Science.gov

Sample records for ccim phase ii-a

  1. ART CCIM Phase II-A Off-Gas System Evaluation Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Jay Roach

    2009-01-01

    This test plan defines testing to be performed using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) engineering-scale cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system for Phase II-A of the Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) CCIM Project. The multi-phase ART-CCIM Project is developing a conceptual design for replacing the joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) with a cold crucible induction melter. The INL CCIM test system includes all feed, melter off-gas control, and process control subsystems needed for fully integrated operation and testing. Testing will include operation of the melter system while feeding a non-radioactive slurry mixture prepared to simulate the same type of waste feed presently being processed in the DWPF. Process monitoring and sample collection and analysis will be used to characterize the off-gas composition and properties, and to show the fate of feed constituents, to provide data that shows how the CCIM retrofit conceptual design can operate with the existing DWPF off-gas control system.

  2. ART CCIM PHASE II-A OFF-GAS SYSTEM EVALUATION TEST REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg

    2009-04-01

    AREVA Federal Services (AFS) is performing a multi-year, multi-phase Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of replacing the existing joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site with a cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). The AFS ART CCIM project includes several collaborators from AREVA subsidiaries, French companies, and DOE national laboratories. The Savannah River National Laboratory and the Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique (CEA) have performed laboratory-scale studies and testing to determine a suitable, high-waste-loading glass matrix. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and CEA are performing CCIM demonstrations at two different pilot scales to assess CCIM design and operation for treating SRS sludge wastes that are currently being treated in the DWPF. SGN is performing engineering studies to validate the feasibility of retrofitting CCIM technology into the DWPF Melter Cell. The long-term project plan includes more lab-testing, pilot- and large-scale demonstrations, and engineering activities to be performed during subsequent project phases. A simulant of the DWPF SB4 feed was successfully fed and melted in a small pilot-scale CCIM system during two test series. The OGSE tests provide initial results that (a) provide melter operating conditions while feeding a DWPF SB4 simulant feed, (b) determine the fate of feed organic and metal feed constituents and metals partitioning, and (c) characterize the melter off-gas source term to a downstream off-gas system. The INL CCIM test system was operated continuously for about 30 hours during the parametric test series, and for about 58 hours during the OGSE test. As the DWPF simulant feed was continuously fed to the melter, the glass level gradually increased until a portion of the molten glass was drained from the melter

  3. Initiating the Validation of CCIM Processability for Multi-phase all Ceramic (SYNROC) HLW Form: Plan for Test BFY14CCIM-C

    SciTech Connect

    Vince Maio

    2014-08-01

    This plan covers test BFY14CCIM-C which will be a first–of–its-kind demonstration for the complete non-radioactive surrogate production of multi-phase ceramic (SYNROC) High Level Waste Forms (HLW) using Cold Crucible Induction Melting (CCIM) Technology. The test will occur in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) CCIM Pilot Plant and is tentatively scheduled for the week of September 15, 2014. The purpose of the test is to begin collecting qualitative data for validating the ceramic HLW form processability advantages using CCIM technology- as opposed to existing ceramic–lined Joule Heated Melters (JHM) currently producing BSG HLW forms. The major objectives of BFY14CCIM-C are to complete crystalline melt initiation with a new joule-heated resistive starter ring, sustain inductive melting at temperatures between 1600 to 1700°C for two different relatively high conductive materials representative of the SYNROC ceramic formation inclusive of a HLW surrogate, complete melter tapping and pouring of molten ceramic material in to a preheated 4 inch graphite canister and a similar canister at room temperature. Other goals include assessing the performance of a new crucible specially designed to accommodate the tapping and pouring of pure crystalline forms in contrast to less recalcitrant amorphous glass, assessing the overall operational effectiveness of melt initiation using a resistive starter ring with a dedicated power source, and observing the tapped molten flow and subsequent relatively quick crystallization behavior in pans with areas identical to standard HLW disposal canisters. Surrogate waste compositions with ceramic SYNROC forming additives and their measured properties for inductive melting, testing parameters, pre-test conditions and modifications, data collection requirements, and sampling/post-demonstration analysis requirements for the produced forms are provided and defined.

  4. GLASS FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING FOR COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER (CCIM) ADVANCED REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - 9208

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J; Amanda Billings, A; David Peeler, D; Michael Stone, M; Tommy Edwards, T

    2008-08-27

    Over the past few years, Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) demonstrations have been completed using SRS sludge batches 2, 3 and 4 (SB2, SB3 and SB4) simulant compositions. These campaigns demonstrated the ability of the CCIM to effectively produce quality glasses at high waste loadings. The current Advanced Remediation Technology (ART) Phase II-A Project is aimed at demonstrating the CCIM technology under representative DWPF flowsheet conditions and to demonstrate extended operations of the melter. A glass composition development effort was completed to identify and recommend a frit composition and sludge batch 4 (SB4) simulant waste loading target for subsequent ART-Phase II-A CCIM demonstration testing. Based on the results of the glass formulation testing, it was recommended that the Frit 503-R6 composition (B{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 14 wt %; Li{sub 2}O = 9 wt %; Na{sub 2}O = 3 wt %; and SiO{sub 2} = 74 wt %) be utilized for the demonstration. Furthermore, a waste loading of 46 wt % was recommended. The recommended frit and waste loading would produce a glass with acceptable durability with a liquidus temperature adequately below the 1250 C nominal CCIM operating temperature. This frit composition and waste loading was found to result in a glass that met CCIM processing requirements for viscosity, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity. The recommended frit and waste loading level should also provide a buffer for sludge product compositional variation to support the Phase II-A CCIM demonstration.

  5. Continuing the Validation of CCIM Processability for Glass Ceramic HLLW Forms: Plan for Test AFY14CCIM-GC1

    SciTech Connect

    Vince Maio

    2014-04-01

    This test plan covers test AFY14CCIM-GC1which is the first of two scheduled FY-2014 test runs involving glass ceramic waste forms in the Idaho National Laboratory’s Cold Crucible Induction Melter Pilot Plant. The test plan is based on the successes and challenges of previous tests performed in FY-2012 and FY-2013. The purpose of this test is to continue to collect data for validating the glass ceramic High Level Liquid Waste form processability advantages using Cold Crucible Induction Melter technology. The major objective of AFYCCIM-GC1 is to complete additional proposed crucible pouring and post tapping controlled cooling experiments not completed during previous tests due to crucible drain failure. This is necessary to qualify that no heat treatments in standard waste disposal canisters are necessary for the operational scale production of glass ceramic waste forms. Other objectives include the production and post-test analysis of surrogate waste forms made from separate pours into the same graphite mold canister, testing the robustness of an upgraded crucible bottom drain and drain heater assembly, testing the effectiveness of inductive melt initiation using a resistive starter ring with a square wave configuration, and observing the tapped molten flow behavior in pans with areas identical to standard High Level Waste disposal canisters. Testing conditions, the surrogate waste composition, key testing steps, testing parameters, and sampling and analysis requirements are defined.

  6. Melting Hanford LAW into Iron-Phosphate Glass in a CCIM

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Sharna Rossberg

    2011-09-01

    A vitrification test has been conducted using the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system at the Idaho National Laboratory. The test was conducted to demonstrate the vitrification of a Hanford low activity waste (LAW) that contains relatively large amounts of sulfate and sodium, compared to other radioactive Hanford waste streams. The high sulfate content limits the potential loading of this waste stream in conventional borosilicate glass, so this test demonstrated how this waste stream could be vitrified in an iron-phosphate glass that can tolerate higher levels of sulfate.

  7. Advanced Start of Combustion Sensor Phases I and II-A: Feasibility Demonstration, Design and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Chad Smutzer

    2010-01-31

    Homogeneous Compressed Charge Ignition (HCCI) has elevated the need for Start of Combustion (SOC) sensors. HCCI engines have been the exciting focus of engine research recently, primarily because HCCI offers higher thermal efficiency than the conventional Spark Ignition (SI) engines and significantly lower NOx and soot emissions than conventional Compression Ignition (CI) engines, and could be fuel neutral. HCCI has the potential to unify all the internal combustion engine technology to achieve the high-efficiency, low-emission goal. However, these advantages do not come easy. It is well known that the problems encountered with HCCI combustion center on the difficulty of controlling the Start of Combustion. TIAX has an SOC sensor under development which has shown promise. In previous work, including a DOE-sponsored SBIR project, TIAX has developed an accelerometer-based method which was able to determine SOC within a few degrees crank angle for a range of operating conditions. A signal processing protocol allows reconstruction of the combustion pressure event signal imbedded in the background engine vibration recorded by the accelerometer. From this reconstructed pressure trace, an algorithm locates the SOC. This SOC sensor approach is nonintrusive, rugged, and is particularly robust when the pressure event is strong relative to background engine vibration (at medium to high engine load). Phase I of this project refined the previously developed technology with an engine-generic and robust algorithm. The objective of the Phase I research was to answer two fundamental questions: Can the accelerometer-based SOC sensor provide adequate SOC event capture to control an HCCI engine in a feedback loop? And, will the sensor system meet cost, durability, and software efficiency (speed) targets? Based upon the results, the answer to both questions was 'YES'. The objective of Phase II-A was to complete the parameter optimization of the SOC sensor prototype in order to reach a

  8. Evaluation of Vocational Technical Education. Phase II. A Skeletal Model with Suggested Research and Development Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Educational Directions, Crawfordsville, IN.

    Phase 2 of this project presents a skeletal model for evaluating vocational education programs which can be applied to secondary, post-secondary, and adult education programs. The model addresses 13 main components of the vocational education system: descriptive information, demonstration of need, student recruitment and selection, curriculum,…

  9. HOPE-X high speed flight demonstration program phase II - A CNES / NAL / NASDA cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venel, S.; Faucon, P.; Yanagihara, M.; Miyazawa, Y.; Akimoto, T.; Sagisaka, M.

    A High Speed Flight Demonstration (HSFD) program is planned as part of the NAL/NASDA joint research for the HOPE-X unmanned re-entry vehicle project. The program consists of two phases. The purpose of HSFD Phase I is to verify the subsystems for the terminal phase of the HOPE-X return flight, using a jet engine powered scaled model. The purpose of HSFD Phase II is to estimate the transonic aerodynamic characteristic of the HOPE-X configuration : a HOPE-X 25% scaled vehicle will be lifted to high altitude by a stratospheric balloon, from where it will be released and accelerate into free fall to a defined Mach Number. The HSFD Phase II is conducted in collaboration with the CNES Balloon Division of France. It is responsible for the balloon system, the launch operation, and the flight service including the site (SSC base in Esrange near Kiruna in Sweden), the TM/TC system, the flight survey, the safety and the helicopter recovery after touch down. Six flights are planned between May and August 2003. CNES has an extensive experience in engineering experiments with balloons. The HSFD flight mission is nevertheless a very unusual one, and CNES has to lead specific development. In particular, the CNES/HSFD interface required CNES to develop a dedicated housekeeping gondola in order to power supply the vehicle during the ground tests and the flight under the balloon. The HSFD vehicle and the CNES gondola are integrated in the flight train through a dedicated mechanical interface piece together with a dedicated release system. The launch procedures have also to be adapted. A flight campaign took place in Kiruna last August 2001, to train the team to launch the vehicle, and to test the release system and the CNES power supply gondola. CNES is now manufacturing all the HOPE-X balloon interface equipment.

  10. Modeled and measured infiltration: Phase II. A detailed case study of three homes; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiter, L.; Bond, T.

    1994-01-01

    The primary purpose of this work was to investigate the impacts of wind, temperature and mechanical systems on infiltration in real homes, with a view toward resolving infiltration modeling problems raised in recent studies. This report contains results from the second phase of an ongoing project. In Phase I, detailed infiltration and pressure measurements were made by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory on four homes in the Pacific Northwest. In this phase, similar measurements were made on an additional three homes, chosen for maximal wind exposure. For the reader`s convenience the summary tables in this report contain data from all seven homes in a uniform format. The predictions of two natural infiltration models (LBL and AIM-2) were compared in detail with one another and the measured data. An improved method of calculating the height parameter for both models is proposed. A modification of the LBL wind model is also proposed. A simple model is presented to incorporate the infiltration effects of exhaust and supply ventilation systems and unbalanced flows due to duct leakage. An unbalanced flow to the conditioned space induces approximately one-half of its magnitude in additional infiltration when it is small relative to natural infiltration. Forced-air distribution systems were investigated in detail. Air handlers and associated duct leakage can have large effects on living-zone infiltration rates; for these homes the median increase in overall infiltration was 21%, based on a runtime of six hours per day. Closing even a single bedroom door can cause a major increase in infiltration when the air handler runs. The bias due to use of a time-averaged concentration tracer technique (i.e., the perfluorocarbon (PFT) method) was assessed and found to be small for the living zones, and large for the wind-dominated, ventilated crawl space and attic zones.

  11. BUDHIES II: a phase-space view of H I gas stripping and star formation quenching in cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffé, Yara L.; Smith, Rory; Candlish, Graeme N.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Verheijen, Marc A. W.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the effect of ram-pressure from the intracluster medium on the stripping of H I gas in galaxies in a massive, relaxed, X-ray bright, galaxy cluster at z = 0.2 from the Blind Ultra Deep H I Environmental Survey (BUDHIES). We use cosmological simulations, and velocity versus position phase-space diagrams to infer the orbital histories of the cluster galaxies. In particular, we embed a simple analytical description of ram-pressure stripping in the simulations to identify the regions in phase-space where galaxies are more likely to have been sufficiently stripped of their H I gas to fall below the detection limit of our survey. We find a striking agreement between the model predictions and the observed location of H I-detected and non-detected blue (late-type) galaxies in phase-space, strongly implying that ram-pressure plays a key role in the gas removal from galaxies, and that this can happen during their first infall into the cluster. However, we also find a significant number of gas-poor, red (early-type) galaxies in the infall region of the cluster that cannot easily be explained with our model of ram-pressure stripping alone. We discuss different possible additional mechanisms that could be at play, including the pre-processing of galaxies in their previous environment. Our results are strengthened by the distribution of galaxy colours (optical and UV) in phase-space, that suggests that after a (gas-rich) field galaxy falls into the cluster, it will lose its gas via ram-pressure stripping, and as it settles into the cluster, its star formation will decay until it is completely quenched. Finally, this work demonstrates the utility of phase-space diagrams to analyse the physical processes driving the evolution of cluster galaxies, in particular H I gas stripping.

  12. ATMS_Phase_II: a standalone code for counting non-overlapping high-density nuclear tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayat, Omid

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we focus on counting and density measurements of non-overlapping high-density nuclear track images. This paper is a continuum of another paper of the author introducing ATMS software which has been particularly developed for overlapping nuclear tracks. Here, as the second phase of the ATMS software, a hybrid algorithm is presented for counting the tracks according to user parameter initialization, template inserting and correlation estimation to initially detect nuclear track candidates, then to evaluate geometrical and contextual features of track candidates and finally a decision-making process according to the user's sensitivity considerations. The presented hybrid algorithm is verified and validated by a database containing 100 randomly selected Alpha track images captured from the surface of CR-39 polycarbonate detectors irradiated by environmental Alpha particles emitted from Rn-222 near a copper mine around Anarak city.

  13. Long-term findings from COMFORT-II, a phase 3 study of ruxolitinib vs best available therapy for myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C N; Vannucchi, A M; Kiladjian, J-J; Al-Ali, H K; Gisslinger, H; Knoops, L; Cervantes, F; Jones, M M; Sun, K; McQuitty, M; Stalbovskaya, V; Gopalakrishna, P; Barbui, T

    2016-08-01

    Ruxolitinib is a Janus kinase (JAK) (JAK1/JAK2) inhibitor that has demonstrated superiority over placebo and best available therapy (BAT) in the Controlled Myelofibrosis Study with Oral JAK Inhibitor Treatment (COMFORT) studies. COMFORT-II was a randomized (2:1), open-label phase 3 study in patients with myelofibrosis; patients randomized to BAT could crossover to ruxolitinib upon protocol-defined disease progression or after the primary end point, confounding long-term comparisons. At week 48, 28% (41/146) of patients randomized to ruxolitinib achieved ⩾35% decrease in spleen volume (primary end point) compared with no patients on BAT (P<0.001). Among the 78 patients (53.4%) in the ruxolitinib arm who achieved ⩾35% reductions in spleen volume at any time, the probability of maintaining response was 0.48 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.35-0.60) at 5 years (median, 3.2 years). Median overall survival was not reached in the ruxolitinib arm and was 4.1 years in the BAT arm. There was a 33% reduction in risk of death with ruxolitinib compared with BAT by intent-to-treat analysis (hazard ratio (HR)=0.67; 95% CI, 0.44-1.02; P=0.06); the crossover-corrected HR was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.18-1.04; P=0.06). There was no unexpected increased incidence of adverse events with longer exposure. This final analysis showed that spleen volume reductions with ruxolitinib were maintained with continued therapy and may be associated with survival benefits. PMID:27211272

  14. Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) Demonstration Using a Representative Savannah River Site Sludge Simulant On the Large-Size Pilot Platform at the CEA-Marcoule

    SciTech Connect

    Girold, C.; Delaunay, M.; Dussossoy, J.L.; Lacombe, J.; Iverson, D.; Do Quang, R.; Tchemitcheff, E.; Veyer, C.

    2008-07-01

    The cold-crucible induction melter technology (CCIM) is considered worldwide for industrial implementation to overcome the current limits of high level waste vitrification technologies and to answer future challenges such as: new or difficult sludge compositions, need for improving waste loading, need for high temperatures, and corrosive effluents. More particularly, this technology is being considered for implementation at the US DOE Savannah River site to increase the rate of waste processing while reducing the number of HLW canisters to be produced through increased waste loading and improved waste throughput. A collaborative program involving AREVA, CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission), SRNL (Savannah River National Laboratory) and WSRC (Washington Savannah River Company) has thus been initiated in 2007 to demonstrate vitrification with waste loadings on the order of 50% (versus the current DWPF waste loading of about 35%) with a PUREX-type waste composition (high Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composition), and to perform two pilot-scale runs on the large size platform equipped with a 650 mm diameter CCIM at the CEA Marcoule. The objectives of the demonstrations were 1) to show the feasibility of processing a representative SRS sludge surrogate using continuous slurry feeding, 2) to produce a glass that would meet the acceptance specifications with an increased waste loading when compared to what is presently achieved at the DWPF, and 3) achieve improved waste throughputs. This presentation describes the platform and the very encouraging results obtained from the demonstration performed at temperatures, specific throughputs and waste loadings that overcome current DWPF limits. Results from the initial exploratory run and second demonstration run include 1) production of a glass product that achieved the targeted glass composition that was more durable than the standard Environmental Assessment (EA) glass, 2) successful slurry feeding of the CCIM, and 3) promising waste

  15. DOD USER-NEEDS STUDY, PHASE II -- FLOW OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION WITHIN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY. FINAL REPORT. VOLUME II, A. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION, B. TECHNICAL APPENDICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOODMAN, ARNOLD F.; AND OTHERS

    IN PHASE II OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD) SURVEY TO FIND OUT HOW SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS IN GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES ACQUIRE INFORMATION, SCIENTIFIC PERSONNEL IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY WERE INTERVIEWED TO DETERMINE THEIR INFORMATION NEEDS AND THE FLOW OF INFORMATION INHERENT IN SATISFYING THESE…

  16. HOLIMO II: a digital holographic instrument for ground-based in-situ observations of microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberger, J.; Fugal, J. P.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

    2013-05-01

    Measurements of the microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds with high spatial resolution are important to understand the processes inside these clouds. This work describes the design and characterization of the newly developed ground-based field instrument HOLIMO II (HOLographic Imager for Microscopic Objects II). HOLIMO II uses digital in-line holography to in-situ image cloud particles in a well defined sample volume. By an automated algorithm, two-dimensional images of single cloud particles between 6 and 250 μm in diameter are obtained and the size spectrum, the concentration and water content of clouds are calculated. By testing the sizing algorithm with monosized beads a systematic overestimation near the resolution limit was found, which has been used to correct the measurements. Field measurements from the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, are presented. The measured number size distributions are in good agreement with parallel measurements by a fog monitor (FM-100, DMT, Boulder USA). The field data shows that HOLIMO II is capable of measuring the number size distribution with a high spatial resolution and determines ice crystal shape, thus providing a method of quantifying variations in microphysical properties. A case study over a period of 8 h has been analyzed, exploring the transition from a liquid to a mixed-phase cloud, which is the longest observation of a cloud with a holographic device. During the measurement period, the cloud does not completely glaciate, contradicting earlier assumptions of the dominance of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process.

  17. HOLIMO II: a digital holographic instrument for ground-based in situ observations of microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberger, J.; Fugal, J. P.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of the microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds with high spatial resolution are important to understand the processes inside these clouds. This work describes the design and characterization of the newly developed ground-based field instrument HOLIMO II (HOLographic Imager for Microscopic Objects II). HOLIMO II uses digital in-line holography to in situ image cloud particles in a well-defined sample volume. By an automated algorithm, two-dimensional images of single cloud particles between 6 and 250 μm in diameter are obtained and the size spectrum, the concentration and water content of clouds are calculated. By testing the sizing algorithm with monosized beads a systematic overestimation near the resolution limit was found, which has been used to correct the measurements. Field measurements from the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, are presented. The measured number size distributions are in good agreement with parallel measurements by a fog monitor (FM-100, DMT, Boulder USA). The field data shows that HOLIMO II is capable of measuring the number size distribution with a high spatial resolution and determines ice crystal shape, thus providing a method of quantifying variations in microphysical properties. A case study over a period of 8 h has been analyzed, exploring the transition from a liquid to a mixed-phase cloud, which is the longest observation of a cloud with a holographic device. During the measurement period, the cloud does not completely glaciate, contradicting earlier assumptions of the dominance of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process.

  18. Multi-electron systems in strong magnetic fields II: A fixed-phase diffusion quantum Monte Carlo application based on trial functions from a Hartree-Fock-Roothaan method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boblest, S.; Meyer, D.; Wunner, G.

    2014-11-01

    We present a quantum Monte Carlo application for the computation of energy eigenvalues for atoms and ions in strong magnetic fields. The required guiding wave functions are obtained with the Hartree-Fock-Roothaan code described in the accompanying publication (Schimeczek and Wunner, 2014). Our method yields highly accurate results for the binding energies of symmetry subspace ground states and at the same time provides a means for quantifying the quality of the results obtained with the above-mentioned Hartree-Fock-Roothaan method. Catalogue identifier: AETV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 72 284 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 604 948 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Cluster of 1-˜500 HP Compaq dc5750. Operating system: Linux. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes. Code includes MPI directives. RAM: 500 MB per node Classification: 2.1. External routines: Boost::Serialization, Boost::MPI, LAPACK BLAS Nature of problem: Quantitative modelings of features observed in the X-ray spectra of isolated neutron stars are hampered by the lack of sufficiently large and accurate databases for atoms and ions up to the last fusion product iron, at high magnetic field strengths. The predominant amount of line data in the literature has been calculated with Hartree-Fock methods, which are intrinsically restricted in precision. Our code is intended to provide a powerful tool for calculating very accurate energy values from, and thereby improving the quality of, existing Hartree-Fock results. Solution method: The Fixed-phase quantum Monte Carlo method is used in combination with guiding functions obtained in Hartree

  19. Brain Korea 21 Phase II: A New Evaluation Model. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seong, Somi; Popper, Steven W.; Goldman, Charles A.; Evans, David K.

