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1

Mononuclear phagocyte system responsiveness in CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

In rats with CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis, a twofold decrease of blood clearance rate and a fourfold reduction in number of Kupffer cells taking up colloidal carbon particles has been demonstrated. Zymosan stimulation does not lead to granuloma-like structures in the liver of CCl4-cirrhotic rats. In cirrhotic rats, unlike controls, the cathepsin D activity of liver tissue is very little increased by zymosan treatment and there is virtually no increase in collagenolytic activity. The increase in PGE content in cirrhotic rat liver after prodigiosan stimulation was 2.5 times less than in stimulated control animals. In cirrhotic rats, the IL-1 producing capacity of blood monocytes in vitro in response to lipopolysaccharide drops almost fivefold. The total count of bone marrow-derived myeloid colonies in cirrhotic zymosan-stimulated animals was reduced by 1.5-fold whereas in control animals zymosan induced a 1.8-fold increase in the number of myeloid colonies. The number, uptake and nitroblue tetrazolium-reducing capacities of lung, spleen, peritoneal and bone marrow macrophages in animals with liver cirrhosis were only slightly increased in response to zymosan as compared to control animals. The low response of extrahepatic macrophages to stimuli in cirrhotic animals is thought to be due to their premobilization during the development of cirrhosis. Images Figure 2

Mayanski, D. N.; Schwartz, Y. S.; Kutina, S. N.; Zubakhin, A. A.; Mayanskaya, N. N.; Tsyrendorjiev, D. D.

1993-01-01

2

Coffee prevents CCl 4 -induced liver cirrhosis in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Previous clinical observations suggested that coffee may have beneficial effects on the liver. In fact, an inverse relationship\\u000a between coffee consumption and liver cirrhosis has been reported in humans. However, the causative role of coffee has not\\u000a been established; therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effect of coffee in an experimental model of liver damage.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In

Mario G. Moreno; Enrique Chávez; Liseth R. Aldaba-Muruato; José Segovia; Paula Vergara; Víctor Tsutsumi; Mineko Shibayama; Yadira Rivera-Espinoza; Pablo Muriel

3

Herbal Supplement Ameliorates Cardiac Hypertrophy in Rats with CCl4-Induced Liver Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

We used the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver cirrhosis model to test the molecular mechanism of action involved in cirrhosis-associated cardiac hypertrophy and the effectiveness of Ocimum gratissimum extract (OGE) and silymarin against cardiac hypertrophy. We treated male wistar rats with CCl4 and either OGE (0.02?g/kg B.W. or 0.04?g/kg B.W.) or silymarin (0.2?g/kg B.W.). Cardiac eccentric hypertrophy was induced by CCl4 along with cirrhosis and increased expression of cardiac hypertrophy related genes NFAT, TAGA4, and NBP, and the interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling pathway related genes MEK5, ERK5, JAK, and STAT3. OGE or silymarin co-treatment attenuated CCl4-induced cardiac abnormalities, and lowered expression of genes which were elevated by this hepatotoxin. Our results suggest that the IL-6 signaling pathway may be related to CCl4-induced cardiac hypertrophy. OGE and silymarin were able to lower liver fibrosis, which reduces the chance of cardiac hypertrophy perhaps by lowering the expressions of IL-6 signaling pathway related genes. We conclude that treatment of cirrhosis using herbal supplements is a viable option for protecting cardiac tissues against cirrhosis-related cardiac hypertrophy.

Li, Ping-Chun; Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lin, Yueh-Min; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Hwang, Guang-Yuh; Pai, Peiying; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Kuo, Yu-Chun; Chang, Hsiao-Chuan; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Huang, Chih-Yang

2012-01-01

4

Oxidative stress modulation by Rosmarinus officinalis in CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) possesses antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects, and so may provide a possible therapeutic alternative for chronic liver disease. The effect produced by a methanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis on CCl(4)-induced liver cirrhosis in rats was investigated using both prevention and reversion models. Over the course of the development of cirrhosis, the increased enzymatic activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminotransferase, and the rise in bilirubin levels caused by CCl(4) administration, were prevented by Rosmarinus officinalis co-administration. When the cirrhosis by oxidative stress was evaluated as an increase on liver lipoperoxidation, total lipid peroxides, nitric oxide in serum, and loss of erythrocyte plasma membrane stability, R. officinalis was shown to prevent such alterations. On cirrhotic animals treated with CCl(4), histological studies showed massive necrosis, periportal inflammation and fibrosis which were modified by R. officinalis. These benefits on experimental cirrhosis suggest a potential therapeutic use for R. officinalis as an alternative for liver cirrhosis. PMID:19827016

Gutiérrez, Rosalinda; Alvarado, José L; Presno, Manuel; Pérez-Veyna, Oscar; Serrano, Carmen J; Yahuaca, Patricia

2010-04-01

5

Estrogen reduces CCL4- induced liver fibrosis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: Chronic liver diseases, such as fibrosis or cirrhosis, are more common in men than in women. This gender difference may be related to the effects of sex hormones on the liver. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of estrogen on CCL4-induced fibrosis of the liver in rats. METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in male,

Jun-Wang Xu; Jun Gong; Xin-Ming Chang; Jin-Yan Luo; Lei Dong; Zhi-Ming Hao; Ai Jia; Gui-Ping Xu

2002-01-01

6

Experimental toxic liver damage and hepatic plasma clearance of 99mTc-mebrofenin (iminodiacetate derivative). III. Chronic CCl4-induced liver damage with eventual cirrhosis in rabbits.  

PubMed

Chronic damage to liver parenchyma was induced in rabbits by the long-term administration of carbon tetrachloride. The animals were serially sacrificed 3, 6 and 9 months after the start of intoxication, and examined histopathologically. The biological response was qualitatively assessed from results of histological studies, and measured utilizing series of typical biochemical indices of liver damage, 99mTc-mebrofenin (an-IDA-derivative) plasma clearance by the liver, and quantified indices of uptake and organ transfer of the compound. It was found that the plasma clearance and transfer parameters show association with chronic liver damage. The reduction of plasma 99mTc-mebrofenin clearance in intoxicated rabbits was also associated with changes in the biochemical indices of liver function and damage. PMID:8581333

Kapu?ci?ski, J; Kuroszczyk, J; Liniecki, J; Bie?kiewicz, M; Tuszyner, K

1995-01-01

7

The Prevention of CCl 4Induced Liver Necrosis in Mice by Naturally Occurring Methylenedioxybenzenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylenedioxybenzenes (MDBs) and structurally related alkenylbenzenes were compared for their effectiveness in preventing carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver necrosis in mice. Pretreatment with isosafrole, safrole, dihydrosafrole, and benzodioxole at dosages as low as 10 mg\\/kg significantly prevented the increase in plasma transaminase levels and histochemical changes associated with CCl4-induced liver necrosis, whereas piperonyl butoxide (PBO), eugenol, isoeugenol, sesamol, and curcumin did

Z. Sylvia Zhao; Peter J. O'Brien

1996-01-01

8

Hepatoprotective effect of Cichorium intybus on CCl4- induced liver damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcholic extract of Cichorium intybus (Cichorium intybus) using a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) - induced liver injury in rats. The leaf extract at oral dosage of 200, 400 and 500 mg\\/kg exhibited significant (P<0.05) protective effect against CCl4 induced hepatoxocity. Level of serum markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST),

Sadeghi Heibatollah; Nikbakht Mohammad Reza; Ghaitasi Izadpanah; Sabzali Sohailla

9

Role of the paracrine liver endothelin system in the pathogenesis of CCl 4-induced liver injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed if the paracrine liver endothelin system participates in the pathogenesis of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Wistar Kyoto rats were divided into four groups: a bosentan (mixed endothelin ETA and ETB receptor antagonist) treated group with CCl4 intoxication, a vehicle treated group with CCl4 intoxication, a nontreated control group and a bosentan treated control group. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by determination

Berthold Hocher; Rüdiger Zart; Fritz Diekmann; Torsten Slowinski; Christa Thöne-Reineke; Jens Lutz; Christian Bauer

1995-01-01

10

Inhibitory Effect of TCCE on CCl4-induced Overexpression of IL6 in Acute Liver Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminalia catappa L. leaves have been shown to protect against acute liver injury produced by some hepatotoxicants, but the active components and mechanisms are not clear. This study was designed to characterize the protective effects of the chloroform fraction of the ethanol extract of T. catappa leaves (TCCE) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice, and analyze the changes in

Jing GAO; Huan DOU; Xin-Hui TANG; Li-Zhi XU; Yi-Mei FAN; Xiao-Ning ZHAO

2004-01-01

11

Mechanism investigation of dioscin against CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of the ameliorating effects of dioscin against CCl(4) induced acute liver damage are investigated in this study. Dioscin significantly inhibited (p<0.01) the increases of serum ALT and AST activities compared with the CCl(4)-treated animals. The hepatic lipid peroxidation formation and, concentrations of TNF-? and IL-6 were also decreased. Liver histopathologic studies and a DNA laddering assay indicated that dioscin protected hepatocytes against CCl(4)-induced apoptosis and necrosis. Furthermore, dioscin decreased the protein expressions of Fas/FasL, increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio, inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondrion to cytosol and attenuated CCl(4)-induced caspase-3 and -8 activities. The expressions of ICAM-1, vimentin, prohibitin, HGF, c-MET and GSTA1 were also regulated by dioscin and iNOS was also involved in the effects of this agent. These protective effects against CCl(4) induced acute liver damage might be through inhibiting lipid peroxidation, inflammatory cytokines, necrosis and apoptosis, and dioscin shows promise for development toward the treatment of acute chemically mediated liver injury. PMID:22516057

Lu, Binan; Xu, Yousong; Xu, Lina; Cong, Xiaonan; Yin, Lianhong; Li, Hua; Peng, Jinyong

2012-03-30

12

S-allyl cysteine prevents CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury in rats.  

PubMed

Aged garlic extract (AGE) possesses multiple biological activities. We evaluated the protective effect of S-allyl cysteine (SAC), one of the organosulfur compounds of AGE, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury in rats. SAC was administrated intraperitoneally (50-200 mg/kg). SAC significantly suppressed the increases of plasma ALT and LDH levels. SAC also attenuated histological liver damage. CCl(4) administration induced lipid peroxidation accompanied by increases in the plasma malondialdehyde and hepatic 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal levels, and SAC dose-dependently attenuated these increases. The hepatic total level of hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE), a new oxidative stress biomarker, was closely correlated with the amount of liver damage. These results suggest that SAC decreased CCl(4)-induced liver injury by attenuation of oxidative stress, and may be a better therapeutic tool for chronic liver disease. PMID:17454131

Kodai, Shintaro; Takemura, Shigekazu; Minamiyama, Yukiko; Hai, Seikan; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Kubo, Shoji; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Niki, Etsuo; Okada, Shigeru; Hirohashi, Kazuhiro; Suehiro, Shigefumi

2007-04-01

13

Protective effects of Ziyang tea polysaccharides on CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage in mice.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of the tea polysaccharides (ZTPs) extracted from a selenium-enriched Ziyang green tea (Camellia sinensis). ZTPs were identified as the heteropolysaccharides with glucose (31.4%), arabinose (23.5%) and galactose (21.8%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. ZTPs displayed noteworthy scavenging effects against DPPH, OH and O2(-), and high antioxidant effects in vitro, and the effects were further verified by suppressing CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage in mice at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg BW. Administration of ZTPs in mice prior to CCl4 significantly prevented the CCl4-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactic dehydrogenase, as well as hepatic malondialdehyde level. Mice treated with ZTPs showed normal glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, relative to CCl4-treated group. ZTPs also prevented the CCl4-caused liver histological alteration, as indicated by histopathological evaluation. These findings demonstrate that ZTPs have protective effects against acute CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage. PMID:24054254

Wang, Dongying; Zhao, Yan; Sun, Yanfei; Yang, Xingbin

2013-08-11

14

Effect of compound rhodiola sachalinensis A Bor on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats and its probable molecular mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To explore the anti-fibrotic effect of a traditional Chinese medicine, compound rhodiola sachalinensis A Bor on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats and its probable molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Ninety healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal group (n=10), treatment group of compound rhodiola sachalinensis A Bor (n=40) and CCl4-induced model group (n=40). The liver fibrosis was

Xiao-Ling Wu; Wei-Zheng Zeng; Pi-Long Wang; Chun-Tao Lei; Ming-De Jiang; Xiao-Bin Chen; Yong Zhang; Hui Xu; Zhao Wang

2003-01-01

15

Myrica rubra Extracts Protect the Liver from CCl4-Induced Damage  

PubMed Central

The relationship between the expression of mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) and the protective effects of Myrica rubra Sieb. Et Zucc fruit extract (MCE) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage was investigated. Pretreatment with 50?mg?kg?1, 150?mg?kg?1 or 450?mg?kg?1 MCE significantly blocked the CCl4-induced increase in both serum aspartate aminotransferase (sAST) and serum alanine aminotransferase (sALT) levels in mice (P < .05 or .01 versus CCl4 group). Ultrastructural observations of decreased nuclear condensation, ameliorated mitochondrial fragmentation of the cristae and less lipid deposition by an electron microscope confirmed the hepatoprotection. The mitochondrial membrane potential dropped from ?191.94 ± 8.84?mV to ?132.06 ± 12.26?mV (P < .01) after the mice had been treated with CCl4. MCE attenuated CCl4-induced mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation in a dose-dependent manner. At a dose of 150 or 450?mg?kg?1 of MCE, the mitochondrial membrane potentials were restored (P < .05). Pretreatment with MCE also prevented the elevation of intra-mitochondrial free calcium as observed in the liver of the CCl4-insulted mice (P < .01 versus CCl4 group). In addition, MCE treatment (50–450?mg?kg?1) significantly increased both transcription and translation of VDAC inhibited by CCl4. The above data suggest that MCE mitigates the damage to liver mitochondria induced by CCl4, possibly through the regulation of mitochondrial VDAC, one of the most important proteins in the mitochondrial outer membrane.

