permeability of the bilayer to small molecules. In the present contribution, we investigate the collapse of bubbles of different diameters, using atomistic and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the force exerted on the membrane. The total impulse can be computed rigorously in numerical simulations, revealing a superlinear dependence of the impulse on the radius of the bubble. The collapse affects the structure of a nearby immobilized membrane, and leads to partial membrane invagination and increased water permeation. The results of the present study are envisioned to help optimize the use of ultrasound, notably for the delivery of drugs. PMID:26261957

  11. Helium Bubble Injection Solution To The Cavitation Damage At The Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, M. W.; Ruggles, A. E.

    2009-03-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is one of the largest science projects in the United States, with total cost near 1.4 Billion Dollars. The limiting factor of the facility had always been assumed to be the lifetime of the target window due to radiation damage. After further investigation, the lifetime of the target was determined not to be limited by radiation damage but by cavitation damage. The cavitation damage derives from pressure waves caused by the beam energy deposition. Vapor bubbles form when low to negative pressures occur in the mercury near the stainless steel target window due to wave interaction with the structure. Collapse of these bubbles can focus wave energy in small liquid jets that erode the window surface. Compressibility of the mercury can be enhanced to reduce the amplitude of the pressure wave caused by the beam energy deposition. To enhance compressibility, small (10 to 30 micron diameter) gas bubbles could be injected into the bulk of the mercury. Solubility and diffusivity parameters of inert gas in mercury are required for a complete mechanical simulation and engineering of these strategies. Using current theoretical models, one obtains a theoretical Henry coefficient of helium in mercury on the order of 3.9E15 Pa-molHg/molHe at 300 K. This low solubility was confirmed by a direct, offline experimental method. Mercury was charged with helium and any pressure change was recorded. Any pressure change was attributed to gas going into solution. Therefore, with the sensitivity of the experiment, a lower limit of 9E12 Pa-molHg/molHe was placed on the mercury-helium system. These values guarantee a stable bubble lifetime needed within the SNS mercury target to mitigate cavitation issues.

  12. Helium Bubble Injection Solution To The Cavitation Damage At The Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, M. W.; Ruggles, A. E.

    2009-03-10

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is one of the largest science projects in the United States, with total cost near 1.4 Billion Dollars. The limiting factor of the facility had always been assumed to be the lifetime of the target window due to radiation damage. After further investigation, the lifetime of the target was determined not to be limited by radiation damage but by cavitation damage. The cavitation damage derives from pressure waves caused by the beam energy deposition. Vapor bubbles form when low to negative pressures occur in the mercury near the stainless steel target window due to wave interaction with the structure. Collapse of these bubbles can focus wave energy in small liquid jets that erode the window surface. Compressibility of the mercury can be enhanced to reduce the amplitude of the pressure wave caused by the beam energy deposition. To enhance compressibility, small (10 to 30 micron diameter) gas bubbles could be injected into the bulk of the mercury. Solubility and diffusivity parameters of inert gas in mercury are required for a complete mechanical simulation and engineering of these strategies. Using current theoretical models, one obtains a theoretical Henry coefficient of helium in mercury on the order of 3.9E15 Pa-molHg/molHe at 300 K. This low solubility was confirmed by a direct, offline experimental method. Mercury was charged with helium and any pressure change was recorded. Any pressure change was attributed to gas going into solution. Therefore, with the sensitivity of the experiment, a lower limit of 9E12 Pa-molHg/molHe was placed on the mercury-helium system. These values guarantee a stable bubble lifetime needed within the SNS mercury target to mitigate cavitation issues.

  13. Water Treatment using Discharge Generated in Cavitation Field with Micro Bubble Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, Satoshi; Hirohata, Taiki; Kominato, Yuichi; Yamabe, Chobei; Ike, Hideaki; Hakiai, Kazunori; Hirabayashi, Kazuya; Tamagawa, Masaaki

    New method of water treatment for wastewater using discharge in water cavitation field, in which numerous micro bubbles were generated by high-speed water flow, was proposed in this paper. Indigo carmine solution, which is a type of dye, with a concentration of 9mg/Liter was used as a specimen for demonstration of water treatment. The total volume of solution and average speed of solution in the cavitation field was 20 Liter and about 7.4 m/s, respectively. A reduction ratio of absorbance of 96% was obtained in 50 min of treatment time at an electrode distance of 2 mm and a discharge power of 16 W. Also it was found that the efficiency of decolorization was improved by changing the electrode location.

  14. Interaction Mechanisms of Cavitation Bubbles Induced by Spatially and Temporally Separated fs-Laser Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Tinne, Nadine; Kaune, Brigitte; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2014-01-01

    The emerging use of femtosecond lasers with high repetition rates in the MHz regime together with limited scan speed implies possible mutual optical and dynamical interaction effects of the individual cutting spots. In order to get more insight into the dynamics a time-resolved photographic analysis of the interaction of cavitation bubbles is presented. Particularly, we investigated the influence of fs-laser pulses and their resulting bubble dynamics with various spatial as well as temporal separations. Different time courses of characteristic interaction effects between the cavitation bubbles were observed depending on pulse energy and spatio-temporal pulse separation. These ranged from merely no interaction to the phenomena of strong water jet formation. Afterwards, the mechanisms are discussed regarding their impact on the medical application of effective tissue cutting lateral to the laser beam direction with best possible axial precision: the mechanical forces of photodisruption as well as the occurring water jet should have low axial extend and a preferably lateral priority. Furthermore, the overall efficiency of energy conversion into controlled mechanical impact should be maximized compared to the transmitted pulse energy and unwanted long range mechanical side effects, e.g. shock waves, axial jet components. In conclusion, these experimental results are of great importance for the prospective optimization of the ophthalmic surgical process with high-repetition rate fs-lasers. PMID:25502697

  15. Theoretical model of ice nucleation induced by acoustic cavitation. Part 1: Pressure and temperature profiles around a single bubble.

    PubMed

    Cogné, C; Labouret, S; Peczalski, R; Louisnard, O; Baillon, F; Espitalier, F

    2016-03-01

    This paper deals with the inertial cavitation of a single gas bubble in a liquid submitted to an ultrasonic wave. The aim was to calculate accurately the pressure and temperature at the bubble wall and in the liquid adjacent to the wall just before and just after the collapse. Two different approaches were proposed for modeling the heat transfer between the ambient liquid and the gas: the simplified approach (A) with liquid acting as perfect heat sink, the rigorous approach (B) with liquid acting as a normal heat conducting medium. The time profiles of the bubble radius, gas temperature, interface temperature and pressure corresponding to the above models were compared and important differences were observed excepted for the bubble size. The exact pressure and temperature distributions in the liquid corresponding to the second model (B) were also presented. These profiles are necessary for the prediction of any physical phenomena occurring around the cavitation bubble, with possible applications to sono-crystallization. PMID:26044460

  16. Ultrasonic cavitation erosion of Ti in 0.35% NaCl solution with bubbling oxygen and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Li, D G; Wang, J D; Chen, D R; Liang, P

    2015-09-01

    The influences of oxygen and nitrogen on the ultrasonic cavitation erosion of Ti in 0.35%NaCl solution at room temperature, were investigated using a magnetostrictive-induced ultrasonic cavitation erosion (CE) facility and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The roles of oxygen and nitrogen in the composition and the electronic property of the passive film on Ti, were studied by Mott-Schottky plot and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the mass loss of Ti in 0.35%NaCl solution increased with increasing cavitation time. Bubbling oxygen can evidently increase the resistance of ultrasonic cavitation erosion comparing with bubbling nitrogen. XPS results showed that the thickness of the passive film on Ti in 0.35%NaCl solution in the case of bubbling oxygen for 3 weeks, was about 7 nm, and the passive film was mainly composed of TiO2 with an anatase structure. While TiO2 with a rutile structure was found to be the major component of the passive film on Ti in 0.35%NaCl solution in the case of bubbling nitrogen for 3 weeks, and the film thickness was 5 nm. The results extracted from Mott-Schottky plot showed that the passive film on Ti in the case of bubbling oxygen had more donor density than the passive film on Ti in the case of bubbling nitrogen. PMID:25818362

  17. Study on the spatial distribution of the liquid temperature near a cavitation bubble wall.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Yasui, Kyuichi; Sun, Zhicheng; Mei, Bin; You, Meiyan; Zhu, Tong

    2016-03-01

    A simple new model of the spatial distribution of the liquid temperature near a cavitation bubble wall (Tli) is employed to numerically calculate Tli. The result shows that Tli is almost same with the ambient liquid temperature (T0) during the bubble oscillations except at strong collapse. At strong collapse, Tli can increase to about 1510 K, the same order of magnitude with that of the maximum temperature inside the bubble, which means that the chemical reactions occur not only in gas-phase inside the collapsing bubble but also in liquid-phase just outside the collapsing bubble. Four factors (ultrasonic vibration amplitude, ultrasonic frequency, the surface tension and the viscosity) are considered to study their effects for the thin liquid layer. The results show that for the thin layer, the thickness and the temperature increase as the ultrasonic vibration amplitude rise; conversely, the thickness and the temperature decrease with the increase of the ultrasonic frequency, the surface tension or the viscosity. PMID:26585020

  18. Stress wave emission and cavitation bubble dynamics by nanosecond optical breakdown in a tissue phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brujan, Emil-Alexandru; Vogel, Alfred

    2006-07-01

    Stress wave emission and cavitation bubble dynamics after optical breakdown in water and a tissue phantom with Nd: YAG laser pulses of 6 ns duration were investigated both experimentally and numerically to obtain a better understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in plasma-mediated laser surgery. Experimental tools were high-speed photography with 50000 frames s(-1) , and acoustic measurements. The tissue phantom consisted of a transparent polyacrylamide (PAA) gel, the elastic properties of which can be controlled by modifying the water content. Breakdown in water produced a purely compressive stress wave. By contrast, in stiff PAA samples and for sufficiently large pulse energies, the compression wave was followed by an intense tensile wave, similar to the behaviour previously observed in cornea. The elastic/plastic response of the medium led to a significant decrease of the maximum size of the cavitation bubble and to a shortening of its oscillation period which was found to be related to the generation of the tensile stress wave upon breakdown. For increasing elastic modulus of the PAA, both the amplitudes of the bubble oscillation and of the stress wave emitted during bubble collapse decreased until the bubble oscillation was so strongly damped that no collapse stress wave was emitted. Numerical simulations were performed using a spherical model of bubble dynamics which includes the compressibility and elastic/plastic behaviour of the medium, viscosity, density and surface tension. The calculations revealed that consideration of the elastic/plastic behaviour of the medium surrounding the bubble is essential to describe the experimentally observed bipolar shape of the stress wave emitted upon optical breakdown. Water is a poor tissue model because the shape of the emitted stress waves and the bubble dynamics differ strongly for both materials. The mechanical properties of PAA were also found to be quite different from those of tissues. Experimental and

  19. Interferometric studies of the pressures developed in a liquid during infrared-laser-induced cavitation-bubble oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, B.; Emmony, D. C.

    The study of the behaviour of cavitation bubbles close to rigid boundaries is of particular importance because of the associated phenomenon of cavitation erosion which arises from the resulting changes in pressure in the surrounding liquid. In this paper, we present four sequences of Mach-Zehnder interferograms and shadowgraphs of IR-laser-generated bubbles in water for two distinct positions relative to a solid perspex block. Direct optical measurements of the transient pressure distributions in the nearby liquid are made for the initial expansion of the bubbles and around each of their subsequent collapse phases. In addition to the generation of spherical acoustic waves, the pressures developed around the bubble prior to collapse and the formation of a high-speed liquid jet are precisely quantified. Furthermore, calculations of the changes in potential energy of the enclosed vapour are carried out and related to the magnitudes of the energy radiated via acoustic waves.

  20. The dynamics of cavitation bubble clouds in high-intensity focused ultrasound field observed by high-speed photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojing; Chen, Hong; Wan, Mingxi

    2007-01-01

    High-speed photography is being considered as an effective technique to record the transient phenomena in medical field. This presentation summarizes our previous work of using high-speed photography in the observation of cavitation bubble clouds generated in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field, aiming at the better understanding of the cavitation mechanism during the medical application of HIFU. A high-speed photography system synchronized with HIFU emission facilities was built up, and using this system we have investigated the dynamics of cavitation bubble clouds (i) in the whole HIFU free field; (ii) in the focal region of HIFU free field; and (iii) near the tissue surface in HIFU field. The spatial-temporal evolution of the bubble cloud and the characteristics of bubble cloud structures as well as the possible explanations to the recorded phenomena are reviewed. All the results we got elucidated that the highspeed camera is a potent tool to detect the cavitation phenomena in HIFU field.

  1. Real-Time Monitoring and Quantitative Evaluation of Cavitation Bubbles Induced by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Using B-Mode Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie; Chen, Chu-Yi; Chen, Gong; Guo, Xia-Sheng; Ma, Yong; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong

    2014-03-01

    A software-based method is proposed to eliminate the flooding interference strips in B-mode images, and to evaluate the cavitation bubbles generated during high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposures. In vitro tissue phantoms are exposed to 1.12 MHz HIFU pulses with a fixed 100 Hz pulse repetition frequency. HIFU-induced cavitation bubbles are detected as hyperechoic regions in B-mode images. The temporal evolution of cavitation bubbles, generated by HIFU pulses with varying driving amplitude and pulse length, is analyzed by measuring the time-varying area of the hyperechoic region. The results show that: first, it is feasible to monitor HIFU-induced cavitation bubble activity in real-time using B-mode imaging; second, more cavitation bubbles can be generated with higher acoustic energy delivered; third, the hyperechoic region is observed to shrink gradually after ceasing the HIFU pulses, which indicates the dissolution of cavitation bubbles. This work will be helpful for developing an effective tool to realize real-time monitoring and quantitative evaluation of HIFU-induced cavitation bubble activity using a current commercialized B-mode machine.

  2. Transcranial ultrasonic therapy based on time reversal of acoustically induced cavitation bubble signature

    PubMed Central

    Gâteau, Jérôme; Marsac, Laurent; Pernot, Mathieu; Aubry, Jean-Francois; Tanter, Mickaël; Fink, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    Brain treatment through the skull with High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) can be achieved with multichannel arrays and adaptive focusing techniques such as time-reversal. This method requires a reference signal to be either emitted by a real source embedded in brain tissues or computed from a virtual source, using the acoustic properties of the skull derived from CT images. This non-invasive computational method focuses with precision, but suffers from modeling and repositioning errors that reduce the accessible acoustic pressure at the focus in comparison with fully experimental time-reversal using an implanted hydrophone. In this paper, this simulation-based targeting has been used experimentally as a first step for focusing through an ex vivo human skull at a single location. It has enabled the creation of a cavitation bubble at focus that spontaneously emitted an ultrasonic wave received by the array. This active source signal has allowed 97%±1.1% of the reference pressure (hydrophone-based) to be restored at the geometrical focus. To target points around the focus with an optimal pressure level, conventional electronic steering from the initial focus has been combined with bubble generation. Thanks to step by step bubble generation, the electronic steering capabilities of the array through the skull were improved. PMID:19770084

  3. Bubble growth and rise in soft sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreau, Bernard P.; Algar, Chris; Johnson, Bruce D.; Croudace, Ian; Reed, Allen; Furukawa, Yoko; Dorgan, Kelley M.; Jumars, Peter A.; Grader, Abraham S.; Gardiner, Bruce S.

    2005-06-01

    The mechanics of uncemented soft sediments during bubble growth are not widely understood and no rheological model has found wide acceptance. We offer definitive evidence on the mode of bubble formation in the form of X-ray computed tomographic images and comparison with theory. Natural and injected bubbles in muddy cohesive sediments are shown to be highly eccentric oblate spheroids (disks) that grow either by fracturing the sediment or by reopening preexisting fractures. In contrast, bubbles in soft sandy sediment tend to be spherical, suggesting that sand acts fluidly or plastically in response to growth stresses. We also present bubble-rise results from gelatin, a mechanically similar but transparent medium, that suggest that initial rise is also accomplished by fracture. Given that muddy sediments are elastic and yield by fracture, it becomes much easier to explain physically related phenomena such as seafloor pockmark formation, animal burrowing, and gas buildup during methane hydrate melting.

  4. Spectrum of laser light scattered by nanoparticles in an ablation-induced cavitation bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Masato; Sasaki, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    The spectrum of the laser light scattered by nanoparticles in a cavitation bubble, which was induced by laser ablation of a titanium target in water, was measured using a triple-grating spectrograph. The scattered laser light observed at 100 \\upmu s after laser ablation had no wavelength-shifted component, suggesting that nanoparticles at this delay time were metallic. The wavelength-shifted component was observed in the spectrum at a delay time of 200 \\upmu s, suggesting the formation of oxidized nanoparticles. However, we observed no peaks in the spectrum of the scattered laser light in the present in situ laser-light scattering experiment. On the other hand, we observed clear peaks in the Raman spectrum of synthesized nanoparticles. The experimental results suggest slow crystallization of nanoparticles in liquid in liquid-phase laser ablation.

  5. CO2 bubbling-based 'Nanobomb' System for Targetedly Suppressing Panc-1 Pancreatic Tumor via Low Intensity Ultrasound-activated Inertial Cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Xu, Huixiong; Chen, Hangrong; Jia, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Shuguang; Cai, Xiaojun; Wang, Ronghui; Mou, Juan; Zheng, Yuanyi; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive and targeted physical treatment is still desirable especially for those cancerous patients. Herein, we develop a new physical treatment protocol by employing CO2 bubbling-based 'nanobomb' system consisting of low-intensity ultrasound (1.0 W/cm2) and a well-constructed pH/temperature dual-responsive CO2 release system. Depending on the temperature elevation caused by exogenous low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound irradiation and the low pH caused by the endogenous acidic-environment around/within tumor, dual-responsive CO2 release system can quickly release CO2 bubbles, and afterwards, the generated CO2 bubbles waves will timely explode before dissolution due to triggering by therapeutic ultrasound waves. Related bio-effects (e.g., cavitation, mechanical, shock waves, etc) caused by CO2 bubbles' explosion effectively induce instant necrosis of panc-1 cells and blood vessel destruction within panc-1 tumor, and consequently inhibit the growth of panc-1 solid tumor, simultaneously minimizing the side effects to normal organs. This new physiotherapy employing CO2 bubbling-based 'nanobomb' system promises significant potentials in targetedly suppressing tumors, especially for those highly deadly cancers. PMID:26379793

  6. CO2 bubbling-based 'Nanobomb' System for Targetedly Suppressing Panc-1 Pancreatic Tumor via Low Intensity Ultrasound-activated Inertial Cavitation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Xu, Huixiong; Chen, Hangrong; Jia, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Shuguang; Cai, Xiaojun; Wang, Ronghui; Mou, Juan; Zheng, Yuanyi; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive and targeted physical treatment is still desirable especially for those cancerous patients. Herein, we develop a new physical treatment protocol by employing CO2 bubbling-based 'nanobomb' system consisting of low-intensity ultrasound (1.0 W/cm(2)) and a well-constructed pH/temperature dual-responsive CO2 release system. Depending on the temperature elevation caused by exogenous low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound irradiation and the low pH caused by the endogenous acidic-environment around/within tumor, dual-responsive CO2 release system can quickly release CO2 bubbles, and afterwards, the generated CO2 bubbles waves will timely explode before dissolution due to triggering by therapeutic ultrasound waves. Related bio-effects (e.g., cavitation, mechanical, shock waves, etc) caused by CO2 bubbles' explosion effectively induce instant necrosis of panc-1 cells and blood vessel destruction within panc-1 tumor, and consequently inhibit the growth of panc-1 solid tumor, simultaneously minimizing the side effects to normal organs. This new physiotherapy employing CO2 bubbling-based 'nanobomb' system promises significant potentials in targetedly suppressing tumors, especially for those highly deadly cancers. PMID:26379793

  7. Impact of shock wave pattern and cavitation bubble size on tissue damage during ureteroscopic electrohydraulic lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Vorreuther, R; Corleis, R; Klotz, T; Bernards, P; Engelmann, U

    1995-03-01

    It is known that electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) during ureteroscopy may cause ureteral damage. To evaluate this trauma potential, find its mechanism and make it possible to avoid it, our research employed photographic evaluation, tissue studies, shock wave measurements and disintegration tests. The setup included a 3.3 F probe attached to an experimental generator with adjustable voltages and capacities providing energies from 25 mJ. to 1300 mJ. per pulse. In general, we distinguish between two traumatic mechanisms: (1) After placing the probe directly on the mucosa the rapid initial plasma penetrates the tissue resulting in a small, nonthermal, punched-like defect, whose depth depends on the energy applied. This trauma has minor clinical implications and is avoided by maintaining a minimum safety distance of 1 mm.; (2) According to physics, each plasma is followed by a cavitation bubble. The maximum size of this bubble depends on the energy applied and ranges from 3 mm. (25 mJ) to > 15 mm. (1300 mJ). In proportion to the bubble size, the ureteral wall may be distended or disrupted, even when the probe is not in direct contact with the mucosa. Therefore, the goal should be to obtain a low energy pressure pulse with high disintegration efficacy. Our evaluation of the pressure waves revealed that the selection of a high voltage and a low capacity leads to short and steep "laser-like" pulses. These pulses have a significant higher impact on stone disintegration than the broader pulses of the same energy provided by currently available generators. PMID:7861549

  8. Contribution of stress wave and cavitation bubble in evaluation of cell-cell adhesion by femtosecond laser-induced impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Takanori; Li, Po-Lin; Wang, Wen-Zhe; Deng, Jia-Huei; Lu, Yun-Chang; Kao, Fu-Jen; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh

    2014-10-01

    When an intense femtosecond laser is focused in a cell culture medium, shock wave, stress wave, and cavitation bubble are generated at the laser focal point. Cell-cell adhesion can be broken at the cellular level by the impacts of these factors. We have applied this breaking of the adhesion to an estimation of the cell-cell adhesion strength. In this application, it is important to identify which of these factors is the dominant factor that breaks the adhesion. Here we investigated this issue using streptavidin-coated microbeads adhering to a biotin-coated substrate as a mimic of the cell-cell adhesion. The results indicated that the break was induced mainly by the stress wave, not by the impact of the cavitation bubble.

  9. High-speed observation of cavitation bubble cloud structures in the focal region of a 1.2 MHz high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaojing; Wan, Mingxi; Wang, Supin

    2007-03-01

    Cavitation bubble clouds in the focal region of HIFU play important roles in therapeutic applications of HIFU. Temporal evolution and spatial distribution of cavitation bubble clouds generated in the focal region of a 1.2 MHz single element concave HIFU transducer in water are investigated by high-speed photography. It is found that during the initial 600 micro s insonation cavitation bubble clouds organize to the "screw-like structure" or "cap-like structure". The screw-like structure is characterized by a nearly fixed tip at the geometrical focus of the HIFU transducer, and the cap-like structure is marked by a dent formed in the direction of ultrasound transmission. After 600 micro s, another two structures are recorded - "streamer structure" and "cluster structure". The streamer structure is also featured by a nearly fixed bottom position at the focus, while the cluster structure is distinguished by agglomerations of bubbles around the focus. PMID:17071124

  10. Some problems of the theory of bubble growth and condensation in bubble chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tkachev, L. G.

    1988-01-01

    This work is an attempt to explain the reasons for the discrepancies between the theoretical and experimental values of bubble growth rate in an overheated liquid, and to provide a brief formulation of the main premises of the theory on bubble growth in liquid before making a critical analysis. To simplify the problem, the floating upward of bubbles is not discussed; moreover, the study is based on the results of the theory of the behavior of fixed bubbles.

  11. Cavitation-induced damage of soft materials by focused ultrasound bursts: A fracture-based bubble dynamics model.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Pooya; Kreider, Wayne; Maxwell, Adam D; Hutchens, Shelby B; Freund, Jonathan B

    2016-08-01

    A generalized Rayleigh-Plesset-type bubble dynamics model with a damage mechanism is developed for cavitation and damage of soft materials by focused ultrasound bursts. This study is linked to recent experimental observations in tissue-mimicking polyacrylamide and agar gel phantoms subjected to bursts of a kind being considered specifically for lithotripsy. These show bubble activation at multiple sites during the initial pulses. More cavities appear continuously through the course of the observations, similar to what is deduced in pig kidney tissues in shock-wave lithotripsy. Two different material models are used to represent the distinct properties of the two gel materials. The polyacrylamide gel is represented with a neo-Hookean elastic model and damaged based upon a maximum-strain criterion; the agar gel is represented with a strain-hardening Fung model and damaged according to the strain-energy-based Griffith's fracture criterion. Estimates based upon independently determined elasticity and viscosity of the two gel materials suggest that bubble confinement should be sufficient to prevent damage in the gels, and presumably injury in some tissues. Damage accumulation is therefore proposed to occur via a material fatigue, which is shown to be consistent with observed delays in widespread cavitation activity. PMID:27586763

  12. Chromatically encoded high-speed photography of cavitation bubble dynamics inside inhomogeneous ophthalmic tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinne, N.; Matthias, B.; Kranert, F.; Wetzel, C.; Krüger, A.; Ripken, T.

    2016-03-01

    The interaction effect of photodisruption, which is used for dissection of biological tissue with fs-laser pulses, has been intensively studied inside water as prevalent sample medium. In this case, the single effect is highly reproducible and, hence, the method of time-resolved photography is sufficiently applicable. In contrast, the reproducibility significantly decreases analyzing more solid and anisotropic media like biological tissue. Therefore, a high-speed photographic approach is necessary in this case. The presented study introduces a novel technique for high-speed photography based on the principle of chromatic encoding. For illumination of the region of interest within the sample medium, the light paths of up to 12 LEDs with various emission wavelengths are overlaid via optical filters. Here, MOSFET-electronics provide a LED flash with a duration <100 ns; the diodes are externally triggered with a distinct delay for every LED. Furthermore, the different illumination wavelengths are chromatically separated again for detection via camera chip. Thus, the experimental setup enables the generation of a time-sequence of <= 12 images of a single cavitation bubble dynamics. In comparison to conventional time-resolved photography, images in sample media like water and HEMA show the significant advantages of this novel illumination technique. In conclusion, the results of this study are of great importance for the fundamental evaluation of the laser-tissue interaction inside anisotropic biological tissue and for the optimization of the surgical process with high-repetition rate fs-lasers. Additionally, this application is also suitable for the investigation of other microscopic, ultra-fast events in transparent inhomogeneous materials.

  13. Target geometry and rigidity determines laser-induced cavitation bubble transport and nanoparticle productivity - a high-speed videography study.

    PubMed

    Kohsakowski, Sebastian; Gökce, Bilal; Tanabe, Rie; Wagener, Philipp; Plech, Anton; Ito, Yoshiro; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2016-06-28

    Laser-induced cavitation has mostly been studied in bulk liquid or at a two-dimensional wall, although target shapes for the particle synthesis may strongly affect bubble dynamics and interfere with particle productivity. We investigated the dynamics of the cavitation bubble induced by pulsed-laser ablation in liquid for different target geometries with high-speed laser microsecond videography and focus on the collapse behaviour. This method enables us observations in a high time resolution (intervals of 1 μs) and single-pulse experiments. Further, we analyzed the nanoparticle productivity, the sizes of the synthesized nanoparticles and the evolution of the bubble volume for each different target shape and geometry. For the ablation of metal (Ag, Cu, Ni) wire tips a springboard-like behaviour after the first collapse is observed which can be correlated with vertical projectile motion. Its turbulent friction in the liquid causes a very efficient transport and movement of the bubble and ablated material into the bulk liquid and prevents particle redeposition. This effect is influenced by the degree of freedom of the wire as well as the material properties and dimensions, especially the Young's modulus. The most efficient and largest bubble movement away from the wire was observed for a thin (500 μm) silver wire with velocities up to 19.8 m s(-1) and for materials with a small Young's modulus and flexural rigidity. We suggest that these observations may contribute to upscaling strategies and increase of particle yield towards large synthesis of colloids based on targets that may continuously be fed. PMID:27273693

  14. Cavitations induced by plasmas, plasmas induced by cavitations, and plasmas produced in cavitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Koichi

    2015-11-01

    Cavitation bubbles are not static bubbles but have dynamics of expansion, shrinkage, and collapse. Since the collapse of a cavitation bubble is roughly an adiabatic process, the inside of the bubble at the collapse has a high temperature and a high pressure, resulting in the production of a plasma. This talk will be focused on cavitation-related plasma phenomena and the role of the cavitation bubble in the synthesis of nanoparticles. A method for inducing a cavitation bubble is laser ablation in liquid. After the disappearance of laser-produced plasma with optical emission, we have observed the formation of a cavitation bubble. We have found that the inside of the cavitation bubble is the reaction field for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The atomic and molecular species ejected from the ablation target toward the liquid are transported into the cavitation bubble, and they condense into nanoparticles inside it. It is important to note that nanoparticles are stored inside the cavitation bubble until its collapse. We have shown that the size and the structure of nanoparticles are controlled by controlling the dynamics of the cavitation bubbles. Another method for inducing cavitation bubbles is to use ultrasonic power. We have found a simple method for the efficient production of standing cavitation bubbles. The method is just inserting a punching metal plate into water irradiated by ultrasonic wave. The depth of water and the position of the punching plate should be tuned precisely. We have proposed the mechanism of the efficient production of cavitation bubbles by this method. Currently, we try to have electric discharges in cavitation bubbles with the intention of realizing nonequilibrium sonochemistry. In particular, the electric discharge in a laser-induced cavitation bubble shows interesting distortion of the bubble shape, which suggests the electrostatic characteristics of the cavitation bubble.

  15. Enhancing the aggressive intensity of hydrodynamic cavitation through a Venturi tube by increasing the pressure in the region where the bubbles collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyama, H.; Hoshino, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we used a Venturi tube for generating hydrodynamic cavitation, and in order to obtain the optimum conditions for this to be used in chemical processes, the relationship between the aggressive intensity of the cavitation and the downstream pressure where the cavitation bubbles collapse was investigated. The acoustic power and the luminescence induced by the bubbles collapsing were investigated under various cavitating conditions, and the relationships between these and the cavitation number, which depends on the upstream pressure, the downstream pressure at the throat of the tube and the vapor pressure of the test water, was found. It was shown that the optimum downstream pressure, i.e., the pressure in the region where the bubbles collapse, increased the aggressive intensity by a factor of about 100 compared to atmospheric pressure without the need to increase the input power. Although the optimum downstream pressure varied with the upstream pressure, the cavitation number giving the optimum conditions was constant for all upstream pressures.

  16. Small Gas Bubble Experiment for Mitigation of Cavitation Damage and Pressure Waves in Short-pulse Mercury Spallation Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, Mark W; Felde, David K; Sangrey, Robert L; Abdou, Ashraf A; West, David L; Shea, Thomas J; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Dr. Takashi; Farny, Dr. Caleb H.; Kaminsky, Andrew L

    2014-01-01

    Populations of small helium gas bubbles were introduced into a flowing mercury experiment test loop to evaluate mitigation of beam-pulse induced cavitation damage and pressure waves. The test loop was developed and thoroughly tested at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) prior to irradiations at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center - Weapons Neutron Research Center (LANSCE-WNR) facility. Twelve candidate bubblers were evaluated over a range of mercury flow and gas injection rates by use of a novel optical measurement technique that accurately assessed the generated bubble size distributions. Final selection for irradiation testing included two variations of a swirl bubbler provided by Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) collaborators and one orifice bubbler developed at SNS. Bubble populations of interest consisted of sizes up to 150 m in radius with achieved gas void fractions in the 10^-5 to 10^-4 range. The nominal WNR beam pulse used for the experiment created energy deposition in the mercury comparable to SNS pulses operating at 2.5 MW. Nineteen test conditions were completed each with 100 pulses, including variations on mercury flow, gas injection and protons per pulse. The principal measure of cavitation damage mitigation was surface damage assessment on test specimens that were manually replaced for each test condition. Damage assessment was done after radiation decay and decontamination by optical and laser profiling microscopy with damaged area fraction and maximum pit depth being the more valued results. Damage was reduced by flow alone; the best mitigation from bubble injection was between half and a quarter that of flow alone. Other data collected included surface motion tracking by three laser Doppler vibrometers (LDV), loop wall dynamic strain, beam diagnostics for charge and beam profile assessment, embedded hydrophones and pressure sensors, and sound measurement by a suite of conventional and contact microphones.

  17. A simple model of ultrasound propagation in a cavitating liquid. Part II: Primary Bjerknes force and bubble structures.

    PubMed

    Louisnard, O

    2012-01-01

    In a companion paper, a reduced model for propagation of acoustic waves in a cloud of inertial cavitation bubbles was proposed. The wave attenuation was calculated directly from the energy dissipated by a single bubble, the latter being estimated directly from the fully nonlinear radial dynamics. The use of this model in a mono-dimensional configuration has shown that the attenuation near the vibrating emitter was much higher than predictions obtained from linear theory, and that this strong attenuation creates a large traveling wave contribution, even for closed domain where standing waves are normally expected. In this paper, we show that, owing to the appearance of traveling waves, the primary Bjerknes force near the emitter becomes very large and tends to expel the bubbles up to a stagnation point. Two-dimensional axi-symmetric computations of the acoustic field created by a large area immersed sonotrode are also performed, and the paths of the bubbles in the resulting Bjerknes force field are sketched. Cone bubble structures are recovered and compare reasonably well to reported experimental results. The underlying mechanisms yielding such structures is examined, and it is found that the conical structure is generic and results from the appearance a sound velocity gradient along the transducer area. Finally, a more complex system, similar to an ultrasonic bath, in which the sound field results from the flexural vibrations of a thin plate, is also simulated. The calculated bubble paths reveal the appearance of other commonly observed structures in such configurations, such as streamers and flare structures. PMID:21764349

  18. Current Status in Cavitation Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, Ashok K.; Avva, Ram K.

    1993-01-01

    Cavitation is a common problem for many engineering devices in which the main working fluid is in liquid state. In turbomachinery applications, cavitation generally occurs on the inlet side of pumps. The deleterious effects of cavitation include: lowered performance, load asymmetry, erosion and pitting of blade surfaces, vibration and noise, and reduction of the overall machine life. Cavitation models in use today range from rather crude approximations to sophisticated bubble dynamics models. Details about bubble inception, growth and collapse are relevant to the prediction of blade erosion, but are not necessary to predict the performance of pumps. An engineering model of cavitation is proposed to predict the extent of cavitation and performance. The vapor volume fraction is used as an indicator variable to quantify cavitation. A two-phase flow approach is employed with the assumption of the thermal equilibrium between liquid and vapor. At present velocity slip between the two phases is selected. Preliminary analyses of 2D flows shows qualitatively correct results.

  19. Characterization of the shock pulse-induced cavitation bubble activities recorded by an optical fiber hydrophone.

    PubMed

    Kang, Gwansuk; Cho, Sung Chan; Coleman, Andrew John; Choi, Min Joo

    2014-03-01

    A shock pressure pulse used in an extracorporeal shock wave treatment has a large negative pressure (<-5 MPa) which can produce cavitation. Cavitation cannot be measured easily, but may have known therapeutic effects. This study considers the signal recorded for several hundred microseconds using an optical hydrophone submerged in water at the focus of shock pressure field. The signal is characterized by shock pulse followed by a long tail after several microseconds; this signal is regarded as a cavitation-related signal (CRS). An experimental investigation of the CRS was conducted in the shock pressure field produced in water using an optical hydrophone (FOPH2000, RP Acoustics, Germany). The CRS was found to contain characteristic information about the shock pulse-induced cavitation. The first and second collapse times (t1 and t2) were identified in the CRS. The collapse time delay (tc = t2 - t1) increased with the driving shock pressures. The signal amplitude integrated for time from t1 to t2 was highly correlated with tc (adjusted R(2) = 0.990). This finding suggests that a single optical hydrophone can be used to measure shock pulse and to characterize shock pulse-induced cavitation. PMID:24606257

  20. Computer Simulation of Bubble Growth in Metals Due to He

    SciTech Connect

    FOILES, STEPHEN M.; HOYT, JEFFREY J.

    2001-03-01

    Atomistic simulations of the growth of helium bubbles in metals are performed. The metal is represented by embedded atom method potentials for palladium. The helium bubbles are treated via an expanding repulsive spherical potential within the metal lattice. The simulations predict bubble pressures that decrease monotonically with increasing helium to metal ratios. The swelling of the material associated with the bubble growth is also computed. It is found that the rate of swelling increases with increasing helium to metal ratio consistent with experimental observations on the swelling of metal tritides. Finally, the detailed defect structure due to the bubble growth was investigated. Dislocation networks are observed to form that connect the bubbles. Unlike early model assumptions, prismatic loops between the bubbles are not retained. These predictions are compared to available experimental evidence.

  1. Dynamics of diffusive bubble growth in magmas: Isothermal case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prousevitch, A. A.; Sahagian, D. L.; Anderson, A. T.

    1993-12-01

    We have conducted a parametric study and developed a new cell model describing diffusion-induced growth of closely spaced bubbles in magmatic sytems. The model accounts for (1) the effects of advection of melt resulting from bubble growth, and its affect on the local concentration profile; (2) dynamic resistence of the viscous melt during diffusive growth; (3) diffusion of volatiles in response to evolving concentration gradients; (4) mass balance between dissolved volatiles and gas inside the bubble; (5) changes in the equilibrium saturation concentration at the bubble-melt interface; (6) total pressure within the bubble consisting of ambient, surface tension, and dynamic pressures. The results of this study reveal that bubble growth depends strongly on ambient pressure, volatile oversaturation in the melt, and diffusivity coefficients, but only weakly on bubble separation and inital bubble radius. Increased volatile oversaturation increases growth rate to the point at which it actually reduces time for complete bubble growth. This counterintuitive result is due to significant advective volatile flux toward the bubble interface during growth. Viscosity controls growth dynamics only for cases of high viscosity (greater than 10(exp 4) Pa s). The documentation of the evolution of gas fraction in the melt and bubble wall thickness as a function of time makes it possible to estimate bubble disruption thresholds which bear on volcanic eruption mechanisms. Model results can be applied to the larger-scale problem of magmatic degassing in terms of bubble coalescence, flotation and the development of foams in magma chambers and vent systems, and ultimately to the dynamics of eruption mechanisms.

  2. Numerical simulation of the nonlinear ultrasonic pressure wave propagation in a cavitating bubbly liquid inside a sonochemical reactor.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Hakan; Popov, Viktor

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the acoustic wave propagation in bubbly liquid inside a pilot sonochemical reactor which aims to produce antibacterial medical textile fabrics by coating the textile with ZnO or CuO nanoparticles. Computational models on acoustic propagation are developed in order to aid the design procedures. The acoustic pressure wave propagation in the sonoreactor is simulated by solving the Helmholtz equation using a meshless numerical method. The paper implements both the state-of-the-art linear model and a nonlinear wave propagation model recently introduced by Louisnard (2012), and presents a novel iterative solution procedure for the nonlinear propagation model which can be implemented using any numerical method and/or programming tool. Comparative results regarding both the linear and the nonlinear wave propagation are shown. Effects of bubble size distribution and bubble volume fraction on the acoustic wave propagation are discussed in detail. The simulations demonstrate that the nonlinear model successfully captures the realistic spatial distribution of the cavitation zones and the associated acoustic pressure amplitudes. PMID:26611813

  3. A new bubble dynamics model to study bubble growth, deformation, and coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, C.; Su, Y.; Nguyen, C. T.; Parmigiani, A.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Dufek, J.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new bubble dynamics model to study the evolution of a suspension of bubbles over a wide range of vesicularity, and that accounts for hydrodynamical interactions between bubbles while they grow, deform under shear flow conditions, and exchange mass by diffusion coarsening. The model is based on a lattice Boltzmann method for free surface flows. As such, it assumes an infinite viscosity contrast between the exsolved volatiles and the melt. Our model allows for coalescence when two bubbles approach each other because of growth or deformation. The parameter (disjoining pressure) that controls the coalescence efficiency, i.e., drainage time for the fluid film between the bubbles, can be set arbitrarily in our calculations. We calibrated this parameter by matching the measured time for the drainage of the melt film across a range of Bond numbers (ratio of buoyancy to surface tension stresses) with laboratory experiments of a bubble rising to a free surface. The model is then used successfully to model Ostwald ripening and bubble deformation under simple shear flow conditions. The results we obtain for the deformation of a single bubble are in excellent agreement with previous experimental and theoretical studies. For a suspension, we observe that the collective effect of bubbles is different depending on the relative magnitude of viscous and interfacial stresses (capillary number). At low capillary number, we find that bubbles deform more readily in a suspension than for the case of a single bubble, whereas the opposite is observed at high capillary number.

  4. Dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles in bilinear elastic-plastic media, and the implications to short-pulsed laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brujan, E.-A.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by short laser pulses in water and elastic-plastic media were investigated theoretically in order to get a better understanding of their role in short-pulsed laser surgery. Numerical simulations were performed using a spherical model of bubble dynamics which include the elastic-plastic behaviour of the medium surrounding the bubble, compressibility, viscosity, density and surface tension. Breakdown in water produces a monopolar acoustic signal characterized by a compressive wave. Breakdown in an elastic-plastic medium produces a bipolar acoustic signal, with a leading positive compression wave and a trailing negative tensile wave. The calculations revealed that consideration of the tissue elasticity is essential to describe the bipolar shape of the shock wave emitted during optical breakdown. The elastic-plastic response of the medium surrounding the bubble leads to a significant decrease of the maximum size of the cavitation bubble and pressure amplitude of the shock wave emitted during bubble collapse, and shortening of the oscillation period of the bubble. The results are discussed with respect to collateral damage in short-pulsed laser surgery.

  5. Efficient generation of cavitation bubbles and reactive oxygen species using triggered high-intensity focused ultrasound sequence for sonodynamic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Jun; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Sonodynamic treatment is a method of treating cancer using reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by cavitation bubbles in collaboration with a sonosensitizer at a target tissue. In this treatment method, both localized ROS generation and ROS generation with high efficiency are important. In this study, a triggered high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) sequence, which consists of a short, extremely high intensity pulse immediately followed by a long, moderate-intensity burst, was employed for the efficient generation of ROS. In experiments, a solution sealed in a chamber was exposed to a triggered HIFU sequence. Then, the distribution of generated ROS was observed by the luminol reaction, and the amount of generated ROS was quantified using KI method. As a result, the localized ROS generation was demonstrated by light emission from the luminol reaction. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the triggered HIFU sequence has higher efficiency of ROS generation by both the KI method and the luminol reaction emission.

  6. A numerical study on the effects of cavitation on orifice flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabiri, S.; Sirignano, W. A.; Joseph, D. D.

    2010-04-01

    Previous experimental studies have shown better atomization of sprays generated by high-pressure liquid injectors when cavitation occurs inside the nozzle. It has been proposed that the collapse of traveling cavitation bubbles increases the disturbances inside the liquid flow. These disturbances will later trigger the instabilities in the emerged jet and cause a shorter breakup distance. In this paper, effects of cavitation on increasing the disturbances in the flow through the orifice of an atomizer are studied. In previous cavitation models, spherical cavitation bubbles are considered. Here, the cavitation bubbles are allowed to deform as they travel through the orifice. Dynamics of the cavitation bubble, traveling in the separated shear layer in the orifice, is analyzed through a one-way coupling between the orifice flow and bubble dynamics. Effects of shear strain, normal strain, and pressure variation are examined. Three mechanisms are suggested that could be responsible for the increase in disturbances in the flow due to cavitation. These mechanisms are monopole, quadrupole, and vorticities generated during growth and collapse of cavitation bubbles. The effects of these mechanisms are estimated by postprocessing of the solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations to identify monopole and quadrupole behaviors.

  7. Shadowgraph Imaging and Numerical Simulation of Cavitation Bubbles Formed in Pulsed Laser Ablation Plasmas in the Vicinity of the Critical Point of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneoka, Hitoshi; Himeno, Shohei; Urabe, Keiichiro; Stauss, Sven; Baba, Motoyoshi; Suemoto, Tohru; Terashima, Kazuo

    2015-09-01

    The characteristic behavior of cavitation bubbles formed in pulsed laser ablation plasmas in supercritical CO2 were investigated by shadowgraph imaging and numerical simulations. The time evolution of the cavitation bubbles could be divided into three phases near the critical point: Expansion, Double layer formation, and Contraction. The distribution of the refractive index was estimated from the variation of the direction of the refracted light in the shockwave in the expansion phase. It was suggested that the cause of the reduction of the transmitted light in the outer shell in the double-layer phase was not due to refraction, and the contributions of nanoparticles and clusters generated in supercritical fluids were implied. The characteristics in time evolution of the bubble size in the contraction phase, in particular almost constant position of the interface in a relatively long time, was proposed to be due to zero surface tension by numerical simulations. The results suggest that the properties and fluid structure peculiar to SCF affect the structure of cavitation bubbles.

  8. Interaction dynamics of fs-laser induced cavitation bubbles and their impact on the laser-tissue-interaction of modern ophthalmic laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinne, N.; Ripken, T.; Lubatschowski, H.; Heisterkamp, A.

    2011-07-01

    A today well-known laser based treatment in ophthalmology is the LASIK procedure which nowadays includes cutting of the corneal tissue with ultra-short laser pulses. Instead of disposing a microkeratome for cutting a corneal flap, a focused ultra-short laser pulse is scanned below the surface of biological tissue causing the effect of an optical breakdown and hence obtaining a dissection. Inside the tissue, the energy of the laser pulses is absorbed by non-linear processes; as a result a cavitation bubble expands and ruptures the tissue. Hence, positioning of several optical breakdowns side by side generates an incision. Due to a reduction of the amount of laser energy, with a moderate duration of treatment at the same time, the current development of ultra-short pulse laser systems points to higher repetition rates in the range of even Megahertz instead of tens or hundreds of Kilohertz. In turn, this results in a pulse overlap and therefor a probable occurrence of interaction between different optical breakdowns and respectively cavitation bubbles of adjacent optical breakdowns. While the interaction of one single laser pulse with biological tissue is analyzed reasonably well experimentally and theoretically, the interaction of several spatial and temporal following pulses is scarcely determined yet. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyse the dynamic and interaction of two cavitation bubbles by using high speed photography. The applied laser pulse energy, the energy ratio and the spot distance between different cavitation bubbles were varied. Depending on a change of these parameters different kinds of interactions such as a flattening and deformation of bubble shape or jet formation are observed. The effects will be discussed regarding the medical ophthalmic application of fs-lasers. Based on these results a further research seems to be inevitable to comprehend and optimize the cutting effect of ultra-short pulse laser systems with high (> 500 kHz) repetition

  9. Bubble growth by rectified diffusion at high gas supersaturation levels.

    PubMed

    Ilinskii, Yurii A; Wilson, Preston S; Hamilton, Mark F

    2008-10-01

    For high gas supersaturation levels in liquids, on the order of 300% as predicted in capillaries of marine mammals following a series of dives [D. S. Houser, R. Howard, and S. Ridgway, J. Theor. Biol. 213, 183-195 (2001)], standard mathematical models of both static and rectified diffusion are found to underestimate the rate of bubble growth by 10%-20%. The discrepancy is demonstrated by comparing predictions based on existing mathematical models with direct numerical solutions of the differential equations for gas diffusion in the liquid and thermal conditions in the bubble. Underestimation of bubble growth by existing mathematical models is due to the underlying assumption that the gas concentration in the liquid is given by its value for a bubble of constant equilibrium radius. This assumption is violated when high supersaturation causes the bubble to grow too fast in relation to the time scale associated with diffusion. Rapid bubble growth results in an increased gas concentration gradient at the bubble wall and therefore a growth rate in excess of predictions based on constant equilibrium bubble radius. PMID:19062834

  10. Study on Prediction of Underwater Radiated Noise from Propeller Tip Vortex Cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Takuyoshi; Sato, Kei; Kawakita, Chiharu; Oshima, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The method to predict underwater radiated noise from tip vortex cavitation was studied. The growth of a single cavitation bubble in tip vortex was estimated by substituting the tip vortex to Rankine combined vortex. The ideal spectrum function for the sound pressure generated by a single cavitation bubble was used, also the empirical factor for the number of collapsed bubbles per unit time was introduced. The estimated noise data were compared with measured ship's ones and it was found out that this method can estimate noise data within 3dB difference.

  11. Physical effects in cavitating flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesset, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    The microscopic and macroscopic aspects of the physical effects of cavitating flows are discussed. The microscopic features are related to the properties of nuclei in liquids and to the moderate tensile strengths which are usually encountered in flows. The macroscopic features are concerned with the growth of vapor or gaseous cavities from a small initial size and with their eventual collapse. Mathematical models are developed to analyze the characteristics of: (1) tensile strength in liquids, (2) growth of vapor bubbles, and (3) collapse of vapor bubbles.

  12. Helium ion implantation in zirconium: Bubble formation and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totemeier, Aaron Robert

    To evaluate the behavior of inert helium gas bubbles in zirconium three variants of the metal were implanted with 140 keV helium ions to a total fluence of 3x1017 cm--2 and characterized in cross-section TEM in their as-implanted state as well as during annealing at different temperatures. The three zirconium alloys included high-purity crystal bar material, Zircaloy-4, and a powder-metallurgically extruded material with high carbon and oxygen concentrations. At a sample depth consistent with a helium concentration of approximately 5 atomic percent, a change in the structure of the zirconium was observed a high density region of small (4nm diameter) bubbles formed at concentrations above 10 atom percent. Initial bubble formation and growth was observed to occurred at a temperature between 400-450 °C and these initial bubbles had a unique planar geometry prior to migration and coalescence into more three-dimensional bubbles. These planar bubbles appear to be aligned with major axes parallel to the TEM specimen surface and their formation and growth is possibly due to an increase in the thermal vacancy flux within the zirconium. The observations of bubble response to high temperature annealing suggest that in zirconium, as in other metals, maximum bubble size is weakly dependent on annealing time, whereas the bubble size distribution is strongly dependent on time. Specimens that underwent a prolonged room temperature aging developed a multimodal bubble size distribution within the high density region of small bubbles, concentrated near the highest helium concentration depth.

  13. EXPERIMENTS AND SIMULATIONS WITH LARGE GAS BUBBLES IN MERCURY TOWARDS ESTABLISHING A GAS LAYER TO MITIGATE CAVITATION DAMAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, Mark W; Riemer, Bernie; Felde, David K; Ruggles, Arthur; Karnowski, Thomas Paul

    2006-01-01

    One of several options that shows promise for protecting solid surfaces from cavitation damage in liquid metal spallation targets, involves introducing an interstitial gas layer between the liquid metal and the containment vessel wall. Several approaches toward establishing such a protective gas layer are being investigated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory including large bubble injection, and methods that involve stabilization of the layer by surface modifications to enhance gas hold-up on the wall or by inserting a porous media. It has previously been reported that using a gas layer configuration in a test target showed an order-of-magnitude decrease in damage for an in-beam experiment. Video images that were taken of the successful gas/mercury flow configuration have been analyzed and correlated. The results show that the success was obtained under conditions where only 60% of the solid wall was covered with gas. Such a result implies that this mitigation scheme may have much more potential. Additional experiments with gas injection into water are underway. Multi-component flow simulations are also being used to provide direction for these new experiments. These simulations have been used to size the gas layer and position multiple inlet nozzles.

  14. Toward the optimization of double-pulse LIBS underwater: effects of experimental parameters on the reproducibility and dynamics of laser-induced cavitation bubble.

    PubMed

    Cristoforetti, Gabriele; Tiberi, Marco; Simonelli, Andrea; Marsili, Paolo; Giammanco, Francesco

    2012-03-01

    Double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was recently proposed for the analysis of underwater samples, since it overcomes the drawbacks of rapid plasma quenching and of large continuum emission, typical of single-pulse ablation. Despite the attractiveness of the method, this approach suffers nevertheless from a poor spectroscopic reproducibility, which is partially due to the scarce reproducibility of the cavitation bubble induced by the first laser pulse, since pressure and dimensions of the bubble strongly affect plasma emission. In this work, we investigated the reproducibility and the dynamics of the cavitation bubble induced on a solid target in water, and how they depend on pulse duration, energy, and wavelength, as well as on target composition. Results are discussed in terms of the effects on the laser ablation process produced by the crater formation and by the interaction of the laser pulse with floating particles and gas bubbles. This work, preliminary to the optimization of the spectroscopic signal, provides an insight of the phenomena occurring during laser ablation in water, together with useful information for the choice of the laser source to be used in the apparatus. PMID:22410923

  15. Numerical estimation of cavitation intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumenacker, L.; Fortes-Patella, R.; Archer, A.

    2014-03-01

    Cavitation may appear in turbomachinery and in hydraulic orifices, venturis or valves, leading to performance losses, vibrations and material erosion. This study propose a new method to predict the cavitation intensity of the flow, based on a post-processing of unsteady CFD calculations. The paper presents the analyses of cavitating structures' evolution at two different scales: • A macroscopic one in which the growth of cavitating structures is calculated using an URANS software based on a homogeneous model. Simulations of cavitating flows are computed using a barotropic law considering presence of air and interfacial tension, and Reboud's correction on the turbulence model. • Then a small one where a Rayleigh-Plesset software calculates the acoustic energy generated by the implosion of the vapor/gas bubbles with input parameters from macroscopic scale. The volume damage rate of the material during incubation time is supposed to be a part of the cumulated acoustic energy received by the solid wall. The proposed analysis method is applied to calculations on hydrofoil and orifice geometries. Comparisons between model results and experimental works concerning flow characteristic (size of cavity, pressure,velocity) as well as pitting (erosion area, relative cavitation intensity) are presented.

  16. Numerical study on the effective heating due to inertial cavitation in microbubble-enhanced HIFU therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okita, Kohei; Sugiyama, Kazuyasu; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2015-10-01

    The enhancement of heating due to inertial cavitation was focused in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy. The influences of the rectified diffusion on microbubble-enhanced HIFU were examined numerically. A bubble dynamics equation in consideration of the spherical shell bubble and the elasticity of surrounding tissue was employed. Mass and heat transfer between the surrounding medium and the bubble were considered. The basic equations were discretized by finite difference method. The mixture phase and bubbles are coupled by the Euler-Lagrange method to take into account the interaction between ultrasound and bubbles. The mass transfer rate of gas from the surrounding medium to the bubble was examined as function of the initial bubble radius and the driving pressure amplitude. As the results, the pressure required to bubble growth was decreases with increasing the initial bubble radius. Thus, the injection of microbubble reduces the cavitation threshold pressure. On the other hand, the influence of the rectified diffusion on the triggered HIFU therapy which generates cavitation bubbles by high-intensity burst and induces the localized heating owing to cavitation bubble oscillation by low-intensity continuous waves. The calculation showed that the localized heating was enhanced by the increase of the equilibrium bubble size due to the rectified diffusion.