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the Korea Ministry of Education and Human Resources, in response to concern over the relatively low standing of the nation's universities and researchers, launched the Brain Korea 21 program BK21). BK21 seeks to make Korean research universities globally competitive and to produce more high-quality researchers in Korea. It…

  20. LSPRAY-II: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2004-01-01

    LSPRAY-II is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray because of its importance in aerospace application. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-II, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  1. TRUPACT-II, a regulatory perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, P.C.; Spooner, O.R.

    1995-12-31

    The Transuranic Package Transporter II (TRUPACT-II) is a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certified Type B packaging for the shipment of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) material by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The NRC approved the TRUPACT-II design as meeting the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71) and issued Certificate of Compliance (CofC) Number 9218 to the DOE. There are currently 15 certified TRUPACT-IIs. Additional TRUPACT-IIs will be required to make more than 15,000 shipments of CH-TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The TRUPACT-II may also be used for the DOE inter-site and intra-site shipments of CH-TRU waste. The Land Withdrawal Act (Public Law 102-579), enacted by the US Congress, October 30, 1992, and an agreement between the DOE and the State of New Mexico, signed August 4, 1987, both stipulate that only NRC approved packaging may be used for shipments of TRU waste to the WIPP. Early in the TRUPACT-II development phase it was decided that the transportation system (tractor, trailer, and TRUPACT-II) should be highway legal on all routes without the need for oversize and/or overweight permits. In large measure, public acceptance of the DOE`s efforts to safely transport CH-TRU waste depends on the public`s perception that the TRUPACT-II is in compliance with all applicable regulations, standards, and quality assurance requirements. This paper addresses some of the numerous regulations applicable to Type B packaging, and it describes how the TRUPACT-II complies with these regulations.

  2. [Liquisolid technique for enhancement of dissolution prosperities of tanshinone II(A)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-qian; Meng, Qing-ju; Xu, Xue-lin; Zhao, Jie; Yang, Hua; Yi, Hong

    2015-12-01

    The technique of liquisolid compress is a new technique developed in 1990s, which was considered to be the most promising technique to improve the dissolution of water-insoluble drugs. In this article, tanshinone II(A) and the extracts of the ester-solubility fractions were chosen as the model drugs to evaluate the effects of the liquisolid technique for enhancement of dissolution properties of tanshinone II(A). Several liquisolid tablets (LS) formulations containing different dosage of drugs and various liquid vehicle were pre-pared and for all the formulations, microcrystalline cellulose and silica were chosen as the carrier and coating materials to evaluate their flow properties, such as angle of repose, Carr's compressibility index and Hausner's ratio. The interaction between drug and excipients in prepared LS compacts were studied by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The dissolution curves of tanshinone II(A) from liquisolid compacts were investigated to determine the technique's effect in improving the dissolution of tanshinone II(A) and its impacting factors. According to the results, the dissolution increased with the rise in the dissolution of the liquid-phase solvent. The R-value and drug dosage can significantly affect the drug release, but with less impact on active fractions. This indicated that liquisolid technique is a promising alternative for improvement of dissolution property of water-soluble drugs, and can make a synergistic effect with other ester-soluble constituents and bettern improve the release of tanshinone II(A). Therefore, the technique of liquisolid compress will have a better development prospect in traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:27245032

  3. 40 CFR 73.10 - Initial allocations for phase I and phase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initial allocations for phase I and phase II. 73.10 Section 73.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations § 73.10 Initial allocations for phase I and phase II. (a) Phase...

  4. Communication II: A Basic Report Writer's Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, V., Ed.; Kline, L., Ed.

    This course syllabus presents information on Communications II, a course offered at Pikes Peak Community College to provide students with practice in communication, while emphasizing vocabulary and basic writing techniques. A course outline is first presented, including a course description, a statement of general objectives, and a list of units.…

  5. Characterization of Ceramic Material Produced From a Cold Crucible Induction Melter Test

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2015-04-30

    This report summarizes the results from characterization of samples from a melt processed surrogate ceramic waste form. Completed in October of 2014, the first scaled proof of principle cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test was conducted to process a Fe-hollandite-rich titanate ceramic for treatment of high level nuclear waste. X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for Cs), and product consistency tests were used to characterize the CCIM material produced. Core samples at various radial locations from the center of the CCIM were taken. These samples were also sectioned and analyzed vertically. Together, the various samples were intended to provide an indication of the homogeneity throughout the CCIM with respect to phase assemblage, chemical composition, and chemical durability. Characterization analyses confirmed that a crystalline ceramic with desirable phase assemblage was produced from a melt using a CCIM. Hollandite and zirconolite were identified in addition to possible highly-substituted pyrochlore and perovskite. Minor phases rich in Fe, Al, or Cs were also identified. Remarkably only minor differences were observed vertically or radially in the CCIM material with respect to chemical composition, phase assemblage, and durability. This recent CCIM test and the resulting characterization in conjunction with demonstrated compositional improvements support continuation of CCIM testing with an improved feed composition and improved melter system.

  6. Phases and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-09-01

    In discussing phase transitions, the first thing that we have to do is to define a phase. This is a concept from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, where a phase is defined as a homogeneous system. As a simple example, let us consider instant coffee. This consists of coffee powder dissolved in water, and after stirring it we have a homogeneous mixture, i.e., a single phase. If we add to a cup of coffee a spoonful of sugar and stir it well, we still have a single phase -- sweet coffee. However, if we add ten spoonfuls of sugar, then the contents of the cup will no longer be homogeneous, but rather a mixture of two homogeneous systems or phases, sweet liquid coffee on top and coffee-flavored wet sugar at the bottom...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22219 - Seals and stoppings (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (II-A mines). 57.22219... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22219 Seals and stoppings (II-A mines... fire resistance. (b) Seals shall be of substantial construction. Exposed surfaces on the fresh air...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22219 - Seals and stoppings (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (II-A mines). 57.22219... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22219 Seals and stoppings (II-A mines... fire resistance. (b) Seals shall be of substantial construction. Exposed surfaces on the fresh air...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22219 - Seals and stoppings (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (II-A mines). 57.22219... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22219 Seals and stoppings (II-A mines... fire resistance. (b) Seals shall be of substantial construction. Exposed surfaces on the fresh air...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22219 - Seals and stoppings (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (II-A mines). 57.22219... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22219 Seals and stoppings (II-A mines... fire resistance. (b) Seals shall be of substantial construction. Exposed surfaces on the fresh air...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22219 - Seals and stoppings (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (II-A mines). 57.22219... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22219 Seals and stoppings (II-A mines... fire resistance. (b) Seals shall be of substantial construction. Exposed surfaces on the fresh air...

  12. Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael T.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR) teststand and the results of an experimental program designed to evaluate the potential of the technology as a water purification process. In the experimental program the technology is evaluated based upon product water purity, water recovery rate, and power consumption. The experimental work demonstrates that the technology produces high purity product water and attains high water recovery rates at a relatively high specific power consumption. The experimental program was conducted in 3 phases. In phase I an Igepon(TM) soap and water mixture was used to evaluate the performance of an innovative Wiped-Film Rotating-Disk evaporator and associated demister. In phase II a phenol-water solution was used to evaluate the performance of the high temperature catalytic oxidation reactor. In phase III a urine analog was used to evaluate the performance of the combined distillation/oxidation functions of the processor.

  13. Moon Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    When teaching Moon phases, the focus seems to be on the sequence of Moon phases and, in some grade levels, how Moon phases occur. Either focus can sometimes be a challenge, especially without the use of models and observations of the Moon. In this month's column, the author describes some of the lessons that he uses to teach the phases of the Moon…

  14. Concentration of HLLW from Future SNF Recycling for Efficient Immobilization in a CCIM

    SciTech Connect

    Maio, Vince; Rutledge, Roni

    2015-01-01

    Sponsored by the Department of Energy Nuclear Energy’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program, the Cold Crucible Induction Melter is being developed as the next generation of melter technology for High Level Liquid Waste’s efficient immobilization in highly durable glass ceramic and ceramic forms. Concentration of the radioactive High Level Liquid Waste generated from the proposed future recycling of spent nuclear fuel, after the fuel’s dissolution in nitric acid, is necessary to take advantage of the inherent attributes of Cold Crucible Induction Melting technology. Based on a provided range of commercial spent nuclear fuel fission product composition data and its expected High Level Liquid Waste raffinate composition data as provided in oxide form, an analysis was completed to concentrate the waste. The analysis involved using nitric acid vapor liquid equilibrium data over a range of boiling temperatures and performing spreadsheet calculations to concentrate the High Level Liquid Waste through evaporation. The calculation results will provide a concentrated nonradioactive surrogate High Level Liquid Waste melter feed recipe for testing in Idaho National Laboratory’s Cold Crucible Induction Melter Pilot Plant. This testing will provide a quantifiable verification of the relatively high feed rates of Cold Crucible Induction Melters compared to those achievable with the current ceramic lined Joule Heated Melters.

  15. CERAMIC WASTE FORM DATA PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2014-06-13

    The purpose of this data package is to provide information about simulated crystalline waste forms that can be used to select an appropriate composition for a Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) proof of principle demonstration. Melt processing, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and thermal analysis information was collected to assess the ability of two potential candidate ceramic compositions to be processed in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) CCIM and to guide processing parameters for the CCIM operation. Given uncertainties in the CCIM capabilities to reach certain temperatures throughout the system, one waste form designated 'Fe-MP' was designed towards enabling processing and another, designated 'CAF-5%TM-MP' was designed towards optimized microstructure. Melt processing studies confirmed both compositions could be poured from a crucible at 1600{degrees}C although the CAF-5%TM-MP composition froze before pouring was complete due to rapid crystallization (upon cooling). X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the crystalline nature and phase assemblages of the compositions. The kinetics of melting and crystallization appeared to vary significantly between the compositions. Impedance spectroscopy results indicated the electrical conductivity is acceptable with respect to processing in the CCIM. The success of processing either ceramic composition will depend on the thermal profiles throughout the CCIM. In particular, the working temperature of the pour spout relative to the bulk melter which can approach 1700{degrees}C. The Fe-MP composition is recommended to demonstrate proof of principle for crystalline simulated waste forms considering the current configuration of INL's CCIM. If proposed modifications to the CCIM can maintain a nominal temperature of 1600{degrees}C throughout the melter, drain, and pour spout, then the CAF-5%TM-MP composition should be considered for a proof of principle demonstration.

  16. Student Attrition in the Wisconsin VTAE System. Phase I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michlein, Michael G.; And Others

    A project was designed to develop and test (phase I), and implement (phase II) a research design for the study of student attrition in the Wisconsin vocational technical adult education (VTAE) system with the intent of identifying student attrition and determining its predictability. Phase I, the developmental aspect (described in this report),…

  17. 30 CFR 57.22603 - Blasting from the surface (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable requirements of 30 CFR parts 18 through 36. Vehicles... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting from the surface (II-A mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22603 Blasting from...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22311 - Electrical cables (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical cables (II-A mines). 57.22311 Section 57.22311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22230 - Weekly testing (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weekly testing (II-A mines). 57.22230 Section 57.22230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22311 - Electrical cables (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical cables (II-A mines). 57.22311 Section 57.22311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22307 - Methane monitors (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring equipment determined by MSHA to be intrinsically safe under 30 CFR part 18, and prevent starting... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methane monitors (II-A mines). 57.22307 Section 57.22307 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22230 - Weekly testing (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weekly testing (II-A mines). 57.22230 Section 57.22230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22311 - Electrical cables (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical cables (II-A mines). 57.22311 Section 57.22311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22307 - Methane monitors (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monitoring equipment determined by MSHA to be intrinsically safe under 30 CFR part 18, and prevent starting... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methane monitors (II-A mines). 57.22307 Section 57.22307 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22230 - Weekly testing (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weekly testing (II-A mines). 57.22230 Section 57.22230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22307 - Methane monitors (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... monitoring equipment determined by MSHA to be intrinsically safe under 30 CFR part 18, and prevent starting... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methane monitors (II-A mines). 57.22307 Section 57.22307 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22311 - Electrical cables (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical cables (II-A mines). 57.22311 Section 57.22311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22307 - Methane monitors (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monitoring equipment determined by MSHA to be intrinsically safe under 30 CFR part 18, and prevent starting... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methane monitors (II-A mines). 57.22307 Section 57.22307 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22311 - Electrical cables (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical cables (II-A mines). 57.22311 Section 57.22311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22307 - Methane monitors (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... monitoring equipment determined by MSHA to be intrinsically safe under 30 CFR part 18, and prevent starting... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methane monitors (II-A mines). 57.22307 Section 57.22307 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22230 - Weekly testing (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weekly testing (II-A mines). 57.22230 Section 57.22230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22230 - Weekly testing (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weekly testing (II-A mines). 57.22230 Section 57.22230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  13. PHASE DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kippenhan, D.O.

    1959-09-01

    A phase detector circuit is described for use at very high frequencies of the order of 50 megacycles. The detector circuit includes a pair of rectifiers inverted relative to each other. One voltage to be compared is applied to the two rectifiers in phase opposition and the other voltage to be compared is commonly applied to the two rectifiers. The two result:ng d-c voltages derived from the rectifiers are combined in phase opposition to produce a single d-c voltage having amplitude and polarity characteristics dependent upon the phase relation between the signals to be compared. Principal novelty resides in the employment of a half-wave transmission line to derive the phase opposing signals from the first voltage to be compared for application to the two rectifiers in place of the transformer commonly utilized for such purpose in phase detector circuits for operation at lower frequency.

  14. Advanced indirect gas-fired heating system. Final report, August 15, 1984-June 30, 1988. Phase 2: Development. Phase 3: Application

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.; Bowers, J.

    1989-01-01

    In Phase II a gas-fired high-temperature regenerative radiant-tube burner system with a 'W' shaped radiant tube was developed. Phase III successfully applied that system to the Surface Combustion, Inc. 'Ultracase' furnace resulting in higher furnace temperatures, heating rates, and higher efficiencies than conventional gas-fired furnaces.

  15. Venus Phasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Presents a science activity designed to introduce students to the geocentric and heliocentric models of the universe. Helps students discover why phase changes on Venus knocked Earth out of the center of the universe. (DKM)

  16. Topmetal-II-: a direct charge sensor for high energy physics and imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, C.; Huang, G.; Sun, X.

    2016-01-01

    Topmetal-II-, a direct charge sensor, was manufactured in an XFAB 350 nm CMOS process. The Topmetal-II- sensor features a 72 × 72 pixel array with an 83 μm pixel pitch which collects and measures charge directly from the surrounding media. We introduce the implementation of the circuitry in the sensor including an analogue readout channel and a column based digital readout channel. The analogue readout channel allows the access to the full waveform from each pixel through a time-shared multiplexing. The digital readout channel records hits identified by an individually settable threshold in each pixel. Some simulation and preliminary test results are also discussed.

  17. 47 CFR 54.310 - Connect America Fund for Price Cap Territories-Phase II

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Connect America Fund for Price Cap Territories... Connect America Fund for Price Cap Territories—Phase II (a) Geographic areas eligible for support. Connect America Phase II support may be made available for census blocks or other areas identified as eligible...

  18. MECHANISM AND KINETICS OF THE FORMATION OF NOX AND OTHER COMBUSTION POLLUTANTS. PHASE II. MODIFIED COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives Phase II results of a combined experimental/theoretical study to define the mechanisms and kinetics of the formation of NOx and other combustion pollutants. Two experimental devices were used in Phase II. A special flat-flame burner with a controlled-temperature ...

  19. Phase Won.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocher, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Describes ten steps involved in successful renovation of a college recreation center. They are as follows: hire the right architect, be realistic about costs, devise a plan, do a mental walk through, approach the renovation in phases, communicate to users, expect lost revenue and displacement issues, continue to communicate with architects and…

  20. 30 CFR 57.22101 - Smoking (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22101 Section 57.22101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Smoking (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). Persons shall not smoke or carry smoking materials, matches,...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22101 - Smoking (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Smoking (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22101 Section 57.22101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Smoking (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). Persons shall not smoke or carry smoking materials, matches,...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22101 - Smoking (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smoking (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22101 Section 57.22101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Smoking (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). Persons shall not smoke or carry smoking materials, matches,...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22101 - Smoking (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smoking (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22101 Section 57.22101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Smoking (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). Persons shall not smoke or carry smoking materials, matches,...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22101 - Smoking (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoking (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22101 Section 57.22101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Smoking (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). Persons shall not smoke or carry smoking materials, matches,...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22608 - Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A mines... blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A mines). Prior to secondary blasting, tests for methane shall be made in the mine atmosphere at blast sites by a competent person. Secondary blasting shall not be done when...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22212 - Air flow (I-C, II-A, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air flow (I-C, II-A, and V-A mines). 57.22212... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22212 Air flow (I-C, II-A, and V-A mines). Air flow across each working face shall be sufficient to carry away any accumulation of methane,...

  7. Histone II-A stimulates glucose-6-phosphatase and reveals mannose-6-phosphatase activities without permeabilization of liver microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    St-Denis, J F; Annabi, B; Khoury, H; van de Werve, G

    1995-01-01

    The effect of histone II-A on glucose-6-phosphatase and mannose-6-phosphatase activities was investigated in relation to microsomal membrane permeability. It was found that glucose-6-phosphatase activity in histone II-A-pretreated liver microsomes was stimulated to the same extent as in detergent-permeabilized microsomes, and that the substrate specificity of the enzyme for glucose 6-phosphate was lost in histone II-A-pretreated microsomes, as [U-14C]glucose-6-phosphate hydrolysis was inhibited by mannose 6-phosphate and [U-14C]mannose 6-phosphate hydrolysis was increased. The accumulation of [U-14C]glucose from [U-14C]glucose 6-phosphate into untreated microsomes was completely abolished in detergent-treated vesicles, but was increased in histone II-A-treated microsomes, accounting for the increased glucose-6-phosphatase activity, and demonstrating that the microsomal membrane was still intact. The stimulation of glucose-6-phosphatase and mannose-6-phosphatase activities by histone II-A was found to be reversed by EGTA. It is concluded that the effects of histone II-A on glucose-6-phosphatase and mannose-6-phosphatase are not caused by the permeabilization of the microsomal membrane. The measurement of mannose-6-phosphatase latency to evaluate the intactness of the vesicles is therefore inappropriate. PMID:7646448

  8. Transition of Bery Phase and Pancharatnam Phase and Phase Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guolan; Pan, Hui; Wang, Zisheng

    2016-07-01

    Berry Phase and time-dependent Pancharatnam phase are investigated for nuclear spin polarization in a liquid by a rotation magnetic field, where two-state mixture effect is exactly included in the geometric phases. We find that when the system of nuclear spin polarization is in the unpolarized state, the transitive phenomena of both Berry phase and Pancharatnam phase are taken place. For the polarized system, in contrast, such a transition is not taken place. It is obvious that the transitions of geometric phase correspond to the phase change of physical system.

  9. Biodistribution of the cyclotide MCoTI-II, a cyclic disulfide-rich peptide drug scaffold.

    PubMed

    Wang, Conan K; Stalmans, Sofie; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Craik, David J

    2016-05-01

    Disulfide-rich macrocyclic peptides are promising templates for drug design because of their unique topology and remarkable stability. However, little is known about their pharmacokinetics. In this study, we characterize the biodistribution in mice of Momordica cochinchinensis trypsin inhibitor-II (MCoTI-II), a cyclic three-disulfide-containing peptide that has been used in a number of studies as a drug scaffold. The distribution of MCoTI-II was compared with that of chlorotoxin, which is a four-disulfide-containing peptide that has been used to develop brain tumor imaging agents; dermorphin, which is a disulfide-less peptide; and bovine serum albumin, a large protein. Both MCoTI-II and chlorotoxin distributed predominantly to the serum and kidneys, confirming that they are stable in serum and suggesting that they are eliminated from the blood through renal clearance. Although cell-penetrating peptides have been reported to be able to transport across the blood-brain barrier, MCoTI-II, which is a cell-penetrating peptide, showed no uptake into the brain. The uptake of chlorotoxin was higher than that of MCoTI-II but lower than that of dermorphin, which is considered to have low uptake into the brain. This study provides insight into the behavior of disulfide-rich peptides in vivo. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26929247

  10. Damage around the ion path in cellulose triacetate. II. A track model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decossas, J. L.; Vareille, J. C.; Moliton, J. P.; Teyssier, J. L.

    1984-07-01

    In this paper, a model of an ion track is proposed. It is justified by experimental results obtained by electron microscopy. These results show that a track is composed of two parts: (i) a core in which the material is totally destroyed, and (ii) a ``halo'' in which the damage decreases when the distance from the ion path increases. The overall results given in paper I and the calculation of deposited energy density of Fain [J. Fain, M. Monnin, and M. Montret, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Nuclear Photo., S.S.N.T.D., Bucarest (1972), p. 34, and J. Fain, M. Monnin, and M. Montret, Radiat. Res. 57, 379 (1974)] led us to the volume density of free radicals at every point inside the latent track. The core radius is established for ions of Z≤18 and E≤10 MeV/amu. A great density of damage close to the ion path is shown, and the influence of this phenomenon on track etching is studied.

  11. EEG, HRV and Psychological Correlates while Playing Bejeweled II: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Russoniello, Carmen V; O'Brien, Kevin; Parks, Jennifer M

    2009-01-01

    Stress related medical disorders such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, depression, and anxiety are serious medical issues that can cause disability and death. Interventions to prevent their development and exacerbation are needed. Casual video games (CVGs) are fun, easy to play, spontaneous and tremendously popular. People report that they play these games because they decrease their stress and improve their mood. This study tested this theory by comparing people playing Bejeweled II a popular CVG with control subjects measured under similar conditions. Electroencephalographic (EEG) changes after playing Bejeweled II were consistent with increased mood and corroborated with similar findings on psychological reports. Moreover, heart rate variability (HRV) changes consistent with autonomic nervous system relaxation or decreased physical stress were also recorded. It is concluded, therefore, that playing a CVG like Bejeweled II can increase mood and decrease stress. These finding have broad implications and include the potential development of prescriptive interventions using Bejeweled II to prevent and treat stress related medical disorders. Finally, these findings demonstrate a method using EEG, HRV and psychological correlates to understand the psychophysiological or cybernetic interconnection between participant and video game. PMID:19592761

  12. Icariside II, a novel phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, attenuates streptozotocin-induced cognitive deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Yin, Caixia; Deng, Yuanyuan; Gao, Jianmei; Li, Xiaohui; Liu, Yuangui; Gong, Qihai

    2016-07-22

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and neuroinflammation are involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type neurodegeneration with cognitive deficits. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors have recently been studied as a potential target for cognitive enhancement by reducing inflammatory responses and Aβ levels. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of icariside II (ICS II), a novel PDE5 inhibitor derived from the traditional Chinese herb Epimedium brevicornum, on cognitive deficits, Aβ levels and neuroinflammation induced by intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in rats. The results demonstrated that ICV-STZ exhibited cognitive deficits and neuronal morphological damage, along with Aβ increase and neuroinflammation in the rat hippocampus. ICS II improved cognitive deficits, attenuated neuronal death, and decreased the levels of Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42 and PDE5 in the hippocampus of STZ rats. Furthermore, administration of ICS II at the dose of 10mg/kg for 21days significantly suppressed the expression of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP), beta-secretase1 (BACE1) and increased the expressions of neprilysin (NEP) together with inhibited interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) levels. In addition, ICS II exerted a beneficial effect on inhibition of IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation induced by STZ. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that ICS II was a potential therapeutic agent for AD treatment. PMID:27109920

  13. Janus II: A new generation application-driven computer for spin-system simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baity-Jesi, M.; Baños, R. A.; Cruz, A.; Fernandez, L. A.; Gil-Narvion, J. M.; Gordillo-Guerrero, A.; Iñiguez, D.; Maiorano, A.; Mantovani, F.; Marinari, E.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Monforte-Garcia, J.; Muñoz Sudupe, A.; Navarro, D.; Parisi, G.; Perez-Gaviro, S.; Pivanti, M.; Ricci-Tersenghi, F.; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J. J.; Schifano, S. F.; Seoane, B.; Tarancon, A.; Tripiccione, R.; Yllanes, D.