Xu, Lizhi; Gao, Jing; Wang, Yucai; Yu, Wen; Zhao, Xiaoning; Yang, Xiaohe; Zhong, Zengtao; Qian, Zhong-Ming

2011-01-01

16

Hepatoprotective effect of syringic acid and vanillic acid on CCl4-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

The mycelia of the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes can be cultured in solid medium containing lignin, and the hot-water extracts (L.E.M.) is commercially available as a nutritional supplement. During the cultivation, phenolic compounds, such as syringic acid and vanillic acid, were produced by lignin-degrading peroxidase secreted from L. edodes mycelia. Since these compounds have radical scavenging activity, we examined their protective effect on oxidative stress in mice with CCl(4)-induced liver injury. We examined the hepatoprotective effect of syringic acid and vanillic acid on CCl(4)-induced chronic liver injury in mice. The injection of CCl(4) into the peritoneal cavity caused an increase in the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The intravenous administration of syringic acid and vanillic acid significantly decreased the levels of the transaminases. Four weeks of CCl(4) treatment caused a sufficiently excessive deposition of collagen fibrils. An examination of Azan-stained liver sections revealed that syringic acid and vanillic acid obviously suppressed collagen accumulation and significantly decreased the hepatic hydroxyproline content, which is the quantitative marker of fibrosis. Both of these compounds inhibited the activation of cultured hepatic stellate cells, which play a central role in liver fibrogenesis, and maintained hepatocyte viability. These data suggest that the administration of syringic acid and vanillic acid could suppress hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver injury. PMID:20522963

Itoh, Ayano; Isoda, Katsuhiro; Kondoh, Masuo; Kawase, Masaya; Watari, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Tamesada, Makoto; Yagi, Kiyohito

2010-01-01

17

Hepatoprotective Effect of Manganese Chloride Against CCl4-Induced Liver Injury in Rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of manganese chloride against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in rats. Manganese chloride (0.001, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g/kg bw) was administered intragastrically for 28 consecutive days to male CCl4-treated rats. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Histopathological changes in the liver of different groups were also studied. Administration of CCl4 increased the serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT but decreased SOD levels in rats. Treatment with manganese chloride significantly attenuated these changes to nearly normal levels. The animals treated with manganese chloride have shown decreased necrotic zones and hepatocellular degeneration when compared to the liver exposed to CCl4 intoxication alone. Thus, the histopathalogical studies also supported the protective effect of manganese chloride. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that manganese chloride exerts hepatoprotection via promoting antioxidative properties against CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage. PMID:24037643

Eidi, Akram; Mortazavi, Pejman; Behzadi, Khodabakhsh; Rohani, Ali Haeri; Safi, Shahabeddin

2013-09-15

18

Hepatoprotective activity of Stereospermum suaveolens against CCl4-induced liver damage in albino rats.  

PubMed

The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Stereospermum suaveolens DC (Bignoniaceae). Hepatoprotective activity is studied by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage in albino rats. The degree of protection in this activity has been measured by using biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, LDL-cholesterol and SOD, CAT, GSH, total thiols, NO, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue homogenate. The results suggest that the methanol stem bark extract of Stereospermum suaveolens at the doses 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg and reference standard Liv-52 treated group produced significant (p <0.001) hepatoprotection against CCl(4)-induced liver damage by decreasing the activities of serum enzymes, bilirubin and lipid peroxidation. The extract significantly (p <0.001) increased levels of SOD, CAT, GSH and total thiols, as compared to control group. Histopathological studies further substantiate the protective effect of the extract. It was concluded that methanol stem bark extract of Stereospermum suaveolens showed effective hepatoprotective activity. PMID:20645794

Chandrashekhar, V M; Muchandi, Ashok A; Sudi, Sarasvathi V; Ganapty, Seru

2010-05-01

19

Neutralization of chemokine CXCL14 (BRAK) expression reduces CCl 4 induced liver injury and steatosis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using mouse gene expression microarray analysis, we earlier obtained dynamic profiles of whole genome expression in the CCl4-induced liver injury mouse model. CXCL14 expression was increased in the liver injury phase and returned to normal after liver regeneration suggesting its involvement in the liver injury or regeneration regulation. The role of CXCL14 in liver injury was investigated. The dynamic of

Jingjing Li; Jin Gao; Dejun Yan; Yunsheng Yuan; Sunita Sah; Uttam Satyal; Man Liu; Wei Han; Yan Yu

2011-01-01

20

The protective effect of ENA Actimineral resource A on CCl4-induced liver injury in rats.  

PubMed

ENA Actimineral Resource A (ENA-A) is alkaline water that is composed of refined edible cuttlefish bone and two different species of seaweed, Phymatolithon calcareum and Lithothamnion corallioides. In the present study, ENA-A was investigated as an antioxidant to protect against CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver injury was induced by either subacute or chronic CCl(4) administration, and the rats had free access to tap water mixed with 0% (control group) or 10% (v/v) ENA-A for 5 or 8 weeks. The results of histological examination and measurement of antioxidant activity showed that the reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation, induction of CYP2E1 were decreased and the antioxidant activity, including glutathione and catalase production, was increased in the ENA-A groups as compared with the control group. On 2-DE gel analysis of the proteomes, 13 differentially expressed proteins were obtained in the ENA-A groups as compared with the control group. Antioxidant proteins, including glutathione S-transferase, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, and peroxiredoxin 1, were increased with hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-beta and serum albumin precursor, and kininogen precursor decreased more in the ENA-A groups than compared to the control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that ENA-A does indeed have some protective capabilities against CCl(4)-induced liver injury through its antioxidant function. PMID:20922552

Hong, Il-Hwa; Ji, Hoon; Hwa, Sung-Yong; Jeong, Won-Il; Jeong, Da-Hee; Do, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ji-Min; Ki, Mi-Ran; Park, Jin-Kyu; Goo, Moon-Jung; Hwang, Ok-Kyung; Hong, Kyung-Sook; Han, Jung-Youn; Chung, Hae-Young; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

2010-10-05

21

Hepatoprotective effect of herbal drug on CCl(4) induced liver damage.  

PubMed

Herbs have been a huge source of natural substances used to treat and prevent several illnesses; therefore it is vital to identify the probable toxicity that might take place as a consequence of using herbal combinations.This study was undertaken in rabbits to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of herbal drug in normal and CCl4-induced hepatic damage. Herbal drug was tested in 3 different doses, each group comprising of seven rabbits of either sex followed by the administration of CCl(4) with herbal drug and saline for 45 days. Liver function tests and histopathological evaluation were carried out at the end of dosing using standards kits.The result shows that normal dose of herbal drug (0.43 ml/kg) possess hepatoprotective effects against CCl(4) induced liver damage in rabbits which may be due to the various active ingredients present in herbal drug combination. Present study also suggests that there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in serum alkaline phosphatase and ?-GT in animals kept on high dose of herbal drug (10 ml/kg); however studies on huge number of animals and humans are requisite before reaching to definite conclusion. PMID:23261734

Feroz, Zeeshan; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Amber; Mahayrookh

2013-01-01

22

The protective effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats.  

PubMed

Dried flower Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) extracts, a local soft drink material and medicinal herb, were studied for their protective effects against liver fibrosis induced using carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. Male Wistar rats were administered CCl(4) by intraperitoneal injection for 7weeks and received a normal diet or normal diet with various HSE doses (1-5%) for 9weeks. HSE significantly reduced the liver damage including steatosis and fibrosis in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, HSE significantly decreased the elevation in plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). It also restored the decrease in glutathione content and inhibited the formation of lipid peroxidative products during CCl(4) treatment. In the primary culture, HSE also significantly inhibited the activation of the hepatic stellate cells. These results suggested that HSE may protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced fibrosis. This protective effect appears due to HSEs antioxidant properties. PMID:16176854

Liu, Jer-Yuh; Chen, Chang-Che; Wang, Wen-Hong; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Wang, Chau-Jong

2005-09-19

23

Hepatoprotective effects of baicalein against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of baicalein against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in mice. METHODS: Mice were orally administered with baicalein after CCl4 injection, and therapeutic baicalein was given twice a day for 4 d. The anti-inflammation effects of baicalein were assessed directly by hepatic histology and serum alanine aminotranferease and aspartate aminotransferase measurement. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was used to evaluate the effect of baicalein in promoting hepatocyte proliferation. Serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and liver IL-6, TNF-?, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) genes expression were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: CCl4-induced acute liver failure model offers a survival benefit in baicalein-treated mice. The data indicated that the mRNA levels of IL-6 and TNF-? significantly increased within 12 h after CCl4 treatment in baicalein administration groups, but at 24, 48 and 72 h, the expression of IL-6 and TNF-? was kept at lower levels compared with the control. The expression of TGF-?, HGF and EGF was enhanced dramatically in baicalein administration group at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Furthermore, we found that baicalein significantly elevated the serum level of TNF-? and IL-6 at the early phase, which indicated that baicalein could facilitate the initiating events in liver regeneration. CONCLUSION: Baicalein may be a therapeutic candidate for acute liver injury. Baicalein accelerates liver regeneration by regulating TNF-? and IL-6 mediated pathways.

Huang, Hai-Li; Wang, Ya-Jing; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Liu, Bin; Wang, Fang-Yuan; Li, Jing-Jing; Zhu, Run-Zhi

2012-01-01

24

Effect of colchicine and trimethylcolchicinic acid on CCl4-induced cirrhosis in the rat.  

PubMed

Colchicine is one of the most promising drugs for the treatment of cirrhosis. However, due to its toxicity, other drugs are being evaluated and colchicine-like molecules may be good alternatives. The aim of this work was to compare the beneficial effects of colchicine and trimethylcolchicinic acid (a colchicinoid less toxic than colchicine) on CCl4-cirrhosis. The drugs were administered either through CCl4 administration (8 weeks) or after CCl4 intoxication for 4 weeks at a dose of 10 micrograms/rat/day, orally. Liver plasma membranes were isolated for high affinity Ca(2+)-ATPase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase activities. The activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase were also measured in serum. Liver glycogen content and a marker for lipid peroxidation were determined in liver samples. We found that both compounds preserved and significantly reversed high affinity Ca(2+)-ATPase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase plasma membrane and serum enzyme activities as well as the hepatic glycogen content. PMID:8936557

Cedillo, A; Mourelle, M; Muriel, P

1996-11-01

25

Beneficial Effects of Ocimum gratissimum Aqueous Extract on Rats with CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

Ocimum gratissimum (OG) is known as a food spice and traditional herb, which has been recommended for the treatment of various diseases. To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of OG aqueous extract (OGAE), male Wistar rats challenged by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were used as the animal model of chronic hepatic injury. Significantly increased serum catalase and DPPH levels were detected in CCl4-administrated rats that were treated with OGAE or silymarin as compared to those rats that were treated with saline or CCl4. In contrast, significantly decreased stress proteins including HSP70 and iNOS were observed in livers of CCl4-administrated rats that were treated with OGAE or sylimarin as compared to those rats that were treated with saline or CCl4. Moreover, significant decreases of MMP-9/MMP-2 ratio, uPA, phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) and NF-?B (p-P65) were detected in livers of CCl4-administrated rats that were treated with OGAE or sylimarin as compared to those rats that were treated with saline or CCl4. These findings imply that OGAE can efficiently inhibit CCl4-induced liver injuries in rats and may therefore be a potential food or herb for preventing liver injuries.

Chiu, Chun-Ching; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Tzy-Yen; Kao, Shao-Hsuan; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Wang, Yi-Wen; Tzang, Bor-Show; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

2012-01-01

26

Hepatoprotective effects of apple polyphenols on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice.  