  17. Tip Vortex Cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maines, Brant H.; Arndt, Roger E. A.

    2000-11-01

    Cavitation in vortical flows is a problem of practical importance, that is relatively unexplored. Vortical structures of importance range from the eddies occurring randomly in space and time in turbulent flows to the developed vortices that occur at the tips of lifting surfaces and at the hubs of propellers and hydraulic turbines. A variety of secondary flow phenomena such as the horse shoe vortices that form around bridge piers, chute blocks and struts, and the secondary vortices found in the clearance passages of turbomachinery are also important cavitation sites. Tip vortex cavitation can be viewed as a canonical problem that captures many of the essential physics associated with vortex cavitation in general. This paper describes the inception process and focuses on the high levels of tension that can be sustained in the flow, which appears to scale with the blade loading. High speed video visualization indicates that the details of how free stream nuclei are ingested plays a major role in the nucleation and inception process. A new photographic technique was used to obtain high quality images of the bubble growth process at framing rates as high as 40,000 fps. Sponsored by the Office of Naval Research

  18. Aspherical bubble dynamics and oscillation times

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, A.; Noack, J.; Chapyak, E.J.; Godwin, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    The cavitation bubbles common in laser medicine are rarely perfectly spherical and are often located near tissue boundaries, in vessels, etc., which introduce aspherical dynamics. Here, novel features of aspherical bubble dynamics are explored by time-resolved photography and numerical simulations. The growth-collapse period of cylindrical bubbles of large aspect ratio (length:diameter {approximately}20) differs only slightly from twice the Rayleigh collapse time for a spherical bubble with an equivalent maximum volume. This fact justifies using the temporal interval between the acoustic signals emitted upon bubble creation and collapse to estimate the maximum bubble volume. As a result, hydrophone measurements can provide an estimate of the bubble size and energy even for aspherical bubbles. The change of the oscillation period of bubbles near solid walls and elastic (tissue-like) boundaries relative to that of isolated spherical bubbles is also investigated.

  19. Cavitation bubble-driven cell and particle behavior in an ultrasound standing wave.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Larisa A; Khanna, Sanjay; Amso, Nazar N; Coakley, W Terence; Doinikov, Alexander A

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of human erythrocytes and 1-microm-diameter fluorescent latex beads in the presence of Optison contrast agent in a single half-wavelength (lambda/2) ultrasound standing wave (USSW) resonator has been studied. The particle movements were observed with an epi-fluorescent microscope and the velocity of the particles and cells was measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Acoustic emissions were monitored with a microphone and a spectrum analyzer. Optison contrast agent disintegrated immediately on exposure to ultrasound of 0.98-MPa acoustic pressure amplitude or higher in a chamber driven at its resonance frequency of 1.56 MHz. A discrete cloud of active microbubbles, detected at the pressure node plane, disappeared gradually and was completely lost within 15 s. The microscopy showed three-dimensional regions of circulation of both 1-microm tracer particles and erythrocytes in planes perpendicular to the pressure node plane. A numerical simulation showed that, for parameters that conform to the experimental conditions, a bubble of a subresonance size moves towards and translates about a pressure node plane. This result is in agreement with the experimental observation that the particle and cell circulation is induced by the presence and/or translational motion of microbubbles at the pressure node plane. PMID:15704403

  20. Simulation of bubble growth and coalescence in reacting polymer foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchisio, Daniele; Karimi, Mohsen

    2015-11-01

    This work concerns with the simulation of reacting polymer foams with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In these systems upon mixing of different ingredients polymerization starts and some gaseous compounds are produced, resulting in the formation of bubbles that growth and coalesce. As the foam expands, the polymerization proceeds resulting in an increase of the apparent viscosity. The evolution of the collective behavior of the bubbles within the polymer foam is tracked by solving a master kinetic equation, formulated in terms of the bubble size distribution. The rate with which individual bubbles grow is instead calculated by resolving the momentum and concentration boundary layers around the bubbles. Moreover, since it is useful to track the evolution of the interface between the foam and the surrounding air, a volume-of-fluid (VOF) model is adopted. The final computational model is implemented in the open-source CFD code openFOAM by making use of the compressibleInterFoam solver. The master kinetic equation is solved with a quadrature-based moment method (QBMM) directly implemented in openFOAM, whereas the bubble growth model is solved independently and ''called'' from the CFD code by using an unstructured database. Model predictions are validated against experimental data. This work was funded by the European Commission under the grant agreement number 604271 (Project acronym: MoDeNa; call identifier: FP7-NMP-2013-SMALL-7).

  1. Enhancement and quenching of high-intensity focused ultrasound cavitation activity via short frequency sweep gaps.

    PubMed

    Hallez, Loïc; Lee, Judy; Touyeras, Francis; Nevers, Aymeric; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Hihn, Jean-Yves

    2016-03-01

    This letter reports on the use of frequency sweeps to probe acoustic cavitation activity generated by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Unprecedented enhancement and quenching of HIFU cavitation activity were observed when short frequency sweep gaps were applied in negative and positive directions, respectively. It was revealed that irrespective of the frequency gap, it is the direction and frequency sweep rate that govern the cavitation activity. These effects are related to the response of bubbles generated by the starting frequency to the direction of the frequency sweep, and the influence of the sweep rate on growth and coalescence of bubbles, which in turn affects the active bubble population. These findings are relevant for the use of HIFU in chemical and therapeutic applications, where greater control of cavitation bubble population is critical. PMID:26584998

  2. Analogy between fluid cavitation and fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mullen, R. L.; Braun, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    When the stresses imposed on a fluid are sufficiently large, rupture or cavitation can occur. Such conditions can exist in many two-phase flow applications, such as the choked flows, which can occur in seals and bearings. Nonspherical bubbles with large aspect ratios have been observed in fluids under rapid acceleration and high shear fields. These bubbles are geometrically similar to fracture surface patterns (Griffith crack model) existing in solids. Analogies between crack growth in solid and fluid cavitation are proposed and supported by analysis and observation (photographs). Healing phenomena (void condensation), well accepted in fluid mechanics, have been observed in some polymers and hypothesized in solid mechanics. By drawing on the strengths of the theories of solid mechanics and cavitation, a more complete unified theory can be developed.

  3. The growth of vapor bubble and relaxation between two-phase bubble flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadein, S. A.; Subba Reddy Gorla, Rama

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents the behavior of the bubble growth and relaxation between vapor and superheated liquid. The growth and thermal relaxation time between the two-phases are obtained for different levels of superheating. The heat transfer problem is solved numerically by using the extended Scriven model. Results are compared with those of Scriven theory and MOBY DICK experiment with reasonably good agreement for lower values of superheating.

  4. Percolation models for boiling and bubble growth in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1991-05-01

    We analyze the liquid-to-vapor phase change in single-component fluids in porous media at low superheats. Conditions typical to steam injection in porous media are taken. We examine nucleation, phase equilibria and their stability, and the growth of vapor bubbles. Effects of pore structure are emphasized. It is shown that at low supersaturations, bubble growth can be described as a percolation process. In the absence of spatial gradients, macroscopic flow properties are calculated in terms of nucleation parameters. A modification of gradient percolation is also proposed in the case of spatial temperature gradients, when solid conduction predominates. 22 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Visualization and simulation of bubble growth in pore networks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xuehai; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1994-03-01

    Bubble nucleation and bubble growth in porous media is an important problem encountered in processes, such as pressure depletion and boiling. To understand its basic aspects, experiments and numerical simulations in micromodel geometries were undertaken. Experiments of bubble growth by pressure depletion were carried out in 2-D etched-glass micromodels and in Hele-Shaw cells. Nucleation of bubbles and the subsequent growth of gas clusters were visualized. Contrary to the bulk or to Hele-Shaw cells, gas clusters in the micromodel have irregular and ramified shapes and share many of the features of an external invasion process (e.g. of percolation during drainage). A pore network numerical model was developed to simulate the growth of multiple gas clusters under various conditions. The model is based on the solution of the convection-diffusions equation and also accounts for capillary and viscous forces, which play an important role in determining the growth patterns. Numerical simulation resulted in good agreement with the experimental results.

  6. He bubble growth and interaction in W nano-tendrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2015-11-01

    Tungsten plasma-facing components (PFCs) in fusion devices are exposed to variety of extreme plasma conditions, which can lead to alteration of tungsten micro-structure and degradation of the PFCs. In particular, it is known that filamentary nano-structures called fuzz can grow on helium plasma exposed tungsten surfaces. However, mechanism of the fuzz growth is still not fully understood. Existing experimental observations indicate that formation of helium nano-bubbles in tungsten plays essential role in fuzz formation and growth. In this work we investigate mechanisms of growth and interaction of helium bubbles in fuzz-like nano-tendrils using molecular dynamics simulations with LAMMPS code. We show that growth of the bubbles has anisotropic character producing complex stress field in the nano-tendrils with distinct compression and tension regions. We found that formation of large inter-bubble tension regions can cause lateral stretching and bending of the tendrils that consequently lead to their elongation and thinning at the stretching sites. The rate of nano-tendril growth due to the described mechanism is also evaluated from the simulations.

  7. Effects of system pressure and heat flux on bubble nucleation and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Chao; Zhang, Huichen

    2015-09-01

    Characteristics of bubble nucleation and growth are critical for its application. It is affected by several factors including viscosity, surface tension and temperature. However, the effect of pressure on bubble nucleation and growth has been underreported, although it processes significant effect on above characteristics. In this work, a micro copper electrode is etched on a slab covered with copper to produce bubble on the surface by current input. The nucleation time of bubble is measured under different heat flux and system pressures. The nucleation and growth processes are recorded with a high speed camera in order to discuss the effects of heat flux and system pressure on bubble characteristics. The experiment results indicate that the micro electrode with higher heat flux produces more thermal energy, which makes the time of bubble nucleation shorter and the speed of bubble growth faster. Higher system pressure causes the increase of the critical nucleation temperature and also baffles the bubble nucleation and growth. Bubble growth includes the stages of rapid growth and dynamic equilibrium, with the speed being from fast to slow. In the former part of rapid growth, heat flux plays a dominant role in bubble growth. While the effect of system pressure on bubble growth becomes significant in the latter part of rapid growth. Both the nucleation time and bubble growth agree well with the theoretical analysis. The obtained results help to accurately control bubble nucleation and growth required in different application.

  8. Optimization of centrifugal pump cavitation performance based on CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, S. F.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z. C.; Zhu, Z. T.; Ning, C.; Zhao, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    In order to further improve the cavitation performance of a centrifugal pump, slots on impeller blade near inlet were studied and six groups of hydraulic model were designed. Base on cavitating flow feature inside a centrifugal pump, bubble growth and implosion are calculated from the Rayleigh-Plesset equation which describes the dynamic behavior of spherical bubble and RNG κ-epsilon model was employed to simulate and analyze the internal two-phase flow of the model pump under the same conditions. The simulation results show that slots on blade near inlet could improve the cavitation performance and cavitation performance improvement of the second group was more obvious. Under the same conditions, the pressure on the back of blade near inlet was higher than the pressure on the back of unmodified blade near inlet, and energy distribution in the flow channel between the two blades was more uniform with a small change of head.

  9. Cavitation in medicine.

    PubMed

    Brennen, Christopher Earls

    2015-10-01

    We generally think of bubbles as benign and harmless and yet they can manifest the most remarkable range of physical effects. Some of those effects are the stuff of our everyday experience as in the tinkling of a brook or the sounds of breaking waves at the beach. But even these mundane effects are examples of the ability of bubbles to gather, focus and radiate energy (acoustic energy in the above examples). In other contexts that focusing of energy can lead to serious technological problems as when cavitation bubbles eat great holes through ships' propeller blades or cause a threat to the integrity of the spillways at the Hoover Dam. In liquid-propelled rocket engines, bubbles pose a danger to the stability of the propulsion system, and in artificial heart valves they can cause serious damage to the red blood cells. In perhaps the most extraordinary example of energy focusing, collapsing cavitation bubbles can emit not only sound, but also light with black body radiation temperatures equal to that of the sun (Brennen 1995 Cavitation and bubble dynamics). But, harnessed carefully, this almost unique ability to focus energy can also be put to remarkably constructive use. Cavitation bubbles are now used in a remarkable range of surgical and medical procedures, for example to emulsify tissue (most commonly in cataract surgery or in lithotripsy procedures for the reduction of kidney and gall stones) or to manipulate the DNA in individual cells. By creating cavitation bubbles non-invasively thereby depositing and focusing energy non-intrusively, one can generate minute incisions or target cancer cells. This paper will begin by briefly reviewing the history of cavitation phenomena and will end with a vision of the new horizons for the amazing cavitation bubble. PMID:26442145

  10. One-way-coupling simulation of cavitation accompanied by high-speed droplet impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Tomoki; Ando, Keita

    2016-03-01

    Erosion due to high-speed droplet impact is a crucial issue in industrial applications. The erosion is caused by the water-hammer loading on material surfaces and possibly by the reloading from collapsing cavitation bubbles that appear within the droplet. Here, we simulate the dynamics of cavitation bubbles accompanied by high-speed droplet impact against a deformable wall in order to see whether the bubble collapse is violent enough to give rise to cavitation erosion on the wall. The evolution of pressure waves in a single water (or gelatin) droplet to collide with a deformable wall at speed up to 110 m/s is inferred from simulations of multicomponent Euler flow where phase changes are not permitted. Then, we examine the dynamics of cavitation bubbles nucleated from micron/submicron-sized gas bubble nuclei that are supposed to exist inside the droplet. For simplicity, we perform Rayleigh-Plesset-type calculations in a one-way-coupling manner, namely, the bubble dynamics are determined according to the pressure variation obtained from the Euler flow simulation. In the simulation, the preexisting bubble nuclei whose size is either micron or submicron show large growth to submillimeters because tension inside the droplet is obtained through interaction of the pressure waves and the droplet interface; this supports the possibility of having cavitation due to the droplet impact. It is also found, in particular, for the case of cavitation arising from very small nuclei such as nanobubbles, that radiated pressure from the cavitation bubble collapse can overwhelm the water-hammer pressure directly created by the impact. Hence, cavitation may need to be accounted for when it comes to discussing erosion in the droplet impact problem.

  11. Accelerated Molecular Dynamics studies of He Bubble Growth in Tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uberuaga, Blas; Sandoval, Luis; Perez, Danny; Voter, Arthur

    2015-11-01

    Understanding how materials respond to extreme environments is critical for predicting and improving performance. In materials such as tungsten exposed to plasmas for nuclear fusion applications, novel nanoscale fuzzes, comprised of tendrils of tungsten, form as a consequence of the implantation of He into the near surface. However, the detailed mechanisms that link He bubble formation to the ultimate development of fuzz are unclear. Molecular dynamics simulations provide insight into the He implantation process, but are necessarily performed at implantation rates that are orders of magnitudes faster than experiment. Here, using accelerated molecular dynamics methods, we examine the role of He implantation rates on the physical evolution of He bubbles in tungsten. We find that, as the He rate is reduced, new types of events involving the response of the tungsten matrix to the pressure in the bubble become competitive and change the overall evolution of the bubble as well as the subsequent morphology of the tungsten surface. We have also examined how bubble growth differs at various microstructural features. These results highlight the importance of performing simulations at experimentally relevant conditions in order to correctly capture the contributions of the various significant kinetic processes and predict the overall response of the material.

  12. The dynamics of histotripsy bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreider, Wayne; Bailey, Michael R.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2011-09-01

    Histotripsy describes treatments in which high-amplitude acoustic pulses are used to excite bubbles and erode tissue. Though tissue erosion can be directly attributed to bubble activity, the genesis and dynamics of bubbles remain unclear. Histotripsy lesions that show no signs of thermal coagulative damage have been generated with two different acoustic protocols: relatively long acoustic pulses that produce local boiling within milliseconds and relatively short pulses that are higher in amplitude but likely do not produce boiling. While these two approaches are often distinguished as `boiling' versus `cavitation', such labels can obscure similarities. In both cases, a bubble undergoes large changes in radius and vapor is transported into and out of the bubble as it oscillates. Moreover, observations from both approaches suggest that bubbles grow to a size at which they cease to collapse violently. In order to better understand the dynamics of histotripsy bubbles, a single-bubble model has been developed that couples acoustically excited bubble motions to the thermodynamic state of the surrounding liquid. Using this model for bubbles exposed to histotripsy sound fields, simulations suggest that two mechanisms can act separately or in concert to lead to the typically observed bubble growth. First, nonlinear acoustic propagation leads to the evolution of shocks and an asymmetry in the positive and negative pressures that drive bubble motion. This asymmetry can have a rectifying effect on bubble oscillations whereby the bubble grows on average during each acoustic cycle. Second, vapor transport to/from the bubble tends to produce larger bubbles, especially at elevated temperatures. Vapor transport by itself can lead to rectified bubble growth when the ambient temperature exceeds 100 °C (`boiling') or local heating in the vicinity of the bubble leads to a superheated boundary layer.

  13. A molecular dynamics study on bubble growth in tungsten under helium irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Ryo; Hattori, Tatsunori; Tamura, Tomoyuki; Ogata, Shuji

    2015-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been performed to investigate the effects of irradiated helium atoms in tungsten on the bubble nucleation and the dislocation loop formation. Simulation results clearly show that helium atoms in tungsten tend to migrate as isolated interstitials at high temperatures and to be absorbed to existing tungsten-vacancies or defects such as bubbles or dislocations. Tungsten self-interstitial atoms pushed out from the helium bubble tend to stay in the vicinity of the bubble and, then form a dislocation loop when the number of the atoms exceed the threshold. Since the bubbles and dislocation loops cause further nucleation of bubbles, there appears a helium bubble array along < 1 1 1 > direction. The bubble growth rate within this self induced bubble growth mechanism will be much faster than that of existing growth model. The growth model needs to be reformulated by taking the self-induced effects into account.

  14. Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2004-06-01

    Vanitas vanitatum et omnia vanitas: bubbles are emptiness, non-liquid, a tiny cloud shielding a mathematical singularity. Born from chance, a violent and brief life ending in the union with the (nearly) infinite. But a wealth of phenomena spring forth from this nothingness: underwater noise, sonoluminescence, boiling, and many others. Some recent results on a "blinking bubble" micropump and vapor bubbles in sound fields are outlined. The last section describes Leonardo da Vinci's observation of the non-rectlinear ascent of buoyant bubbles and justifies the name Leonardo's paradox recently attributed to this phenomenon.

  15. Cavitation in a metallic liquid: Homogeneous nucleation and growth of nanovoids

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Wu, H. A.; Luo, S. N.

    2014-06-07

    Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate homogeneous nucleation and growth of nanovoids during cavitation in liquid Cu. We characterize in detail the atomistic cavitation processes by following the temporal evolution of cavities or voids, analyze the nucleation behavior with the mean first-passage time (MFPT) and survival probability (SP) methods, and discuss the results against classical nucleation theory (CNT), the Tolman equation for surface energy, independent calculation of surface tension via integrating the stress profiles, the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) growth law, and the power law for nucleus size distributions. Cavitation in this representative metallic liquid is a high energy barrier Poisson processes, and the steady-state nucleation rates obtained from statistical runs with the MFPT and SP methods are in agreement. The MFPT method also yields the critical nucleus size and the Zeldovich factor. Fitting with the Tolman's equation to the MD simulations yields the surface energy of a planar interface (∼0.9 J m{sup −2}) and the Tolman length (0.4–0.5 Å), and those values are in accord with those from integrating the stress profiles of a planar interface. Independent CNT predictions of the nucleation rate (10{sup 33−34} s{sup −1} m{sup −3}) and critical size (3–4 Å in radius) are in agreement with the MFPT and SP results. The JMA law can reasonably describe the nucleation and growth process. The size distribution of subcritical nuclei appears to follow a power law with an exponent decreasing with increasing tension owing to coupled nucleation and growth, and that of the supercritical nuclei becomes flattened during further stress relaxation due to void coalescence.

  16. Cavitation in a metallic liquid: homogeneous nucleation and growth of nanovoids.

    PubMed

    Cai, Y; Wu, H A; Luo, S N

    2014-06-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate homogeneous nucleation and growth of nanovoids during cavitation in liquid Cu. We characterize in detail the atomistic cavitation processes by following the temporal evolution of cavities or voids, analyze the nucleation behavior with the mean first-passage time (MFPT) and survival probability (SP) methods, and discuss the results against classical nucleation theory (CNT), the Tolman equation for surface energy, independent calculation of surface tension via integrating the stress profiles, the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) growth law, and the power law for nucleus size distributions. Cavitation in this representative metallic liquid is a high energy barrier Poisson processes, and the steady-state nucleation rates obtained from statistical runs with the MFPT and SP methods are in agreement. The MFPT method also yields the critical nucleus size and the Zeldovich factor. Fitting with the Tolman's equation to the MD simulations yields the surface energy of a planar interface (~0.9 J m⁻²) and the Tolman length (0.4-0.5 Å), and those values are in accord with those from integrating the stress profiles of a planar interface. Independent CNT predictions of the nucleation rate (10(33 - 34) s(-1) m(-3)) and critical size (3-4 Å in radius) are in agreement with the MFPT and SP results. The JMA law can reasonably describe the nucleation and growth process. The size distribution of subcritical nuclei appears to follow a power law with an exponent decreasing with increasing tension owing to coupled nucleation and growth, and that of the supercritical nuclei becomes flattened during further stress relaxation due to void coalescence. PMID:24908018

  17. Nonlinear bubble nucleation and growth following filament and white-light continuum generation induced by a single-shot femtosecond laser pulse into dielectrics based on consideration of the time scale

    SciTech Connect

    Mizushima, Yuki; Saito, Takayuki

    2015-09-14

    Bubble nucleation and growth following plasma channeling (filament) and white-light continuum in liquid irradiated by a single-shot fs-pulse were experimentally investigated with close observation of the time scale. Making full use of a new confocal system and time-resolved visualization techniques, we obtained evidence suggestive of a major/minor role of the non-linear/thermal effects during the fs-pulse-induced bubble's fountainhead (10{sup −13} s) and growth (10{sup −7} s), which was never observed with the use of the ns-pulse (i.e., optic cavitation). In this context, the fs-pulse-induced bubble is not an ordinary optic cavitation but rather is nonlinear-optic cavitation. We present the intrinsic differences in the dominant-time domain of the fs-pulse and ns-pulse excitation, and intriguingly, a mere hundred femtoseconds' excitation predetermines the size of the bubble appearing several microseconds after irradiation. That is, the nucleation happens temporally beyond a six-order-of-magnitude difference.

  18. Nonlinear bubble nucleation and growth following filament and white-light continuum generation induced by a single-shot femtosecond laser pulse into dielectrics based on consideration of the time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizushima, Yuki; Saito, Takayuki

    2015-09-01

    Bubble nucleation and growth following plasma channeling (filament) and white-light continuum in liquid irradiated by a single-shot fs-pulse were experimentally investigated with close observation of the time scale. Making full use of a new confocal system and time-resolved visualization techniques, we obtained evidence suggestive of a major/minor role of the non-linear/thermal effects during the fs-pulse-induced bubble's fountainhead (10-13 s) and growth (10-7 s), which was never observed with the use of the ns-pulse (i.e., optic cavitation). In this context, the fs-pulse-induced bubble is not an ordinary optic cavitation but rather is nonlinear-optic cavitation. We present the intrinsic differences in the dominant-time domain of the fs-pulse and ns-pulse excitation, and intriguingly, a mere hundred femtoseconds' excitation predetermines the size of the bubble appearing several microseconds after irradiation. That is, the nucleation happens temporally beyond a six-order-of-magnitude difference.

  19. Bubble evolution and properties in homogeneous nucleation simulations.

    PubMed

    Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg; Tanaka, Kyoko K; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the properties of naturally formed nanobubbles in Lennard-Jones molecular dynamics simulations of liquid-to-vapor nucleation in the boiling and the cavitation regimes. The large computational volumes provide a realistic environment at unchanging average temperature and liquid pressure, which allows us to accurately measure properties of bubbles from their inception as stable, critically sized bubbles, to their continued growth into the constant speed regime. Bubble gas densities are up to 50% lower than the equilibrium vapor densities at the liquid temperature, yet quite close to the gas equilibrium density at the lower gas temperatures measured in the simulations: The latent heat of transformation results in bubble gas temperatures up to 25% below those of the surrounding bulk liquid. In the case of rapid bubble growth-typical for the cavitation regime-compression of the liquid outside the bubble leads to local temperature increases of up to 5%, likely significant enough to alter the surface tension as well as the local viscosity. The liquid-vapor bubble interface is thinner than expected from planar coexistence simulations by up to 50%. Bubbles near the critical size are extremely nonspherical, yet they quickly become spherical as they grow. The Rayleigh-Plesset description of bubble-growth gives good agreement in the cavitation regime. PMID:25615216

  20. Simulation of hydrogen bubble growth in tungsten by a hybrid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Chaofeng; Sun, Jizhong; Bonnin, Xavier; Wang, L.; Wang, Dezhen

    2015-08-01

    A two dimensional hybrid code (HIIPC-MC) joining rate-theory and Monte Carlo (MC) methods is developed in this work. We evaluate the cascade-coalescence mechanism contribution to the bubble growth by MC. First, effects of the starting radius and solute deuterium concentration on the bubble growth are studied; then the impacts of the wall temperature and implantation ion flux on the bubble growth are assessed. The simulation indicates that the migration-coalescence of the bubbles and the high pressure inside the bubbles are the main driving forces for the bubble growth, and that neglect of the migration and coalescence would lead to an underestimation of the bubble growth or blistering.

  1. Bubble evolution and properties in homogeneous nucleation simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg; Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the properties of naturally formed nanobubbles in Lennard-Jones molecular dynamics simulations of liquid-to-vapor nucleation in the boiling and the cavitation regimes. The large computational volumes provide a realistic environment at unchanging average temperature and liquid pressure, which allows us to accurately measure properties of bubbles from their inception as stable, critically sized bubbles, to their continued growth into the constant speed regime. Bubble gas densities are up to 50 % lower than the equilibrium vapor densities at the liquid temperature, yet quite close to the gas equilibrium density at the lower gas temperatures measured in the simulations: The latent heat of transformation results in bubble gas temperatures up to 25 % below those of the surrounding bulk liquid. In the case of rapid bubble growth—typical for the cavitation regime—compression of the liquid outside the bubble leads to local temperature increases of up to 5 %, likely significant enough to alter the surface tension as well as the local viscosity. The liquid-vapor bubble interface is thinner than expected from planar coexistence simulations by up to 50 % . Bubbles near the critical size are extremely nonspherical, yet they quickly become spherical as they grow. The Rayleigh-Plesset description of bubble-growth gives good agreement in the cavitation regime.

  2. Behavior of bubbles in glassmelts. III - Dissolution and growth of a rising bubble containing a single gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onorato, P. I. K.; Weinberg, M. C.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    Finite difference solutions of the mass transport equations governing the dissolution (growth) of a rising gas bubble, containing a single gas, in a glassmelt were obtained. These solutions were compared with those obtained from an approximate procedure for a range of the controlling parameters. Applications were made to describe various aspects of O2 and CO2 gas-bubble behavior in a soda-lime-silicate melt.

  3. A cavitation model for computations of unsteady cavitating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Guoyu; Huang, Biao

    2016-04-01

    A local vortical cavitation (LVC) model for the computation of unsteady cavitation is proposed. The model is derived from the Rayleigh-Plesset equations, and takes into account the relations between the cavitation bubble radius and local vortical effects. Calculations of unsteady cloud cavitating flows around a Clark-Y hydrofoil are performed to assess the predictive capability of the LVC model using well-documented experimental data. Compared with the conventional Zwart's model, better agreement is observed between the predictions of the LVC model and experimental data, including measurements of time-averaged flow structures, instantaneous cavity shapes and the frequency of the cloud cavity shedding process. Based on the predictions of the LVC model, it is demonstrated that the evaporation process largely concentrates in the core region of the leading edge vorticity in accordance with the growth in the attached cavity, and the condensation process concentrates in the core region of the trailing edge vorticity, which corresponds to the spread of the rear component of the attached cavity. When the attached cavity breaks up and moves downstream, the condensation area fully transports to the wake region, which is in accordance with the dissipation of the detached cavity. Furthermore, using vorticity transport equations, we also find that the periodic formation, breakup, and shedding of the sheet/cloud cavities, along with the associated baroclinic torque, are important mechanisms for vorticity production and modification. When the attached cavity grows, the liquid-vapour interface that moves towards the trailing edge enhances the vorticity in the attached cavity closure region. As the re-entrant jet moves upstream, the wavy/bubbly cavity interface enhances the vorticity near the trailing edge. At the end of the cycle, the break-up of the stable attached cavity is the main reason for the vorticity enhancement near the suction surface.

  4. Harness cavitation to improve processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pandit, A.G.; Moholkar, V.S.

    1996-07-01

    Mention cavitation to most chemical engineers, and they undoubtedly think of it as an operational problem. Indeed, the rapid creation and then collapse of bubbles, which is after all what cavitation involves, can destroy pumps and erode other equipment. Cavitation, however, also can have a positive side--presuming it is designed for and not unplanned. In this article, the authors look at how cavitation can be harnessed to improve processes, and the mechanisms for inducing cavitation--ultrasonics and hydrodynamics--and their likely roles. Sonication, that is, the use of ultrasound, is the conventional approach for creating cavitation, and so they turn to it first. Over the past few years, a number of groups have attempted to solve the problem of scale-up and design of ultrasonic reactors. The authors review the systems that already exist and also explore a simpler and efficient alternative to the ultrasonic reactor, the hydrodynamic cavitation reactor.

  5. Aspherical bubble dynamics and oscillation times

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin, R.P.; Chapyak, E.J.; Noack, J.; Vogel, A.

    1999-03-01

    The cavitation bubbles common in laser medicine are rarely perfectly spherical and are often located near tissue boundaries, in vessels, etc., which introduce aspherical dynamics. Here, novel features of aspherical bubble dynamics are explored. Time-resolved experimental photographs and simulations of large aspect ratio (length:diameter {approximately}20) cylindrical bubble dynamics are presented. The experiments and calculations exhibit similar dynamics. A small high-pressure cylindrical bubble initially expands radially with hardly any axial motion. Then, after reaching its maximum volume, a cylindrical bubble collapses along its long axis with relatively little radial motion. The growth-collapse period of these very aspherical bubbles differs only sightly from twice the Rayleigh collapse time for a spherical bubble with an equivalent maximum volume. This fact justifies using the temporal interval between the acoustic signals emitted upon bubble creation and collapse to estimate the maximum bubble volume. As a result, hydrophone measurements can provide an estimate of the bubble energy even for aspherical bubbles. The prolongation of the oscillation period of bubbles near solid boundaries relative to that of isolated spherical bubbles is also discussed.

  6. Reconstructing the Growth History of Bubbles in Magma from Preserved Volatile Concentrations in Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, I. M.; Llewellin, E. W.; Humphreys, M.; Larsen, J. F.; Blower, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are driven by the nucleation and growth of bubbles that are formed when volatile species (particularly water) exsolve from magma. Once nucleated, bubbles may continue to grow through a combination of diffusion of volatiles from the melt and decompressive expansion. The kinetics of bubble formation and growth exert a critical influence on eruption dynamics, particularly on the explosivity of the eruption; consequently, numerical models of volcanic eruptions are sensitive to the choice of bubble growth model. We present preliminary results of analyses of experimentally-decompressed phonolite and rhyolite samples, which provide data against which bubble growth models can be validated. Data interpretation is supported by numerical modelling of the growth of isolated and paired bubbles in three-dimensions. Previous numerical modelling of bubble growth has demonstrated the importance of the dynamic feedback between the concentration of water in the melt, its diffusivity, and the viscosity of the melt shell in which the bubble grows (e.g. Blower et al., 2001). Diffusion of water, therefore, not only alters the water concentration profile surrounding the bubble, but is itself modified by the resulting concentration profile. This concentration profile may be preserved when the magma is quenched to glass. We adapt the technique of Humphreys et al (2008) to extract sub-micron resolution water concentration data from backscatter SEM images of volcanic glasses by using greyscale variation as a proxy for water content. The profiles are calibrated using SEM-Raman and FTIR. We present preliminary two-dimensional maps of water concentration around isolated bubbles and bubble-pairs in synthetically hydrated and decompressed samples of volcanic glass. To support the interpretation of the data, we have developed a finite element model of bubble growth, which couples volatile diffusion with concentration dependent viscosity and melt hydrodynamics around the growing

  7. Thresholds of Transient Cavitation Produced by Pulsed Ultrasound in a Controlled Nuclei Environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Christy Katherine Smith

    The possibility of hazardous bioeffects from medical ultrasound examinations and therapy, although not demonstrated in current epidemiologic data, is still of interest to the medical community. In particular, concern persists over the potential of damage at the cellular level due to transient cavitation produced by diagnostic and high intensity therapeutic ultrasound. Transient cavitation is a discrete phenomenon which relies on the existence of stabilized nuclei, or pockets of gas within a host fluid, for its genesis. A convenient descriptor for assessing the likelihood of transient cavitation is the threshold pressure, or the minimum acoustic pressure necessary to initiate bubble growth and subsequent collapse. Experimental measurements of cavitation thresholds are presented here which elucidate the importance of ultrasound host fluid and nuclei parameters in determining these thresholds. These results are interpreted in the context of an approximate theory, included as an appendix, describing the relationship between these parameters and cavitation threshold pressures. An automated experimental apparatus has been developed to determine thresholds for cavitation produced in a fluid by short tone bursts of ultrasound at 0.76, 0.99, and 2.30 MHz. A fluid jet was used to convect potential cavitation nuclei through the focal region of the insonifying transducer. Potential nuclei tested include 1mum polystyrene spheres, microbubbles in the 1-10 μm range that are stabilized with human serum albumin, and whole blood constituents. Cavitation was detected by a passive acoustical technique which is sensitive to sound scattered from cavitation bubbles. Measurements of the transient cavitation threshold in water, in a fluid of higher viscosity, and in diluted whole blood are presented. Results from these experiments which permit the control of nuclei and host fluid properties are compared to the approximate analytical theory for the prediction of the onset of cavitation.

  8. Dynamics of diffusive bubble growth and pressure recovery in a bubbly rhyolitic melt embedded in an elastic solid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chouet, Bernard A.; Dawson, Phillip B.; Nakano, Masaru

    2006-01-01

    We present a model of gas exsolution and bubble expansion in a melt supersaturated in response to a sudden pressure drop. In our model, the melt contains a suspension of gas bubbles of identical sizes and is encased in a penny-shaped crack embedded in an elastic solid. The suspension is modeled as a three-dimensional lattice of spherical cells with slight overlap, where each elementary cell consists of a gas bubble surrounded by a shell of volatile-rich melt. The melt is then subjected to a step drop in pressure, which induces gas exsolution and bubble expansion, resulting in the compression of the melt and volumetric expansion of the crack. The dynamics of diffusion-driven bubble growth and volumetric crack expansion span 9 decades in time. The model demonstrates that the speed of the crack response depends strongly on volatile diffusivity in the melt and bubble number density and is markedly sensitive to the ratio of crack thickness to crack radius and initial bubble radius but is relatively insensitive to melt viscosity. The net drop in gas concentration in the melt after pressure recovery represents only a small fraction of the initial concentration prior to the drop, suggesting the melt may undergo numerous pressure transients before becoming significantly depleted of gases. The magnitude of pressure and volume recovery in the crack depends sensitively on the size of the input-pressure transient, becoming relatively larger for smaller-size transients in a melt containing bubbles with initial radii less than 10-5 m. Amplification of the input transient may be large enough to disrupt the crack wall and induce brittle failure in the rock matrix surrounding the crack. Our results provide additional basis for the interpretation of volume changes in the magma conduit under Popocatépetl Volcano during Vulcanian degassing bursts in its eruptive activity in April–May 2000.

  9. Plasma and Cavitation Dynamics during Pulsed Laser Microsurgery in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, M. Shane; Ma Xiaoyan

    2007-10-12

    We compare the plasma and cavitation dynamics underlying pulsed laser microsurgery in water and in fruit fly embryos (in vivo)--specifically for nanosecond pulses at 355 and 532 nm. We find two key differences. First, the plasma-formation thresholds are lower in vivo --especially at 355 nm--due to the presence of endogenous chromophores that serve as additional sources for plasma seed electrons. Second, the biological matrix constrains the growth of laser-induced cavitation bubbles. Both effects reduce the disrupted region in vivo when compared to extrapolations from measurements in water.

  10. Atomistic modeling of growth and coalescence of helium nano-bubbles in tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Guterl, J.

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms of growth and coalescence of helium nano-bubbles in tungsten are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that crystal symmetries and governed by them properties of dislocations, generated by the growing nano-bubbles, are responsible for main nano-bubble features revealed, including non-spherical shape and anisotropy of surrounding stress field. The transport of helium atoms in non-uniform stress field is simulated at different temperatures and the transport coefficients are determined. The implications of the considered dislocation and helium dynamics on nucleation and growth of bubbles in tungsten with implanted helium are discussed.

  11. A method for real-time in vitro observation of cavitation on prosthetic heart valves.

    PubMed

    Zapanta, C M; Liszka, E G; Lamson, T C; Stinebring, D R; Deutsch, S; Geselowitz, D B; Tarbell, J M

    1994-11-01

    A method for real-time in vitro observation of cavitation on a prosthetic heart valve has been developed. Cavitation of four blood analog fluids (distilled water, aqueous glycerin, aqueous polyacrylamide, and aqueous xanthan gum) has been documented for a Medtronic/Hall prosthetic heart valve. This method employed a Penn State Electrical Ventricular Assist Device in a mock circulatory loop that was operated in a partial filling mode associated with reduced atrial filling pressure. The observations were made on a valve that was located in the mitral position, with the cavitation occurring on the inlet side after valve closure on every cycle. Stroboscopic videography was used to document the cavity life cycle. Bubble cavitation was observed on the valve occluder face. Vortex cavitation was observed at two locations in the vicinity of the valve occluder and housing. For each fluid, cavity growth and collapse occurred in less than one millisecond, which provides strong evidence that the cavitation is vaporous rather than gaseous. The cavity duration time was found to decrease with increasing atrial pressure at constant aortic pressure and beat rate. The area of cavitation was found to decrease with increasing delay time at a constant aortic pressure, atrial pressure, and beat rate. Cavitation was found to occur in each of the fluids, with the most cavitation seen in the Newtonian fluids (distilled water and aqueous glycerin). PMID:7869722

  12. Cavitating vortex generation by a submerged jet

    SciTech Connect

    Belyakov, G. V.; Filippov, A. N.

    2006-05-15

    The surface geometry of a cavitating vortex is determined in the limit of inviscid incompressible flow. The limit surface is an ovaloid of revolution with an axis ratio of 5: 3. It is shown that a cavitating vortex ring cannot develop if the cavitation number is lower than a certain critical value. Experiments conducted at various liquid pressures and several jet exit velocities confirm the existence of a critical cavitation number close to 3. At cavitation numbers higher than the critical one, the cavitating vortex ring does not develop. At substantially lower cavitation numbers (k {<=} 0.1), an elongated asymmetric cavitation bubble is generated, with an axial reentrant jet whose length can exceed the initial jet length by several times. This flow structure is called an asymmetric cavitating vortex, even though steady motion of this structure has not been observed.

  13. Particle image velocimetry studies of bubble growth and detachment by high-speed photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickland, Mathew; Dempster, William; Lothian, Lee; Oldroyd, Andrew

    1997-05-01

    An understanding of bubble flows is important in the design of process equipment, particularly in the chemical and power industries. In vapor-liquid processes the mass and heat transfer between the phases is dominated by the liquid-vapor interface and is determined by the number, size, and shape of the bubbles. For bubble flows these characteristics are often controlled by the generation mechanisms and, since bubble flows are often generated at an orifice, it is important to determine the controlling parameters which dictate how bubbles grow and detach. For bubbles growing at orifices the liquid displacement is an important feature and affects the pressure distribution acting on the bubble and the heat and mass transfer that may occur at the bubble interface. Therefore, in this study, the characteristics of the liquid velocity field are studied experimentally using Particle image Velocimetry (PIV) during growth, detachment and translation of a bubble being generated at an orifice supplied with a constant mass flow rate of air. The process is transient and occurs over a period of approximately 50 msecs. In order to map the transient flow field a combination of high speed cine and cross correlation PIV image processing has been used to determine the liquid velocity vector field during the bubble growth process. The paper contains details of the PIV technique and presents several of the velocity vector maps calculated.

  14. Electron irradiation effect on bubble formation and growth in a sodium borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Birtcher, R. C.; Donnelly, S. E.

    2000-02-08

    In this study, the authors studied simultaneous and intermittent electron irradiation effects on bubble growth in a simple sodium borosilicate glass during Xe ion implantation at 200 C. Simultaneous electron irradiation increases the average bubble size in the glass. This enhanced diffusion is also shown by the migration of Xe from bubbles into the matrix when the sample is irradiated by an electron beam after the Xe implantation.

  15. Molecular dynamics investigation of nanoscale cavitation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikumar, Kiran; Keblinski, Pawel

    2014-12-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the cavitation dynamics around intensely heated solid nanoparticles immersed in a model Lennard-Jones fluid. Specifically, we study the temporal evolution of vapor nanobubbles that form around the solid nanoparticles heated over ps time scale and provide a detail description of the following vapor formation and collapse. For 8 nm diameter nanoparticles we observe the formation of vapor bubbles when the liquid temperature 0.5-1 nm away from the nanoparticle surface reaches ˜90% of the critical temperature, which is consistent with the onset of spinodal decomposition. The peak heat flux from the hot solid to the surrounding liquid at the bubble formation threshold is ˜20 times higher than the corresponding steady state critical heat flux. Detailed analysis of the bubble dynamics indicates adiabatic formation followed by an isothermal final stage of growth and isothermal collapse.

  16. Gas-bubble growth mechanisms in the analysis of metal fuel swelling

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    During steady-state irradiation, swelling rates associated with growth of fission-gas bubbles in metallic fast reactor fuels may be expected to remain small. As a consequence, bubble-growth mechanisms are not a major consideration in modeling the steady-state fuel behavior, and it is usually adequate to consider the gas pressure to be in equilibrium with the external pressure and surface tension restraint. On transient time scales, however, various bubble-growth mechanisms become important components of the swelling rate. These mechanisms include growth by diffusion, for bubbles within grains and on grain boundaries; dislocation nucleation at the bubble surface, or ''punchout''; and bubble growth by creep. Analyses of these mechanisms are presented and applied to provide information on the conditions and the relative time scales for which the various processes should dominate fuel swelling. The results are compared to a series of experiments in which the swelling of irradiated metal fuel was determined after annealing at various temperatures and pressures. The diffusive growth of bubbles on grain boundaries is concluded to be dominant in these experiments.

  17. Computer simulation of boundary effects on bubble growth in metals due to He.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.

    2003-03-01

    Atomistic simulation methods were used to investigate and identify the relevant physical mechanisms necessary to describe the growth of helium gas bubbles within a metal lattice. Specifically, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to examine the material defects that originate from growing spherical He bubbles in a palladium crystal. These simulations consist of a model system containing bubbles within a metal and near a free surface. The simulation code employed was ParaDyn using the Embedded Atom Method to model the constitutive properties of Pd atoms in a FCC lattice. The results of these simulations are compared with previously run calculations of He bubbles in a bulk lattice [l]. These simulations show the influence of the free surface on defect creation and evolution. Features compared include the formation of inter-bubble dislocations, bubble pressure and swelling as functions of He to metal (He/M) concentration.

  18. Cavitation studies in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobel, Philippe; Obreschkow, Danail; Farhat, Mohamed; Dorsaz, Nicolas; de Bosset, Aurele

    The hydrodynamic cavitation phenomenon is a major source of erosion for many industrial systems such as cryogenic pumps for rocket propulsion, fast ship propellers, hydraulic pipelines and turbines. Erosive processes are associated with liquid jets and shockwaves emission fol-lowing the cavity collapse. Yet, fundamental understanding of these processes requires further cavitation studies inside various geometries of liquid volumes, as the bubble dynamics strongly depends the surrounding pressure field. To this end, microgravity represents a unique platform to produce spherical fluid geometries and remove the hydrostatic pressure gradient induced by gravity. The goal of our first experiment (flown on ESA's parabolic flight campaigns 2005 and 2006) was to study single bubble dynamics inside large spherical water drops (having a radius between 8 and 13 mm) produced in microgravity. The water drops were created by a micro-pump that smoothly expelled the liquid through a custom-designed injector tube. Then, the cavitation bubble was generated through a fast electrical discharge between two electrodes immersed in the liquid from above. High-speed imaging allowed to analyze the implications of isolated finite volumes and spherical free surfaces on bubble evolution, liquid jets formation and shock wave dynamics. Of particular interest are the following results: (A) Bubble lifetimes are shorter than in extended liquid volumes, which could be explain by deriving novel corrective terms to the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. (B) Transient crowds of micro-bubbles (smaller than 1mm) appeared at the instants of shockwaves emission. A comparison between high-speed visualizations and 3D N-particle simulations of a shock front inside a liquid sphere reveals that focus zones within the drop lead to a significantly increased density of induced cavitation. Considering shock wave crossing and focusing may hence prove crucially useful to understand the important process of cavitation erosion

  19. Aerator Combined With Bubble Remover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    System produces bubble-free oxygen-saturated water. Bubble remover consists of outer solid-walled tube and inner hydrophobic, porous tube. Air bubbles pass from water in outer tube into inner tube, where sucked away. Developed for long-term aquaculture projects in space. Also applicable to terrestrial equipment in which entrained bubbles dry membranes or give rise to cavitation in pumps.

  20. A New Unsteady Model for Dense Cloud Cavitation in Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosangadi, A.; Ahuja, V.

    2005-01-01

    A new unsteady, cavitation model is presented wherein the phase change process (bubble growth/collapse) is coupled to the acoustic field in a cryogenic fluid. It predicts the number density and radius of bubbles in vapor clouds by tracking both the aggregate surface area and volume fraction of the cloud. Hence, formulations for the dynamics of individual bubbles (e.g. Rayleigh-Plesset equation) may be integrated within the macroscopic context of a dense vapor cloud i.e. a cloud that occupies a significant fraction of available volume and contains numerous bubbles. This formulation has been implemented within the CRUNCH CFD, which has a compressible real fluid formulation, a multi-element, unstructured grid framework, and has been validated extensively for liquid rocket turbopump inducers. Detailed unsteady simulations of a cavitating ogive in liquid nitrogen are presented where time-averaged mean cavity pressure and temperature depressions due to cavitation are compared with experimental data. The model also provides the spatial and temporal history of the bubble size distribution in the vapor clouds that are shed, an important physical parameter that is difficult to measure experimentally and is a significant advancement in the modeling of dense cloud cavitation.

  1. A Model for Surface Induced Growth of Inert Gas Bubbles in Irradiated Copper-Boron Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, G.P.; Ramadasan, E.

    2006-07-01

    A matrix containing inert gas bubbles dilates in direct proportion to the growth experienced by the gas bubbles. This phenomenon is termed as swelling. A model for the swelling induced by the growth of the helium gas bubbles in irradiated copper-boron alloys is presented. The bubbles grow by acquiring vacancies from the external surface, which acts as a source of vacancies. The vacancies reach the surface of the bubbles mainly via lattice diffusion and to a limited extent via diffusion through short-circuiting paths such as grain boundaries and dislocation pipes. The model predicts that overall swelling of the matrix varies as 1.5 power of time. Another consequence of the present model is that the growth rate of a gas bubble varies inversely as the cube of its distance from the external surface. The model has been applied to the data on irradiated copper-boron alloys and found to be in accord with the experimental results. The model is general and can be applied to the growth of all kinds of stationary inert gas bubbles trapped within a crystalline matrix. (authors)

  2. The dissolution or growth of a gas bubble inside a drop in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondos, Pericles A.; Subramanian, R. Shankar; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    The radius-time history of a gas bubble located concentrically within a spherical liquid drop in a space laboratory is analyzed within the framework of the quasi-stationary approximation. Illustrative results are calculated from the theory which demonstrate interesting qualitative features. For instance, when a pure gas bubble dissolves within a liquid drop in an environment containing the same gas and some inert species, the dissolution can be more or less rapid than that in an unbounded liquid depending on the initial relative size of the drop. Further, given a similar growth situation, indefinite growth is not possible, and the bubble will initially grow, but always dissolve in the end.

  3. Phase-field simulation of gas bubble growth and flow in a Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying

    2005-11-01

    A diffuse interface model has been developed for gas bubble growth and dynamics in a supersaturated liquid. The liquid becomes supersaturated in the gas species because of a drop in the pressure or temperature. The bubbles grow by gas diffusion in the liquid towards the bubble interfaces. During bubble growth, flows are induced by the large density contrast between the phases. The bubbles coarsen due to surface tension effects. The process widely exists in biological systems, materials processing, oil recovery, and other applications. The flows in the gas and liquid phases are solved using a diffuse interface model for two-phase flows with surface tension, phase change, and density and viscosity differences between the phases. This diffuse-interface model for flow is coupled with a phase-field equation for calculating the interface motion, and a species conservation equation for the gas transport. The model is validated for a single bubble growing inside a semi-infinite liquid, and convergence of the results with respect to the interface width is demonstrated. Large-scale numerical simulations for multiple bubbles inside a Hele-Shaw cell reveal the presence of complex interface dynamics and flows. The bubble dynamics, including coarsening and coalescence, are investigated as a function of the initial gas concentration, surface tension, and the density and viscosity contrasts between the phases.

  4. Taxing the rich: recombinations and bubble growth during reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlanetto, Steven R.; Oh, S. Peng

    2005-11-01

    Reionization is inhomogeneous for two reasons: the clumpiness of the intergalactic medium (IGM), and clustering of the discrete ionizing sources. While numerical simulations can in principle take both into account, they are at present limited by small box sizes. On the other hand, analytic models have only examined the limiting cases of a clumpy IGM (with uniform ionizing emissivity) and clustered sources (embedded in a uniform IGM). Here, we present the first analytic model that includes both factors. At first, recombinations can be ignored and ionized bubbles grow primarily through major mergers, because at any given moment the bubbles have a well-defined characteristic size. As a result, reionization resembles `punctuated equilibrium,' with a series of well-separated sharp jumps in the ionizing background. These features are local effects and do not reflect similar jumps in the global ionized fraction. We then combine our bubble model with a simple description of recombinations in the IGM. We show that the bubbles grow until recombinations balance ionizations, when their expansion abruptly halts. If the IGM density structure is similar to that at moderate redshifts, this limits the bubble radii to ~20 comoving Mpc; however, if the IGM is significantly clumpier at higher redshifts (because of minihalo formation, for example), the limit could be much smaller. Once a bubble reaches saturation, that region of the Universe has for all intents and purposes entered the `post-overlap' stage. Because different HII regions saturate over a finite time interval, the overlap epoch actually has a finite width. Our model also predicts a mean recombination rate several times larger than expected for a uniformly illuminated IGM. This picture naturally explains the substantial large-scale variation in Lyman-series opacity along the lines of sight to the known z > 6 quasars. More quasar spectra will shed light on the transition between the `bubble-dominated' topology

  5. Effect of surfactants on the rate of growth of an air bubble by rectified diffusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Judy; Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2005-08-01

    The rectified diffusion growth of a single air bubble levitated in an acoustic field (frequency = 22.35 kHz) in water and in aqueous solutions containing surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate) was investigated. As reported by Crum (J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 1980, 68, 203), the presence of surfactants at the bubble/liquid interface enhanced the growth rate of the bubble by rectified diffusion. It is suggested in this paper that in addition to the effect of surfactants on the surface tension and interfacial resistance to mass transfer, the effect of surface rheological properties may also contribute to the cause of the enhancement observed in the bubble growth rate. PMID:16852840

  6. The size of active bubbles for the production of hydrogen in sonochemical reaction field.

    PubMed

    Merouani, Slimane; Hamdaoui, Oualid

    2016-09-01

    The sonication of aqueous solution generates microscopic cavitation bubbles that may growth and violently collapse to produce highly reactive species (i.e. OH, HO2 and H2O2), hydrogen and emit light, sonoluminescence. The bubble size is a key parameter that influences the chemical activity of the system. This wok aims to study theoretically the size of active bubbles for the production of hydrogen in ultrasonic cavitation field in water using a single bubble sonochemistry model. The effect of several parameters such as frequency of ultrasound, acoustic intensity and liquid temperature on the range of sonochemically active bubbles for the production of hydrogen was clarified. The numerical simulation results showed that the size of active bubbles is an interval which includes an optimum value at which the production rate of H2 is maximal. It was shown that the range of ambient radius for an active bubble as well as the optimum bubble radius for the production of hydrogen increased with increasing acoustic intensity and decreased with increasing ultrasound frequency and bulk liquid temperature. It was found that the range of ambient bubble radius dependence of the operational conditions followed the same trend as those reported experimentally for sonoluminescing bubbles. Comparison with literature data showed a good agreement between the theoretical determined optimum bubble sizes for the production of hydrogen and the experimental reported sizes for sonoluminescing bubbles. PMID:27150777

  7. Formation and Growth of Micro and Macro Bubbles on Copper-Graphite Composite Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, David F.; Sankovic, John M.; Motil, Brian J.; Zhang, Nengli

    2007-01-01

    Micro scale boiling behavior in the vicinity of graphite micro-fiber tips on the coppergraphite composite boiling surfaces is investigated. It is discovered that a large number of micro bubbles are formed first at the micro scratches and cavities on the copper matrix in pool boiling. In virtue of the non-wetting property of graphite, once the growing micro bubbles touch the graphite tips, the micro bubbles are sucked by the tips and merged into larger micro bubbles sitting on the tips. The micro bubbles grow rapidly and coalesce to form macro bubbles, each of which sitting on several tips. The growth processes of the micro and macro bubbles are analyzed and formulated followed by an analysis of bubble departure on the composite surfaces. Based on these analyses, the enhancement mechanism of the pool boiling heat transfer on the composite surfaces is clearly revealed. Experimental results of pool boiling heat transfer both for water and Freon-113 on the composite surfaces convincingly demonstrate the enhancement effects of the unique structure of Cu-Gr composite surfaces on boiling heat transfer.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations of growth and coalescence of helium nano-bubbles in tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Roman; Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Guterl, Jerome

    2014-10-01

    It was experimentally observed that filamentary nano-structures, called fuzz, can grow on tungsten surfaces irradiated with plasma containing helium. Although the mechanism of the fuzz growth is not clearly understood, experiments show that formation of helium nano-bubbles in tungsten always precedes fuzz creation. In this work we investigate mechanisms of growth and coalescence of helium bubbles using molecular dynamics code LAMMPS. We demonstrate that the growth process is governed by crystal symmetries and properties of generated dislocations forming helium nano-bubbles of non-spherical geometry. This produces complex stress field in the tungsten lattice around the bubble with distinct compression and tension regions. We show that helium transport in the stressed lattice in bubble vicinity can be dominated by drift from the compression to tension regions. Helium transport coefficients in tungsten are also obtained. Modeling of two closely positioned helium nano-bubbles demonstrates that their coalescence proceeds preferentially by lateral growth. The implications of the obtained results on fuzz formation mechanism are discussed.

  9. Experimental Study of Bubble Growth in Stromboli Basalt Melts at 370 MPa and 1 Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, L.; Baker, D. R.; Rivers, M.