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the architecture, the development and the implementation of Janus II, a new generation application-driven number cruncher optimized for Monte Carlo simulations of spin systems (mainly spin glasses). This domain of computational physics is a recognized grand challenge of high-performance computing: the resources necessary to study in detail theoretical models that can make contact with experimental data are by far beyond those available using commodity computer systems. On the other hand, several specific features of the associated algorithms suggest that unconventional computer architectures-that can be implemented with available electronics technologies-may lead to order of magnitude increases in performance, reducing to acceptable values on human scales the time needed to carry out simulation campaigns that would take centuries on commercially available machines. Janus II is one such machine, recently developed and commissioned, that builds upon and improves on the successful JANUS machine, which has been used for physics since 2008 and is still in operation today. This paper describes in detail the motivations behind the project, the computational requirements, the architecture and the implementation of this new machine and compares its expected performances with those of currently available commercial systems.

  14. Unfolding wrapped phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treviño-Palacios, Carlos Gerardo

    2015-11-01

    Phase unwrapping is the final step in phase extraction methods, which consists of recovering the correct phase from the wrapped phase by removing 2π discontinuities. The difference between the correct phase and the wrapped phase is the phase wrapping map. A new method for phase unwrapping is presented by identifying the phase wrapping map as a sequence of binary valued intermediate wrapping maps and iteratively removing them producing the correct phase by phase-wrapped unfolding. A path-following algorithm is presented to exemplify the phase wrapped unfolding method.

  15. Conditional deletion of nonmuscle myosin II-A in mouse tongue epithelium results in squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Anne Conti, Mary; Saleh, Anthony D.; Brinster, Lauren R.; Cheng, Hui; Chen, Zhong; Cornelius, Shaleeka; Liu, Chengyu; Ma, Xuefei; Van Waes, Carter; Adelstein, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of nonmuscle myosin II-A (NM II-A) to early cardiac development we crossed Myh9 floxed mice and Nkx2.5 cre-recombinase mice. Nkx2.5 is expressed in the early heart (E7.5) and later in the tongue epithelium. Mice homozygous for deletion of NM II-A (ANkx/ANkx) are born at the expected ratio with normal hearts, but consistently develop an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue (32/32 ANkx/ANkx) as early as E17.5. To assess reproducibility a second, independent line of Myh9 floxed mice derived from a different embryonic stem cell clone was tested. This second line also develops SCC indistinguishable from the first (15/15). In ANkx/ANkx mouse tongue epithelium, genetic deletion of NM II-A does not affect stabilization of TP53, unlike a previous report for SCC. We attribute the consistent, early formation of SCC with high penetrance to the role of NM II in maintaining mitotic stability during karyokinesis. PMID:26369831

  16. Four-phase differential phase shift resolver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, P. M.; Wallingford, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    Two systems have been developed to resolve phase uncertainty without transmitting reference signals. In both methods signal is impressed on carrier as differential, rather than absolute, phase shift. At the receiver four-phase demodulation and logic process unambiguously resolves differential phase shift of input carrier.

  17. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT II) - a drug-associated autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Götz

    2009-11-01

    Autoimmune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune disease characterised by isolated persistent thrombocytopenia and normal megakaryopoiesis. This definition also applies to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT II), a frequent side effect of heparin treatment. In HIT II, the immunogen is a coagulation active complex of heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4). By now, diagnostics of HIT II is often material and time consuming. Three groups of patients were investigated for HIT II antibodies (HIT II-AB): 54 hospitalised stroke patients, 87 hospitalised cardiac patients, and 71 patients on chronic haemodialysis, all treated with heparin. Furthermore, 100 healthy volunteers were investigated. For detection of HIT II-AB the innovative whole blood test PADA-HIT (PADA: platelet adhesion assay) was used. PADA-HIT quantifies the interaction of IgG antibodies with FcgammaIIA receptors by comparing the activation state of platelets in citrated and heparinised whole blood. The occurrence of HIT II-AB in blood was very high with 44 % of stroke patients, 69% of cardiac patients and 38% of haemodialysis patients compared to only 15% of healthy volunteers. This demonstrates a high incidence and a rapid onset of HIT II-AB in patients being acutely treated with heparin. HIT II is one of the most frequent and severe autoimmune diseases bearing a great thrombosis risk. PADA-HIT represents an innovative diagnostic method for detection of autoimmune antibodies of IgG type that are directed against platelet factor 4 (PF4)-heparin-complex. By early and fast diagnostics and appropriate treatment severe complications of HIT II can be prevented. PMID:19888524

  18. DGPS ground station integrity monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skidmore, Trent A.; Vangraas, Frank

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a unique Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) ground station integrity monitor which can offer improved availability over conventional code-differential monitoring systems. This monitoring technique, called code/carrier integrity monitoring (CCIM), uses the highly stable integrated Doppler measurement to smooth the relatively noisy code-phase measurements. The pseudorange correction is therefore comprised of the integrated Doppler measurement plus the CCIM offset. The design and operational results of a DGPS ground station integrity monitor are reported. A robust integrity monitor is realized which is optimized for applications such as the Special Category I (SCAT-I) defined in the RTCA Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards.

  19. Partial Synchronization in Pulse-Coupled Oscillator Networks II: A Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bolun; Engelbrecht, Jan R.; Mirollo, Renato

    We use high-precision numerical simulations, to compute the dynamics of N identical integrate and fire model neurons coupled in an all-to-all network through α-function pulses. In particular, we determine the discrete evolution of the state of our system from spike to spike. In addition to traditional fully synchronous and splay states, we exhibit multiple competing partially synchronized ordered states, which are fixed points and limit cycles in the phase space. Close examinations reveal the bifurcations among different states. By varying the parameters, we map out the phase diagram of stable fixed points. Our results illustrate the power of dimensional reduction in complex dynamical systems, and shed light on the collective behaviors of neural networks. Work supported by NSF DMS 1413020.

  20. Methodology of Qualification of CCIM Vitrification Process Applied to the High- Level Liquid Waste from Reprocessed Oxide Fuels - 12438

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonnier, S.; Labe, V.; Ledoux, A.; Nonnet, H.; Godon, N.

    2012-07-01

    The vitrification of high-level liquid waste from reprocessed oxide fuels (UOX fuels) by Cold Crucible Induction Melter is planed by AREVA in 2013 in a production line of the R7 facility at La Hague plant. Therefore, the switch of the vitrification technology from the Joule Heated Metal Melter required a complete process qualification study. It involves three specialties, namely the matrix formulation, the glass long-term behavior and the vitrification process development on full-scale pilot. A new glass frit has been elaborated in order to adapt the redox properties and the thermal conductivity of the glass suitable for being vitrified with the Cold Crucible Induction Melter. The role of cobalt oxide on the long term behavior of the glass has been described in the range of the tested concentrations. Concerning the process qualification, the nominal tests, the sensitivity tests and the study of the transient modes allowed to define the nominal operating conditions. Degraded operating conditions tests allowed to identify means of detecting incidents leading to these conditions and allowed to define the procedures to preserve the process equipments protection and the material quality. Finally, the endurance test validated the nominal operating conditions over an extended time period. This global study allowed to draft the package qualification file. The qualification file of the UOX package is currently under approval by the French Nuclear Safety Authority. (authors)

  1. 30 CFR 57.22221 - Overcast and undercast construction (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overcast and undercast construction (I-A, II-A..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL... Overcast and undercast construction (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). Overcasts and undercasts shall be—...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22221 - Overcast and undercast construction (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overcast and undercast construction (I-A, II-A..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL... Overcast and undercast construction (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). Overcasts and undercasts shall be—...

  3. Phase diagrams of epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ultrathin films from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sichuga, David; Ponomareva, I.; Bellaiche, L.

    2009-10-01

    An ab-initio-based approach, that includes strain, ferroelectricity, and tilting of the oxygen octahedra as degrees of freedom, is developed to investigate temperature-versus-misfit-strain and temperature-versus-composition phase diagrams of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ultrathin films near their morphotropic phase boundaries. Many features—originating from the interplay between composition, strain, polarization and oxygen octahedra tilting—are observed. Examples of such features are (i) an unusual behavior of the Curie temperature as a function of the compressive strain; (ii) a very rich variety of low symmetry phases; and (iii) several multiphase points that are each associated with four phases.

  4. Low-energy electron-induced dissociation in condensed-phase L-cysteine II: a comparative study on anion desorption from chemisorbed and physisorbed films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Elahe; Massey, Sylvain; Sanche, Léon; Rowntree, Paul A.

    2016-04-01

    Due to its multifunctional structure, cysteine is becoming an ideal model molecule for investigating the complex interactions of proteins with metallic surfaces such as gold nanoparticles. We report herein the results of low-energy electron induced degradation of L-cysteine films, chemisorbed on a gold substrate via the thiol group or physisorbed into a clean gold surface. The data were recorded under ultra-high vacuum conditions at room temperature. Anion yields desorbed from these films by the impact of 0.5 to 19 eV electrons provide clear evidence of the efficient decomposition of this amino acid via dissociative electron attachment (i.e., from dissociation of intermediate transient anions located between 5 and 14 eV). The peaks in the desorbed-anion yield functions, associated with DEA, are superimposed on a continuously rising signal attributed to dipolar dissociation. Similar to the results previously observed from physisorbed films, light anionic species, with masses lower than 35 amu, have been detected. In addition, we measured for first time fragments at 14 amu (CH2-) and 15 amu (CH3-) desorbing from physisorbed films, as well as heavier fragments of mass 45 and 46 amu desorbing from chemisorbed films. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Low-Energy Interactions related to Atmospheric and Extreme Conditions", edited by S. Ptasinska, M. Smialek-Telega, A. Milosavljevic, B. Sivaraman.

  5. Phase Coexistence in a Dynamic Phase Diagram.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Luigi; Coppola, Luigi; Balog, Sandor; Mortensen, Kell; Ranieri, Giuseppe A; Olsson, Ulf

    2015-08-01

    Metastability and phase coexistence are important concepts in colloidal science. Typically, the phase diagram of colloidal systems is considered at the equilibrium without the presence of an external field. However, several studies have reported phase transition under mechanical deformation. The reason behind phase coexistence under shear flow is not fully understood. Here, multilamellar vesicle (MLV)-to-sponge (L3 ) and MLV-to-Lα transitions upon increasing temperature are detected using flow small-angle neutron scattering techniques. Coexistence of Lα and MLV phases at 40 °C under shear flow is detected by using flow NMR spectroscopy. The unusual rheological behavior observed by studying the lamellar phase of a non-ionic surfactant is explained using (2) H NMR and diffusion flow NMR spectroscopy with the coexistence of planar lamellar-multilamellar vesicles. Moreover, a dynamic phase diagram over a wide range of temperatures is proposed. PMID:26083451

  6. CrowdPhase: crowdsourcing the phase problem

    SciTech Connect

    Jorda, Julien; Sawaya, Michael R.; Yeates, Todd O.

    2014-06-01

    The idea of attacking the phase problem by crowdsourcing is introduced. Using an interactive, multi-player, web-based system, participants work simultaneously to select phase sets that correspond to better electron-density maps in order to solve low-resolution phasing problems. The human mind innately excels at some complex tasks that are difficult to solve using computers alone. For complex problems amenable to parallelization, strategies can be developed to exploit human intelligence in a collective form: such approaches are sometimes referred to as ‘crowdsourcing’. Here, a first attempt at a crowdsourced approach for low-resolution ab initio phasing in macromolecular crystallography is proposed. A collaborative online game named CrowdPhase was designed, which relies on a human-powered genetic algorithm, where players control the selection mechanism during the evolutionary process. The algorithm starts from a population of ‘individuals’, each with a random genetic makeup, in this case a map prepared from a random set of phases, and tries to cause the population to evolve towards individuals with better phases based on Darwinian survival of the fittest. Players apply their pattern-recognition capabilities to evaluate the electron-density maps generated from these sets of phases and to select the fittest individuals. A user-friendly interface, a training stage and a competitive scoring system foster a network of well trained players who can guide the genetic algorithm towards better solutions from generation to generation via gameplay. CrowdPhase was applied to two synthetic low-resolution phasing puzzles and it was shown that players could successfully obtain phase sets in the 30° phase error range and corresponding molecular envelopes showing agreement with the low-resolution models. The successful preliminary studies suggest that with further development the crowdsourcing approach could fill a gap in current crystallographic methods by making it

  7. [Studies on preparation by SPG membrane emulsification method and in vitro characterization of tetradrine-tashionone II(A)-PLGA composite microspheres].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin; Zhang, Meng; Zhu, Hua-xu; Guo, Li-wei; Pan, Lin-mei; Fu, Ting-ming

    2015-03-01

    Tetradrine-tashionone II(A)-PLGA composite microspheres were prepared by the SPG membrane emulsification method, and the characterization of tetradrine-tashionone II(A) -PLGA composite microspheres were studied in this experiment. The results of IR, DSC and XRD showed that teradrine and tashionone II(A) in composite microspheres were highly dispersed in the PLGA with amorphous form. The results of tetradrine-tashionone II(A) -PLGA composite microspheres in vitro release experiment showed that the cumulative release amounts of tetradrine and tashionone II(A) were 6.44% and 3.60% in 24 h, and the cumulative release amounts of tetradrine and tashionone II(A) were 89.02% and 21.24% in 17 d. The process of drug in vitro release accorded with the model of Riger-Peppas. Tetradrine-tashionone II(A) -PLGA composite microspheres had slow-release effect, and it could significantly reduce the burst release, prolong the therapeutic time, decrease the dosage of drugs and provide a new idea and method to prepare traditional Chinese medicine compound. PMID:26226751

  8. Features in chemical kinetics. II. A self-emerging definition of slow manifolds.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Paolo; Frezzato, Diego

    2013-06-21

    In the preceding paper of this series (Part I [P. Nicolini and D. Frezzato, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 234101 (2013)]) we have unveiled some ubiquitous features encoded in the systems of polynomial differential equations normally applied in the description of homogeneous and isothermal chemical kinetics (mass-action law). Here we proceed by investigating a deeply related feature: the appearance of so-called slow manifolds (SMs) which are low-dimensional hyper-surfaces in the neighborhood of which the slow evolution of the reacting system occurs after an initial fast transient. Indeed a geometrical definition of SM, devoid of subjectivity, "naturally" follows in terms of a specific sub-dimensional domain embedded in the peculiar region of the concentrations phase-space that in Part I we termed as "attractiveness region." Numerical inspections on simple low-dimensional model cases are presented, including the benchmark case of Davis and Skodje [J. Chem. Phys. 111, 859 (1999)] and the preliminary analysis of a simplified model mechanism of hydrogen combustion. PMID:23802946

  9. Nahal Ein Gev II, a Late Natufian Community at the Sea of Galilee.

    PubMed

    Grosman, Leore; Munro, Natalie D; Abadi, Itay; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Shaham, Dana; Belfer-Cohen, Anna; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    The Natufian culture is of great importance as a starting point to investigate the dynamics of the transition to agriculture. Given its chronological position at the threshold of the Neolithic (ca. 12,000 years ago) and its geographic setting in the productive Jordan Valley, the site of Nahal Ein Gev II (NEG II) reveals aspects of the Late Natufian adaptations and its implications for the transition to agriculture. The size of the site, the thick archaeological deposits, invested architecture and multiple occupation sub-phases reveal a large, sedentary community at least on par with Early Natufian camps in the Mediterranean zone. Although the NEG II lithic tool kit completely lacks attributes typical of succeeding Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) assemblages, the artistic style is more closely related to the early PPNA world, despite clear roots in Early Natufian tradition. The site does not conform to current perceptions of the Late Natufians as a largely mobile population coping with reduced resource productivity caused by the Younger Dryas. Instead, the faunal and architectural data suggest that the sedentary populations of the Early Natufian did not revert back to a nomadic way of life in the Late Natufian in the Jordan Valley. NEG II encapsulates cultural characteristics typical of both Natufian and PPNA traditions and thus bridges the crossroads between Late Paleolithic foragers and Neolithic farmers. PMID:26815363

  10. Transient 2(nd) Degree Av Block Mobitz Type II: A Rare Finding in Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Ashwini Kumar; Singh, Omkar; Agarwal, Ayush; Singh, Amit K; Yadav, Subhash

    2015-05-01

    Dengue has been a major problem as endemic occurs almost every year and causes a state of panic due to lack of proper diagnostic methods and facilities for proper management. Patients presenting with classical symptoms are easy to diagnose, however as a large number of cases occur every year, a number of cases diagnosed with dengue fever on occasion presents with atypical manifestations, which cause extensive evaluation of the patients, unnecessary referral to higher centre irrespective of the severity and therefore a rough idea of these manifestations must be present in the backdrop in order to prevent these problems. Involvement of cardiovascular system in dengue has been reported in previous studies, and they are usually benign and self-limited. The importance of study of conduction abnormalities is important as sometimes conduction blocks are the first sign of acute myocarditis in patients of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in shock. We present here a case of 2(nd) Degree Mobitz Type II atrioventricular AV block in a case of Dengue Hemorrhagic fever reverting to the normal rhythm in recovery phase and no signs thereafter on follow up. PMID:26155512

  11. Nahal Ein Gev II, a Late Natufian Community at the Sea of Galilee

    PubMed Central

    Grosman, Leore; Munro, Natalie D.; Abadi, Itay; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Shaham, Dana; Belfer-Cohen, Anna; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    The Natufian culture is of great importance as a starting point to investigate the dynamics of the transition to agriculture. Given its chronological position at the threshold of the Neolithic (ca. 12,000 years ago) and its geographic setting in the productive Jordan Valley, the site of Nahal Ein Gev II (NEG II) reveals aspects of the Late Natufian adaptations and its implications for the transition to agriculture. The size of the site, the thick archaeological deposits, invested architecture and multiple occupation sub-phases reveal a large, sedentary community at least on par with Early Natufian camps in the Mediterranean zone. Although the NEG II lithic tool kit completely lacks attributes typical of succeeding Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) assemblages, the artistic style is more closely related to the early PPNA world, despite clear roots in Early Natufian tradition. The site does not conform to current perceptions of the Late Natufians as a largely mobile population coping with reduced resource productivity caused by the Younger Dryas. Instead, the faunal and architectural data suggest that the sedentary populations of the Early Natufian did not revert back to a nomadic way of life in the Late Natufian in the Jordan Valley. NEG II encapsulates cultural characteristics typical of both Natufian and PPNA traditions and thus bridges the crossroads between Late Paleolithic foragers and Neolithic farmers. PMID:26815363

  12. Modeling PSA Problems - II: A Cell-to-Cell Transport Theory Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Labeau, P.E.; Izquierdo, J.M.

    2005-06-15

    In the first paper of this series, we presented an extension of the classical theory of dynamic reliability in which the actual occurrence of an event causing a change in the system dynamics is possibly delayed. The concept of stimulus activation, which triggers the realization of an event after a distributed time delay, was introduced. This gives a new understanding of competing events in the sequence delineation process.In the context of the level-2 probabilistic safety analysis (PSA), the information on stimulus activation mainly consists of regions of the process variables space where the activation can occur with a given probability. The evolution equations of the extended theory of probabilistic dynamics are therefore particularized to a transport process between discrete cells defined in phase-space on this basis. Doing so, an integrated and coherent approach to level-2 PSA problems is propounded. This amounts to including the stimulus concept and the associated stochastic delays discussed in the first paper in the frame of a cell-to-cell transport process.In addition, this discrete model provides a theoretical basis for the definition of appropriate numerical schemes for integrated level-2 PSA applications.

  13. Non-equilibrium phases and phase diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Massalski, T.B.; Rizzo, H.F.

    1988-03-01

    In this paper we consider the degree of usefulness of the phase diagram and the related thermodynamics in predicting and understanding the formation of metastable phases during quenching, or during low-temperature solid-state interdiffusion, or during co-deposition. Recent research has demonstrated that many of such metastable phases are formed because the more stable intermediate phases that are favored thermodynamically are nevertheless bypassed kinetically. The kinetic elimination of intermediate phases provides conditions where a metastable equilibrium can be established at low temperatures between the supercooled liquid and the terminal solid solutions, leading to metastable partitioned two-phase regions. Alternatively, the range of the metastable phases may be governed by the T/sub 0/ principle related to the crossover of the respective free energy curves, or may be controlled mainly by kinetic considerations. Which particular thermodynamic conditions apply appears to depend on the initial form of the phase diagram and the specific technique used. The occurrence of massive transformations also is discussed. 34 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Map-likelihood phasing

    PubMed Central

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2001-01-01

    The recently developed technique of maximum-likelihood density modification [Terwilliger (2000 ▶), Acta Cryst. D56, 965–972] allows a calculation of phase probabilities based on the likelihood of the electron-density map to be carried out separately from the calculation of any prior phase probabilities. Here, it is shown that phase-probability distributions calculated from the map-likelihood function alone can be highly accurate and that they show minimal bias towards the phases used to initiate the calculation. Map-likelihood phase probabilities depend upon expected characteristics of the electron-density map, such as a defined solvent region and expected electron-density distributions within the solvent region and the region occupied by a macromolecule. In the simplest case, map-likelihood phase-probability distributions are largely based on the flatness of the solvent region. Though map-likelihood phases can be calculated without prior phase information, they are greatly enhanced by high-quality starting phases. This leads to the technique of prime-and-switch phasing for removing model bias. In prime-and-switch phasing, biased phases such as those from a model are used to prime or initiate map-likelihood phasing, then final phases are obtained from map-likelihood phasing alone. Map-likelihood phasing can be applied in cases with solvent content as low as 30%. Potential applications of map-likelihood phasing include unbiased phase calculation from molecular-replacement models, iterative model building, unbiased electron-density maps for cases where 2Fo − Fc or σA-weighted maps would currently be used, structure validation and ab initio phase determination from solvent masks, non-crystallographic symmetry or other knowledge about expected electron density. PMID:11717488

  15. CrowdPhase: crowdsourcing the phase problem.

    PubMed

    Jorda, Julien; Sawaya, Michael R; Yeates, Todd O

    2014-06-01

    The human mind innately excels at some complex tasks that are difficult to solve using computers alone. For complex problems amenable to parallelization, strategies can be developed to exploit human intelligence in a collective form: such approaches are sometimes referred to as `crowdsourcing'. Here, a first attempt at a crowdsourced approach for low-resolution ab initio phasing in macromolecular crystallography is proposed. A collaborative online game named CrowdPhase was designed, which relies on a human-powered genetic algorithm, where players control the selection mechanism during the evolutionary process. The algorithm starts from a population of `individuals', each with a random genetic makeup, in this case a map prepared from a random set of phases, and tries to cause the population to evolve towards individuals with better phases based on Darwinian survival of the fittest. Players apply their pattern-recognition capabilities to evaluate the electron-density maps generated from these sets of phases and to select the fittest individuals. A user-friendly interface, a training stage and a competitive scoring system foster a network of well trained players who can guide the genetic algorithm towards better solutions from generation to generation via gameplay. CrowdPhase was applied to two synthetic low-resolution phasing puzzles and it was shown that players could successfully obtain phase sets in the 30° phase error range and corresponding molecular envelopes showing agreement with the low-resolution models. The successful preliminary studies suggest that with further development the crowdsourcing approach could fill a gap in current crystallographic methods by making it possible to extract meaningful information in cases where limited resolution might otherwise prevent initial phasing. PMID:24914965

  16. CrowdPhase: crowdsourcing the phase problem

    PubMed Central

    Jorda, Julien; Sawaya, Michael R.; Yeates, Todd O.