PubMed

In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of apple polyphenols (AP, Appjfnol) against CCl(4)-induced acute liver damage in Kunming mice as well as the possible mechanisms were investigated. Mice were treated with AP (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg, ig) for seven consecutive days prior to the administration of CCl(4) (0.1%, intraperitoneally). The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations in the hepatic homogenate, and histopathological changes in mouse liver sections were determined. Levels of ferrous sulfate-L-cysteine (FeSO(4)-L-Cys)-induced lipid peroxidation and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were also determined in vitro. AP significantly prevented the increase in serum ALT and AST levels in acute liver injury induced by CCl(4) and produced a marked amelioration in the histopathological hepatic lesions coupled to weight loss. The extent of MDA formation was reduced; the SOD activity was enhanced, and the GSH concentration was increased in the hepatic homogenate in AP-treated groups compared with the CCl(4)-intoxicated group. AP also exhibited antioxidant effects on FeSO(4)-L-Cys-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate and DPPH free radical scavenging activity in vitro. These results indicate that AP has a significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl(4) in mice, which may be due to its free radical scavenging effect, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and its ability to increase antioxidant activity. PMID:20415417

Yang, Jingyu; Li, Yan; Wang, Fang; Wu, Chunfu

2010-05-26

27

Protective Mechanisms of Moringa oleifera against CCl4Induced Oxidative Stress in Precision-Cut Liver Slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryObjective: The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaves against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated liver slices in vitro. Material and Methods: The study evaluated the antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera leaves against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in liver slices. Results: CCl4 treatment significantly decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione

S. Sreelatha; P. R. Padma

2010-01-01

28

Hepatoprotective effect of manual acupuncture at acupoint GB34 against CCl4-induced chronic liver damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of manual acupuncture at Yanglingquan (GB34) on CCl4- induced chronic liver damage in rats. METHODS: Rats were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (1 mL\\/kg) and treated with manual acupuncture using reinforcing manipulation techniques at left GB34 (Yanglingquan) 3 times a week for 10 wk. A non- acupoint in left gluteal area was selected as a

Yun-Kyoung Yim; Hyun Lee; Kwon-Eui Hong; Young-Il Kim; Byung-Ryul Lee; Tae-Han Kim; Ji-Young Yi

29

Protective effect of selenium-enriched lactobacillus on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice and its possible mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: To study the protective effects and mechanisms of Se-enriched lactobacillus on liver injury caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in mice. METHODS: Seventy-two ICR mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal group, CCl4-induced model group, low Se-enriched lactobacillus treatment group (L-Se group), and high Se-enriched lactobacillus treatment group (H-Se group). During a 3-wk experimental period,

Long Chen; Dao-Dong Pan; Juan Zhou; Ying-Zi Jiang

30

A study on effects of glutathione s-transferase from silkworm on CCL4-induced mouse liver injury.  

PubMed

To assess the hepatoprotective activity of Glutathione S-transferase(GSTsw), extracted and purified from silkworm, in experimental acute mice liver injury and explore mechanisms. Mice were divided into five groups: control group, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) group, and three treatment groups that received CCl4 and GSTsw at doses of 0.083 mg•g(-1), 0.0415 mg•g(-1) and 0.0207 mg•g(-1) for 3 days. ALT in serum, GST, SOD and T-AOC in liver tissue homogenate, and changes in liver pathology in the five groups were studied. CCl4 administration led to pathological and biochemical evidence of liver injury as compared to untreated controls. GSTsw administration led to significant protection against CCl4-induced changes in liver pathology. It was also associatedwith significantly lower serum ALT levels, higher GST-SOD and T-AOC level in live tissue homogenate. Thus, GSTsw showed protective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. PMID:21190910

Yan, Hui; Gui, Zhongzheng; Wang, Bochu

2011-01-01

31

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Hybanthus enneaspermus against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats.  

PubMed

The hepatoprotective, curative and anti-oxidant properties of aqueous extract of Hybanthus enneaspermus (Violaceae) used against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats were investigated in the present study. Liver damage was induced by CCl4 (1 ml/kg i.p.), and silymarin was used as a standard drug to compare hepatoprotective, curative and antioxidant effects of the extract. Rats were treated with aqueous extract of H. enneaspermus at a dose of either 200 or 400 mg/kg after division into pre-treatment (once daily for 14 days before CCl4 intoxication) and post-treatment (2, 6, 24 and 48 h after CCl4 intoxication) groups. Pre-treatment and post-treatment with aqueous extract of H. enneaspermus showed significant hepatoprotection by reducing the aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activities and total bilirubin levels which had been raised by CCl4 administration. Pre- and post-treatment with aqueous extract significantly decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation as well as producing a corresponding increase in tissue total thiols. Post-treatment with aqueous extract improved ceruloplasmin levels. The histopathological examination of rat liver sections treated with aqueous extract confirms the serum biochemical observations. The present study results demonstrate the protective, curative and anti-oxidant effects of H. enneaspermus aqueous extract used against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, and suggest a potential therapeutic use of H. enneaspermus as an alternative for patients with acute liver diseases. PMID:21478003

Vuda, Madhusudanarao; D'Souza, Roshan; Upadhya, Suhas; Kumar, Vijay; Rao, Namita; Kumar, Vasanth; Boillat, Colette; Mungli, Prakash

2011-04-07

32

The protective effect of silymarin on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

Silymarin, a mixture of bioactive flavonolignans from the milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is traditionally used in herbal medicine to defend against various hepatotoxic agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of silymarin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in fish. Common carp, with an average initial weight of 17.0?±?1.1 g, were fed diet containing four doses of silymarin (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 g/kg diet) for 60 d. Fish were then given an intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (30% in arachis oil) at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg body weight. At 72 h after CCl4 injection, blood and liver samples were collected for the analyses of serum biochemical parameters, liver index, peroxidation product, glutathione, and antioxidant enzyme activities. The results showed that administration of silymarin at 0.5 and 1 g/kg diet for 60 d prior to CCl4 intoxication significantly reduced the elevated activities of glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxalate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin in the serum. The reduced levels of liver index, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, and total antioxidant capacity were markedly increased, and malondialdehyde formation was significantly restrained in the liver. However, these parameters, except LDH, were not significantly changed in fish fed with silymarin at 0.1 g/kg diet. Based on the results, it can be concluded that silymarin has protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in fish. It is suggested that silymarin may be used as a hepatoprotective agent to prevent liver diseases in fish. PMID:23435858

Jia, Rui; Cao, Liping; Du, Jinliang; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Yin, Guojun

2013-02-22

33

Recovery of the Cell Cycle Inhibition in CCl(4)-Induced Cirrhosis by the Adenosine Derivative IFC-305.  

PubMed

Introduction. Cirrhosis is a chronic degenerative illness characterized by changes in normal liver architecture, failure of hepatic function, and impairment of proliferative activity. The aim of this study is to know how IFC-305 compound induces proliferation of the liver during reversion of cirrhosis. Methods. Once cirrhosis has been installed by CCl(4) treatment for 10 weeks in male Wistar rats, they were divided into four groups: two received saline and two received the compound; all were euthanized at 5 and 10 weeks of treatment. Liver homogenate, mitochondria, and nucleus were used to measure cyclins, CDKs, and cell cycle regulatory proteins PCNA, pRb, p53, E2F, p21, p27, HGF, liver ATP, and mitochondrial function. Results. Diminution and small changes were observed in the studied proteins in the cirrhotic animals without treatment. The IFC-305-treated rats showed a clear increase in most of the proteins studied mainly in PCNA and CDK6, and a marked increased in ATP and mitochondrial function. Discussion/Conclusion. IFC-305 induces a recovery of the cell cycle inhibition promoting recovery of DNA damage through the action of PCNA and p53. The increase in energy and preservation of mitochondrial function contribute to recovering the proliferative function. PMID:23056951

Chagoya de Sánchez, Victoria; Martínez-Pérez, Lidia; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Velasco-Loyden, Gabriela

2012-09-27

34

Recovery of the Cell Cycle Inhibition in CCl4-Induced Cirrhosis by the Adenosine Derivative IFC-305  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Cirrhosis is a chronic degenerative illness characterized by changes in normal liver architecture, failure of hepatic function, and impairment of proliferative activity. The aim of this study is to know how IFC-305 compound induces proliferation of the liver during reversion of cirrhosis. Methods. Once cirrhosis has been installed by CCl4 treatment for 10 weeks in male Wistar rats, they were divided into four groups: two received saline and two received the compound; all were euthanized at 5 and 10 weeks of treatment. Liver homogenate, mitochondria, and nucleus were used to measure cyclins, CDKs, and cell cycle regulatory proteins PCNA, pRb, p53, E2F, p21, p27, HGF, liver ATP, and mitochondrial function. Results. Diminution and small changes were observed in the studied proteins in the cirrhotic animals without treatment. The IFC-305-treated rats showed a clear increase in most of the proteins studied mainly in PCNA and CDK6, and a marked increased in ATP and mitochondrial function. Discussion/Conclusion. IFC-305 induces a recovery of the cell cycle inhibition promoting recovery of DNA damage through the action of PCNA and p53. The increase in energy and preservation of mitochondrial function contribute to recovering the proliferative function.

Chagoya de Sanchez, Victoria; Martinez-Perez, Lidia; Hernandez-Munoz, Rolando; Velasco-Loyden, Gabriela

2012-01-01

35

Enzyme markers of collagen synthesis in carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis and during colchicine modification of CCl4-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

Serum galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase (S-Glu-Gal-Hyl-Tase), liver galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase (L-Glu-Gal-Hyl-Tase), liver hydroxylysyl galactosyltransferase (L-Gal-Hyl-Tase), and liver prolyl hydroxylase (L-PH) activities were measured in rats during the development of CCl4-induced cirrhosis (0.2 ml of 33% CCl4 in light mineral oil two times weekly for 10 weeks followed by 6 weeks of no treatment). Serum and liver markers of collagen synthesis increased in a time-dependent manner reaching maximum activity at 6 weeks (S-Glu-Gal-Hyl-Tase, two times; L-PH, two times). These enzyme levels returned to normal during the 4-week recovery period. In a separate 4-week experiment, colchicine (10 micrograms/rat/day) was administered with CCl4. Colchicine prevented the increase in S-Glu-Gal-Hyl-Tase, L-Glu-Gal-Hyl-Tase, and L-Gal-Hyl-Tase induced by CCl4 and resulted in a smaller increase in L-PH. These results demonstrate that S-Glu-Gal-Hyl-Tase elevation occurs following CCl4 because of increased liver collagen synthetic activity and the hepatocellular injury produced by CCl4. PMID:3030797

Bolarin, D M; Barker, K; Fuller, G C

1987-04-01

36

Beneficial effects of inhibitors of prolyl 4-hydroxylase in CCl4-induced fibrosis of the liver in rats.  

PubMed

S 0885 and HOE 077 inhibit CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats, as shown by significantly reduced hydroxyproline content of the liver and improved liver histology. Mortality of drug-treated animals is significantly diminished. Serum collagen parameters correlate well with the hydroxyproline content of the liver and can be used as noninvasive markers for the fibrotic process. HOE 077 is a proinhibitor, which by itself does not inhibit prolyl 4-hydroxylase. HOE 077 is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. It is taken up by rat liver and is converted to the active metabolites. At a concentration of 1 mM, HOE 077 does not affect collagen synthesis in human fibroblasts, bovine chondrocytes and chicken calvaria. At therapeutic doses the compound does not reduce collagen content of kidney, lung, aorta, femur epiphysis, skin and tendon of the rat, validating the high specifity of the liver selective prodrug/inhibitor conversion. From animal experiments, a human daily dose of 0.5-1 g can be extrapolated. PMID:1667666

Bickel, M; Baader, E; Brocks, D G; Engelbart, K; Günzler, V; Schmidts, H L; Vogel, G H

1991-01-01

37

Toxicological evaluation of Terminalia paniculata bark extract and its protective effect against CCl4-induced liver injury in rodents.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Based on the reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Terminalia paniculata, the bark aqueous extract (TPW) was investigated against liver damage. METHODS: Intrinsic cytotoxicity was tested on normal human liver (Chang) cell lines, followed by acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies in mice. TPW was then evaluated against CCl4-induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP) and antioxidant markers were assessed. The effect of TPW on isolated hepatic cells, post-CCl4 administration, was assessed by isolated mitochondrial membrane staining. The actions of TPW on apoptotic pathway in CCl4-treated Chang cells were also elucidated. RESULTS: TPW was found to be safe at all doses tested in both in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies. TPW (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (*p <0.05) improved liver enzyme activity as compared to CCl4. Also, it improved antioxidant status (GSH, GST, MDA and total thiol) and preserved hepatic cell architecture. TPW pre-treatment significantly attenuated the levels of phospho-p53, p53, cleaved caspase-3, phospho-Bad, Bad and cleaved PARP in CCl4-treated Chang cells, improving the viability considerably. CONCLUSION: The findings support a protective role for Terminalia paniculata in pathologies involving oxidative stress. PMID:23742226

Talwar, Sahil; Jagani, Hitesh V; Nayak, Pawan G; Kumar, Nitesh; Kishore, Anoop; Bansal, Punit; Shenoy, Rekha R; Nandakumar, Krishnadas

2013-06-01

38

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Schisandra chinensis pollen extract on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant and hepatotective effects of Schisandra chinensis pollen extract (SCPE) on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, individual phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, chelating activity, and reducing power assay) were determined. In vivo study, SCPE (10, 20 and 40g/kg) administered daily orally for 42days prior to CCl4-intoxicated. Our results showed that SCPE had high total phenolic content (53.74±1.21mg GAE/g), total flavonoid content (38.29±0.91mg Rutin/g), quercetin and hesperetin may be the major contributor to strong antioxidant activities. Moreover, SCPE significantly prevented the increase in serum ALT and AST level in acute liver damage induced by CCl4, decreased the extent of malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in liver and elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in liver. The results indicated that SCPE has strong antioxidant activities and significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4, and have been supported by the evaluation of liver histopathology in mice. The hepatoprotective effect may be related to its free radical scavenging effect, increasing antioxidant activity and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. PMID:23201450

Cheng, Ni; Ren, Naiyan; Gao, Hui; Lei, Xingsheng; Zheng, Jianbin; Cao, Wei

2012-11-28

39

Hepatoprotective potential of ether insoluble phenolic components of n-butanol fraction (EPC-BF) of flaxseed against CCl4 -induced liver damage in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: to investigate the hepatoprotective potential of ether insoluble phenolic components of n-butanol fraction (EPC-BF) of flaxseed against CCl4 -induced liver damage in rats. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced to Wistar rats by administration of 0.2% CCl4 in olive oil (8 mL/kg, i.p.) on the seventh day of treatment. Hepatoprotective potential of EPC-BF at doses, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. was assessed through biochemical and histological parameters. Results: EPC-BF and silymarin pretreated animal groups showed significantly decreased activities of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and level of total bilirubin, elevated by CCl4 intoxication. Hepatic lipid peroxidation elevated by CCl4 intoxication were also found to be alleviated at almost normal level in the EPC-BF and silymarin pretreated groups. Histological studies supported the biochemical findings and treatment of EPC-BF at doses 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. was found to be effective in restoring CCl4 -induced hepatic damage. However, EPC-BF did not show dose-dependent hepatoprotective potential. EPC-BF depicted maximum protection against CCl4 -induced hepatic damage at lower dose 250 mg/kg than higher dose (500 mg/ kg). Conclusion: EPC-BF possesses the significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced liver damage, which could be mediated through increase in antioxidant defenses.