    2006-05-01

    Volcanic degassing involves gas bubble formation and growth due to the exsolution of the volatiles dissolved in the melts. Although we know that bubble size distributions in natural rocks are controlled by bubble nucleation and growth processes, we are far from a quantitative understanding of their growth. In order to investigate bubble formation and growth under different pressures, degassing experiments using a Stromboli basalt with dissolved H2O, or H2O+CO2, were conducted in a piston-cylinder at 370 MPa and on the GSECARS (Advanced Photon Source) Synchrotron beamline in a custom furnace at one atmosphere. In the high pressure degassing experiments the melts were synthesized at 1250 ° C and 1000 MPa with either about 3.0, 5.0, or 8.0 % H2O or with mixtures of H2O+CO2: approximately 3.0 % H2O and 440 ppm CO2, 5.0 % H2O and 880 ppm CO2, or 8.0 % H2O and 1480 ppm CO2. After homogenization of the dissolved volatiles in the melt, the samples were isothermally decompressed to a final pressure of 370 MPa. The decompressed samples were held at 370 MPa for 0 to 3600 seconds before quenching. In the one atmosphere experiments, the hydrated, volatile-undersaturated melts of the same compositions as the high pressure experiments were synthesized at 1250 ° C and 1000 MPa and quenched to bubble-free glasses. These glasses were heated in-situ on the Synchrotron X-ray beamline at one atmosphere, and then were quenched from different temperatures. The 3D bubble size distributions in the quenched samples were then studied with synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Bubbles nucleated and grew in all samples, producing bubbles with volumes varying between 10-5 and 10-7 mm3 in the high pressure experiments and between 10-1 and 10-7 mm3 in the one atmosphere experiments. The vesicularities of samples from high pressure degassing experiments vary between 0.1 and 6.6 percent. In the one atmosphere degassing experiments the bubbles grew and coalesced, and occasionally popped when the

  10. Bubble Growth and Dynamics in a Strongly Superheated Electrolyte within a Solid-State Nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Edlyn; Nagashima, Gaku; Burns, Michael; Golovchenko, Jene

    2015-03-01

    Extreme localized superheating and homogeneous vapor bubble nucleation have recently been demonstrated in a single nanopore in thin, solid state membranes. Aqueous electrolytic solution within the pore is superheated to well above its boiling point by Joule heating from ionic current driven through the pore. Continued heating of the metastable liquid leads to nucleation of a vapor bubble in the pore followed by explosive growth. Here we report on the growth dynamics of the vapor bubble after nucleation in the strongly superheated liquid. The process is modeled by numerically solving the Rayleigh-Plesset equation coupled with energy conservation and a Stefan boundary condition. The initial temperature distribution, peaked at the pore center, is taken to be radially symmetric. Energy conservation includes a Joule heating source term dependent on the bubble radius, which grows to constrict ionic current through the nanopore. Temperature-dependent properties of the electrolyte and the vapor are incorporated in the calculation. Comparison of the model to experimental results shows an initial bubble growth velocity of 50m/s and total bubble lifetime of 16ns. This work was supported by NIH Grant #5R01HG003703 to J.A. Golovchenko.

  11. Evolution of disturbances of the sphericity of a bubble under strong compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigmatulin, R. I.; Aganin, A. A.; Toporkov, D. Yu.; Ilgamov, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    The growth in the amplitude of the small nonsphericity of cavitation bubbles in acetone and water under strong compression is considered. A hydrodynamic model is used in which the compressibility of the liquid, the nonstationary thermal conduction of the vapor and the liquid, and nonequilibrium evaporation-condensation processes, as well as imperfection of the vapor, are considered. It has been shown that the increase in the amplitude of the small nonsphericity of cavitation bubbles in the form of separate spherical harmonics during compression in water is substantially (more than 10 times) higher than during compression in acetone. This indicates that acetone is much more advantageous over water to implement a process of the nearer-to-spherical extreme compression of the medium in the cavitation bubbles.

  12. Modeling methane bubble growth in fine-grained muddy aquatic sediments: correlation with sediment properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsman, Regina

    2015-04-01

    Gassy sediments contribute to destabilization of aquatic infrastructure, air pollution, and global warming. In the current study a precise shape and size of the buoyant mature methane bubble in fine-grained muddy aquatic sediment is defined by numerical and analytical modeling, their results are in a good agreement. A closed-form analytical solution defining the bubble parameters is developed. It is found that the buoyant mature bubble is elliptical in its front view and resembles an inverted tear drop in its cross-section. The size and shape of the mature bubble strongly correlate with sediment fracture toughness. Bubbles formed in the weaker sediments are smaller and characterized by a larger surface-to volume ratio that induces their faster growth and may lead to their faster dissolution below the sediment-water interface. This may prevent their release to the water column and to the atmosphere. Shapes of the bubbles in the weaker sediments deviate further from the spherical configuration, than those in the stronger sediments. Modeled bubble characteristics, important for the acoustic applications, are in a good agreement with field observations and lab experiments.

  13. Nucleation and Growth of Bubbles in He Ion Implanted V/Ag Multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Q. M.; Wang, Y. Q.; Nastasi, Michael; Misra, A.

    2011-11-18

    Microstructures of He ion-implanted pure Ag, pure V and polycrystalline V/Ag multilayers with individual layer thickness ranging from 1 nm to 50 nm were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bubbles in the Ag layer were faceted and larger than the non-faceted bubbles in the V layer under the same implantation conditions for both pure metals and multilayers. The substantially higher single defects surviving the spike phase and lower mobility of trapped He in bcc than those in fcc could account for this difference. For multilayers, the bubbles nucleate at interfaces but grow preferentially in Ag layers due to high mobility of trapped He in fcc Ag. In addition, the He concentration above which bubbles can be detected in defocused TEM images increases with decreasing layer thickness, from 0 for pure Ag to 4–5 at. % for 1 nm V/1 nm Ag multilayers. In contrast, the bubble size decreases with decreasing layer thickness, from approximately 4 nm in diameter in pure Ag to 1 nm in the 1 nm V/1 nm Ag multilayers. Elongated bubbles confined in the Ag layer by the V–Ag interfaces were observed in 1 nm multilayers. These observations show that bubble nucleation and growth can be suppressed to high He concentrations in nanoscale composites with interfaces that have high He solubility.

  14. Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  15. The origin of the dynamic growth of vapor bubbles associated with vapor explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.S.; Merte, H. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    An explosive type of vapor bubble growth was observed during pool boiling experiments in microgravity using R-113, where heater surface superheats as high as 70 C were attained at nucleation. This corresponds to approximately 65% of the computed superheat limit of the fluid, compared to the approximate 30% observed at earth gravity for the same system. Photographs and measurements of the vapor bubble growth provide evidence for rates of growth not accountable by conventional models. The photographs reveal that the liquid-vapor interface of the explosive bubbles become wrinkled and corrugated, leading to the conclusion that some type of instability mechanism is acting. The classical hydrodynamic instability theories of Landau and Rayleigh-Taylor, used in conjunction with a model of the early growth of spherical vapor bubbles developed by the authors, predict that the early growth should be stable. These theories do not consider the effects of heat transfer at the interface, which is believed responsible for the observed instability of the evaporating surface. This was confirmed by the mechanisms proposed by Prosperetti and Plesset which, although including the effects of heat transfer, required that the unperturbed liquid temperature distribution be known at the moment of onset of the instability. This is generally unknown, so that no comparisons with experiments were possible up to this point. The present pool boiling experiments conducted in microgravity, some of which result in the explosive vapor bubble growth referred to, permit the precise determination of the unperturbed liquid temperature distribution using a model of the early vapor bubble growth along with the measurement of heater surface temperature at nucleation. The limited results to date provide good agreement with the mechanisms proposed by Prosperetti and Plesset.

  16. Helium bubble nucleation and growth in α-Fe: insights from first-principles simulations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, W; Zhang, X; Geng, W T; Lu, G

    2014-06-25

    We have carried out a first-principles study on the nucleation and early-stage growth of He bubbles in Fe. The energetics, atomic and electronic structure of He-vacancy complexes, involving both a monovacancy and a nine-vacancy cluster, are examined. Based on the energetics, we then perform thermodynamics analysis to gain deeper insights into He bubble nucleation and growth. We have determined the energy cost for the nucleation of He bubbles and found that up to eight He atoms can be trapped at a single vacancy. In order to capture more He atoms, the vacancy has to emit Frenkel pairs to release the substantial stress building on the surrounding Fe lattice. Compared to the monovacancy, the nine-vacancy cluster has a lower energy cost for He bubble nucleation and growth. He atoms at the vacancy repel the surrounding electronic charge and redistribute it on the neighboring Fe atoms. The thermodynamic analysis reveals that He chemical potential provides a driving force for He bubble nucleation and growth. There are two critical He chemical potentials that are of particular importance: one of them marks the transition from single He occupation to multiple He occupation at a monovacancy while the other sets off He-induced superabundant vacancy formation. PMID:24871542

  17. Fighting fish (Betta splendens) bubble nests do not inhibit microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alexandria C; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2012-12-01

    Some organisms produce antimicrobial substances in nesting foam to favorably manipulate the environment to which their developing offspring are exposed. We tested if fighting fish Betta splendens foamy nest material, which is comprised of bubbles produced in the oral cavity of nesting males, has antimicrobial properties against a pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda), a nonpathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli), or a pathogenic oomycete (Saprolegnia parasitica). We also tested if exposure to nest material increases larval survival by performing in vitro fertilizations and individually incubating eggs in bubble nest extract or tank water (control). Our results show no evidence of antimicrobial properties of bubble nests. On the contrary, bubble nests provided favorable microenvironments for the growth of Saprolegnia parasitica. Our results confirm earlier work citing the importance of male nest attendance, and suggest that the mechanism responsible for decreased survival in the absence of attending males is pathogenic microbes. PMID:22753365

  18. Improving microalgal growth with small bubbles in a raceway pond with swing gas aerators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zongbo; Cheng, Jun; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-09-01

    A novel swing gas aerator was developed to generate small bubbles for improving the mass transfer coefficient and microalgal growth rate in a raceway pond. A high-speed photography system (HSP) was used to measure the bubble diameter and generation time, and online precise dissolved oxygen probes and pH probes were used to measure the mass transfer coefficient and mixing time. Bubble generation time and diameter decreased by 21% and 9%, respectively, when rubber gas aerators were swung in the microalgae solution. When water pump power and gas aeration rate increased in a raceway pond with swing gas aerators and oscillating baffles (SGAOB), bubble generation time and diameter decreased but solution velocity and mass transfer coefficient increased. The mass transfer coefficient increased by 25% and the solution velocity increased by 11% when SGAOB was used, and the microalgal biomass yield increased by 18%. PMID:27243604

  19. Growth and shape of bubbles in viscous liquids and confined geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Arnulfo; Lopez, Abel; Higuera, Francisco; Medina, Abraham

    2008-11-01

    In this work we have considered the problem of the growth and detachment of bubbles in a viscous liquid in finite reservoirs where axisymmetrical walls were located near the gas injection orifice. We studied numerically and experimentally how the coaxial pipe and inverted-cone walls affect the shape, final volume and coalescence of bubbles under conditions of constant gas flow rate, Q. The numerical solution of the Stokes equations and the free surface were determined as a function of a capillary number and Bond number in the absence of inertial effects. Detailed experimental visualizations are presented that display the sequences of growth and detachment computed numerically.

  20. The microjetting behavior from single laser-induced bubbles generated above a solid boundary with a through hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abboud, Jack E.; Oweis, Ghanem F.

    2013-01-01

    An inertial bubble collapsing near a solid boundary generates a fast impulsive microjet directed toward the boundary. The jet impacts the solid boundary at a high velocity, and this effect has been taken advantage of in industrial cleaning such as when tiny bubbles are driven ultrasonically to cavitate around machined parts to produce jets that are believed to induce the cleaning effect. In this experimental investigation, we are interested in the jetting from single cavities near a boundary. By introducing a through hole in the boundary beneath a laser-induced bubble, it is hypothesized that the forming jet, upon bubble implosion, will proceed to penetrate through the hole to the other side and that it may be utilized in useful applications such as precise surgeries. It was found that the growth of the bubble induced a fast flow through the hole and lead to the formation of secondary hydrodynamic cavitation. The experiments also showed the formation of a counter jet directed away from the hole and into the bubble. During the growth phase of the bubble, and near the point of maximum expansion, the bubble wall bulged out toward the hole in a `bulb' like formation, which sometimes resulted in the pinching-off of a secondary small bubble. This was ensued by the inward recoiling of the primary bubble wall near the pinch-off spot, which developed into a counter jet seen to move away from the hole and inward into the bubble.

  1. The microjetting behavior from single laser-induced bubbles generated above a solid boundary with a through hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abboud, Jack E.; Oweis, Ghanem F.

    2012-12-01

    An inertial bubble collapsing near a solid boundary generates a fast impulsive microjet directed toward the boundary. The jet impacts the solid boundary at a high velocity, and this effect has been taken advantage of in industrial cleaning such as when tiny bubbles are driven ultrasonically to cavitate around machined parts to produce jets that are believed to induce the cleaning effect. In this experimental investigation, we are interested in the jetting from single cavities near a boundary. By introducing a through hole in the boundary beneath a laser-induced bubble, it is hypothesized that the forming jet, upon bubble implosion, will proceed to penetrate through the hole to the other side and that it may be utilized in useful applications such as precise surgeries. It was found that the growth of the bubble induced a fast flow through the hole and lead to the formation of secondary hydrodynamic cavitation. The experiments also showed the formation of a counter jet directed away from the hole and into the bubble. During the growth phase of the bubble, and near the point of maximum expansion, the bubble wall bulged out toward the hole in a `bulb' like formation, which sometimes resulted in the pinching-off of a secondary small bubble. This was ensued by the inward recoiling of the primary bubble wall near the pinch-off spot, which developed into a counter jet seen to move away from the hole and inward into the bubble.

  2. Growth of oxygen bubbles during recharge process in zinc-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Chen, Huicui; Xu, Huachi; Chen, Dongfang; Xing, Haoqiang

    2015-11-01

    Rechargeable zinc-air battery used for energy storage has a serious problem of charging capacity limited by oxygen bubble coalescence. Fast removal of oxygen bubbles adhered to the charging electrode surface is of great importance for improving the charging performance of the battery. Here we show that the law of oxygen bubble growth can be achieved by means of phase-field simulation, revealing two phenomena of bubble detachment and bubble coalescence located in the charging electrode on both sides. Hydrodynamic electrolyte and partial insulation structure of the charging electrode are investigated to solve the problem of oxygen bubble coalescence during charging. Two types of rechargeable zinc-air battery are developed on the basis of different tri-electrode configurations, demonstrating that the charging performance of the battery with electrolyte flow (Ⅰ) is better than that of the battery with the partially insulated electrode (Ⅱ), while the battery Ⅱ is superior to the battery Ⅰ in the discharging performance, cost and portability. The proposed solutions and results would be available for promoting commercial application of rechargeable zinc-air batteries or other metal-air batteries.

  3. Growth and structural determination of He bubbles in iron/chromium alloys using molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhishek, A.; Warrier, M.; Ganesh, R.; Caro, A.

    2016-04-01

    Helium(He) produced by transmutation process inside structural material due to neutron irradiation plays a vital role in the degradation of material properties. We have carried out Molecular dynamics(MD) simulations to study the growth of He bubble in Iron-Chromium alloy. Simulations are carried out at two different temperatures, viz. 0.1 K and 800 K, upto He bubble radius of 2.5 nm. An equation for variation of volume of He bubbles with the number of He atoms is obtained at both the temperatures. Bubble pressure and potential energy variation is obtained with increasing bubble radius. Dislocations are also found to be emitted after the bubble reaches a critical radius of 0.39 nm at 800 K. Separate MD simulations of He with pre-created voids are also carried out to study the binding energies of He and Vacancy (V) to Hem-Vn cluster. Binding energies are found to be in the range of 1-5.5 eV.

  4. Formation of methane nano-bubbles during hydrate decomposition and their effect on hydrate growth.

    PubMed

    Bagherzadeh, S Alireza; Alavi, Saman; Ripmeester, John; Englezos, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Molecular dynamic simulations are performed to study the conditions for methane nano-bubble formation during methane hydrate dissociation in the presence of water and a methane gas reservoir. Hydrate dissociation leads to the quick release of methane into the liquid phase which can cause methane supersaturation. If the diffusion of methane molecules out of the liquid phase is not fast enough, the methane molecules agglomerate and form bubbles. Under the conditions of our simulations, the methane-rich quasi-spherical bubbles grow to become cylindrical with a radius of ∼11 Å. The nano-bubbles remain stable for about 35 ns until they are gradually and homogeneously dispersed in the liquid phase and finally enter the gas phase reservoirs initially set up in the simulation box. We determined that the minimum mole fraction for the dissolved methane in water to form nano-bubbles is 0.044, corresponding to about 30% of hydrate phase composition (0.148). The importance of nano-bubble formation to the mechanism of methane hydrate formation, growth, and dissociation is discussed. PMID:26049510

  5. Formation of methane nano-bubbles during hydrate decomposition and their effect on hydrate growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherzadeh, S. Alireza; Alavi, Saman; Ripmeester, John; Englezos, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Molecular dynamic simulations are performed to study the conditions for methane nano-bubble formation during methane hydrate dissociation in the presence of water and a methane gas reservoir. Hydrate dissociation leads to the quick release of methane into the liquid phase which can cause methane supersaturation. If the diffusion of methane molecules out of the liquid phase is not fast enough, the methane molecules agglomerate and form bubbles. Under the conditions of our simulations, the methane-rich quasi-spherical bubbles grow to become cylindrical with a radius of ˜11 Å. The nano-bubbles remain stable for about 35 ns until they are gradually and homogeneously dispersed in the liquid phase and finally enter the gas phase reservoirs initially set up in the simulation box. We determined that the minimum mole fraction for the dissolved methane in water to form nano-bubbles is 0.044, corresponding to about 30% of hydrate phase composition (0.148). The importance of nano-bubble formation to the mechanism of methane hydrate formation, growth, and dissociation is discussed.

  6. Growth of multifractal tungsten nanostructure by He bubble induced directional swelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajita, Shin; Yoshida, Naoaki; Ohno, Noriyasu; Tsuji, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    Helium (He) plasma irradiation to tungsten (W) leads to morphology changes in nanometer scale by the formation and growth of He bubbles. Initially pinholes and protrusions are formed on the surface followed by the formation of nanostructures. In this study, based on experimental observation, the growth process of the fiberform nanostructures are revisited and the swelling process of the structure is discussed. The novel nanostructures are analyzed from the viewpoint of fractality. It is found that the number of the initially formed pinholes and its sizes have a fractal relation, indicating that the size and number of bubbles formed near the surface have fractality. The fractal dimension is estimated from the brightness variation of a transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrograph and gas adsorption property. Moreover, it is revealed from TEM image analysis that the nanostructure has multifractal feature, probably because of the fractality identified between the number and the size of bubbles near the surface.

  7. CAVITATION DAMAGE STUDY VIA A NOVEL REPETITIVE PRESSURE PULSE APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Ren, Fei; Wang, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Cavitation damage can significantly affect system performance. Thus, there is great interest in characterizing cavitation damage and improving materials resistance to cavitation damage. In this paper, we present a novel methodology to simulate cavitation environment. A pulsed laser is utilized to induce optical breakdown in the cavitation media, with the emission of shock wave and the generation of bubbles. The pressure waves induced by the optical breakdown fluctuate/propagate within the media, which enables the cavitation to occur and to further develop cavitation damage at the solid boundary. Using the repetitive pulsed-pressure apparatus developed in the current study, cavitation damage in water media was verified on stainless steel and aluminum samples. Characteristic cavitation damages such as pitting and indentation are observed on sample surfaces using scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Studies on pressure response of gas bubbles contributions of condensed droplets in bubbles generated by a uniform nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The response of a tiny gas bubble under reduced pressure is investigated in its relation to cavitation. Equations of motion are formulated for gas mixtures inside the bubble and numerical calculations performed for several examples. The conclusions are as follows: (1) at the onset of bubble growth, the gas mixture inside it adiabatically expands and the temperature decreases. Condensed droplets appear inside the gas mixture due to a uniform nucleation and the temperature recovers, thus the motion of the bubble is apparently isothermal; (2) the evaporation and condensation coefficient largely affects bubble motions (maximum radius, period and rate of attenuation of the bubble oscillation) including the uniform contraction; (3) the oscillation period of the bubble is longer as the equilibrium bubble radius is larger when the surrounding pressure decreases stepwise. In this circumstance the temperature inside the bubble is kept constant due to condensation evaporation phenomena and is nearly isothermal; and (4) when the surrounding pressure decreases in a stepwise fashion, the critical pressure bubble radius relation becomes closer to that for the isothermal process if the bubble radius is larger than 8 microns.

  9. Scaling of bubble growth in a porous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Satik, C.; Li, X.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1994-09-01

    Processes involving liquid-to-gas phase change in porous media are routinely encountered. Growth of a gas phase by solute diffusion in the liquid is typical of the `solution gas-drive` process for the recovery of oil. The growth of a single gas cluster in a porous medium driven by a constant supersaturation is examined. Patterns and rates of growth are derived. It is shown that the growth pattern is not compact and changes from pure percolation to pure Diffusion-Limited-Aggregation (DLA) as the size of the cluster increases. The scaling of the cluster sizes that delineate these patterns, with supersaturation and diffusivity is presented for the case of quasi-static diffusion. In 3-D, the diffusive growth law is found to be R{sub g} {approximately} t{sup 2/3}, which is different than the classical R{sub g} {approximately} t{sup 1/2}.

  10. Using a dynamic point-source percolation model to simulate bubble growth.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Zeigler, David A.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    2004-05-01

    Accurate modeling of nucleation, growth and clustering of helium bubbles within metal tritide alloys is of high scientific and technological importance. Of interest is the ability to predict both the distribution of these bubbles and the manner in which these bubbles interact at a critical concentration of helium-to-metal atoms to produce an accelerated release of helium gas. One technique that has been used in the past to model these materials, and again revisited in this research, is percolation theory. Previous efforts have used classical percolation theory to qualitatively and quantitatively model the behavior of interstitial helium atoms in a metal tritide lattice; however, higher fidelity models are needed to predict the distribution of helium bubbles and include features that capture the underlying physical mechanisms present in these materials. In this work, we enhance classical percolation theory by developing the dynamic point-source percolation model. This model alters the traditionally binary character of site occupation probabilities by enabling them to vary depending on proximity to existing occupied sites, i.e. nucleated bubbles. This revised model produces characteristics for one and two dimensional systems that are extremely comparable with measurements from three dimensional physical samples. Future directions for continued development of the dynamic model are also outlined.

  11. Enhanced Generic Phase-field Model of Irradiation Materials: Fission Gas Bubble Growth Kinetics in Polycrystalline UO2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin

    2012-05-30

    Experiments show that inter-granular and intra-granular gas bubbles have different growth kinetics which results in heterogeneous gas bubble microstructures in irradiated nuclear fuels. A science-based model predicting the heterogeneous microstructure evolution kinetics is desired, which enables one to study the effect of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system on gas bubble microstructure evolution kinetics and morphology, improve the understanding of the formation mechanisms of heterogeneous gas bubble microstructure, and provide the microstructure to macroscale approaches to study their impact on thermo-mechanical properties such as thermo-conductivity, gas release, volume swelling, and cracking. In our previous report 'Mesoscale Benchmark Demonstration, Problem 1: Mesoscale Simulations of Intra-granular Fission Gas Bubbles in UO2 under Post-irradiation Thermal Annealing', we developed a phase-field model to simulate the intra-granular gas bubble evolution in a single crystal during post-irradiation thermal annealing. In this work, we enhanced the model by incorporating thermodynamic and kinetic properties at grain boundaries, which can be obtained from atomistic simulations, to simulate fission gas bubble growth kinetics in polycrystalline UO2 fuels. The model takes into account of gas atom and vacancy diffusion, vacancy trapping and emission at defects, gas atom absorption and resolution at gas bubbles, internal pressure in gas bubbles, elastic interaction between defects and gas bubbles, and the difference of thermodynamic and kinetic properties in matrix and grain boundaries. We applied the model to simulate gas atom segregation at grain boundaries and the effect of interfacial energy and gas mobility on gas bubble morphology and growth kinetics in a bi-crystal UO2 during post-irradiation thermal annealing. The preliminary results demonstrate that the model can produce the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and the morphology of gas bubbles at

  12. Dissolved water distribution in vesicular magmatic glass records both decompressive bubble growth and quench resorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, I. M.; Llewellin, E.; Humphreys, M.; Nichols, A. R.; Burgisser, A.; Schipper, C.

    2013-12-01

    Water distribution in magma varies over the lifetime of an eruption due to a variety of processes, including decompressive degassing of the melt, cooling during the quench from melt to glass, and post-emplacement hydration under ambient conditions. Correct interpretation of water distributions in erupted pyroclasts can therefore offer crucial insights into the dynamics of eruption mechanisms and emplacement histories. Volcanic eruptions are driven by the nucleation and growth of bubbles in magma. Bubbles grow as volatile species in the melt, of which water is volumetrically the most important, diffuse down a concentration gradient towards and across the bubble wall. On cooling, the melt quenches to glass, preserving the spatial distribution of water concentration around the bubbles (now vesicles). We use Backscatter Scanning Electron Microscopy (BSEM), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) to measure the spatial distribution of water around vesicles in experimentally-vesiculated samples. We find that, contrary to expectation, the total water concentration increases (by up to 2 wt.%) in the ~30 microns closest to the vesicle wall. Our samples record significant resorption of water back into the melt around bubbles during the quench process, a process which represents ';regassing' of the magma. We propose that the observed total water resorption profiles result from the increase in the equilibrium solubility of water as temperature decreases during the quench to glass, and that this resorption locally overprints the pre-existing concentration total water profile resulting from bubble growth during decompression. This resorption occurs over the very short timescales of rapid experimental quench (3-10 seconds) resulting in strongly disequilibrium water speciation. Water re-enters the melt as molecular water leading to enrichment in molecular water around vesicles, while the distribution of hydroxyl groups remains

  13. Numerical simulation of high-speed cavitating flows in submerged water jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, G.; Shimizu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Properties of existing cavitation models are discussed and a compressible mixture flow method based a simplified estimation of bubble cavitation is then presented for numerical simulation of high-speed water jets accompanied by intensive cavitation. Two-phase fluid media of cavitating flow are treated as a mixture of liquid and bubbles, and the mean flow is computed by solving RANS equations for compressible fluids considering the effect of bubble expansion a/o contraction. The intensity of cavitation is evaluated by the gas volume fraction, which is governed by the compressibility of bubble-liquid mixture corresponding to the status of mean flow field. Numerical results of cavitating water jet issuing from a submerged nozzle are presented and its applicability to intensively cavitating jets is demonstrated.

  14. A numerical model for the evolution of internal structure of cavitation cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Tezhuan; Wang, Yiwei; Liao, Lijuan; Huang, Chenguang

    2016-07-01

    Bubble size distributions in cloud cavitation are important in cavitating flows. In this study, a numerical model was developed to study the evolution of the internal structure of cloud cavitation. The model includes (1) an evolution equation of bubble number density, which considers the bubble breakup effect and (2) the multiphase Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a modified cavitation model for background cavitating flows. The proposed model was validated with a flow over a projectile. Results show that the numerical model can predict the evolution of the internal structure of cloud cavitation. Comparisons of the proposed model and Singhal model were discussed. The effects of re-entrant jet and bubble number density on cavitating flows were also investigated.

  15. Bacterial Sterilization Using Cavitating Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Yohei; Kato, Hiroharu; Usami, Ron; Fukushima, Tadamasa

    In this paper, a new sterilization method using cavitating flow is presented. Water with bacteria was pressurized up to 105 MPa and flushed out through two very small nozzles 0.1-0.31 mm in diameter, where a cavitating jet was generated containing bubbles that collapsed downstream. First, the effects of jet velocity and cavitation number on the sterilization rate of Escherichia coli JCM1649T (E. coli) were examined. The sterilization rate increased with jet velocity. The rate was proportional to the 3rd power of the velocity. All the E. coli cells were killed by three successive treatments at V=355.7 m/s and cavitation number σ=0.154. The sterilization rate has a peak depending on cavitation number at the low-jet-velocity region of less than 300 m/s. An experiment was also performed to compare two types of bacteria, E. coli, as typical Gram-negative bacteria and Bacillus subtilis JCM1465T (B. subtilis), as typical Gram-positive bacteria. Additional tests were performed using Pseudomonas putida JCM13063T, Gram-negative bacteria and Bacillus halodurans JCTM9153, Gram-positive bacteria. The sterilization rate of the Gram-positive bacteria was much lower than that of the Gram-negative bacteria under the same experimental conditions. Gram-positive bacteria have a thicker peptidoglycan layer than Gram-negative bacteria. This may be the reason why B. subtilis is more resistant to the mechanical stress caused by cavitating flow.

  16. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Cavitation in Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackeret, J.

    1945-01-01

    The cavitation in nozzles on airfoils of various shape and on a sphere are experimentally investigated. The limits of cavitation and the extension of the zone of the bubbles in different stages of cavitation are photographically established. The pressure in the bubble area is constant and very low, jumping to high values at the end of the area. The analogy with the gas compression shock is adduced and discussed. The collapse of the bubbles under compression shock produces very high pressures internally, which must be contributory factors to corrosion. The pressure required for purely mechanical corrosion is also discussed.

  17. Removal of nutrient limitations in forest gaps enhances growth rate and resistance to cavitation in subtropical canopy tree species differing in shade tolerance.

    PubMed

    Villagra, Mariana; Campanello, Paula I; Montti, Lia; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2013-03-01

    A 4-year fertilization experiment with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) was carried out in natural gaps of a subtropical forest in northeastern Argentina. Saplings of six dominant canopy species differing in shade tolerance were grown in five control and five N + P fertilized gaps. Hydraulic architectural traits such as wood density, the leaf area to sapwood area ratio (LA : SA), vulnerability to cavitation (P50) and specific and leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity were measured, as well as the relative growth rate, specific leaf area (SLA) and percentage of leaf damage by insect herbivores. Plant growth rates and resistance to drought-induced embolisms increased when nutrient limitations were removed. On average, the P50 of control plants was -1.1 MPa, while the P50 of fertilized plants was -1.6 MPa. Wood density and LA : SA decreased with N + P additions. A trade-off between vulnerability to cavitation and efficiency of water transport was not observed. The relative growth rate was positively related to the total leaf surface area per plant and negatively related to LA : SA, while P50 was positively related to SLA across species and treatments. Plants with higher growth rates and higher total leaf area in fertilized plots were able to avoid hydraulic dysfunction by becoming less vulnerable to cavitation (more negative P50). Two high-light-requiring species exhibited relatively low growth rates due to heavy herbivore damage. Contrary to expectations, shade-tolerant plants with relatively high resistance to hydraulic dysfunction and reduced herbivory damage were able to grow faster. These results suggest that during the initial phase of sapling establishment in gaps, species that were less vulnerable to cavitation and exhibited reduced herbivory damage had faster realized growth rates than less shade-tolerant species with higher potential growth rates. Finally, functional relationships between hydraulic traits and growth rate across species and treatments

  18. POD study of aerated cavitation in a venturi nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, P.; Danlos, A.; Khelladi, S.; Ravelet, F.; Sarraf, C.; Bakir, F.

    2015-12-01

    The fact of injecting bubbles into a cavitating flow influences typical cavitating behavior. Cavitation and aerated cavitation experiments has been carried out on a symmetrical venturi nozzle with convergent/divergent angles of 18° and 8°, respectively. A snapshot Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) technique is used to identify different modes in terms of discharge flow velocity, pressure and injected quantity of air. The energy spectrum per given mode is also presented. The first four modes are outlined in the present paper for an aerated and non-aerated cavitating flows.

  19. Large-scale atomistic simulations of helium-3 bubble growth in complex palladium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Lucas M.; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Wong, Bryan M.

    2016-05-01

    Palladium is an attractive material for hydrogen and hydrogen-isotope storage applications due to its properties of large storage density and high diffusion of lattice hydrogen. When considering tritium storage, the material's structural and mechanical integrity is threatened by both the embrittlement effect of hydrogen and the creation and evolution of additional crystal defects (e.g., dislocations, stacking faults) caused by the formation and growth of helium-3 bubbles. Using recently developed inter-atomic potentials for the palladium-silver-hydrogen system, we perform large-scale atomistic simulations to examine the defect-mediated mechanisms that govern helium bubble growth. Our simulations show the evolution of a distribution of material defects, and we compare the material behavior displayed with expectations from experiment and theory. We also present density functional theory calculations to characterize ideal tensile and shear strengths for these materials, which enable the understanding of how and why our developed potentials either meet or confound these expectations.

  20. Mechanisms of thrombolysis acceleration by cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Hope; Selvaraj, Prashanth; Ahadi, Golnaz; Voie, Arne; Hoelscher, Thilo; Okita, Kohei; Matsumoto, Yoichiro; Szeri, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies, in vitro and in vivo, have shown that High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) accelerates thrombolysis, the dissolution of blood clots, for ischemic stroke. Although the mechanisms are not fully understood, cavitation is thought to play an important role in sonothrombolysis. The damage to a blood clot's fibrin fiber network from cavitation in a HIFU field is studied using two independent approaches for an embedded bubble. One method is extended to the more important scenario of a bubble outside a blood clot that collapses asymmetrically creating a jet towards the clot. There is significantly more damage potential from a bubble undergoing cavitation collapse outside the clot compared to a rapidly expanding bubble embedded within the clot structure. Also, the effects of the physical properties of skull bone when a HIFU wave propagates through it are examined by use of computer simulation. The dynamics of a test bubble placed at the focus is used in understanding of the pressure field. All other things being equal, the analysis suggests that skull thickness can alter the wave at the focus, which in turn can change the nature of cavitation bubble dynamics and the amount of energy available for clot damage. Now at MSOE.

  1. A four-dimensional X-ray tomographic microscopy study of bubble growth in basaltic foam.

    PubMed

    Baker, Don R; Brun, Francesco; O'Shaughnessy, Cedrick; Mancini, Lucia; Fife, Julie L; Rivers, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the influence of bubble foams on magma permeability and strength is critical to investigations of volcanic eruption mechanisms. Increasing foam porosity decreases strength, enhancing the probability of an eruption. However, higher porosities lead to larger permeabilities, which can lessen the eruption hazard. Here we measure bubble size and wall thickness distributions, as well as connectivity, and calculate permeabilities and tensile strengths of basaltic foams imaged by synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy during bubble growth in hydrated basaltic melts. Rapid vesiculation produces porous foams whose fragmentation thresholds are only 5-6 MPa and whose permeabilities increase from approximately 1×10(-10) to 1×10(-9) m(2) between 10 and 14 s despite decreasing connectivity between bubbles. These results indicate that basaltic magmas are most susceptible to failure immediately upon vesiculation and at later times, perhaps only 10's of seconds later, permeability increases may lessen the hazard of explosive, basaltic, Plinian eruptions. PMID:23072805

  2. Experimental investigation of cavitation in pump inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Roman; Bureček, Adam; Hružík, Lumír; Vašina, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The article deals with experimental research of cavitation development in inlet tube of hydraulic pump. The pressures in inlet and outlet tube of the pump and flow rate were measured. Mineral oil was used as working fluid. The cavitation was visually evaluated in transparent inlet tube. The inlet tube underpressure was achieved by throttle valve. The relationship between the generation of bubbles and the inlet pressure is evaluated.

  3. Bubble formation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1996-01-01

    An extensive experimental program was initiated for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms leading to bubble generation during fluid handling procedures in a microgravity environment. Several key fluid handling procedures typical for PCG experiments were identified for analysis in that program. Experiments were designed to specifically understand how such procedures can lead to bubble formation. The experiments were then conducted aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft which is capable of simulating a low gravity environment by executing a parabolic flight attitude. However, such a flight attitude can only provide a low gravity environment of approximately 10-2go for a maximum period of 30 seconds. Thus all of the tests conducted for these experiments were designed to last no longer than 20 seconds. Several experiments were designed to simulate some of the more relevant fluid handling procedures during protein crystal growth experiments. These include submerged liquid jet cavitation, filling of a cubical vessel, submerged surface scratch, attached drop growth, liquid jet impingement, and geysering experiments. To date, four separate KC-135 flight campaigns were undertaken specifically for performing these experiments. However, different experiments were performed on different flights.

  4. First-order description of the mechanical fracture behavior of fine-grained surficial marine sediments during gas bubble growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, M. A.; Boudreau, B. P.; Johnson, B. D.; Reed, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Bubbles in sediments, imaged via Computed Tomography (CT) scanning, and in surrogate transparent material (gelatin), are well-described geometrically as eccentric oblate spheroids. While sediments are undoubtedly visco-elasto-plastic solids, only part of that complex behavior appears to influence significantly the formation and shape of gas bubbles. Specifically, the shape of these bubbles can be explained if the mechanical response of fine-grained sediment is approximated by Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). To determine the adequacy of the LEFM approximation for gas bubble growth in fine-grained sediments, a number of gas bubbles were injected and grown in natural sediments, while monitoring the size and shape using an industrial CT scanner. A comparison of measured inverse aspect ratios (IARs) of the injected bubbles with calculated IARs from pressure records provides support for the LEFM theory. Deviations from LEFM are observable in the data, but as bubbles grow larger they trend more closely toward the theory. The use of LEFM has been shown to describe gas bubble growth in shallow coastal sediments to first order.

  5. Enhancement of heat and mass transfer by cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. N.; Du, X. Z.; Xian, H. Z.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a brief summary of effects of cavitation on the heat and mass transfer are given. The fundamental studies of cavitation bubbles, including its nonlinearity, rectified heat and mass diffusion, are initially introduced. Then selected topics of cavitation enhanced heat and mass transfer were discussed in details including whales stranding caused by active sonar activity, pool boiling heat transfer, oscillating heat pipe and high intensity focused ultrasound treatment.

  6. Cavitation dynamics on the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Kotaidis, Vassilios; Plech, Anton

    2005-11-21

    The ultrafast excitation of gold nanoparticle sols causes a strong nonequilibrium heating of the particle lattice and subsequently of the water shell close to the particle surface. Above a threshold in laser fluence, which is defined by the onset of homogeneous nucleation, nanoscale vapor bubbles develop around the particles, expand and collapse again within the first nanosecond after excitation. We show the existence of cavitation on the nanometer and subnanosecond time scale, described within the framework of continuum thermodynamics.

  7. Radiation induced cavitation: A possible phenomenon in liquid targets?

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1998-07-01

    The proposed design of a new, short-pulse spallation neutron source includes a liquid mercury target irradiated with a 1 GeV proton beam. This paper explores the possibility that cavitation bubbles may be formed in the mercury and briefly discusses some design features that could avoid harmful effects should cavitation take place.

  8. Acoustic methods for cavitation mapping in biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, M.; Xu, S.; Ding, T.; Hu, H.; Liu, R.; Bai, C.; Lu, S.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, cavitation is increasingly utilized in a wide range of applications in biomedical field. Monitoring the spatial-temporal evolution of cavitation bubbles is of great significance for efficiency and safety in biomedical applications. In this paper, several acoustic methods for cavitation mapping proposed or modified on the basis of existing work will be presented. The proposed novel ultrasound line-by-line/plane-by-plane method can depict cavitation bubbles distribution with high spatial and temporal resolution and may be developed as a potential standard 2D/3D cavitation field mapping method. The modified ultrafast active cavitation mapping based upon plane wave transmission and reception as well as bubble wavelet and pulse inversion technique can apparently enhance the cavitation to tissue ratio in tissue and further assist in monitoring the cavitation mediated therapy with good spatial and temporal resolution. The methods presented in this paper will be a foundation to promote the research and development of cavitation imaging in non-transparent medium.

  9. Numerical investigation of cavitation performance on bulb tubular turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L. G.; Guo, P. C.; Zheng, X. B.; Luo, X. Q.

    2016-05-01

    The cavitation flow phenomena may occur in the bulb tubular turbine at some certain operation conditions, which even decrease the performance of units and causes insatiably noise and vibration when it goes worse. A steady cavitating flow numerical simulations study is carried out on the bulb tubular unit with the same blade pitch angle and different guide vane openings by using the commercial code ANSYS CFX in this paper. The phenomena of cavitation induction areas and development process are obtained and draws cavitation performance curves. The numerical results show that the travelling bubble cavity is the main types of cavitation development over a wide operating range of discharge and this type of cavitation begins to sensitive to the value of cavitation number when the discharge exceeding a certain valve, in this condition, it can lead to a severe free bubble formation with the gradually decrement of cavitation number. The reported cavitation performance curves results indicate that the flow blockage incident would happen because of a mount of free bubble formation in the flow passage when the cavity developed to certain extend, which caused head drop behavior and power broken dramatically and influenced the output power.

  10. Simultaneous pressure measurement and high-speed photography study of cavitation in a dynamically loaded journal bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, D. C.; Brewe, David E.; Abel, Philip B.

    1994-01-01

    Cavitation of the oil film in a dynamically loaded journal bearing was studied using high-speed photography and pressure measurement simultaneously. Comparison of the visual and pressure data provided considerable insight into the occurrence and nonoccurrence of cavitation. It was found that (1) for the submerged journal bearing, cavitation typically occurred in the form of one bubble with the pressure in the cavitation bubble close to the absolute zero; and (2) for cavitation-producing operating conditions, cavitation did not always occur; with the oil film then supporting a tensile stress.

  11. Quantitative assessment of reactive oxygen species generation by cavitation incepted efficiently using nonlinear propagation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Jun; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Sonodynamic treatment is a treatment method that uses chemical bio-effect of cavitation bubbles. Reactive oxygen species that can kill cancerous tissue is induced by such chemical effect of cavitation bubbles and it is important to generate them efficiently for effective sonodynamic treatment. Cavitation cloud can be formed by an effect of nonlinear propagation and focus and in this study, it was experimentally investigated if cavitation cloud was useful for efficient generation of reactive oxygen species. As a result, it was demonstrated that cavitation cloud would be useful for efficient generation of reactive oxygen species.

  12. Experimental investigation on noise of cavitation nozzle and its chaotic behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fenghua; Liu, Haifeng; Xu, Junchao; Tang, Chuanlin

    2013-07-01

    The researches of cavitation noise mainly focus on the incipiency and developing of cavitation to prevent the cavititation erosion in the hydraulic machinery, while there is few report about the collapse strength of cavitation bubbles produced by water jet through the cavitation nozzle to utilize efficiently the collapse energy of cavitation bubbles. The cavitation noise signals are collected with hydrophones for the cavitation nozzle and general nozzle at the target position and the nozzle exit separately in the conditions of different standoff distance. The features of signal's frequency spectrum and power spectrum are analyzed for various nozzles by way of classical methods. Meanwhile, based on chaotic theory, phase space reconstruction is processed and the maximum Lyapunov index is calculated separately for each cavitation signal's time series. The results of chaotic analysis are compared with the one of conventional analysis. The analyzed data show that there are the marked differences at the spectrum between the cavitation nozzle and general nozzle at the target position while the standoff distance is 35 mm, which mainly displays at the high frequency segment (60-120 kHz). The maximum Lyapunov index calculated appear at standoff distance 35 mm, which is an optimum standoff distance for the most bubbles to collapse at the target. At the nozzle exit, the noise signal of cavitation nozzle is different from the general nozzle, which also displays at the high frequency segment. The results demonstrate that the water jet modulated by the cavitation nozzle can produce effectually cavitation, and at the target position the amplitude and energy of noise spectrum in high frequency segment for cavitation nozzle are higher than conventional nozzle and the Lyapunov index of cavitation nozzle is larger than conventional nozzle as the standoff distance is less than 55 mm. The proposed research reveals that the cavitation noise produced by collapse of cavitation bubbles

  13. Stem Hydraulic Conductivity depends on the Pressure at Which It Is Measured and How This Dependence Can Be Used to Assess the Tempo of Bubble Pressurization in Recently Cavitated Vessels1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinyu; Tyree, Melvin T.

    2015-01-01

    Cavitation of water in xylem vessels followed by embolism formation has been authenticated for more than 40 years. Embolism formation involves the gradual buildup of bubble pressure (air) to atmospheric pressure as demanded by Henry’s law of equilibrium between gaseous and liquid phases. However, the tempo of pressure increase has not been quantified. In this report, we show that the rate of pressurization of embolized vessels is controlled by both fast and slow kinetics, where both tempos are controlled by diffusion but over different spatial scales. The fast tempo involves a localized diffusion from endogenous sources: over a distance of about 0.05 mm from water-filled wood to the nearest embolized vessels; this process, in theory, should take <2 min. The slow tempo involves diffusion of air from exogenous sources (outside the stem). The latter diffusion process is slower because of the increased distance of diffusion of up to 4 mm. Radial diffusion models and experimental measurements both confirm that the average time constant is >17 h, with complete equilibrium requiring 1 to 2 d. The implications of these timescales for the standard methods of measuring percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity are discussed in theory and deserve more research in future. PMID:26468516

  14. Pore-network study of bubble growth in porous media driven by heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Satik, C.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1996-05-01

    We present experimental and theoretical investigations of vapor phase growth in pore-network models of porous media. Visualization experiments of boiling of ethyl alcohol in horizontal etched-glass micromodels were conducted. The vapor phase was observed to grow into a disordered pattern following a sequence of pressurization and pore-filling steps. At sufficiently small cluster sizes, growth occurred `one pore at a time,` leading to invasion percolation patterns. Single-bubble (cluster) growth was next simulated with a pore-network simulator that includes heat transfer (convection and conduction), and capillary and viscous forces, although not gravity. A boundary in the parameter space was delineated that separates patterns of growth dictated solely by capillarity (invasion percolation) from other patterns. The region of validity of invasion percolation was found to decrease as the supersaturation (heat flux), the capillary number, the thermal diffusivity, and the vapor cluster size increase. Implications to continuum models are discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Activating Molecules, Ions, and Solid Particles with Acoustic Cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Pflieger, Rachel; Chave, Tony; Virot, Matthieu; Nikitenko, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical and physical effects of ultrasound arise not from a direct interaction of molecules with sound waves, but rather from the acoustic cavitation: the nucleation, growth, and implosive collapse of microbubbles in liquids submitted to power ultrasound. The violent implosion of bubbles leads to the formation of chemically reactive species and to the emission of light, named sonoluminescence. In this manuscript, we describe the techniques allowing study of extreme intrabubble conditions and chemical reactivity of acoustic cavitation in solutions. The analysis of sonoluminescence spectra of water sparged with noble gases provides evidence for nonequilibrium plasma formation. The photons and the "hot" particles generated by cavitation bubbles enable to excite the non-volatile species in solutions increasing their chemical reactivity. For example the mechanism of ultrabright sonoluminescence of uranyl ions in acidic solutions varies with uranium concentration: sonophotoluminescence dominates in diluted solutions, and collisional excitation contributes at higher uranium concentration. Secondary sonochemical products may arise from chemically active species that are formed inside the bubble, but then diffuse into the liquid phase and react with solution precursors to form a variety of products. For instance, the sonochemical reduction of Pt(IV) in pure water provides an innovative synthetic route for monodispersed nanoparticles of metallic platinum without any templates or capping agents. Many studies reveal the advantages of ultrasound to activate the divided solids. In general, the mechanical effects of ultrasound strongly contribute in heterogeneous systems in addition to chemical effects. In particular, the sonolysis of PuO2 powder in pure water yields stable colloids of plutonium due to both effects. PMID:24747272

  16. Improvement of growth rate of plants by bubble discharge in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahata, Junichiro; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Fujio, Takuya; Sasaki, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bubble discharge in water on the growth rate of plants was investigated experimentally for application to plant cultivation systems. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), radish (Raphanus sativus var. sativus), and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) were used as specimens to clarify the effect of the discharge treatment on edible parts of the plants. The specimens were cultivated in pots filled with artificial soil, which included chicken manure charcoal. Distilled water was sprayed on the artificial soil and drained through a hole in the pots to a water storage tank. The water was circulated from the water storage tank to the cultivation pots after 15 or 30 min discharge treatment on alternate days. A magnetic compression-type pulsed power generator was used to produce the bubble discharge with a repetition rate of 250 pps. The plant height in the growth phase and the dry weight of the harvested plants were improved markedly by the discharge treatment in water. The soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value of the plants also improved in the growth phase of the plants. The concentration of nitrate nitrogen, which mainly contributed to the improvement of the growth rate, in the water increased with the discharge treatment. The Brix value of edible parts of Fragaria × ananassa increased with the discharge treatment. The inactivation of bacteria in the water was also confirmed with the discharge treatment.

  17. Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in viscoelastic media with relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnez, M. T.; Johnsen, E.

    2015-06-01

    Cavitation occurs in a variety of non-Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials. The large-amplitude volumetric oscillations of cavitation bubbles give rise to high temperatures and pressures at collapse, as well as induce large and rapid deformation of the surroundings. In this work, we develop a comprehensive numerical framework for spherical bubble dynamics in isotropic media obeying a wide range of viscoelastic constitutive relationships. Our numerical approach solves the compressible Keller-Miksis equation with full thermal effects (inside and outside the bubble) when coupled to a highly generalized constitutive relationship (which allows Newtonian, Kelvin-Voigt, Zener, linear Maxwell, upper-convected Maxwell, Jeffreys, Oldroyd-B, Giesekus, and Phan-Thien-Tanner models). For the latter two models, partial differential equations (PDEs) must be solved in the surrounding medium; for the remaining models, we show that the PDEs can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. To solve the general constitutive PDEs, we present a Chebyshev spectral collocation method, which is robust even for violent collapse. Combining this numerical approach with theoretical analysis, we simulate bubble dynamics in various viscoelastic media to determine the impact of relaxation time, a constitutive parameter, on the associated physics. Relaxation time is found to increase bubble growth and permit rebounds driven purely by residual stresses in the surroundings. Different regimes of oscillations occur depending on the relaxation time.

  18. Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in viscoelastic media with relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Warnez, M. T.; Johnsen, E.

    2015-01-01

    Cavitation occurs in a variety of non-Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials. The large-amplitude volumetric oscillations of cavitation bubbles give rise to high temperatures and pressures at collapse, as well as induce large and rapid deformation of the surroundings. In this work, we develop a comprehensive numerical framework for spherical bubble dynamics in isotropic media obeying a wide range of viscoelastic constitutive relationships. Our numerical approach solves the compressible Keller–Miksis equation with full thermal effects (inside and outside the bubble) when coupled to a highly generalized constitutive relationship (which allows Newtonian, Kelvin–Voigt, Zener, linear Maxwell, upper-convected Maxwell, Jeffreys, Oldroyd-B, Giesekus, and Phan-Thien-Tanner models). For the latter two models, partial differential equations (PDEs) must be solved in the surrounding medium; for the remaining models, we show that the PDEs can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. To solve the general constitutive PDEs, we present a Chebyshev spectral collocation method, which is robust even for violent collapse. Combining this numerical approach with theoretical analysis, we simulate bubble dynamics in various viscoelastic media to determine the impact of relaxation time, a constitutive parameter, on the associated physics. Relaxation time is found to increase bubble growth and permit rebounds driven purely by residual stresses in the surroundings. Different regimes of oscillations occur depending on the relaxation time. PMID:26130967

  19. Experimental investigation of remote seismic triggering by gas bubble growth in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, J. B.; Cooper, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Remotely triggered seismicity is the process by which an earthquake at one location initiates others after a time delay ranging from seconds to days, over distances up to thousands of kilometers. Candidate mechanisms have been proposed, but none specifically address the role of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas bubble growth in groundwater as a driver of remote seismic triggering in active volcanic and geothermal regions, where shallow crustal CO2 gas is abundant. In the present study, we hypothesize that a seismic wave from a distant source can initiate rapid gas bubble growth in CO2-rich groundwater, resulting in a persistent increase in pore fluid pressure and a reduction of effective stress, which can trigger failure on a critically loaded geologic fault. Under conditions representative of a confined aquifer, a Berea sandstone core flooded with an aqueous CO2 solution was subjected to a six-period burst of 0.05-0.3 Hz, 0.1-0.4 MPa confining stress oscillations. After the oscillations were terminated, the pore fluid pressure exceeded its initial value by 13-60 cm equivalent freshwater head, scaling with the amplitude and frequency - a surplus that is consistent with borehole water level changes [Roeloffs et al. (1995) USGS Open File Report, 95-42] observed in response to the June 28 1992 MW 7.3 Landers, California earthquake Rayleigh wave in Parkfield and Long Valley caldera, California, where remotely triggered earthquakes occurred [Hill et al. (1993) Science, 260(5114); Hill et al. (1995) Journal of Geophysical Research, 100(B7)]. Our experimental results indicate that seismically initiated gas bubble growth in groundwater is a physically plausible mechanism for remote seismic triggering in active volcanic and geothermal regions, suggesting that the aqueous CO2 saturation state in a confined aquifer may be used to assess susceptibility to remote seismic triggering.

  20. Investigation of noninertial cavitation produced by an ultrasonic horn.

    PubMed

    Birkin, Peter R; Offin, Douglas G; Vian, Christopher J B; Leighton, Timothy G; Maksimov, Alexey O

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on noninertial cavitation that occurs beyond the zone close to the horn tip to which the inertial cavitation is confined. The noninertial cavitation is characterized by collating the data from a range of measurements of bubbles trapped on a solid surface in this noninertial zone. Specifically, the electrochemical measurement of mass transfer to an electrode is compared with high-speed video of the bubble oscillation. This gas bubble is shown to be a "noninertial" event by electrochemical surface erosion measurements and "ring-down" experiments showing the activity and motion of the bubble as the sound excitation was terminated. These measurements enable characterization of the complex environment produced below an operating ultrasonic horn outside of the region where inertial collapse can be detected. The extent to which solid boundaries in the liquid cause the frequencies and shapes of oscillatory modes on the bubble wall to differ from their free field values is discussed. PMID:22088002

  1. Inertial confinement fusion based on the ion-bubble trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Jafari, S. Nilkar, M.; Ghasemizad, A.; Mehdian, H.

    2014-10-15

    Triggering the ion-bubble in an inertial confinement fusion, we have developed a novel scheme for the fast ignition. This scheme relies on the plasma cavitation by the wake of an intense laser pulse to generate an ion-bubble. The bubble acts both as an intense electron accelerator and as an electron wiggler. Consequently, the accelerated electrons trapped in the bubble can emit an intense tunable laser light. This light can be absorbed by an ablation layer on the outside surface of the ignition capsule, which subsequently drills it and thereby produces a guide channel in the pellet. Finally, the relativistic electron beam created in the bubble is guided through the channel to the high density core igniting the fusion fuel. The normalized beam intensity and beam energy required for triggering the ignition have been calculated when core is heated by the e-beam. In addition, through solving the momentum transfer, continuity and wave equations, a dispersion relation for the electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been analytically derived. The variations of growth rate with the ion-bubble density and electron beam energy have been illustrated. It is found that the growth rates of instability are significantly controlled by the ions concentration and the e-beam energy in the bubble.

  2. Synchronised electrical monitoring and high speed video of bubble growth associated with individual discharges during plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troughton, S. C.; Nominé, A.; Nominé, A. V.; Henrion, G.; Clyne, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    Synchronised electrical current and high speed video information are presented from individual discharges on Al substrates during PEO processing. Exposure time was 8 μs and linear spatial resolution 9 μm. Image sequences were captured for periods of 2 s, during which the sample surface was illuminated with short duration flashes (revealing bubbles formed where the discharge reached the surface of the coating). Correlations were thus established between discharge current, light emission from the discharge channel and (externally-illuminated) dimensions of the bubble as it expanded and contracted. Bubbles reached radii of 500 μm, within periods of 100 μs, with peak growth velocity about 10 m/s. It is deduced that bubble growth occurs as a consequence of the progressive volatilisation of water (electrolyte), without substantial increases in either pressure or temperature within the bubble. Current continues to flow through the discharge as the bubble expands, and this growth (and the related increase in electrical resistance) is thought to be responsible for the current being cut off (soon after the point of maximum radius). A semi-quantitative audit is presented of the transformations between different forms of energy that take place during the lifetime of a discharge.