    2014-01-01

    The human mind innately excels at some complex tasks that are difficult to solve using computers alone. For complex problems amenable to parallelization, strategies can be developed to exploit human intelligence in a collective form: such approaches are sometimes referred to as ‘crowdsourcing’. Here, a first attempt at a crowdsourced approach for low-resolution ab initio phasing in macromolecular crystallography is proposed. A collaborative online game named CrowdPhase was designed, which relies on a human-powered genetic algorithm, where players control the selection mechanism during the evolutionary process. The algorithm starts from a population of ‘individuals’, each with a random genetic makeup, in this case a map prepared from a random set of phases, and tries to cause the population to evolve towards individuals with better phases based on Darwinian survival of the fittest. Players apply their pattern-recognition capabilities to evaluate the electron-density maps generated from these sets of phases and to select the fittest individuals. A user-friendly interface, a training stage and a competitive scoring system foster a network of well trained players who can guide the genetic algorithm towards better solutions from generation to generation via gameplay. CrowdPhase was applied to two synthetic low-resolution phasing puzzles and it was shown that players could successfully obtain phase sets in the 30° phase error range and corresponding molecular envelopes showing agreement with the low-resolution models. The successful preliminary studies suggest that with further development the crowdsourcing approach could fill a gap in current crystallographic methods by making it possible to extract meaningful information in cases where limited resolution might otherwise prevent initial phasing. PMID:24914965

  17. The magnetic Bp star 36 Lyncis. II. A spectroscopic analysis of its co-rotating disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. A.; Wade, G. A.; Bohlender, D. A.; Bolton, C. T.

    2006-11-01

    We report on the physical properties of the disk-like structure of B8 IIIp star 36 Lyncis from line syntheses of phase-resolved, high resolution spectra obtained from the International Ultraviolet Explorer archives and from newly obtained ground-based spectra of the Hα absorption profile. This disk is highly inclined to the rotational axis and betrays its existence every half rotation cycle as one of two opposing sectors pass in front of the star. Although the disk absorption spectrum is at least ten times too weak to be visible in optical iron lines during these occultations, its properties can be readily examined in a large number of UV "iron curtain" lines because of their higher opacities. The UV Fe II and Fe III lines in particular permit a determination of the disk temperature: 7500±500 K and a column density of 3-1.5+3×1020 cm-2. The analysis of the variations of the UV resonance lines brings out some interesting details about the radiative properties of the disks: (1) they are optically thick in the C IV and Si IV doublets, (2) the range of excitation of the UV resonance lines is larger at the primary occultation (φ = 0.00) than at the secondary one, and (3) the relative strengths of the absorption peaks for the two occultations varies substantially from line to line. We have modeled the absorptions of the UV C IV resonance and Hα absorptions by means of a simulated disk with opaque and translucent components. Our simulations suggest that a gap separates the star and the inner edge of the disk. The disk extends radially out to ≥10 R*. The disk scale height perpendicular to the plane is ≈1 R*. However, the sector causing the primary occultation is about four times thicker than the opposite sector. The C IV scattering region extends to a larger height than the Hα region does, probably because it results from shock heating far from the cooler disk plane.

  18. Secretogranin II; a Protein Increased in the Myocardium and Circulation in Heart Failure with Cardioprotective Properties

    PubMed Central

    Røsjø, Helge; Stridsberg, Mats; Florholmen, Geir; Stensløkken, Kåre-Olav; Ottesen, Anett Hellebø; Sjaastad, Ivar; Husberg, Cathrine; Dahl, Mai Britt; Øie, Erik; Louch, William E.; Omland, Torbjørn; Christensen, Geir

    2012-01-01

    Background Several beneficial effects have been demonstrated for secretogranin II (SgII) in non-cardiac tissue. As cardiac production of chromogranin A and B, two related proteins, is increased in heart failure (HF), we hypothesized that SgII could play a role in cardiovascular pathophysiology. Methodology/Principal Findings SgII production was characterized in a post-myocardial infarction heart failure (HF) mouse model, functional properties explored in experimental models, and circulating levels measured in mice and patients with stable HF of moderate severity. SgII mRNA levels were 10.5 fold upregulated in the left ventricle (LV) of animals with myocardial infarction and HF (p<0.001 vs. sham-operated animals). SgII protein levels were also increased in the LV, but not in other organs investigated. SgII was produced in several cell types in the myocardium and cardiomyocyte synthesis of SgII was potently induced by transforming growth factor-β and norepinephrine stimulation in vitro. Processing of SgII to shorter peptides was enhanced in the failing myocardium due to increased levels of the proteases PC1/3 and PC2 and circulating SgII levels were increased in mice with HF. Examining a pathophysiological role of SgII in the initial phase of post-infarction HF, the SgII fragment secretoneurin reduced myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and cardiomyocyte apoptosis by 30% and rapidly increased cardiomyocyte Erk1/2 and Stat3 phosphorylation. SgII levels were also higher in patients with stable, chronic HF compared to age- and gender-matched control subjects: median 0.16 (Q1–3 0.14–0.18) vs. 0.12 (0.10–0.14) nmol/L, p<0.001. Conclusions We demonstrate increased myocardial SgII production and processing in the LV in animals with myocardial infarction and HF, which could be beneficial as the SgII fragment secretoneurin protects from ischemia-reperfusion injury and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Circulating SgII levels are also increased in patients with chronic

  19. Aerosol dry deposition on vegetative canopies. Part II: A new modelling approach and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, Alexandre; Mailliat, Alain; Amielh, Muriel; Anselmet, Fabien

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the modelling of aerosol dry deposition on vegetation. It follows a companion article, in which a review of the current knowledge highlights the need for a better description of the aerosol behaviour within the canopy [Petroff, A., Mailliat, A., Amielh, M., Anselmet, F., 2008. Aerosol dry deposition on vegetative canopies. Part I: Review of present knowledge. Atmospheric Environment, in press, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.09.043]. Concepts from multi-phase flow studies are used for describing the canopy medium and deriving a time and space-averaged aerosol balance equation and the associated deposition terms. The closure of the deposition terms follows an up-scaling procedure based on the statistical distribution of the collecting elements. This aerosol transport model is then applied in a stationary and mono-dimensional configuration and takes into account the properties of the vegetation, the aerosol and the turbulent flow. Deposition mechanisms are Brownian diffusion, interception, inertial and turbulent impactions, and gravitational settling. For each of them, a parameterisation of the particle collection is derived and the quality of their predictions is assessed by comparison with wind-tunnel deposition measurements on coniferous twigs [Belot, Y., Gauthier, D., 1975. Transport of micronic particles from atmosphere to foliar surfaces. In: De Vries, D.A., Afgan, N.H. (Eds.), Heat and Mass Transfer in the Biosphere. Scripta Book, Washington, DC, pp. 583-591; Belot, Y., 1977. Etude de la captation des polluants atmosphériques par les végétaux. CEA, R-4786, Fontenay-aux-Roses; Belot, Y., Camus, H., Gauthier, D., Caput, C., 1994. Uptake of small particles by canopies. The Science of the Total Environment 157, 1-6]. Under a real canopy configuration, the predictions of the aerosol transport model compare reasonably well with detailed on-site deposition measurements of Aitken mode particles [Buzorius, G., Rannik, Ü., M

  20. The production of advanced glass ceramic HLW forms using cold crucible induction melter

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, V.J.; Maio, V.

    2013-07-01

    Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIM) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in a near future. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHM) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIM offers unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. It is concluded that glass ceramic waste forms that are tailored to immobilize fission products of HLW can be can be made from the HLW processed with the CCIM. The advantageous higher temperatures reached with the CCIM and unachievable with JHM allows the lanthanides, alkali, alkaline earths, and molybdenum to dissolve into a molten glass. Upon controlled cooling they go into targeted crystalline phases to form a glass ceramic waste form with higher waste loadings than achievable with borosilicate glass waste forms. Natural cooling proves to be too fast for the formation of all targeted crystalline phases.

  1. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reverse airstream shall be approved by MSHA under the appliable requirements of 30 CFR part 18; (2) Drive... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V... Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Main fans shall be— (1) Installed on...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reverse airstream shall be approved by MSHA under the appliable requirements of 30 CFR part 18; (2) Drive... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V... Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Main fans shall be— (1) Installed on...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reverse airstream shall be approved by MSHA under the appliable requirements of 30 CFR part 18; (2) Drive... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V... Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Main fans shall be— (1) Installed on...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth and ventilation tubing shall be approved by MSHA in accordance with 30 CFR part 7, or shall bear a BC or VT... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A,...

  5. Propagating phase interface with intermediate interfacial phase: Phase field approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, Kasra; Levitas, Valery I.

    2014-05-01

    An advanced three-phase phase field approach (PFA) is suggested for a nonequilibrium phase interface that contains an intermediate phase, in particular, a solid-solid interface with a nanometer-sized intermediate melt (IM). A thermodynamic potential in the polar order parameters is developed that satisfies all thermodynamic equilibrium and stability conditions. The special form of the gradient energy allowed us to include the interaction of two solid-melt interfaces via an intermediate melt and obtain a well-posed problem and mesh-independent solutions. It is proved that for stationary 1D solutions to two Ginzburg-Landau equations for three phases, the local energy at each point is equal to the gradient energy. Simulations are performed for β ↔δ phase transformations (PTs) via IM in an HMX energetic material. The obtained energy IM width dependence is described by generalized force-balance models for short- and long-range interaction forces between interfaces but not far from the melting temperature. A force-balance model is developed that describes phase field results even 100 K below the melting temperature. The effects of the ratios of width and energies of solid-solid and solid-melt interfaces, temperature, and the parameter characterizing interaction of two solid-melt interfaces, on the structure, width, energy of the IM and interface velocity are determined by finite element method. Depending on parameters, the IM may appear by continuous or discontinuous barrierless disordering or via critical nucleus due to thermal fluctuations. The IM may appear during heating and persist during cooling at temperatures well below than it follows from sharp-interface approach. On the other hand, for some parameters when IM is expected, it does not form, producing an IM-free gap. The developed PFA represents a quite general three-phase model and can be extended to other physical phenomena, such as martensitic PTs, surface-induced premelting and PTs, premelting

  6. Digital quadrature phase detection

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James A.; Johnson, John A.

    1992-01-01

    A system for detecting the phase of a frequency of phase modulated signal that includes digital quadrature sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal at two times that are one quarter of a cycle of a reference signal apart, determination of the arctangent of the ratio of a first sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal to the second sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal, and a determination of quadrant in which the phase determination is increased by 2.pi. when the quadrant changes from the first quadrant to the fourth quadrant and decreased by 2.pi. when the quadrant changes from the fourth quadrant to the first quadrant whereby the absolute phase of the frequency or phase modulated signal can be determined using an arbitrary reference convention.

  7. Simplified phase detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hershey, L. M.

    1979-01-01

    Tanlick sine-wave phase detector gives dc output voltage nearly proportional to phase difference between oscillator signal and reference signal. Device may be used for systems in which signal-to-noise ratio is high.

  8. Digital quadrature phase detection

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.A.; Johnson, J.A.

    1992-05-26

    A system for detecting the phase of a frequency or phase modulated signal that includes digital quadrature sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal at two times that are one quarter of a cycle of a reference signal apart, determination of the arctangent of the ratio of a first sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal to the second sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal, and a determination of quadrant in which the phase determination is increased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the first quadrant to the fourth quadrant and decreased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the fourth quadrant to the first quadrant whereby the absolute phase of the frequency or phase modulated signal can be determined using an arbitrary reference convention. 6 figs.

  9. Phase jitter in a differential phase experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanenbaum, B. S.; Connolly, D. J.; Austin, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    Austin (1971) had concluded that, because of the 'phase jitter,' the differential phase experiment is useful over a more limited height range than the differential absorption experiment. Several observations are presented to show that this conclusion is premature. It is pointed out that the logical basis of the differential absorption experiment also requires that the O- and X-mode echoes, at a given time, come from the same irregularities. Austin's calculations are believed to contain a systematic error above 80 km.

  10. Perceptions about Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Presents research on different techniques to determine the level of understanding among middle school students regarding the phases of the moon. Quotes student responses to provide some insight into students' level of understanding of general knowledge about the moon, moon phases, and modeling the phases. Presents implications for teachers. (KHR)

  11. Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Niewold, T.A.; Koopmans, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the systemic acute phase reaction with major cytokines involved, and the hepatic metabolic changes, negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) with function and associated pathology is given. It appears that APPs represent appropriate analytes for assessment of animal health. Whereas they represent non-specific markers as biological effect reactants, they can be used for assessing nutritional deficits and reactive processes, especially when positive and negative acute phase variables are combined in an index. When such acute phase index is applied to separate healthy animals from animals with some disease, much better results are obtained than with single analytes and statistically acceptable results for culling individual animals may be reached. Unfortunately at present no cheap, comprehensive and easy to use system is available for assessing various acute phase proteins in serum or blood samples at the same time. Protein microarray or fluid phase microchip technology may satisfy this need; and permit simultaneous analysis of numerous analytes in the same small volume sample and enable integration of information derived from systemic reactivity and nutrition with disease specific variables. Applying such technology may help to solve health problems in various countries not only in animal husbandry but also in human populations. PMID:16252337

  12. Major histocompatibility complex class II A genes in cichlid fishes: identification, expression, linkage relationships, and haplotype variation.

    PubMed

    Murray, B W; Shintani, S; Sültmann, H; Klein, J

    2000-06-01

    Two cichlid species, the haplochromine Aulonocara hansbaenschi and the tilapiine Oreochromis niloticus, were used to study the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class II A variation within this group. Multiple class II A sequences were recovered from A. hansbaenschi and O. niloticus cDNA libraries and three sequence families, DAA, DBA, and DCA, were identified. Sets of O. niloticus haploid embryo families were used to determine the linkage relationships of these genes. Two independently assorting linkage groups were detected, DAA and DBA/DCA, neither of which is linked to the previously described Mhc class I gene cluster. Three DCA genes and up to four DBA genes were found to segregate in different haplotypes, whereas DAA occurred as a single locus. Four DBA haplotypes, DBA*H1-H4, were identified and shown to co-segregate with the previously described class II B haplotypes. Four DCA haplotypes, DCA*H1-H4, were found at a distance of 37 cM from the DBA/class II B cluster; in one DCA haplotype, DCA*H5, the genes were tightly linked to the DBA/class II B clusters. Transcripts of DAA and DBA genes were found in O. niloticus hepatopancreas and spleen; transcripts of DCA genes were detected in the A. hansbaenschi cDNA library, but not in O. niloticus. These findings provide a basis for using class II haplotypes as markers in the study of adaptive radiation in the cichlid species flocks of the East African Great Lakes. PMID:10912508

  13. Phase microscope imaging in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Mehta, Shalin B.

    2016-03-01

    Imaging in a bright field or phase contrast microscope is partially coherent. We have found that the image can be conveniently considered and modeled in terms of the Wigner distribution function (WDF) of the object transmission. The WDF of the object has a simple physical interpretation for the case of a slowly varying object. Basically, the image intensity is the spatial marginal of the spatial convolution of the object WDF with the phase space imager kernel (PSIkernel), a rotated version of the transmission cross-coefficient. The PSI-kernel can be regarded as a partially-coherent generalization of the point spread function. This approach can be extended to consider the partial coherence of the image itself. In particular, we can consider the mutual intensity, WDF or ambiguity function of the image. It is important to note that the spatial convolution of the object WDF with the PSI-kernel is not a WDF, and not the WDF of the image. The phase space representations of the image have relevance to phase reconstruction methods such as phase space tomography, or the transport of intensity equation approach, and to the three-dimensional image properties.

  14. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PHASE III

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2000-10-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. In Phase II, a 2.5-MW-scale AHPC was designed, constructed, installed, and tested at the Big Stone power station. For Phase III, further testing of an improved version of the 2.5-MW-scale AHPC at the Big Stone power station is being conducted to facilitate commercialization of the AHPC technology.

  15. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  16. Noncommutative Anandan quantum phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passos, E.; Ribeiro, L. R.; Furtado, C.; Nascimento, J. R.

    2007-07-01

    In this work, we study the noncommutative nonrelativistic quantum dynamics of a neutral particle, which possesses permanent magnetic and electric dipole moments, in the presence of external electric and magnetic fields. We use the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation of the Dirac spinor with a nonminimal coupling to obtain the nonrelativistic limit. In this limit, we study the noncommutative quantum dynamics and obtain the noncommutative Anandan geometric phase. We analyze the situation where the magnetic dipole moment of the particle is zero, and we obtain the noncommutative version of the He-McKellar-Wilkens effect. We demonstrate that this phase in the noncommutative case is a geometric dispersive phase. We also investigate this geometric phase by considering the noncommutativity in the phase space, and the Anandan phase is obtained.

  17. PHASE DIFFERENTIAL INDICATING CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Kirsten, F.A.

    1962-01-01

    An electronic circuit for totalizing the net phase difference between two alternating current signals is designed which responds to both increasing and decreasing phase changes. A phase comparator provldes an output pulse for each 360 deg of phase difference occurring, there being a negative pulse for phase shtft in one direction and a positive pulse for a phase shift in the opposite direction. A counting circuit utilizing glow discharge tubes receives the negative and positive pulses at a single input terminal and provides a running net total, pulses of one polarity dded and pulses of the opposite polarity being subtracted. The glow discharge tubes may be decaded to increase the total count capacity. (AEC)

  18. Crystal phase identification

    DOEpatents

    Michael, Joseph R.; Goehner, Raymond P.; Schlienger, Max E.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the crystalline phase and crystalline characteristics of a sample. This invention provides a method and apparatus for unambiguously identifying and determining the crystalline phase and crystalline characteristics of a sample by using an electron beam generator, such as a scanning electron microscope, to obtain a backscattered electron Kikuchi pattern of a sample, and extracting crystallographic and composition data that is matched to database information to provide a quick and automatic method to identify crystalline phases.

  19. Phase Holograms In PMMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maker, Paul D.; Muller, Richard E.

    1994-01-01

    Complex, computer-generated phase holograms written in thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by process of electron-beam exposure followed by chemical development. Spatial variations of phase delay in holograms quasi-continuous, as distinquished from stepwise as in binary phase holograms made by integrated-circuit fabrication. Holograms more precise than binary holograms. Greater continuity and precision results in decreased scattering loss and increased imaging efficiency.

  20. Holographic magnetic phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Lifschytz, Gilad; Lippert, Matthew

    2009-09-15

    We study four-dimensional interacting fermions in a strong magnetic field, using the holographic Sakai-Sugimoto model of intersecting D4- and D8-branes in the deconfined, chiral-symmetric parallel phase. We find that as the magnetic field is varied, while staying in the parallel phase, the fermions exhibit a first-order phase transition in which their magnetization jumps discontinuously. Properties of this transition are consistent with a picture in which some of the fermions jump to the lowest Landau level. Similarities to known magnetic phase transitions are discussed.

  1. Phase detection of chaos.

    PubMed

    Follmann, Rosangela; Macau, Elbert E N; Rosa, Epaminondas

    2011-01-01

    A technique, first introduced in the context of pseudoperiodic sound waves, is here applied to the problem of detecting the phase of phase coherent and also phase noncoherent chaotic oscillators. The approach is based on finding sinusoidal fits to segments of the signal, therefore obtaining, for each segment, an appropriate frequency from which a phase can be derived. Central to the method is a judicious choice for the size of a sliding window and for the frequency range, as well as for the window advancing step. The approach is robust against moderate noise levels and three cases are presented for demonstrating the applicability of the method. PMID:21405762

  2. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  3. Neuroendocrine Humoral and Vascular Components in the Pressor Pathway for Brain Angiotensin II: A New Axis in Long Term Blood Pressure Control

    PubMed Central

    Hamlyn, John M.; Linde, Cristina I.; Gao, Junjie; Huang, Bing S.; Golovina, Vera A.; Blaustein, Mordecai P.; Leenen, Frans H. H.