Kasote, D. M.; Badhe, Y. S.; Zanwar, A. A.; Hegde, M. V.; Deshmukh, K. K.

2012-01-01

40

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Morus bombycis Koidzumi on CCl 4-induced liver damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity and liver protective effect of Morus bombycis Koidzumi were investigated. Aqueous extracts of M. bombycis Koidzumi had higher superoxide radical scavenging activity than other types of extracts. The aqueous extract at a dose of 100mg\\/kg showed significant hepatoprotective activity when compared with that of a standard agent. The biochemical results were confirmed by histological observations indicating that

Ying-Shan Jin; Jae-Hoon Sa; Tae-Heum Shim; Hae-Ik Rhee; Myeong-Hyeon Wang

2005-01-01

41

Hepatoprotective Effect of Lonchocarpus sericeus Leaves in CCl4- Induced Liver Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lonchocarpus sericeus (Poir.) Kunth ex DC (Fabaceae) is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of pathological conditions such as gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders. To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of L. sericeus ethanolic extract on liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), test animals were administered orally 200 and 400 mg kg of L. sericeus extract four times after CCl4

Amegnona Agbonon; Messanvi Gbeassor

2009-01-01

42

Hepatoprotective activity of petroleum ether, diethyl ether, and methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis L. against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present study was aimed at assessing the hepatoprotective activity of 1:1:1 petroleum ether, diethyl ether, and methanol (PDM) extract of Scoparia dulcis L. against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice. Materials and Methods: The PDM extract (50, 200, and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) and standard, silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o) were tested for their antihepatotoxic activity against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. The hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by measuring aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total proteins in serum, glycogen, lipid peroxides, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase levels in liver homogenate and by histopathological analysis of the liver tissue. In addition, the extract was also evaluated for its in vitro antioxidant activity using 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. Results: The extract at the dose of 800 mg/kg, p.o., significantly prevented CCl4-induced changes in the serum and liver biochemistry (P < 0.05) and changes in liver histopathology. The above results are comparable to standard, silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o.). In the in vitro 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay, the extract showed good free radical scavenging potential (IC 50 38.9 ± 1.0 ?g/ml). Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that the PDM extract of Scoparia dulcis L. possesses potential hepatoprotective activity, which may be attributed to its free radical scavenging potential, due to the terpenoid constituents.

Praveen, T.K.; Dharmaraj, S.; Bajaj, Jitendra; Dhanabal, S.P.; Manimaran, S.; Nanjan, M.J.; Razdan, Rema

2009-01-01

43

Mechanism of the Inhibitory Effects of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Cortex Extracts (EUCE) in the CCl 4 -Induced Acute Liver Lipid Accumulation in Rats.  

PubMed

Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (EU) has been used for treatment of liver diseases. The protective effects of Eucommia Ulmoides Oliv. cortex extracts (EUCE) on the carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic lipid accumulation were examined in this study. Rats were orally treated with EUCE in different doses prior to an intraperitoneal injection of 1?mg/kg CCl4. Acute injection of CCl4 decreased plasma triglyceride but increased hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol as compared to control rats. On the other hand, the pretreatment with EUCE diminished these effects at a dose-dependent manner. CCl4 treatment decreased glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) accompanied by activated P450 2E1. The pretreatment with EUCE significantly improved these deleterious effects of CCl4. CCl4 treatment increased P450 2E1 activation and ApoB accumulation. Pretreatment with EUCE reversed these effects. ER stress response was significantly increased by CCl4, which was inhibited by EUCE. One of the possible ER stress regulatory mechanisms, lysosomal activity, was examined. CCl4 reduced lysosomal enzymes that were reversed with the EUCE. The results indicate that oral pretreatment with EUCE may protect liver against CCl4-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. ER stress and its related ROS regulation are suggested as a possible mechanism in the antidyslipidemic effect of EUCE. PMID:24027582

Jin, Chang-Feng; Li, Bo; Lin, Shun-Mei; Yadav, Raj-Kumar; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

2013-08-20

44

Hepatoprotective and in vitro antioxidant effect of Carthamus tinctorious L, var Annigeri-2-, an oil-yielding crop, against CCl4 -induced liver injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: The present investigation evaluates the hepatoprotective and in vitro antioxidant effect of methanolic extract and its isolated constituent, dehydroabietylamine, in Carthamus tinctorious L, var Annigeri-2-, an oil yielding crop. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective effects were estimated for the parameters viz, total bilirubin, total protein, serum alanine amino transaminase (ALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and along with the pathological findings of hepatotoxicity. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging assays: DPPH, nitric oxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical, reducing power, ferrous ion chelating ability and total antioxidant capacity. Results: Both the methanolic extract (at 150 and 300 mg/kg bw) and dehydroabietylamine (at 50 mg/kg bw) showed significant liver protection against CCl4 -induced liver damage that was comparable with the standard drug, silymarin (100 mg/kg bw), in reducing the elevated serum enzyme markers. The liver sections of the animals treated with dehydroabietylamine elicit a significant liver protection compared with the methanolic extract against CCl4 -induced liver damage. Further, both the methanolic extract and dehydroabietylamine exhibited a considerable and dose-dependent scavenging activity of DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical. Similarly, in the reducing power assay, the results were very persuasive. In addition, the Fe2+ chelating activity and the total antioxidant assay established the antioxidant property of the methanolic extract and its isolated constituent. Among the two experimental samples, dehydroabietylamine proved to be more effective for the said parameters. Conclusion: The potent antioxidant and its correlative hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract and isolated constituent dehydroabietylamine is therefore attributed to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.

Paramesha, Mahadevappa; Ramesh, Chapeyil K.; Krishna, Venkatarangaiah; Ravi Kumar, Yelegara S.; Parvathi, Karur M. M.

2011-01-01

45

Potential antioxidant properties and hepatoprotective effects of an aqueous extract formula derived from three Chinese medicinal herbs against CCl(4)-induced liver injury in rats.  

PubMed

The hepatoprotective effects of an aqueous extract formula (AEF) derived from Artemisia capillaris, Lonicera japonica and Silybum marianum (ratio 1:1:1) were evaluated by its antioxidant properties and its attenuation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage in rats. The antioxidant analyses revealed that the AEF showed higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities as well as ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) compared with the individual herbs, suggesting a synergism in antioxidation between the three herbs. The animal experiments showed that the CCl(4) treatment increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, but decreased triglyceride (TG) and glutathione (GSH) levels as well as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. However, AEF administration can successfully lower serum ALT and AST activities, restore the GSH level, ameliorate or restore GPx and CAT activities as well as improve SOD action depending on AEF dosage. Histological examination of liver showed that CCl(4) increased the extent of bile duct proliferation, necrosis, fibrosis and fatty vacuolation throughout the liver, but AEF can improve bile duct proliferation, vacuolation and fibrosis, and restore necrosis. The present study demonstrated the hepatoprotective potential of AEF as an alternative to the traditional silymarin. PMID:23142091

Yang, Chi-Ching; Fang, Jong-Yi; Hong, Tuan-Liang; Wang, Tzu-Ching; Zhou, Ya-En; Lin, Ta-Chen

2012-11-08

46

Balance between oxidative damage and proliferative potential in an experimental rat model of CCl4-induced cirrhosis: protective role of adenosine administration.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress and its consequent lipid peroxidation (LP) exert harmful effects, which have been currently involved in the generation of carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis. However, the recent report that "physiological" LP can be associated with liver regeneration (LR) makes it necessary to discriminate between oxidative stress-induced and LR-associated LP. In rats rendered cirrhotic by continuous CCl4 administration for 4 weeks, moderate cell necrosis and fine fatty infiltration were found. The histological abnormalities were accompanied by increased LP, mainly accounted for by the microsomal and cytosolic fractions and evidence of oxidative stress (decreased hepatic glutathione content and changes in xanthine oxidase and pentose phosphate pathway activities). After 8 weeks, a micronodular cirrhosis developed, but oxidative stress was greatly attenuated, only persisting in the enhanced LP confined to microsomes. Simultaneous administration of adenosine, a reliable hepatoprotector that readily prevents the onset of liver fibrosis, was able to block the oxidative stress induced by the long-term CCl4 treatment but elicited a selective subcellular distribution of increased LP, similar to that found during LR. The adenosine-induced changes in liver LP (mainly in the nuclear fraction) correlated with an increased activity of thymidine kinase. Therefore, data suggest that adenosine-mediated preservation of energy availability and mitochondrial function could participate in preventing the onset of oxidative stress in cirrhotic rats. The latter could induce a successful liver recovery, curtailing the sequence of events leading to fibrogenesis. PMID:9362348

Hernández-Muñoz, R; Díaz-Muñoz, M; López, V; López-Barrera, F; Yáñez, L; Vidrio, S; Aranda-Fraustro, A; Chagoya de Sánchez, V

1997-11-01

47

Comparison of glial fibrillary acidic protein and desmin staining in normal and CCl 4-induced fibrotic rat livers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fat-storing cells are the major producers of extracellular matrix in the liver. A good immunocytochemical marker is, however, still lacking for this cell type. Desmin, frequently used by most investigators, fails to stain many pericentral fat-storing cells in normal rat liver. The aim of the present study is to evaluate glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as an alternative marker of

T Niki; PJ De Bleser; G Xu; K Van der Berg; E Wisse; A Geerts

1996-01-01

48

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Bupleurum kaoi Liu (Chao et Chuang) extract and its fractions fractionated using supercritical CO(2) on CCl(4)-induced liver damage.  

PubMed

Fractionation with supercritical CO(2) is employed to divide ethanolic extract (E) of B. kaoi into four fractions (R, F1, F2 and F3). To assess the selectivity of the fractionation, extracts of the four fractions were characterized in terms of the hepatoprotective capacity and activity of antioxidant enzymes to against CCl(4)-induced damage. The in vitro study revealed that pretreatment with B. kaoi extract or its fractions, except F3, significantly protected primary hepatocytes against damage by CCl(4) (P<0.05). The R and F1 fractions had the highest saikosaponins content (175 and 200 mg/g dry weight, respectively) and most effectively protected the liver from damage by CCl(4). This study demonstrated that the oral pretreatment of B. kaoi (100 and 500 mg/kg), except F3, three days before a single dose of CCl(4) (CCl(4)/olive oil=1:1, 3 ml/kg, sc) was administered significantly lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (AST and ALT) (P<0.05). A pathological examination showed that lesions, including ballooning degeneration, necrosis, hepatitis and portal triaditis were partially healed by treatment with B. kaoi extract and fractions. Oxidative stress induced by CCl(4) led to lipid peroxidation (MDA) and changes in the levels of the antioxidant enzymes in the liver. However, all the fractions, except F3, markedly suppressed lipid peroxidation and reversed the activities of the antioxidant enzymes to the normal levels. PMID:15019185

Wang, Be-Jen; Liu, Chu-Ting; Tseng, Chin-Yin; Wu, Chien-Ping; Yu, Zer-Ran

2004-04-01

49

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of the ethyl acetate extract of Enicostemma axillare (Lam). Raynal against CCL4-induced liver injury in rats.  