  3. Detecting cavitation in mercury exposed to a high-energy pulsed proton beam.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Nicholas J; Chitnis, Parag V; Holt, R Glynn; Roy, Ronald A; Cleveland, Robin O; Riemer, Bernie; Wendel, Mark

    2010-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source employs a high-energy pulsed proton beam incident on a mercury target to generate short bursts of neutrons. Absorption of the proton beam produces rapid heating of the mercury, resulting in the formation of acoustic shock waves and the nucleation of cavitation bubbles. The subsequent collapse of these cavitation bubbles promote erosion of the steel target walls. Preliminary measurements using two passive cavitation detectors (megahertz-frequency focused and unfocused piezoelectric transducers) installed in a mercury test target to monitor cavitation generated by proton beams with charges ranging from 0.041 to 4.1 muC will be reported on. Cavitation was initially detected for a beam charge of 0.082 muC by the presence of an acoustic emission approximately 250 mus after arrival of the incident proton beam. This emission was consistent with an inertial cavitation collapse of a bubble with an estimated maximum bubble radius of 0.19 mm, based on collapse time. The peak pressure in the mercury for the initiation of cavitation was predicted to be 0.6 MPa. For a beam charge of 0.41 muC and higher, the lifetimes of the bubbles exceeded the reverberation time of the chamber ( approximately 300 mus), and distinct windows of cavitation activity were detected, a phenomenon that likely resulted from the interaction of the reverberation in the chamber and the cavitation bubbles. PMID:20370004

  4. Detecting cavitation in mercury exposed to a high-energy pulsed proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Manzi, Nicholas J; Chitnis, Parag V; Holt, Ray G; Roy, Ronald A; Cleveland, Robin O; Riemer, Bernie; Wendel, Mark W

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source employs a high-energy pulsed proton beam incident on a mercury target to generate short bursts of neutrons. Absorption of the proton beam produces rapid heating of the mercury, resulting in the formation of acoustic shock waves and the nucleation of cavitation bubbles. The subsequent collapse of these cavitation bubbles promote erosion of the steel target walls. Preliminary measurements using two passive cavitation detectors (megahertz-frequency focused and unfocused piezoelectric transducers) installed in a mercury test target to monitor cavitation generated by proton beams with charges ranging from 0.041 to 4.1 C will be reported on. Cavitation was initially detected for a beam charge of 0.082 C by the presence of an acoustic emission approximately 250 s after arrival of the incident proton beam. This emission was consistent with an inertial cavitation collapse of a bubble with an estimated maximum bubble radius of 0.19 mm, based on collapse time. The peak pressure in the mercury for the initiation of cavitation was predicted to be 0.6 MPa. For a beam charge of 0.41 C and higher, the lifetimes of the bubbles exceeded the reverberation time of the chamber (~300 s), and distinct windows of cavitation activity were detected, a phenomenon that likely resulted from the interaction of the reverberation in the chamber and the cavitation bubbles.

  5. Photoacoustic cavitation for theranostics: mechanism, current progress and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Qin, D.; Wan, M.

    2015-12-01

    As an emerging cavitation technology, photoacoustic cavitation (PAC) means the formation of bubbles in liquids using focused laser and pre-established ultrasound synchronously. Its significant advantages include the decreased threshold of each modality and the precise location of cavitation determined by the focused laser. In this paper, a brief review of PAC is presented, including the physical mechanism description, the classic experimental technology, the representative results in variety of media, and its applications in biomedical imaging and therapy. Moreover, some preliminary results of PAC in perfluoropentane (PFP) liquid and PFP droplets investigated by passive cavitation detection (PCD) in our group are also presented.

  6. Large-scale atomistic simulations of helium-3 bubble growth in complex palladium alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hale, Lucas M.; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Wong, Bryan M.

    2016-05-18

    Palladium is an attractive material for hydrogen and hydrogen-isotope storage applications due to its properties of large storage density and high diffusion of lattice hydrogen. When considering tritium storage, the material’s structural and mechanical integrity is threatened by both the embrittlement effect of hydrogen and the creation and evolution of additional crystal defects (e.g., dislocations, stacking faults) caused by the formation and growth of helium-3 bubbles. Using recently developed inter-atomic potentials for the palladium-silver-hydrogen system, we perform large-scale atomistic simulations to examine the defect-mediated mechanisms that govern helium bubble growth. Our simulations show the evolution of a distribution of materialmore » defects, and we compare the material behavior displayed with expectations from experiment and theory. In conclusion, we also present density functional theory calculations to characterize ideal tensile and shear strengths for these materials, which enable the understanding of how and why our developed potentials either meet or confound these expectations.« less

  7. Large-scale atomistic simulations of helium-3 bubble growth in complex palladium alloys.

    PubMed

    Hale, Lucas M; Zimmerman, Jonathan A; Wong, Bryan M

    2016-05-21

    Palladium is an attractive material for hydrogen and hydrogen-isotope storage applications due to its properties of large storage density and high diffusion of lattice hydrogen. When considering tritium storage, the material's structural and mechanical integrity is threatened by both the embrittlement effect of hydrogen and the creation and evolution of additional crystal defects (e.g., dislocations, stacking faults) caused by the formation and growth of helium-3 bubbles. Using recently developed inter-atomic potentials for the palladium-silver-hydrogen system, we perform large-scale atomistic simulations to examine the defect-mediated mechanisms that govern helium bubble growth. Our simulations show the evolution of a distribution of material defects, and we compare the material behavior displayed with expectations from experiment and theory. We also present density functional theory calculations to characterize ideal tensile and shear strengths for these materials, which enable the understanding of how and why our developed potentials either meet or confound these expectations. PMID:27208963

  8. Optical Measurements of Cavitation in Tribological Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tian; Morris, Nick; Coupland, Jeremy

    2015-12-01

    The paper describes the use of a white light interformeter to measure the cavitation bubble and oil film thickness in a tribological contact and compares the results to theory. It is found that oil film thickness is best predicted by the theory proposed by Coyne and Elrod.

  9. Detection of cavitation in hydraulic turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escaler, Xavier; Egusquiza, Eduard; Farhat, Mohamed; Avellan, François; Coussirat, Miguel

    2006-05-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out in order to evaluate the detection of cavitation in actual hydraulic turbines. The methodology is based on the analysis of structural vibrations, acoustic emissions and hydrodynamic pressures measured in the machine. The proposed techniques have been checked in real prototypes suffering from different types of cavitation. In particular, one Kaplan, two Francis and one Pump-Turbine have been investigated in the field. Additionally, one Francis located in a laboratory has also been tested. First, a brief description of the general features of cavitation phenomenon is given as well as of the main types of cavitation occurring in hydraulic turbines. The work presented here is focused on the most important ones which are the leading edge cavitation due to its erosive power, the bubble cavitation because it affects the machine performance and the draft tube swirl that limits the operation stability. Cavitation detection is based on the previous understanding of the cavity dynamics and its location inside the machine. This knowledge has been gained from flow visualisations and measurements in laboratory devices such as a high-speed cavitation tunnel and a reduced scale turbine test rig. The main techniques are the study of the high frequency spectral content of the signals and of their amplitude demodulation for a given frequency band. Moreover, low frequency spectral content can also be used in certain cases. The results obtained for the various types of cavitation found in the selected machines are presented and discussed in detail in the paper. Conclusions are drawn about the best sensor, measuring location, signal processing and analysis for each type of cavitation, which serve to validate and to improve the detection techniques.

  10. Improving microalgal growth with reduced diameters of aeration bubbles and enhanced mass transfer of solution in an oscillating flow field.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zongbo; Cheng, Jun; Lin, Richen; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-07-01

    A novel oscillating gas aerator combined with an oscillating baffle was proposed to generate smaller aeration bubbles and enhance solution mass transfer, which can improve microalgal growth in a raceway pond. A high-speed photography system (HSP) was used to measure bubble diameter and generation time, and online precise dissolved oxygen probes and pH probes were used to measure mass-transfer coefficient and mixing time. Bubble diameter and generation time decreased with decreased aeration gas rate, decreased orifice diameter, and increased water velocity in the oscillating gas aerator. The optimized oscillating gas aerator decreased bubble diameter and generation time by 25% and 58%, respectively, compared with a horizontal tubular gas aerator. Using an oscillating gas aerator and an oscillating baffle in a raceway pond increased the solution mass-transfer coefficient by 15% and decreased mixing time by 32%; consequently, microalgal biomass yield increased by 19%. PMID:27035474

  11. Investigation of bubble dynamics and heating during focused ultrasound insonation in tissue-mimicking materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinmai

    2003-10-01

    The deposition of ultrasonic energy in tissue can cause tissue damage due to local heating. For pressures above a critical threshold, cavitation will occur in tissue and bubbles will be created. These oscillating bubbles can induce a much larger thermal energy deposition in the local region. The present work is an attempt to control and utilize this bubble-enhanced heating. First, by applying appropriate bubble dynamic models, limits on the asymptotic bubble size distribution are obtained for different driving pressures at 1 MHz. The size distributions are bounded by two thresholds: the bubble shape instability threshold and the rectified diffusion threshold. The growth rate of bubbles in this region is also given, and the resulting time evolution of the heating in a given insonation scenario is modeled. Experimental results have been obtained to investigate the bubble-enhanced heating in an agar and graphite based tissue-mimicking material. By fitting appropriate bubble densities in the ultrasound field, the peak temperature changes observed in experiments are simulated. Finally, a simple bubbly liquid model is presented to estimate shielding effects which may be important even for low void fraction during high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. Thesis advisor: R. Glynn Holt Copies of this thesis may be obtained by contacting the advisor, Glynn Holt, Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, 110 Cummington St., Boston, MA 02215. E-mail address: rgholt@bu.edu

  12. Periodic cavitation shedding in a cylindrical orifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, C.; Barber, T.; Milton, B.; Rosengarten, G.

    2011-11-01

    Cavitation structures in a large-scale ( D = 8.25 mm), plain orifice style nozzle within a unique experimental rig are investigated using high-speed visualisation and digital image processing techniques. Refractive index matching with an acrylic nozzle is achieved using aqueous sodium iodide for the test fluid. Cavitation collapse length, unsteady shedding frequency and spray angles are measured for cavitation conditions from incipient to supercavitation for a range of Reynolds numbers, for a fixed L/ D ratio of 4.85. Periodic cavitation shedding was shown to occur with frequencies between 500 and 2,000 Hz for conditions in which cavitation occupied less than 30% of the nozzle length. A discontinuity in collapse length was shown to occur once the cavitation exceeded this length, coinciding with a loss of periodic shedding. A mechanism for this behaviour is discussed. Peak spray angles of approximately θ ≈ 14° were recorded for supercavitation conditions indicating the positive influence of cavitation bubble collapse on the jet atomisation process.

  13. Study on cavitation behavior during high-intensity focused ultrasound exposure by using optical and ultrasonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Kei; Takagi, Ryo; Yasuda, Jun; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Cavitation bubbles are known to enhance the heating effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). In our previous study, the use of a “triggered HIFU” sequence consisting of a high-intensity pulse and a relatively low-intensity burst was proposed as an effective method to utilize the effect of cavitation bubbles. However, the duration of each component in the sequence has not been optimized. In this study, optical imaging was carried out to observe the behavior of cavitation bubbles in a gel phantom during the triggered HIFU exposure. Ultrasound imaging using the pulse inversion method was also conducted to detect the behavior of the bubbles. The results suggest that the oscillation of cavitation bubbles become inactive as the duration of HIFU burst exposure increases to the order of 10 ms. It was also suggested that ultrasonic imaging has potential use for detecting a change in the oscillation of cavitation bubbles for optimizing a triggered HIFU sequence.

  14. Removal of Residual Nuclei Following a Cavitation Event using Low-Amplitude Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Duryea, Alexander P.; Cain, Charles A.; Tamaddoni, Hedieh A.; Roberts, William W.; Hall, Timothy L.

    2014-01-01

    Microscopic residual bubble nuclei can persist on the order of 1 second following a cavitation event. These bubbles can limit the efficacy of ultrasound therapies such as shock wave lithotripsy and histotripsy, as they attenuate pulses that arrive subsequent to their formation and seed repetitive cavitation activity at a discrete set of sites (cavitation memory). Here, we explore a strategy for the removal of these residual bubbles following a cavitation event, using low amplitude ultrasound pulses to stimulate bubble coalescence. All experiments were conducted in degassed water and monitored using high speed photography. In each case, a 2 MHz histotripsy transducer was used to initiate cavitation activity (a cavitational bubble cloud), the collapse of which generated a population of residual bubble nuclei. This residual nuclei population was then sonicated using a 1 ms pulse from a separate 500 kHz transducer, which we term the ‘bubble removal pulse.’ Bubble removal pulse amplitudes ranging from 0 to 1.7 MPa were tested, and the backlit area of shadow from bubbles remaining in the field following bubble removal was calculated to quantify efficacy. It was found that an ideal amplitude range exists (roughly 180 – 570 kPa) in which bubble removal pulses stimulate the aggregation and subsequent coalescence of residual bubble nuclei, effectively removing them from the field. Further optimization of bubble removal pulse sequences stands to provide an adjunct to cavitation-based ultrasound therapies such as shock wave lithotripsy and histotripsy, mitigating the effects of residual bubble nuclei that currently limit their efficacy. PMID:25265172

  15. Growth characteristics of Chlorella sorokiniana in airlift and bubble column photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kanhaiya; Das, Debabrata

    2012-07-01

    The present study investigated the feasibility of bioCO(2) sequestration using Chlorella sorokiniana. It was found that 5% CO(2) (v/v) in air was the most suitable concentration for the growth of this organism. At this concentration, the maximum rate of CO(2) sequestered and the biomass obtained were found to be 1.21 g L(-1)d(-1) and 4.4 g L(-1) respectively. Modeling and simulation of the growth profile was obtained using the logistic equation. Further, at higher CO(2) concentrations, pH drop in the growth media, TAP [-acetate], was prevented by replacing NH(4)Cl by NaNO(3.) Additionally, the study evaluated the performance of two reactors namely: bubble column and airlift reactor based on their growth profile and transport properties like K(L)a and mixing time. The growth profile was better in airlift reactor and it provides cyclic axial mixing of media. K(L)a of downcomer was significantly lower than the riser in airlift reactor. PMID:22525259

  16. PIV Analysis of Cavitation Flow Characteristics of He II

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, K.; Murakami, M.

    2006-04-27

    In the present experimental study cavitation phenomena in both He I and He II flows were investigated through the application of the PIV technique and visual observation under the saturated vapor pressure condition. The cavitation flow was generated in the downstream regions of a Venturi channel and a converging jet nozzle driven by a contracting metal bellows. It is seen that cavitation inception is a kind of stochastic process and has definite temperature dependence. The spatial distribution of the cavitation bubble velocity is measured by using the PIV technique. Some differences in the cavitating flow pattern and the void fraction are found between He II and He I cavitating flows. The PIV result indicates that the void fraction for He II flow is larger than that for He I flow.

  17. Numerical study of nucleation and growth of bubbles in viscous magmas

    SciTech Connect

    Toramaru, A.

    1995-02-01

    The nucleation and growth processes of bubbles in viscous magmas with a constant decompression rate have been numerically investigated based on a formation which accounts for effects of viscosity, as well as diffusivity, interfacial tension, and decompression rate. The numerical solutions show two regimes in the nucleation and growth process, a diffusion-controlled regime and a viscosity-controlled regime, mainly depending on the decompression rate, initial saturation pressure and viscosity. The basic mechanism common to both regimes is that growth governs nucleation through depletion of degassing components. In basaltic eruptions the vesiculation is essentially controlled by diffusion, and the viscosity-controlled regime is limited to very high decompression rate and very small water content. When andesitic magma saturated by water at 10 MPa is decompressed through the propagation of rarefraction wave induced by a landslide, as took place in the Mount St. Helens 1980 eruption, the vesiculation is controlled by the viscosity up to 100 m depth. On the other hand, in a rhyolitic magma for the same situation, vesiculation is controlled by the viscosity over the whole depth of the magma column. In the viscosity-controlled regime, the vesicularity may be 90% or less as seen in silicic pumice, whereas in the diffusion-controlled regime the vesicularity equals or exceeds 98% such as in reticulite in Hawaiian basalt. An observed variation of the number density of bubbles by several orders of magnitude in plinian eruptions and the correlation with the SiO2 content can be attributed approximately to the dependence of diffusivity of viscosity on SiO2 content and temperature, assuming the apparent correlation between SiO2 content and temperature of magma.

  18. Metallic bubbles nucleation and growth in VO2 nanofilms: insights from TDDFT+DMFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkowski, Volodymyr; Galicia-Hernandez, Jose Mario; Hernandez-Cocoletzi, Gregorio; Rahman, Talat S.

    We apply a time-dependent density-functional theory + dynamical mean-field theory (TDDFT+DMFT) approach to model the response of insulating nanofilms of VO2 to perturbations by ultrafast laser pulses. We focus on the spatially-resolved metallization of the systems, and especially on the process of nucleation and time-dependence of the size of the ''surface'' and ''bulk'' metallic domains (bubbles) as a function of film width. In particular, we find that the initial universal (parameter-independent) growth of the domains (radius R ~t 1 / 2), changes by the bubbles shrinking (R ~t-a , a ~ 1) as a result of Coulomb scattering effects, and eventually by post-femto-second phonon-involved relaxation of the systems to the equilibrium accompanied by infrared photoemission. The time-dependent conductivity obtained from the above results is in a good agreement with available experimental data. Work supported in part by DOE Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-07ER46354 and by CONACYT Scholarship # 23210 (J.M.G.H.).

  19. Numerical simulation on the cavitation of waterjet propulsion pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, C. Z.; Cheng, L.; Shang, Y. N.; Zhou, J. R.; Yang, F.; Jin, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Waterjet propulsion system is widely used in high speed vessels with advantages of simple transmission mechanism, low noise underwater and good manoeuvrability. Compared with the propeller, waterjet propulsion can be used flow stamping to increasing cavitation resistance at high speed. But under certain conditions, such as low ship speed or high ship speed, cavitation problem still exists. If water-jet propulsion pump is run in cavitation condition for a long time, then the cavitation will cause a great deal of noise CFD is applied to analysis and predict the process of production and development of cavitation in waterjet propulsion pump. Based on the cavitation model of Zwart-Gerber-Belamri and a mixture of homogeneous flow model, commercial CFD software CFX was taken for characteristics of cavitation under the three operating conditions. Commercial software ANSYS 14.0 is used to build entity model, mesh and numerical simulation. The grid independence analysis determine the grid number of mixed flow pump model is about 1.6 million and the grid number of water-jet pump system unit is about 2.7 million. The cavitation characteristics of waterjet pump under three operating conditions are studied. The results show that the cavitation development trend is similar design and small rate of flow condition .Under the design conditions Cavitation bubbles are mainly gathered in suction surface of blade near the inlet side of the hub under the primary stage, and gradually extended to the water side in the direction of the rim with the loss of the inlet total pressure. Cavitation appears in hub before the blade rim, but the maximum value of gas content in blade rim is bigger than that in hub. Under large flow conditions, bubble along the direction of wheel hub extends to the rim gradually. Cavitation is found in the pressure surface of blade near the hub region under the critical point of cavitation nearby. When NPSHa is lower than critical point, the area covering by bubbles

  20. Sonochemistry and bubble dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mettin, Robert; Cairós, Carlos; Troia, Adriano

    2015-07-01

    The details of bubble behaviour in chemically active cavitation are still not sufficiently well understood. Here we report on experimental high-speed observations of acoustically driven single-bubble and few-bubble systems with the aim of clarification of the connection of their dynamics with chemical activity. Our experiment realises the sonochemical isomerization reaction of maleic acid to fumaric acid, mediated by bromine radicals, in a bubble trap set-up. The main result is that the reaction product can only be observed in a parameter regime where a small bubble cluster occurs, while a single trapped bubble stays passive. Evaluations of individual bubble dynamics for both cases are given in form of radius-time data and numerical fits to a bubble model. A conclusion is that a sufficiently strong collapse has to be accompanied by non-spherical bubble dynamics for the reaction to occur, and that the reason appears to be an efficient mixing of liquid and gas phase. This finding corroborates previous observations and literature reports on high liquid phase sonochemical activity under distinct parameter conditions than strong sonoluminescence emissions. PMID:25194210

  1. Dynamics of concerted bubble cluster collapse in shock wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; Evan, Andrew P.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Colonius, Tim; Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2003-10-01

    Cavitation bubble cluster collapse at the surface of artificial kidney stones during shock wave lithotripsy was investigated in vitro by means of multiframe high-speed photography, passive cavitation detection (PCD), and pressure waveform measurements using a fiber-optic probe hydrophone (FOPH). It was observed that after the passage of the lithotripter shock pulse the stone was covered by numerous individual bubbles. During their growth phase the bubbles coalesced into bubble clusters, with the biggest cluster at the proximal face of the stone. High-speed camera images suggested that cluster collapse started at the periphery and ended with a violent collapse in a small region in the center of the surface of the stone. Shadowgraphy resolved numerous secondary shock waves emitted during this focused collapse. Shock wave emission during cluster collapse was confirmed by PCD. Measurement with the FOPH showed that these shock waves were typically of short duration (0.2 μs). The majority of the shock waves emanating from cluster collapse were low amplitude but some shock waves registered amplitudes on the order of the incident shock pulse (tens of MPa). [Work supported by NIH DK43881, DK55674.

  2. Role of bubble growth dynamics on microscale heat transfer events in microchannel flow boiling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigham, Sajjad; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    For nearly two decades, the microchannel flow boiling heat transfer process has been the subject of numerous studies. A plethora of experimental studies have been conducted to decipher the underlying physics of the process, and different hypotheses have been presented to describe its microscopic details. Despite these efforts, the underlying assumptions of the existing hypothesis have remained largely unexamined. Here, using data at the microscopic level provided by a unique measurement approach, we deconstruct the boiling heat transfer process into a set of basic mechanisms and explain their role in the overall surface heat transfer. We then show how this knowledge allows to relate the bubble growth and flow dynamics to the surface heat flux.

  3. Evaporation-induced cavitation in nanofluidic channels

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Chuanhua; Karnik, Rohit; Lu, Ming-Chang; Majumdar, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Cavitation, known as the formation of vapor bubbles when liquids are under tension, is of great interest both in condensed matter science as well as in diverse applications such as botany, hydraulic engineering, and medicine. Although widely studied in bulk and microscale-confined liquids, cavitation in the nanoscale is generally believed to be energetically unfavorable and has never been experimentally demonstrated. Here we report evaporation-induced cavitation in water-filled hydrophilic nanochannels under enormous negative pressures up to -7 MPa. As opposed to receding menisci observed in microchannel evaporation, the menisci in nanochannels are pinned at the entrance while vapor bubbles form and expand inside. Evaporation in the channels is found to be aided by advective liquid transport, which leads to an evaporation rate that is an order of magnitude higher than that governed by Fickian vapor diffusion in macro- and microscale evaporation. The vapor bubbles also exhibit unusual motion as well as translational stability and symmetry, which occur because of a balance between two competing mass fluxes driven by thermocapillarity and evaporation. Our studies expand our understanding of cavitation and provide new insights for phase-change phenomena at the nanoscale. PMID:22343530

  4. Towards numerical prediction of cavitation erosion.

    PubMed

    Fivel, Marc; Franc, Jean-Pierre; Chandra Roy, Samir

    2015-10-01

    This paper is intended to provide a potential basis for a numerical prediction of cavitation erosion damage. The proposed method can be divided into two steps. The first step consists in determining the loading conditions due to cavitation bubble collapses. It is shown that individual pits observed on highly polished metallic samples exposed to cavitation for a relatively small time can be considered as the signature of bubble collapse. By combining pitting tests with an inverse finite-element modelling (FEM) of the material response to a representative impact load, loading conditions can be derived for each individual bubble collapse in terms of stress amplitude (in gigapascals) and radial extent (in micrometres). This step requires characterizing as accurately as possible the properties of the material exposed to cavitation. This characterization should include the effect of strain rate, which is known to be high in cavitation erosion (typically of the order of several thousands s(-1)). Nanoindentation techniques as well as compressive tests at high strain rate using, for example, a split Hopkinson pressure bar test system may be used. The second step consists in developing an FEM approach to simulate the material response to the repetitive impact loads determined in step 1. This includes a detailed analysis of the hardening process (isotropic versus kinematic) in order to properly account for fatigue as well as the development of a suitable model of material damage and failure to account for mass loss. Although the whole method is not yet fully operational, promising results are presented that show that such a numerical method might be, in the long term, an alternative to correlative techniques used so far for cavitation erosion prediction. PMID:26442139

  5. Do not drop: mechanical shock in vials causes cavitation, protein aggregation, and particle formation.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Theodore W; Schiltz, Elise; Sederstrom, Donn; Steinmann, Daniel; Mozziconacci, Olivier; Schöneich, Christian; Freund, Erwin; Ricci, Margaret S; Carpenter, John F; Lengsfeld, Corrine S

    2015-02-01

    Industry experience suggests that g-forces sustained when vials containing protein formulations are accidentally dropped can cause aggregation and particle formation. To study this phenomenon, a shock tower was used to apply controlled g-forces to glass vials containing formulations of two monoclonal antibodies and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). High-speed video analysis showed cavitation bubbles forming within 30 μs and subsequently collapsing in the formulations. As a result of echoing shock waves, bubbles collapsed and reappeared periodically over a millisecond time course. Fluid mechanics simulations showed low-pressure regions within the fluid where cavitation would be favored. A hydroxyphenylfluorescein assay determined that cavitation produced hydroxyl radicals. When mechanical shock was applied to vials containing protein formulations, gelatinous particles appeared on the vial walls. Size-exclusion chromatographic analysis of the formulations after shock did not detect changes in monomer or soluble aggregate concentrations. However, subvisible particle counts determined by microflow image analysis increased. The mass of protein attached to the vial walls increased with increasing drop height. Both protein in bulk solution and protein that became attached to the vial walls after shock were analyzed by mass spectrometry. rhGH recovered from the vial walls in some samples revealed oxidation of Met and/or Trp residues. PMID:25418950

  6. DO NOT DROP: MECHANICAL SHOCK IN VIALS CAUSES CAVITATION, PROTEIN AGGREGATION AND PARTICLE FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Theodore W.; Schiltz, Elise; Sederstrom, Donn; Steinmann, Daniel; Mozziconacci, Olivier; Schöneich, Christian; Freund, Erwin; Ricci, Margaret S.; Carpenter, John F.; Lengsfeld, Corrine S.

    2014-01-01

    Industry experience suggests that g-forces sustained when vials containing protein formulations are accidentally dropped can cause aggregation and particle formation. To study this phenomenon, a shock tower was used to apply controlled g-forces to glass vials containing formulations of two monoclonal antibodies and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). High-speed video analysis showed cavitation bubbles forming within 30 μs and subsequently collapsing in the formulations. As a result of echoing shock waves, bubbles collapsed and reappeared periodically over a millisecond timecourse. Fluid mechanics simulations showed low-pressure regions within the fluid where cavitation would be favored. A hydroxyphenylfluorescein assay determined that cavitation produced hydroxyl radicals. When mechanical shock was applied to vials containing protein formulations, gelatinous particles appeared on the vial walls. Size exclusion chromatographic analysis of the formulations after shock did not detect changes in monomer or soluble aggregate concentrations. However, subvisible particle counts determined by microflow image analysis increased. The mass of protein attached to the vial walls increased with increasing drop height. Both protein in bulk solution and protein that became attached to the vial walls after shock were analyzed by mass spectrometry. rhGH recovered from the vial walls in some samples revealed oxidation of Met and/or Trp residues. PMID:25418950

  7. Influence of the empirical coefficients of cavitation model on predicting cavitating flow in the centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hou-lin; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Hua; Huang, Haoqin

    2014-03-01

    The phenomenon of cavitation is an unsteady flow, which is nearly inevitable in pump. It would degrade the pump performance, produce vibration and noise and even damage the pump. Hence, to improve accuracy of the nu¬merical prediction of the pump cavitation performance is much desirable. In the present work, a homogenous model, the Zwart-Gerber-Belamri cavitation model, is considered to investigate the influence of the empirical coefficients on predicting the pump cavitation performance, concerning a centrifugal pump. Three coefficients are analyzed, namely the nucleation site radius, evaporation and condensation coefficients. Also, the experiments are carried out to validate the numerical simulations. The results indicate that, to get a precise prediction, the approaches of declining the initial bubble radius, the condensation coefficient or increasing the evaporation coefficient are all feasible, especially for de¬clining the condensation coefficient, which is the most effective way.

  8. High-speed motion picture camera experiments of cavitation in dynamically loaded journal bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    A high-speed camera was used to investigate cavitation in dynamically loaded journal bearings. The length-diameter ratio of the bearing, the speeds of the shaft and bearing, the surface material of the shaft, and the static and dynamic eccentricity of the bearing were varied. The results reveal not only the appearance of gas cavitation, but also the development of previously unsuspected vapor cavitation. It was found that gas cavitation increases with time until, after many hundreds of pressure cycles, there is a constant amount of gas kept in the cavitation zone of the bearing. The gas can have pressures of many times the atmospheric pressure. Vapor cavitation bubbles, on the other hand, collapse at pressures lower than the atmospheric pressure and cannot be transported through a high-pressure zone, nor does the amount of vapor cavitation in a bearing increase with time. Analysis is given to support the experimental findings for both gas and vapor cavitation.

  9. Implementation of two-phase tritium models for helium bubbles in HCLL breeding blanket modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradera, J.; Sedano, L.; Mas de les Valls, E.; Batet, L.

    2011-10-01

    Tritium self-sufficiency requirement of future DT fusion reactors involves large helium production rates in the breeding blankets; this might impact on the conceptual design of diverse fusion power reactor units, such as Liquid Metal (LM) blankets. Low solubility, long residence-times and high production rates create the conditions for Helium nucleation, which could mean effective T sinks in LM channels. A model for helium nano-bubble formation and tritium conjugate transport phenomena in liquid Pb17.5Li and EUROFER is proposed. In a first approximation, it has been considered that He bubbles can be represented as a passive scalar. The nucleation model is based on the classical theory and includes a simplified bubble growth model. The model captures the interaction of tritium with bubbles and tritium diffusion through walls. Results show the influence of helium cavitation on tritium inventory and the importance of simulating the system walls instead of imposing fixed boundary conditions.

  10. FOREWORD: International Symposium of Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    multiphase flow detection Fluid-structure interaction induced by cavitation and multiphase flow Multi-scale modelling of cavitating flows and Multiphase Flow Cavitation nuclei: theory and experiments Supercavitation and its applications Synergetic effects of cavitation and silt-laden erosion Shock waves and microjets generated by cavitation Nonlinear oscillations of gas and vapour bubbles Fundamentals of physics of acoustic cavitation Sonochemistry and sonoluminescence Biomedical applications of cavitation effects Ultrasonic cavitation for molten metal treatment Cavitation for enhanced heat transfer The ISCM 2014 brought together 95 scientists, researchers and graduate students from 11 countries, affiliated with universities, technology centers and industrial firms to debate topics related to advanced technologies for cavitation and Multiphase Flow, which would enhance the sustainable development of cavitation and Multiphase Flow in interdisciplinary sciences and technology. The technical committee selected 54 technical papers on the following topics: (i) Hydrodynamic Cavitation, (ii) Super Cavitation, (iii) Pump Cavitation, (iv) Acoustic Cavitation, (v) Interdisciplinary Research of Cavitation and Multi-Phase Flows, and 13 invited plenary and invited forum lectures, which were presented at the symposium, to be included in the proceedings. All the papers of ISCM 2014, which are published in this Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, had been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the ISCM 2014, those are Yulin WU, Shouqi YUAN, Zhengwei WANG, Shuhong LIU, Xingqi LUO, Fujun WANG and Guoyu WANG. The papers published in this Volume include 54 technical papers and 3 full length texts of the invited lectures. We sincerely hope that the International Symposium on Cavitation and Multiphase Flow is a significant step forward in the world wide efforts to address the present challenges in the modern science and technology. Professor

  11. Cavitation milling of natural cellulose to nanofibrils.

    PubMed

    Pinjari, Dipak Vitthal; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2010-06-01

    Cavitation holds the promise of a new and exciting approach to fabricate both top down and bottom up nanostructures. Cavitation bubbles are created when a liquid boils under less than atmospheric pressure. The collapse process occurs supersonically and generates a host of physical and chemical effects. We have made an attempt to fabricate natural cellulose material using hydrodynamic as well as acoustic cavitation. The cellulose material having initial size of 63 micron was used for the experiments. 1% (w/v) slurry of cellulose sample was circulated through the hydrodynamic cavitation device or devices (orifice) for 6h. The average velocity of the fluid through the device was 10.81m/s while average pressure applied was 7.8 kg/cm(2). Cavitation number was found to be 2.61. The average particle size obtained after treatment was 1.36 micron. This hydrodynamically processed sample was sonicated for 1h 50 min. The average size of ultrasonically processed particles was found to be 301 nm. Further, the cellulose particles were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to see the effect of cavitation on crystallinity (X(c)) as well as on melting temperature (T(m)). Cellulose structures consist of amorphous as well as crystalline regions. The initial raw sample was 86.56% crystalline but due to the effect of cavitation, the crystallinity reduced to 37.76%. Also the melting temperature (T(m)) was found to be reduced from 101.78 degrees C of the original to 60.13 degrees C of the processed sample. SEM images for the cellulose (processed and unprocessed) shows the status and fiber-fiber alignment and its orientation with each other. Finally cavitation has proved to be very efficient tool for reduction in size from millimeter to nano scale for highly crystalline materials. PMID:20362487

  12. High Speed Imaging of Cavitation around Dental Ultrasonic Scaler Tips

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Nina; Pecheva, Emilia; Dehghani, Hamid; Sammons, Rachel L.; Wang, Qianxi X.; Leppinen, David M.; Walmsley, A. Damien

    2016-01-01

    Cavitation occurs around dental ultrasonic scalers, which are used clinically for removing dental biofilm and calculus. However it is not known if this contributes to the cleaning process. Characterisation of the cavitation around ultrasonic scalers will assist in assessing its contribution and in developing new clinical devices for removing biofilm with cavitation. The aim is to use high speed camera imaging to quantify cavitation patterns around an ultrasonic scaler. A Satelec ultrasonic scaler operating at 29 kHz with three different shaped tips has been studied at medium and high operating power using high speed imaging at 15,000, 90,000 and 250,000 frames per second. The tip displacement has been recorded using scanning laser vibrometry. Cavitation occurs at the free end of the tip and increases with power while the area and width of the cavitation cloud varies for different shaped tips. The cavitation starts at the antinodes, with little or no cavitation at the node. High speed image sequences combined with scanning laser vibrometry show individual microbubbles imploding and bubble clouds lifting and moving away from the ultrasonic scaler tip, with larger tip displacement causing more cavitation. PMID:26934340

  13. High Speed Imaging of Cavitation around Dental Ultrasonic Scaler Tips.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Nina; Pecheva, Emilia; Dehghani, Hamid; Sammons, Rachel L; Wang, Qianxi X; Leppinen, David M; Walmsley, A Damien

    2016-01-01

    Cavitation occurs around dental ultrasonic scalers, which are used clinically for removing dental biofilm and calculus. However it is not known if this contributes to the cleaning process. Characterisation of the cavitation around ultrasonic scalers will assist in assessing its contribution and in developing new clinical devices for removing biofilm with cavitation. The aim is to use high speed camera imaging to quantify cavitation patterns around an ultrasonic scaler. A Satelec ultrasonic scaler operating at 29 kHz with three different shaped tips has been studied at medium and high operating power using high speed imaging at 15,000, 90,000 and 250,000 frames per second. The tip displacement has been recorded using scanning laser vibrometry. Cavitation occurs at the free end of the tip and increases with power while the area and width of the cavitation cloud varies for different shaped tips. The cavitation starts at the antinodes, with little or no cavitation at the node. High speed image sequences combined with scanning laser vibrometry show individual microbubbles imploding and bubble clouds lifting and moving away from the ultrasonic scaler tip, with larger tip displacement causing more cavitation. PMID:26934340

  14. Calcium Is a Major Determinant of Xylem Vulnerability to Cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Herbette, Stephane; Cochard, Herve

    2010-01-01

    Xylem vulnerability to cavitation is a key parameter in the drought tolerance of trees, but little is known about the control mechanisms involved. Cavitation is thought to occur when an air bubble penetrates through a pit wall, and would hence be influenced by the wall's porosity. We first tested the role of wall-bound calcium in vulnerability to cavitation in Fagus sylvatica. Stems perfused with solutions of oxalic acid, EGTA, or sodium phosphate (NaPO4) were found to be more vulnerable to cavitation. The NaPO4-induced increase in vulnerability to cavitation was linked to calcium removal from the wall. In contrast, xylem hydraulic conductance was unaffected by the chemical treatments, demonstrating that the mechanisms controlling vulnerability to cavitation and hydraulic resistance are uncoupled. The NaPO4 solution was then perfused into stems from 13 tree species possessing highly contrasted vulnerability to cavitation. Calcium was found to be a major determinant of between-species differences in vulnerability to cavitation. This was evidenced in angiosperms as well as conifer species, thus supporting the hypothesis of a common mechanism in drought-induced cavitation. PMID:20547703

  15. FOREWORD: International Symposium of Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    multiphase flow detection Fluid-structure interaction induced by cavitation and multiphase flow Multi-scale modelling of cavitating flows and Multiphase Flow Cavitation nuclei: theory and experiments Supercavitation and its applications Synergetic effects of cavitation and silt-laden erosion Shock waves and microjets generated by cavitation Nonlinear oscillations of gas and vapour bubbles Fundamentals of physics of acoustic cavitation Sonochemistry and sonoluminescence Biomedical applications of cavitation effects Ultrasonic cavitation for molten metal treatment Cavitation for enhanced heat transfer The ISCM 2014 brought together 95 scientists, researchers and graduate students from 11 countries, affiliated with universities, technology centers and industrial firms to debate topics related to advanced technologies for cavitation and Multiphase Flow, which would enhance the sustainable development of cavitation and Multiphase Flow in interdisciplinary sciences and technology. The technical committee selected 54 technical papers on the following topics: (i) Hydrodynamic Cavitation, (ii) Super Cavitation, (iii) Pump Cavitation, (iv) Acoustic Cavitation, (v) Interdisciplinary Research of Cavitation and Multi-Phase Flows, and 13 invited plenary and invited forum lectures, which were presented at the symposium, to be included in the proceedings. All the papers of ISCM 2014, which are published in this Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, had been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the ISCM 2014, those are Yulin WU, Shouqi YUAN, Zhengwei WANG, Shuhong LIU, Xingqi LUO, Fujun WANG and Guoyu WANG. The papers published in this Volume include 54 technical papers and 3 full length texts of the invited lectures. We sincerely hope that the International Symposium on Cavitation and Multiphase Flow is a significant step forward in the world wide efforts to address the present challenges in the modern science and technology. Professor

  16. Vapor-Gas Bubble Evolution and Growth in Extremely Viscous Fluids Under Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizito, John; Balasubramaniam, R.; Nahra, Henry; Agui, Juan; Truong, Duc

    2008-01-01

    Formation of vapor and gas bubbles and voids is normal and expected in flow processes involving extremely viscous fluids in normal gravity. Practical examples of extremely viscous fluids are epoxy-like filler materials before the epoxy fluids cure to their permanent form to create a mechanical bond between two substrates. When these fluids flow with a free liquid interface exposed to vacuum, rapid bubble expansion process may ensue. Bubble expansion might compromise the mechanical bond strength. The potential sources for the origin of the gases might be incomplete out-gassing process prior to filler application; regasification due to seal leakage in the filler applicator; and/or volatiles evolved from cure reaction products formed in the hardening process. We embarked on a study that involved conducting laboratory experiments with imaging diagnostics in order to deduce the seriousness of bubbling caused by entrained air and volatile fluids under space vacuum and low gravity environment. We used clear fluids with the similar physical properties as the epoxy-like filler material to mimic the dynamics of bubbles. Another aspect of the present study was to determine the likelihood of bubbling resulting from dissolved gases nucleating from solution. These experimental studies of the bubble expansion are compared with predictions using a modified Rayleigh- Plesset equation, which models the bubble expansion.

  17. Detailed Jet Dynamics in a Collapsing Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    We present detailed visualizations of the micro-jet forming inside an aspherically collapsing cavitation bubble near a free surface. The high-quality visualizations of large and strongly deformed bubbles disclose so far unseen features of the dynamics inside the bubble, such as a mushroom-like flattened jet-tip, crown formation and micro-droplets. We also find that jetting near a free surface reduces the collapse time relative to the Rayleigh time.

  18. Spark bubble interaction with a suspended particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohl, Siew-Wan; Wu, Di Wei; Klaseboer, Evert; Cheong Khoo, Boo

    2015-12-01

    Cavitation bubble collapse is influenced by nearby surfaces or objects. A bubble near a rigid surface will move towards the surface and collapse with a high speed jet. When a hard particle is suspended near a bubble generated by electric spark, the bubble expands and collapses moving the particle. We found that within a limit of stand-off distance, the particle is propelled away from the bubble as it collapses. At a slightly larger stand-off distance, the bubble collapse causes the particle to move towards the bubble initially before moving away. The bubble does not move the particle if it is placed far away. This conclusion is important for applications such as drug delivery in which the particle is to be propelled away from the collapsing bubble.

  19. Probability of cavitation for single ultrasound pulses applied to tissues and tissue-mimicking materials

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Adam D.; Cain, Charles A.; Hall, Timothy L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Xu, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the negative pressure values at which inertial cavitation consistently occurs in response to a single, 2-cycle, focused ultrasound pulse were measured in several media relevant to cavitation-based ultrasound therapy. The pulse was focused into a chamber containing one of the media, which included liquids, tissue-mimicking materials, and ex-vivo canine tissue. Focal waveforms were measured by two separate techniques using a fiber-optic hydrophone. Inertial cavitation was identified by high-speed photography in optically transparent media and an acoustic passive cavitation detector. The probability of cavitation (Pcav) for a single pulse as a function of peak negative pressure (p−) followed a sigmoid curve, with the probability approaching 1 when the pressure amplitude was sufficient. The statistical threshold (defined as Pcav = 0.5) was between p− = 26.0–30.0 MPa in all samples with a high water content, but varied between p− = 13.7 to > 36 MPa for other media. A model for radial cavitation bubble dynamics was employed to evaluate the behavior of cavitation nuclei at these pressure levels. A single bubble nucleus with an inertial cavitation threshold of p− = 28.2 MPa was estimated to have a 2.5 nm radius in distilled water. These data may be valuable for cavitation-based ultrasound therapy to predict the likelihood of cavitation at different pressure levels and dimensions of cavitation-induced lesions in tissue. PMID:23380152

  20. Growth and Collapse of a Single Bubble near a Plate by Spark Discharge in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcam, I.; Inaba, K.; Takahashi, K.; Kishimoto, K.

    2015-12-01

    Single bubble dynamics in the vicinity of a solid boundary submerged in water were studied experimentally. Single bubble inside a water tank was generated by a spark discharge of capacitor into a couple of copper wires closing a simple circuit. A circular polycarbonate plate was placed horizontally above the bubble creation site. Polycarbonate plates with two different thicknesses were tested by changing the distance between the plate and the creation site. The effects of distance to the wall and wall thickness on the bubble motion is observed by considering the fluid-structure interaction. It is shown that motion of the two boundaries during the bubble generation differ from each other. Jetting behavior of two cases is also different.

  1. Hydrodynamic Nuclei Concentration Technique in Cavitation Research and Comparison to Phase-Doppler Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Eric; Kröger, Willfried; Damaschke, Nils

    2015-12-01

    Small particles, especially bubbles in the micro-meter range, influence the cavitation of the propellers. The prediction of cavitation inception and water quality measurements are important in cavitation research. The Hydrodynamic Nuclei Concentration (HDNC) technique can be used for reliable bubble concentration measurements in fluid flows. The HDNC technique bases on the analysis of scattered light from the cavitation nuclei in the water. The HDNC technique can distinguish between bubbles and solid particles. The particle type classification is important, because the number concentration of solid particles is often much higher than the nuclei concentration in cavitation tunnels and in seawater. Verification experiments show, that the HDNC technique reaches similar capabilities in number concentration estimation as Phase Doppler (PD) technique in much shorter acquisition time.

  2. Prediction of cavitation erosion for marine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maquil, T.; Yakubov, S.; Rung, T.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the development of a cavitation erosion prediction method. The approach is tailored to marine applications and embedded into a VoF-based procedure for the simulation of turbulent flows. Supplementary to the frequently employed Euler-Euler models, Euler-Lagrange approaches are employed to simulate cavitation. The study aims to convey the merits of an Euler-Lagrange approach for erosion simulations. Accordingly, the erosion model is able to separate different damage mechanisms, e.g. micro-jets, single and collective bubble collapse, and also quantifies their contribution to the total damage. Emphasis is devoted to the prediction of the cavitation extend, the influence of compressible effects and the performance of the material damage model in practical applications. Examples included refer to 2D validation test cases and reveal a fair predictive accuracy.

  3. Observation of a cavitation cloud in tissue using correlation between ultrafast ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Prieur, Fabrice; Zorgani, Ali; Catheline, Stefan; Souchon, Rémi; Mestas, Jean-Louis; Lafond, Maxime; Lafon, Cyril

    2015-07-01

    The local application of ultrasound is known to improve drug intake by tumors. Cavitating bubbles are one of the contributing effects. A setup in which two ultrasound transducers are placed confocally is used to generate cavitation in ex vivo tissue. As the transducers emit a series of short excitation bursts, the evolution of the cavitation activity is monitored using an ultrafast ultrasound imaging system. The frame rate of the system is several thousands of images per second, which provides several tens of images between consecutive excitation bursts. Using the correlation between consecutive images for speckle tracking, a decorrelation of the imaging signal appears due to the creation, fast movement, and dissolution of the bubbles in the cavitation cloud. By analyzing this area of decorrelation, the cavitation cloud can be localized and the spatial extent of the cavitation activity characterized. PMID:26168172

  4. Comments on the possibility of cavitation in liquid metal targets for pulsed spallation neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter J.M.

    1996-06-01

    When short pulses of protons strike the volume of a liquid target, the rapid heating produces a pressurized region which relaxes as the pressure wave propagates outward. Skala and Bauer have modeled the effects of the pressure wave impinging on the container walls of a liquid mercury target under ESS conditions. They find that high pressures and high wall stresses result if the medium is uniform, nearly incompressible liquid. The pressure and the stresses are much reduced if the liquid contains bubbles of helium, due to their high compressibility. However, according to the calculation, the pressure still reaches an atmosphere or so at the surface, which reflects the compressive wave as a rarefaction wave of the same magnitude. Even such modest underpressures can lead to the growth of bubbles (cavitation) at or near the surface, which can collapse violently and erode the container surface. It is necessary to avoid this. Leighton provides a wide ranging discussion of pressure waves in bubbly media, which may provide insights into the nature and control of cavitation phenomena. The paper surveys some of the relevant information from that source.

  5. Robust acoustic wave manipulation of bubbly liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumerov, N. A.; Akhatov, I. S.; Ohl, C.-D.; Sametov, S. P.; Khazimullin, M. V.; Gonzalez-Avila, S. R.

    2016-03-01

    Experiments with water-air bubbly liquids when exposed to acoustic fields of frequency ˜100 kHz and intensity below the cavitation threshold demonstrate that bubbles ˜30 μm in diameter can be "pushed" away from acoustic sources by acoustic radiation independently from the direction of gravity. This manifests formation and propagation of acoustically induced transparency waves (waves of the bubble volume fraction). In fact, this is a collective effect of bubbles, which can be described by a mathematical model of bubble self-organization in acoustic fields that matches well with our experiments.

  6. Influence of cathodic and anodic currents on cavitation erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Auret, J.G.; Damm, O.F.R.A.; Wright, G.J. . Div. of Materials Science and Technology); Robinson, F.P.A. . Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    A vibratory-type cavitation test rig was constructed to study the effect of polarizing currents applied to a cavitating body. The generation of gas by electrolysis reduced mechanical damage suffered by a cavitating body because of bubble collapse cushioning. However, the net effect on overall damage depended on several factors, including the intensity of mechanical attack, corrosion rate, and surface geometrical effects. A cathodic current was shown to always decrease the total volume loss rate, but the volume loss rate sometimes was increased and sometimes was reduced in the anodic current range.

  7. AN EFFICIENT TREATMENT STRATEGY FOR HISTOTRIPSY BY REMOVING CAVITATION MEMORY

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tzu-Yin; Xu, Zhen; Hall, Timothy L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Cavitation memory effects occur when remnants of cavitation bubbles (nuclei) persist in the host medium and act as seeds for subsequent events. In pulsed cavitational ultrasound therapy, or histotripsy, this effect may cause cavitation to repeatedly occur at these seeded locations within a target volume, producing inhomogeneous tissue fractionation or requiring an excess number of pulses to completely homogenize the target volume. We hypothesized that by removing the cavitation memory, i.e., the persistent nuclei, the cavitation bubbles could be induced at random locations in response to each pulse; therefore, complete disruption of a tissue volume may be achieved with fewer pulses. To test the hypothesis, the cavitation memory was passively removed by increasing the intervals between successive pulses, Δt, from 2, 10, 20, 50 and 100, to 200 ms. Histotripsy treatments were performed in red blood cell tissue phantoms and ex vivo livers using 1-MHz ultrasound pulses of 10 cycles at P−/P+ pressure of 21/59 MPa. The phantom study allowed for direct visualization of the cavitation patterns and the lesion development process in real time using high-speed photography; the ex vivo tissue study provided validation of the memory effect in real tissues. Results of the phantom study showed an exponential decrease in the correlation coefficient between cavitation patterns in successive pulses from 0.5 ± 0.1 to 0.1 ± 0.1 as Δt increased from 2–200 ms; correspondingly, the lesion was completely fractionated with significantly fewer pulses for longer Δts. In the tissue study, given the same number of therapy pulses, complete and homogeneous tissue fractionation with well-defined lesion boundaries was achieved only for Δt ≥ 100 ms. These results indicated that the removal of the cavitation memory resulted in more efficient treatments and homogeneous lesions. PMID:22402025

  8. Quantitative observations of cavitation activity in a viscoelastic medium.

    PubMed

    Collin, Jamie R T; Coussios, Constantin C

    2011-11-01

    Quantitative experimental observations of single-bubble cavitation in viscoelastic media that would enable validation of existing models are presently lacking. In the present work, single bubble cavitation is induced in an agar gel using a 1.15 MHz high intensity focused ultrasound transducer, and observed using a focused single-element passive cavitation detection (PCD) transducer. To enable quantitative observations, a full receive calibration is carried out of a spherically focused PCD system by a bistatic scattering substitution technique that uses an embedded spherical scatterer and a hydrophone. Adjusting the simulated pressure received by the PCD by the transfer function on receive and the frequency-dependent attenuation of agar gel enables direct comparison of the measured acoustic emissions with those predicted by numerical modeling of single-bubble cavitation using a modified Keller-Miksis approach that accounts for viscoelasticity of the surrounding medium. At an incident peak rarefactional pressure near the cavitation threshold, period multiplying is observed in both experiment and numerical model. By comparing the two sets of results, an estimate of the equilibrium bubble radius in the experimental observations can be made, with potential for extension to material parameter estimation. Use of these estimates yields good agreement between model and experiment. PMID:22088001

  9. Optimization in design of scientific products for purposes of cavitation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modorskii, V. Ya.; Gaynutdinova, D. F.; Gergel, V. P.; Barkalov, K. A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an optimized computer simulation of cavitation phenomena that occurs when a piston moves in a closed liquid-filled pipe. We have developed physical and mathematical models in a three-dimensional dynamic setting, found out a dependence of cavitation parameters on vibration parameters and constructed a domain of vibration influence on concentration of air cavitation bubbles. We also detected a maximum that corresponds to a certain combination of vibration kinematic parameters.

  10. Memory effect and redistribution of cavitation nuclei in a thin liquid layer.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lixin; Lin, Weijun; Wu, Pengfei; Deng, Jingjun; Li, Chao; Xu, Delong; Wang, Dong; Chen, Lishuo

    2016-09-01

    Temporal evolution and spatial distribution of acoustic cavitation structures in a thin liquid layer were investigated experimentally with high-speed photography. The inception and disappearance processes of cavitation bubble cloud revealed that the metastable cavitaton structures formed in the thin liquid layer caused a long-term "memory effect". A factor which weakens the memory effect was identified. The distribution of cavitation nuclei was investigated by changing the temporal decay of the memory effect. PMID:27150763

  11. Experimental study and modeling of swelling and bubble growth in carbon nanofiber filled mesophase pitch during carbonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calebrese, Christopher

    Graphite and all carbon bipolar plates show corrosion resistance in fuel cells and provide good electrical conductivity. These materials typically need to be individually machined, a time consuming and costly process. Mesophase pitch is used to manufacture carbon fibers and carbon-carbon composites. This material provides a good starting point for the production of a moldable, all carbon bipolar plate. However, processing of mesophase pitch to produce all carbon materials requires a time intensive oxidation step to prevent swelling during carbonization. In this work, carbon nanofibers were used to reduce swelling in mesophase pitch. It was found that the increase in viscosity with the addition of carbon nanofibers was responsible for the reduction in swelling. The influence of the filler became apparent above the percolation threshold. At loadings below the percolation threshold, the swelling of the mesophase pitch was not reduced after carbonization. The swelling of the mesophase pitch at a given carbon nanofiber loading was also dependent on the length of the carbon nanofibers. Longer carbon nanofibers led to greater increases in the viscosity of the melt and thus led to greater reduction in swelling. The final carbon product was evaluated for use as a low temperature fuel cell bipolar plate material. Constraining the mesophase pitch during carbonization led to a final product with strength and electrical conductivity comparable to current composite bipolar plate materials. The addition of micron size chopped glass fibers with a softening point near 850°C and carbon nanofibers led to a final product with air permeability less than that of graphite. A spherically symmetric, single bubble growth model was also developed. The model included temperature dependence, liquid to bubble mass transfer and reactions in the system. Results from simulations showed that that the increase in viscosity due to the addition of carbon nanofibers slows the growth of bubbles, but

  12. Modeling of helium bubble nucleation and growth in austenitic stainless steels using an Object Kinetic Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Backer, A.; Adjanor, G.; Domain, C.; Lescoat, M. L.; Jublot-Leclerc, S.; Fortuna, F.; Gentils, A.; Ortiz, C. J.; Souidi, A.; Becquart, C. S.

    2015-06-01

    Implantation of 10 keV helium in 316L steel thin foils was performed in JANNuS-Orsay facility and modeled using a multiscale approach. Density Functional Theory (DFT) atomistic calculations [1] were used to obtain the properties of He and He-vacancy clusters, and the Binary Collision Approximation based code MARLOWE was applied to determine the damage and He-ion depth profiles as in [2,3]. The processes involved in the homogeneous He bubble nucleation and growth were defined and implemented in the Object Kinetic Monte Carlo code LAKIMOCA [4]. In particular as the He to dpa ratio was high, self-trapping of He clusters and the trap mutation of He-vacancy clusters had to be taken into account. With this multiscale approach, the formation of bubbles was modeled up to nanometer-scale size, where bubbles can be observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Their densities and sizes were studied as functions of fluence (up to 5 × 1019 He/m2) at two temperatures (473 and 723 K) and for different sample thicknesses (25-250 nm). It appears that the damage is not only due to the collision cascades but is also strongly controlled by the He accumulation in pressurized bubbles. Comparison with experimental data is discussed and sensible agreement is achieved.

  13. Non-Newtonian effects on flow-generated cavitation and on cavitation in a pressure field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, A. T.; Ting, R. Y.