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) administration of angiotensin II (Ang II) raises blood pressure (BP). The rise in BP reflects increased sympathetic outflow and a slower neuromodulatory pressor mechanism mediated by CNS mineralocorticoid receptors (MR). We investigated the hypothesis that the sustained phase of hypertension is associated also with elevated circulating levels of endogenous ouabain (EO), and chronic stimulation of arterial calcium transport proteins including the sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX1), the type 6 canonical transient receptor potential protein (TRPC6), and the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2). Wistar rats received a chronic intra-cerebroventricular infusion of vehicle (C) or Ang II (A, 2.5 ng/min, for 14 days) alone or combined with the MR blocker, eplerenone (A+E, 5 µg/day), or the aldosterone synthase inhibitor, FAD286 (A+F, 25 µg/day). Conscious mean BP increased (P<0.05) in A (123±4 mm Hg) vs all other groups. Blood, pituitary and adrenal samples were taken for EO radioimmunoassay (RIA), and aortas for NCX1, TRPC6 and SERCA2 immunoblotting. Central infusion of Ang II raised plasma EO (0.58±0.08 vs C 0.34±0.07 nM (P<0.05), but not in A + E and A + F groups as confirmed by off-line liquid chromatography (LC)-RIA and LC-multistage mass spectrometry. Two novel isomers of EO were elevated by Ang II; the second less polar isomer increased >50-fold in the A+F group. Central Ang II increased arterial expression of NCX1, TRPC6 and SERCA2 (2.6, 1.75 and 3.7-fold, respectively; P<0.01)) but not when co-infused with E or F. Adrenal and pituitary EO were unchanged. We conclude that brain Ang II activates a CNS-humoral axis involving plasma EO. The elevated EO reprograms peripheral ion transport pathways known to control arterial Na+ and Ca2+ homeostasis; this increases contractility and augments sympathetic effects. The new axis likely contributes to the chronic pressor effect of brain Ang II. PMID:25275393

  4. Development of Salvianolic acid B-Tanshinone II A-Glycyrrhetinic acid compound liposomes: formulation optimization and its effects on proliferation of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiahao; Wang, Xiuli; Wu, Qing; Dai, Jundong; Guan, Huida; Cao, Weiyi; He, Liangying; Wang, Yurong

    2014-02-28

    The aim of this study was to systematically optimize and characterize the co-encapsulation process of Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), Tanshinone II A (TSN) and Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) into liposomes. The liposomes (GTS-lip) were prepared using film hydration method combined with probe sonication to encapsulate two hydrophobic components (TSN and GA), and using pH gradient method to load hydrophilic component Sal B. The concentration of encapsulated drugs was measured by a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. Systematic optimization of encapsulation process was performed using single factor test, orthogonal test in combination with Box-Behnken Design. Optimum conditions are as follows: ratio of GA to lipid (w/w)=0.08, ratio of Sal B to lipid (w/w)=0.12 and pH of buffer=3.3. Based on the conditions mentioned above, encapsulation efficiency of Sal B, TSN and GA reached target levels: (96.03 ± 0.28)%, (80.63 ± 0.91)% and (88.56 ± 0.17)%, respectively. The GTS-lip had a unimodal size-distribution and a mean diameter of 191.3 ± 6.31 nm. Morphology determination of the GTS-lip indicated that the liposomes were spherical, and there was no free drug crystal in the visual field of transmission electron microscopy. Also, the ζ potential of GTS-lip was detected to be -11.6 ± 0.35 mV. In vitro release investigation of GTS-lip suggested that the release rate of GTS-lip significantly decreased compared to drug solution. The accumulative release percentage of TSN, GA and Sal B were 10% in 36 h, 4% in 36 h and 77% in 24 h. Meanwhile, GTS-lip exhibited definite activity on proliferative inhibition of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). GTS-lip decreased the viability of the HSC to higher than 75% at two high drug concentration groups in 24h. At the same time, GTS-lip of two low drug concentration groups increased the inhibition rates by 2.3 folds and 1.9 folds separately at 48 h compared to 24h. By contrast, inhibition activity of G-T-S solution group

  5. Dense Heterogeneous Continuum Model of Two-Phase Explosion Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B

    2010-04-07

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion of a dense Aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. Let {alpha}{sub 1} denote the volume fraction occupied by the gas and {alpha}{sub 2} the fraction occupied by the solid, satisfying the volume conservation relation: {alpha}{sub 1} + {alpha}{sub 2} = 1. When the particle phase occupies a non-negligible volume fraction (i.e., {alpha}{sub 2} > 0), additional terms, proportional to {alpha}{sub 2}, appear in the conservation laws for two-phase flows. These include: (i) a particle pressure (due to particle collisions), (ii) a corresponding sound speed (which produces real eigenvalues for the particle phase system), (iii) an Archimedes force induced on the particle phase (by the gas pressure gradient), and (iv) multi-particle drag effects (which enhance the momentum coupling between phases). These effects modify the accelerations and energy distributions in the phases; we call this the Dense Heterogeneous Continuum Model. A characteristics analysis of the Model equations indicates that the system is hyperbolic with real eigenvalues for the gas phase: {l_brace}v{sub 1}, v{sub 1} {+-} {alpha}{sub 1}{r_brace} and for the 'particle gas' phase: {l_brace}v{sub 2}, v{sub 2} {+-}{alpha}{sub 2}{r_brace} and the particles: {l_brace}v{sub 2}{r_brace}, where v{sub i} and {alpha}{sub i} denote the velocity vector and sound speed of phase i. These can be used to construct a high-order Godunov scheme to integrate the conservation laws of a dense heterogeneous continuum.

  6. [Mechanism of tanshinone II A in inhibiting transformation of aortic valvular myofibroblast to osteoblast-like phenotype].

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying-nian; Hu, Wei-lin; Chen, Zheng-ping; Cai, Li; Li, Yong-sheng

    2015-09-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is a pathological process correlated with multiple disease causes and actively regulated by cardiac valve cells. In this study, porcine aortic valve myofibroblasts cultured in vitro were treated with 50 μg z L(-1) of pathological factor tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Tanshinone II A (TSN) with the concentration of 50 mg x L(-1) and TNF-α were combined in incubating cells for 72 h (3 d) and 120 h (5 d). The Western blotting and Real-time PCR were adopted to detect the changes in smooth muscle α actin (α-SMA), bone morphogenetic protein 2 ( BMP2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in cells, and expressions of key effect proteins GSK-3β and β-catenin on Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway. According to the findings, TNF-α can significantly increase the expression of myofibroblasts α-SMA and add the transformation activity to them, with nearly no expression of BMP2, ALP and mRNA in the control group and the TSN group but significant increase in their expressions in the TNF-α group (P < 0.01), which showed osteoblast-like phenotype. Moreover, TNF-α down-regulated the expression of up-streaming regulator GSK-3β and mRNA expression (P < 0. 01) , notably increased the expression of key effect protein β-catenin, but with no significant difference in mRNA with the control group and the TSN group. The result demonstrated that TSN showed a certain inhibitory effect on TNF-α's pathological impact (P < 0.05) in a time-dependent manner. Inflammatory factor TNF-α may promote the transformation of aortic valvular myofibroblasts to osteoblast-like phenotype by activating Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway in aortic valvular myofibroblasts, so as to cause AVC. Tanshinone II A can have a preventive effect in AVC by activating GSK-3β proteins and regulating signal transduction of Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway. PMID:26983213

  7. Phase Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Menk, Ralf Hendrik

    2008-11-13

    All standard (medical) x-ray imaging technologies, rely primarily on the amplitude properties of the incident radiation, and do not depend on its phase. This is unchanged since the discovery by Roentgen that the intensity of an x-ray beam, as measured by the exposure on a film, was related to the relative transmission properties of an object. However, recently various imaging techniques have emerged which depend on the phase of the x-rays as well as the amplitude. Phase becomes important when the beam is coherent and the imaging system is sensitive to interference phenomena. Significant new advances have been made in coherent optic theory and techniques, which now promise phase information in medical imaging. The development of perfect crystal optics and the increasing availability of synchrotron radiation facilities have contributed to a significant increase in the application of phase based imaging in materials and life sciences. Unique source characteristics such as high intensity, monochromaticity, coherence and high collimating provide an ideal source for advanced imaging. Phase contrast imaging has been applied in both projection and computed tomography modes, and recent applications have been made in the field of medical imaging. Due to the underlying principle of X-ray detection conventional image receptors register only intensities of wave fields and not their phases. During the last decade basically five different methods were developed that translate the phase information into intensity variations. These methods are based on measuring the phase shift {phi} directly (using interference phenomena), the gradient {nabla}{sub {phi}}, or the Laplacian {nabla}{sup 2}{phi}. All three methods can be applied to polychromatic X-ray sources keeping in mind that the native source is synchrotron radiation, featuring monochromatic and reasonable coherent X-ray beams. Due to the vast difference in the coefficients that are driven absorption and phase effects (factor 1

  8. Lunar Phases Planisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawl, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a lunar phases planisphere with which a user can answer questions about the rising and setting times of the Moon as well as questions about where the Moon will be at a given phase and time. The article contains figures that can be photocopied to make the planisphere. (Contains 2 figures.)

  9. LIGHT NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLS) are hydrocarbons that exist as a separate, immiscible phase when in contact with water and/or air. ifferences in the physical and chemical properties of water and NAPL result in the formation of a physical interface between the liquids which preve...

  10. UPVG phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Utility PhotoVoltaic Group (UPVG), supported by member dues and a grant from the US Department of Energy, has as its mission the acceleration of the use of cost-effective small-scale and emerging large-scale applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of electric utilities and their customers. Formed in October, 1992, with the support of the American Public Power Association, Edison Electric Institute, and the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, the UPVG currently has 90 members from all sectors of the electric utility industry. The UPVG`s efforts as conceived were divided into four phases: Phase 0--program plan; Phase 1--organization and strategy development; Phase 2--creating market assurance; and Phase 3--higher volume purchases. The Phase 0 effort developed the program plan and was completed early in 1993. The Phase 1 goal was to develop the necessary background information and analysis to lead to a decision as to which strategies could be undertaken by utilities to promote greater understanding of PV markets and achieve increased volumes of PV purchases. This report provides the details of the UPVG`s Phase 2 efforts to initiate TEAM-UP, its multiyear, 50-MW hardware initiative.

  11. Demonstrating Phase Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohr, Walter

    1995-01-01

    Presents two experiments that demonstrate phase changes. The first experiment explores phase changes of carbon dioxide using powdered dry ice sealed in a piece of clear plastic tubing. The second experiment demonstrates an equilibrium process in which a crystal grows in equilibrium with its saturated solution. (PVD)

  12. Simulation of phase structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, J.

    1995-04-20

    This memo outlines a procedure developed by the author to extract information from phase measurements and produce a simulated phase structure for use in modeling optical systems, including characteristic optics for the Beamlet and NIF laser systems. The report includes an IDL program listing.

  13. Templated blue phases.

    PubMed

    Ravnik, Miha; Fukuda, Jun-ichi

    2015-11-21

    Cholesteric blue phases of a chiral liquid crystal are interesting examples of self-organised three-dimensional nanostructures formed by soft matter. Recently it was demonstrated that a polymer matrix introduced by photopolymerization inside a bulk blue phase not only stabilises the host blue phase significantly, but also serves as a template for blue phase ordering. We show with numerical modelling that the transfer of the orientational order of the blue phase to the surfaces of the polymer matrix, together with the resulting surface anchoring, can account for the templating behaviour of the polymer matrix inducing the blue phase ordering of an achiral nematic liquid crystal. Furthermore, tailoring the anchoring conditions of the polymer matrix surfaces can bring about orientational ordering different from those of bulk blue phases, including an intertwined complex of the polymer matrix and topological line defects of orientational order. Optical Kerr response of templated blue phases is explored, finding large Kerr constants in the range of K = 2-10 × 10(-9) m V(-2) and notable dependence on the surface anchoring strength. More generally, the presented numerical approach is aimed to clarify the role and actions of templating polymer matrices in complex chiral nematic fluids, and further to help design novel template-based materials from chiral liquid crystals. PMID:26412643

  14. Weyl semimetals and topological phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Shuichi

    Weyl semimetals are semimetals with nondegenerate 3D Dirac cones in the bulk. We showed that in a transition between different Z2 topological phases, i.e. between the normal insulator (NI) and topological insulator (TI), the Weyl semimetal phase necessarily appears when inversion symmetry is broken. In the presentation we show that this scenario holds for materials with any space groups without inversion symmetry. Namely, let us take any band insulator without inversion symmetry, and assume that the gap is closed by a change of an external parameter. In such cases we found that the system runs either into (i) a Weyl semimetal or (ii) a nodal-line semimetal, but no insulator-to-insulator transition happens. This is confirmed by classifying the gap closing in terms of the space groups and the wavevector. In the case (i), the number of Weyl nodes produced at the gap closing ranges from 2 to 12 depending on the symmetry. In (ii) the nodal line is protected by mirror symmetry. In the presentation, we explain some Weyl semimetal and nodal-line semimetals which we find by using this classification. As an example, we explain our result on ab initio calculation on tellurium (Te). Tellurium consists of helical chains, and therefore lacks inversion and mirror symmetries. At high pressure the band gap of Te decreases and finally it runs into a Weyl semimetal phase, as confirmed by our ab initio calculation. In such chiral systems as tellurium, we also theoretically propose chiral transport in systems with such helical structures; namely, an orbital magnetization is induced by a current along the chiral axis, in analogy with a solenoid.

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the interaction of FN-C/H II, a pentadecapeptide from fibronectin, with heparin

    SciTech Connect

    Hari, S.P.; Rabenstein, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    Arrest of circulating tumor cells by adhesion to components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical step in metastasis. Tumor cell adhesion involves the binding of cell surface receptors, including heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) receptors, to fibronectin and other proteins of the ECM. Interruption of tumor cell adhesion has therapeutic potential in metastasis prevention. The peptide FN-C/H II, a pentadecapeptide (KNNQKSEPLIGRKKT) from module III{sub 14} of fibronectin binds to the heparan sulfate part of HSPG on the surface of highly metastatic mouse melanoma cells, and inhibits experimental metastasis of the melanoma cells, presumably by inhibition of their arrest by competitive binding to cell surface receptor sites. In this poster, results of one and two dimensional NMR studies to characterize FN-C/H II and related peptides and their binding by heparin will be reported. Structural information obtained from NOESY spectra for FN-C/H II indicates that the peptide free in solution has little structure, but that the heparin-complexed peptide is highly structured. NOESY data for the bound peptide are consistent with a helical structure. In the helical structure, 3 of the 5 arginine and lysine residues are located together on one side, thus presenting a region of high positive charge density for binding to the highly negatively charged heparin.

  16. Dlc1 interaction with non-muscle myosin heavy chain II-A (Myh9) and Rac1 activation.

    PubMed

    Sabbir, Mohammad G; Dillon, Rachelle; Mowat, Michael R A

    2016-01-01

    The Deleted in liver cancer 1 (Dlc1) gene codes for a Rho GTPase-activating protein that also acts as a tumour suppressor gene. Several studies have consistently found that overexpression leads to excessive cell elongation, cytoskeleton changes and subsequent cell death. However, none of these studies have been able to satisfactorily explain the Dlc1-induced cell morphological phenotypes and the function of the different Dlc1 isoforms. Therefore, we have studied the interacting proteins associated with the three major Dlc1 transcriptional isoforms using a mass spectrometric approach in Dlc1 overexpressing cells. We have found and validated novel interacting partners in constitutive Dlc1-expressing cells. Our study has shown that Dlc1 interacts with non-muscle myosin heavy chain II-A (Myh9), plectin and spectrin proteins in different multiprotein complexes. Overexpression of Dlc1 led to increased phosphorylation of Myh9 protein and activation of Rac1 GTPase. These data support a role for Dlc1 in induced cell elongation morphology and provide some molecular targets for further analysis of this phenotype. PMID:26977077

  17. The life story of hydrogen peroxide II: a periodic pH and thermochemical drive for the RNA world

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Rowena; Brindley, John

    2015-01-01

    It is now accepted that primordial non-cellular RNA communities must have been subject to a periodic drive in order to replicate and prosper. We have proposed the oxidation of thiosulfate by hydrogen peroxide as this drive. This reaction system behaves as (i) a thermochemical and (ii) a pH oscillator, and in this work, we unify (i) and (ii) for the first time. We report thermally self-consistent, dynamical simulations in which the system transitions smoothly from nearly isothermal pH to fully developed thermo-pH oscillatory regimes. We use this oscillator to drive simulated replication of a 39-bp RNA species. Production of replicated duplex under thermo-pH drive was significantly enhanced compared with that under purely thermochemical drive, effectively allowing longer strands to replicate. Longer strands are fitter, with more potential to evolve enzyme activity and resist degradation. We affirm that concern over the alleged toxicity of hydrogen peroxide to life is largely misplaced in the current context, we survey its occurrence in the solar system to motivate its inclusion as a biosignature in the search for life on other worlds and highlight that pH oscillations in a spatially extended, bounded system manifest as the fundamental driving force of life: a proton gradient. PMID:26202683

  18. Dlc1 interaction with non-muscle myosin heavy chain II-A (Myh9) and Rac1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Sabbir, Mohammad G.; Dillon, Rachelle; Mowat, Michael R. A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Deleted in liver cancer 1 (Dlc1) gene codes for a Rho GTPase-activating protein that also acts as a tumour suppressor gene. Several studies have consistently found that overexpression leads to excessive cell elongation, cytoskeleton changes and subsequent cell death. However, none of these studies have been able to satisfactorily explain the Dlc1-induced cell morphological phenotypes and the function of the different Dlc1 isoforms. Therefore, we have studied the interacting proteins associated with the three major Dlc1 transcriptional isoforms using a mass spectrometric approach in Dlc1 overexpressing cells. We have found and validated novel interacting partners in constitutive Dlc1-expressing cells. Our study has shown that Dlc1 interacts with non-muscle myosin heavy chain II-A (Myh9), plectin and spectrin proteins in different multiprotein complexes. Overexpression of Dlc1 led to increased phosphorylation of Myh9 protein and activation of Rac1 GTPase. These data support a role for Dlc1 in induced cell elongation morphology and provide some molecular targets for further analysis of this phenotype. PMID:26977077

  19. Dynamic spatiotemporal brain analyses using high-performance electrical neuroimaging, Part II: A step-by-step tutorial.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Cacioppo, John T

    2015-12-30

    Our recently published analytic toolbox (Cacioppo et al., 2014), running under MATLAB environment and Brainstorm, offered a theoretical framework and set of validation studies for the automatic detection of event-related changes in the global pattern and global field power of electrical brain activity. Here, we provide a step-by-step tutorial of this toolbox along with a detailed description of analytical plans (aka the Chicago Electrical Neuroimaging Analytics, CENA) for the statistical analysis of brain microstate configuration and global field power in within and between-subject designs. Available CENA functions include: (1) a difference wave function; (2) a high-performance microsegmentation suite (HPMS), which consists of three specific analytic tools: (i) a root mean square error (RMSE) metric for identifying stable states and transition states across discrete event-related brain microstates; (ii) a similarity metric based on cosine distance in n dimensional sensor space to determine whether template maps for successive brain microstates differ in configuration of brain activity, and (iii) global field power (GFP) metrics for identifying changes in the overall level of activation of the brain; (3) a bootstrapping function for assessing the extent to which the solutions identified in the HPMS are robust (reliable, generalizable) and for empirically deriving additional experimental hypotheses; and (4) step-by-step procedures for performing a priori contrasts for data analysis. CENA is freely available for brain data spatiotemporal analyses at https://hpenlaboratory.uchicago.edu/page/cena, with sample data, user tutorial videos, and documentation. PMID:26363189

  20. The life story of hydrogen peroxide II: a periodic pH and thermochemical drive for the RNA world.

    PubMed

    Ball, Rowena; Brindley, John

    2015-08-01

    It is now accepted that primordial non-cellular RNA communities must have been subject to a periodic drive in order to replicate and prosper. We have proposed the oxidation of thiosulfate by hydrogen peroxide as this drive. This reaction system behaves as (i) a thermochemical and (ii) a pH oscillator, and in this work, we unify (i) and (ii) for the first time. We report thermally self-consistent, dynamical simulations in which the system transitions smoothly from nearly isothermal pH to fully developed thermo-pH oscillatory regimes. We use this oscillator to drive simulated replication of a 39-bp RNA species. Production of replicated duplex under thermo-pH drive was significantly enhanced compared with that under purely thermochemical drive, effectively allowing longer strands to replicate. Longer strands are fitter, with more potential to evolve enzyme activity and resist degradation. We affirm that concern over the alleged toxicity of hydrogen peroxide to life is largely misplaced in the current context, we survey its occurrence in the solar system to motivate its inclusion as a biosignature in the search for life on other worlds and highlight that pH oscillations in a spatially extended, bounded system manifest as the fundamental driving force of life: a proton gradient. PMID:26202683

  1. Low distortion automatic phase control circuit. [voltage controlled phase shifter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauge, G.; Pederson, C. W. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A voltage controlled phase shifter is rendered substantially harmonic distortion free over a large dynamic input range by employing two oppositely poled, equally biased varactor diodes as the voltage controlled elements which adjust the phase shift. Control voltages which affect the bias of both diodes equally are used to adjust the phase shift without increasing distortion. A feedback stabilized phase shifter is rendered substantially frequency independent by employing a phase detector to control the phase shift of the voltage controlled phase shifter.

  2. Source Wavelet Phase Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghadeh, Diako Hariri; Morley, Christopher Keith

    2016-06-01

    Extraction of propagation wavelet phase from seismic data can be conducted using first, second, third and fourth-order statistics. Three new methods are introduced, which are: (1) Combination of different moments, (2) Windowed continuous wavelet transform and (3) Maximum correlation with cosine function. To compare different methods synthetic data with and without noise were chosen. Results show that first, second and third order statistics are not able to preserve wavelet phase. Kurtosis can preserve propagation wavelet phase but signal-to-noise ratio can affect the extracted phase using this method. So for data set with low signal-to-noise ratio, it will be unstable. Using a combination of different moments to extract the phase is more robust than applying kurtosis. The improvement occurs because zero phase wavelets with reverse polarities have equal maximum kurtosis values hence the correct wavelet polarity cannot be identified. Zero-phase wavelets with reverse polarities have minimum and maximum values for a combination of different-moments method. These properties enable the technique to handle a finite data segment and to choose the correct wavelet polarity. Also, the existence of different moments can decrease sensitivity to outliers. A windowed continuous wavelet transform is more sensitive to signal-to-noise ratio than the combination of different-moments method, also if the scale for the wavelet is incorrect it will encounter with more problems to extract phase. When the effects of frequency bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio and analyzing window length are considered, the results of extracting phase information from data without and with noise demonstrate that combination of different-moments is superior to the other methods introduced here.

  3. Gas Phase Nanoparticle Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granqvist, Claes; Kish, Laszlo; Marlow, William

    This book deals with gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis and is intended for researchers and research students in nanomaterials science and engineering, condensed matter physics and chemistry, and aerosol science. Gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis is instrumental to nanotechnology - a field in current focus that raises hopes for environmentally benign, resource-lean manufacturing. Nanoparticles can be produced by many physical, chemical, and even biological routes. Gas-phase synthesis is particularly interesting since one can achieve accurate manufacturing control and hence industrial viability.

  4. 30 CFR 57.22235 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the... reaches 1.0 percent at a work place and there has been a failure of the main ventilation system,...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22235 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the... reaches 1.0 percent at a work place and there has been a failure of the main ventilation system,...

  6. Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families, 1997-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppelman, Jane, Ed.

    This collection of snapshots examines the well-being of America's children and adults through the lens of the 1999 National Survey of America's Families. Snapshots include: "Foreword: Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families" (Alyssa Wigton and Alan Weil); "Family…

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of a 16SrII-A Subgroup Phytoplasma Associated with Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Witches’ Broom Disease in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shu-Heng; Cho, Shu-Ting; Chen, Chung-Li

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial genus “Candidatus Phytoplasma” contains a group of insect-transmitted plant pathogens in the class Mollicutes. Here, we report a draft genome assembly and annotation of strain NCHU2014, which belongs to the 16SrII-A subgroup within this genus and is associated with purple coneflower witches’ broom disease in Taiwan. PMID:26607900

  8. "Microville II": A Simulation-Gaming Device Designed to Instruct Community Leaders in the Development of Programs on a Community-Wide Basis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, John C.