PubMed

Enicostemma axillare is used in Indian traditional medicine as a liver tonic. Its ethyl acetate extract has shown potent in vitro antioxidant activity and found to contain 7.26% of a bitter secoiridoid glycoside, swertiamarin. Hence, in the present study the ethyl acetate extract was screened for hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in rats. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage and changes in serum enzymes and metabolites. The pretreatment with the extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight doses given orally for eight days prior to CCl4 caused significant restoration of altered biochemical changes due to CCl4 towards the normal in serum, liver and kidney. The extract treatment at 200 mg/kg body weight was found to be more potent than the standard silymarin at 100 mg/kg body weight in reversing most of the biochemical parameters. Histopathological studies complemented the results of biochemical estimations in providing a proof of hepatoprotective and antioxidant actions of the extract. The study provides a support to the ethnomedical use of E. axillare in India. PMID:21506497

Jaishree, V; Badami, Shrishailappa; Krishnamurthy, Praveen Thaggikuppe

2010-09-01

50

Hepatoprotective Effect of an Immortal Human Fetal Hepatic Cell Transplantation on CCL 4Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocyte transplantation has been widely confirmed in the animal model experiments as an effective method for treatment of fulminant hepatic failure. However, the lack of donor organs remains a major problem. One solution is the development of transplantable hepatocytes. Herein we have transplanted intraperitoneally an established immortalized human fetal hepatic cell line (HL-7702) into CCl4-treated mice with acute liver injury

Y. B. Yan; H. Song; B. S. Zhong; Z. Y. Wang; S. J. Ying; F. Wang

2010-01-01

51

Effect of Salidroside on gene expression of CBP and Smad in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To study the effect of Salidroside on gene expres- sion of CREB binding protein (CBP), Smad 3 and Smad 7 in rat hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4. METHODS: Healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal group (n = 10), Salidroside thera- peutic group (n = 40)and fibrosis model group (n = 40). Liver fibrosis was

Wei-Zheng Zeng; Xiao-Ling Wu; Ming-De Jiang; Pi-Long Wang; Gui-Zhen Chu

2005-01-01

52

Expression of VDAC Regulated by Extracts of Limonium sinense Ktze root Against CCl4-induced Liver Damage  

PubMed Central

The expression of mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) may underlie the protective effects of Limonium sinense (Girard) Ktze root extracts (LSE) against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage. Pretreatment of mice with 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg or 400 mg/kg LSE significantly blocked the carbon tetrachloride-induced increase in both serum aspartate aminotransferase (sAST) and serum alanine aminotransferase (sALT) levels. Ultrastructural observations by electron microscope confirmed hepatoprotection, showing decreased nuclear condensation, ameliorated mitochondrial fragmentation of the cristae and less lipid deposition. Pretreatment with LSE prevented the decrease of the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (15.3%) observed in the liver of the carbon tetrachloride-insulted mice, further demonstrating the mitochondrial protection. In addition, LSE treatment (100-400 mg/kg) significantly increased both transcription and translation of VDAC. The above data suggests that LSE mitigates the damage to liver mitochondria induced by carbon tetrachloride, possibly through regulation of mitochondrial VDAC, one of the most important proteins in the mitochondrial outer membrane.

Tang, Xinhui; Gao, Jing; Chen, Jin; Xu, Lizhi; Tang, Yahong; Dou, Huan; Yu, Wen; Zhao, Xiaoning

2007-01-01

53

Hepatoprotective effect of flavonol glycosides rich fraction from Egyptian Vicia calcarata Desf. against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats.  

PubMed

The hepatoprotective activity of flavonol glycosides rich fraction (F-2), prepared from 70% alcohol extract of the aerial parts of V. calcarata Desf., was evaluated in a rat model with a liver injury induced by daily oral administration of CCl4 (100 mg/kg, b.w) for four weeks. Treatment of the animals with F-2 using a dose of (25 mg/kg, b.w) during the induction of hepatic damage by CCl4 significantly reduced the indices of liver injuries. The hepatoprotective effects of F-2 significantly reduced the elevated levels of the following serum enzymes: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The antioxidant activity of F-2 markedly ameliorated the antioxidant parameters including glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), plasma catalase (CAT) and packed erythrocytes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) to be comparable with normal control levels. In addition, it normalized liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and creatinine concentration. Chromatographic purification of F-2 resulted in the isolation of two flavonol glycosides that rarely occur in the plant kingdom, identified as quercetin-3, 5-di-O-beta-D-diglucoside (5) and kaempferol-3, 5-di-O-beta-D-diglucoside (4) in addition to the three known compounds identified as quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl- (1-->6)-beta-D-glucoside [rutin, 3], quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside [isoquercitrin, 2] and kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside [astragalin, 1]. These compounds were identified based on interpretation of their physical, chemical, and spectral data. Moreover, the spectrophotometric estimation of the flavonoids content revealed that the aerial parts of the plant contain an appreciable amount of flavonoids (0.89%) calculated as rutin. The data obtained from this study revealed that the flavonol glycosides of F-2 protect the rat liver from hepatic damage induced by CCl4 through inhibition of lipid peroxidation caused by CCl4 reactive free radicals. PMID:16114493

Singab, Abdel Nasser B; Youssef, Diaa T A; Noaman, Eman; Kotb, Saeed

2005-07-01

54

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Bupleurum kaoi Liu (Chao et Chuang) extract and its fractions fractionated using supercritical CO 2 on CCl 4-induced liver damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractionation with supercritical CO2 is employed to divide ethanolic extract (E) of B. kaoi into four fractions (R, F1, F2 and F3). To assess the selectivity of the fractionation, extracts of the four fractions were characterized in terms of the hepatoprotective capacity and activity of antioxidant enzymes to against CCl4-induced damage. The in vitro study revealed that pretreatment with B.

Be-Jen Wang; Chu-Ting Liu; Chin-Yin Tseng; Chien-Ping Wu; Zer-Ran Yu

2004-01-01

55

C/EBP-? ameliorates CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis in mice through promoting apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells with little apoptotic effect on hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

CCAAT enhancer binding protein-? (C/EBP-?) is a transcript factor that regulates adipocyte differentiation and induces apoptosis in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vivo and in vitro. However, the effect of C/EBP-? on hepatocytes in vivo remains unknown. This study investigated whether C/EBP-? exerts different apoptotic effects on hepatocytes and HSCs in vitro and in vivo. An adenovirus vector-expressing C/EBP-? gene was constructed, and a rat hepatic stellate cell lines (HSC-T6) and hepatocytes were transfected. A CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis model in mice was also utilized. C/EBP-? induced apoptosis in hepatocytes and HSCs, but a significant difference between these cell types was observed in vitro. The mitochondrial pathway was involved in the apoptotic process and was predominant in HSC-T6 apoptosis. In the CCl(4)-induced mice liver fibrosis model, the administration of Ad-C/EBP-? decreased extracellular matrix deposition, including collagen and hydroxyproline content, and ?-GT levels, a marker of liver damage, were reduced significantly. Immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay results showed an increase of apoptosis in HSCs, but hepatocytes were less affected. C/EBP-? induced differential apoptotic effects in hepatocytes and HSCs in vitro and in vivo. This differential effect could be a potential target for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis with little hepatic toxicity. PMID:22307857

Tao, Li-Li; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Ding, Di; Mei, Shuang; Xu, Jia-Wen; Yu, Juan; Ou-Yang, Qi; Deng, Long; Chen, Qi; Li, Qing-Quan; Xu, Zu-De; Liu, Xiu-Ping

2012-05-01

56

Liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

Liver fibrosis and its related complications continue to represent a significant worldwide healthcare burden. Over the past decade there has been considerable improvement in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms and pathophysiology underlying hepatic fibrosis. This greater insight into the relevant basic sciences may lead to the development of novel treatment strategies designed to block the fibrogenic cascade or even enhance matrix degradation. In addition, there have been significant advances in the management of the complications of cirrhosis, with specific treatments now available for some conditions. Perhaps most notably, liver transplantation is now a highly successful treatment for end-stage liver disease and should be considered in all patients with chronic liver disease.

Williams, E. J.; Iredale, J. P.

1998-01-01

57

Experimental toxic liver damage and hepatic plasma clearance of 99mTc-mebrofenin (iminodiacetate derivative). I. Early, acute CCl4-induced liver damage in rabbits.  

PubMed

Liver damage was induced in rabbits by graded doses of carbon tetrachloride. The damage was assessed by means of quantitative morphometry using necrosis and steatosis of the parenchyma as end points. Biological response was measured utilizing a series of typical biochemical indices of liver damage as well as plasma clearance by the liver 99mTc-mebrofenin (an IDA derivative) and quantified indices of uptake and organ transfer of the compound. No correlation was found between the CCl4 dose and its effect (i.e. degree of necrosis and steatosis of liver). However, a very strong negative correlation was found between the degree of necrosis in individual animals and value of the clearance. The extent of the damage was positively correlated with liver transfer rate of 99mTc-MBF. Plasma activity of ALAT, TG, GGTP and AspAT were higher in the poisoned animals, however, only increments of activity of GGTP, ALAT and LDH showed statistically significant correlation with the individually assessed damage (necrosis). PMID:8219908

Kapu?ci?ski, J; Kuroszczyk, J; Liniecki, J; Bie?kiewicz, M; Zieli?ski, K; Tuszyner, K

1993-01-01

58

Experimental toxic liver damage and hepatic plasma clearance of 99mTc-mebrofenin (iminodiacetate derivative). II. Recovery from the acute, CCl4-induced liver damage.  

PubMed

Liver parenchyma damage was induced in rabbits by the administration of carbon tetrachloride. The animals were serially sacrificed 3, 10, 17 and 31 days post intoxication and examined morphometrically for the extent of necrosis, steatosis and balloon degeneration of hepatocytes. Biochemical indices of the liver damage were studied as well as hepatic clearance of blood plasma from Tc-99m complex of an IDA derivative Tc99m complex (99mTc-mebrofenin--99mTc-MBF) and its uptake and liver transfer characterizing parameters. It was found that toxic effects of CCl4 were conspicuous up to 10 days after administration of carbon tetrachloride. In that period elevated activity of AspAT, ALAT, GGTP and elevated cholesterol and triglycerides were found in the plasma. As in the first paper of this series of works there has been a highly significant statistical association between the Tc-MBF plasma clearance, the uptake and liver transfer of the compound and parenchyma damage in the organ. PMID:8019202

Kapu?ci?ski, J; Kuroszczyk, J; Liniecki, J; Bie?kiewicz, M; Zieli?ski, K; Tuszyner, K

1993-01-01

59

Disorders of phospholipids metabolism in the brain of white rats during experimental liver cirrhosis and corrective effect of antioxidant factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 The goal of the present work was to study the peculiarities of the phospholipids?phospholipid (PL-PL) ratio in white rat brain in CCl 4 -induced liver cirrhosis (LC) and the corrective effect of antioxidant factors such as ? -tocopherol ( ? -TPh) and sodium thiosulfate (STS). The experiments were performed with outbred white male rats weighing 180?200 g. Experimental LC

A. S. Margaryan; L. A. Simonyan; R. B. Badalyan; I. G. Batikyan; A. A. Simonyan

2008-01-01

60

Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba Attenuate CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury: An Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS) Based Metabolomic Approach for the Pharmacodynamic Study of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs).  

PubMed

Metabolomics has been frequently used in pharmacodynamic studies, especially those on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra are popularly used in TCM, and both have hepatoprotective effects. In this study, a CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury rat model was established and confirmed by the observed serum aminotransferase activities. The metabolomics approach was applied to study the influence of Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra on the metabolic changes in rats with acute liver injury. The partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of rat serum and their ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) fingerprints allowed discrimination of controlled, acute liver injury-model rats after administration of the two types of TCMs. The time-dependent PLS-DA plots showed that the changes in the metabolic patterns of the rats, which were administered with the TCMs, had stabilized within 2 h after they received the intraperitoneal CCl(4) injection. The results indicated the protective effect of TCMs against liver injury. Several potential biomarkers were detected and identified, which included creatine, deoxycholic acid, choline, 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate, folic acid, and glycocholic acid. The physiological significance of these metabolic changes was discussed. PMID:23203085

Wang, Rui; Xiong, Ai-Zhen; Teng, Zhong-Qiu; Yang, Qi-Wei; Shi, Yan-Hong; Yang, Li

2012-11-09

61

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Ocimum basilicum Linn. and Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. against H2O2 and CCL4 induced hepatotoxicity in goat liver.  