    1974-01-01

    Observations are presented which show that the stresses in a flow field of very dilute polymer are not well enough described by the Navier-Stokes equations to accurately predict cavitation. The contitutive equation for the particular polymer and concentration used is needed. The second-order fluid form in which accelerations are relatively important appears capable of explaining observed cavitation suppression by changing the pressure field due to flow. Bubble dynamics in stationary dilute polymer solutions are also examined and found to be little different from those in water.

  14. Air emission into a water shear layer through porous media. Part 2: Cavitation induced pressure attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, E.C.; Marboe, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Cavitation near the casing of a hydroturbine can lead to damage through both cavitation erosion and mechanical vibration of the casing and the associated piping. Cavitation erosion results from the collapse of cavitation bubbles on or near a surface such as the casing wall. Mechanical vibrations transmitted to the casing directly through the collapse of bubbles on the casing wall indirectly through a coupling of the acoustic pressure pulse due to a nearby collapse on the turbine blade. Air emission along the casing can reduce the intensity of the tip vortex and the gap cavitation through ventilation of the cavity. Reduction in the machinery vibration is obtained by reduction of the intensity of cavitation bubble collapse and attenuation and scattering of the radiated acoustic pressure. This requires a bubble layer which may be introduced in the vicinity of the turbine blade tips. This layer remains for some distance downstream of the blades and is effective for attenuation of tip vortex induced noise and blade surface cavitation noise. For the purpose of characterizing this bubble layer within a water pipe, the authors spanned a pipe with a two dimensional hydrofoil and emitted air through porous media (20 and 100 micron porosity sintered stainless steel) into the shear flow over the hydrofoil. This paper is limited to an investigation of the attenuation of acoustic pressure propagating to the casing rather than the reduction in acoustic source level due to collapse cushioning effects.

  15. The Role of Acoustic Cavitation in Ultrasound-triggered Drug Release from Echogenic Liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopechek, Jonathan A.

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and globally. CVD-related mortality, including coronary heart disease, heart failure, or stroke, generally occurs due to atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaques build up within arterial walls, potentially causing blockage or rupture. Targeted therapies are needed to achieve more effective treatments. Echogenic liposomes (ELIP), which consist of a lipid membrane surrounding an aqueous core, have been developed to encapsulate a therapeutic agent and/or gas bubbles for targeted delivery and ultrasound image enhancement. Under certain conditions ultrasound can cause nonlinear bubble growth and collapse, known as "cavitation." Cavitation activity has been associated with enhanced drug delivery across cellular membranes. However, the mechanisms of ultrasound-mediated drug release from ELIP have not been previously investigated. Thus, the objective of this dissertation is to elucidate the role of acoustic cavitation in ultrasound-mediated drug release from ELIP. To determine the acoustic and physical properties of ELIP, the frequency-dependent attenuation and backscatter coefficients were measured between 3 and 30 MHz. The results were compared to a theoretical model by measuring the ELIP size distribution in order to determine properties of the lipid membrane. It was found that ELIP have a broad size distribution and can provide enhanced ultrasound image contrast across a broad range of clinically-relevant frequencies. Calcein, a hydrophilic fluorescent dye, and papaverine, a lipophilic vasodilator, were separately encapsulated in ELIP and exposed to color Doppler ultrasound pulses from a clinical diagnostic ultrasound scanner in a flow system. Spectrophotometric techniques (fluorescence and absorbance measurements) were used to detect calcein or papaverine release. As a positive control, Triton X-100 (a non-ionic detergent) was added to ELIP samples not exposed to ultrasound in order

  16. Modelling of single bubble-dynamics and thermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papoulias, D.; Gavaises, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper evaluates the solution effects of different Rayleigh-Plesset models (R-P) for simulating the growth/collapse dynamics and thermal behaviour of homogeneous gas bubbles. The flow inputs used for the discrete cavitation bubble calculations are obtained from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations (RANS), performed in high-pressure nozzle holes. Parametric 1-D results are presented for the classical thermal R-P equation [1] as well as for refined models which incorporated compressibility corrections and thermal effects [2, 3]. The thermal bubble model is coupled with the energy equation, which provides the temperature of the bubble as a function of conduction/convection and radiation heat-transfer mechanisms. For approximating gas pressure variations a high-order virial equation of state (EOS) was used, based on Helmholtz free energy principle [4]. The coded thermal R-P model was validated against experimental measurements [5] and model predictions [6] reported in single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL).

  17. Analytical and experimental study of the acoustics and the flow field characteristics of cavitating self-resonating water jets

    SciTech Connect

    Chahine, G.L.; Genoux, P.F.; Johnson, V.E. Jr.; Frederick, G.S.

    1984-09-01

    Waterjet nozzles (STRATOJETS) have been developed which achieve passive structuring of cavitating submerged jets into discrete ring vortices, and which possess cavitation incipient numbers six times higher than obtained with conventional cavitating jet nozzles. In this study we developed analytical and numerical techniques and conducted experimental work to gain an understanding of the basic phenomena involved. The achievements are: (1) a thorough analysis of the acoustic dynamics of the feed pipe to the nozzle; (2) a theory for bubble ring growth and collapse; (3) a numerical model for jet simulation; (4) an experimental observation and analysis of candidate second-generation low-sigma STRATOJETS. From this study we can conclude that intensification of bubble ring collapse and design of highly resonant feed tubes can lead to improved drilling rates. The models here described are excellent tools to analyze the various parameters needed for STRATOJET optimizations. Further analysis is needed to introduce such important factors as viscosity, nozzle-jet interaction, and ring-target interaction, and to develop the jet simulation model to describe the important fine details of the flow field at the nozzle exit.

  18. Removal of Residual Nuclei Following a Cavitation Event: A Parametric Study

    PubMed Central

    Duryea, Alexander P.; Tamaddoni, Hedieh A.; Cain, Charles A.; Roberts, William W.; Hall, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of ultrasound therapies such as shock wave lithotripsy and histotripsy can be compromised by residual cavitation bubble nuclei that persist following the collapse of primary cavitation. In our previous work, we have developed a unique strategy for mitigating the effects of these residual bubbles using low amplitude ultrasound pulses to stimulate their aggregation and subsequent coalescence—effectively removing them from the field. Here, we further develop this bubble removal strategy through an investigation of the effect of frequency on the consolidation process. Bubble removal pulses ranging from 0.5 – 2 MHz were used to sonicate the population of residual nuclei produced upon collapse of a histotripsy bubble cloud. For each frequency, mechanical index (MI) values ranging from 0 to approximately 1.5 were tested. Results indicated that, when evaluated as a function of bubble removal pulse MI, the efficacy of bubble removal shows markedly similar trends for all frequencies tested. This behavior divides into three distinct regimes (with provided cutoffs being approximate): (1) MI < 0.2: Minimal effect on the population of remnant cavitation nuclei; (2) 0.2 < MI < 1: Aggregation and subsequent coalescence of residual bubbles, the extent of which trends toward a maximum; (3) MI > 1: Bubble coalescence is compromised as bubble removal pulses induce high magnitude inertial cavitation of residual bubbles. The major distinction in these trends came for bubble removal pulses applied at 2 MHz, which were observed to generate the most effective bubble coalescence of all frequencies tested. We hypothesize that this is a consequence of the secondary Bjerknes force being the major facilitator of the consolidation process, the magnitude of which increases when the bubble size distribution is far from resonance such that the phase difference of oscillation of individual bubbles is minimal. PMID:26719861

  19. Elasticity effects on cavitation in a squeeze film damper undergoing noncentered circular whirl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewe, David E.

    1988-01-01

    Elasticity of the liner and its effects on cavitation were numerically determined for a squeeze film damper subjected to dynamic loading. The loading was manifested as a prescribed motion of the rotor undergoing noncentered circular whirl. The boundary conditions were implemented using Elrod's algorithm which conserves lineal mass flux through the moving cavitation bubble as well as the oil film region of the damper. Computational movies were used to analyze the rapidly changing pressures and vapor bubble dynamics throughout the dynamic cycle for various flexibilities in the damper liner. The effects of liner elasticity on cavitation were only noticeable for the intermediate and high values of viscosity used in this study.

  20. A Study on the Mechanism for Cavitation in the Mechanical Heart Valves with an Electrohydraulic Total Artificial Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwansung; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Homma, Akihiko; Kamimura, Tadayuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Kitamura, Soichiro

    It has been conceived that the mechanical heart valves mounted in an artificial heart close much faster than in vivo use, resulting in cavitation bubbles formation. In this study, the mechanisms for cavitation in mechanical heart valves (MHVs) is investigated with monoleaflet and bileaflet valves in the mitral position with an electrohydraulic total artificial heart (EHTAH). The valve-closing velocity and pressure-drop through the valve were done, and a high-speed video camera was employed to investigate the mechanism for MHVs cavitation. The valve-closing velocity and pressure-drop of the bileaflet valves were less than that of the monoleaflet valves. Most of the cavitation bubbles in the monoleaflet valves were observed next to the edge of the valve stop and the inner side of the leaflet. With the bileaflet valves, cavitation bubbles were concentrated along the leaflet tip. Also, the number density of cavitation bubbles in the bileaflet valves was less than that of the monoleaflet valves. The number density of cavitation bubbles increased with an increase in the valve-closing velocity and the valve stop area. It is established that squeeze flow holds the key to cavitation in the mechanical heart valve. In a viewpoint of squeeze flow, the bileaflet valve with slow valve-closing velocity and small valve stop area, is safer to prevent of blood cell damage than the monoleaflet valves.

  1. Single cell membrane poration by bubble-induced microjets in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Li, Z G; Liu, A Q; Klaseboer, E; Zhang, J B; Ohl, C D

    2013-03-21

    This paper demonstrates membrane poration of a single suspension cell due to a fast liquid microjet. The jet is formed during the collapse of a laser induced bubble created at a variable stand-off distance from the target cell. The cell is trapped by a converging structure within a microfluidic chip. The asymmetrical growth and collapse of the cavitation bubble next to the cell lead to the microjetting, which deforms and porates the cell membrane. In the experiments, the membrane porations of myeloma cells are probed with the uptake of trypan blue. Time-resolved studies of the diffusion of trypan blue show a marked dependency on the bubble dynamics, i.e. the stand-off distance. The penetration length of the dye increases with shorter distances. Numerical simulations of the diffusion process agree with larger pores formed on the cell membrane. This method allows for a fast, repeatable, and localized rupture of membranes of individual cells in suspension. PMID:23364762

  2. Effect of dilute polymer additives on the acoustic cavitation threshold of water

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, L.A.; Brosey, J.E.

    1984-02-01

    Measurements are presented of the variation of the acoustic cavitation threshold of water with concentration of the polymer additives polyethylene oxide and guar gum. It was found that small amounts of these additives could significantly increase the cavitation threshold. A theoretical model, based upon nucleation of a gas bubble from a Harvey-type crevice in a mote or solid particle, is developed that gives good agreement with the measurements. The applicability of this approach to an explanation of cavitation index reduction in flow-generated or confined jet cavitation, when polymer additives are introduced, is discussed.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of erosive cavitation pressure field from pits in material: fact or myth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.-K.; Chahine, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    Material pitting in a cavitating flow has been used for a long time as an indicator of the vague ‘cavitation intensity’ concept. Periodically, some researchers suggest pitting tests as a “simple” means to provide quantitative measurements of the amplitude of the impulsive pressures in the cavitation field, especially when combined with Tabor's formula or with simple finite element computations with static loads. This paper examines the viability of such a method using fully coupled bubble dynamics and material response, and strongly concludes that the commonly accepted idea is a myth, as different loading scenarios with the same amplitude of the cavitation impulsive pressure result in different pit aspect ratios.

  4. Impact of bubble size on growth and CO2 uptake of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis KMMCC CY-007.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kisok; Choi, Jaeho; Ji, Yosep; Park, Soyoung; Do, Hyungki; Hwang, Cherwon; Lee, Bongju; Holzapfel, Wilhelm

    2014-10-01

    Optimisation of cyanobacterial cell productivity should consider the key factors light cycle and carbon source. We studied the influence of CO2 bubble size on carbon uptake and fixation, on basis of mRNA expression levels in Arthrospira platensis KMMCC CY-007 at 30°C (light intensity: 40μmolm(-2)s(-1); 1% CO2). Growth rate, carbon fixation and lipid accumulation were examined over 7days under fine bubble (FB) (100μm Ø) bulk bubble (BB) (5000μm Ø) and non-CO2 (NB) aeration. The low affinity CO2 uptake mRNA (NDH-I4 complex) was stronger expressed than the high affinity NDH-I3 complex (bicA and sbtA) under 1% CO2 and FB conditions, with no expression of bicA1 and sbtA1 after 4days. The high affinity CO2 uptake mRNA levels corresponded to biomass, carbon content and lipid accumulation, and increase in NDH-I3 complex (9.72-fold), bicA (5.69-fold), and sbtA (10.61-fold), compared to NB, or BB conditions. PMID:25151075

  5. The cavitation induced Becquerel effect and the hot spot theory of sonoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Prevenslik, T V

    2003-06-01

    Over 150 years ago, Becquerel discovered the ultraviolet illumination of one of a pair of identical electrodes in liquid water produced an electric current, the phenomenon called the Becquerel effect. Recently, a similar effect was observed if the water surrounding one electrode is made to cavitate by focused acoustic radiation, which by similarity is referred to as the cavitation induced Becquerel effect. The current in the cavitation induced Becquerel effect was found to be semi-logarithmic with the standard electrode potential that is consistent with the oxidation of the electrode surface by the photo-decomposition theory of photoelectrochemistry. But oxidation of the electrode surface usually requires high temperatures, say as in cavitation. Absent high bubble temperatures, cavitation may produce vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light that excites water molecules in the electrode film to higher H(2)O(*) energy states, the excited states oxidizing the electrode surface by chemical reaction. Solutions of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation during bubble collapse that include the condensation of water vapor show any increase in temperature or pressure of the water vapor by compression heating is compensated by the condensation of vapor to the bubble wall, the bubbles collapsing almost isothermally. Hence, the cavitation induced Becquerel effect is likely caused by cavitation induced VUV light at ambient temperature. PMID:12782265

  6. Time-frequency analysis of transient pressure signals for a mechanical heart valve cavitation study.

    PubMed

    Yu, A A; White, J A; Hwang, N H

    1998-01-01

    A series of transient pressure signals (TPSs) can be measured using a miniature pressure transducer mounted near the tip of the inflow side of a mechanical heart valve (MHV) occluder during closure. A relationship appears to exist between the intensity and pattern of the TPS and the cavitation potential of a MHV. To study the relationship between MHV cavitation and the TPSs, we installed an MHV in a valve testing chamber of a digitally controlled burst test loop. A charge coupled device (CCD) camera and a personal computer based image grabbing program was used to visualize cavitation bubbles appearing on or near the occluder surface. One bileaflet MHV was used as the model for this study. Cavitation bubbles were observed within 300 microsec of the leaflet/housing impact. The valve was tested at various driving pressures between 100 and 1,300 mmHg. MHV cavitation bubble intensities were qualitatively classified into three categories: 1) strong, 2) weak, and 3) none. Digital images of the MHV occluder inflow surface were recorded simultaneously with the TPSs. TPSs were studied by the time-frequency analysis method (spectrogram) and correlated to MHV cavitation potential. The intensity of the cavitation bubbles was found to be associated with burst test loop driving pressures during leaflet closure. PMID:9804476

  7. Removal of Residual Cavitation Nuclei to Enhance Histotripsy Erosion of Model Urinary Stones

    PubMed Central

    Duryea, Alexander P.; Roberts, William W.; Cain, Charles A.; Hall, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Histotripsy has been shown to be an effective treatment for model kidney stones, eroding their surface to tiny particulate debris via a cavitational bubble cloud. However, similar to shock wave lithotripsy, histotripsy stone treatments display a rate-dependent efficacy with pulses applied at low rate generating more efficient stone erosion in comparison to those applied at high rate. This is hypothesized to be the result of residual cavitation bubble nuclei generated by bubble cloud collapse. While the histotripsy bubble cloud only lasts on the order of 100 µs, these microscopic remnant bubbles can persist on the order of 1 second—inducing direct attenuation of subsequent histotripsy pulses and influencing bubble cloud dynamics. In an effort to mitigate these effects, we have developed a novel strategy to actively remove residual cavitation nuclei from the field using low-amplitude ultrasound pulses. Previous work has demonstrated that with selection of the appropriate acoustic parameters these bubble removal pulses can stimulate the aggregation and subsequent coalescence of microscopic bubble nuclei—effectively deleting them from the target volume. Here, we incorporate bubble removal pulses in histotripsy treatment of model kidney stones. It was found that when histotripsy is applied at low rate (1 Hz), bubble removal does not produce a statistically significant change in erosion. At higher pulse rates of 10, 100, and 500 Hz, incorporating bubble removal results in 3.7-, 7.5-, and 2.7-fold increases in stone erosion, respectively. High speed imaging indicates that the introduction of bubble removal pulses allows bubble cloud dynamics resulting from high pulse rates to more closely approximate those generated at the low rate of 1 Hz. These results corroborate previous work in the field of shock wave lithotripsy regarding the ill-effects of residual bubble nuclei, and suggest that high treatment efficiency can be recovered at high pulse rates through

  8. Cavitational hydrothermal oxidation: A new remediation process. Annual progress report, September 1996--August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Suslick, K.S.

    1997-11-21

    'During the past year, the authors have continued to make substantial scientific progress on the understanding of cavitation phenomena in aqueous media and applications of cavitation to remediation processes. The efforts have focused on three separate areas: sonoluminescence as a probe of conditions created during cavitational collapse in aqueous media, the use of cavitation for remediation of contaminated water, and an addition of the use of ultrasound in the synthesis of novel heterogeneous catalysts for hydrodehalogenation of halocarbons under mild conditions. In order to gain further understanding of the conditions present during cavitation, the author has continued his studies of sonoluminescence. He has made recent breakthroughs in the use of emission spectroscopy for temperature and pressure measurement of cavitation events, which he expects to publish shortly. He has been able to measure for the first time the temperature of cavitation in water during multi-bubble cavitation in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. The emission from excited states of C{sub 2} in water gives temperatures that are consistent with adiabatic compressional heating, with maximum temperatures of 4,300 K. Prior measurements of cavitation temperatures in low vapor pressure nonaqueous media gave somewhat higher temperatures of 5,000 K. This work lays permanently to rest exotic mechanisms for cavitational chemistry, at least for cavitation fields.'

  9. Cavitational hydrothermal oxidation: A new remediation process. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Suslick, K.S.

    1998-06-01

    'The primary goal is to develop a quantitative understanding of cavitation phenomena in aqueous media and the development of applications of cavitation to remediation processes. Efforts have focused on three separate areas: sonoluminescence as a probe of conditions created during cavitational collapse in aqueous media, the use of cavitation for remediation of contaminated water, and an addition of the use of ultrasound in the synthesis of novel heterogeneous catalysts for hydrodehalogenation of halocarbons under mild conditions. This report summarizes work after one year of a three year project. In order to gain further understanding of the conditions present during cavitation, the author has continued his studies of sonoluminescence. He has made recent breakthroughs in the use of emission spectroscopy for temperature and pressure measurement of cavitation events, which he expects to publish shortly. He has been able to measure for the first time the temperature of cavitation in water during multi-bubble cavitation in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. The emission from excited states of C{sub 2} in water gives temperatures that are consistent with adiabatic compressional heating, with maximum temperatures of 4,300 K. Prior measurements of cavitation temperatures in low vapor pressure nonaqueous media gave somewhat higher temperatures of 5,000 K. This work lays permanently to rest exotic mechanisms for cavitational chemistry, at least for cavitation fields.'

  10. Cavitation damage in blood clots under HIFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Hope; Ahadi, Golnaz; Hoelscher, Thilo; Szeri, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to accelerate thrombolysis, the dissolution of blood clots, in vitro and in vivo, for treatment of ischemic stroke. Cavitation in sonothrombolysis is thought to play an important role, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. The damage to a blood clot associated with bubble collapses in a HIFU field is studied. The region of damage caused by a bubble collapse on the fibrin network of the blood clot exposed to HIFU is estimated, and compared with experimental assessment of the damage. The mechanical damage to the network caused by a bubble is probed using two independent approaches, a strain based method and an energy based method. Immunoflourescent fibrin staining is used to assess the region of damage experimentally.

  11. Comparison between phase field simulations and experimental data from intragranular bubble growth in UO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Tonks, M. R.; Biner, S. B.; Mille, P. C.; Andersson, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    In this work, we used the phase field method to simulate the post-irradiation annealing of UO{sub 2} described in the experimental work by Kashibe et al., 1993 [1]. The simulations were carried out in 2D and 3D using the MARMOT FEM-based phase-field modeling framework. The 2-D results compared fairly well with the experiments, in spite of the assumptions made in the model. The 3-D results compare even more favorably to experiments, indicating that diffusion in all three directions must be considered to accurate represent the bubble growth. (authors)

  12. Sound field measurement in a double layer cavitation cluster by rugged miniature needle hydrophones.

    PubMed

    Koch, Christian

    2016-03-01

    During multi-bubble cavitation the bubbles tend to organize themselves into clusters and thus the understanding of properties and dynamics of clustering is essential for controlling technical applications of cavitation. Sound field measurements are a potential technique to provide valuable experimental information about the status of cavitation clouds. Using purpose-made, rugged, wide band, and small-sized needle hydrophones, sound field measurements in bubble clusters were performed and time-dependent sound pressure waveforms were acquired and analyzed in the frequency domain up to 20 MHz. The cavitation clusters were synchronously observed by an electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) camera and the relation between the sound field measurements and cluster behaviour was investigated. Depending on the driving power, three ranges could be identified and characteristic properties were assigned. At low power settings no transient and no or very low stable cavitation activity can be observed. The medium range is characterized by strong pressure peaks and various bubble cluster forms. At high power a stable double layer was observed which grew with further increasing power and became quite dynamic. The sound field was irregular and the fundamental at driving frequency decreased. Between the bubble clouds completely different sound field properties were found in comparison to those in the cloud where the cavitation activity is high. In between the sound field pressure amplitude was quite small and no collapses were detected. PMID:24953962

  13. Bubbles of Metamorphosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Manu

    2011-11-01

    Metamorphosis presents a puzzling challenge where, triggered by a signal, an organism abruptly transforms its entire shape and form. Here I describe the role of physical fluid dynamic processes during pupal metamorphosis in flies. During early stages of pupation of third instar larvae into adult flies, a physical gas bubble nucleates at a precise temporal and spatial location, as part of the normal developmental program in Diptera. Although its existence has been known for the last 100 years, the origin and control of this ``cavitation'' event has remained completely mysterious. Where does the driving negative pressure for bubble nucleation come from? How is the location of the bubble nucleation site encoded in the pupae? How do molecular processes control such a physical event? What is the role of this bubble during development? Via developing in-vivo imaging techniques, direct bio-physical measurements in live insect pupal structures and physical modeling, here I elucidate the physical mechanism for appearance and disappearance of this bubble and predict the site of nucleation and its exact timing. This new physical insight into the process of metamorphosis also allows us to understand the inherent design of pupal shell architectures in various species of insects. Milton Award, Harvard Society of Fellows; Terman Fellowship, Stanford

  14. Modelling of flow with cavitation in centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homa, D.; Wróblewski, W.

    2014-08-01

    The paper concerns flow modelling in centrifugal pump with special consideration of cavitation phenomena. Cavitation occurs when local pressure drops below the saturation pressure according to the temperature of the flow. Vapour bubbles are created and then they flow through the areas with higher pressure. The bubbles collapse rapidly generating pressure wave, noise and vibration. Working under cavitation condition is very dangerous to a pump and can significantly shorten its lifetime. The investigated centrifugal pump consists of three two-flow rotors and stators working on a single shaft. The modelling process started with grid independence study. When the grid was chosen, the pump performance curve was obtained using the single phase fluid model. Next, using the results from pump performance curve calculations, the cavitation characteristic was obtained. The constant capacity was held when the pressure at the inlet was reduced. The two - phase model was used with Zwart cavitation model. The results indicate that the pump work in safe range of parameters. The analysis also provides wide range of information about the areas of vapour appearance. The most endangered regions are leading edges of rotor. When pressure at the inlet drops to about one third of pressure that calculations started from the cavitation cloud appears in whole rotor. The intense of vapour bubbles creation is greater near the shroud of the pump, rather than near the hub. As cavitation is strongly unsteady phenomena, the transient calculations were performed to check if the results are close to those obtained using the steady state type. The differences are not significant.

  15. The Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Cavitation Evolution Induced by Pressure Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, B. C.; Zheng, J. G.

    2014-11-01

    The present study is focused on the numerical simulation of pressure wave propagation through the cavitating compressible liquid flow, its interaction with cavitation bubble and the resulting unsteady cavitation evolution. The compressibility effects of liquid water are taken into account and the cavitating flow is governed by one-fluid cavitation model which is based on the compressible Euler equations with the assumption that the cavitation is the homogeneous mixture of liquid and vapour which are locally under both kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium. Several aspects of the method employed to solve the governing equations are outlined. The unsteady features of cavitating flow due to the external perturbation, such as the cavitation deformation and collapse and consequent pressure increase are resolved numerically and discussed in detail. It is observed that the cavitation bubble collapse is accompanied by the huge pressure surge of order of 100 bar, which is thought to be responsible for the material erosion, noise, vibration and loss of efficiency of operating underwater devices.

  16. Evaluation and interpretation of bubble size distributions in pulsed megasonic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, M.; Struyf, H.; De Gendt, S.; Glorieux, C.; Brems, S.

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of acoustic cavitation is incorporating a multitude of interdependent effects that strongly depend on the bubble size. Therefore, bubble size control would be beneficial for biological and industrial processes that rely on acoustic cavitation. A pulsed acoustic field can result in bubble size control and the repeated dissolution and reactivation ("recycling") of potentially active bubbles. As a consequence, a pulsed field can strongly enhance cavitation activity. In this paper, we present a modified methodology for the evaluation of the active bubble size distribution by means of a combination of cavitation noise measurements and ultrasonic pulsing. The key component of this modified methodology is the definition of an upper size limit, below which bubbles—in between subsequent pulses—have to dissolve, in order to be sustainably recycled. This upper limit makes it possible to explain and link the enhancement of cavitation activity to a bubble size distribution. The experimentally determined bubble size distributions for different power densities are interpreted in the frame of numerical calculations of the oscillatory responses of the bubbles to the intermittent driving sound field. The distributions are found to be shaped by the size dependent interplay between bubble pulsations, rectified diffusion, coalescence, and the development of parametrically amplified shape instabilities. Also, a phenomenological reactivation-deactivation model is proposed to explain and quantify the observed enhancement of cavitation activity under pulsed, with respect to continuous sonication. In this model, the pulse-duration determines the magnitude of the reactivation of partially dissolved bubbles and the deactivation of activated bubbles by coalescence. It is shown that the subsequent recycling of previously active bubbles leads to an accumulation of cavitation activity, which saturates after a certain number of pulses. The model is fitted to the experimental

  17. Removal of Residual Cavitation Nuclei to Enhance Histotripsy Fractionation of Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Duryea, Alexander P.; Cain, Charles A.; Roberts, William W.; Hall, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Remnant bubble nuclei generated by primary cavitation collapse can limit the efficiency of histotripsy soft tissue fractionation. When these residual bubbles persist from one histotripsy pulse to the next, they can seed the repetitive nucleation of cavitation bubbles at a discrete set of sites within the focal volume. This effect—referred to as cavitation memory—manifests in inefficient lesion formation, as certain sites within the focal volume are overtreated while others remain undertreated. While the cavitation memory effect can be passively mitigated by using a low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) that affords remnant nuclei sufficient time for dissolution between successive pulses, this low PRF also results in slow lesion production. As such, it would be highly desirable to maintain the high per-pulse efficiency associated with low pulse rates when much higher PRFs are utilized. In this vein we have developed a strategy for the active removal of the remnant bubble nuclei following primary cavitation collapse, using low amplitude ultrasound sequences (termed bubble removal sequences) to stimulate the aggregation and subsequent coalescence of these bubbles. In this study, bubble removal sequences were incorporated in high-PRF histotripsy treatment (100 Hz) of a red blood cell tissue-mimicking phantom that allows for the visualization of lesion development in real-time. A series of reference treatments were also conducted at the low PRF of 1 Hz in order to provide a point of comparison when cavitation memory effects are minimal. It was found that bubble removal sequences as short as 1 ms are capable of maintaining the efficacious lesion development characteristics associated with the low PRF of 1 Hz when the much higher pulse rate of 100 Hz is used. These results were then extended to the treatment of a large volume within the tissue phantom, and optimal bubble removal sequences identified for the single-focal-spot case were utilized to homogenize a 10 × 10

  18. Inducer Design to Avoid Cavitation Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Donghyuk; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Yonezawa, Koichi; Horiguchi, Hironori; Kawata, Yutaka; Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu

    2010-06-01

    Three inducers were designed to avoid cavitation instabilities. This was accomplished by avoiding the interaction of tip cavity with the leading edge of the opposing blade. The first one applied extremely larger leading edge sweep, the second and third ones applied smaller incidence angle by reducing the inlet blade angle or increasing the design flow rate, respectively. The inducer with larger design flow rate has larger outlet blade angle to obtain sufficient pressure rise. The inducer with larger sweep could suppress the cavitation instabilities in wide ranges of cavitation number and flow rate, owing to weaker tip leakage vortex cavity with stronger disturbance by backflow vortices. The inducer with larger outlet blade angle could avoid the cavitation instabilities at higher flow rates owing to the extension of the tip cavity along the suction surface of the blade. The inducer with smaller inlet blade angle could avoid the cavitation instabilities at the flow rates larger than the design flow coefficient, owing to the occurrence of the cavity first in the blade passage and its extension upstream. The cavity shape and suction performance were reasonably simulated by three dimensional CFD computations under the steady cavitating condition, except for the backflow vortex cavity. The difference in the growth of cavity for each inducer is explained from the difference of the pressure distribution on the suction side of the blades.

  19. Effect of Noble Gases on Sonoluminescence Temperatures during Multibubble Cavitation

    SciTech Connect

    Didenko, Yuri T.; McNamara, William B. III; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-24

    Sonoluminescence spectra were collected from Cr(CO){sub 6} solutions in octanol and dodecane saturated with various noble gases. The emission from excited-state metal atoms serves as an internal thermometer of cavitation. The intensity and temperature of sonoluminescence increases from He to Xe. The intensity of the underlying continuum, however, grows faster with increasing temperature than the line emission. Dissociation of solvent molecules within the bubble consumes a significant fraction of the energy generated by the collapsing bubble, which can limit the final temperature inside the bubble. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  20. Controlled Cavitation for Scale-Free Heating, Gum Hydration and Emulsification in Food and Consumer Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancosky, Douglas G.; Milly, Paul

    Cavitation is defined as the sudden formation and collapse of bubbles in liquid by means of a mechanical force. As bubbles rapidly form and collapse, pressurized shock waves, localized heating events and tremendous shearing forces occur. As microscopic cavitation bubbles are produced and collapse, shockwaves are given off into the liquid, which can result in heating and/or mixing, similar to ultrasound. These shockwaves can provide breakthrough benefits for the heating of liquids without scale buildup and/or the mixing of liquids with other liquids, gases or solids at the microscopic level to increase the efficiency of the reaction.

  1. Magnetic susceptibility based magnetic resonance estimation of micro-bubble size for the vertically upward bubbly flow.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, A; Mastikhin, I V

    2012-12-01

    The approach originally developed for the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analysis of stable micro-bubbles is applied to studies of vertical bubbly flows. A very fast dispersion (diffusion) of water in bubbly flows extends the fast diffusion limit down to short (2-10 ms) measurement times, permitting the use of the simplified analytical expression to extract the micro-bubble size information both in bulk and spatially resolved. The observed strong bubble-induced reduction in T(2)(*) necessitates the use of very short encoding times and pure phase encoding methods to accurately measure the void fraction. There was an expected underestimation of bubble sizes at faster flow rates due to the limitations of the theory derived for small bubble sizes and non-interacting spherical bubbles (low void fractions and slow flow rates). This approach lends itself to studies of bubbly flows and cavitating media characterized by small bubble sizes and low void fractions. PMID:23117260

  2. Visualization of bubble formation induced by femtosecond laser pulses in water/acetone on a time scale from sub-picosecond to microseconds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizushima, Yuki; Saito, Takayuki

    2014-11-01

    Laser induced bubble formation is usually understood as a trigger pulled by a plasma formation in a bulk media. During the plasma growth, normally, bright light emission due to excitation of the energy state of the electrons in the molecules can be observed. However, femtosecond laser pulses (fs pulses) generate bubbles through a process without bright light emission. The fs pulse leads extraordinary phenomena due to their extremely higher energy density than usual laser pulses (nano- or pico-second). We think the bubble formation by fs pulses must be different from the ordinary laser-induced cavitation. In this study, a single fs pulse was focused on water and acetone in a glass cell through several types of lens. We visualized bubble formation processes from sub-picosecond to microsecond order through time-resolved visualization. We found out a strange time-series process of refraction index changes of the media irradiated by the fs pulse: the bubble nucleation, rapid growth of bubble nucleation and interesting bubble properties. Based on these results, we will discuss a relationship between those and fs pulse peak intensity, and differences in bubble formation in water and acetone.

  3. Can Cavitation Be Anticipated?

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Dress, W.B.; Hylton, J.O.; Kercel, S.W.

    1999-04-25

    The major problem with cavitation in pumps and hydraulic systems is that there is no effective (conventional) method for detecting or predicting its inception. The traditional method of recognizing cavitation in a pump is to declare the event occurring when the total head drops by some arbitrary value (typically 3%) in response to a pressure reduction at the pump inlet. However, the device is already seriously cavitating when this happens. What is actually needed is a practical method to detect impending rather than incipient cavitation. Whereas the detection of incipient cavitation requires the detection of features just after cavitation starts, the anticipation of cavitation requires the detection and identification of precursor features just before it begins. Two recent advances that make this detection possible. The first is acoustic sensors with a bandwidth of 1 MHz and a dynamic range of 80 dB that preserve the fine details of the features when subjected to coarse vibrations. The second is the application of Bayesian parameter estimation which makes it possible to separate weak signals, such as those present in cavitation precursors, from strong signals, such as pump vibration. Bayesian parameter estimation derives a model based on cavitation hydrodynamics and produces a figure of merit of how well it fits the acquired data. Applying this model to an anticipatory engine should lead to a reliable method of anticipating cavitation before it occurs. This paper reports the findings of precursor features using high-performance sensors and Bayesian analysis of weak acoustic emissions in the 100-1000kHz band from an experimental flow loop.

  4. Toward the development of erosion-free ultrasonic cavitation cleaning with gas-supersaturated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Tatsuya; Ando, Keita

    2015-11-01

    In ultrasonic cleaning, contaminant particles attached at target surfaces are removed by liquid flow or acoustic waves that are induced by acoustic cavitation bubbles. However, the inertial collapse of such bubbles often involve strong shock emission or water hammer by re-entrant jets, thereby giving rise to material erosion. Here, we aim at developing an erosion-free ultrasonic cleaning technique with the aid of gas-supersaturated water. The key idea is that (gaseous) cavitation is triggered easily even with low-intensity sonication in water where gases are dissolved beyond Henry's saturation limit, allowing us to buffer violent bubble collapse. In this presentation, we report on observations of the removal of micron/submicron-sized particles attached at glass surfaces by the action of gaseous cavitation bubbles under low-intensity sonication.

  5. Cost versus Enrollment Bubbles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard K.; Gillen, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The defining characteristic of a bubble is unsustainable growth that eventually reverses. Bubbles typically arise when uncertainty leads to unsustainable trends, and the authors argue that there are two areas in which higher education has experienced what appear to be unsustainable trends, namely, college costs (the costs to students, parents, and…

  6. Experiments in thermosensitive cavitation of a cryogenic rocket propellant surrogate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Sean Benjamin

    Cavitation is a phase-change phenomenon that may appear in practical devices, often leading to loss of performance and possible physical damage. Of particular interest is the presence of cavitation in rocket engine pumps as the cryogenic fluids cavitate in impellers and inducers. Unlike water, which has been studied exhaustively, cryogenic fluids undergo cavitation with significant thermal effect. Past attempts at analyzing this behavior in water have led to poor predictive capability due to the lack of data in the regime defined as thermosensitive cavitation. Fluids flowing near their thermodynamic critical point have a liquid-vapor density ratio that is orders of magnitude less than typical experimental fluids, so that the traditional equation-of-state and cavitation models do not apply. Thermal effects in cavitation have not been fully investigated due to experimental difficulties handling cryogenics. This work investigates the physical effects of thermosensitive cavitation in a model representative of a turbopump inducer in a modern rocket engine. This is achieved by utilizing a room-temperature testing fluid that exhibits a thermal effect equivalent to that experienced by cryogenic propellants. Unsteady surface pressures and high speed imaging collected over the span of thermophysical regimes ranging from thermosensitive to isothermal cavitation offer both quantitative and qualitative insight into the physical process of thermal cavitation. Physical and thermodynamic effects are isolated to identify the source of cavity conditions, oscillations and growth/collapse behavior. Planar laser imaging offers an instantaneous look inside the vapor cavity and at the behavior of the boundary between the two-phase region and freestream liquid. Nondimensional parameters are explored, with cavitation numbers, Reynolds Numbers, coefficient of pressure and nondimensional temperature in a broad range. Results in the form of cavitation regime maps, Strouhal Number of cavity

  7. A Generalized Eulerian-Lagrangian Analysis, with Application to Liquid Flows with Vapor Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejong, Frederik J.; Meyyappan, Meyya

    1993-01-01

    Under a NASA MSFC SBIR Phase 2 effort an analysis has been developed for liquid flows with vapor bubbles such as those in liquid rocket engine components. The analysis is based on a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian technique, in which Eulerian conservation equations are solved for the liquid phase, while Lagrangian equations of motion are integrated in computational coordinates for the vapor phase. The novel aspect of the Lagrangian analysis developed under this effort is that it combines features of the so-called particle distribution approach with those of the so-called particle trajectory approach and can, in fact, be considered as a generalization of both of those traditional methods. The result of this generalization is a reduction in CPU time and memory requirements. Particle time step (stability) limitations have been eliminated by semi-implicit integration of the particle equations of motion (and, for certain applications, the particle temperature equation), although practical limitations remain in effect for reasons of accuracy. The analysis has been applied to the simulation of cavitating flow through a single-bladed section of a labyrinth seal. Models for the simulation of bubble formation and growth have been included, as well as models for bubble drag and heat transfer. The results indicate that bubble formation is more or less 'explosive'. for a given flow field, the number density of bubble nucleation sites is very sensitive to the vapor properties and the surface tension. The bubble motion, on the other hand, is much less sensitive to the properties, but is affected strongly by the local pressure gradients in the flow field. In situations where either the material properties or the flow field are not known with sufficient accuracy, parametric studies can be carried out rapidly to assess the effect of the important variables. Future work will include application of the analysis to cavitation in inducer flow fields.

  8. A generalized Eulerian-Lagrangian analysis, with application to liquid flows with vapor bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejong, Frederik J.; Meyyappan, Meyya

    1993-07-01

    Under a NASA MSFC SBIR Phase 2 effort an analysis has been developed for liquid flows with vapor bubbles such as those in liquid rocket engine components. The analysis is based on a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian technique, in which Eulerian conservation equations are solved for the liquid phase, while Lagrangian equations of motion are integrated in computational coordinates for the vapor phase. The novel aspect of the Lagrangian analysis developed under this effort is that it combines features of the so-called particle distribution approach with those of the so-called particle trajectory approach and can, in fact, be considered as a generalization of both of those traditional methods. The result of this generalization is a reduction in CPU time and memory requirements. Particle time step (stability) limitations have been eliminated by semi-implicit integration of the particle equations of motion (and, for certain applications, the particle temperature equation), although practical limitations remain in effect for reasons of accuracy. The analysis has been applied to the simulation of cavitating flow through a single-bladed section of a labyrinth seal. Models for the simulation of bubble formation and growth have been included, as well as models for bubble drag and heat transfer. The results indicate that bubble formation is more or less 'explosive'. for a given flow field, the number density of bubble nucleation sites is very sensitive to the vapor properties and the surface tension. The bubble motion, on the other hand, is much less sensitive to the properties, but is affected strongly by the local pressure gradients in the flow field. In situations where either the material properties or the flow field are not known with sufficient accuracy, parametric studies can be carried out rapidly to assess the effect of the important variables. Future work will include application of the analysis to cavitation in inducer flow fields.

  9. Experimental determination of cavitation thresholds in liquid water and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Gulec, K.; West, C.D.; Haines, J.

    1998-09-01

    It is well-known that fluids (like solids) will break apart or form voids when put under sufficient tension. The present study has been motivated by the need to evaluate the impact of fluid cavitation in spallation neutron source target systems, more specifically for the proposed 1-MW Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project, which is being designed in collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory. Indeed, results of SNS-specific simulations have indicated that the onset of cavitation could play a very significant role in reducing imposed stresses in structural components of the SNS. In general, the cavitation of fluids is target systems is important to consider for a variety of reasons. Its occurrence can have significant impact on heat transfer, pressure pulse generation, fluid jetting on to structures, surface erosion, stresses induced in enclosures, etc. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the threshold pressure under which the fluid in tension will undergo cavitation. Another major aspect concerns the possible onset of cavitation in an oscillating pressure field; i.e., one would need to know if fluids such as mercury and water will cavitate if the imposed tensile pressure in the fluid is of short duration. If indeed it takes sufficiently long for cavitation bubbles to nucleate, then it would be possible to disregard the complexities involved with addressing cavitation-related issues. This paper provides an overview of preliminary work done to date to derive information on cavitation onset in a relatively static and in a high-frequency environment.

  10. Comparative CFD Investigation on the Performance of a New Family of Super-Cavitating Hydrofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizzolara, S.; Bonfiglio, L.

    2015-12-01

    We present a CFD characterization of a new type of super-cavitating hydrofoil section designed to have optimal performance both in super-cavitating conditions and in sub-cavitating conditions (including transitional regime). The basic concepts of the new profile family are first introduced. Lift, drag and cavity shapes at different cavitation numbers are calculated for a new foil and compared with those of conventional sub-cavitating and super-cavitating profiles. Numerical calculations confirm the superior characteristics of the new hydrofoil family, which is able to attain high lift and efficiency both in sub-cavitating and super-cavitating conditions. Numerical calculations are based on a multi-phase fully turbulent URANSE solver with a bubble dynamic cavitation model to follow the generation and evaporation of the vapor phase. The new profile family, initially devised for ultra-high speed hydrofoil crafts, may result useful for diverse applications such as super-cavitating or surface-piercing propellers or high-speed sailing boats.

  11. Cavitation in ultrasound and shockwave therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colonius, Tim

    2014-11-01

    Acoustic waves, especially high-intensity ultrasound and shock waves, are used for medical imaging and intra- and extra-corporeal manipulation of cells, tissue, and urinary calculi. Waves are currently used to treat kidney stone disease, plantar fasciitis, and bone nonunion, and they are being investigated as a technique to ablate cancer tumors and mediate drug delivery. In many applications, acoustic waves induce the expansion and collapse of preexisting or newly cavitating bubbles whose presence can either mediate the generation of localized stresses or lead to collateral damage, depending on how effectively they can be controlled. We describe efforts aimed at simulating the collapse of bubbles, both individually and in clusters, with the aim to characterize the induced mechanical stresses and strains. To simulate collapse of one or a few bubbles, compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes simulations of multi-component materials are performed with WENO-based shock and interface capturing schemes. Repetitive insonification generates numerous bubbles that are difficult to resolve numerically. Such clouds are also important in traditional engineering applications such as caveating hydrofoils. Models that incorporate the dynamics of an unresolved dispersed phase consisting of the bubble cloud are also developed. The results of several model problems including bubble collapse near rigid surfaces, bubble collapse near compliant surfaces and in small capillaries are analyzed. The results are processed to determine the potential for micron-sized preexisting gas bubbles to damage capillaries. The translation of the fundamental fluid dynamics into improvements in the design and clinical application of shockwave lithotripters will be discussed. NIH Grant PO1-DK043881.

  12. Bubble formation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1994-01-01

    Two KC-135 flight campaigns have been conducted to date which are specifically dedicated to study bubble formation in microgravity. The first flight was conducted during March 14-18, 1994, and the other during June 20-24, 1994. The results from the June 1994 flight have not been analyzed yet, while the results from the March flight have been partially analyzed. In the first flight three different experiments were performed, one with the specific aim at determining whether or not cavitation can take place during any of the fluid handling procedures adopted in the shuttle bioprocessing experiments. The other experiments were concerned with duplicating some of the procedures that resulted in bubble formation, namely the NCS filling procedure and the needle scratch of a solid surface. The results from this set of experiments suggest that cavitation did not take place during any of the fluid handling procedures. The results clearly indicate that almost all were generated as a result of the breakup of the gas/liquid interface. This was convincingly demonstrated in the scratch tests as well as in the liquid fill tests.

  13. Cavitation erosion: Using the target material as a pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Samir Chandra; Franc, Jean-Pierre; Fivel, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Numerical prediction of mass loss due to cavitation erosion requires the knowledge of the hydrodynamic impact loads generated by cavitation bubble collapses. Experimental measurements of such impact loads using conventional pressure sensors are not reliable (if not impossible) due to the micron size and the very small duration of the loading. In this paper, a new method to estimate these loading conditions is proposed based on cavitation pitting tests and an iterative inverse finite element modeling. The principle of the method is as follows. First, numerous pits corresponding to localized plastically deformed regions are identified from a cavitation test performed in a dedicated tunnel. Then each pit is numerically reproduced by finite element simulations of the material response to a representative Gaussian pressure field supposed to mimic a single bubble collapse. This gives the size and pressure distribution of the bubble impacts. The prime objective of this study is to find out if the target material itself could be used as a pressure sensor or not, i.e., if the cavitation pits left on the surface of the tested specimen could provide the characteristics of the cavitating flow in terms of pressure fields independently of the target material. Pitting tests were done on three materials, namely, 7075 Aluminum alloy (Al-7075), 2205 duplex stainless steel (A-2205), and Nickel-Aluminum Bronze (NAB) at three different flow conditions and the impact loads have been estimated for each identified pit. Very interestingly, a statistical analysis shows that the estimated impact loads are material independent at all flow conditions, provided the material properties are characterized properly. It is also shown that for some materials, the constitutive parameters obtained from compression tests are not satisfactory.

  14. Asymptotic approach in the limit of small contact angles to sessile vapor bubble growth in a superheated environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rednikov, Alexey; Hollander, Nicolas; Hernando Revilla, Marta; Colinet, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    A model of nucleate pool boiling is considered, and more concretely the growth dynamics of a single spherical-cap vapor bubble on a flat superheated substrate in a large volume of an equally superheated liquid. An asymptotic scheme is developed valid in the limit of small contact angles. These are basically supposed to be the evaporation-induced ones and hence finite even in the case of a perfectly wetting liquid implied here. The consideration generally involves four regions: i) microregion, where the contact line singularities are resolved and the evaporation-induced contact angles are established, ii) Cox-Voinov region, iii) foot of the bubble, and iv) macroregion. It is only in the latter region, which remarkably appears to leading order in the form of the exterior of a sphere touching a planar surface in one point (hence a fixed geometry even for variable contact angles), that the full Navier-Stokes and heat equations are to be (numerically) resolved. ESA & BELSPO PRODEX, F.R.S.-FNRS.

  15. Predicting the growth of nanoscale nuclei by histotripsy pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Kenneth B.; Holland, Christy K.

    2016-04-01

    Histotripsy is a focused ultrasound therapy that ablates tissue through the mechanical action of cavitation. Histotripsy-initiated cavitation activity is generated from shocked ultrasound pulses that scatter from incidental nuclei (shock scattering histotripsy), or purely tensile ultrasound pulses (microtripsy). The Yang/Church model was numerically integrated to predict the behavior of the cavitation nuclei exposed to measured shock scattering histotripsy pulses. The bubble motion exhibited expansion only behavior, suggesting that the ablative action of a histotripsy pulse is related to the maximum size of the bubble. The analytic model of Holland and Apfel was extended to predict the maximum size of cavitation nuclei for both shock scattering histotripsy and microtripsy excitations. The predictions of the analytic model and the numerical model agree within 2% for fully developed shock scattering histotripsy pulses (>72 MPa peak positive pressure). For shock scattering histotripsy pulses that are not fully developed (<72 MPa), the analytic model underestimated the maximum size by less than 5%. The analytic model was also used to predict bubble growth nucleated from microtripsy insonations, and was found to be consistent with experimental observations. Based on the extended analytic model, metrics were developed to predict the extent of the treatment zone from histotripsy pulses.

  16. Predicting the growth of nanoscale nuclei by histotripsy pulses

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Kenneth B; Holland, Christy K

    2016-01-01

    Histotripsy is a focused ultrasound therapy that ablates tissue through the mechanical action of cavitation. Histotripsy-initiated cavitation activity is generated from shocked ultrasound pulses that scatter from incidental nuclei (shock scattering histotripsy), or purely tensile ultrasound pulses (microtripsy). The Yang/Church model was numerically integrated to predict the behavior of the cavitation nuclei exposed to measured shock scattering histotripsy pulses. The bubble motion exhibited expansion only behavior, suggesting that the ablative action of a histotripsy pulse is related to the maximum size of the bubble. The analytic model of Holland and Apfel was extended to predict the maximum size of cavitation nuclei for both shock scattering histotripsy and microtripsy excitations. The predictions of the analytic model and the numerical model agree within 2% for fully developed shock scattering histotripsy pulses (>72 MPa peak positive pressure). For shock scattering histotripsy pulses that are not fully developed (<72 MPa), the analytic model underestimated the maximum size by less than 5%. The analytic model was also used to predict bubble growth nucleated from microtripsy insonations, and was found to be consistent with experimental observations. Based on the extended analytic model, metrics were developed to predict the extent of the treatment zone from histotripsy pulses. PMID:26988374

  17. Detection of cystic structures using pulsed ultrasonically induced resonant cavitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Kovach, John S. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus and method for early detection of cystic structures indicative of ovarian and breast cancers uses ultrasonic wave energy at a unique resonance frequency for inducing cavitation in cystic fluid characteristic of cystic structures in the ovaries associated with ovarian cancer, and in cystic structures in the breast associated with breast cancer. Induced cavitation bubbles in the cystic fluid implode, creating implosion waves which are detected by ultrasonic receiving transducers attached to the abdomen of the patient. Triangulation of the ultrasonic receiving transducers enables the received signals to be processed and analyzed to identify the location and structure of the cyst.

  18. Nano bubbles in liquid of a noble-gas mixture.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takenori; Ohnishi, Shuhei

    2010-02-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with over one million atoms are used to investigate nano bubbles in Ar-Ne liquid. The simulations demonstrate cavitations in the stretched liquid, and bubble creation and collapse. We find that a small cavity created in the stretched liquid spontaneously transforms into a nano bubble with the homogeneous vapor region. The equilibrium spherical bubble of 11.4 nm in radius is obtained after the long-time MD run. The surface tension of the nano bubble is found to be larger than that of the flat surface. PMID:20094667

  19. Stable tridimensional bubble clusters in multi-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL).

    PubMed

    Rosselló, J M; Dellavale, D; Bonetto, F J

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, stable clusters made of multiple sonoluminescent bubbles are experimentally and theoretically studied. Argon bubbles were acoustically generated and trapped using bi-frequency driving within a cylindrical chamber filled with a sulfuric acid aqueous solution (SA85w/w). The intensity of the acoustic pressure field was strong enough to sustain, during several minutes, a large number of positionally and spatially fixed (without pseudo-orbits) sonoluminescent bubbles over an ellipsoidally-shaped tridimensional array. The dimensions of the ellipsoids were studied as a function of the amplitude of the applied low-frequency acoustic pressure (PAc(LF)) and the static pressure in the fluid (P0). In order to explain the size and shape of the bubble clusters, we performed a series of numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic forces acting over the bubbles. In both cases the observed experimental behavior was in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The simulations revealed that the positionally stable region, mainly determined by the null primary Bjerknes force (F→Bj), is defined as the outer perimeter of an axisymmetric ellipsoidal cluster centered in the acoustic field antinode. The role of the high-frequency component of the pressure field and the influence of the secondary Bjerknes force are discussed. We also investigate the effect of a change in the concentration of dissolved gas on the positional and spatial instabilities through the cluster dimensions. The experimental and numerical results presented in this paper are potentially useful for further understanding and modeling numerous current research topics regarding multi-bubble phenomena, e.g. forces acting on the bubbles in multi-frequency acoustic fields, transient acoustic cavitation, bubble interactions, structure formation processes, atomic and molecular emissions of equal bubbles and nonlinear or unsteady acoustic pressure fields in bubbly media. PMID:24974006

  20. Detecting vapour bubbles in simulations of metastable water

    SciTech Connect

    González, Miguel A.; Abascal, Jose L. F.; Valeriani, Chantal E-mail: cvaleriani@quim.ucm.es; Menzl, Georg; Geiger, Philipp; Dellago, Christoph E-mail: cvaleriani@quim.ucm.es; Aragones, Juan L.; Caupin, Frederic

    2014-11-14

    The investigation of cavitation in metastable liquids with molecular simulations requires an appropriate definition of the volume of the vapour bubble forming within the metastable liquid phase. Commonly used approaches for bubble detection exhibit two significant flaws: first, when applied to water they often identify the voids within the hydrogen bond network as bubbles thus masking the signature of emerging bubbles and, second, they lack thermodynamic consistency. Here, we present two grid-based methods, the M-method and the V-method, to detect bubbles in metastable water specifically designed to address these shortcomings. The M-method incorporates information about neighbouring grid cells to distinguish between liquid- and vapour-like cells, which allows for a very sensitive detection of small bubbles and high spatial resolution of the detected bubbles. The V-method is calibrated such that its estimates for the bubble volume correspond to the average change in system volume and are thus thermodynamically consistent. Both methods are computationally inexpensive such that they can be used in molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations of cavitation. We illustrate them by computing the free energy barrier and the size of the critical bubble for cavitation in water at negative pressure.

  1. Detecting vapour bubbles in simulations of metastable water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Miguel A.; Menzl, Georg; Aragones, Juan L.; Geiger, Philipp; Caupin, Frederic; Abascal, Jose L. F.; Dellago, Christoph; Valeriani, Chantal

    2014-11-01

    The investigation of cavitation in metastable liquids with molecular simulations requires an appropriate definition of the volume of the vapour bubble forming within the metastable liquid phase. Commonly used approaches for bubble detection exhibit two significant flaws: first, when applied to water they often identify the voids within the hydrogen bond network as bubbles thus masking the signature of emerging bubbles and, second, they lack thermodynamic consistency. Here, we present two grid-based methods, the M-method and the V-method, to detect bubbles in metastable water specifically designed to address these shortcomings. The M-method incorporates information about neighbouring grid cells to distinguish between liquid- and vapour-like cells, which allows for a very sensitive detection of small bubbles and high spatial resolution of the detected bubbles. The V-method is calibrated such that its estimates for the bubble volume correspond to the average change in system volume and are thus thermodynamically consistent. Both methods are computationally inexpensive such that they can be used in molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations of cavitation. We illustrate them by computing the free energy barrier and the size of the critical bubble for cavitation in water at negative pressure.