    "Microville II," a simulation-game idea, is a creative effort to develop and apply resources, processes, and programs necessary to resolve contemporary problems faced by rural and urban leaders. The strategy is that a community council has been established within the community of "Microville" and participants assume the various roles of the…

  9. 30 CFR 57.22205 - Doors on main fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Doors on main fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22205 Doors on... installation shall be equipped with noncombustible doors. Such doors shall automatically close to prevent...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22205 - Doors on main fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Doors on main fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22205 Doors on... installation shall be equipped with noncombustible doors. Such doors shall automatically close to prevent...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22205 - Doors on main fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Doors on main fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22205 Doors on... installation shall be equipped with noncombustible doors. Such doors shall automatically close to prevent...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22205 - Doors on main fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Doors on main fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22205 Doors on... installation shall be equipped with noncombustible doors. Such doors shall automatically close to prevent...

  13. 30 CFR 57.22205 - Doors on main fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Doors on main fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22205 Doors on... installation shall be equipped with noncombustible doors. Such doors shall automatically close to prevent...

  14. Characterizing the Lower Paleolithic bone industry from Schöningen 12 II: A multi-proxy study.

    PubMed

    Julien, Marie-Anne; Hardy, Bruce; Stahlschmidt, Mareike C; Urban, Brigitte; Serangeli, Jordi; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    Although preservation of Paleolithic faunal assemblages from open-air settings is often poor, the Lower Paleolithic sites of Schöningen provide exceptionally well-preserved mammalian faunal material for investigating hominin/animal relationships. Pleistocene fossil assemblages, however, usually reflect a complex taphonomic history in which natural and anthropogenic processes are often superimposed. A number of examples of osseous finds that resemble tools were recently discovered in the MIS 9 deposits of Schöningen 12 II. Non-anthropogenic agents are known to produce surface modifications mimicking human artifacts and the identification of osseous remains used and/or deliberately modified by ancient hominins is often controversial in such old contexts. Multiple lines of evidence are thus useful for distinguishing between osseous artifacts and "eco-facts". In this paper, the recognition of the use of bone for different technological purposes by late Middle Pleistocene hominins is addressed through a multi-proxy study combining geoarcheology, bone taphonomy, zooarcheology, and use-wear analysis. This allowed the identification of the processes and agents responsible for the formation and modification of the different bone assemblages of Schöningen 12 II. Our analysis points to different types of bones having been likely used as tools. These results expand the diversity of the organic technological repertoire of the Middle Pleistocene hominins, making Schöningen 12 II a remarkable new source of information on osseous technology long before the Upper Paleolithic, the period traditionally viewed as the start of the systematic use of bone tools. Together with other observations of bone tools documented during the Lower and Middle Paleolithic, the results from Schöningen show that archeologists may have underestimated the diversity and importance of osseous technology among archaic hominins. PMID:26651609

  15. Coaxial phased array antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coaxial antenna array for communicating circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation is disclosed. A pair of open ended antenna cavities is coaxially constructed and operates by excitation of linear radiation elements arranged within each of the cavities. A pair of crossed dipole radiation devices is centered within the inner cavity and operated by means of a phase shifting network circuit to transmit as well as receive circularly polarized radiation. Four monopole radiation devices are symmetrically arranged to operate in the outer cavity in phase quadrature by means of the phase shifting network circuit to both transmit and receive circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation. Combined operation of the two antenna cavities with a 180 deg phase differential between the fields related to the two antenna cavities provides a broad beam, relatively wide frequency bandwidth communication capability. Particular embodiments disclosed feature a generally square cavity array as well as a circular cavity array.

  16. FEL phased array configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellan, Jeffrey B.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of various phased array and shared aperture concepts for FEL configurations are discussed. Consideration is given to the characteristics of intra- and inter-micropulse phasing; intra-macropulse phasing; an internal coupled resonator configuration; and an injection locked oscillator array. The use of a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration with multiple or single master oscillators for FELs is examined. The venetian blind, rotating plate, single grating, and grating rhomb shared aperture concepts are analyzed. It is noted that the shared aperture approach using a grating rhomb and the MOPA concept with a single master oscillator and a coupled resonator are useful for FEL phased array configurations; and the MOPA concept is most applicable.

  17. Microfluidic binary phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelescu, Dan; Menetrier, Laure; Wong, Joyce; Tabeling, Patrick; Salamitou, Philippe

    2004-03-01

    We present a novel binary phase flow regime where the two phases differ substantially in both their wetting and viscous properties. Optical tracking particles are used in order to investigate the details of such multiphase flow inside capillary channels. We also describe microfluidic filters we have developed, capable of separating the two phases based on capillary pressure. The performance of the filters in separating oil-water emulsions is discussed. Binary phase flow has been previously used in microchannels in applications such as emulsion generation, enhancement of mixing and assembly of custom colloidal paticles. Such microfluidic systems are increasingly used in a number of applications spanning a diverse range of industries, such as biotech, pharmaceuticals and more recently the oil industry.

  18. Coaxial phased array antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, H., Jr.

    1980-08-01

    A coaxial antenna array for communicating circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation is disclosed. A pair of open ended antenna cavities is coaxially constructed and operates by excitation of linear radiation elements arranged within each of the cavities. A pair of crossed dipole radiation devices is centered within the inner cavity and operated by means of a phase shifting network circuit to transmit as well as receive circularly polarized radiation. Four monopole radiation devices are symmetrically arranged to operate in the outer cavity in phase quadrature by means of the phase shifting network circuit to both transmit and receive circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation. Combined operation of the two antenna cavities with a 180 deg phase differential between the fields related to the two antenna cavities provides a broad beam, relatively wide frequency bandwidth communication capability. Particular embodiments disclosed feature a generally square cavity array as well as a circular cavity array.

  19. ELECTRONIC PHASE CONTROL CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, J.D.; Klein, W.W.; Hansen, C.F.

    1959-04-21

    An electronic circuit is described for controlling the phase of radio frequency energy applied to a multicavity linear accelerator. In one application of the circuit two cavities are excited from a single radio frequency source, with one cavity directly coupled to the source and the other cavity coupled through a delay line of special construction. A phase detector provides a bipolar d-c output signal proportional to the difference in phase between the voltage in the two cavities. This d-c signal controls a bias supply which provides a d-c output for varying the capacitnce of voltage sensitive capacitors in the delay line. The over-all operation of the circuit is completely electronic, overcoming the time response limitations of the electromechanical control systems, and the relative phase relationship of the radio frequency voltages in the two caviiies is continuously controlled to effect particle acceleration.

  20. Geometry and Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kenneth W.; Harrell, Marvin E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity, designed to comply with the National Science Education Standards, that integrates science and mathematics concepts. Mathematical modeling of the moon's phases is employed to show students the role of mathematics in describing scientific phenomena. (DKM)

  1. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density <5 microcycle/(Hz)1/2 and to be capable of determining the power spectral density of the phase difference over the frequency range from 1 mHz to 1 Hz. Such a phase meter could also be used on Earth to perform similar measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  2. Efficient Bayesian Phase Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Nathan; Granade, Chris

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a new method called rejection filtering that we use to perform adaptive Bayesian phase estimation. Our approach has several advantages: it is classically efficient, easy to implement, achieves Heisenberg limited scaling, resists depolarizing noise, tracks time-dependent eigenstates, recovers from failures, and can be run on a field programmable gate array. It also outperforms existing iterative phase estimation algorithms such as Kitaev's method.

  3. Phased array antenna control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doland, G. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Several new and useful improvements in steering and control of phased array antennas having a small number of elements, typically on the order of 5 to 17 elements are provided. Among the improvements are increasing the number of beam steering positions, reducing the possibility of phase transients in signals received or transmitted with the antennas, and increasing control and testing capacity with respect to the antennas.

  4. Efficient Bayesian Phase Estimation.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Nathan; Granade, Chris

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a new method called rejection filtering that we use to perform adaptive Bayesian phase estimation. Our approach has several advantages: it is classically efficient, easy to implement, achieves Heisenberg limited scaling, resists depolarizing noise, tracks time-dependent eigenstates, recovers from failures, and can be run on a field programmable gate array. It also outperforms existing iterative phase estimation algorithms such as Kitaev's method. PMID:27419551

  5. Quantum phase of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berera, Arjun; Rangarajan, Raghavan

    2013-02-01

    Inflation models can have an early phase of inflation where the evolution of the inflaton is driven by quantum fluctuations before entering the phase driven by the slope of the scalar field potential. For a Coleman-Weinberg potential this quantum phase lasts 107-8 e-foldings. A long period of fluctuation driven growth of the inflation field can possibly take the inflaton past ϕ*, the value of the field where our current horizon scale crosses the horizon; alternatively, even if the field does not cross ϕ*, the inflaton could have high kinetic energy at the end of this phase. Therefore, we study these issues in the context of different models of inflation. In scenarios where cosmological relevant scales leave during the quantum phase, we obtain large curvature perturbations of O(10). We also apply our results to quadratic curvaton models and to quintessence models. In curvaton models we find that inflation must last longer than required to solve the horizon problem, that the curvaton models are incompatible with small field inflation models, and that there may be too large non-Gaussianity. A new phase of thermal fluctuation driven inflation is proposed, in which during inflation the inflaton evolution is governed by fluctuations from a sustained thermal radiation bath rather than by a scalar field potential.

  6. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  7. Electron Holography: phases matter.

    PubMed

    Lichte, Hannes

    2013-06-01

    Essentially, all optics is wave optics, be it with light, X-rays, neutrons or electrons. The information transfer from the object to the image can only be understood in terms of waves given by amplitude and phase. However, phases are difficult to measure: for slowly oscillating waves such as sound or low-frequency electromagnetic waves, phases can be measured directly; for high frequencies this has to be done by heterodyne detection, i.e. superposition with a reference and averaging over time. In optics, this is called interferometry. Because interference is mostly very difficult to achieve, phases have often been considered 'hidden variables' seemingly pulling the strings from backstage, only visible by their action on the image intensity. This was almost the case in conventional Electron Microscopy with the phase differences introduced by an object. However, in the face of the urgent questions from solid state physics and materials science, these phases have to be determined precisely, because they encode the most dominant object properties, such as charge distributions and electromagnetic fields. After more than six decades of very patient advancement, electron interferometry and holography offer unprecedented analytical facilities down to an atomic scale. Akira Tonomura has prominently contributed to the present state. PMID:23620338

  8. Compressed sensing phase retrieval with phase diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shun; Hu, Xinqi; Qin, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    The compressed sensing (CS) theory shows that sparse signal can be reconstructed accurately with some randomly observed measurements that are much fewer than what traditional method requires. Since it takes structure of signals into consideration, it has many advantages in the structured signals process. With CS, measuring can be speeded up and the cost of hardware can be decreased significantly. However, it faces great challenge in the amplitude-only measurement. In this article, we study the magnitude-only compressed sensing phase retrieval (CSPR) problem, and propose a practical recovery algorithm. In our algorithm, we introduce the powerful Hybrid-Input-Output algorithm with phase diversity to make our algorithm robust and efficient. A relaxed ℓ0 norm constrain is also introduced to help PR find a sparse solution with fewer measurements, which is demonstrated to be essential and effective to CSPR. We finally successfully apply it into complex-valued object recovery in THz imaging. The numerical results show that the proposed algorithm can recover the object pretty well with fewer measurements than what PR traditionally requires.

  9. Phased array ghost elimination.

    PubMed

    Kellman, Peter; McVeigh, Elliot R

    2006-05-01

    Parallel imaging may be applied to cancel ghosts caused by a variety of distortion mechanisms, including distortions such as off-resonance or local flow, which are space variant. Phased array combining coefficients may be calculated that null ghost artifacts at known locations based on a constrained optimization, which optimizes SNR subject to the nulling constraint. The resultant phased array ghost elimination (PAGE) technique is similar to the method known as sensitivity encoding (SENSE) used for accelerated imaging; however, in this formulation is applied to full field-of-view (FOV) images. The phased array method for ghost elimination may result in greater flexibility in designing acquisition strategies. For example, in multi-shot EPI applications ghosts are typically mitigated by the use of an interleaved phase encode acquisition order. An alternative strategy is to use a sequential, non-interleaved phase encode order and cancel the resultant ghosts using PAGE parallel imaging. Cancellation of ghosts by means of phased array processing makes sequential, non-interleaved phase encode acquisition order practical, and permits a reduction in repetition time, TR, by eliminating the need for echo-shifting. Sequential, non-interleaved phase encode order has benefits of reduced distortion due to off-resonance, in-plane flow and EPI delay misalignment. Furthermore, the use of EPI with PAGE has inherent fat-water separation and has been used to provide off-resonance correction using a technique referred to as lipid elimination with an echo-shifting N/2-ghost acquisition (LEENA), and may further generalized using the multi-point Dixon method. Other applications of PAGE include cancelling ghosts which arise due to amplitude or phase variation during the approach to steady state. Parallel imaging requires estimates of the complex coil sensitivities. In vivo estimates may be derived by temporally varying the phase encode ordering to obtain a full k-space dataset in a scheme

  10. Combustion 2000: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-11-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard); coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This Phase, Phase 2, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase 3. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase 3 program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase 2 Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4,and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAF Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; and Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  11. The NMR phased array.

    PubMed

    Roemer, P B; Edelstein, W A; Hayes, C E; Souza, S P; Mueller, O M

    1990-11-01

    We describe methods for simultaneously acquiring and subsequently combining data from a multitude of closely positioned NMR receiving coils. The approach is conceptually similar to phased array radar and ultrasound and hence we call our techniques the "NMR phased array." The NMR phased array offers the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and resolution of a small surface coil over fields-of-view (FOV) normally associated with body imaging with no increase in imaging time. The NMR phased array can be applied to both imaging and spectroscopy for all pulse sequences. The problematic interactions among nearby surface coils is eliminated (a) by overlapping adjacent coils to give zero mutual inductance, hence zero interaction, and (b) by attaching low input impedance preamplifiers to all coils, thus eliminating interference among next nearest and more distant neighbors. We derive an algorithm for combining the data from the phased array elements to yield an image with optimum SNR. Other techniques which are easier to implement at the cost of lower SNR are explored. Phased array imaging is demonstrated with high resolution (512 x 512, 48-cm FOV, and 32-cm FOV) spin-echo images of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Data were acquired from four-element linear spine arrays, the first made of 12-cm square coils and the second made of 8-cm square coils. When compared with images from a single 15 x 30-cm rectangular coil and identical imaging parameters, the phased array yields a 2X and 3X higher SNR at the depth of the spine (approximately 7 cm). PMID:2266841

  12. On phase reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung-Min

    This thesis focuses on the mathematical analysis of the optical phase reconstruction problem. Phase information of light waves has played an important role in many optical applications. However, the phase function of a light wave cannot be measured directly. In 1983, Teague proposed the idea of an intensity senor for measuring phase functions of light waves. It uses an elliptic partial differential equation called the Transport of Intensity Equation (TIE), which relates intensity to the phase function of a light wave. Teague's study was followed by Roddier and others. When intensity decreases to zero at the boundary, the equation has singularity since the diffusion coefficient vanishes. In 1996, Gureyev and Nugent claimed that no boundary conditions are needed for getting a unique solution of the TIE in this singular case. We present in this thesis the theoretical analysis of the necessity of boundary conditions for solving the TIE. A hybrid theoretical-numerical boundary condition is also derived for solving the TIE numerically in the case of vanishing intensity at the boundary. Numerical tests and optical simulations over discs verified the potency of this theoretical-numerical hybrid boundary condition and the algorithm. Another approach studied is the Weighted Least Action Principle (WLAP), which is proposed by Rubinstein and Wolansky in the year 2004. The WLAP states a variational principle for finding the light rays mapping between two planes using the intensity profiles on the planes, and it writes the problem of phase reconstruction in the functional form. Minimizing the associated functional, we obtain the ray mapping of the light wave in question. The phase function can be derived from the optimized ray mapping. A numerical algorithm was designed to carry out the process. Simulations and tests are reported to show the feasibility of the methods proposed.

  13. Digital phase-lock loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Jr., Jess B. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved digital phase lock loop incorporates several distinctive features that attain better performance at high loop gain and better phase accuracy. These features include: phase feedback to a number-controlled oscillator in addition to phase rate; analytical tracking of phase (both integer and fractional cycles); an amplitude-insensitive phase extractor; a more accurate method for extracting measured phase; a method for changing loop gain during a track without loss of lock; and a method for avoiding loss of sampled data during computation delay, while maintaining excellent tracking performance. The advantages of using phase and phase-rate feedback are demonstrated by comparing performance with that of rate-only feedback. Extraction of phase by the method of modeling provides accurate phase measurements even when the number-controlled oscillator phase is discontinuously updated.

  14. Z(2) gauge neural network and its phase structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takafuji, Yusuke; Nakano, Yuki; Matsui, Tetsuo

    2012-11-01

    We study general phase structures of neural-network models that have Z(2) local gauge symmetry. The Z(2) spin variable Si=±1 on the i-th site describes a neuron state as in the Hopfield model, and the Z(2) gauge variable J=±1 describes a state of the synaptic connection between j-th and i-th neurons. The gauge symmetry allows for a self-coupling energy among J’s such as JJJ, which describes reverberation of signals. Explicitly, we consider the three models; (I) an annealed model with full and partial connections of J, (II) a quenched model with full connections where J is treated as a slow quenched variable, and (III) a quenched three-dimensional lattice model with the nearest-neighbor connections. By numerical simulations, we examine their phase structures paying attention to the effect of the reverberation term, and compare them with each other and with the annealed 3D lattice model which has been studied beforehand. By noting the dependence of thermodynamic quantities upon the total number of sites and the connectivity among sites, we obtain a coherent interpretation to understand these results. Among other things, we find that the Higgs phase of the annealed model is separated into two stable spin-glass phases in the quenched models (II) and (III).

  15. EUCLIDES: first phase completed!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benschop, Jos P.; Dinger, Udo; Ockwell, David C.

    2000-07-01

    The Extreme UV Concept Lithography Development System (EUCLIDES) program headed by ASM Lithography (ASML), partnered with Carl Zeiss and Oxford Instruments is evaluating EUV lithography for its viability at resolutions of 70 nm and below. From August 1998 through February 2000 the first phase was done. In this phase, the core technologies necessary to demonstrate the technical solutions for the list of possible EUV lithography 'showstoppers' have been developed. This includes: (1) Mirror substrates, (2) High reflectivity multi- layer coatings, (3) Resist outgassing reduction schemes, (4) Vacuum stages. A synchrotron source design was developed to compare synchrotron sources with plasma sources. The consortium also investigated the total system architecture to make sure the system concept meets the requirements of the semiconductor industry at an acceptable cost of ownership. In this paper, an overview of the program objectives is given, followed by an overview of highlights obtained by the various program partners and subcontractors throughout the first phase. Finally, the European partner's plan for the next phase is shown (working in close collaboration with other international consortia). This next phase will eventually lead to EUVL production tools.

  16. Two-phase flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert R.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental program to characterize the spray from candidate nozzles for icing-cloud simulation is discussed. One canidate nozzle, which is currently used for icing research, has been characterized for flow and drop size. The median-volume diameter (MVD) from this air-assist nozzle is compared with correlations in the literature. The new experimental spray facility is discussed, and the drop-size instruments are discussed in detail. Since there is no absolute standard for drop-size measurements and there are other limitations, such as drop -size range and velocity range, several instruments are used and results are compared. A two-phase model was developed at Pennsylvania State University. The model uses the k-epsilon model of turbulence in the continous phase. Three methods for treating the discrete phase are used: (1) a locally homogeneous flow (LHF) model, (2) a deterministic separated flow (DSF) model, and (3) a stochastic separated flow (SSF) model. In the LHF model both phases have the same velocity and temperature at each point. The DSF model provides interphase transport but ignores the effects of turbulent fluctuations. In the SSF model the drops interact with turbulent eddies whose properties are determined by the k-epsilon turbulence model. The two-phase flow model has been extended to include the effects of evaporation and combustion.

  17. Phasing rectangular apertures.

    PubMed

    Baker, K L; Homoelle, D; Utterback, E; Jones, S M

    2009-10-26

    Several techniques have been developed to phase apertures in the context of astronomical telescopes with segmented mirrors. Phasing multiple apertures, however, is important in a wide range of optical applications. The application of primary interest in this paper is the phasing of multiple short pulse laser beams for fast ignition fusion experiments. In this paper analytic expressions are derived for parameters such as the far-field distribution, a line-integrated form of the far-field distribution that could be fit to measured data, enclosed energy or energy-in-a-bucket and center-of-mass that can then be used to phase two rectangular apertures. Experimental data is taken with a MEMS device to simulate the two apertures and comparisons are made between the analytic parameters and those derived from the measurements. Two methods, fitting the measured far-field distribution to the theoretical distribution and measuring the ensquared energy in the far-field, produced overall phase variance between the 100 measurements of less than 0.005 rad(2) or an RMS displacement of less than 12 nm. PMID:19997175

  18. Single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinn-Chang; Wang, Yung-Shan; Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Lu, Wei-Tso

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface which converts the power from a single-phase utility to three-phase power for a three-phase load. The proposed single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface comprises a bridge-type switch set, a set of three-phase inductors, a transformer set and a set of three-phase capacitors. A current-mode control controls the switching of bridge-type switch set, to generate a set of nonzero-sequence (NZS) currents and a set of zero-sequence (ZS) currents. The transformer set is used to decouple the NZS currents and the ZS currents. The NZS currents are used to generate a high-quality three-phase voltage that supplies power to a three-phase load. The ZS currents flow to the single-phase utility so that the utility current is sinusoidal and in phase with the utility voltage. Accordingly, only a bridge-type switch set is used in the single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface to simply the power circuit. A prototype is developed and tested to verify the performance of the proposed single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface.

  19. Phase trombones with bending

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.D.; Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    The phase shifting trombones considered up to now for SSC application consisted of sets of evenly spaced quadrupoles separated by drift spaces. One such trombone was placed between a dispersion suppressor and a crossing insertion, so that the trombone had zero dispersion. With such trombones, it is possible to change {beta}{sup *} at constant tune, or to change the tunes by several units without altering the cell phase advances in the arcs. An objection to the above type of phase trombone is that it adds to the circumference, since no bending is included. This objection may or may not be valid depending on the potential usefulness of the drift spaces in them. In this note the authors show an alternative trombone design in which dipoles are included between the quadrupoles as in the normal arc cells. Since these trombones have dispersion, they are placed at the ends of the arcs, to be followed in turn by the dispersion suppressors and crossing insertions.

  20. Controllable tomography phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Peng; Zhou, Xin; Kuang, Cuifang; Xu, Yingke; Liu, Xu

    2015-03-01

    Tomography phase microscopy (TPM) is a new microscopic method that can quantitatively yield the volumetric 3D distribution of a sample's refractive index (RI), which is significant for cell biology research. In this paper, a controllable TPM system is introduced. In this system a circulatory phase-shifting method and piezoelectric ceramic are used which enable the TPM system to record the 3D RI distribution at a more controllable speed, from 1 to 40 fps, than in the other TPM systems reported. The resolution of the RI distribution obtained by this controllable TPM is much better than that in images recorded by phase contrast microscopy and interference tomography microscopy. The realization of controllable TPM not only allows for the application of TPM to the measurement of kinds of RI sample, but also contributes to academic and technological support for the practical use of TPM.