PubMed

Significant hepatoprotective effects were obtained by ethanolic extract of leaves of O. basilicum and T. foenum-graecum against liver damage induced by H2O2 and CCl4 as evidenced by decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes (enzymatic and non enzymatic). The extract also showed significant anti lipid peroxidation effects in vitro, besides exhibiting significant activity in superoxide radical and nitric oxide radical scavenging, indicating their potent antioxidant effects. PMID:19761043

Meera, R; Devi, P; Kameswari, B; Madhumitha, B; Merlin, N J

2009-07-01

62

In vivo hepatoprotective effects of Rhoicissus tridentata subsp. cuneifolia, a traditional Zulu medicinal plant, against CCl 4-induced acute liver injury in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vivo hepatoprotective effects of Rhoicissus tridentata subsp. cuneifolia, a traditional Zulu medicinal plant, against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats were investigated. A group of male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three subgroups. Two subgroups were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and the other group with an equivalent amount of olive oil. Two hours after CCl4 intoxication one

A. R. Opoku; I. M. Ndlovu; S. E. Terblanche; A. H. Hutchings

2007-01-01

63

Intestinal permeability in rats with CCl4-induced portal hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the intestinal barrier changes in rats with CCl4-induced portal hypertension. METHODS: The permeability of intestinal barrier detected by Lanthanum as a tracer was evaluated in rats. Bacterial translocation and plasma endotoxin were also determined. RESULTS: The incidence of bacterial translocation was 85% in rats with CCl4-induced portal hypertension, which was signifi cantly higher than that in control

Guo-Xiang Yao; Zhong-Yi Shen; Xin-Bo Xue; Zhen Yang

64

Inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds on CCl 4 -induced microsomal lipid peroxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The antiperoxidative effects of 35 phenolic compounds, most of them belonging to the flavonoid class, were investigated using CCl4-induced peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. This system was rather insensitive to gallic acid, methyl gallate and ellagic acid. Nevertheless it was inhibited by flavonoids and structure\\/activity relationships were established. The most potent compounds were gardenin D, luteolin, apigenin (flavones), datiscetin,

M. R. Cholbi; M. Paya; M. J. Alcaraz

1991-01-01

65

[Liver resection in liver cirrhosis].  

PubMed

The benefits of liver resection for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and concomitant liver cirrhosis have been questionable due to high rates of postoperative complications. As a result of advance in surgical techniques, along with improved perioperative management and increased knowledge of the pathophysiology of liver cirrhosis, liver resection in cirrhotic patients has become a safer surgical procedure during the 1990s. This article introduces our techniques of parenchymal resection in patients with liver cirrhosis, avoiding inflow occlusion of the hepatic circulation by using a Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator (CUSA) and bipolar cautery that is equipped with a mechanism for channeling water at the point of cauterization. Analysis of survival rates showed that surgical resection was more advantageous than treatment such as percutaneous ethanol injection, although the discovery of multicentric carcinogenesis in livers with hepatitis C viral infection required us to reconsider surgical indications for HCC and concomitant liver cirrhosis. PMID:11490756

Yamamoto, Y

2001-07-01

66

Effect of ethanol extract of flowers of Vitex trifolia Linn. on CCL4 induced hepatic injury in rats.  

PubMed

Hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of flowers of Vitex trifolia (Verbenaceae) was studied against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in albino rats. The plant extract (EVT) at the dose of 200 mg/kg, p.o. showed a remarkable hepatoprotective activity. CCl4 induced a significant rise in serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin and gamma glutamate transpeptidase (GGTP). Treatment of rats with EVT significantly (P<0.001) altered serum biomarker enzyme levels to near normal against CCl4 treated rats. The activity of the extract was comparable to the standard drug, silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o.). Histopathological observations also revealed that treatment with EVT protected the animals from CCl4 induced liver damage. The results indicate that the flowers of V. trifolia possess hepatoprotective activity on CCl4 induced hepatic injury in rats. PMID:19783517

Anandan, Ramasamy; Jayakar, Balasundaram; Karar, Biusan; Babuji, Seevalen; Manavalan, Rajappan; Kumar, Raju Senthil

2009-10-01

67

[Diabetes in liver cirrhosis].  

PubMed

The prevalence of overt diabetes mellitus (DM) in liver cirrhosis is about 30%. However, DM or impaired glucose tolerance can be observed in 90% after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with normal fasting plasma glucose. Type 2 DM may produce cirrhosis, whereas DM may be a complication of cirrhosis. The latter is known as «hepatogenous diabetes». Overt and subclinical DM is associated with liver complications and death in cirrhotic patients. Treating diabetes is difficult in cirrhotic patients because of the metabolic impairments due to liver disease and because the most appropriate pharmacologic treatment has not been defined. It is also unknown if glycemic control with hypoglycemic agents has any impact on the course of the liver disease. PMID:23628170

García-Compeán, Diego; Jáquez-Quintana, Joel O; González-González, José A; Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Z; Maldonado-Garza, Hector J

2013-04-28

68

Effect of dried fruits of Solanum nigrum LINN against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.  

PubMed

Ethanol extract of Solanum nigrum LINN was investigated for its hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. The ethanol extract showed remarkable hepatoprotective activity. The activity was evaluated using biochemical parameters such as serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. The histopathological changes of liver sample in treated animals were compared with respect to control. PMID:14600413

Raju, Kuppuswamy; Anbuganapathi, Govindaraju; Gokulakrishnan, Velusamy; Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian; Jayakar, Balasundarm; Manian, Sellamuthu

2003-11-01

69

Hydrogen Sulfide Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Liver Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHydrogen sulfide (H2S) displays vasodilative, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities. Impaired production of H2S contributes to the increased intrahepatic resistance in cirrhotic livers. The study aimed to investigate the roles of H2S in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity, cirrhosis and portal hypertension.Methods and FindingsSodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H2S, and DL-propargylglycine (PAG), an irreversible inhibitor of cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), were

Gang Tan; Shangha Pan; Jie Li; Xuesong Dong; Kai Kang; Mingyan Zhao; Xian Jiang; Jagat R. Kanwar; Haiquan Qiao; Hongchi Jiang; Xueying Sun; Antonio Bertoletti

2011-01-01

70

Hepatoprotective action of Radix Paeoniae Rubra aqueous extract against CCl4-induced hepatic damage.  

PubMed

In the present study the capacity of Radix Paeoniae Rubra aqueous extract (RPRAE) as an antioxidant to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats was investigated. Six groups of rats were used. Radix Paeoniae Rubra aqueous extract (100 or 200 or 300 mg/kg of bw) or bifendate (100 mg/kg of bw) were given daily by gavage to the animals on 28 consecutive days to elucidate the protective effects against CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity. The 20% CCl(4)/olive oil was gavage of gastric tube twice a week (on the third and seventh days of each week). The animals of normal control group were given only vehicle. The animals of CCl(4)-treated group were administered with CCl(4) twice a week (on the third and seventh days of each week) and with vehicle on rest of the days. The test materials were found effective as hepatoprotective agents, as evidenced by plasma and liver biochemical parameters. Therefore, the results of this study show that Radix Paeoniae Rubra aqueous extract can protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in rats, and the hepatoprotective effects might be correlated with its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. PMID:22005833

Li, Ruidong; Guo, Wenyuan; Fu, Zhiren; Ding, Guoshan; Zou, You; Wang, Zhengxin

2011-10-17

71

Effect of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs on lipases following CCl4 induced hepatic injury in rats.  

PubMed

Effects of kumari asav, kumari kalp, arogyavardhini and tamra bhasma used in Ayurved and Siddha medicine for the treatment of liver disorders have been studied on acid, alkaline and lipoprotein lipase activities of liver, adipose tissue and kidney and hormone sensitive lipase activity of adipose tissue following CCl4 induced liver injury in albino rats. The treatments of CCl4 and the above drugs show significant alterations in the lipolytic activities of liver, adipose tissue and kidney. Role of these enzymes during hepatoprotection by above drugs has been discussed. PMID:2620934

Patil, S; Kanase, A; Varute, A T

1989-11-01

72

Inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds on CCl4-induced microsomal lipid peroxidation.  

PubMed

The antiperoxidative effects of 35 phenolic compounds, most of them belonging to the flavonoid class, were investigated using CCl4-induced peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. This system was rather insensitive to gallic acid, methyl gallate and ellagic acid. Nevertheless it was inhibited by flavonoids and structure/activity relationships were established. The most potent compounds were gardenin D, luteolin, apigenin (flavones), datiscetin, morin, galangin (flavonols), eriodictyol (flavanone), amentoflavone (biflavone) and the reference compound, (+)-catechin. The natural polymethoxyflavone gardenin D has shown a potency comparable to that of (+)-catechin and higher than that of silybin. Thus, it may be considered as a new type of natural antioxidant with potential therapeutical applications. PMID:2001725

Cholbi, M R; Paya, M; Alcaraz, M J

1991-02-15

73

Hepatoprotective effects of methanol extract of Carissa opaca leaves on CCl 4 -induced damage in rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  \\u000a Carissa opaca (Apocynaceae) leaves possess antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects, and so may provide a possible therapeutic\\u000a alternative in hepatic disorders. The effect produced by methanolic extract of Carissa opaca leaves (MCL) was investigated on CCl4-induced liver damages in rat.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  30 rats were divided into five groups of six animals of each, having free access to food and water

Sumaira Sahreen; Muhammad R Khan; Rahmat A Khan

2011-01-01

74

Ameliorative effects of 7-methylcoumarin and 7-methoxycoumarin against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

The available conventional remedies for the treatment of drug-induced liver diseases are highly inadequate and possess serious adverse effects; therefore, the development of new, effective drugs is considered necessary. This article explores the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of 7-methylcoumarin (MC) and 7-methoxycoumarin (MOC) in CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. MC and MOC individually, at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, were administered orally once-daily for 7 days. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum bilirubin (TB), total protein (TP), and albumin (TA). Serum antioxidant enzyme [e.g., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)] levels were determined. Also, thiobarbituric-acid-related substances (TBARS) levels, along with histopathological studies of liver tissue, were scrutinized. Pretreatment with MC and MOC significantly decreased ALT, AST, and TB in the serum of CCl(4)-induced liver damaged rats in a dose-dependent manner. TA and TP levels in the serum were also restored significantly in all presupplemented MC and MOC groups. In addition, oxidative stress induced by CCl(4) was prevented significantly; thereby, increasing SOD and CAT levels and decreasing TBARS levels in liver homogenates. Histopathological studies revealed the ameliorative natures of both the compounds. This study demonstrates the strong hepatoprotective activity of MC and MOC, which could be attributed to their potent antioxidant effects. PMID:23126493

Sancheti, Sandesh; Sancheti, Shruti; Seo, Sung-Yum

2012-11-05

75

Effect of Oxymatrine on the TGFbeta-Smad signaling pathway in rats with CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To explore the anti-fibrotic effect of Oxymatrine on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats and its modulation on the TGFbeta-Smad signaling pathway. METHODS: One hundred healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal group (n = 20), treatment group of Oxymatrine (n = 40) and CCl4-induced fibrosis group (n = 40). Experimental hepatic fibrosis was induced by subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 soluted in liquid paraffin with the concentration of 300 g/L, the dosage of injection was 3 mL/kg, twice per week for 8 wk). The treated rats received Oxymatrine via celiac injection at a dosage of 10 mg/kg twice a week at the same time. The deposition of collagen was observed with H&E and Masson staining. The concentration of serum TGF-?1 was assayed with ELISA. The gene expression of Smads and CBP (CREB binding protein) was detected with in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IH), respectively. All the experimental figures were scanned and analyzed with special figure-analysis software. RESULTS: A significant reduction of collagen deposition and rearrangement of the parenchyma was noted in the liver tissue of Oxymatrine-treated rats. The semi-quantitative histological scores (2.43 ± 0.47 ?m2 vs 3.76 ± 0.68 ?m2, P < 0.05) and average area of collagen in those rats were significantly decreased when compared with hepatic cirrhosis model rats (94.41 ± 37.26 ?m2 vs 290.86 ± 89.37 ?m2, P < 0.05). The gene expression of Smad 3 mRNA was considerably decreased in the treated animals. The A value of Smad 3 mRNA was lower in the treated rats than the model rats (0.034 ± 0.090 vs 0.167 ± 0.092, P < 0.05). Contrarily, the A value of Smad 7 mRNA was increased considerably in the treated animals (0.175 ± 0.065 vs 0.074 ± 0.012, P < 0.05). There was an obvious decrease in the expression of CBP mRNA in treated rats as illuminated by a reduction of its A value when compared with model rats (0.065 ± 0.049 vs 0.235 ± 0.025, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Oxymatrine is effective in reducing the production and deposition of collagen in the liver tissue of experimental rats. Oxymatrine could promote the expression of Smad 7 and inhibit the expression of Smad 3 and CBP in CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in SD rats, could modulate the fibrogenic signal transduction of TGF?-Smad pathway.