  2. Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    McDeavitt, Sean; Shao, Lin; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Wirth, Brian; Kennedy, Rory

    2014-04-07

    Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. Many mechanistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, research, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

  3. Effect of geometrical parameters on submerged cavitation jet discharged from profiled central-body nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Minguan; Xiao, Shengnan; Kang, Can; Wang, Yuli

    2013-05-01

    The flow characteristics of cavitation jets are essential issues among relevant studies. The physical properties of the jet are largely determined by the geometrical parameters of the nozzle. The structure and cavitation jets characteristics of the angular-nozzle and the self-resonating cavitation nozzle have been extensively studied, but little research is conducted in the central-body cavitation nozzle mainly because of its hard processing and the cavitation jet effect not satisfactory. In this paper, a novel central-body nozzle (a non-plunger central-body nozzle with square outlet) is studied to solve above problems. Submerged jets discharged from the novel central-body nozzle are simulated, employing the full cavitation model. The impact of nozzle configuration on jet properties is analyzed. The analysis results indicate that when central-body relative diameter keeps constant, there is an optimal contraction degree of nozzle's outlet, which can induce intense cavitation in the jet. The central-body relative diameter also affects jet profiles. In the case of large central-body relative diameter, most of the bubbles settle in the jet core. On the contrary, a smaller relative diameter makes bubbles concentrate in the interface between the jet and its surrounding fluid. Moreover, the shorter outlet part allows the cavitation zone further extend in both the axial and racial directions. The research results further consummate the study on the central-body nozzles and the correlation between cavitation jet and the structure, and elementarily reveal the mechanism of cavitation jet produced in a non-plunger novel central-body nozzle and the effect of the structure parameters on the cavitation jet, moreover, provide the theoretical basis for the optimal design of the nozzle.

  4. Large Bubble Growth Quantified By Video and Infrasound at Mount Erebus, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. J. C.; Johnson, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Mount Erebus lava lake eruptions exhibit many characteristic strombolian attributes including the ascent of a large gas slug(s) through the magma column followed by its expansion and bursting at the surface. Strombolian explosions correspond to pressurized large (>10 m radius) bubbles, which distend the lava lake surface before bursting within a few tenths of a second thus generating infrasonic impulses followed by decaying oscillations. We quantify the dynamics of bubble evolution using infrasound and time synchronized video data recording at ~30 FPS. Video footage is used to synthesize pressure time series during eruptions assuming a simple acoustic source. These synthetic pressure records are directly compared to infrasound pressure records collected at two sites located ~300 m from the lava lake source. A scaled relationship exists between infrasound and video derived pressures where video generally overestimates the volumetrically expanding source. This scaling is due to the image processing routine, which tracks and models the ejection of ballistics during eruption as an expanding hemisphere and not necessarily the expansion of a translucent gas source that is not directly visible with optical imagery. Using both data sets, we describe Erebus lava lake eruptions in three phases with smooth distension of spherical cap (P1), followed by membrane fragmentation and violent gas expulsion (P2) and finally a contraction of the volumetric gas source due to an initial over-expansion followed by re-equilibration. (P3). Specifically, P3 is identified by decaying oscillations of the pressure record which has been well modeled in laboratory experiments but never described at Erebus.

  5. Cavitation pressure in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, Eric; Balibar, Sébastien; Caupin, Frédéric

    2006-10-01

    We investigate the limiting mechanical tension (negative pressure) that liquid water can sustain before cavitation occurs. The temperature dependence of this quantity is of special interest for water, where it can be used as a probe of a postulated anomaly of its equation of state. After a brief review of previous experiments on cavitation, we describe our method which consists in focusing a high amplitude sound wave in the bulk liquid, away from any walls. We obtain highly reproducible results, allowing us to study in detail the statistics of cavitation, and to give an accurate definition of the cavitation threshold. Two independent pressure calibrations are performed. The cavitation pressure is found to increase monotonically from -26MPa at 0°C to -17MPa at 80°C . While these values lie among the most negative pressures reported in water, they are still far away from the cavitation pressure expected theoretically and reached in the experiment by Angell and his group [Zheng , Science 254, 829 (1991)] (around -120MPa at 40°C ). Possible reasons for this discrepancy are considered.

  6. Mercury Cavitation Phenomenon in Pulsed Spallation Neutron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi; Kawai, Masayoshi

    2008-06-24

    Innovative researches will be performed at Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility in J-PARC, in which a mercury target system will be installed as MW-class pulse spallation neutron sources. Proton beams will be injected into mercury target to induce the spallation reaction. At the moment the intense proton beam hits the target, pressure waves are generated in the mercury because of the abrupt heat deposition. The pressure waves interact with the target vessel leading to negative pressure that may cause cavitation along the vessel wall. Localized impacts by micro-jets and/or shock waves which are caused by cavitation bubble collapse impose pitting damage on the vessel wall. The pitting damage which degrades the structural integrity of target vessels is a crucial issue for high power mercury targets. Micro-gas-bubbles injection into mercury may be useful to mitigate the pressure wave and the pitting damage. The visualization of cavitation-bubble and gas-bubble collapse behaviors was carried out by using a high-speed video camera. The differences between them are recognized.

  7. Processing of Microalgae: Acoustic Cavitation and Hydrothermal Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenly, Justin Michael

    The production of energy dense fuels from renewable algal biomass feedstocks -- if sustainably developed at a sufficiently large scale -- may reduce the consumption of petroleum from fossil fuels and provide many environmental benefits. Achieving economic feasibility has several technical engineering challenges that arise from dilute concentration of growing algae in aqueous media, small cell sizes, and durable cell walls. For microalgae to be a sustainable source of biofuels and co-products, efficient fractionation and conversion of the cellular contents is necessary. Research was carried out to address two processing options for efficient microalgae biofuel production: 1. Ultrasonic cavitation for cell disruption and 2. Hydrothermal conversion of a model algal triglyceride. 1. Ultrasonic cell disruption, which relies on cavitating bubbles in the suspension to produce damaging shock waves, was investigated experimentally over a range of concentrations and species types. A few seconds of high intensity sonication at fixed frequency yielded significant cell disruption, even for the more durable cells. At longer exposure times, effectiveness was seen to decline and was attributed, using acoustic measurements, to ultrasonic power attenuation in the ensuing cloud of cavitating bubbles. Processing at higher cell concentrations slowed cell disintegration marginally, but increased the effectiveness of dissipating ultrasonic energy. A theoretical study effectively predicted optimal conditions for a variety of parameters that were inaccessible in this experimental investigation. In that study, single bubble collapse was modeled to identify operating conditions that would increase cavitation, and thus cell disruption. Simulations were conducted by varying frequency and pressure amplitude of the ultrasound wave, and initial bubble size. The simulation results indicated that low frequency, high sound wave amplitudes, and small initial bubble size generate the highest shock

  8. Cavitation microstreaming and material transport around microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manasseh, Richard; Tho, Paul; Ooi, Andrew; Petkovic-Duran, Karolina; Zhu, Yonggang

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that cavitation microstreaming plays a role in the therapeutic action of microbubbles driven by ultrasound, such as the sonothrombolytic and sonoporative phenomena. Microscopic particle-image velocimetry experiments are presented, showing that many different microstreaming patterns are possible around a microbubble when it is on a surface. Each pattern is associated with a particular oscillation mode of the bubble and generates a different shear stress distribution. It was found that it is possible to change the flow pattern by changing the sound frequency. Microstreaming flows around bubbles could be responsible for mixing therapeutic agents into the surrounding blood, as well as assisting sonoporative delivery of molecules across cell membranes. Appropriate tuning of the driving frequency may benefit therapies.

  9. Freezing of Xylem Sap Without Cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Hammel, H. T.

    1967-01-01

    Freezing of stem sections and entire twigs of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) has been demonstrated to occur without increasing the resistance to the movement of water through the frozen part after rewarming. This was interpreted to mean that freezing did not produce cavitation in the xylem sap even though A) the sap was unquestionably frozen; B) it contained dissolved gases; and C) it was under tension before freezing and after. Freezing stem sections of some other evergreen gymnosperms during the summer again produced no evidence for cavitation of the xylem sap. On the other hand, freezing stem sections of some angiosperms invariably increased the resistance to sap flow leading to wilting and death in a few hours when the sap tension was at normal daytime values at the time of freezing. These results were interpreted to mean that the bordered pits on the tracheids of gymnosperms function to isolate the freezing sap in each tracheid so that the expansion of water upon freezing not only eliminates any existing tension but also develops positive pressure in the sap. Dissolved gases frozen out of solution may then be redissolved under this positive pressure as melting occurs. As the bubbles are reduced in size by this ice pressure developed in an isolated tracheid, further pressure is applied by the surface tension of the water against air. If the bubbles are redissolved or are reduced to sufficient small size by the time the tension returns to the sap as the last ice crystals melt, then the internal pressure from surface tension in any existing small bubbles may exceed the hydrostatic tension of the melted sap and the bubbles cannot expand and will continue to dissolve. PMID:16656485

  10. Cavitation guide for control valves

    SciTech Connect

    Tullis, J.P.

    1993-04-01

    This guide teaches the basic fundamentals of cavitation to provide the reader with an understanding of what causes cavitation, when it occurs, and the potential problems cavitation can cause to a valve and piping system. The document provides guidelines for understanding how to reduce the cavitation and/or select control valves for a cavitating system. The guide provides a method for predicting the cavitation intensity of control valves, and how the effect of cavitation on a system will vary with valve type, valve function, valve size, operating pressure, duration of operation and details of the piping installation. The guide defines six cavitation limits identifying cavitation intensities ranging from inception to the maximum intensity possible. The intensity of the cavitation at each limit Is described, including a brief discussion of how each level of cavitation influences the valve and system. Examples are included to demonstrate how to apply the method, including making both size and pressure scale effects corrections. Methods of controlling cavitation are discussed providing information on various techniques which can be used to design a new system or modify an existing one so it can operate at a desired level of cavitation.

  11. Investigation of a Method to Reduce Cavitation in Diesel Engine Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Honaker, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    Sonoluminescence is the effect of producing light from sound and occurs when a gas bubble is trapped in a fluid filled cavity and is forced to collapse under a barrage of sound waves. Frenzel and Schultes discovered this phenomenon in 1934 while exposing acoustic waves to photographic plates. This effect was not well understood until 1988 when Crum and Gaitan discovered the necessary conditions for producing single bubble sonoluminescence in the laboratory. The luminescence is a result of the bubble violently collapsing from sound waves and this shares a close association with vibratory cavitation. Cavitation erosion is known to cause damage to rotational machinery when the collapse is near to surfaces due to the high pressures associated with bubble collapse. With these high pressures and temperatures there is a considerable amount of damage to the outside layer of a bearing, thereby, reducing its useful life. An experiment was constructed to generate sonoluminescence in the laboratory in order to obtain a greater understanding of this phenomenon and its association with bubble cavitation. Most of the research was done to investigate how to obtain single bubble sonoluminescence under different conditions and to determine how to detect it. Success in this has inspired several theories on how to use the methods for generating sonoluminescence to control cavitation in fluids under industrial conditions.

  12. Theory of supercompression of vapor bubbles and nanoscale thermonuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmatulin, Robert I.; Akhatov, Iskander Sh.; Topolnikov, Andrey S.; Bolotnova, Raisa Kh.; Vakhitova, Nailya K.; Lahey, Richard T. Jr.; Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2005-10-01

    This paper provides the theoretical basis for energetic vapor bubble implosions induced by a standing acoustic wave. Its primary goal is to describe, explain, and demonstrate the plausibility of the experimental observations by Taleyarkhan et al. [Science 295, 1868 (2002); Phys. Rev. E 69, 036109 (2004)] of thermonuclear fusion for imploding cavitation bubbles in chilled deuterated acetone. A detailed description and analysis of these data, including a resolution of the criticisms that have been raised, together with some preliminary HYDRO code simulations, has been given by Nigmatulin et al. [Vestnik ANRB (Ufa, Russia) 4, 3 (2002); J. Power Energy 218-A, 345 (2004)] and Lahey et al. [Adv. Heat Transfer (to be published)]. In this paper a hydrodynamic shock (i.e., HYDRO) code model of the spherically symmetric motion for a vapor bubble in an acoustically forced liquid is presented. This model describes cavitation bubble cluster growth during the expansion period, followed by a violent implosion during the compression period of the acoustic cycle. There are two stages of the bubble dynamics process. The first, low Mach number stage, comprises almost all the time of the acoustic cycle. During this stage, the radial velocities are much less than the sound speeds in the vapor and liquid, the vapor pressure is very close to uniform, and the liquid is practically incompressible. This process is characterized by the inertia of the liquid, heat conduction, and the evaporation or condensation of the vapor. The second, very short, high Mach number stage is when the radial velocities are the same order, or higher, than the sound speeds in the vapor and liquid. In this stage high temperatures, pressures, and densities of the vapor and liquid take place. The model presented herein has realistic equations of state for the compressible liquid and vapor phases, and accounts for nonequilibrium evaporation/condensation kinetics at the liquid/vapor interface. There are interacting

  13. A High-Speed Imaging and Modeling Study of Dendrite Fragmentation Caused by Ultrasonic Cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Da; Sun, Baode; Mi, Jiawei; Grant, Patrick S.

    2012-10-01

    The dynamic behavior of ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles and their effect on the fragmentation of dendritic grains of a solidifying succinonitrile 1 wt pct camphor organic transparent alloy have been studied experimentally using high-speed digital imaging and complementary numerical analysis of sound wave propagation, cavitation dynamics, and the velocity field in the vicinity of an imploding cavitation bubble. Real-time imaging and analysis revealed that the violent implosion of bubbles created local shock waves that could shatter dendrites nearby into small pieces in a few tens of milliseconds. These catastrophic events were effective in breaking up growing dendritic grains and creating abundant fragmented crystals that may act as embryonic grains; therefore, these events play an important role in grain refinement of metallurgical alloys.

  14. Wetting and cavitation pathways on nanodecorated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Amabili, Matteo; Lisi, Emanuele; Giacomello, Alberto; Casciola, Carlo Massimo

    2016-03-28

    In this contribution we study the wetting and nucleation of vapor bubbles on nanodecorated surfaces via free energy molecular dynamics simulations. The results shed light on the stability of superhydrophobicity in submerged surfaces with nanoscale corrugations. The re-entrant geometry of the cavities under investigation is capable of sustaining a confined vapor phase within the surface roughness (Cassie state) both for hydrophobic and hydrophilic combinations of liquid and solid. The atomistic system is of nanometric size; on this scale thermally activated events can play an important role ultimately determining the lifetime of the Cassie state. Such a superhydrophobic state can break down by full wetting of the texture at large pressures (Cassie-Wenzel transition) or by nucleating a vapor bubble at negative pressures (cavitation). Specialized rare event techniques show that several pathways for wetting and cavitation are possible, due to the complex surface geometry. The related free energy barriers are of the order of 100kBT and vary with pressure. The atomistic results are found to be in semi-quantitative accord with macroscopic capillarity theory. However, the latter is not capable of capturing the density fluctuations, which determine the destabilization of the confined liquid phase at negative pressures (liquid spinodal). PMID:26905783

  15. Bubble dielectrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.; Bliss, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    The theoretical principles related to bubble dielectrophoresis are examined, taking into account the polarization force, aspects of bubble deformation, the electrostatic bubble levitation theorem, and the equation of motion. The measurement of the dielectrophoretic force on static and dynamic bubbles represents a convenient experimental method for the study of the general problem of dielectrophoresis. The experiments reported include static-force measurements, static-levitation experiments, and dynamic-force measurements.

  16. A detector for monitoring the onset of cavitation during therapy-level measurements of ultrasonic power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodnett, M.; Zeqiri, B.

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic cavitation occurring in the water path between a transducer and the target of a radiation force balance can provide a significant source of error during measurements of ultrasonic power. These problems can be particularly acute at physiotherapy levels (>1 W), and low frequencies (leq 1 MHz). The cavitating bubbles can absorb and scatter incident ultrasound, leading to an underestimate in the measured power. For these reasons, International Specification standards demand the use of degassed water. This imposes requirements that may actually be difficult to meet, for example, in the case of hospitals. Also, initially degassed water will rapidly re-gas, increasing the likelihood of cavitation occurring. For these reasons, NPL has developed a device that monitors acoustic emissions generated by bubble activity, for detecting the onset of cavitation during power measurements. A commercially available needle hydrophone is used to detect these emissions. The acoustic signals are then monitored using a Cavitation Detector (CD) unit, comprising an analogue electrical filter that may be tuned to detect frequency components generated by cavitating bubbles, and which provides an indication of when the measured level exceeds a pre-defined threshold. This paper describes studies to establish a suitable detection scheme, the principles of operation of the CD unit, and the performance tests carried out with a range of propagation media.

  17. The effects of total dissolved gas on chum salmon fry survival, growth, gas bubble disease, and seawater tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2013-02-01

    Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta alevin developing in gravel habitats downstream of Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are exposed to elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) when water is spilled at the dam to move migrating salmon smolts downstream to the Pacific Ocean. Current water quality criteria for the management of dissolved gas in dam tailwaters were developed primarily to protect salmonid smolts and are assumed to be protective of alevin if adequate depth compensation is provided. We studied whether chum salmon alevin exposed to six levels of dissolved gas ranging from 100% to 130% TDG at three development periods between hatch and emergence (hereafter early, middle, and late stage) suffered differential mortality, growth, gas bubble disease, or seawater tolerance. Each life stage was exposed for 50 d (early stage), 29 d (middle stage), or 16 d (late stage) beginning at 13, 34, and 37 d post-hatch, respectively, through 50% emergence. The mortality for all stages from exposure to emergence was estimated to be 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 4% to 12%) when dissolved gas levels were between 100% and 117% TDG. Mortality significantly increased as dissolved gas levels rose above 117% TDG,; with the lethal concentration that produced 50% mortality (LC50 ) was estimated to be 128.7% TDG (95% CI of 127.2% to 130.2% TDG) in the early and middle stages. By contrast, there was no evidence that dissolved gas level significantly affected growth in any life stage except that the mean wet weight at emergence of early stage fish exposed to 130% TDG was significantly less than the modeled growth of unexposed fish. The proportion of fish afflicted with gas bubble disease increased with increasing gas concentrations and occurred most commonly in the nares and gastrointestinal tract. Early stage fish exhibited higher ratios of filament to lamellar gill chloride cells than late stage fish, and these ratios increased and decreased for early and late stage fish

  18. Adaptation of the Advanced Spray Combustion Code to Cavitating Flow Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Pak-Yan

    1993-01-01

    A very important consideration in turbopump design is the prediction and prevention of cavitation. Thus far conventional CFD codes have not been generally applicable to the treatment of cavitating flows. Taking advantage of its two-phase capability, the Advanced Spray Combustion Code is being modified to handle flows with transient as well as steady-state cavitation bubbles. The volume-of-fluid approach incorporated into the code is extended and augmented with a liquid phase energy equation and a simple evaporation model. The strategy adopted also successfully deals with the cavity closure issue. Simple test cases will be presented and remaining technical challenges will be discussed.

  19. Measurement of the lifetime of excited-state electron bubbles in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Ambarish; Maris, Humphrey J.

    2005-08-01

    We report on the measurement of the lifetime of bubbles in superfluid helium that contain an electron in the 1P state. The 1P bubbles are produced by laser excitation of ground-state bubbles, and are detected by ultrasonic cavitation. Our measurements show that the lifetime of these excited bubbles is much less than the calculated lifetime for radiative decay and, hence, is determined by a nonradiative mechanism.

  20. Histotripsy-Induced Cavitation Cloud Initiation Thresholds in Tissues of Different Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Maxwell, Adam; Warnez, Matthew; Johnsen, Eric; Cain, Charles A.; Xu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Histotripsy is an ultrasound ablation method that depends on the initiation and maintenance of a cavitation bubble cloud to fractionate soft tissue. This paper studies how tissue properties impact the pressure threshold to initiate the cavitation bubble cloud. Our previous study showed that shock scattering off one or more initial bubbles, expanded to sufficient size in the focus, plays an important role in initiating a dense cavitation cloud. In this process, the shock scattering causes the positive pressure phase to be inverted, resulting in a scattered wave that has the opposite polarity of the incident shock. The inverted shock is superimposed on the incident negative pressure phase to form extremely high negative pressures, resulting in a dense cavitation cloud growing toward the transducer. We hypothesize that increased tissue stiffness impedes the expansion of initial bubbles, reducing the scattered tensile pressure, and thus requiring higher initial intensities for cloud initiation. To test this hypothesis, 5-cycle histotripsy pulses at pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) of 10, 100, or 1000 Hz were applied by a 1-MHz transducer focused inside mechanically tunable tissue-mimicking agarose phantoms and various ex vivo porcine tissues covering a range of Young’s moduli. The threshold to initiate a cavitation cloud and resulting bubble expansion were recorded using acoustic backscatter detection and optical imaging. In both phantoms and ex vivo tissue, results demonstrated a higher cavitation cloud initiation threshold for tissues of higher Young’s modulus. Results also demonstrated a decrease in bubble expansion in phantoms of higher Young’s modulus. These results support our hypothesis, improve our understanding of the effect of histotripsy in tissues with different mechanical properties, and provide a rational basis to tailor acoustic parameters for fractionation of specific tissues. PMID:24474139

  1. The Influence of Dissolved Carbon Dioxide on Cavitation Intensity in Ultrasound Cleaning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brems, Steven; Hauptmann, Marc; Camerotto, Elisabeth; Pacco, Antoine; Struyf, Herbert; Mertens, Paul; Gottschalk, Christiane; De Gendt, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    A study is made of the effect of dissolved CO2 on cavitation inception and activity in an ultrasound system with a sound frequency of 928 kHz. It is shown that measurable cavitation activity is completely absent at moderate acoustic power densities (≤1.7 W cm-2) when only CO2 is dissolved in ultra pure water. It is suggested that the enhanced stability of CO2 bubbles against coalescence might be the origin of the delayed cavitation inception when compared to other dissolved gases. A combination of dissolved O2 and CO2 can lead to a measurable cavitation activity at an acoustic power of 420 mW cm-2, but an increase of the dissolved CO2 level reduces, in general, the observed cavitation activity. In order to compare results with different dissolved gas concentrations, measurements are performed with acoustic pulses and the pulse off time is varied. An optimal pulse-off time exists, where a maximum of cavitation activity is observed. However, the pulse-off time interval with enhanced cavitation activity is narrowed with increasing dissolved CO2 concentrations. Again, a decrease in bubble coalescence might explain the narrowing of the “enhancement peak”.

  2. Numerical investigation on cavitation in pressure relief valve for coal liquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, G. F.; Li, W. Z.; Xiao, D. H.; Zheng, Z. J.; Dou, H. S.; Wang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The pressure relief valve for regulating the level of the high-pressure separator works under a pressure difference up to 15 MPa in the temperature of 415 °C. Severe cavitation erosion and particle impact lead to the valve disc's mass loss. In this paper, three-dimensional turbulent cavitating flows in the pressure relief valve are numerically simulated to reveal the mechanism of mass loss at valve disc. The RNG k-epsilon turbulence model and the mixture model with a mass transfer for cavitation are employed to simulate the cavitating flow in the pressure relief valve. The result shows that there is phase change in the pressure relief process and cavitation bubbles would be transported by high-velocity backflow to the head of valve disc. For the local pressure higher than the saturated vapor pressure, the bubbles collapse at the head of disc and cavitation erosion is formed at the head of the disc. By comparing the cases of opening of 40%, 50%, and 60%, backflow velocity and cavitation region in front of the disc decrease with the opening increase. Therefore, during the actual operation, the pressure relief valve should be kept to a relatively large opening.

  3. Bubble-cell interactions with laser-activated polymeric microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versluis, Michel; Lajoinie, Guillaume; van Rooij, Tom; Skachkov, Ilya; Kooiman, Klazina; de Jong, Nico; Physics of Fluids Group, University of Twente Team; Biomedical Engineering, Erasmus MC Team

    2015-11-01

    Polymeric microcapsules that are made light-absorbing by the addition of a dye in their shell can generate cavitation microbubbles with spatiotemporal control when irradiated by a pulsed laser. These particles less than 3 μm in size can circulate through the body, bind to tissues and are expected to be readily detected, even if a single cavitation bubble is produced. In this paper, we study the impact of such cavitation bubbles on a cell monolayer and quantify it in terms of cell poration and cell viability. Two capsules formulations were used; the first one encapsulates a low boiling point oil and induced less cell damage than the second that was loaded with a high boiling point oil. We also report the generation of stable bubbles by the first capsule formulation that completely absorb the cells in their close vicinity. Physics of Fluid group MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology.

  4. Amyloid fibril disruption by ultrasonic cavitation: nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Hisashi; Itoh, Satoru G

    2014-07-30

    We describe the disruption of amyloid fibrils of Alzheimer's amyloid-β peptides by ultrasonic cavitation. For this purpose, we performed nonequilibrium all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with sinusoidal pressure and visualized the process with movies. When the pressure is negative, a bubble is formed, usually at hydrophobic residues in the transmembrane region. Most β-strands maintain their secondary structures in the bubble. When the pressure becomes positive, the bubble collapses, and water molecules crash against the hydrophilic residues in the nontransmembrane region to disrupt the amyloid. Shorter amyloids require longer sonication times for disruption because they do not have enough hydrophobic residues to serve as a nucleus to form a bubble. These results agree with experiments in which monodispersed amyloid fibrils were obtained by ultrasonication. PMID:24987794

  5. Cavitation induced by CW lasers in absorbing liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-San-Juan, J. C.; Rodriguez-Aboytes, E.; Martínez-Canton, A. E.; Baldovino-Pantaleon, O.; Torres-Hurtado, S.; Robledo-Martinez, A.; Korneev, N.; Ramos-Garcia, R.

    2010-02-01

    Novel results are presented on thermocavitation in highly absorbing solutions using CW low power laser (λ=975 nm). Due to the large absorption coefficient (135 cm-1) at the laser wavelength, penetration length is only ~74μm inside the liquid and asymmetric bubbles are generated near the beam's entrance wall. We report the temporal dynamic of the cavitation bubble, which is much shorter than previously reported. We found that the amplitude of the shock wave decreases exponentially with the beam power. As shown in this work, thermocavitation is a phenomenon that has a great application potential in areas such as ultrasonic waves generation and controlled tissue ablation for use in lithotripsy.

  6. An experimental investigation of acoustic cavitation in gaseous liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitan, Dario F.; Crum, Lawrence A.

    1990-11-01

    High amplitude radial pulsations of a single bubble in several glycerine and water mixtures were observed in an acoustic stationary wave system at acoustic pressure amplitudes on the order of 150 kPa at 21 to 25 kHz. Sonoluminescence, a phenomenon generally attributed to the high temperatures generated during the collapse of cavitation bubbles, was observed as short light pulses occurring once every acoustic period. These emissions could be seen to originate at the geometric center of the bubble when observed through a microscope. It was observed that the light emissions occurred simultaneously with the bubble collapse. Using a laser scattering technique, experimental radius-time curves were obtained which confirmed the absence of surface waves which are expected at pressure amplitudes above 100 kPa. From these radius-time curves, measurements of the pulsation amplitude, the timing of the major bubble collapse, and the number of rebounds were made and compared with several theories. The implications of this research on the current understanding of cavitation were discussed.

  7. Recalcitrant bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Shanahan, Martin E. R.; Sefiane, Khellil

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that thermocapillary forces may drive bubbles against liquid flow in ‘anomalous' mixtures. Unlike ‘ordinary' liquids, in which bubbles migrate towards higher temperatures, we have observed vapour bubbles migrating towards lower temperatures, therefore against the flow. This unusual behaviour may be explained by the temperature dependence of surface tension of these binary mixtures. Bubbles migrating towards their equilibrium position follow an exponential trend. They finally settle in a stationary position just ‘downstream' of the minimum in surface tension. The exponential trend for bubbles in ‘anomalous' mixtures and the linear trend in pure liquids can be explained by a simple model. For larger bubbles, oscillations were observed. These oscillations can be reasonably explained by including an inertial term in the equation of motion (neglected for smaller bubbles). PMID:24740256

  8. A Experimental Investigation of Acoustic Cavitation in Gaseous Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitan, Dario Felipe

    1990-01-01

    High amplitude radial pulsations of a single gas bubble in several glycerine and water mixtures have been observed in an acoustic stationary wave system at acoustic pressure amplitudes as high as 1.5 bars. Using a laser scattering technique, radius-time curves have been obtained experimentally which confirm the absence of surface waves. Measurements of the pulsation amplitude, the timing of the major bubble collapse, and the number of rebounds have been made and compared with the theory. From these data, calculations of the internal gas temperature and pressure during the collapse have been performed. Values of at least 2,000 K and 2,000 bars have been obtained using a sophisticated model of spherically symmetric bubble dynamics. Simultaneously, sonoluminescence (SL), a phenomenon discovered in 1933 and attributed today to the high temperatures and pressures generated during the collapse of the bubbles, were observed as short light pulses occurring once every acoustic period. The light emissions can be seen to originate at the geometric center of the bubble when observed through a microscope. Also, the simultaneity of the light emissions and the collapse of the bubble has been confirmed with the aid of a photomultiplier tube. This is the first recorded observation of SL generated by a single bubble. Comparisons of the measured quantities have been made to those predicted by several models. In addition, the implications of this research on the current understanding of cavitation related phenomena such as rectified diffusion, surface wave excitation and sonoluminescence will be discussed. Some possible future experiments are suggested which could further increase our understanding of cavitation bubble dynamics.

  9. Transient cavitation and acoustic emission produced by different laser lithotripters.

    PubMed

    Zhong, P; Tong, H L; Cocks, F H; Pearle, M S; Preminger, G M

    1998-08-01

    Transient cavitation and shockwave generation produced by pulsed-dye and holmium:YAG laser lithotripters were studied using high-speed photography and acoustic emission measurements. In addition, stone phantoms were used to compare the fragmentation efficiency of various laser and electrohydraulic lithotripters. The pulsed-dye laser, with a wavelength (504 nm) strongly absorbed by most stone materials but not by water, and a short pulse duration of approximately 1 microsec, induces plasma formation on the surface of the target calculi. Subsequently, the rapid expansion of the plasma forms a cavitation bubble, which expands spherically to a maximum size and then collapses violently, leading to strong shockwave generation and microjet impingement, which comprises the primary mechanism for stone fragmentation with short-pulse lasers. In contrast, the holmium laser, with a wavelength (2100 nm) most strongly absorbed by water as well as by all stone materials and a long pulse duration of 250 to 350 microsec, produces an elongated, pear-shaped cavitation bubble at the tip of the optical fiber that forms a vapor channel to conduct the ensuing laser energy to the target stone (Moss effect). The expansion and subsequent collapse of the elongated bubble is asymmetric, resulting in weak shockwave generation and microjet impingement. Thus, stone fragmentation in holmium laser lithotripsy is caused primarily by thermal ablation (drilling effect). PMID:9726407

  10. Assessment of shock wave lithotripters via cavitation potential

    PubMed Central

    Iloreta, Jonathan I.; Zhou, Yufeng; Sankin, Georgy N.; Zhong, Pei; Szeri, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    A method to characterize shock wave lithotripters by examining the potential for cavitation associated with the lithotripter shock wave (LSW) has been developed. The method uses the maximum radius achieved by a bubble subjected to a LSW as a representation of the cavitation potential for that region in the lithotripter. It is found that the maximum radius is determined by the work done on a bubble by the LSW. The method is used to characterize two reflectors: an ellipsoidal reflector and an ellipsoidal reflector with an insert. The results show that the use of an insert reduced the −6 dB volume (with respect to peak positive pressure) from 1.6 to 0.4 cm3, the −6 dB volume (with respect to peak negative pressure) from 14.5 to 8.3 cm3, and reduced the volume characterized by high cavitation potential (i.e., regions characterized by bubbles with radii larger than 429 µm) from 103 to 26 cm3. Thus, the insert is an effective way to localize the potentially damaging effects of shock wave lithotripsy, and suggests an approach to optimize the shape of the reflector. PMID:19865493

  11. Tandem shock wave cavitation enhancement for extracorporeal lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Loske, Achim M; Prieto, Fernando E; Fernandez, Francisco; van Cauwelaert, Javier

    2002-11-21

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been successful for more than twenty years in treating patients with kidney stones. Hundreds of underwater shock waves are generated outside the patient's body and focused on the kidney stone. Stones fracture mainly due to spalling, cavitation and layer separation. Cavitation bubbles are produced in the vicinity of the stone by the tensile phase of each shock wave. Bubbles expand, stabilize and finally collapse violently, creating stone-damaging secondary shock waves and microjets. Bubble collapse can be intensified by sending a second shock wave a few hundred microseconds after the first. A novel method of generating two piezoelectrically generated shock waves with an adjustable time delay between 50 and 950 micros is described and tested. The objective is to enhance cavitation-induced damage to kidney stones during ESWL in order to reduce treatment time. In vitro kidney stone model fragmentation efficiency and pressure measurements were compared with those for a standard ESWL system. Results indicate that fragmentation efficiency was significantly enhanced at a shock wave delay of about 400 and 250 micros using rectangular and spherical stone phantoms, respectively. The system presented here could be installed in clinical devices at relatively low cost, without the need for a second shock wave generator. PMID:12476975

  12. Hydrodynamic cavitation in microsystems. II. Simulations and optical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medrano, M.; Pellone, C.; Zermatten, P. J.; Ayela, F.

    2012-04-01

    Numerical calculations in the single liquid phase and optical observations in the two-phase cavitating flow regime have been performed on microdiaphragms and microventuris fed with deionized water. Simulations have confirmed the influence of the shape of the shrinkage upon the contraction of the jet, and so on the localisation of possible cavitating area downstream. Observations of cavitating flow patterns through hybrid silicon-pyrex microdevices have been performed either via a laser excitation with a pulse duration of 6 ns, or with the help of a high-speed camera. Recorded snapshots and movies are presented. Concerning microdiaphragms, it is confirmed that very high shear rates downstream the diaphragms are the cause of bubbly flows. Concerning microventuris, a gaseous cavity forms on a boundary downstream the throat. As a consequence of a microsystem instability, the cavity displays a high frequency pulsation. Low values Strouhal numbers are associated to such a sheet cavitation. Moreover, when the intensity of the cavitating flow is reduced, there is a mismatch between the frequency of the pulsation of the cavity and the frequency of shedded clouds downstream the channel. That may be the consequence of viscous effects limiting the impingement of a re-entrant liquid jet on the attached cavity.

  13. Computation of Cavitating Flow in a Francis Hydroturbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Daniel; Lindau, Jay

    2013-11-01

    In an effort to improve cavitation characteristics at off-design conditions, a steady, periodic, multiphase, RANS CFD study of an actual Francis hydroturbine was conducted and compared to experimental results. It is well-known that operating hydroturbines at off-design conditions usually results in the formation of large-scale vaporous cavities. These cavities, and their subsequent collapse, reduce efficiency and cause damage and wear to surfaces. The conventional hydro community has expressed interest in increasing their turbine's operating ranges, improving their efficiencies, and reducing damage and wear to critical turbine components. In this work, mixing planes were used to couple rotating and stationary stages of the turbine which have non-multiple periodicity, and provide a coupled solution for the stay vanes, wicket gates, runner blades, and draft tube. The mixture approach is used to simulate the multiphase flow dynamics, and cavitation models were employed to govern the mass transfer between liquid and gas phases. The solution is compared with experimental results across a range of cavitation numbers which display all the major cavitation features in the machine. Unsteady computations are necessary to capture inherently unsteady cavitation phenomena, such as the precessing vortex rope, and the shedding of bubbles from the wicket gates and their subsequent impingement upon the leading edge of the runner blades. To display these features, preliminary unsteady simulations of the full machine are also presented.

  14. A Study of Cavitation Erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Hiromu Isaka; Masatsugu Tsutsumi; Tadashi Shiraishi; Hiroyuki Kobayashi

    2002-07-01

    The authors performed experimental study for the purpose of the following two items from a viewpoint of cavitation erosion of a cylindrical orifice in view of a problem at the letdown orifice in PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor). 1. To get the critical cavitation parameter of the cylindrical orifice to establish the design criteria for prevention of cavitation erosion, and 2. to ascertain the erosion rate in such an eventuality that the cavitation erosion occurs with the orifice made of stainless steel with precipitation hardening (17-4-Cu hardening type stainless steel), so that we confirm the appropriateness of the design criteria. Regarding the 1. item, we carried out the cavitation tests to get the critical cavitation parameters inside and downstream of the orifice. The test results showed that the cavitation parameter at inception is independent of the length or the diameter of the orifice. Moreover, the design criteria of cavitation erosion of cylindrical orifices have been established. Regarding the 2. item, we tested the erosion rate under high-pressure conditions. The cavitation erosion actually occurred in the cylindrical orifice at the tests that was strongly resemble to the erosion occurred at the plant. It will be seldom to reproduce resemble cavitation erosion in a cylindrical orifice with the hard material used at plants. We could establish the criteria for preventing the cavitation erosion from the test results. (authors)

  15. Salt precipitation and trapped liquid cavitation in micrometric capillary tubes.

    PubMed

    Bouzid, Majda; Mercury, Lionel; Lassin, Arnault; Matray, Jean-Michel

    2011-08-15

    Laboratory evidence shows that the occurrence of solid salt in soil pores causes drastic changes in the topology of the porous spaces and possibly also in the properties of the occluded liquid. Observations were made on NaCl precipitation in micrometric cylindrical capillary tubes, filled with a 5.5 M NaCl aqueous solution and submitted to drying conditions. Solid plug-shaped NaCl (halite) commonly grows at the two liquid-air interfaces, isolating the inner liquid column. The initially homogeneous porosity of the capillary tube becomes heterogeneous because of these two NaCl plugs, apparently closing the micro-system on itself. After three months, we observed cavitation of a vapor bubble in the liquid behind the NaCl plugs. This event demonstrates that the occluded liquid underwent a metastable superheated state, controlled by the capillary state of thin capillary films persisting around the NaCl precipitates. These observations show, first, that salt precipitation can create a heterogeneous porous medium in an initially regular network, thus changing the transfer properties due to isolating significant micro-volumes of liquid. Second, our experiment illustrates that the secondary salt growth drastically modifies the thermo-chemical properties of the occluded liquid and thus its reactive behavior. PMID:21600580

  16. Can diving-induced tissue nitrogen supersaturation increase the chance of acoustically driven bubble growth in marine mammals?

    PubMed

    Houser, D S; Howard, R; Ridgway, S

    2001-11-21

    The potential for acoustically mediated causes of stranding in cetaceans (whales and dolphins) is of increasing concern given recent stranding events associated with anthropogenic acoustic activity. We examine a potentially debilitating non-auditory mechanism called rectified diffusion. Rectified diffusion causes gas bubble growth, which in an insonified animal may produce emboli, tissue separation and high, localized pressure in nervous tissue. Using the results of a dolphin dive study and a model of rectified diffusion for low-frequency exposure, we demonstrate that the diving behavior of cetaceans prior to an intense acoustic exposure may increase the chance of rectified diffusion. Specifically, deep diving and slow ascent/descent speed contributes to increased gas-tissue saturation, a condition that amplifies the likelihood of rectified diffusion. The depth of lung collapse limits nitrogen uptake per dive and the surface interval duration influences the amount of nitrogen washout from tissues between dives. Model results suggest that low-frequency rectified diffusion models need to be advanced, that the diving behavior of marine mammals of concern needs to be investigated to identify at-risk animals, and that more intensive studies of gas dynamics within diving marine mammals should be undertaken. PMID:11894990

  17. High-speed motion picture camera experiments of cavitation in dynamically loaded journal bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Jacobson, B. O.

    1983-01-01

    A high-speed camera was used to investigate cavitation in dynamically loaded journal bearings. The length-diameter ratio of the bearing, the speeds of the shaft and bearing, the surface material of the shaft, and the static and dynamic eccentricity of the bearing were varied. The results reveal not only the appearance of gas cavitation, but also the development of previously unsuspected vapor cavitation. It was found that gas cavitation increases with time until, after many hundreds of pressure cycles, there is a constant amount of gas kept in the cavitation zone of the bearing. The gas can have pressures of many times the atmospheric pressure. Vapor cavitation bubbles, on the other hand, collapse at pressures lower than the atmospheric pressure and cannot be transported through a high-pressure zone, nor does the amount of vapor cavitation in a bearing increase with time. Analysis is given to support the experimental findings for both gas and vapor cavitation. Previously announced in STAR as N82-20543

  18. Complete Inhibition Of Ultrasound Induced Cytolysis In The Presence Of Inertial Cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sostaric, Joe Z.; Miyoshi, Norio; Riesz, Peter; De Graff, William G.; Mitchell, James B.

    2006-05-01

    The investigation of ultrasound for biotechnological applications including non-invasive surgery (HIFU), drug/gene delivery to cells (sonoporation) or through the skin (sonophoresis) and ultrasound assisted bioreactors has focused mainly on the physical effects of ultrasound. The beneficial effects of ultrasound rely on a number of application-dependent mechanisms, and may include tissue heating, acoustic streaming or cavitation. Although acoustic cavitation is necessary in some systems, cavitation bubbles simultaneously result in uncontrollable cell damage and cytolysis. Thus, the development of a number of biotechnological uses of ultrasound has been hampered by the necessity to constrain exposure parameters in order to prevent the occurrence of acoustic cavitation or to at least limit the detrimental effects of cavitation. The current study shows that non-toxic concentrations of specific n-alkyl solutes completely inhibit ultrasound induced cytolysis of in vitro suspensions of human leukemia cells (HL-60). Protection of the whole cell population from cytolysis is achieved even under extreme ultrasound exposure conditions that result in cytolysis of 100 % of the cell population in the absence of the n-alkyl solutes. Furthermore, the n-alkyl solutes did not hinder the process of inertial cavitation. This method may allow utilization of beneficial effects of ultrasound and cavitation while protecting cells from cavitation induced cytolysis and thereby presents new possibilities for ultrasound in medicine and biology.

  19. Multi million-to-Billion Atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Cavitation-Induced Damage on a Silica Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, Adarsh; Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2012-02-01

    Cavitation bubble collapse causes severe damage to materials. For example, cavitation erosion is a major threat to the safety of nuclear power plants. The cavitation bubbles may also be utilized for preventing stress corrosion cracking with water jet peening technology. We have performed multi million-to-billion atoms molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the shock-induced cavitation damage mechanism on an amorphous silica slab in water. The system consists of a 60nm thick silica slab immersed in water in an MD box of dimension 285 x 200 x 200 nm3. A nanobubble is created by removing water molecules within a sphere of radius 100 nm. To apply a planar shock, we assign a uniform particle velocity vp on the entire system towards a planar momentum mirror. We have performed the simulation with two kinds of bubbles, an empty bubble and a bubble filled with inert gas. The simulation results reveal nanojet formation during bubble collapse causing damage on the silica surface; however, the damage was significantly reduced in the case of the filled bubble. We will discuss the effect of the presence of inter gas inside the nanobubble on the pressure distribution, the extent of damage, and collapse behavior corresponding the shock front.

  20. Vortex structure analysis of unsteady cloud cavitating flows around a hydrofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Guoyu; Huang, Biao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, time dependent vortex structures are numerically analyzed for both noncavitating and cloud cavitating flows around a Clark-Y hydrofoil with angle of attack α = 8∘ at a moderate Reynolds number, Re = 7 × 105. The numerical simulations are performed using a transport equation-based cavitation model and the large eddy simulation (LES) approach with a classical eddy viscosity subgrid scale (SGS) model. Compared with experimental results, present numerical predictions are capable of capturing the initiation of cavity, growth toward the trailing edge and subsequent shedding process. Results indicate that in noncavitating conditions, the trailing edge vortex and induced positive vortex shed periodically into the wake region to form the vortex street. In cloud cavitating conditions, interrelations between cavity and vortex induce different vortex dynamics at different cavity developing stages. (i) As attached cavity grows, vorticity production is greatly enhanced by the favorable pressure gradient at the leading edge. The trailing edge flow does not have a direct impact on the attached cavity expansion process. Furthermore, the liquid-vapor interface that moves toward the trailing edge enhances the vorticity in the attached cavity closure region. (ii) When the stable attached sheet cavity grows to its maximum length, the accumulation process of vorticity is eventually interrupted by the formation of the re-entrant jet. Re-entrant jet’s moving upstream leads to a higher spreading rate of the attached cavity and the formation of a large coherent structure inside the attached cavity. Moreover, the wavy/bubbly cavity interface enhances the vorticity near the trailing edge. (iii) As the attached sheet cavity breaks up, this large vortex structure converts toward the trailing edge region, which will eventually couple with a trailing edge vortex shedding from the lower surface to form the cloud cavity. The breakup of the stable attached cavity is the main

  1. Characteristics and detecting of laser-induced single bubble collapse noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiumei; He, Jie; Li, Wenhua; Jiao, Mingli; Liu, Xiaochen; Wang, Haibing; Wang, Bingyang; Li, Beibei

    2015-05-01

    Shock waves emission after collapse of a laser-induced bubble in the liquid was studied experimentally by using a PTZ hydrophone. An experimental method and a Cavitation detection system was designed to investigate bubble collapse noise in this article. When a focused short laser pulse was focused in a liquid near a solid wall, it induced optical breakdown, the emission of shock waves and the generation of cavitation bubbles. A PZT hydrophone was used to detect the shock wave emitted during bubble oscillations. In addition, a software based on MATLAB was designed for analyzing cavitation noise. The software system had multiple functionalities, namely signal reading, noise reduction, signal analysis in frequency domain, and display. The results showed that the software can not only reflect the spectral characteristics of the noise quickly but also can interpret the current cavitation station according to the changing rules of different cavitation station. The results of the research have strong implications for cavitation phenomena analysis and cavitation warning systems in turbines, propellers, and other irrigation machinery.

  2. Investigation of cavitation as a possible damage mechanism in blast-induced traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Goeller, Jacques; Wardlaw, Andrew; Treichler, Derrick; O'Bruba, Joseph; Weiss, Greg

    2012-07-01

    Cavitation was investigated as a possible damage mechanism for war-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to an improvised explosive device (IED) blast. When a frontal blast wave encounters the head, a shock wave is transmitted through the skull, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and tissue, causing negative pressure at the contrecoup that may result in cavitation. Numerical simulations and shock tube experiments were conducted to determine the possibility of cranial cavitation from realistic IED non-impact blast loading. Simplified surrogate models of the head consisted of a transparent polycarbonate ellipsoid. The first series of tests in the 18-inch-diameter shock tube were conducted on an ellipsoid filled with degassed water to simulate CSF and tissue. In the second series, Sylgard gel, surrounded by a layer of degassed water, was used to represent the tissue and CSF, respectively. Simulated blast overpressure in the shock tube tests ranged from a nominal 10-25 pounds per square inch gauge (psig; 69-170 kPa). Pressure in the simulated CSF was determined by Kulite thin line pressure sensors at the coup, center, and contrecoup positions. Using video taken at 10,000 frames/sec, we verified the presence of cavitation bubbles at the contrecoup in both ellipsoid models. In all tests, cavitation at the contrecoup was observed to coincide temporally with periods of negative pressure. Collapse of the cavitation bubbles caused by the surrounding pressure and elastic rebound of the skull resulted in significant pressure spikes in the simulated CSF. Numerical simulations using the DYSMAS hydrocode to predict onset of cavitation and pressure spikes during cavity collapse were in good agreement with the tests. The numerical simulations and experiments indicate that skull deformation is a significant factor causing cavitation. These results suggest that cavitation may be a damage mechanism contributing to TBI that requires future study. PMID:22489674

  3. Cavitation modeling and diesel engine cylinder liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandekar, Gautam; Pardue, Sally

    2003-10-01

    A common occurrence of cavitation damage is the waterside pitting of a wet sleeve liner in a diesel engine. The automotive industry utilizes an ultrasonic test of 20 kHz according to ASTM standards to quantify the effectiveness of engine coolant additives to prevent damage. However, recent tests indicate a mismatch between the ultrasonic test results and actual engine test runs. The focus of this study is to generate numerical models of bubble dynamics using already published literature. In most of the published papers higher-range frequencies (ultrasonic >15 kHz) are used. It is useful to explore the results of lower excitation frequencies as the vibrating frequencies of a diesel engine liner are between 500-9000 Hz. A Rayleigh-Plesset equation, nonlinear in nature, is used to plot the relation between bubble radius and time. Plots of the numerical solution from MATLAB are compared with plots published in the literature. Results from when the frequency of excitation is changed to the liner wall frequency and the fluid properties are changed to approximate engine conditions will be presented. Future work will examine the energy released by the bubble collapse and its correlation with erosion measured as mass change in a standard test button.

  4. Stretching cells and delivering drugs with bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohl, Claus-Dieter; Li, Fenfang; Chon U, Chan; Gao, Yu; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-11-01

    In this talk we'll review our work on impulsive cell stretching using cavitation bubbles and magnetic microbubbles for drug delivery. For sufficient short times cells can sustain a much larger areal strain than the yield strain obtained from quasi-static stretching. Experiments with red blood cells show that even then the rupture of the cell is slow process; it is caused by diffusive swelling rather than mechanical violation of the plasma membrane. In the second part we'll discuss bubbles coated with magnetic and drug loaded particles. These bubbles offer an interesting vector for on demand delivery of drugs using mild ultrasound and magnetic fields. We report on basic experiments in microfluidic channels revealing the release of the agent during bubble oscillations and first in vivo validation with a mouse tumor model. Singapore National Research Foundations Competitive Research Program funding (NRF-CRP9-2011-04).

  5. Correlation between simulations and cavitation-induced erosion damage in Spallation Neutron Source target modules after operation

    SciTech Connect

    Riemer, Bernie; McClintock, David A; Kaminskas, Saulius; Abdou, Ashraf A

    2014-01-01

    An explicit finite element (FE) technique developed for estimating dynamic strain in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) mercury target module vessel is now providing insight into cavitation damage patterns observed in used targets. The technique uses an empirically developed material model for the mercury that describes liquid-like volumetric stiffness combined with a tensile pressure cut-off limit that approximates cavitation. The longest period each point in the mercury is at the tensile cut-off threshold is denoted its saturation time. Now, the pattern of saturation time can be obtained from these simulations and is being positively correlated with observed damage patterns and is interpreted as a qualitative measure of damage potential. Saturation time has been advocated by collaborators at J-Parc as a factor in predicting bubble nuclei growth and collapse intensity. The larger the ratio of maximum bubble size to nucleus, the greater the bubble collapse intensity to be expected; longer saturation times result in greater ratios. With the recent development of a user subroutine for the FE solver saturation time is now provided over the entire mercury domain. Its pattern agrees with spots of damage seen above and below the beam axis on the SNS inner vessel beam window and elsewhere. The other simulation result being compared to observed damage patterns is mercury velocity at the wall. Related R&D has provided evidence for the damage mitigation that higher wall velocity provides. In comparison to observations in SNS targets, inverse correlation of high velocity to damage is seen. In effect, it is the combination of the patterns of saturation time and low velocity that seems to match actual damage patterns.

  6. Etiology of gas bubble disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bouck, G.R.

    1980-11-01

    Gas bubble disease is a noninfectious, physically induced process caused by uncompensated hyperbaric pressure of total dissolved gases. When pressure compensation is inadequate, dissolved gases may form emboli (in blood) and emphysema (in tissues). The resulting abnormal physical presence of gases can block blood vessels (hemostasis) or tear tissues, and may result in death. Population mortality is generally skewed, in that the median time to death occurs well before the average time to death. Judged from mortality curves, three stages occur in gas bubble disease: (1) a period of gas pressure equilibrium, nonlethal cavitation, and increasing morbidity; (2) a period of rapid and heavy mortality; and (3) a period of protracted survival, despite lesions, and dysfunction that eventually terminates in total mortality. Safe limits for gas supersaturation depend on species tolerance and on factors that differ among hatcheries and rivers, between continuous and intermittent exposures, and across ranges of temperature and salinity.

  7. Attached cavitation at a small diameter ultrasonic horn tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Cairós, Carlos; Dular, Matevž

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids, for instance, for cell disruption or sonochemical reactions. They are operated typically in the frequency range up to about 50 kHz and have tip diameters from some mm to several cm. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e., below the acoustic driving frequency. Here, we present a systematic study of the cavitation dynamics in water at a 20 kHz horn tip of 3 mm diameter. The system was investigated by high-speed imaging with simultaneous recording of the acoustic emissions. Measurements were performed under variation of acoustic power, air saturation, viscosity, surface tension, and temperature of the liquid. Our findings show that the liquid properties play no significant role in the dynamics of the attached cavitation at the small ultrasonic horn. Also the variation of the experimental geometry, within a certain range, did not change the dynamics. We believe that the main two reasons for the peculiar dynamics of cavitation on a small ultrasonic horn are the higher energy density on a small tip and the inability of the big tip to "wash" away the gaseous bubbles. Calculation of the somewhat adapted Strouhal number revealed that, similar to the hydrodynamic cavitation, values which are relatively low characterize slow cavitation structure dynamics. In cases where the cavitation follows the driving frequency this value lies much higher - probably at Str > 20. In the spirit to distinguish the observed phenomenon with other cavitation dynamics at ultrasonic transducer surfaces, we suggest to term the observed phenomenon of attached cavities partly covering the full horn

  8. Bubble dynamics under acoustic excitation with multiple frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. N.; Li, S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Because of its magnificent mechanical and chemical effects, acoustic cavitation plays an important role in a broad range of biomedical, chemical and mechanical engineering problems. Particularly, irradiation of the multiple frequency acoustic wave could enhance the effects of cavitation. The advantages of employment of multi-frequency ultrasonic field include decreasing the cavitation thresholds, promoting cavitation nuclei generation, increasing the mass transfer and improving energy efficiency. Therefore, multi-frequency ultrasonic systems are employed in a variety of applications, e.g., to enhance the intensity of sonoluminenscence, to increase efficiency of sonochemical reaction, to improve the accuracy of ultrasound imaging and the efficiency of tissue ablation. Compared to single-frequency systems, a lot of new features of bubble dynamics exist in multi-frequency systems, such as special properties of oscillating bubbles, unique resonances in the bubble response curves, and unusual chaotic behaviours. In present paper, the underlying mechanisms of the cavitation effects under multi-frequency acoustical excitation are also briefly introduced.

  9. Enhancing gas-liquid mass transfer rates in non-newtonian fermentations by confining mycelial growth to microbeads in a bubble column

    SciTech Connect

    Gbewonyo, K.; Wang, D.I.C.

    1983-12-01

    The performance of a penicillin fermentation was assessed in a laboratory-scale bubble column fermentor, with mycelial growth confined to the pore matrix of celite beads. Final cell densities of 29 g/L and penicillin titres of 5.5 g/L were obtained in the confined cell cultures. In comparison, cultures of free mycelial cells grown in the absence of beads experienced dissolved oxygen limitations in the bubble column, giving only 17 g/L final cell concentrations with equally low penicillin titres of 2 g/L. The better performance of the confined cell cultures was attributed to enhanced gas liquid mass transfer rates, with mass transfer coefficients (k /SUB L/ a) two to three times higher than those determined in the free cell cultures. Furthermore, the confined cell cultures showed more efficient utilization of power input for mass transfer, providing up to 50% reduction in energy requirements for aeration.

  10. Dynamics of two interacting hydrogen bubbles in liquid aluminum under the influence of a strong acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebon, Gerard S. B.; Pericleous, Koulis; Tzanakis, Iakovos; Eskin, Dmitry G.

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasonic melt processing significantly improves the properties of metallic materials. However, this promising technology has not been successfully transferred to the industry because of difficulties in treating large volumes of melt. To circumvent these difficulties, a fundamental understanding of the efficiency of ultrasonic treatment of liquid metals is required. In this endeavor, the dynamics of two interacting hydrogen bubbles in liquid aluminum are studied to determine the effect of a strong acoustic field on their behavior. It is shown that coalescence readily occurs at low frequencies in the range of 16 to 20 kHz; forcing frequencies at these values are likely to promote degassing. Emitted acoustic pressures from relatively isolated bubbles that resonate with the driving frequency are in the megapascal range and these cavitation shock waves are presumed to promote grain refinement by disrupting the growth of the solidification front.