  1. Phase insensitive acoustoelectric transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Conventional ultrasonic transducers transform acoustic waves into electrical signals preserving phase and amplitude information. When the acoustic wavelength is significantly smaller than the transducer diameter, severe phase modulation of the electrical signal can occur. This results in anomalous attenuation measurements, background noise in nondestructive evaluation, and in general complicates data interpretation. This article describes and evaluates a phase-insensitive transducer based on the acoustoelectric effect. Theory of operation of the acoustoelectric transducer (AET) is discussed, and some optimization procedures outlined for its use. Directivity data for the AET are contrasted with a conventional piezoelectric transducer. In addition, transmission scanning data of phantom flaws in metal plates are presented for both transducers and demonstrate a significant improvement in resolution with the AET.

  2. Electroweak phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.W.

    1991-09-16

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

  3. Electroweak phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.W.

    1991-09-16

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

  4. Electroweak Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gregory Wayne

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles, and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, _ {T}, is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially sensitive function of T. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase T so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal extensions of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field. Semi-classical reasoning suggests that, when a particle receives a contribution to its mass from the vacuum expectation value of a scalar, under certain conditions, the ground state of particle number one contains a 'dimple' or shallow scalar field condensate around the particle. We argue that this is not the case. A careful analysis, taking into account quantum mechanics, shows that the semi-classical approximation is a poor one. We find that there are no energetically favored one-particle dimple solutions for perturbative couplings.

  5. Compressive phase contrast tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, F.; MacDowell, A.; Marchesini, S.; Padmore, H. A.; Parkinson, D. Y.; Pien, J.; Schirotzek, A.; Yang, C.

    2010-08-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. Interference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher contrast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  6. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Maia, Filipe; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Padmore, Howard A.; Parkinson, Dula Y.; Pien, Jack; Schirotzek, Andre; Yang, Chao

    2010-09-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. Interference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher contrast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  7. Quantum phase slip noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum phase slips (QPSs) generate voltage fluctuations in superconducting nanowires. Employing the Keldysh technique and making use of the phase-charge duality arguments, we develop a theory of QPS-induced voltage noise in such nanowires. We demonstrate that quantum tunneling of the magnetic flux quanta across the wire yields quantum shot noise which obeys Poisson statistics and is characterized by a power-law dependence of its spectrum SΩ on the external bias. In long wires, SΩ decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T →0 . The quantum coherent nature of QPS noise yields nonmonotonous dependence of SΩ on T at small Ω .

  8. Linear phase compressive filter

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-06-06

    A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line. 2 figs.

  9. Linear phase compressive filter

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line.

  10. GAS PHASE EXPOSURE HISTORY DERIVED FROM MATERIAL PHASE CONCENTRATION PROFILES USING SOLID PHASE MICRO-EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Identifier: F8P31059
    Title: Gas Phase Exposure History Derived from Material Phase Concentration Profiles Using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction
    Fellow (Principal Investigator): Jonathan Lewis McKinney
    Institution: University of Missouri - ...

  11. Phase interpolation circuits using frequency multiplication for phased arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caron, P. R.; Mailloux, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    Antenna phasing circuit is described with the following advantages - 1/ increased number of phased elements, 2/ current repetition for each array element, 3/ circuit simplicity, and 4/ accurate phase interpolation. This circuit functions with Huggins Scan or with nearly any other phasing system.

  12. Suppressing phase errors from vibration in phase-shifting interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Deck, Leslie L.

    2009-07-10

    A general method for reducing the influence of vibrations in phase-shifting interferometry corrects the surface phase map through a spectral analysis of a ''phase-error pattern,'' a plot of the interference intensity versus the measured phase, for each phase-shifted image. The method is computationally fast, applicable to any phase-shifting algorithm and interferometer geometry, has few restrictions on surface shape, and unlike spatial Fourier methods, high density spatial carrier fringes are not required, although at least a fringe of phase departure is recommended. Over a 100x reduction in vibrationally induced surface distortion is achieved for small amplitude vibrations on real data.

  13. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22202 Section 57.22202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22202 Section 57.22202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for...

  15. Fun with Phase Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, David

    2006-01-01

    A lot of good elementary science involves studying solids, liquids, and gases, and some inquiry-based activities that are easy to set up and do. In this article, the author presents activities pertaining to simple phase change. Using water as the example, these activities introduce upper-grade students to the idea of the arrangement of molecules…

  16. Temperature stabilized phase detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The construction, tests, and performance of a temperature stabilized phase detector are discussed. It has a frequency stability of 5 parts in 10 to the 16th power at 100 MHz, with a temperature step of 20 C (15 to 35 C).

  17. Apodized Phase Mask Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotti, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Among the optical instruments proposed to detect and characterize exoplanets, phase masks coronagraphs offer very small inner working angles. Designed for off-axis telescopes, their performance is greatly reduced when used with centrally obstructed apertures such as those of the Palomar telescope, the very large telescope, or the James Webb space telescope. However, a clear circular aperture is not the only pupil shape for which a phase mask coronagraph can work properly. In fact, for a given centrally obstructed aperture, we show that it is possible to compute optimal apodizers that help achieve stellar extinction levels similar to those obtained in the ideal case of an off-axis telescope. Trade-offs exist between these levels, the transmission of the apodizer, and the area covered by the Lyot stop. We detail the Fourier optics formalism that makes these optimizations possible, as well as a few examples of shaped pupils. Some are designed for a four-quadrants phase mask, and some others for a vortex phase mask. We also offer a comparison with a coronagraph solely composed of a shaped pupil.

  18. SSIP Phase I Roadmap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinh, Megan; Lucas, Anne; Taylor, Cornelia; Kelley, Grace; Kasprzak, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This roadmap provides a description of the activities involved in the development of the State Systemic Improvement Plan (SSIP) (SPP/APR Indicators C11 and B17) due to the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) on April 1, 2015. The roadmap is intended to support states with completing Phase I of the SSIP process. This document provides…

  19. Soviet phase conjugation research

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.A.; Boyd, R.W.; Klein, M.B.; Kurnit, N.A.; Milonni, P.W.; Rockwell, D.A.; Yeh, P.

    1990-09-01

    Optical phase conjugation is a Soviet-discovered technique that applies nonlinear optical effects to automatically manipulate laser beams while automatically correcting for arbitrary distortions. Optical phase conjugation can aid in providing improved configurations for average-power and high-peak-power laser systems; it can provide nearly automatic pointing and tracking laser systems; and it can provide many other practical applications (both military and nonmilitary). Here it is important to note that 100- to 1000-watt systems are also of significant importance, not just ultra-high-energy or high-power lasers designed to do significant structural damage at significant distances. One class of phase conjugation techniques, namely, stimulated Brillouin scattering, along with its four-wave mixing counterpart, Brillioun-enhanced four-wave mixing, has been the hallmark of the Soviet effort -- with nearly all contributions (both theoretical and experimental) arising from the Soviet Union. Both stimulated Brillouin scattering and Brillouin-enhanced four-wave mixing arise from the same electrostrictive nonlinearity, where the presence of a gradient in the optical intensity produces a force on the fluid. Scientists in the United States started studying optical phase conjugation approximately five years after Soviet scientists, and initially concentrated on areas quite different from those of Soviet emphasis.

  20. Phase change compositions

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1989-01-01

    Compositions containing crystalline, straight chain, alkyl hydrocarbons as phase change materials including cementitious compositions containing the alkyl hydrocarbons neat or in pellets or granules formed by incorporating the alkyl hydrocarbons in polymers or rubbers; and polymeric or elastomeric compositions containing alkyl hydrocarbons.

  1. Phase change compositions

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    Compositions containing crystalline, long chain, alkyl hydrocarbons as phase change materials including cementitious compositions containing the alkyl hydrocarbons neat or in pellets or granules formed by incorporating the alkyl hydrocarbons in polymers or rubbers; and polymeric or elastomeric compositions containing alkyl hydrocarbons.

  2. Low gravity phase separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, G. F.; Pope, W. L.; Smith, L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus is described for phase separating a gas-liquid mixture as might exist in a subcritical cryogenic helium vessel for cooling a superconducting magnet at low gravity such as in planetary orbit, permitting conservation of the liquid and extended service life of the superconducting magnet.

  3. Semiconductor Laser Phased Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.

    1985-01-01

    Oscillations synchronized and modulated individually for beam steering. Phased array of GaAs infrared lasers put out powerful electronically-steerable coherent beam. Fabricated as integrated circuit on GaAs chip, new device particularly suited to optical communications, optical data processing and optical detection and ranging systems.

  4. DELTA PHASE PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Cramer, E.M.; Ellinger, F.H.; Land. C.C.

    1960-03-22

    Delta-phase plutonium alloys were developed suitable for use as reactor fuels. The alloys consist of from 1 to 4 at.% zinc and the balance plutonium. The alloys have good neutronic, corrosion, and fabrication characteristics snd possess good dimensional characteristics throughout an operating temperature range from 300 to 490 deg C.

  5. Advanced Virgo phase cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schaaf, L.; Agatsuma, K.; van Beuzekom, M.; Gebyehu, M.; van den Brand, J.

    2016-05-01

    A century after the prediction of gravitational waves, detectors have reached the sensitivity needed to proof their existence. One of them, the Virgo interferometer in Pisa, is presently being upgraded to Advanced Virgo (AdV) and will come into operation in 2016. The power stored in the interferometer arms raises from 20 to 700 kW. This increase is expected to introduce higher order modes in the beam, which could reduce the circulating power in the interferometer, limiting the sensitivity of the instrument. To suppress these higher-order modes, the core optics of Advanced Virgo is equipped with a thermal compensation system. Phase cameras, monitoring the real-time status of the beam constitute a critical component of this compensation system. These cameras measure the phases and amplitudes of the laser-light fields at the frequencies selected to control the interferometer. The measurement combines heterodyne detection with a scan of the wave front over a photodetector with pin-hole aperture. Three cameras observe the phase front of these laser sidebands. Two of them monitor the in-and output of the interferometer arms and the third one is used in the control of the aberrations introduced by the power recycling cavity. In this paper the working principle of the phase cameras is explained and some characteristic parameters are described.

  6. Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basinger, Scott A.; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa; Cohen, David; Green, Joseph J.; Lou, John; Ohara, Catherine; Redding, David; Shi, Fang

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval software uses the Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm, an image-based sensing method that can turn any focal plane science instrument into a wavefront sensor, avoiding the need to use external metrology equipment. Knowledge of the wavefront enables intelligent control of active optical systems.

  7. String mediated phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, ED; Haws, D.; Rivers, R.; Holbraad, S.

    1988-01-01

    It is demonstrated from first principles how the existence of string-like structures can cause a system to undergo a phase transition. In particular, the role of topologically stable cosmic string in the restoration of spontaneously broken symmetries is emphasized. How the thermodynamic properties of strings alter when stiffness and nearest neighbor string-string interactions are included is discussed.

  8. Mentoring Phases and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Georgia T.

    1997-01-01

    Data from 178 proteges supported Kram's model of mentoring phases: initiation, cultivation, separation, and redefinition. Data from 82 current and 69 former proteges were compared to those from 93 who were never mentored. Mentees had better career outcomes, organizational socialization, and job satisfaction; those not mentored had slightly higher…

  9. Introduction to phasing

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Garry L.

    2010-01-01

    When collecting X-ray diffraction data from a crystal, we measure the intensities of the diffracted waves scattered from a series of planes that we can imagine slicing through the crystal in all directions. From these intensities we derive the amplitudes of the scattered waves, but in the experiment we lose the phase information; that is, how we offset these waves when we add them together to reconstruct an image of our molecule. This is generally known as the ‘phase problem’. We can only derive the phases from some knowledge of the molecular structure. In small-molecule crystallography, some basic assumptions about atomicity give rise to relationships between the amplitudes from which phase information can be extracted. In protein crystallography, these ab initio methods can only be used in the rare cases in which there are data to at least 1.2 Å resolution. For the majority of cases in protein crystallography phases are derived either by using the atomic coordinates of a structurally similar protein (molecular replacement) or by finding the positions of heavy atoms that are intrinsic to the protein or that have been added (methods such as MIR, MIRAS, SIR, SIRAS, MAD, SAD or com­binations of these). The pioneering work of Perutz, Kendrew, Blow, Crick and others developed the methods of isomorphous replacement: adding electron-dense atoms to the protein without disturbing the protein structure. Nowadays, methods from small-molecule crystallography can be used to find the heavy-atom substructure and the phases for the whole protein can be bootstrapped from this prior knowledge. More recently, improved X-ray sources, detectors and software have led to the routine use of anomalous scattering to obtain phase information from either incorporated selenium or intrinsic sulfurs. In the best cases, only a single set of X-ray data (SAD) is required to provide the positions of the anomalous scatters, which together with density-modification procedures can reveal

  10. A scoring system based on artificial neural network for predicting 10-year survival in stage II A colon cancer patients after radical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wu; Lu, Shi-Xun; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Li, Pei-Xing; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 20% patients with stage II A colon cancer will develop recurrent disease post-operatively. The present study aims to develop a scoring system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for predicting 10-year survival outcome. The clinical and molecular data of 117 stage II A colon cancer patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were used for training set and test set; poor pathological grading (score 49), reduced expression of TGFBR2 (score 33), over-expression of TGF-β (score 45), MAPK (score 32), pin1 (score 100), β-catenin in tumor tissue (score 50) and reduced expression of TGF-β in normal mucosa (score 22) were selected as the prognostic risk predictors. According to the developed scoring system, the patients were divided into 3 subgroups, which were supposed with higher, moderate and lower risk levels. As a result, for the 3 subgroups, the 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 16.7%, 62.9% and 100% (P < 0.001); and the 10-year disease free survival (DFS) rates were 16.7%, 61.8% and 98.8% (P < 0.001) respectively. It showed that this scoring system for stage II A colon cancer could help to predict long-term survival and screen out high-risk individuals for more vigorous treatment. PMID:27008710

  11. Phase Operator and Phase State in Thermo Field Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hong-Yi; Jiang, Nian-Quan

    We extend the Susskind-Glogower phase operator and phase state in quantum optics to thermo field dynamics (TFD). Based on the thermo entangled state representation, we introduce thermo excitation and de-excitation operators with which the phase operator and phase state in TFD can be constructed. The phase state treated as a limiting case of a new SU(1, 1) coherent states is also exhibited.

  12. FM stars II: a Fourier view of pulsating binary stars - determining binary orbital parameters photometrically for highly eccentric cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibahashi, Hiromoto; Kurtz, Donald W.; Murphy, Simon J.

    2015-07-01

    Continuous and precise space-based photometry has made it possible to measure the orbital frequency modulation of pulsating stars in binary systems with extremely high precision over long time spans. Frequency modulation caused by binary orbital motion manifests itself as a multiplet with equal spacing of the orbital frequency in the Fourier transform. The amplitudes and phases of the peaks in these multiplets reflect the orbital properties, hence the orbital parameters can be extracted by analysing such precise photometric data alone. We derive analytically the theoretical relations between the multiplet properties and the orbital parameters, and present a method for determining these parameters, including the eccentricity and the argument of periapsis, from a quintuplet or a higher order multiplet. This is achievable with the photometry alone, without spectroscopic radial velocity measurements. We apply this method to Kepler mission data of KIC 8264492, KIC 9651065, and KIC 10990452, each of which is shown to have an eccentricity exceeding 0.5. Radial velocity curves are also derived from the Kepler photometric data. We demonstrate that the results are in good agreement with those obtained by another technique based on the analysis of the pulsation phases.

  13. Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schuknecht, Nate; White, David; Hoste, Graeme

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  14. Multicomponent three-phase equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.K.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents the relations that describe thermodynamic equilibrium in a three-phase system. Multiple components, including air, water, and oil components, are considered in three phases: (1) aqueous, (2) oil, and (3) gas. Primary variables are specified for each of seven possible phase combinations. These primary variables are then used to determine the necessary secondary variables to completely describe the system. Criteria are also developed to check the stability of each phase configuration and determine possible transitions from one phase configuration to another phase configuration via phase appearances and disappearances.

  15. Noisy quantum phase communication channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teklu, Berihu; Trapani, Jacopo; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2015-06-01

    We address quantum phase channels, i.e communication schemes where information is encoded in the phase-shift imposed to a given signal, and analyze their performances in the presence of phase diffusion. We evaluate mutual information for coherent and phase-coherent signals, and for both ideal and realistic phase receivers. We show that coherent signals offer better performances than phase-coherent ones, and that realistic phase channels are effective ones in the relevant regime of low energy and large alphabets.

  16. Phase diagram of neutral quark matter in nonlocal chiral quark models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Dumm, D.; Blaschke, D. B.; Grunfeld, A. G.; Scoccola, N. N.

    2006-06-01

    We consider the phase diagram of two-flavor quark matter under neutron star constraints for two nonlocal, covariant quark models within the mean-field approximation. In the first case (Model I) the nonlocality arises from the regularization procedure, motivated by the instanton liquid model, whereas in the second one (Model II) a separable approximation of the one-gluon exchange interaction is applied. We find that Model II predicts a larger quark mass gap and a chiral symmetry breaking (CSB) phase transition line which extends 15 20% further into the phase diagram spanned by temperature (T) and chemical potential (μ). The corresponding critical temperature at μ=0, Tc(0)≃140MeV, is in better accordance to recent lattice QCD results than the prediction of the standard local NJL model, which exceeds 200 MeV. For both Model I and Model II we have considered various coupling strengths in the scalar diquark channel, showing that different low-temperature quark matter phases can occur at intermediate densities: a normal quark matter (NQM) phase, a two-flavor superconducting (2SC) quark matter phase and a mixed 2SC-NQM phase. Although in most cases there is also a gapless 2SC phase, this occurs in general in a small region at nonzero temperatures, thus its effect should be negligible for compact star applications.

  17. Phase-field modeling of multi-phase solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestler, Britta; Wheeler, Adam A.

    2002-08-01

    A phase-field model for a general class of multi-phase metallic alloys is now proposed which describes both multi-phase solidification phenomena as well as polycrystalline grain structures. The model serves as a computational method to simulate the motion and kinetics of multiple phase boundaries and enables the visualization of the diffusion processes and of the phase transitions in multi-phase systems. Numerical simulations are presented which illustrate the capability of the phase-field model to recover a variety of complex experimental growth structures. In particular, the phase-field model can be used to simulate microstructure evolutions in eutectic, peritectic and monotectic alloys. In addition, polycrystalline grain structures with effects such as wetting, grain growth, symmetry properties of adjacent triple junctions in thin film samples and stability criteria at multiple junctions are described by phase-field simulations.

  18. Spatial Phase Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Frequently, scientists grow crystals by dissolving a protein in a specific liquid solution, and then allowing that solution to evaporate. The methods used next have been, variously, invasive (adding a dye that is absorbed by the protein), destructive (crushing protein/salt-crystal mixtures and observing differences between the crushing of salt and protein), or costly and time-consuming (X-ray crystallography). In contrast to these methods, a new technology for monitoring protein growth, developed in part through NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding from Marshall Space Flight Center, is noninvasive, nondestructive, rapid, and more cost effective than X-ray analysis. The partner for this SBIR, Photon-X, Inc., of Huntsville, Alabama, developed spatial phase imaging technology that can monitor crystal growth in real time and in an automated mode. Spatial phase imaging scans for flaws quickly and produces a 3-D structured image of a crystal, showing volumetric growth analysis for future automated growth.

  19. High power phase shifter

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, B.; Gonin, I.; Khabiboulline, T.; Makarov, A.; Solyak, N.; Terechkine, I.; Wildman, D.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    One of the approaches to power distribution system of a superconducting proton linac under discussion at FNAL requires development of a fast-action, megawatt-range phase shifter. Using a couple of this kind of devices with a waveguide hybrid junction can allow independent control of phase and amplitude of RF power at the input of each superconducting cavity, which will result in significant saving in number of klystrons and modulators required for the accelerator. A prototype of a waveguide version of the shifter that uses Yttrium-Iron Garnet (YIG) blocks was developed and tested. This report presents design concept of the device, and main results of simulation and proof-of-principle tests.

  20. Phase shifting diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    1996-01-01

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

  1. Phase shifting interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, G.E.

    1999-08-03

    An interferometer is disclosed which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of {lambda}/1000 where {lambda} is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about {lambda}/50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. Whereas current interferometers illuminate the optic to be tested with an aberrated wavefront which also limits the accuracy of the measurement, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical measurement wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms. 11 figs.

  2. Phase shifting interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    1999-01-01

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. Whereas current interferometers illuminate the optic to be tested with an aberrated wavefront which also limits the accuracy of the measurement, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical measurement wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

  3. Phase shifting diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, G.E.

    1996-08-29

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of {lambda}/1000 where {lambda} is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about {lambda}/50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms. 8 figs.

  4. Optically interconnected phased arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Kunath, Richard R.

    1988-01-01

    Phased-array antennas are required for many future NASA missions. They will provide agile electronic beam forming for communications and tracking in the range of 1 to 100 GHz. Such phased arrays are expected to use several hundred GaAs monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) as transmitting and receiving elements. However, the interconnections of these elements by conventional coaxial cables and waveguides add weight, reduce flexibility, and increase electrical interference. Alternative interconnections based on optical fibers, optical processing, and holography are under evaluation as possible solutions. In this paper, the current status of these techniques is described. Since high-frequency optical components such as photodetectors, lasers, and modulators are key elements in these interconnections, their performance and limitations are discussed.

  5. Phase calibration generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, E. H.

    1988-01-01

    A phase calibration system was developed for the Deep Space Stations to generate reference microwave comb tones which are mixed in with signals received by the antenna. These reference tones are used to remove drifts of the station's receiving system from the detected data. This phase calibration system includes a cable stabilizer which transfers a 20 MHz reference signal from the control room to the antenna cone. The cable stabilizer compensates for delay changes in the long cable which connects its control room subassembly to its antenna cone subassembly in such a way that the 20 MHz is transferred to the cone with no significant degradation of the hydrogen maser atomic clock stability. The 20 MHz reference is used by the comb generator and is also available for use as a reference for receiver LO's in the cone.

  6. Phase-Measuring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    System developed and used at Langley Research Center measures phase between two signals of same frequency or between two signals, one of which is harmonic multiple of other. Simple and inexpensive device combines digital and analog components to give accurate phase measurements. One signal at frequency f fed to pulse shaper, produces negative pulse at time t4. Pulse applied to control input of sample-and-hold module 1. Second signal, at frequency nf, fed to zero-crossover amplifier, producing square wave at time t. Signal drives first one-shot producing narrow negative pulse at t1. Signal then drives second one-shot producing narrow positive pulse at time t2. This pulse used to turn on solid-state switch and reset integrator circuit to zero.