Wu, Xiao-Ling; Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Jiang, Ming-De; Qin, Jian-Ping; Xu, Hui

2008-01-01

76

Hepatoprotective effects of the polysaccharide isolated from Tarphochlamys affinis (Acanthaceae) against CCl4-induced hepatic injury.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the polysaccharide isolated from Tarphochlamys affinis (PTA) against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver injury was induced in rats by the administration of CCl4 twice a week for 2 weeks. During the experiment, the model group received CCl4 only; the treatment groups received various drugs plus CCl4, whereas the normal control group received an equal volume of saline. Compared with the CCl4 group, PTA significantly decreased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the serum and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver. Moreover, the content of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced. Histological findings also confirmed the anti-hepatotoxic characterisation. In addition, PTA significantly inhibited the proinflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Further investigation showed that the inhibitory effect of PTA on the pro-inflammatory cytokines was associated with the down-regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B). In brief, our results show that the protective effect of PTA against CCl4-induced hepatic injury may rely on its ability to reduce oxidative stress and suppress inflammatory responses. PMID:22975511

Lin, Xing; Liu, Xi; Huang, Quanfang; Zhang, Shijun; Zheng, Li; Wei, Ling; He, Min; Jiao, Yang; Huang, Jianchun; Fu, Shujie; Chen, Zhaoni; Li, Yongwen; Zhuo, Lang; Huang, Renbin

2012-01-01

77

Ameliorative effect of Grewia tenax (Forssk) fiori fruit extract on CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

The ethanol extract of Grewia tenax (GTE) fruit was tested for possible efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced liver toxicity in Wistar albino rats. GTE at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg were administered orally to CCl(4)-treated rats. Acute toxicity test and sleeping time determination were done with mice. The results showed that oral administration of GTE for 3 wk to rats significantly reduced the CCl(4)-induced elevated levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins, and triglycerides. Moreover, it was found that the treatment with GTE significantly elevated the hemoglobin level in serum and increased the nonprotein sulfhydryl and total protein contents in the liver tissue, and a significant diminution was observed in the CCl(4)-induced elevated levels of malondialdehyde in the liver tissue. The biochemical findings were supported by an evaluation with liver histopathology. Pentobarbital-induced prolongation of narcolepsy in mice was shortened significantly by the extract. The observed hepatoprotective effect is believed to occur due to antioxidant properties of the contents of G. tenax extract, which may provide a new drug to be used for fighting liver diseases and it validates its folkloric use in anemic and other conditions. PMID:22416728

Al-Said, Mansour S; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed O; Rafatullah, Syed

2011-10-04

78

Attenuation of CCl(4)-induced hepatic oxidative stress in rat by Launaea procumbens.  

PubMed

Antioxidant effects of Launaea procumbens methanol extract (LPME) were evaluated against CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress in liver of rat. 48 male rats were equally divided in to 8 groups (06 rats each). Group I (control) remained untreated, while Group II was given vehicles (olive oil and DMSO). Animals of Groups III, IV, V, VI and VII were injected intraperitoneally with CCl(4) (3 ml/kg b.w.; i.p., 20% CCl(4)/olive oil) twice a week for four weeks. Group III received only CCl(4) while Group IV was given rutin (50 mg/kg b.w.). Group V, VI and VII were administered LPME at a dose of 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg b.w., respectively. Animals of Group VIII received LPME (200 mg/kg b.w.) alone. Oxidative stress induced with CCl(4) in liver was evident by a significant increase in triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and enzymatic activities of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, ?-GT activities in serum. Level of lipid peroxidation, nitrite, and hydrogen peroxide concentration, DNA injuries in liver samples was also increased with CCl(4). GSH concentration in liver was significantly decreased, as were the activities of antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px, GST, GSR, QR. Co-treatment of rats with LPME and rutin prevented all the changes observed with CCl(4). Hepatic lesions and telomerase activity induced with CCl(4) was also suppressed with LPME and rutin. It is suggested that LPME effectively prevented the CCl(4)-induced oxidative injuries in liver, possibly through antioxidant and/or free radical scavenging effects of flavonoids and phenolic compounds in the extract. PMID:22134123

Khan, Rahmat Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Sahreen, Sumaira

2011-11-30

79

Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Zanthoxylum armatum DC in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Zanthoxylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) is extensively used in indigenous system of medicine as a tonic, carminative, stomachic and anthelmintic. In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of the leaves ethanolic extract of Z. armatum (EEZA) was evaluated in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg registered a significant decrease in the levels of serum glutamyl oxalacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), and serum bilurubin (SBLN) and liver inflammation, which was supported by histopathological studies on liver, thus exhibited a significant hepatoprotective activity. The phytochemical screening of defatted ethanolic extract showed the presence of sterols, alkaloids, flavonoids, and reducing sugars. PMID:20521628

Verma, Nitin; Khosa, R L

2010-04-01

80

Prostaglandin production in cirrhosis and portal hypertension—Experimental and clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease-related changes in prostaglandin (PG) levels may contribute to a bleeding tendency and local vasodilation in the portal circulation in patients with liver cirrhosis. We measured the plasma and tissue PG metabolite levels (6-keto PGF1? and thromboxane TXB2) in the systemic and portal circulation in 12 rats with CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis (LC rats) and ten with portal hypertension induced by

Akihiro Ohnishi; Makoto Harada; Atsushi Matsuo; Bunpei Kawai; Naoko Kunihiro; Yoshiki Tada; Tommy Chau; Fumiaki Koizumi; Teruji Tanaka

1998-01-01

81

Liver protocollagen proline hydroxylase in human liver diseases and experimental liver fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Liver protocallagen proline hydroxylase activity (PPH activity) was determined in patients with various liver diseases, CCl4-induced liver fibrosis rats and cholin deficiency (CD) fatty liver rats. The following results were obtained: Liver PPH activity\\u000a in patients with chronic hepatitis was higher than that in patients with acute hepatitis, while the activity in patients with\\u000a liver cirrhosis was much higher than

Tadasu Tsujii; Kazuhide Kimura; Masao Fukuhara; Tomofumi Morita; Tsutomu Matsui; Masahiro Tamura; Yoichi Matsuoka

1977-01-01

82

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin enhances CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) is involved in the biotransformation of several low molecular weight chemicals and plays an important role in the metabolic activation of carcinogens and hepatotoxins such as CCl(4). Induction of CYP2E1 is exerted mainly at posttranscriptional levels through mRNA and protein stabilization, and there is little evidence of xenobiotic induction at the transcriptional level. Previously, we reported microarray analysis data suggesting a decrease in Cyp2e1 gene expression on Ahr-null livers when compared to wild-type mouse livers. The goal of the present study was to determine whether 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increased mouse CYP2E1 levels in an AhR-dependent manner and the impact on CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity. TCDD treatment induced CYP2E1 mRNA and protein levels in mouse liver, and this effect was aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent. Moreover, TCDD pre-treatment increased the CCl(4)-induced alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, the extent of CCl(4)-induced necrosis, and the number of sinusoidal cells in wild-type animals, while this potentiating effect was not observed in Ahr-null mice. In conclusion, this study revealed that TCDD, probably in an AhR-dependent manner, exacerbated CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity through induction of CYP2E1. PMID:22834477

Mejia-Garcia, Alejandro; Sanchez-Ocampo, Esmeralda M; Galindo-Gomez, Silvia; Shibayama, Mineko; Reyes-Hernandez, Octavio; Guzman-Leon, Simon; Gonzalez, Frank J; Elizondo, Guillermo

2012-07-27

83

Attenuation of CCl4-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatonephrotoxicity by Saudi Sidr Honey in Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effect of Saudi Sidr honey (SSH) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress and liver and kidney damage in rat. Moreover, the antioxidant activity and the phenolic and flavonoidal contents were determined. The hepatorenal protective activity of the SSH was determined by assessing biochemical, hematological, and histological parameters. Serum transaminases, ALP, GGT, creatinine, bilirubin urea, uric acid, and MDA level in liver and kidney tissues were significantly elevated, and the antioxidant status of nonprotein sulfhydryls, albumin, and total protein levels in liver and kidney were declined significantly in CCl4 alone treated animals. Pretreatment with SSH and silymarin prior to the administration of CCl4 significantly prevented the increase of the serum levels of enzyme markers and reduced oxidative stress. SSH also exhibited a significant lipid-lowering effect and caused an HDL-C enhanced level in serum. The histopathological evaluation of the liver and kidney also revealed that honey protected incidence of both liver and kidney lesions. Moreover, SSH showed a strong antioxidant activity in DPPH and ?-carotene-linoleic acid assays. SSH was found to contain phenolic compounds. Additionally, the SSH supplementation restored the hepatocytes viability against 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) toxicity in ex vivo test.

Al-Yahya, Mohammed; Mothana, Ramzi; Al-Said, Mansour; Al-Dosari, Mohammed; Al-Musayeib, Nawal; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Parvez, Mohammad Khalid; Rafatullah, Syed

2013-01-01

84

Paracrine renal endothelin system in rats with liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

1. Liver cirrhosis was induced in rats by CCl4 administration. We analysed the expression of endothelin receptor subtypes in the renal cortex and medulla using Scatchard analysis and receptor autoradiography, and measured plasma as well as renal-tissue endothelin-1 concentrations using a specific radioimmunoassay. Furthermore, we analysed the effects of the non-selective (A/B) endothelin receptor antagonist, bosentan (6 and 100 mg kg-1 day-1) on mean arterial blood pressure, water and sodium excretion and glomerular filtration rate. 2. Our study revealed an overexpression of the endothelin B receptor (ETB) in the renal medulla of rats with liver cirrhosis (Cir: 2775 +/- 299 fmol mg-1; Con: 1695 +/- 255 fmol mg-1; n = 8; means +/- s.d., P < 0.01), whereas the density of ETB in the cortex and the endothelin A receptor (ETA) in the cortex and medulla were similar in both cirrhotic and control rats. Receptor autoradiography showed that the upregulation of medullary ETB in cirrhotic rats was due to an upregulation of ETB in the inner medullary collecting duct cells. 3. The tissue endothelin-1 concentrations were increased in the renal medulla of cirrhotic rats (Cir: 271 +/- 68 pg g-1wet wt.; Con: 153 +/- 36 pg g-1 wet wt., n = 8; means +/- s.d., P < 0.01). 4. The glomerular filtration rate was slightly decreased in cirrhotic rats but not altered after bosentan treatment in either cirrhotic or control rats. Bosentan decreased sodium excretion to a similar extent in both cirrhotic and control rats, whereas water excretion was significantly reduced by both dosages of bosentan in cirrhotic rats only (Cir + vehicle: 12.5 +/- 0.62 m day-1, Cir + 6 mg kg-1 day-1 bosentan: 8.6 +/- 1.0 ml day-1; Cir + 100 mg kg-1 day-1 bosentan: 7.4 +/- 0.6 ml day-1; n = 10; means +/- s.e.mean). 5. We therefore suggest that the upregulation of the medullary ETB in cirrhotic rats is involved in the regulation of water excretion in rats with CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 5

Hocher, B.; Zart, R.; Diekmann, F.; Rohmeiss, P.; Distler, A.; Neumayer, H. H.; Bauer, C.; Gross, P.

1996-01-01

85

Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Licorice Extract against CCl(4)-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats.  

PubMed

Licorice has been used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. Licorice has the biological capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and antiinfection. In this study, we evaluated the antihepatotoxic effect of licorice aqueous extract (LE) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury in a rat model. Hepatic damage, as reveled by histology and the increased activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and decreased levels of serum total protein (TP), albumin (Alb) and globulin (G) were induced in rats by an administration of CCl(4) at 3 mL/kg b.w. (1:1 in groundnut oil). Licorice extract significantly inhibited the elevated AST, ALP and ALT activities and the decreased TP, Alb and G levels caused by CCl(4) intoxication. It also enhanced liver super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and glutathione (GSH) level, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Licorice extract still markedly reverses the increased liver hydroxyproline and serum TNF-? levels induced by CCl(4) intoxication. The data of this study support a chemopreventive potential of licorice extract against liver oxidative injury. PMID:22072903

Huo, Hai Zhong; Wang, Bing; Liang, Yong Kang; Bao, Yong Yang; Gu, Yan

2011-10-06

86

Hepatoprotective effects of methanol extract of Carissa opaca leaves on CCl4-induced damage in rat  

PubMed Central

Background Carissa opaca (Apocynaceae) leaves possess antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects, and so may provide a possible therapeutic alternative in hepatic disorders. The effect produced by methanolic extract of Carissa opaca leaves (MCL) was investigated on CCl4-induced liver damages in rat. Methods 30 rats were divided into five groups of six animals of each, having free access to food and water ad libitum. Group I (control) was given olive oil and DMSO, while group II, III and IV were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg) as a 20% (v/v) solution in olive oil twice a week for 8 weeks. Animals of group II received only CCl4. Rats of group III were given MCL intragastrically at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw while that of group IV received silymarin at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw twice a week for 8 weeks. However, animals of group V received MCL only at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw twice a week for 8 weeks. The activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ?-glutamyltransferase (?-GT) were determined in serum. Catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSR) and quinone reductase (QR) activity was measured in liver homogenates. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS), glutathione (GSH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration was also assessed in liver homogenates. Phytochemicals in MCL were determined through qualitative and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results Hepatotoxicity induced with CCl4 was evidenced by significant increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and H2O2 level, serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and ?-GT. Level of GSH determined in liver was significantly reduced, as were the activities of antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px, GSR, GST and QR. On cirrhotic animals treated with CCl4, histological studies showed centrilobular necrosis and infiltration of lymphocytes. MCL (200 mg/kg bw) and silymarin (50 mg/kg bw) co-treatment prevented all the changes observed with CCl4-treated rats. The phytochemical analysis of MCL indicated the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, phlobatannins, terpenoids, coumarins, anthraquinones, and cardiac glycosides. Isoquercetin, hyperoside, vitexin, myricetin and kaempherol was determined in MCL. Conclusion These results indicate that MCL has a significant protective effect against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rat, which may be due to its antioxidant and membrane stabilizing properties.