  11. Possibility of Metal Processing Using Ultrasonic Cavitation Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Ryoji; Fujiwara, Ryuichi; Niita, Tokuo

    2001-05-01

    Utilizing a high-intensity ultrasonic cavitation, a processing experiment was conducted with the aim of performing volumetric flow adjustment of a fuel jet nozzle to be used for a small engine, which cannot be carried out by a method such as machining. At the bottom of the nozzle used for the experiment, which is in the shape of a cup, a nozzle hole with a diameter of 0.15 mm is drilled. In this experiment, we make adjustments in the volumetric flow by grinding and removing the machining burr with the aid of the processing power of ultrasonic cavitation. The processing effect is highly dependent on the ultrasonic cavitation intensity. In the experiment, the processing reservoir was filled with pressurized highly deaerated water to increase the processing force by allowing cavitation with high intensity to be generated. The processing principle is to utilize the effect of a cavitation jet flow passing through the nozzle hole. To restrain the intake of the bubbles into the flow circuits during the pressure reduction cycle of the vibrator, the water flow was discharged into a pressure reduction reservoir. By allowing the horn tip with a diameter of 6 mm at a frequency of 28 kHz to approach the sample, followed by high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation, powerful cavitation was generated. As a result of the evaluation of the processing efficiency made based on the volumetric flow increase and microscopic observation of the nozzle, burrs smaller than 10 μm were almost entirely removed within 15 min of initial irradiation, resulting in a volumetric flow increase of more than 0.4%/min. However, in the case of burrs of more than 10 μm, no force that could remove the burrs was found. It was surprising for the burrs to generate deformation rather than to be removed.

  12. PREFACE: 9th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, M.; Müller, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is our pleasure and privilege to welcome all the participants of the 9th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2015) to Lausanne. Since its initiation in 1986 in Sendai, Japan, the CAV symposium has grown to become the world's foremost event dedicated to cavitation. Hosted by EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) and staged at the SwissTech Convention Center, CAV2015 is a unique opportunity to exchange with leading scientists and industry experts about the latest advances in theoretical modelling, numerical simulation and experimentation related to cavitation phenomena with a special emphasis on practical applications. The topics covered by CAV2015 include cavitation in ¬fluid machinery and fuel systems, bubble dynamics, cavitation erosion, advanced numerical simulation, sonochemistery, biomedicine and experimental techniques. CAV2015 will also host an exhibition of leading providers of state of the art measurement equipment, including high-speed imaging systems, non-intrusive velocimetry, pressure sensors, as well as numerical solvers. We have accepted over 190 papers, which will be presented in four parallel sessions. The proceedings will appear in the open access Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS), which is part of the IOP Conference Series. All published papers are fully citable and upon publication will be free to download in perpetuity. We would like to thank all the reviewers for their great help during the selection process. We will also propose six plenary speakers to highlight cavitation issues in different fields. Finally, we would like to warmly thank our sponsors for their valuable support and the local Organizing Committee for the efforts in setting up this important event. We look forward to seeing you in Lausanne!

  13. Extreme conditions during multibubble cavitation: Sonoluminescence as a spectroscopic probe.

    PubMed

    Suslick, Kenneth S; Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Flannigan, David J; Hopkins, Stephen D; Xu, Hangxun

    2011-07-01

    We review recent work on the use of sonoluminescence (SL) to probe spectroscopically the conditions created during cavitation, both in clouds of collapsing bubbles (multibubble sonoluminescence, (MBSL)) and in single bubble events. The effective MBSL temperature can be controlled by the vapor pressure of the liquid or the thermal conductivity of the dissolved gas over a range from ∼1600 to ∼9000K. The effective pressure during MBSL is ∼300bar, based on atomic line shifts. Given nanosecond emission times, this means that cooling rates are >10(12)K/s. In sulfuric and phosphoric acid, the low volatility and high solubility of any sonolysis products make bubble collapse more efficient and evidence for an optically opaque plasma core is found. PMID:21247788

  14. Trans-Stent B-Mode Ultrasound and Passive Cavitation Imaging.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Kevin J; Raymond, Jason L; Radhakrishnan, Kirthi; Moody, Melanie R; Huang, Shao-Ling; Peng, Tao; Shekhar, Himanshu; Klegerman, Melvin E; Kim, Hyunggun; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2016-02-01

    Angioplasty and stenting of a stenosed artery enable acute restoration of blood flow. However, restenosis or a lack of re-endothelization can subsequently occur depending on the stent type. Cavitation-mediated drug delivery is a potential therapy for these conditions, but requires that particular types of cavitation be induced by ultrasound insonation. Because of the heterogeneity of tissue and stochastic nature of cavitation, feedback mechanisms are needed to determine whether the sustained bubble activity is induced. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of passive cavitation imaging through a metal stent in a flow phantom and an animal model. In this study, an endovascular stent was deployed in a flow phantom and in porcine femoral arteries. Fluorophore-labeled echogenic liposomes, a theragnostic ultrasound contrast agent, were injected proximal to the stent. Cavitation images were obtained by passively recording and beamforming the acoustic emissions from echogenic liposomes insonified with a low-frequency (500 kHz) transducer. In vitro experiments revealed that the signal-to-noise ratio for detecting stable cavitation activity through the stent was greater than 8 dB. The stent did not significantly reduce the signal-to-noise ratio. Trans-stent cavitation activity was also detected in vivo via passive cavitation imaging when echogenic liposomes were insonified by the 500-kHz transducer. When stable cavitation was detected, delivery of the fluorophore into the arterial wall was observed. Increased echogenicity within the stent was also observed when echogenic liposomes were administered. Thus, both B-mode ultrasound imaging and cavitation imaging are feasible in the presence of an endovascular stent in vivo. Demonstration of this capability supports future studies to monitor restenosis with contrast-enhanced ultrasound and pursue image-guided ultrasound-mediated drug delivery to inhibit restenosis. PMID:26547633

  15. Bubble, Bubble, Toil and Trouble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Bubbles are a fun way to introduce the concepts of surface tension, intermolecular forces, and the use of surfactants. Presents two activities in which students add chemicals to liquid dishwashing detergent with water in order to create longer lasting bubbles. (ASK)

  16. Passive cavitation imaging with ultrasound arrays

    PubMed Central

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Datta, Saurabh; Holland, Christy K.; Mast, T. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented for passive imaging of cavitational acoustic emissions using an ultrasound array, with potential application in real-time monitoring of ultrasound ablation. To create such images, microbubble emissions were passively sensed by an imaging array and dynamically focused at multiple depths. In this paper, an analytic expression for a passive image is obtained by solving the Rayleigh–Sommerfield integral, under the Fresnel approximation, and passive images were simulated. A 192-element array was used to create passive images, in real time, from 520-kHz ultrasound scattered by a 1-mm steel wire. Azimuthal positions of this target were accurately estimated from the passive images. Next, stable and inertial cavitation was passively imaged in saline solution sonicated at 520 kHz. Bubble clusters formed in the saline samples were consistently located on both passive images and B-scans. Passive images were also created using broadband emissions from bovine liver sonicated at 2.2 MHz. Agreement was found between the images and source beam shape, indicating an ability to map therapeutic ultrasound beams in situ. The relation between these broadband emissions, sonication amplitude, and exposure conditions are discussed. PMID:20000921

  17. Numerical investigation of unsteady cavitation around a NACA 66 hydrofoil using OpenFOAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, V. H.; Luo, X. W.; Escaler, X.; Ji, J.; Aguinaga, A.

    2014-03-01

    The prediction and control of cavitation damage in pumps, propellers, hydro turbines and fluid machinery in general is necessary during the design stage. The present paper deals with a numerical investigation of unsteady cloud cavitation around a NACA 66 hydrofoil. The current study is focused on understanding the dynamic pressures generated during the cavity collapses as a fundamental characteristic in cavitation erosion. A 2D and 3D unsteady flow simulation has been carried out using OpenFOAM. Then, Paraview and Python programming language have been used to characterize dynamic pressure field. Adapted Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Zwart cavitation model have been implemented to improve the analysis of cloud motion and to visualize the bubble expansions. Additional results also confirm the correlation between cavity formation and generated pressures.

  18. Modeling bubble dynamics and radical kinetics in ultrasound induced microalgal cell disruption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Yuan, Wenqiao

    2016-01-01

    Microalgal cell disruption induced by acoustic cavitation was simulated through solving the bubble dynamics in an acoustical field and their radial kinetics (chemical kinetics of radical species) occurring in the bubble during its oscillation, as well as calculating the bubble wall pressure at the collapse point. Modeling results indicated that increasing ultrasonic intensity led to a substantial increase in the number of bubbles formed during acoustic cavitation, however, the pressure generated when the bubbles collapsed decreased. Therefore, cumulative collapse pressure (CCP) of bubbles was used to quantify acoustic disruption of a freshwater alga, Scenedesmus dimorphus, and a marine alga, Nannochloropsis oculata and compare with experimental results. The strong correlations between CCP and the intracellular lipid fluorescence density, chlorophyll-a fluorescence density, and cell particle/debris concentration were found, which suggests that the developed models could accurately predict acoustic cell disruption, and can be utilized in the scale up and optimization of the process. PMID:26384877

  19. Photodistruptive laser nucleation of ultrasonic cavitation for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Doug L.; Spooner, Greg J.; Williams, Alun R.

    2001-07-01

    Pulses of high intensity laser light, when focused into transparent materials, may produce localized electron-ion plasmas through optical breakdown. By simultaneously incorporating the resulting volume of vaporized material within the focal volume of a high intensity ultrasound source, the photodisruption (1.05 micrometers wavelength) void served as a nucleation site for ultrasonic cavitation. Dilute suspensions of canine erythrocytes in phosphate buffered saline were exposed in a flow-through exposure chamber and the percentage of lysed cells was used as a measure of the biologically effective cavitation activity produced in the chamber. Brief (about 30 microsecond(s) ) acoustic emissions were detected from the photodisruption alone (indicating laser nucleation of bubbles), but the cell lysis produced was undetectable against the background. However, combined exposure greatly increased both the duration of the acoustic emissions (up to 1.5 ms) and the amount of cell lysis above an ultrasonic pressure amplitude threshold of about 4.3 MPa at 2.5 MHz. The amount of cell lysis (sometimes approaching 100%) increased with increasing ultrasonic intensity, laser pulse energy and laser PRF. Addition of 5% serum albumin enhanced the effect, apparently by stabilizing bubbles and nuclei. Photodisruptive laser nucleation of ultrasonic cavitation can provide controlled and synergistic enhancement of bioeffects.

  20. Analysis of cavitation effect for water purifier using electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong Ho; Ko, Han Seo; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-11-01

    Water is a limited and vital resource, so it should not be wasted by pollution. A development of new water purification technology is urgent nowadays since the original and biological treatments are not sufficient. The microbubble-aided method was investigated for removal of algal in this study since it overcomes demerits of the existing purification technologies. Thus, the cavitation effect in a venturi-type tube using the electrolysis was analyzed. Ruthenium-coated titanium plates were used as electrodes. Optimum electrode interval and applied power were determined for the electrolysis. Then, the optimized electrodes were installed in the venturi-type tube for generating cavitation. The cavitation effect could be enhanced without any byproduct by the bubbly flow induced by the electrolysis. The optimum mass flow rate and current were determined for the cavitation with the electrolysis. Finally, the visualization techniques were used to count the cell number of algal and microbubbles for the confirmation of the performance. As a result, the energy saving and high efficient water purifier was fabricated in this study. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MEST) (No. 2013R1A2A2A01068653).

  1. Effects of local structure on helium bubble growth in bulk and at grain boundaries of bcc iron: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Li; Gao, Fei; Kurtz, Richard J.; Zu, Xiaotao; Peng, S. M.; Long, X. G.; Zhou, X. S.

    2015-07-15

    The nucleation and growth of helium (He) bubbles in the bulk and at Σ3 <110> {112} and Σ73b <110> {661} grain boundaries (GBs) in bcc iron have been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that a 1/2 <111> {111} dislocation loop is formed with the sequential collection of <111> interstitial crowdions at the periphery of the He cluster and is eventually emitted from the He cluster. Insertion of 45 He atoms into a He cluster leads to the formation of a 1/2 <111> dislocation loop in Σ3 GB. It is of interest to notice that the transition of a dislocation segment through the GB leads to the formation of a step at the GB plane following the loop formation, accounting for the formation of a residual GB defect. A 1/2 <111> loop, with a {110} habit plane, is emitted with further increase of the He bubble size in the Σ3 GB. In contrast, the sequential insertion of He atoms in Σ73b GB continuously emits self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), but these SIAs rearrange at the core of the inherent GB dislocation, instead of forming a dislocation loop, which leads the GB dislocation to propagate along the [1¯1¯ 1 2] direction. In the bulk and Σ3 GB, the He bubble exhibits three-dimensionally spherical shape, but it forms longitudinal shape along the dislocation line in the Σ73 GB, a shape commonly observed at GBs in experiments.

  2. Exploring Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Geary, Melissa A.

    Bubbles provide an enjoyable and festive medium through which to teach many concepts within the science topics of light, color, chemistry, force, air pressure, electricity, buoyancy, floating, density, among many others. In order to determine the nature of children's engagement within a museum setting and the learning opportunities of playing with bubbles, I went to a children's interactive museum located in a metropolitan city in the Northeastern part of the United States.

  3. Measurements of Gas Bubble Size Distributions in Flowing Liquid Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, Mark W; Riemer, Bernie; Abdou, Ashraf A

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets have been shown to induce cavitation damage on the target container. One way to mitigate such damage would be to absorb the pressure pulse energy into a dispersed population of small bubbles, however, measuring such a population in mercury is difficult since it is opaque and the mercury is involved in a turbulent flow. Ultrasonic measurements have been attempted on these types of flows, but the flow noise can interfere with the measurement, and the results are unverifiable and often unrealistic. Recently, a flow loop was built and operated at Oak Ridge National Labarotory to assess the capability of various bubbler designs to deliver an adequate population of bubbles to mitigate cavitation damage. The invented diagnostic technique involves flowing the mercury with entrained gas bubbles in a steady state through a horizontal piping section with a glass-window observation port located on the top. The mercury flow is then suddenly stopped and the bubbles are allowed to settle on the glass due to buoyancy. Using a bright-field illumination and a high-speed camera, the arriving bubbles are detected and counted, and then the images can be processed to determine the bubble populations. After using this technique to collect data on each bubbler, bubble size distributions were built for the purpose of quantifying bubbler performance, allowing the selection of the best bubbler options. This paper presents the novel procedure, photographic technique, sample visual results and some example bubble size distributions. The best bubbler options were subsequently used in proton beam irradiation tests performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The cavitation damage results from the irradiated test plates in contact with the mercury are available for correlation with the bubble populations. The most effective mitigating population can now be designed into prototypical geometries for implementation into

  4. Bubble diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Visuri, Steven R.; Mammini, Beth M.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is intended as a means of diagnosing the presence of a gas bubble and incorporating the information into a feedback system for opto-acoustic thrombolysis. In opto-acoustic thrombolysis, pulsed laser radiation at ultrasonic frequencies is delivered intraluminally down an optical fiber and directed toward a thrombus or otherwise occluded vessel. Dissolution of the occlusion is therefore mediated through ultrasonic action of propagating pressure or shock waves. A vapor bubble in the fluid surrounding the occlusion may form as a result of laser irradiation. This vapor bubble may be used to directly disrupt the occlusion or as a means of producing a pressure wave. It is desirable to detect the formation and follow the lifetime of the vapor bubble. Knowledge of the bubble formation and lifetime yields critical information as to the maximum size of the bubble, density of the absorbed radiation, and properties of the absorbing material. This information can then be used in a feedback system to alter the irradiation conditions.

  5. Cavitation-resistant inducer

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Charlton; Subbaraman, Maria R.

    1989-01-01

    An improvement in an inducer for a pump wherein the inducer includes a hub, a plurality of radially extending substantially helical blades and a wall member extending about and encompassing an outer periphery of the blades. The improvement comprises forming adjacent pairs of blades and the hub to provide a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow area which cross-sectional flow area decreases from the inlet end of the inducer to a discharge end of the inducer, resulting in increased inducer efficiency improved suction performance, reduced susceptibility to cavitation, reduced susceptibility to hub separation and reduced fabrication costs.

  6. Cavitation-resistant inducer

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, C.; Subbaraman, M.R.

    1989-06-13

    An improvement in an inducer for a pump is disclosed wherein the inducer includes a hub, a plurality of radially extending substantially helical blades and a wall member extending about and encompassing an outer periphery of the blades. The improvement comprises forming adjacent pairs of blades and the hub to provide a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow area which cross-sectional flow area decreases from the inlet end of the inducer to a discharge end of the inducer, resulting in increased inducer efficiency improved suction performance, reduced susceptibility to cavitation, reduced susceptibility to hub separation and reduced fabrication costs. 11 figs.

  7. Acoustic and Cavitation Fields of Shock Wave Therapy Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitnis, Parag V.; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2006-05-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is considered a viable treatment modality for orthopedic ailments. Despite increasing clinical use, the mechanisms by which ESWT devices generate a therapeutic effect are not yet understood. The mechanistic differences in various devices and their efficacies might be dependent on their acoustic and cavitation outputs. We report acoustic and cavitation measurements of a number of different shock wave therapy devices. Two devices were electrohydraulic: one had a large reflector (HMT Ossatron) and the other was a hand-held source (HMT Evotron); the other device was a pneumatically driven device (EMS Swiss DolorClast Vet). Acoustic measurements were made using a fiber-optic probe hydrophone and a PVDF hydrophone. A dual passive cavitation detection system was used to monitor cavitation activity. Qualitative differences between these devices were also highlighted using a high-speed camera. We found that the Ossatron generated focused shock waves with a peak positive pressure around 40 MPa. The Evotron produced peak positive pressure around 20 MPa, however, its acoustic output appeared to be independent of the power setting of the device. The peak positive pressure from the DolorClast was about 5 MPa without a clear shock front. The DolorClast did not generate a focused acoustic field. Shadowgraph images show that the wave propagating from the DolorClast is planar and not focused in the vicinity of the hand-piece. All three devices produced measurable cavitation with a characteristic time (cavitation inception to bubble collapse) that varied between 95 and 209 μs for the Ossatron, between 59 and 283 μs for the Evotron, and between 195 and 431 μs for the DolorClast. The high-speed camera images show that the cavitation activity for the DolorClast is primarily restricted to the contact surface of the hand-piece. These data indicate that the devices studied here vary in acoustic and cavitation output, which may imply that the

  8. Mapping of cavitational activity in a pilot plant dyeing equipment.

    PubMed

    Actis Grande, G; Giansetti, M; Pezzin, A; Rovero, G; Sicardi, S

    2015-11-01

    A large number of papers of the literature quote dyeing intensification based on the application of ultrasound (US) in the dyeing liquor. Mass transfer mechanisms are described and quantified, nevertheless these experimental results in general refer to small laboratory apparatuses with a capacity of a few hundred millilitres and extremely high volumetric energy intensity. With the strategy of overcoming the scale-up inaccuracy consequent to the technological application of ultrasounds, a dyeing pilot-plant prototype of suitable liquor capacity (about 40 L) and properly simulating several liquor to textile hydraulic relationships was designed by including US transducers with different geometries. Optimal dyeing may be obtained by optimising the distance between transducer and textile material, the liquid height being a non-negligible operating parameter. Hence, mapping the cavitation energy in the machinery is expected to provide basic data on the intensity and distribution of the ultrasonic field in the aqueous liquor. A flat ultrasonic transducer (absorbed electrical power of 600 W), equipped with eight devices emitting at 25 kHz, was mounted horizontally at the equipment bottom. Considering industrial scale dyeing, liquor and textile substrate are reciprocally displaced to achieve a uniform colouration. In this technology a non uniform US field could affect the dyeing evenness to a large extent; hence, mapping the cavitation energy distribution in the machinery is expected to provide fundamental data and define optimal operating conditions. Local values of the cavitation intensity were recorded by using a carefully calibrated Ultrasonic Energy Meter, which is able to measure the power per unit surface generated by the cavitation implosion of bubbles. More than 200 measurements were recorded to define the map at each horizontal plane positioned at a different distance from the US transducer; tap water was heated at the same temperature used for dyeing tests (60

  9. A method for predicting the number of active bubbles in sonochemical reactors.

    PubMed

    Merouani, Slimane; Ferkous, Hamza; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Rezgui, Yacine; Guemini, Miloud

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the number of active bubbles in acoustic cavitation field is very important for the prediction of the performance of ultrasonic reactors toward most chemical processes induced by ultrasound. The literature in this field is scarce, probably due to the complicated nature of the phenomena. We introduce here a relatively simple semi-empirical method for predicting the number of active bubbles in an acoustic cavitation field. By coupling the bubble dynamics in an acoustical field with chemical kinetics occurring in the bubble during oscillation, the amount of the radical species OH and HO2 and molecular H2O2 released by a single bubble was estimated. Knowing that the H2O2 measured experimentally during sonication of water comes from the recombination of hydroxyl (OH) and perhydroxyl (HO2) radicals in the liquid phase and assuming that in sonochemistry applications, the cavitation is transient and the bubble fragments at the first collapse, the number of bubbles formed per unit time per unit volume is then easily determined using material balances for H2O2, OH and HO2 in the liquid phase. The effect of ultrasonic frequency on the number of active bubbles was examined. It was shown that increasing ultrasonic frequency leads to a substantial increase in the number of bubbles formed in the reactor. PMID:25127247

  10. Two reference time scales for studying the dynamic cavitation of liquid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, D. C.; Brewe, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Two formulas, one for the characteristic time of filling a void with the vapor of the surrounding liquid, and one of filling the void by diffusion of the dissolved gas in the liquid, are derived. By comparing these time scales with that of the dynamic operation of oil film bearings, it is concluded that the evaporation process is usually fast enough to fill the cavitation bubble with oil vapor; whereas the diffusion process is much too slow for the dissolved air to liberate itself and enter the cavitation bubble. These results imply that the formation of a two phase fluid in dynamically loaded bearings, as often reported in the literature, is caused by air entrainment. They further indicate a way to simplify the treatment of the dynamic problem of bubble evolution.

  11. Scaling model for laser-produced bubbles in soft tissue

    SciTech Connect

    London, R. A., LLNL

    1998-03-12

    The generation of vapor-driven bubbles is common in many emerging laser-medical therapies involving soft tissues. To successfully apply such bubbles to processes such as tissue break-up and removal, it is critical to understand their physical characteristics. To complement previous experimental and computational studies, an analytic mathematical model for bubble creation and evolution is presented. In this model, the bubble is assumed to be spherically symmetric, and the laser pulse length is taken to be either very short or very long compared to the bubble expansion timescale. The model is based on the Rayleigh cavitation bubble model. In this description, the exterior medium is assumed to be an infinite incompressible fluid, while the bubble interior consists of a mixed liquid-gas medium which is initially heated by the laser. The heated interior provides the driving pressure which expands the bubble. The interior region is assumed to be adiabatic and is described by the standard water equation-of-state, available in either tabular, or analytic forms. Specifically, we use adiabats from the equation-of-state to describe the evolution of the interior pressure with bubble volume. Analytic scaling laws are presented for the maximum size, the duration, and the energy of bubbles as functions of the laser energy and initially heated volume. Of particular interest, is the efficiency of converting laser energy into bubble motion.

  12. Competing Kinetics and He Bubble Morphology in W

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sandoval, Luis; Perez, Danny; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Voter, Arthur F.

    2015-03-11

    We found that the growth process of He bubbles in W is investigated using molecular dynamics and parallel replica dynamics for growth rates spanning 6 orders of magnitude. Fast and slow growth regimes are defined relative to typical diffusion hopping times of W interstitials around the He bubble. Moreover, slow growth rates allow the diffusion of interstitials around the bubble, favoring the biased growth of the bubble towards the surface. In contrast, at fast growth rates interstitials do not have time to diffuse around the bubble, leading to a more isotropic growth and increasing the surface damage.

  13. Cavitation phenomena in mechanical heart valves: studied by using a physical impinging rod system.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chi-Wen; Chen, Sheng-Fu; Li, Chi-Pei; Lu, Po-Chien

    2010-10-01

    When studying mechanical heart valve cavitation, a physical model allows direct flow field and pressure measurements that are difficult to perform with actual valves, as well as separate testing of water hammer and squeeze flow effects. Movable rods of 5 and 10 mm diameter impinged same-sized stationary rods to simulate squeeze flow. A 24 mm piston within a tube simulated water hammer. Adding a 5 mm stationary rod within the tube generated both effects simultaneously. Charged-coupled device (CCD) laser displacement sensors, strobe lighting technique, laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), particle image velocimetry (PIV) and high fidelity piezoelectric pressure transducers measured impact velocities, cavitation images, squeeze flow velocities, vortices, and pressure changes at impact, respectively. The movable rods created cavitation at critical impact velocities of 1.6 and 1.2 m/s; squeeze flow velocities were 2.8 and 4.64 m/s. The isolated water hammer created cavitation at 1.3 m/s piston speed. The combined piston and stationary rod created cavitation at an impact speed of 0.9 m/s and squeeze flow of 3.2 m/s. These results show squeeze flow alone caused cavitation, notably at lower impact velocity as contact area increased. Water hammer alone also caused cavitation with faster displacement. Both effects together were additive. The pressure change at the vortex center was only 150 mmHg, which cannot generate the magnitude of pressure drop required for cavitation bubble formation. Cavitation occurred at 3-5 m/s squeeze flow, significantly different from the 14 m/s derived by Bernoulli's equation; the temporal acceleration of unsteady flow requires further study. PMID:20490686

  14. Sonochemical and high-speed optical characterization of cavitation generated by an ultrasonically oscillating dental file in root canal models.

    PubMed

    Macedo, R G; Verhaagen, B; Fernandez Rivas, D; Gardeniers, J G E; van der Sluis, L W M; Wesselink, P R; Versluis, M

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonically Activated Irrigation makes use of an ultrasonically oscillating file in order to improve the cleaning of the root canal during a root canal treatment. Cavitation has been associated with these oscillating files, but the nature and characteristics of the cavitating bubbles were not yet fully elucidated. Using sensitive equipment, the sonoluminescence (SL) and sonochemiluminescence (SCL) around these files have been measured in this study, showing that cavitation occurs even at very low power settings. Luminol photography and high-speed visualizations provided information on the spatial and temporal distribution of the cavitation bubbles. A large bubble cloud was observed at the tip of the files, but this was found not to contribute to SCL. Rather, smaller, individual bubbles observed at antinodes of the oscillating file with a smaller amplitude were leading to SCL. Confinements of the size of bovine and human root canals increased the amount of SL and SCL. The root canal models also showed the occurrence of air entrainment, resulting in the generation of stable bubbles, and of droplets, near the air-liquid interface and leading eventually to a loss of the liquid. PMID:23735893

  15. Optimization of parameters for photodisruptively nucleated ultrasonic cavitation in water and tissue models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, Greg J. R.; Marre, Gabrielle; Miller, Doug L.; Williams, A. R.

    2000-06-01

    Laser induced optical breakdown (LIOB) in fluids produces a localized plasma, an expanding radial shock wave front, heat transfer from the plasma to the fluid, and the formation of cavitation bubbles. Collectively these phenomena are referred to as photodisruption. Subjecting photodisruptively produced cavitation bubble nuclei to an ultrasonic field can result in strong cavitation and local cellular destruction. The ability of ultrafast lasers to produce spatially localized photodisruptions with microJoule pulse energies in combination with the possibility of larger scale tissue destruction using ultrasound presents an attractive and novel technique for selective and non-invasive tissue modification, referred to as photodisruptively nucleated ultrasonic cavitation (PNUC). Optimization of PNUC parameters in a confocal laser and ultrasound geometry is presented. The cavitation signal as measured with an ultrasound receiver was maximized to determine optimal laser and ultrasound spatial overlap in water. A flow chamber was used to evaluate the effect of the laser and ultrasound parameters on the lysis of whole canine red blood cells in saline. Parameters evaluated included laser pulse energy and ultrasound pressure amplitude.

  16. Experimental evidence for seismically initiated gas bubble nucleation and growth in groundwater as a mechanism for coseismic borehole water level rise and remotely triggered seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, Jackson B.; Cooper, Clay A.

    2014-09-01

    Changes in borehole water levels and remotely triggered seismicity occur in response to near and distant earthquakes at locations around the globe, but the mechanisms for these phenomena are not well understood. Experiments were conducted to show that seismically initiated gas bubble growth in groundwater can trigger a sustained increase in pore fluid pressure consistent in magnitude with observed coseismic borehole water level rise, constituting a physically plausible mechanism for remote triggering of secondary earthquakes through the reduction of effective stress in critically loaded geologic faults. A portion of the CO2 degassing from the Earth's crust dissolves in groundwater where seismic Rayleigh and P waves cause dilational strain, which can reduce pore fluid pressure to or below the bubble pressure, triggering CO2 gas bubble growth in the saturated zone, indicated by a spontaneous buildup of pore fluid pressure. Excess pore fluid pressure was measured in response to the application of 0.1-1.0 MPa, 0.01-0.30 Hz confining stress oscillations to a Berea sandstone core flooded with initially subsaturated aqueous CO2, under conditions representative of a confined aquifer. Confining stress oscillations equivalent to the dynamic stress of the 28 June 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers, California, earthquake Rayleigh wave as it traveled through the Long Valley caldera, and Parkfield, California, increased the pore fluid pressure in the Berea core by an average of 36 ± 15 cm and 23 ± 15 cm of equivalent freshwater head, respectively, in agreement with 41.8 cm and 34 cm rises recorded in wells at those locations.

  17. Influence of surface tension on cavitation noise spectra and particle removal efficiency in high frequency ultrasound fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerotto, Elisabeth; Brems, Steven; Hauptmann, Marc; Pacco, Antoine; Struyf, Herbert; Mertens, Paul W.; De Gendt, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Physical cleaning methods are applied in the semiconductor industry and have become increasingly challenging due to the continued scaling of semiconductors device elements. Cavitation and acoustic phenomena are known to play a fundamental role in megasonic cleaning. Hence, a better understanding of cavitation phenomena in multi-bubble systems is crucial. Here, a study on the effects of lower bulk surface tension and different O2 concentrations on the bubble activity in the megahertz range is presented. A lower bulk surface tension (45 mN/m) with respect to ultra pure water (72 mN/m) is obtained by adding a non-ionic surface-active agent (Triton X-100). After a thorough surfactant characterization, a Triton X-100-containing cleaning solution is investigated under pulsed and continuous acoustic fields, for different acoustic amplitudes and gas concentrations. It is demonstrated that cavitation activity, measured by means of ultraharmonic cavitation noise, is enhanced in presence of a lower surface tension, under continuous acoustic fields. In addition, cavitation measurements performed under pulsed fields reveal the existence of optimal pulse-off times, for which a maximum of activity is observed. These optimal pulse-off time values are linked to the bubble dissolution theoretical times and experimentally verified. To end, cavitation noise measurements are correlated to cleaning performance in megasonic fields by means of particle removal and damage tests on patterned wafers. A clear increase in particle removal efficiency of 78 nm SiO2 particles is obtained when Triton X-100 is employed, at the optimized process conditions. In addition, the number of defects due to cavitation bubbles is significantly reduced for lower surface tension, at particle removal efficiencies <60%. The results here reported constitute a different approach towards more efficient megasonic cleaning processes.

  18. Cavitation instability in bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, L. H.; Huang, X.; Ling, Z.

    2015-09-01

    Recent experiments have shown that fracture surfaces of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) usually exhibit an intriguing nanoscale corrugation like fractographic feature mediated by nanoscale void formation. We attribute the onset of this nanoscale corrugation to TTZs (tension transformation zones) mediated cavitation. In our recent study, the spall experiments of Zr-based BMG using a single-stage light gas gun were performed. To uncover the mechanisms of the spallation damage nucleation and evolution, the samples were designed to be subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of identical amplitude but with different durations by making use of the multi-stress pulse and the double-flyer techniques. It is clearly revealed that the macroscopic spall fracture in BMGs originates from the nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids. Then, a microvoid nucleation model of BMGs based on free volume theory is proposed, which indicates that the nucleation of microvoids at the early stage of spallation in BMGs is resulted from diffusion and coalescence of free volume. Furthermore, a theoretical model of void growth in BMGs undergoing remote dynamic hydrostatic tension is developed. The critical condition of cavitation instability is obtained. It is found that dynamic void growth in BMGs can be well controlled by a dimensionless inertial number characterizing the competition between intrinsic and extrinsic time scales. To unveil the atomic-level mechanism of cavitation, a systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of spallation behaviour of a binary metallic glass with different impact velocities was performed. It is found that micro-void nucleation is determined TTZs while the growth is controlled by shear transformation zones (STZs) at atomic scale.

  19. Dynamics and acoustics of a cavitating Venturi flow using a homogeneous air-propylene glycol mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, M.; Naude, J.; Mendez, F.; Godínez, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamics and acoustics generated in a cavitating Venturi tube are followed up as a function of the input power of a centrifugal pump. The pump of 5 hp with a modified impeller to produce uniform bubbly flow, pumps 70 liters of propylene glycol in a closed loop (with a water cooling system), in which the Venturi is arranged. The goal was to obtain correlations among acoustical emission, dynamics of the shock waves and the light emission from cavitation bubbles. The instrumentation includes: two piezoelectric transducers, a digital camera, a high-speed video camera, and photomultipliers. As results, we show the cavitation patterns as function of the pump power, and a graphical template of the distribution of the Venturi conditions as a function of the cavitation parameter. Our observations show for the first time the sudden formation of bubble clouds in the straight portion of the pipe after the diverging section of the Venturi. We assume that this is due to pre-existing of nuclei-cloud structures which suddenly grow up by the tensile tails of propagating shock waves (producing a sudden drop in pressure).

  20. Inertial cavitation initiated by polytetrafluoroethylene nanoparticles under pulsed ultrasound stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiaofeng; Kang, Shih-Tsung; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Zheng, Hairong; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2016-09-01

    Nanoscale gas bubbles residing on a macroscale hydrophobic surface have a surprising long lifetime (on the order of days) and can serve as cavitation nuclei for initiating inertial cavitation (IC). Whether interfacial nanobubbles (NBs) reside on the infinite surface of a hydrophobic nanoparticle (NP) and could serve as cavitation nuclei is unknown, but this would be very meaningful for the development of sonosensitive NPs. To address this problem, we investigated the IC activity of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) NPs, which are regarded as benchmark superhydrophobic NPs due to their low surface energy caused by the presence of fluorocarbon. Both a passive cavitation detection system and terephthalic dosimetry was applied to quantify the intensity of IC. The IC intensities of the suspension with PTFE NPs were 10.30 and 48.41 times stronger than those of deionized water for peak negative pressures of 2 and 5MPa, respectively. However, the IC activities were nearly completely inhibited when the suspension was degassed or ethanol was used to suspend PTFE NPs, and they were recovered when suspended in saturated water, which may indicates the presence of interfacial NBs on PTFE NPs surfaces. Importantly, these PTFE NPs could sustainably initiate IC for excitation by a sequence of at least 6000 pulses, whereas lipid microbubbles were completely depleted after the application of no more than 50 pulses under the same conditions. The terephthalic dosimetry has shown that much higher hydroxyl yields were achieved when PTFE NPs were present as cavitation nuclei when using ultrasound parameters that otherwise did not produce significant amounts of free radicals. These results show that superhydrophobic NPs may be an outstanding candidate for use in IC-related applications. PMID:27150739

  1. Sonoluminescence characterization of inertial cavitation inside a BSA phantom treated by pulsed HIFU.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hui; Chang, Nan; Xu, Shanshan; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inertial cavitation inside a phantom treated by pulsed HIFU (pHIFU). Basic bovine serum albumin (BSA) phantoms without any inherent ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) or phase-shift nano-emulsions (PSNEs) were used. During the treatment, sonoluminescence (SL) recordings were performed to characterize the spatial distribution of inertial cavitation adjacent to the focal region. High-speed photographs and thermal coagulations, comparing with the SL results, were also recorded and presented. A series of pulse parameters (pulse duration (PD) was between 1 and 23 cycles and pulse repetition frequency (PRF) was between 0.5kHz and 100kHz) were performed to make a systematic investigation under certain acoustic power (APW). Continuous HIFU (cHIFU) investigation was also performed to serve as control group. It was found that, when APW was 19.5W, pHIFU with short PD was much easier to form SL adjacent to the focal region inside the phantom, while it was difficult for cHIFU to generate cavitation bubbles. With appropriate PD and PRF, the residual bubbles of the previous pulses could be stimulated by the incident pulses to oscillate in a higher level and even violently collapse, resulting to enhanced physical thermogenesis. The experimental results showed that the most violent inertial cavitation occurs when PD was set to 6 cycles (5μs) and PRF to 10kHz, while the highest level of thermal coagulation was observed when PD was set to 10 cycles. The cavitational and thermal characteristics were in good correspondence, exhibiting significant potentiality regarding to inject-free cavitation bubble enhanced thermal ablation under lower APW, compared to the conventional thermotherapy. PMID:27150756

  2. Dynamic response of cavitating turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, S. L.

    1976-01-01

    Stimulated by the pogo instability encountered in many liquid propellant rockets, the dynamic behavior of cavitating inducers is discussed. An experimental facility where the upstream and downstream flows of a cavitating inducer could be perturbed was constructed and tested. The upstream and downstream pressure and mass flow fluctuations were measured. Matrices representing the transfer functions across the inducer pump were calculated from these measurements and from the hydraulic system characteristics for two impellers in various states of cavitation. The transfer matrices when plotted against the perturbing frequency showed significant departure from steady state or quasi-steady predictions especially at higher frequencies.

  3. Fluctuation emergence of bubbles under a rapid drop of pressure in a liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, P. A.; Vinogradov, V. E.

    2015-07-01

    Explosive cavitation at the front of a negative-pressure pulse has been studied. Conditions for the emergence of bubbles by the mechanism of homogeneous fluctuation nucleation were identified. Those conditions feature a high rate of the phase transformation, with the vapor formation process being concentrated in time at the instant of attainment of a certain pressure. Under such conditions, the liquid cavitation strength is maximal, and its value can be predicted by the homogeneous nucleation theory. For implementing the regime with high nucleation frequency, a method based on passing a negative-pressure pulse across a region with locally heated liquid was employed. The cavitation kinetics was examined by monitoring the perturbation of the heat flow from a miniature heater. The experimental data were generalized using the theory of explosive vapor formation in shock boiling mode. A method for calculating the cavitation in the regime of the fluctuation emergence of bubbles was approbated.

  4. Bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound: a review.

    PubMed

    Ohl, Siew-Wan; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2015-10-01

    The study of the interaction of bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound is sometimes termed 'acoustic cavitation'. It is of importance in many biomedical applications where sound waves are applied. The use of shock waves and ultrasound in medical treatments is appealing because of their non-invasiveness. In this review, we present a variety of acoustics-bubble interactions, with a focus on shock wave-bubble interaction and bubble cloud phenomena. The dynamics of a single spherically oscillating bubble is rather well understood. However, when there is a nearby surface, the bubble often collapses non-spherically with a high-speed jet. The direction of the jet depends on the 'resistance' of the boundary: the bubble jets towards a rigid boundary, splits up near an elastic boundary, and jets away from a free surface. The presence of a shock wave complicates the bubble dynamics further. We shall discuss both experimental studies using high-speed photography and numerical simulations involving shock wave-bubble interaction. In biomedical applications, instead of a single bubble, often clouds of bubbles appear (consisting of many individual bubbles). The dynamics of such a bubble cloud is even more complex. We shall show some of the phenomena observed in a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field. The nonlinear nature of the sound field and the complex inter-bubble interaction in a cloud present challenges to a comprehensive understanding of the physics of the bubble cloud in HIFU. We conclude the article with some comments on the challenges ahead. PMID:26442143

  5. Identifying the Inertial Cavitation Pressure Threshold and Skull Effects in a Vessel Phantom Using Focused Ultrasound and Microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Yao-Sheng; Choi, James J.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2010-03-01

    Using Focused Ultrasound (FUS) and microbubbles to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been shown promising for brain drug delivery. However, the exact mechanism behind the opening remains unknown. Here, the effects of the murine skull on the threshold of inertial cavitation were investigated. In order to investigate the pressure threshold for inertial cavitation of preformed microbubbles during sonication, passive cavitation detection in conjunction with B-mode imaging was used. A cylindrical vessel with a 610-μm diameter inside a polyacrylamide gel was generated within a polyacrylamide gel to simulate large blood vessels. Definity® (Lantheus Medical Imaging, MA, USA) microbubbles with a 1.1-3.3 μm in diameter at 2.5×107 bubbles/mL were injected into the channel before sonication (frequency: 1.525 MHz; pulse length: 100 cycles; PRF: 10 Hz; sonication duration: 2 s) through an excised mouse skull. A cylindrically focused hydrophone, confocal with the FUS transducer, acted as a passive cavitation detector (PCD) to identify the threshold. A 7.5 MHz linear array with the field-of-view perpendicular to the axial length of the FUS beam was also used to image the occurrence of bubble fragmentation. The broadband spectral response acquired at the passive cavitation detector (PCD) and the B-mode images identified the occurrence and location of the inertial cavitation, respectively. Findings indicated that the peak-rarefactional pressure threshold was approximately equal to 0.45 MPa at the presence or the absence of the skull. However, the skull induced 10-50% lower inertial cavitation dose. Mouse skulls did not affect the pressure threshold of inertial cavitation but resulted in a lower inertial cavitation dose. The broadband response could be captured through the murine skull, so the same PCD setup can be used in future in vivo applications.

  6. Impact load measurements with a PVDF pressure sensor in an erosive cavitating flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hujer, J.; Carrat, JB; Müller, M.; Riondet, M.

    2015-12-01

    A PVDF pressure sensor was used to measure the pressure peaks due to the collapse of cavitation bubbles in the high-speed tunnel of the LEGI laboratory. It was flush mounted on a stainless steel disk in the most erosive area of the test section. The recorded data were post- processed in order to get the impact load spectra for different velocities at constant cavitation number. The results are presented as cumulative histograms of peak rate and maximal impact load for different flow velocities of the high-speed tunnel.

  7. Cavitation mechanism of mineral nano- and microspherule formation in the Earth's interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, S. I.; Adushkin, V. V.; Andreev, S. N.

    Cavitation mechanism of mineral nano- and microspherule formation in the Earth's interior S.I. Popel (1), V.V. Adushkin (1), S.N. Andreev (2) (1) Institute for Dynamics of Geospheres RAS, Moscow, Russia, (2) Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia (s_i_popel@mtu-net.ru/+7 495 1376511) Cavitation is shown to be a rather common and important physical effect in the processes of formation of nano- and microsize particles of natural origin. We tested the so-called cavitation hypothesis of the formation of mineral microspherules 10-100 micrometer in size on the basis of a cavitation model that takes into account the characteristic values of the radius of a cavitation bubble and its evolution and thermal interaction with a solid mineral particle placed inside the bubble. We demonstrate that the model explains the appearance of the microspherules in accordance with the data of observations. An analogous cavitation mechanism can lead to the formation of mineral nanospherules in hydrothermal fluids. Another mechanism that can result in the formation of mineral nanospherules is the ablation process. This process is realized as a release into the ambient fluid of a superheated layer taking the form of small nanosize drops of melted substance in the case when the temperature in the compressing cavitation bubble exceeds the boiling temperature of the substance of the drops, the boiling temperature corresponding to the external pressure in the hydrothermal fluid. We discuss the conditions of experiments on melting of refractory materials in the process of their interaction with cavitation bubbles; such experiments are important from the viewpoint of identification of mechanisms of formation of mineral nano and microspherules in the Earth's crust. This work was carried out within the Program of Fundamental Investigations of the Division of Earth Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences "Nanoparticles in Natural and Technogenic Systems" and was supported by the

  8. Measurement Of Gas Bubbles In Mercury Using Proton Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Riemer, Bernie; Bingham, Philip R; Mariam, Fesseha G; Merrill, Frank E

    2007-01-01

    An experiment using proton radiography on a small mercury loop for testing gas bubble injection was conducted at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in December 2006. Small gas bubble injection is one of the approaches under development to reduce cavitation damage in the U.S. Spallation Neutron Source mercury target vessel. Several hundred radiograph images were obtained as the test loop was operated over range of conditions that included two jet type bubble generators, two needle type bubble generators, various mercury flow speeds and gas injection rates, and use of helium, argon and xenon. This paper will describe the analysis of the radiograph images and present the obtained bubble measurement data.

  9. Current research in cavitating fluid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewe, D. E. (Editor); Ball, J. H. (Editor); Khonsari, M. M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    A review of the current research of cavitation in fluid films is presented. Phenomena and experimental observations include gaseous cavitation, vapor cavitation, and gas entrainment. Cavitation in flooded, starved, and dynamically loaded journal bearings, as well as squeeze films are reviewed. Observations of cavitation damage in bearings and the possibility of cavitation between parallel plates with microasperities were discussed. The transcavity fluid transport process, meniscus motion and geometry or form of the film during rupture, and reformation were summarized. Performance effects were related to heat transfer models in the cavitated region and hysteresis influence on rotor dynamics coefficients. A number of cavitation algorithms was presented together with solution procedures using the finite difference and finite element methods. Although Newtonian fluids were assumed in most of the discussions, the effect of non-Newtonian fluids on cavitation was also discussed.

  10. Tiny Bubbles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hy

    1985-01-01

    A simple oxygen-collecting device (easily constructed from glass jars and a lid) can show bubbles released by water plants during photosynthesis. Suggestions are given for: (1) testing the collected gas; (2) using various carbon dioxide sources; and (3) measuring respiration. (DH)

  11. Leverage bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wanfeng; Woodard, Ryan; Sornette, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Leverage is strongly related to liquidity in a market and lack of liquidity is considered a cause and/or consequence of the recent financial crisis. A repurchase agreement is a financial instrument where a security is sold simultaneously with an agreement to buy it back at a later date. Repurchase agreement (repo) market size is a very important element in calculating the overall leverage in a financial market. Therefore, studying the behavior of repo market size can help to understand a process that can contribute to the birth of a financial crisis. We hypothesize that herding behavior among large investors led to massive over-leveraging through the use of repos, resulting in a bubble (built up over the previous years) and subsequent crash in this market in early 2008. We use the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of rational expectation bubbles and behavioral finance to study the dynamics of the repo market that led to the crash. The JLS model qualifies a bubble by the presence of characteristic patterns in the price dynamics, called log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior. We show that there was significant LPPL behavior in the market before that crash and that the predicted range of times predicted by the model for the end of the bubble is consistent with the observations.

  12. The Speed of Axial Propagation of a Cylindrical Bubble Through a Cylindrical Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Inspired by the rapid elongation of air columns injected into vortices by dolphins, we present an exact inviscid solution for the axial speed (assumed steady) of propagation of the tip of a semi-infinite cylindrical bubble along the axis of a cylindrical vortex. The bubble is assumed to be held at constant pressure by being connected to a reservoir, the lungs of the dolphin, say. For a given bubble pressure, there is a modest critical rotation rate above which steadily propagating bubbles exist. For a bubble at ambient pressure, the propagation speed of the bubble (relative to axial velocity within the vortex) varies between 0.5 and 0.6 of the maximum rotational speed of the vortex. Surprisingly, the bubble tip can propagate (almost as rapidly) even when the pressure minimum in the vortex core is greater than the bubble pressure; in this case, solutions exhibit a dimple on the nose of the bubble. A situation important for incipient vortex cavitation, and one which dolphins also demonstrate, is elongation of a free bubble, i.e., one whose internal pressure may vary. Under the assumption that the acceleration term is small (checked a posteriori), the steady solution is applied at each instant during the elongation. Three types of behavior are then possible depending on physical parameters and initial conditions: (A) Unabated elongation with slowly increasing bubble pressure, and nearly constant volume. Volume begins to decrease in the late stages. (B1) Elongation with decreasing bubble pressure. A limit point of the steady solution is encountered at a finite bubble length. (B2) Unabated elongation with decreasing bubble pressure and indefinite creation of volume. This is made possible by the existence of propagating solutions at bubble pressures below the minimum vortex pressure. As the bubble stretches, its radius initially decreases but then becomes constant; this is also observed in experiments on incipient vortex cavitation.

  13. The role of acoustic cavitation in liquid pressurization in narrow tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, S.; Hatakeyama, M.

    2013-04-01

    The liquid pressurization mechanism in narrow tubes as a result of high intensity ultrasonic field along the irradiation direction is discussed, with a focus on the physical behavior of acoustic cavitation bubbles formed at the tube's open end. The acoustic energy dissipated at the surface of the bubbles results in radiation pressure with a second harmonic frequency (2f). We show here that during the phenomenon, which resembles the functioning an ultrasonic pump, cyclical pressure fluctuations with the second harmonic frequency 2f are observed using a high-response pressure transducer. The maximum value of accumulating pressure is equivalent to the positive peak of the sound pressure in the tube without acoustic cavitation. It can be thought that the cyclic collapse and expansion of acoustic cavitation bubbles at the tube's open end contribute to the control of the inrushing sound pressure. In particular, the transmission behavior of the received pressure in a viscous liquid containing gas bubbles with high number density near the tube's open end (a quantity that is related to the kinematic viscosity of the medium liquid) plays an important role in this pressure accumulation mechanism. A dynamic model of this pressurization phenomenon is also discussed.

  14. Cavitation in a Mercury Target

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    2000-09-01

    Recent theoretical work on the formation of bubble nucleation centers by energetic particles leads to some reasonably credible calculations of the maximum negative pressure that might be sustained without bubble formation in the mercury target of the Spallation Neutron Source.

  15. "Cavitation in a Mercury Target"

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    2000-09-06

    Recent theoretical work on the formation of bubble nucleation centers by energetic particles leads to some reasonably credible calculations of the maximum negative pressure that might be sustained without bubble formation in the mercury target of the Spallation Neutron Source.

  16. Plastic deformation of a magnesium oxide 001-plane surface produced by cavitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattori, S.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Okada, T.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine plastic deformation of a cleaved single-crystal magnesium oxide 001-plane surface exposed to cavitation. Cavitation damage experiments were carried out in distilled water at 25 C by using a magnetostrictive oscillator in close proximity (2 mm) to the surface of the cleaved specimen. The dislocation-etch-pit patterns induced by cavitation were examined and compared with that of microhardness indentations. The results revealed that dislocation-etch-pit patterns around hardness indentations contain both screw and edge dislocations, while the etch-pit patterns on the surface exposed to cavitation contain only screw dislocations. During cavitation, deformation occurred in a thin surface layer, accompanied by work-hardening of the ceramic. The row of screw dislocations underwent a stable growth, which was analyzed crystallographically.

  17. Application of two turbulence models for computation of cavitating flows in a centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, M.; Guo, Q.; Zhou, L. J.; Wang, Z. W.; Wang, X.

    2013-12-01

    To seek a better numerical method to simulate the cavitating flow field in a centrifugal pump, the applications between RNG k- ε and LES turbulence model were compared by using the Zwart-Gerber-Belamri cavitation model. It was found that both the models give almost the same results with respect to pump performance and cavitation evolutions including growth, local contraction, stability and separation in the impeller passage. But the LES model can not only capture the pump suction recirculation and the low frequency fluctuation caused by it, but also combine the changes of the shaft frequency amplitude acting on the impeller with the cavitation unstable characteristics. Thus the LES model has more advantages than RNG k- ε model in calculating the unsteady cavitating flow in a centrifugal pump.

  18. On Rayleigh-Plesset based cavitation modelling of fluid film bearings using the Reynolds equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Troy A.; Braun, Minel J.; Pierson, Kristopher

    2015-12-01

    In the ‘universe’ of the general cavitation phenomena the issue of cavitation in bearings, due to its particular application and the mostly non-homogeneous working fluids associated with it, has presented a rather specialized challenge. The present paper models the phenomenon of pseudo-cavitation in fluid film bearings and offers a physics-based approach that conserves mass while solving the Reynolds (RE) and Rayleigh-Plesset (RP) equations in a coupled, fully transient environment. The RP solution calculates a time dependent void fraction synchronized with the RE transient solution, where density and viscosity are (re)calculated at every grid point of this homogeneous two-phase fluid. The growth and evolution of the cavitation zone expanse is physics-based and thus can accommodate evaporation, diffusion, or pseudocavitation as separate processes. This is a step beyond the present available cavitation models both for the RE and the Navier-Stokes equations.

  19. Using acoustic cavitation to enhance chemotherapy of DOX liposomes: experiment in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Dai, Dan-Dan; Lu, Cui-Tao; Lv, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Yan; Li, Xing; Li, Wen-Feng; Wu, Yan; Jiang, Lei; Li, Xiao-Kun; Huang, Pin-Tong; Chen, Li-Juan; Lin, Min

    2012-09-01

    Experiments in vitro and in vivo were designed to investigate tumor growth inhibition of chemotherapeutics-loaded liposomes enhanced by acoustic cavitation. Doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (DOX liposomes) were used in experiments to investigate acoustic cavitation mediated effects on cell viability and chemotherapeutic function. The influence of lingering sensitive period after acoustic cavitation on tumor inhibition was also investigated. Animal experiment was carried out to verify the practicability of this technique in vivo. From experiment results, blank phospholipid-based microbubbles (PBM) combined with ultrasound (US) at intensity below 0.3 W/cm² could produce acoustic cavitation which maintained cell viability at high level. Compared with DOX solution, DOX liposomes combined with acoustic cavitation exerted effective tumor inhibition in vitro and in vivo. The lingering sensitive period after acoustic cavitation could also enhance the susceptibility of tumor to chemotherapeutic drugs. DOX liposomes could also exert certain tumor inhibition under preliminary acoustic cavitation. Acoustic cavitation could enhance the absorption efficiency of DOX liposomes, which could be used to reduce DOX adverse effect on normal organs in clinical chemotherapy. PMID:22188116

  20. Effect of fluid flow on cavitation erosion of materials under exposure to vibrations from a hydrodynamic generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganiev, R. F.; Zhebynev, D. A.; Feldman, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    The results of investigation of cavitation erosion of lead in various places of a hydrodynamic-generator submerged jet are presented. Features of erosion caused by the effect of flow are established. It can both strengthen the erosion intensity and weaken it in dependence on the angle of incidence. The stratification of air bubbles under the action of pressure waves is possible in the flow under the interaction with the surface of objects. The flow can change the number of air bubbles participating in the cavitation near the surface. It can also influence the mechanical effect on the surface of the tested materials inducing their nonuniform deformation. All the factors listed affect the cavitation erosion complicating considerably the physics of the process.

  1. Dynamics of Vapour Bubbles in Nucleate Boiling. 2; Evolution of Thermally Controlled Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buyevich, Yu A.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Callaway, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The previously developed dynamic theory of growth and detachment of vapour bubbles under conditions of nucleate pool boiling is applied to study motion and deformation of a bubble evolving at a single nucleation site. The bubble growth is presumed to be thermally controlled, and two components of heat transfer to the bubble are accounted of: the one from the bulk of surrounding liquid and the one due to heat conduction across a liquid microlayer formed underneath the bubble. Bubble evolution is governed by the buoyancy and an effective surface tension force, both the forces making the bubble centre of mass move away from the wall and, thus, assisting its detachment. Buoyancy-controlled and surface-tension-controlled regimes are considered separately in a meticulous way. The duration of the whole process of bubble evolution till detachment, the rate of growth, and the bubble departure size are found as functions of time and physical and operating parameters. Some repeatedly observed phenomena, such as an influence of gravity on the growth rate, are explained. Inferences of the model agree qualitatively with available experimental evidence, and conclusions pertaining to the dependence on gravity of the bubble radius at detachment and the whole time of the bubble development when being attached to the wall are confirmed quantitatively.