  7. Measurement by phase severance

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1987-03-01

    It is claimed that the measurement process is more accurately described by ''quasi-local phase severance'' than by ''wave function collapse''. The approach starts from the observation that the usual route to quantum mechanics starting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equations throws away half the degrees of freedom, namely, the classical initial state parameters. To overcome this difficulty, the full set of Hamilton-Jacobi equations is interpreted as operator equations acting on a state vector. The measurement theory presented is based on the conventional S-matrix boundary condition of N/sub A/ free particles in the distant past and N/sub B/ free particles in the distant future and taking the usual free particle wave functions, multiplied by phase factors.

  8. Emergence and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikkema, Arnold

    2006-05-01

    Phase transitions are well defined in physics through concepts such as spontaneous symmetry breaking, order parameter, entropy, and critical exponents. But emergence --- also exhibiting whole-part relations (such as top-down influence), unpredictability, and insensitivity to microscopic detail --- is a loosely-defined concept being used in many disciplines, particularly in psychology, biology, philosophy, as well as in physics[1,2]. I will review the concepts of emergence as used in the various fields and consider the extent to which the methods of phase transitions can clarify the usefulness of the concept of emergence both within the discipline of physics and beyond.1. Robert B. Laughlin, A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down (New York: Basic Books, 2005). 2. George F.R. Ellis, ``Physics and the Real World'', Physics Today, vol. 58, no. 7 (July 2005) pp. 49-54.

  9. Phase space quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaszak, Maciej; Domański, Ziemowit

    2012-02-01

    This paper develops an alternative formulation of quantum mechanics known as the phase space quantum mechanics or deformation quantization. It is shown that the quantization naturally arises as an appropriate deformation of the classical Hamiltonian mechanics. More precisely, the deformation of the point-wise product of observables to an appropriate noncommutative ⋆-product and the deformation of the Poisson bracket to an appropriate Lie bracket are the key elements in introducing the quantization of classical Hamiltonian systems. The formalism of the phase space quantum mechanics is presented in a very systematic way for the case of any smooth Hamiltonian function and for a very wide class of deformations. The considered class of deformations and the corresponding ⋆-products contains as a special case all deformations which can be found in the literature devoted to the subject of the phase space quantum mechanics. Fundamental properties of ⋆-products of observables, associated with the considered deformations are presented as well. Moreover, a space of states containing all admissible states is introduced, where the admissible states are appropriate pseudo-probability distributions defined on the phase space. It is proved that the space of states is endowed with a structure of a Hilbert algebra with respect to the ⋆-multiplication. The most important result of the paper shows that developed formalism is more fundamental than the axiomatic ordinary quantum mechanics which appears in the presented approach as the intrinsic element of the general formalism. The equivalence of two formulations of quantum mechanics is proved by observing that the Wigner-Moyal transform has all properties of the tensor product. This observation allows writing many previous results found in the literature in a transparent way, from which the equivalence of the two formulations of quantum mechanics follows naturally. In addition, examples of a free particle and a simple harmonic

  10. Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Brett Anthony

    2015-11-01

    For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.

  11. Solid phase extraction membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Kurt C; Langer, Roger L

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  12. Photoinduced phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Bennemann, K H

    2011-02-23

    Optically induced ultrafast electronic excitations with sufficiently long lifetimes may cause strong effects on phase transitions like structural and nonmetal→metal ones and on supercooling, supersaturation, etc. Examples are the transitions diamond→graphite, graphite→graphene, non-metal→metal, solid→liquid and vapor→liquid, solid. Photoinduced formation of graphene and water condensation of saturated or supersaturated vapor due to increased bonding amongst water molecules are of particular interest. These nonequilibrium transitions are an ultrafast response, on a few hundred fs time scale, to the fast low to large energy electronic excitations. The energy of the photons is converted into electronic energy via electronic excitations changing the cohesive energy. This changes the chemical potential controlling the phase transition. In view of the advances in laser optics photon induced transitions are expected to become an active area in nonequilibrium physics and phase transition dynamics. Conservation laws like energy or angular momentum conservation control the time during which the transitions occur. Since the photon induced effects result from weakening or strengthening of the bonding between the atoms or molecules transitions like solid/liquid, etc can be shifted in both directions. Photoinduced transitions will be discussed from a unified point of view. PMID:21411879

  13. Compactification on phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelady, Benjamin; Wheeler, James

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge for string theory is to understand the dimensional reduction required for comparison with the standard model. We propose reducing the dimension of the compactification by interpreting some of the extra dimensions as the energy-momentum portion of a phase-space. Such models naturally arise as generalized quotients of the conformal group called biconformal spaces. By combining the standard Kaluza-Klein approach with such a conformal gauge theory, we may start from the conformal group of an n-dimensional Euclidean space to form a 2n-dimensional quotient manifold with symplectic structure. A pair of involutions leads naturally to two n-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds. For n = 5, this leaves only two extra dimensions, with a countable family of possible compactifications and an SO(5) Yang-Mills field on the fibers. Starting with n=6 leads to 4-dimensional compactification of the phase space. In the latter case, if the two dimensions each from spacetime and momentum space are compactified onto spheres, then there is an SU(2)xSU(2) (left-right symmetric electroweak) field between phase and configuration space and an SO(6) field on the fibers. Such a theory, with minor additional symmetry breaking, could contain all parts of the standard model.

  14. Phases, phase equilibria, and phase rules in low-dimensional systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, T.; Mishin, Y.

    2015-07-28

    We present a unified approach to thermodynamic description of one, two, and three dimensional phases and phase transformations among them. The approach is based on a rigorous definition of a phase applicable to thermodynamic systems of any dimensionality. Within this approach, the same thermodynamic formalism can be applied for the description of phase transformations in bulk systems, interfaces, and line defects separating interface phases. For both lines and interfaces, we rigorously derive an adsorption equation, the phase coexistence equations, and other thermodynamic relations expressed in terms of generalized line and interface excess quantities. As a generalization of the Gibbs phase rule for bulk phases, we derive phase rules for lines and interfaces and predict the maximum number of phases than may coexist in systems of the respective dimensionality.

  15. Phases, phase equilibria, and phase rules in low-dimensional systems.

    PubMed

    Frolov, T; Mishin, Y

    2015-07-28

    We present a unified approach to thermodynamic description of one, two, and three dimensional phases and phase transformations among them. The approach is based on a rigorous definition of a phase applicable to thermodynamic systems of any dimensionality. Within this approach, the same thermodynamic formalism can be applied for the description of phase transformations in bulk systems, interfaces, and line defects separating interface phases. For both lines and interfaces, we rigorously derive an adsorption equation, the phase coexistence equations, and other thermodynamic relations expressed in terms of generalized line and interface excess quantities. As a generalization of the Gibbs phase rule for bulk phases, we derive phase rules for lines and interfaces and predict the maximum number of phases than may coexist in systems of the respective dimensionality. PMID:26233156

  16. Digital phase-locked loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, R. A. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An digital phase-locked loop is provided for deriving a loop output signal from an accumulator output terminal. A phase detecting exclusive OR gate is fed by the loop digital input and output signals. The output of the phase detector is a bi-level digital signal having a duty cycle indicative of the relative phase of the input and output signals. The accumulator is incremented at a first rate in response to a first output level of the phase detector and at a second rate in response to a second output level of the phase detector.

  17. Mechanistic study of the hydrodesulfurization of methanethiol over tungsten disulfide. II. A survey of rare earth sulfides for hydrodesulfurization activity

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, D.Q.

    1985-01-01

    I. Hydrodesulfurization is a process whereby sulfur bound in organic compounds is removed as hydrogen sulfide, and is important to the control of sulfur dioxide emissions in the combustion of petroleum and coal fuels. It involves the cleavage of carbon sulfur bonds, and is catalyzed by layered disulfides such as molybdenum and tungsten disulfide. The simplest example is the reaction CH/sub 3/SH + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/S. The mechanism of even this prototypical reaction is unclear. In an effort to clarify it, the kinetics of methanethiol hydro desulfurization over tungsten disulfide at low pressures was established, with partial pressures of methanethiol and hydrogen varied over a hundred fold. The kinetic order in each reactant was positive when its partial pressure was low, negative when its partial pressure was high. The negative order in hydrogen had not been previously seen. The product gases, methane and hydrogen sulfide, each exhibited negative kinetic orders at high partial pressures, zero kinetic orders at low partial pressures. A dual site Langmuir-Hinshelwood type mechanism, which defines one active site as two adjacent edge sulfur vacancies and the second as a neighboring sulfur atom, describes these results quite well. II. Seventeen rare earth sulfides were surveyed for catalytic activity toward methanethiol hydrodesulfurization. These sulfides included both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric compositions and four different morphologies. In general, nonconductors were inactive and conductors were active. This correlation extended to the nonstoichiometric ..gamma..-phase sesquisulfides which exhibit both insulating and conducting properties.

  18. NGC 147, NGC 185 and CassII: a genetic approach to orbital properties, star formation and tidal debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Veronica; Guglielmo, Magda; Fernando, Nuwanthika; Lewis, Geraint F.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bate, Nicholas F.; Conn, Anthony; Irwin, Mike J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Martin, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    NGC 147, NGC 185 and Cassiopeia II (CassII) have similar positions in the sky, distances and measured line-of-sight velocities. This proximity in phase space suggests that these three satellites of M31 form a subgroup within the Local Group. Nevertheless, the differences in their star formation history and interstellar medium, and the recent discovery of a stellar stream in NGC 147, combined with the lack of tidal features in the other two satellites, are all indications of complex and diverse interactions between M31 and these three satellites. We use a genetic algorithm to explore the different orbits that these satellites can have and select six sets of orbits that could best explain the observational features of the NGC 147, NGC 185 and CassII satellites. The parameters of these orbits are then used as a starting point for N-body simulations. We present models for which NGC 147, NGC 185 and CassII are a bound group for a total time of at least 1 Gyr but still undergo different interactions with M31 and as a result NGC 147 has a clear stellar stream, whereas the other two satellites have no significant tidal features. This result shows that it is possible to find solutions that reproduce the contrasting properties of the satellites and for which NGC 147-NGC 185-CassII have been gravitationally bound.

  19. Detection of satellite remnants in the Galactic Halo with Gaia - II. A modified great circle cell method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateu, C.; Bruzual, G.; Aguilar, L.; Brown, A. G. A.; Valenzuela, O.; Carigi, L.; Velázquez, H.; Hernández, F.

    2011-07-01

    We propose an extension of the great circle cell count streamer finding method of Johnston et al. that can be applied to the future Gaia data base. The original method looks for streamers along great circles in the sky, our extension adds the kinematical restriction that velocity vectors should also be constrained to lie along these great circles, as seen by a Galactocentric observer. We show how to use these combined criteria starting from heliocentric observables. We test it by using the mock Gaia catalogue of Brown et al., which includes a realistic Galactic background and observational errors, but with the addition of detailed star formation histories for the simulated satellites. We investigate its success rate as a function of initial satellite luminosity, star formation history and orbit. We find that the inclusion of the kinematical restriction vastly enhances the contrast between a streamer and the background, even in the presence of observational errors, provided we use only data with good astrometric quality (fractional errors of 30 per cent or better). The global nature of the method diminishes the erasing effect of phase mixing and permits the recovery of merger events of reasonable dynamical age. Satellites with a star formation history different to that of the Galactic background are also better isolated. We find that satellites in the range of 108-109 L⊙ can be recovered even for events as old as ˜10 Gyr. Even satellites with 4-5 × 107 L⊙ can be recovered for certain combinations of dynamical ages and orbits.

  20. Monoclinic phases arising across thermal inter-ferroelectric phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yijia; Xue, Fei; Lei, Shiming; Lummen, Tom T. A.; Wang, Jianjun; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Chen, Long-Qing

    2014-07-01

    Thermotropic phase boundaries (TPBs), as thermal analogs of morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs), are associated with the thermal inter-ferroelectric phase transitions. Similar to an MPB, a TPB exhibits a characteristically flattened energy profile which favors polarization rotation, thus giving rise to a structurally bridging low-symmetry phase. We report on the kinetic process of thermal inter-ferroelectric phase transitions in BaTiO3 and KNbO3 using the phase-field method. The domain structures are found to play key roles in stabilizing the monoclinic phase. In simple domain structures, the monoclinic phase is a transient phase and cannot be stabilized into its neighboring phase regimes. However, by introducing structural inhomogeneity (orthogonal in-plane domain twins), we found that the monoclinic phase can be stabilized over a range of over 100 K across the transition. As a result, the piezoelectric properties are enhanced due to the stabilized monoclinic phase. In addition to the emergence of new piezoelectric components with monoclinic symmetry, most of the original components present in the tetragonal symmetry also show substantial enhancement with the rotation of polarization.

  1. VRA Modeling, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindt, Louis M.; Mullins, Michael E.; Hand, David W.; Kline, Andrew A.

    1995-01-01

    The destruction of organic contaminants in waste water for closed systems, such as that of Space Station, is crucial due to the need for recycling the waste water. A co-current upflow bubble column using oxygen as the gas phase oxidant and packed with catalyst particles consisting of a noble metal on an alumina substrate is being developed for this process. The objective of this study is to develop a plug-flow model that will predict the performance of this three phase reactor system in destroying a multicomponent mixture of organic contaminants in water. Mass balances on a series of contaminants and oxygen in both the liquid and gas phases are used to develop this model. These mass balances incorporate the gas-to-liquid and liquid-to-particle mass transfer coefficients, the catalyst effectiveness factor, and intrinsic reaction rate. To validate this model, a bench scale reactor has been tested at Michigan Technological University at elevated pressures (50-83 psig,) and a temperature range of 200 to 290 F. Feeds consisting of five dilute solutions of ethanol (approx. 10 ppm), chlorobenzene (approx. 20 ppb), formaldehyde (approx. 100 ppb), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO approx. 300 ppb), and urea (approx. 20 ppm) in water were tested individually with an oxygen mass flow rate of 0.009 lb/h. The results from these individual tests were used to develop the kinetic parameter inputs necessary for the computer model. The computer simulated results are compared to the experimental data obtained for all 5 components run in a mixture on the differential test column for a range of reactor contact times.

  2. Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara A.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel M.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Schoolcraft, Josua B.; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton G.; Torgerson, Jordan L.

    2011-01-01

    The Palomar Adaptive Optics System actively corrects for changing aberrations in light due to atmospheric turbulence. However, the underlying internal static error is unknown and uncorrected by this process. The dedicated wavefront sensor device necessarily lies along a different path than the science camera, and, therefore, doesn't measure the true errors along the path leading to the final detected imagery. This is a standard problem in adaptive optics (AO) called "non-common path error." The Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration (APRC) software suite performs automated sensing and correction iterations to calibrate the Palomar AO system to levels that were previously unreachable.

  3. Quantum phase magnification.

    PubMed

    Hosten, O; Krishnakumar, R; Engelsen, N J; Kasevich, M A

    2016-06-24

    Quantum metrology exploits entangled states of particles to improve sensing precision beyond the limit achievable with uncorrelated particles. All previous methods required detection noise levels below this standard quantum limit to realize the benefits of the intrinsic sensitivity provided by these states. We experimentally demonstrate a widely applicable method for entanglement-enhanced measurements without low-noise detection. The method involves an intermediate quantum phase magnification step that eases implementation complexity. We used it to perform squeezed-state metrology 8 decibels below the standard quantum limit with a detection system that has a noise floor 10 decibels above the standard quantum limit. PMID:27339982

  4. Quantum phase magnification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosten, O.; Krishnakumar, R.; Engelsen, N. J.; Kasevich, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum metrology exploits entangled states of particles to improve sensing precision beyond the limit achievable with uncorrelated particles. All previous methods required detection noise levels below this standard quantum limit to realize the benefits of the intrinsic sensitivity provided by these states. We experimentally demonstrate a widely applicable method for entanglement-enhanced measurements without low-noise detection. The method involves an intermediate quantum phase magnification step that eases implementation complexity. We used it to perform squeezed-state metrology 8 decibels below the standard quantum limit with a detection system that has a noise floor 10 decibels above the standard quantum limit.

  5. FNAS phase partitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanalstine, James M.

    1993-01-01

    Project NAS8-36955 D.O. #100 initially involved the following tasks: (1) evaluation of various coatings' ability to control wall wetting and surface zeta potential expression; (2) testing various methods to mix and control the demixing of phase systems; and (3) videomicroscopic investigation of cell partition. Three complementary areas were identified for modification and extension of the original contract. They were: (1) identification of new supports for column cell partition; (2) electrokinetic detection of protein adsorption; and (3) emulsion studies related to bioseparations.

  6. Athena: Assessment Phase Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, David; Ayre, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The Athena mission concept has been proposed by the community in response to science themes of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Unlike other, competitive, mission selection exercises this "Large" class observatory mission has essentially been pre-selected. Nevertheless it has to be demonstrated that Athena meets the programmatic constraints of 1Bn euro cost cap, and a readiness level appropriate for formal mission adoption by the end 2019. This should be confirmed through a Phase A study conducted with two parallel industry activities. We describe the technical and programmatic content of these and latest progress in space and ground segment definition.

  7. Ion Phase Space Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Daniel Peter

    1987-09-01

    Experimental measurements are presented of ion phase space evolution in a collisionless magnetoplasma utilizing nonperturbing laser induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostics. Ion configuration space and velocity space transport, and ion thermodynamic information were derived from the phase space diagrams for the following beam-plasma and obstacle-plasma systems:(UNFORMATTED TABLE OR EQUATION FOLLOWS) OBSTACLE & PLASMA SPECIES qquad disc & quad Ba ^+/e^ qquad disc & quad Ba^+/SF _6^-/e^ BEAM SPECIES & PLASMA SPECIES} qquad Ba^+ & quad Cs^+/e^ qquad Cs^+ & quad Ba^+/e^ qquad Ba^+ & quad Cs^+/SF_6 ^-/e^ qquad e^- & quad Ba^+ /e^ TABLE/EQUATION ENDS The ions were roughly mass symmetric. Plasma systems were reconstructed from multiple discrete Ba(II) ion velocity distributions with spatial, temporal, and velocity resolution of 1 mm^3, 2 musec, and 3 times 1010 cm ^3/sec^3 respectively. Phase space reconstructions indicated resonant ion response to the current-driven electrostatic ion cyclotron wave (EICW) in the case of an electron beam and to the ion cyclotron-cyclotron wave in the case of ion beams. Ion energization was observed in both systems. Local particle kinetic energy densities increase far above thermal levels in the presence of the EICW and ICCW. Time-resolved measurements of the EICW identified phase space particle bunching. The nonlinear evolution of f_{rm i}(x,v,t) was investigated for both beam systems. The near wake of conducting electrically floating disc obstacle was studied. Anomalous cross field diffusion (D_bot > 10 ^4 cm^2/sec) and ion energization were correlated with strong, low-frequency turbulence generated by the obstacle. Ion perpendicular kinetic energy densities doubled over thermal levels in the near wake. Upstream of the obstacle, l ~ 50 lambda_ {rm D}, a collisionless shock was indicated; far downstream, an ion flux peak was observed. Three negative ion plasma (NIP) sources were developed and characterized in the course of research: two

  8. Vapor phase pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    The vapor phase pyrolysis process is designed exclusively for the lunar production of oxygen. In this concept, granulated raw material (soil) that consists almost entirely of metal oxides is vaporized and the vapor is raised to a temperature where it dissociates into suboxides and free oxygen. Rapid cooling of the dissociated vapor to a discrete temperature causes condensation of the suboxides, while the oxygen remains essentially intact and can be collected downstream. The gas flow path and flow rate are maintained at an optimum level by control of the pressure differential between the vaporization region and the oxygen collection system with the aid of the environmental vacuum.

  9. Identification of two major histocompatibility (MH) class II A genes and their association to Vibrio anguillarum infection in half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunmei; Wang, Xubo; Zhang, Quanqi; Wang, Zhigang; Qi, Jie; Yi, Qilin; Liu, Zhipeng; Wang, Yanan; Yu, Haiyang

    2012-03-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II antigens are important in vertebrate immune system. In the present study, the full cDNA sequence of class II A gene was synthesized by RACE-PCR from half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis), and its open reading frame (ORF) polymorphism was studied. The whole cDNA sequence was 992 bp in length, including the ORF with 717 bp. Twenty-five alleles were identified and clustered into two distinct groups according to the specific nucleotides/ amino acids in specific positions. Eleven alleles belonged to Cyse-DAA while fourteen alleles belonged to Cyse-DBA. Four Cyse-DAA alleles were observed in one individual, and three to five Cyse-DBA alleles were observed in each of the three detected individuals, which indicated that at least two loci existed in each gene. Moreover, in order to study the function of the alleles in resistance to infection, 200 individuals were intraperitoneally injected with Vibrio anguillarum and the first 20 dead individuals and 20 surviving ones were selected for genotype analysis. Fifty-six alleles were identified among the 40 individuals. Twenty-nine alleles belonged to Cyse-DAA and the other 27 alleles belonged to Cyse-DBA. Eighteen alleles were selected for studying their function in resistance to infection. Alleles Cyse-DAA*0201, Cyse-DAA*1101, Cyse-DBA*0401, Cyse-DBA*1102, Cyse-DBA*1801 and Cyse-DBA*2201 were identified only in surviving individuals, while alleles Cyse- DAA*0901, Cyse-DBA*1101 and Cyse-DBA*1401 occurred more frequently in dead individuals. This study confirmed the existence and polymorphism of two class II A genes as well as the relationship between alleles of class II A genes and disease susceptibility/ resistance in half-smooth tongue sole.

  10. Analysis of the type II-A CRISPR-Cas system of Streptococcus agalactiae reveals distinctive features according to genetic lineages

    PubMed Central

    Lier, Clément; Baticle, Elodie; Horvath, Philippe; Haguenoer, Eve; Valentin, Anne-Sophie; Glaser, Philippe; Mereghetti, Laurent; Lanotte, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins) are found in 90% of archaea and about 40% of bacteria. In this original system, CRISPR arrays comprise short, almost unique sequences called spacers that are interspersed with conserved palindromic repeats. These systems play a role in adaptive immunity and participate to fight non-self DNA such as integrative and conjugative elements, plasmids, and phages. In Streptococcus agalactiae, a bacterium implicated in colonization and infections in humans since the 1960s, two CRISPR-Cas systems have been described. A type II-A system, characterized by proteins Cas9, Cas1, Cas2, and Csn2, is ubiquitous, and a type I–C system, with the Cas8c signature protein, is present in about 20% of the isolates. Unlike type I–C, which appears to be non-functional, type II-A appears fully functional. Here we studied type II-A CRISPR-cas loci from 126 human isolates of S. agalactiae belonging to different clonal complexes that represent the diversity of the species and that have been implicated in colonization or infection. The CRISPR-cas locus was analyzed both at spacer and repeat levels. Major distinctive features were identified according to the phylogenetic lineages previously defined by multilocus sequence typing, especially for the sequence type (ST) 17, which is considered hypervirulent. Among other idiosyncrasies, ST-17 shows a significantly lower number of spacers in comparison with other lineages. This characteristic could reflect the peculiar virulence or colonization specificities of this lineage. PMID:26124774