  2. Role of H2O2 in the fluctuating patterns of COD (chemical oxygen demand) during the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using pilot scale triple frequency ultrasound cavitation reactor.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Sivakumar; Abidin, Norhaida binti Zainal; Parthasarathy, Shridharan; Alzorqi, Ibrahim; Ng, Ern Huay; Tiong, Timm Joyce; Gomes, Rachel L; Ali, Asgar

    2014-07-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a highly contaminating wastewater due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Conventional treatment methods require longer residence time (10-15 days) and higher operating cost. Owing to this, finding a suitable and efficient method for the treatment of POME is crucial. In this investigation, ultrasound cavitation technology has been used as an alternative technique to treat POME. Cavitation is the phenomenon of formation, growth and collapse of bubbles in a liquid. The end process of collapse leads to intense conditions of temperature and pressure and shock waves which assist various physical and chemical transformations. Two different ultrasound systems i.e. ultrasonic bath (37 kHz) and a hexagonal triple frequency ultrasonic reactor (28, 40 and 70 kHz) of 15 L have been used. The results showed a fluctuating COD pattern (in between 45,000 and 60,000 mg/L) while using ultrasound bath alone, whereas a non-fluctuating COD pattern with a final COD of 27,000 mg/L was achieved when hydrogen peroxide was introduced. Similarly for the triple frequency ultrasound reactor, coupling all the three frequencies resulted into a final COD of 41,300 mg/L compared to any other individual or combination of two frequencies. With the possibility of larger and continuous ultrasonic cavitational reactors, it is believed that this could be a promising and a fruitful green process engineering technique for the treatment of POME. PMID:24485395

  3. Prediction of Shock-Induced Cavitation in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brundage, Aaron

    2013-06-01

    Fluid-structure interaction problems that require estimating the response of thin structures within fluids to shock loading has wide applicability. For example, these problems may include underwater explosions and the dynamic response of ships and submarines; and biological applications such as Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and wound ballistics. In all of these applications the process of cavitation, where small cavities with dissolved gases or vapor are formed as the local pressure drops below the vapor pressure due to shock hydrodynamics, can cause significant damage to the surrounding thin structures or membranes if these bubbles collapse, generating additional shock loading. Hence, a two-phase equation of state (EOS) with three distinct regions of compression, expansion, and tension was developed to model shock-induced cavitation. This EOS was evaluated by comparing data from pressure and temperature shock Hugoniot measurements for water up to 400 kbar, and data from ultrasonic pressure measurements in tension to -0.3 kbar, to simulated responses from CTH, an Eulerian, finite volume shock code. The new EOS model showed significant improvement over pre-existing CTH models such as the SESAME EOS for capturing cavitation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy/NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Prediction of shock-induced cavitation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brundage, A.

    2014-05-01

    Fluid-structure interaction problems that require estimating the response of thin structures within fluids to shock loading have wide applicability. For example, these problems may include underwater explosions and the dynamic response of ships and submarines; and biological applications such as Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and wound ballistics. In all of these applications the process of cavitation, where small cavities with dissolved gases or vapor are formed as the local pressure drops below the vapor pressure due to shock hydrodynamics, can cause significant damage to the surrounding thin structures or membranes if these bubbles collapse, generating additional shock loading. Hence, a two-phase equation of state (EOS) with three distinct regions of compression, expansion, and tension was developed to model shock-induced cavitation. This EOS was evaluated by comparing data from pressure and temperature shock Hugoniot measurements for water up to 400 kbar, and data from ultrasonic pressure measurements in tension to -0.3 kbar, to simulated responses from CTH, an Eulerian, finite volume shock code. The new EOS model showed significant improvement over preexisting CTH models such as the SESAME EOS for capturing cavitation.

  5. Secondary shock wave emissions from cavitation in lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitnis, Parag V.; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2005-04-01

    We investigate the role of secondary shock waves (SSWs) generated by cavitation in lithotripsy. Acoustic pressure was measured with a fiber optic probe hydrophone and cavitation using a dual passive cavitation detector (PCD) consisting of two confocal transducers. An artificial stone (~7 mm diameter and ~9 mm length) was placed at the focus of an electrohydraulic lithotripter. The fiber was inserted through a hole drilled through the stone so that the tip was at the proximal surface. SSWs were identified by matching the time of arrival to that of the inertial collapse signature acquired by the PCD. Measurements of SSWs were obtained for 50% of SWs fired at 20 kV and 1 Hz. The peak positive pressure for the SSW was p+=33.7+/-14.8 MPa, which was comparable to the pressure induced by the incident SW (p+=42.6+/-6 MPa). The peak pressure in water was p+=23.2+/-4.4 MPa. The PCD also recorded acoustic emissions from forced collapse of pre-existing bubbles caused by the incident SW. We propose that both the reflection from the semi-rigid stone boundary and SSW from the forced collapse contribute to the observed increase in the peak pressure of the incident SW in presence of a stone. [Work supported by NIH.

  6. Effect of controlled offset of focal position in cavitation-enhanced high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Kota; Takagi, Ryo; Miyashita, Takuya; Jimbo, Hayato; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2015-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a noninvasive treatment for tumors such as cancer. In this method, ultrasound is generated outside the body and focused to the target tissue. Therefore, physical and mental stresses on the patient are minimal. A drawback of the HIFU treatment is a long treatment time for a large tumor due to the small therapeutic volume by a single exposure. Enhancing the heating effect of ultrasound by cavitation bubbles may solve this problem. However, this is rather difficult because cavitation clouds tend to be formed backward from the focal point while ultrasonic intensity for heating is centered at the focal point. In this study, the focal points of the trigger pulses to generate cavitation were offset forward from those of the heating ultrasound to match the cavitation clouds with the heating patterns. Results suggest that the controlled offset of focal points makes the thermal coagulation more predictable.

  7. Effects of cavitation-enhanced heating in high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment on shear wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Ryosuke; Nagaoka, Ryo; Takagi, Ryo; Goto, Kota; Yoshizawa, Shin; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2015-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is a less invasive method of cancer treatment, in which ultrasound is generated outside the body and focused at the tumor tissue to be thermally coagulated. To enhance the safety, accuracy, and efficiency of HIFU therapy, “multiple-triggered HIFU” has been proposed as a method of cavitation-enhanced heating to shorten treatment time. In this study, we also propose shear wave elastography (SWE) to noninvasively monitor the cavitation-enhanced heating. Results show that the increase in shear wave velocity was observed in the coagulation area, but it was significantly slower when cavitation occurred. This suggests that the cavitation-enhanced heating requires a significantly longer cooling time before the accurate measurement of shear modulus than heating without generating bubbles.

  8. Dual-frequency focused ultrasound using optoacoustic and piezoelectric transmitters for single-pulsed free-field cavitation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baac, Hyoung Won; Lee, Taehwa; Ok, Jong G.; Hall, Timothy; Jay Guo, L.

    2013-12-01

    Pulsed ultrasonic cavitation is a promising modality for non-contact targeted therapy, enabling mechanical ablation of the tissue. We demonstrate a spatio-temporal superposition approach of two ultrasound pulses (high and low frequencies) producing a tight cavitation zone of 100 μm in water, which is an-order-of-magnitudes smaller than those obtained by the existing high-amplitude transducers. Particularly, laser-generated focused ultrasound (LGFU) was employed for the high-frequency operation (15 MHz). As demonstrated, LGFU plays a primary role to define the cavitation zone. The generation rate of cavitation bubbles could be dramatically increased up to 4.1% (cf. 0.06% without the superposition) with moderated threshold requirement.

  9. Interaction of two differently sized oscillating bubbles in a free field.

    PubMed

    Chew, Lup Wai; Klaseboer, Evert; Ohl, Siew-Wan; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2011-12-01

    Most real life bubble dynamics applications involve multiple bubbles, for example, in cavitation erosion prevention, ultrasonic baths, underwater warfare, and medical applications involving microbubble contrast agents. Most scientific dealings with bubble-bubble interaction focus on two similarly sized bubbles. In this study, the interaction between two oscillating differently sized bubbles (generated in tap water) is studied using high speed photography. Four types of bubble behavior were observed, namely, jetting toward each other, jetting away from each other, bubble coalescence, and a behavior termed the "catapult" effect. In-phase bubbles jet toward each other, while out-of-phase bubbles jet away from each other. There exists a critical phase difference that separates the two regimes. The behavior of the bubbles is fully characterized by their dimensionless separation distance, their phase difference, and their size ratio. It is also found that for bubbles with large size difference, the smaller bubble behaves similarly to a single bubble oscillating near a free surface. PMID:22304190

  10. Submicron-Bubble-Enhanced Focused Ultrasound for Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption and Improved CNS Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Chien-Yu; Lee, Ya-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Ying; Ma, Yan-Jung; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2014-01-01

    The use of focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles has been proven to induce transient blood–brain barrier opening (BBB-opening). However, FUS-induced inertial cavitation of microbubbles can also result in erythrocyte extravasations. Here we investigated whether induction of submicron bubbles to oscillate at their resonant frequency would reduce inertial cavitation during BBB-opening and thereby eliminate erythrocyte extravasations in a rat brain model. FUS was delivered with acoustic pressures of 0.1–4.5 MPa using either in-house manufactured submicron bubbles or standard SonoVue microbubbles. Wideband and subharmonic emissions from bubbles were used to quantify inertial and stable cavitation, respectively. Erythrocyte extravasations were evaluated by in vivo post-treatment magnetic resonance susceptibility-weighted imaging, and finally by histological confirmation. We found that excitation of submicron bubbles with resonant frequency-matched FUS (10 MHz) can greatly limit inertial cavitation while enhancing stable cavitation. The BBB-opening was mainly caused by stable cavitation, whereas the erythrocyte extravasation was closely correlated with inertial cavitation. Our technique allows extensive reduction of inertial cavitation to induce safe BBB-opening. Furthermore, the safety issue of BBB-opening was not compromised by prolonging FUS exposure time, and the local drug concentrations in the brain tissues were significantly improved to 60 times (BCNU; 18.6 µg versus 0.3 µg) by using chemotherapeutic agent-loaded submicron bubbles with FUS. This study provides important information towards the goal of successfully translating FUS brain drug delivery into clinical use. PMID:24788566

  11. Single bubble sonochemistry: decomposition of alkyl bromide and the isomerization reaction of maleic acid.

    PubMed

    Troia, A; Ripa, D Madonna; Spagnolo, R; Maurino, V

    2006-07-01

    Single bubble cavitation offers an unique opportunity to evaluate the effect of bubble activity in promoting chemical reactions. In this paper we study the isomerization reaction of maleic acid into fumaric acid using an aqueous solution of maleic acid saturated with CH2Br2. The Br* radicals are generated at the bubble surface and a whitish thread forms. For comparison, the same reaction was conducted in a sonochemical bath. A possible scheme of the reactions activated at bubble surface after the decomposition of organic brominated substances is proposed. PMID:16168698

  12. Bubble cloud dynamics in a high-pressure spherical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Phillip Andrew

    A bubble cloud is a population of bubbles confined to a region within a fluid. Bubble clouds play a large role in a variety of naturally occurring phenomena and man-made applications (e.g., ocean noise, cavitation damage, sonoluminescence, ultrasonic cleaning, drug delivery, lithotripsy). It is important, therefore, to understand the behavior of bubble clouds so that their effects may be enhanced or diminished as desired. This work explores and characterizes the properties of bubble clouds nucleated inside a high-pressure spherical acoustic resonator, in connection with recent interest in acoustic inertial confinement fusion (acoustic ICF). A laser system was developed to repeatably nucleate a cloud of bubbles inside the resonator. The resulting events were then observed, primarily with schlieren imaging methods. Preliminary studies of the bubble cloud dynamics showed the sensitivity of the initial cloud to nucleation parameters including the phase of nucleation, the laser energy, and the acoustic power. After many acoustic cycles, some bubble clouds are observed to evolve into a tight cluster. The formation of these clusters correlates with initial bubble distributions which have a large cloud interaction parameter, β. Cluster dynamics are seen to be largely driven by reconverging shock waves from previous collapses reflected from the resonator's interior surface. Initial expansion of the cluster boundary is on the order of 8 mm/µs and the maximum radius approaches 3 mm. Shock pressures are estimated to be > 10 GPa at a radius of 100 µm using weak shock theory.

  13. Incidence of cavitation in the fragmentation process of extracorporeal shock wave lithotriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rink, K.; Delacrétaz, G.; Pittomvils, G.; Boving, R.; Lafaut, J. P.

    1994-05-01

    The fragmentation mechanism occurring in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is investigated using a fiber optic stress sensing technique. With our technique, we demonstrate that cavitation is a major cause of fragmentation in ESWL procedures. When a target is placed in the operating area of the lithotriptor, two shock waves are detected. The first detected shock wave corresponds to the incoming shock wave generated by the lithotriptor. The second shock wave, detected some hundreds of microseconds later, is generated in situ. It results from the collapse of a cavitation bubble, formed by the reflection of the incoming shock wave at the target boundary. This cavitation induced shock wave generates the largest stress in the target area according to our stress sensing measurements.

  14. Numerical investigation of cavitation flow inside spool valve with large pressure drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jian; Pan, Dingyi; Xie, Fangfang; Shao, Xueming

    2015-12-01

    Spool valves play an important role in fluid power system. Cavitation phenomena happen frequently inside the spool valves, which cause structure damages, noise and lower down hydrodynamic performance. A numerical tools incorporating the cavitation model, are developed to predict the flow structure and cavitation pattern in the spool valve. Two major flow states in the spool valve chamber, i.e. flow-in and flow-out, are studies. The pressure distributions along the spool wall are first investigated, and the results agree well with the experimental data. For the flow-in cases, the local pressure at the throttling area drops much deeper than the pressure in flow-out cases. Meanwhile, the bubbles are more stable in flow-in cases than those in flow-out cases, which are ruptured and shed into the downstream.

  15. Lowering of the cavitation threshold in aqueous suspensions of porous silicon nanoparticles for sonodynamic therapy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sviridov, A. P. Osminkina, L. A.; Nikolaev, A. L.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.

    2015-09-21

    A significant decrease of the cavitation threshold in aqueous suspensions of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) with sizes about 100 nm as compared with pure water was observed for ultrasound irradiation (USI) with therapeutic frequency (0.88 MHz) and intensities (about 1 W/cm{sup 2}). This effect is explained by porous morphology of PSi NPs, which promotes the nucleation of cavitation bubbles. In vitro experiments revealed a suppression of the proliferation of cancer cells with the introduced PSi NPs after exposure to USI related to the enhanced cavitation processes, which led to the cell destruction. The obtained results demonstrate that PSi NPs are prospective for applications as sonosensitizers in mild cancer therapy.

  16. Extreme impact and cavitation forces of a biological hammer: strike forces of the peacock mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Caldwell, R L

    2005-10-01

    Mantis shrimp are renowned for their unusual method of breaking shells with brief, powerful strikes of their raptorial appendages. Due to the extreme speeds of these strikes underwater, cavitation occurs between their appendages and hard-shelled prey. Here we examine the magnitude and relative contribution of the impact and cavitation forces generated by the peacock mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. We present the surprising finding that each strike generates two brief, high-amplitude force peaks, typically 390-480 micros apart. Based on high-speed imaging, force measurements and acoustic analyses, it is evident that the first force peak is caused by the limb's impact and the second force peak is due to the collapse of cavitation bubbles. Peak limb impact forces range from 400 to 1501 N and peak cavitation forces reach 504 N. Despite their small size, O. scyllarus can generate impact forces thousands of times their body weight. Furthermore, on average, cavitation peak forces are 50% of the limb's impact force, although cavitation forces may exceed the limb impact forces by up to 280%. The rapid succession of high peak forces used by mantis shrimp suggests that mantis shrimp use a potent combination of cavitation forces and extraordinarily high impact forces to fracture shells. The stomatopod's hammer is fundamentally different from typical shell-crushing mechanisms such as fish jaws and lobster claws, and may have played an important and as yet unexamined role in the evolution of shell form. PMID:16169943

  17. Ostwald ripening in multiple-bubble nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masaru; Inaoka, Hajime; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2014-12-01

    The Ostwald ripening of bubbles is studied by molecular dynamics simulations involving up to 679 × 106 Lennard-Jones particles. Many bubbles appear after depressurizing a system that is initially maintained in the pure-liquid phase, and the coarsening of bubbles follows. The self-similarity of the bubble-size distribution function predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory is directly confirmed. The total number of bubbles decreases asymptotically as t-x with scaling exponent x. As the initial temperature increases, the exponent changes from x = 3/2 to 1, which implies that the growth of bubbles changes from interface-limited (the t1/2 law) to diffusion-limited (the t1/3 law) growth.

  18. Effects of Ultrasound Frequency and Tissue Stiffness on the Histotripsy Intrinsic Threshold for Cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Lin, Kuang-Wei; Maxwell, Adam; Warnez, Matthew; Mancia, Lauren; Singh, Rahul; Putnam, Andrew J.; Fowlkes, Brian; Johnsen, Eric; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Histotripsy is an ultrasound ablation method that depends on the initiation of a cavitation bubble cloud to fractionate soft tissue. Previous work has demonstrated a cavitation cloud can be formed by a single pulse with one high amplitude negative cycle, when the negative pressure amplitude directly exceeds a pressure threshold intrinsic to the medium. We hypothesize that the intrinsic threshold in water-based tissues is determined by the properties of the water inside the tissue and changes in tissue stiffness or ultrasound frequency will have a minimal impact on the histotripsy intrinsic threshold. To test this hypothesis, the histotripsy intrinsic threshold was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The probability of cavitation was measured by subjecting tissue phantoms with adjustable mechanical properties and ex vivo tissues to a histotripsy pulse of 1–2 cycles produced by 345 kHz, 500 kHz, 1.5 MHz, and 3 MHz histotripsy transducers. Cavitation was detected and characterized by passive cavitation detection and high-speed photography, from which the probability of cavitation was measured vs. pressure amplitude. The results demonstrated that the intrinsic threshold (the negative pressure at which probability=0.5) is independent of stiffness for Young’s moduli (E) < 1 MPa with only a small increase (~2–3 MPa) in the intrinsic threshold for tendon (E=380 MPa). Additionally, results for all samples showed only a small increase of ~2–3 MPa when the frequency was increased from 345 kHz to 3 MHz. The intrinsic threshold was measured to be between 24.7–30.6 MPa for all samples and frequencies tested in this study. Overall, the results of this study indicate that the intrinsic threshold to initiate a histotripsy bubble cloud is not significantly impacted by tissue stiffness or ultrasound frequency in hundreds of kHz to MHz range. PMID:25766571

  19. Estimations of scale effects on blade cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amromin, Eduard

    2015-12-01

    Estimations of scale effects on blade cavitation require consideration of multiple models for both water flows and cavities. In particular, distinction of laminar and turbulent boundary layers is very important. A qualitative impact of selection of models is manifested for blade sheet cavitation. Its quantitative impact is shown for vortex cavitation inception.

  20. Seismically Initiated Carbon Dioxide Gas Bubble Growth in Groundwater: A Mechanism for Co-seismic Borehole Water Level Rise and Remotely Triggered Secondary Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, Jackson B.

    Visualization experiments, core-scale laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations were conducted to examine the transient effect of dilational seismic wave propagation on pore fluid pressure in aquifers hosting groundwater that is near saturation with respect to dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. Groundwater can become charged with dissolved CO2 through contact with gas-phase CO2 in the Earth's crust derived from magma degasing, metamorphism, and biogenic processes. The propagation of dilational seismic waves (e.g., Rayleigh and p-waves) causes oscillation of the mean normal confining stress and pore fluid pressure. When the amplitude of the pore fluid pressure oscillation is large enough to drive the pore fluid pressure below the bubble pressure, an aqueous-to-gas-phase transition can occur in the pore space, which causes a buildup of pore fluid pressure and reduces the inter-granular effective stress under confined conditions. In visualization experiments conducted in a Hele-Shaw cell representing a smooth-walled, vertically oriented fracture, millisecond-scale pressure perturbations triggered bubble nucleation and growth lasting tens of seconds, with resulting pore fluid overpressure proportional to the magnitude of the pressure perturbation. In a Berea sandstone core flooded with initially under-saturated aqueous CO2 under conditions representative of a confined aquifer, rapid reductions in confining stress triggered transient pore pressure rise up to 0.7 MPa (100 psi) overpressure on a timescale of ~10 hours. The rate of pore pressure buildup in the first 100 seconds was proportional to the saturation with respect to dissolved CO 2 at the pore pressure minimum. Sinusoidal confining stress oscillations on a Berea sandstone core produced excess pore fluid pressure after the oscillations were terminated. Confining stress oscillations in the 0.1-0.4 MPa (15-60 psi) amplitude range and 0.05-0.30 Hz frequency band increased the pore fluid pressure by 13-60 cm

  1. Cavitation effect of holmium laser pulse applied to ablation of hard tissue underwater.

    PubMed

    Lü, Tao; Xiao, Qing; Xia, Danqing; Ruan, Kai; Li, Zhengjia

    2010-01-01

    To overcome the inconsecutive drawback of shadow and schlieren photography, the complete dynamics of cavitation bubble oscillation or ablation products induced by a single holmium laser pulse [2.12 microm, 300 micros (FWHM)] transmitted in different core diameter (200, 400, and 600 microm) fibers is recorded by means of high-speed photography. Consecutive images from high-speed cameras can stand for the true and complete process of laser-water or laser-tissue interaction. Both laser pulse energy and fiber diameter determine cavitation bubble size, which further determines acoustic transient amplitudes. Based on the pictures taken by high-speed camera and scanned by an optical coherent microscopy (OCM) system, it is easily seen that the liquid layer at the distal end of the fiber plays an important role during the process of laser-tissue interaction, which can increase ablation efficiency, decrease heat side effects, and reduce cost. PMID:20799845

  2. Properties of sound attenuation around a two-dimensional underwater vehicle with a large cavitation number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Peng-Cheng; Pan, Guang

    2015-06-01

    Due to the high speed of underwater vehicles, cavitation is generated inevitably along with the sound attenuation when the sound signal traverses through the cavity region around the underwater vehicle. The linear wave propagation is studied to obtain the influence of bubbly liquid on the acoustic wave propagation in the cavity region. The sound attenuation coefficient and the sound speed formula of the bubbly liquid are presented. Based on the sound attenuation coefficients with various vapor volume fractions, the attenuation of sound intensity is calculated under large cavitation number conditions. The result shows that the sound intensity attenuation is fairly small in a certain condition. Consequently, the intensity attenuation can be neglected in engineering. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51279165 and 51479170) and the National Defense Basic Scientific Research Program of China (Grant No. B2720133014).

  3. Detection of cavitation vortex in hydraulic turbines using acoustic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candel, I.; Bunea, F.; Dunca, G.; Bucur, D. M.; Ioana, C.; Reeb, B.; Ciocan, G. D.

    2014-03-01

    Cavitation phenomena are known for their destructive capacity in hydraulic machineries and are caused by the pressure decrease followed by an implosion when the cavitation bubbles find an adverse pressure gradient. A helical vortex appears in the turbine diffuser cone at partial flow rate operation and can be cavitating in its core. Cavity volumes and vortex frequencies vary with the under-pressure level. If the vortex frequency comes close to one of the eigen frequencies of the turbine, a resonance phenomenon may occur, the unsteady fluctuations can be amplified and lead to important turbine and hydraulic circuit damage. Conventional cavitation vortex detection techniques are based on passive devices (pressure sensors or accelerometers). Limited sensor bandwidths and low frequency response limit the vortex detection and characterization information provided by the passive techniques. In order to go beyond these techniques and develop a new active one that will remove these drawbacks, previous work in the field has shown that techniques based on acoustic signals using adapted signal content to a particular hydraulic situation, can be more robust and accurate. The cavitation vortex effects in the water flow profile downstream hydraulic turbines runner are responsible for signal content modifications. Basic signal techniques use narrow band signals traveling inside the flow from an emitting transducer to a receiving one (active sensors). Emissions of wide band signals in the flow during the apparition and development of the vortex embeds changes in the received signals. Signal processing methods are used to estimate the cavitation apparition and evolution. Tests done in a reduced scale facility showed that due to the increasing flow rate, the signal -- vortex interaction is seen as modifications on the received signal's high order statistics and bandwidth. Wide band acoustic transducers have a higher dynamic range over mechanical elements; the system's reaction time

  4. Experimental study on the onset of cavitation induced by an impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyama, Akihito; Kurihara, Chihiro; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    We study reasonable expression for predicting the onset of cavitation induced by an impact experimentally. A liquid-filled test tube is dropped and impacts a floor, followed by the emergence of cavitation bubbles inside a liquid. As floor materials, a metal and a resin are chosen. As a wetting liquid, gas-saturated silicone oil was used. Experiments are conducted at room temperature. The condition for cavitation occurrence for a resin floor cannot be described by the typical velocity measured by high-speed imaging, temporal resolution and spatial resolution of which are respectively O(10) μs and O(100) μm. We investigate sudden acceleration at the impact using an accelerometer. Its temporal resolution is O(1) ns, much smaller than that of high-speed imaging. The time history of acceleration for the resin floor is more moderate and peak acceleration is smaller than that for the metal floor. Based on these findings, we discuss the reasonable description of the criterion for the onset of cavitation bubbles, applicable for various floors. JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26709007.

  5. Physical and chemical effects of acoustic cavitation in selected ultrasonic cleaning applications.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Nor Saadah Mohd; Babgi, Bandar; Alghamdi, Yousef; Aksu, Mecit; Madhavan, Jagannathan; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic cavitation in a liquid medium generates several physical and chemical effects. The oscillation and collapse of cavitation bubbles, driven at low ultrasonic frequencies (e.g., 20 kHz), can generate strong shear forces, microjets, microstreaming and shockwaves. Such strong physical forces have been used in cleaning and flux improvement of ultrafiltration processes. These physical effects have also been shown to deactivate pathogens. The efficiency of deactivation of pathogens is not only dependent on ultrasonic experimental parameters, but also on the properties of the pathogens themselves. Bacteria with thick shell wall are found to be resistant to ultrasonic deactivation process. Some evidence does suggest that the chemical effects (radicals) of acoustic cavitation are also effective in deactivating pathogens. Another aspect of cleaning, namely, purification of water contaminated with organic and inorganic pollutants, has also been discussed in detail. Strong oxidising agents produced within acoustic cavitation bubbles could be used to degrade organic pollutants and convert toxic inorganic pollutants to less harmful substances. The effect of ultrasonic frequency and surface activity of solutes on the sonochemical degradation efficiency has also been discussed in this overview. PMID:26142078

  6. Transient cavitation produced by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioanta, Iulian

    1998-12-01

    Two decades ago, a new medical procedure was introduced, allowing the fragmentation of kidney stones from outside the human body (noninvasively) using a shock wave device termed lithotripter ('stone crusher'). Considered as one of the most important medical inventions of this century, lithotripsy is currently used in more than 80% of urolithiasis cases. Experimental studies have shown that transient or inertial cavitation is generated by this procedure near the stones and in renal tissue. To find a correlation between the number of shocks delivered and the treatment efficiency, the acoustic emission (AE) generated by the oscillation of cavitation bubbles, and its relation with stone fragmentation and tissue damage during shock wave lithotripsy were studied. In vitro experiments were carried out to identify the correlation between the AE signals and the expansion and collapse of cavitation bubbles, which were captured by high-speed photography (20,000 frames per second). This correlation has been verified on four different electrohydraulic lithotripters, under multiple experimental conditions. The effects of tissue attenuation on AE and stone fragmentation were also studied. The in vitro results have further allowed the interpretation of AE signals from in vivo experiments with pigs. Although similar in general trend, in vivo AE signals are found to be shorter in expansion and longer in the total ringing times (including the rebound phenomenon) than for in vitro AE signals, indicating a tissue constraining effect on bubble oscillation. Based on this observation a new mechanism for renal vascular and tubular injury is proposed. In addition, changes in AE signals have been observed as the total number of shocks increases, and this dose dependence feature has allowed the determination of a threshold value for extended tissue injury at 20 kV. This result has been confirmed by histological analysis and by results of a theoretical model study of bubble oscillation in a

  7. Development of the Liposomes Entrapped Ultrasound Imaging Gas (``Bubble Liposomes'') as Novel Gene Delivery Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Tanaka, Kumiko; Sawamura, Kaori; Takizawa, Tomoko; Utoguchi, Naoki; Negishi, Yoichi; Hagisawa, Kohsuke; Nishioka, Toshihiko; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2006-05-01

    Recently, microbubbles and ultrasound have been investigated with a view to improving the transfection efficiency of nonviral delivery systems for gene by cavitation. However, microbubbles had some problems in terms of stability and targeting ability. To solve these problems, we paid attention to liposomes that had many advantages such as stable and safe in vivo and easy to modify targeting ligand. Previously, we have represented that liposomes are good drug and gene delivery carriers. In addition, we developed that the liposomes ("Bubble liposomes") were entrapped with perfluoropropane known as ultrasound imaging gas. In this study, we assessed about feasibility of "Bubble liposomes" as gene delivery tool utilized cavitation by ultrasound irradiation. "Bubble liposomes" could effectively deliver plasmid DNA to cells by combination of ultrasound irradiation without cyototoxicity. This result suggested that "Bubble liposomes" might be a new class of tool for gene delivery.

  8. Fluctuation dynamics and 1/ f spectra characterizing the acoustic cavitation of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skokov, V. N.; Reshetnikov, A. V.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Koverda, V. P.

    2007-04-01

    The dynamics of acoustic cavitation in water and glycerin is studied experimentally. The power spectra and distribution functions of fluctuations are determined. In transient regimes, bubble structures in the form of fractal clusters are formed near the ultrasonic radiator. The power spectra have the form 1/ f, and the distribution functions of local fluctuations differ from the Gaussian ones and exhibit the scale invariance property.

  9. Simulation of the effects of cavitation and anatomy in the shock path of model lithotripters

    PubMed Central

    Krimmel, Jeff; Colonius, Tim; Tanguay, Michel

    2011-01-01

    We report on recent efforts to develop predictive models for the pressure and other flow variables in the focal region of shock wave lithotripters. Baseline simulations of three representative lithotripters (electrohydraulic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric) compare favorably with in vitro experiments (in a water bath). We proceed to model and investigate how shock focusing is altered by the presence of material interfaces associated with different types of tissue encountered along the shock path, and by the presence of cavitation bubbles that are excited by tensile pressures associated with the focused shock wave. We use human anatomical data, but simplify the description by assuming that the tissue behaves as a fluid, and by assuming cylindrical symmetry along the shock path. Scattering by material interfaces is significant, and regions of high pressure amplitudes (both compressive and tensile) are generated almost 4 cm postfocus. Bubble dynamics generate secondary shocks whose strength depends on the density of bubbles and the pulse repetition frequency (PRF). At sufficiently large densities, the bubbles also attenuate the shock. Together with experimental evidence, the simulations suggest that high PRF may be counter-productive for stone comminution. Finally, we discuss how the lithotripter simulations can be used as input to more detailed physical models that attempt to characterize the mechanisms by which collapsing cavitation models erode stones, and by which shock waves and bubbles may damage tissue. PMID:21063697

  10. Preventing cavitation in butterfly valves

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, H.D.

    1985-03-18

    Some of the mechanical problems that plagued butterfly valves in the past are discussed. The authors suggest integrated packages to alleviate these problems. These packages include such innovations as backlash-free stem connections, allenclosed actuator packages, and torque-compensated vanes. Some disadvantages to these packages are outlined and examined, including: high noise levels with compressible fluids, and an increased tendency to cavitate with liquids. A discussion follows on cavitation--how it is caused, just how much of it can be tolerated, and how it can be avoided or reduced.

  11. Study of cavitating inducer instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W. E.; Murphy, R.; Reddecliff, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    An analytic and experimental investigation into the causes and mechanisms of cavitating inducer instabilities was conducted. Hydrofoil cascade tests were performed, during which cavity sizes were measured. The measured data were used, along with inducer data and potential flow predictions, to refine an analysis for the prediction of inducer blade suction surface cavitation cavity volume. Cavity volume predictions were incorporated into a linearized system model, and instability predictions for an inducer water test loop were generated. Inducer tests were conducted and instability predictions correlated favorably with measured instability data.

  12. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  13. On the bubble? With healthcare job growth outstripping population in aging Rust Belt cities, some question the trend's durability.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Joe; Kutscher, Beth

    2013-03-01

    Aging Rust Belt cities are some of the leaders in healthcare job growth despite stagnant or decreasing populations, even amid mounting pressure to cut healthcare costs. Areas seeing rapid population growth aren't as dependent on healthcare. "Cities that are growing quickly are most likely adding diversified industries," says Dr. Sheldon Retchin, of the Virginia Commonwealth University Health System. PMID:23516730

  14. Cavitation erosion of silver plated coating at different temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Shuji; Motoi, Yoshihiro; Kikuta, Kengo; Tomaru, Hiroshi

    2014-04-11

    Cavitation often occurs in inducer pumps used for space rockets. Silver plated coating on the inducer liner faces the damage of cavitation. Therefore, it is important to study about the cavitation erosion resistance for silver plated coating at several operating conditions in the inducer pumps. In this study, the cavitation erosion tests were carried for silver plated coating in deionized water and ethanol at several liquid temperatures (273K–400K) and pressures (0.10MPa–0.48MPa). The mass loss rate is evaluated in terms of thermodynamic parameter Σ proposed by Brennen [9], suppression pressure p–p{sub v} (p{sub v}: saturated vapor pressure) and acoustic impedance ρc (ρ: density and c: sound speed). Cavitation bubble behaviors depending on the thermodynamic effect and the liquid type were observed by high speed video camera. The mass loss rate is formulated by thermodynamic parameter Σ, suppression pressure p–p{sub v} and acoustic impedance ρc.

  15. High speed observation of HIFU-induced cavitation cloud near curved rigid boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Z. G.; Wang, F. B.; Liu, S. H.; Wu, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the experimental study of the influence of surface curvature to the behaviour of HIFU-induced cavitation cloud. A Q-switched ruby pulse laser is used to induce cavitation nuclei in deionized water. A piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer (1.7 MHz) provides a focused ultrasound field to inspire the nucleus to cavitation cloud. A PZT probe type hydrophone is applied for measuring the HIFU sound field. It was observed that the motion of cavitation cloud located near the boundary is significantly influenced by the distance between cloud and boundary, as well as the curvature of the boundary. The curvature was defined by parameters λ and ξ. Convex boundary, concave boundary, and flat boundary correspond to ξ <1, ξ >1 and ξ = 1, respectively. Different behaviours of the cloud, including the migration of the cloud, the characteristics of oscillation, etc., were observed under different boundary curvatures by high-speed photography. Sonoluminescence of the acoustic cavitation bubble clouds were also studied to illustrate the characteristics of acoustic streaming.

  16. Correlating single phase flow measurements with observations of trailing vortex cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, S. I.

    1991-03-01

    The single-phase and cavitating-tip vortex shed by an NACA 66-209 rectangular planform, rounded-tip hydrofoil has been studied. Single-phase measurements of instantaneous flow velocity were made by taking double-pulsed holograms of microbubbles moving in and around the vortex core. The tailored air bubble technique of Ooi and Acosta (1983) was employed to measure both the mean and the fluctuating single-phase vortex core static pressure. Cavitation inception was determined visually. The flow in the vortex core is highly unsteady; the rms axial velocity fluctuation can be as high as 0.2 U(infinity). Core pressure fluctuations greater than the freestream dynamic pressure have been observed. These fluctuations are commensurate with the axial velocity unsteadiness. Cavitation inception in saturated water occurs at mean core pressures above the vapor pressure. However, the pressure fluctuations are substantial enough to account for these elevated inception indices. The rapid establishment of a fully developed trailing vortex cavitation when the cavitation number is reduced below inception is attributable to the small variation in mean core pressure with downstream distance. The inception index increases substantially with dissolved air content.

  17. Continuous Cavitation Designed for Enhancing Radiofrequency Ablation via a Special Radiofrequency Solidoid Vaporization Process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Pei; Chen, Hangrong; Bo, Xiaowan; Li, Xiaolong; Xu, Huixiong

    2016-02-23

    Lowering power output and radiation time during radiofrequency (RF) ablation is still a challenge. Although it is documented that metal-based magnetothermal conversion and microbubbles-based inertial cavitation have been tried to overcome above issues, disputed toxicity and poor magnetothermal conversion efficiency for metal-based nanoparticles and violent but transient cavitation for microbubbles are inappropriate for enhancing RF ablation. In this report, a strategy, i.e., continuous cavitation, has been proposed, and solid menthol-encapsulated poly lactide-glycolide acid (PLGA) nanocapsules have been constructed, as a proof of concept, to validate the role of such a continuous cavitation principle in continuously enhancing RF ablation. The synthesized PLGA-based nanocapsules can respond to RF to generate menthol bubbles via distinctive radiofrequency solidoid vaporization (RSV) process, meanwhile significantly enhance ultrasound imaging for HeLa solid tumor, and further facilitate RF ablation via the continuous cavitation, as systematically demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, this RSV strategy can overcome drawbacks and limitations of acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) and optical droplet vaporization (ODV), and will probably find broad applications in further cancer theranostics. PMID:26800221

  18. On the creep constrained diffusive cavitation of grain boundary facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    CREEP rupture in a polycrystalline metal at a high temperature, by cavity growth on a number of grain boundary facets, is studied numerically. An axisymmetric model problem is analysed, in which a cavitating facet is represented as disk-shaped, and the model dimensions are taken to represent spacings between neighbouring cavitating facets. For the grains both power law creep and elastic deformations are taken into account, and the description of cavity growth is based on an approximate expression that incorporates the coupled influence of grain boundary diffusion and power law creep. The cases considered include creep-constrained cavity growth at low stresses, where the voids link up to form grain boundary cracks at relatively small overall strains, as well as the power law creep dominated behaviour at higher stress levels, where rupture occurs at large overall strains. The numerical results are compared with results based on various simplified analyses.

  19. Bubble dynamics in soft materials: Viscoelastic and thermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, Eric; Mancia, Lauren

    2015-12-01

    The oscillations of a single spherical bubble in a soft surrounding medium are investigated numerically. In particular, the combined effects of the viscoelasticity and compressibility of the surroundings, as well as subsequent heating, on the bubble dynamics are quantified for forced and free collapse. In a Keller-Miksis framework, a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model with full thermal effects is considered, in which the elastic term is represented by a Neo-Hookean model to account for the finite strains. The history and spatial distribution of the stresses and temperatures produced in the surroundings are examined and related to potential cavitation damage mechanisms.

  20. Dynamics of Vapour Bubbles in Nucleate Boiling. 1; Basic Equations of Bubble Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buyevich, Yu A.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Callaway, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We consider the behaviour of a vapour bubble formed at a nucleation site on a heated horizontal wall. There is no forced convection of an ambient liquid, and the bubble is presumably separated from the wall by a thin liquid microlayer. The energy conservation law results in a variational equation for the mechanical energy of the whole system consisting of the bubble and liquid. It leads to a set of two strongly nonlinear equations which govern bubble expansion and motion of its centre of mass. A supplementary equation to find out the vapour temperature follows from consideration of heat transfer to the bubble, both from the bulk of surrounding liquid and through the microlayer. The average thickness of the microlayer is shown to increase monotonously with time as the bubble meniscus spreads along the wall. Bubble expansion is driven by the pressure head between vapour inside and liquid far away from the bubble, with due allowance for surface tension and gravity effects. It is resisted by inertia of liquid being placed into motion as the bubble grows. The inertia originates also a force that presses the bubble to the wall. This force is counteracted by the buoyancy and an effective surface tension force that tends to transform the bubble into a sphere. The analysis brings about quite a new formulation of the familiar problem of bubble growth and detachment under conditions of nucleate pool boiling.

  1. Direct visualization of microalgae rupture by ultrasound-driven bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommella, Angelo; Harun, Irina; Pouliopoulos, Antonis; Choi, James J.; Hellgardt, Klaus; Garbin, Valeria

    2015-11-01

    Cell rupture induced by ultrasound is central to applications in biotechnology. For instance, cell disruption is required in the production of biofuels from microalgae (unicellular species of algae). Ultrasound-induced cavitation, bubble collapse and jetting are exploited to induce sufficiently large viscous stresses to cause rupture of the cell membranes. It has recently been shown that seeding the flow with bubbles that act as cavitation nuclei significantly reduces the energy cost for cell processing. However, a fundamental understanding of the conditions for rupture of microalgae in the complex flow fields generated by ultrasound-driven bubbles is currently lacking. We perform high-speed video microscopy to visualize the miscroscale details of the interaction of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , microalgae of about 10 μm in size, with ultrasound-driven microbubbles of 2-200 μm in diameter. We investigate the efficiency of cell rupture depending on ultrasound frequency and pressure amplitude (from 10 kPa up to 1 MPa), and the resulting bubble dynamics regimes. In particular we compare the efficiency of membrane rupture in the acoustic microstreaming flow induced by linear oscillations, with the case of violent bubble collapse and jetting. V.G. acknowledges partial support from the European Commission (FP7-PEOPLE-2013-CIG), Grant No. 618333.

  2. Bubble dynamics in high-amplitude ultrasound therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, Eric; Mancia, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    Cavitation plays an important role in certain therapeutic ultrasound procedures, such as histotripsy in which megahertz pressure pulses are used to destroy tissue. The large tensions (> 25 MPa) nucleate bubbles in the tissue, which rapidly grow to radii on the order of hundreds of microns and subsequently collapse. To better understand potential cavitation-induced damage, we developed a numerical framework for spherical bubble dynamics in soft tissue that includes liquid compressibility and full thermal effects, as well as a comprehensive viscoelastic model with elasticity, relaxation, viscosity and various nonlinearities. This framework has enabled us to understand the effects of the viscoelastic and thermal properties of the tissue on the bubble dynamics, and compute stress and temperature fields in the surroundings. Results indicate that different viscoelastic properties affect the bubble dynamics differently, but that overall the viscoelastic nature of tissue produces larger stresses and increased heating on the surroundings, compared to bubble dynamics in purely viscous liquids. This work was supported by NSF grant number CBET 1253157 and NIH grant number 1R01HL110990-01A1.

  3. Temporal effect of inertial cavitation with and without microbubbles on surface deformation of agarose S gel in the presence of 1-MHz focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Y; Matsuura, T; Kodama, T

    2015-01-01

    Sonoporation has the potential to deliver extraneous molecules into a target tissue non-invasively. There have been numerous investigations of cell membrane permeabilization induced by microbubbles, but very few studies have been carried out to investigate sonoporation by inertial cavitation, especially from a temporal perspective. In the present paper, we show the temporal variations in nano/micro-pit formations following the collapse of inertial cavitation bubbles, with and without Sonazoid® microbubbles. Using agarose S gel as a target material, erosion experiments were conducted in the presence of 1-MHz focused ultrasound applied for various exposure times, Tex (0.002-60 s). Conventional microscopy was used to measure temporal variations in micrometer-scale pit numbers, and atomic force microscopy utilized to detect surface roughness on a nanometer scale. The results demonstrated that nanometer-scale erosion was predominantly caused by Sonazoid® microbubbles and C4F10 gas bubbles for 0.002 scavitation bubbles such as C4F10 gas bubbles and vapor bubbles, increased exponentially with increasing Tex in the range 0.1 scavitation-induced sonoporation can produce various pore sizes in membranes, enabling the delivery of external molecules of differing sizes into cells or tissues. PMID:25130135

  4. A study of pump cavitation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, M. C.; Stinebring, D. R.; Billet, M. L.

    1983-11-01

    The cavitation assessment for the space shuttle main engine high pressure oxidizer turbopump is documented. A model of the flow through the pump was developed. Initially, a computational procedure was used to analyze the flow through the inlet casing including the prediction of wakes downstream of the casing vanes. From these flow calculations, cavitation patterns on the inducer blades were approximated and the damage rate estimated. The model correlates the heavy damage on the housing and over the inducer with unsteady blade surface cavitation. The unsteady blade surface cavitation is due to the large incidence changes caused by the wakes of the upstream vanes. Very high cavitation damage rates are associated with this type of cavitation. Design recommendations for reducing the unsteady cavitation include removing the set of vanes closest to the inducer and modifying the remaining vanes.

  5. Mechanistic analysis of cavitation assisted transesterification on biodiesel characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sajjadi, Baharak; Abdul Aziz, A R; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sonoluminescence transesterification on biodiesel physicochemical properties was investigated and the results were compared to those of traditional mechanical stirring. This study was conducted to identify the mechanistic features of ultrasonication by coupling statistical analysis of the experiments into the simulation of cavitation bubble. Different combinations of operational variables were employed for alkali-catalysis transesterification of palm oil. The experimental results showed that transesterification with ultrasound irradiation could change the biodiesel density by about 0.3kg/m(3); the viscosity by 0.12mm(2)/s; the pour point by about 1-2°C and the flash point by 5°C compared to the traditional method. Furthermore, 93.84% of yield with alcohol to oil molar ratio of 6:1 could be achieved through ultrasound assisted transesterification within only 20min. However, only 89.09% of reaction yield was obtained by traditional macro mixing/heating under the same condition. Based on the simulated oscillation velocity value, the cavitation phenomenon significantly contributed to generation of fine micro emulsion and was able to overcome mass transfer restriction. It was found that the sonoluminescence bubbles reached the temperature of 758-713K, pressure of 235.5-159.55bar, oscillation velocity of 3.5-6.5cm/s, and equilibrium radius of 17.9-13.7 times greater than its initial size under the ambient temperature of 50-64°C at the moment of collapse. This showed that the sonoluminescence bubbles were in the condition in which the decomposition phenomena were activated and the reaction rate was accelerated together with a change in the biodiesel properties. PMID:24981808

  6. Superplasticity and cavitation in an aluminum-magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Donghyun

    2000-10-01

    Fundamental issues related to the forming performance of superplastic metals include the mechanisms of flow and cavitation occurring during the forming process. Cavitation beyond a critical amount is damaging to the mechanical behavior of fabricated parts. Therefore, the role of process parameters which influence cavitation must be precisely documented and understood. In this study, (1) the mechanism of deformation, (2) cavity formation and growth, and (3) the effect of forming parameters on cavitation are systematically investigated in a fine grain Al-4.7%Mg-0.8%Mn-0.4%Cu alloy. The mechanical flow response of the alloy is characterized by a new type of step strain-rate test which preserves the initial microstructure of the alloy. Under isostructural condition, sigmoidal log s vs. log 3˙ relationship is determined and then analyzed by using a grain-mantle based quantitative model1 for superplastic flow. The activation energies in both grain-mantle creep and core creep are analyzed, and the overall controlling mechanism is found to be dislocation glide and climb. Grain-mantle creep rate in the low strain-rate region is found to be enhanced many times due to a high concentration of vacancies near grain boundaries. Cavitation caused by superplastic straining under uniaxial tension is evaluated by the SEM (for < 0.5mum size) and the number and size of cavities are monitored by image analysis through optical microscopy. Growth of pre-existing cavities and nucleation and growth of new cavities at grain boundary particles are monitored with increasing strain. Cavity nucleation and growth occur in two stages: crack-like growth along the particle-matrix interface by a constrained growth process, and beyond complete debonding growth via plastic deformation of the matrix which is modeled here. Stresses and strain-rates near the void are intensified due to the perturbed flow field near the void, and not relaxed during the time frame associated with superplastic deformation

  7. In vivo effects of cavitation alone or in combination with chemotherapy in a peritoneal carcinomatosis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Prat, F.; Chapelon, J. Y.; el Fadil, F. A.; Theillère, Y.; Ponchon, T.; Cathignol, D.

    1993-01-01

    Cavitation (volume oscillations and collapse of gas bubbles), as generated by a co-administration of shockwaves (SW) and microbubbles (SWB), induces cytotoxicity in vitro. Moreover, cavitation potentiates the effects of Fluorouracil (FUra) on colon cancer cells. We aimed at reproducing such effects in vivo. A peritoneal carcinomatosis was induced in BDIX rats by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of DHDK12PROb cells. Cavitation was produced by various SW regimens (250 to 750SW) combined with bubbles (air/gelatin emulsion) infused through an IP catheter. In two consecutive experiments, microtumours (day 3 after cell injection) were submitted to various combinations of cavitation and/or Fluorouracil (FUra) and Cisplatinum (CDDP) at either high or low doses. After 30 days, 100% of control animals were dead or presented carcinomatosis with ascites, vs 60% after FUra 5 mg kg dy, day 4 through 8, and 0% after 250 SWB, day 4 and 6 + FUra 5 mg kg dy, day 4 through 8 (P < 0.001); similar differences were found with CDDP. Survival after low dose FUra + SWB was comparable to high dose FUra (25 mg kg dy day through 8) and was improved as compared to low-dose FUra alone. Only a high dose FUra + SWB schedule induced 40% long term (> 150 days) disease-free survival, but also a higher undesirable toxicity (40% toxic deaths within 1 month). It is concluded that cavitation is cytotoxic in vivo and that it potentiates the effects of FUra and CDDP in this animal model. PMID:8318402

  8. Measuring the surface tension of soap bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Carl D.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives are for students to gain an understanding of surface tension, to see that pressure inside a small bubble is larger than that inside a large bubble. These concepts can be used to explain the behavior of liquid foams as well as precipitate coarsening and grain growth. Equipment, supplies, and procedures are explained.

  9. Cavitation in an orifice flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabiri, S.; Sirignano, W. A.; Joseph, D. D.

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the potential locations for cavitation induced by total stress on the flow of a liquid through an orifice of an atomizer. A numerical simulation of two-phase incompressible flow is conducted in an axisymmetric geometry of the orifice for Reynolds numbers between 100 and 2000. The orifice has a rounded upstream corner and a sharp downstream corner with length-to-diameter ratio between 0.1 and 5. The total stress including viscous stress and pressure has been calculated in the flow field and, from there, the maximum principal stress is found. The total-stress criterion for cavitation is applied to find the regions where cavitation is likely to occur and compared with those of the traditional pressure criterion. Results show that the viscous stress has significant effects on cavitation. The effect of geometry and occurrence of hydraulic flip in the orifice on the total stress are studied. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically using a finite-volume method and a boundary-fitted orthogonal grid that comes from the streamlines and potential lines of an axisymmetric equipotential flow in the same geometry. A level-set formulation is used to track the interface and model the surface tension.

  10. Stochastic-field cavitation model

    SciTech Connect

    Dumond, J.; Magagnato, F.; Class, A.

    2013-07-15

    Nonlinear phenomena can often be well described using probability density functions (pdf) and pdf transport models. Traditionally, the simulation of pdf transport requires Monte-Carlo codes based on Lagrangian “particles” or prescribed pdf assumptions including binning techniques. Recently, in the field of combustion, a novel formulation called the stochastic-field method solving pdf transport based on Eulerian fields has been proposed which eliminates the necessity to mix Eulerian and Lagrangian techniques or prescribed pdf assumptions. In the present work, for the first time the stochastic-field method is applied to multi-phase flow and, in particular, to cavitating flow. To validate the proposed stochastic-field cavitation model, two applications are considered. First, sheet cavitation is simulated in a Venturi-type nozzle. The second application is an innovative fluidic diode which exhibits coolant flashing. Agreement with experimental results is obtained for both applications with a fixed set of model constants. The stochastic-field cavitation model captures the wide range of pdf shapes present at different locations.

  11. Compressible bubble dynamic simulations with central-upwind schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouvinis, P.; Gavaises, M.; Georgoulas, A.; Marengo, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of an explicit density-based solver, based on the central-upwind schemes originally suggested by Kurganov, for the simulation of cavitating bubble dynamic flows. Explicit density based solvers are suited for highly dynamic, violent flows, involving large density ratios, as is rather common in cavitating flows. Moreover, the central-upwind schemes have the advantage of avoiding direct evaluation of the Jacobian matrix or estimation of the wave pattern emerging from Euler equations. Second order accuracy can be achieved with TVD MUSCL schemes. Basic comparison with the predicted wave pattern of the central-upwind schemes is performed with the exact solution of the Riemann problem showing an excellent agreement. Then several different bubble configurations were tested, similar to the work of Lauer et al. (2012). The central-upwind schemes prove to be able to handle the large pressure and density ratios appearing in cavitating flows, giving similar predictions in the evolution of the bubble shape.

  12. Quantitative measurements of acoustic emissions from cavitation at the surface of a stone in response to a lithotripter shock wave.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, Parag V; Cleveland, Robin O

    2006-04-01

    Measurements are presented of acoustic emissions from cavitation collapses on the surface of a synthetic kidney stone in response to shock waves (SWs) from an electrohydraulic lithotripter. A fiber optic probe hydrophone was used for pressure measurements, and passive cavitation detection was used to identify acoustic emissions from bubble collapse. At a lithotripter charging voltage of 20 kV, the focused SW incident on the stone surface resulted in a peak pressure of 43 +/- 6 MPa compared to 23 +/- 4 MPa in the free field. The focused SW incident upon the stone appeared to be enhanced due to the acoustic emissions from the forced cavitation collapse of the preexisting bubbles. The peak pressure of the acoustic emission from a bubble collapse was 34 +/- 15 MPa, that is, the same magnitude as the SWs incident on the stone. These data indicate that stresses induced by focused SWs and cavitation collapses are similar in magnitude thus likely play a similar role in stone fragmentation. PMID:16642802

  13. BUBBLE DYNAMICS AT GAS-EVOLVING ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect

    Sides, Paul J.

    1980-12-01

    Nucleation of bubbles, their growth by diffusion of dissolved gas to the bubble surface and by coalescence, and their detachment from the electrode are all very fast phenomena; furthermore, electrolytically generated bubbles range in size from ten to a few hundred microns; therefore, magnification and high speed cinematography are required to observe bubbles and the phenomena of their growth on the electrode surface. Viewing the action from the front side (the surface on which the bubbles form) is complicated because the most important events occur close to the surface and are obscured by other bubbles passing between the camera and the electrode; therefore, oxygen was evolved on a transparent tin oxide "window" electrode and the events were viewed from the backside. The movies showed that coalescence of bubbles is very important for determining the size of bubbles and in the chain of transport processes; growth by diffusion and by coalescence proceeds in series and parallel; coalescing bubbles cause significant fluid motion close to the electrode; bubbles can leave and reattach; and bubbles evolve in a cycle of growth by diffusion and different modes of coalescence. An analytical solution for the primary potential and current distribution around a spherical bubble in contact with a plane electrode is presented. Zero at the contact point, the current density reaches only one percent of its undisturbed value at 30 percent of the radius from that point and goes through a shallow maximum two radii away. The solution obtained for spherical bubbles is shown to apply for the small bubbles of electrolytic processes. The incremental resistance in ohms caused by sparse arrays of bubbles is given by {Delta}R = 1.352 af/kS where f is the void fraction of gas in the bubble layer, a is the bubble layer thickness, k is the conductivity of gas free electrolyte, and S is the electrode area. A densely populated gas bubble layer on an electrode was modeled as a hexagonal array of

  14. Cellular High-Energy Cavitation Trauma – Description of a Novel In Vitro Trauma Model in Three Different Cell Types