2011-01-01

87

A temporal study on the histopathological, biochemical and molecular responses of CCl 4-induced hepatotoxicity in Cyp2e1-null mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous study using Cyp2e1-null mice showed that Cyp2e1 is required in CCl4-induced liver injury at 24h, what remains unclear are the temporal changes in liver damage and the spectrum of genes involved in this process. We investigated the time-dependent liver changes that occurred at morphological, histopathological, biochemical and molecular levels in both Cyp2e1+\\/+ and Cyp2e1?\\/? mice after treating with either

Sreedevi Avasarala; Lei Yang; Yan Sun; Alice Wan-Chi Leung; Wood-Yee Chan; Wing-Tai Cheung; Susanna Sau-Tuen Lee

2006-01-01

88

[Osteoporosis in liver cirrhosis].  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a common complication of chronic liver disease, especially in the final stages. This entity is more critical in liver transplant recipients, when bone loss accelerates during the immediate postoperative period. The main mechanism involved in the development of osteoporosis in liver disease is deficient bone formation due to the harmful effects of substances such as bilirubin and bile acids or the toxic effect of alcohol or iron on osteoblasts. To prevent and treat osteoporosis, good nutrition and calcium and vitamin D supplementation are required. There are no specific recommendations on drug treatment but bisphosphonates are effective in increasing bone mass in patients with chronic cholestasis and have a good safety profile. PMID:22483016

Guañabens, Núria; Parés, Albert

2012-04-05

89

Cirrhosis  

MedlinePLUS

Liver cirrhosis; Cryptogenic chronic liver disease ... Cirrhosis is the end result of chronic liver damage caused by chronic liver disease. Common causes of chronic liver disease in the United States are: Hepatitis B or C infection Alcohol ...

90

Therapeutic effect of interleukin-10 on CCl4-induced hepatic fi brosis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To study the therapeutic effect of exogenous inter- leukin-10 on CCl4-induced hepatic fi brosis in rats and its possible mechanisms. METHODS: Fourty-seven SD rats were randomly divided into control group (group N) and CCl4-induced hepatic fi brosis model group (group C). After CCl4 was given for 9 wk, the model group was divided into three groups. Rats in group

Yue-Hong Huang; Mei-Na Shi; Wei-Da Zheng; Li-Juan Zhang; Zhi-Xin Chen; Xiao-Zhong Wang

2006-01-01

91

Bamboo salt attenuates CCl4-induced hepatic damage in Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Bamboo salt, a Korean folk medicine, is prepared with solar salt (sea salt) and baked several times at high temperatures in a bamboo case. In this study, we compared the preventive effects of bamboo salt and purified and solar salts on hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared with purified and solar salts, bamboo salts prevented hepatic damage in rats, as evidenced by significantly reduced serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.05). Bamboo salt (baked 9×) triggered the greatest reduction in these enzyme levels. In addition, it also reduced the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-?, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. Histopathological sections of liver tissue demonstrated the protective effect of bamboo salt, whereas sections from animals treated with the other salt groups showed a greater degree of necrosis. We also performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses of the inflammation-related genes iNOS, COX-2, TNF-?, and IL-1? in rat liver tissues. Bamboo salt induced a significant decrease (~80%) in mRNA and protein expression levels of COX-2, iNOS, TNF-?, and IL-1?, compared with the other salts. Thus, we found that baked bamboo salt preparations could prevent CCl4-induced hepatic damage in vivo. PMID:23964314

Zhao, Xin; Song, Jia-Le; Kil, Jeung-Ha; Park, Kun-Young

2013-08-07

92

Snailase preparation of ginsenoside M1 from protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside and their protective effects against CCl4-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in mice.  

PubMed

To investigate the protective effects of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside (PDG) and its metabolite ginsenoside M1 (G-M1) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced chronic liver injury in ICR mice, we carried out conversion of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides to ginsenoside M1 using snailase. The optimum time for the conversion was 24 h at a constant pH of 4.5 and an optimum temperature of 50 °C. The transformation products were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ion-mass spectrometry. Subsequently, most of PDG was decomposed and converted into G-M1 by 24 h post-reaction. During the study on hepatoprotective in a mice model of chronic liver injury, PDG or G-M1 supplement significantly ameliorated the CCl(4)-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of select hepatic enzyme markers (alanine aminotransferase, ALT, and aspartate aminotransferase, AST) and malondialdehyde and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in liver. Histopathology of the liver tissues showed that PDG and G-M1 attenuated the hepatocellular necrosis and led to reduction of inflammatory cell infiltration. Therefore, the results of this study show that PDG and G-M1 can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced oxidative injury in mice, and the hepatoprotective effect might be attributed to amelioration of oxidative stress. PMID:22146371

Li, Wei; Zhang, Ming; Zheng, Yi-Nan; Li, Jing; Wang, Ying-Ping; Wang, Yun-Jing; Gu, Jian; Jin, Ying; Wang, Hui; Chen, Li

2011-12-06

93

Hepatoprotective effect of Hibiscus hispidissimus Griffith, ethanolic extract in paracetamol and CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Hibiscus hispidissimus Griff. is used in tribal medicine of Kerala, the southern most state of India, to treat liver diseases. In the present study, the effect of the ethanolic extract of Hibiscus hispidissimus whole plant on paracetamol (PCM)-induced and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in healthy Wistar albino rats was studied. The results showed that significant hepatoprotective effects were obtained against liver damage induced by PCM and CCl4 as evidenced by decreased levels of serum enzymes, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SAKP), serum bilirubin (SB) and an almost normal histological architecture of the liver of the treated groups compared to the toxin controls. The extract also showed significant antilipid peroxidant effects in vitro, besides exhibiting significant activity in quenching 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, indicating its potent antioxidant effects. PMID:18949895

Krishnakumar, N M; Latha, P G; Suja, S R; Shine, V J; Shyamal, S; Anuja, G I; Sini, S; Pradeep, S; Shikha, P; Unni, P K Somasekharan; Rajasekharan, S

2008-09-01

94

S-allyl cysteine attenuated CCl4-induced oxidative stress and pulmonary fibrosis in rats.  

PubMed

This study examined effects of S-allyl cysteine (SAC) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in Wistar rats. CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg) was intraperitoneally injected into rats twice a week for 8 weeks, and SAC (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, 200 or 600 mg/kg), or L-cysteine (CYS, 600 mg/kg) were orally administrated to rats everyday for 8 weeks. SAC significantly reduced the increases of transforming growth factor beta, lipid peroxides, AST, and ALT in plasma, induced by CCl4. Although CCl4 is mainly metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450, CCl4 induced systemic inflammation and some organ fibrosis. SAC dose-dependently and significantly attenuated CCl4-induced systemic inflammation and fibrosis of lung. SAC also inhibited the decrease of thiol levels, the increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, the infiltration of leukocytes, and the generation of reactive oxygen species in lungs. Although NAC and CYS attenuated CCl4-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis, the order of preventive potency was SAC > NAC > CYS according to their applied doses. These results indicate that SAC is more effective than other cysteine compounds in reducing CCl4-induced lung injury, and might be useful in prevention of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:16614485

Mizuguchi, Shinjiro; Takemura, Shigekazu; Minamiyama, Yukiko; Kodai, Shintaro; Tsukioka, Takuma; Inoue, Kiyotoshi; Okada, Shigeru; Suehiro, Shigefumi

2006-01-01

95

Evaluation of protective effect of Sapindus mukorossi saponin fraction on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats  

PubMed Central

Aim This investigation aimed to assess the hepatoprotective effect of saponin fraction isolated from the fruit pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Fruit of S. mukorossi was collected and authenticated, and dried pericarp powder subjected to extraction with cold ethanol (70%) by maceration followed by isolation of total saponin fraction. Hepatoprotective activity was demonstrated in the CCl4-damaged primary monolayer culture. In in vivo studies, pretreatment with total saponin fraction (50,100 and 150 mg/kg per os once a day for 4 days before CCl4 introduction and continued afterward for 3 days) attenuated the CCl4-induced acute increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and considerably reduced histopathological alterations. Further, saponin fraction reduced thiopentone-induced (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) sleeping time in rats. Results Saponin fraction pretreatment improves bromsulphalein clearance and also increases cellular viability. Saponin administration replenished depleted hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutase by improving the antioxidant status of the liver and liver function enzymes. These effects substantiate protection of cellular phospholipids from peroxidative damage induced by highly reactive toxic intermediate radicals formed during biotransformation of CCl4. Conclusion The above findings lead to the conclusion that the saponin fraction of S. mukorossi has a protective capability both in vitro on primary hepatocyte cultures and in vivo in a rat model of CCl4-mediated liver injury. Hence, we suggest that the inclusion of this S. mukorossi fruit pericarp in the management of liver disorders is justified.

Rao, M Srinivasa; Asad, B Syed; Fazil, MA; Sudharshan, RD; Rasheed, SA; Pradeep, HA; Aboobacker, S; Thayyil, AH; Riyaz, AK; Mansoor, M; Aleem, MA; Zeeyauddin, K; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Anjum, A; Ibrahim, M

2012-01-01

96

Protein-calorie malnutrition in liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to present detailed data on the nutritional assessment in cirrhotic patients. The exact frequency and types of malnutrition, its associations with the aetiology of liver disease, liver dysfunction and clinical staging in liver cirrhosis are unknown. A new classification system is presented which may help to suggest some interventional guidelines. Physical (anthropometry, 24-h urinary

H. U. Lautz; O. Selberg; J. Körber; M. Bürger; M. J. Müller

1992-01-01

97

Terahertz pulsed imaging of liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPItrade) is a coherent imaging technique that can be used to reveal the dielectric properties of samples. Liver cirrhosis is a common disease that can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma. It has been previously studied in the microwave region and the dielectric parameters of human cirrhotic liver were quantified. In this study, we characterized the refractive index and

Shengyang Huang; Yi-xiang Wang; Jun Yu; A. T. Ahuja; V. P. Wallace; Yuan-ting Zhang; E. Pickwell-Macpherson

2009-01-01

98

Preventive and curative effects of Artemisia absinthium on acetaminophen and CCl 4-induced hepatotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Effect of aqueous-methanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium (Compositae) was investigated against acetaminophen- and CCl4-induced hepatic damage.2.2. Acetaminophen produced 100% mortality at the dose of 1 g\\/kg in mice while pretreatment of animals with plant extract (500 mg\\/kg) reduced the death rate to 20%.3.3. Pretreatment of rats with plant extract (500 mg\\/kg, orally twice daily for two days) prevented (P

Anwar-Ul Hassan Gilani; Khalid Hussain Janbaz

1995-01-01

99

Hepatoprotection of tea seed oil ( Camellia oleifera Abel.) against CCl 4-induced oxidative damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil of tea seed (Camellia oleifera Abel.) is used extensively in China for cooking. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of tea seed oil on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Male SD rats (200±10g) were pre-treated with tea seed oil (50, 100, and 150g\\/kg diet) for six weeks before treatment with a single dose of CCl4 (50%

Chia-Pu Lee; Ping-Hsiao Shih; Chin-Lin Hsu; Gow-Chin Yen

2007-01-01

100

Inhibitory mechanism of taurine against CCl4 induced hepatic fibrosis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To study the protective effect of taurine on hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats and its mechanisms. METHODS: CCl4-induced rat hepatic fibrosis was treated by taurine (400 and 800 mg\\/kg per day for 12 weeks), and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), plasma protein, hyaluronic acid (HA) and procollagen (PC ), and hepatic hydroxyproline (HYP), hepatic microsomal drug-metaboliz-

Jian Liang; Guang-Ye Yang; Xi-Liu Zhang; Yu-Sheng Pang; Hai-Feng Yuan; Jing-Song Liang; Ren-Bin Huang; Xin Wei; Ming Wei

2003-01-01

101

FastStats: Chronic Liver Disease/Cirrhosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Related Links Accessibility NCHS Home FastStats Home Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis (Data are for the U.S.) ... Hospital Inpatient Care Number of discharges with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis as the first-listed diagnosis: ...

102

Cirrhosis  

MedlinePLUS

Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver. Scar tissue forms because of injury or long-term disease. Scar ... the blood, help digest food and store energy. Cirrhosis can lead to Easy bruising or bleeding, or ...

103

EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF FLOWERS OF VITEX TRIFOLIA LINN. ON CCl4 INDUCED HEPATIC INJURY IN RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of flowers of Vitex trifolia (Verbenaceae) was studied against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in albino rats. The plant extract (EVT) at the dose of 200 mg\\/kg, p.o. showed a remarkable hepatoprotective activity. CCl4 induced a significant rise in serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin and gamma

RAMASAMY ANANDAN; BALASUNDARAM JAYAKAR; BIUSAN KARAR; SEEVALEN BABUJI; RAJAPPAN MANAVALAN; RAJU SENTHIL KUMAR

104

Effect of pretreatment of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract against subacute CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

CCl4 alone treatment (0.lml of liquid paraffin/100g body weight, ip) for 7 days followed by 0.l ml of CCl4 (in liquid parafiin/100g body weight, ip) from day 8 till day 14, caused a 16 fold increase in lipid peroxidation and a 50% reduction in catalase and glutathione reductase in liver tissue of rats accompanied by an increase in the activities of transaminases. alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma - glutamyl transpeptidase in serum as compared to liquid paraffin treated control. Pretreatment of ethanolic leaf extract of C. fistula (500mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days) followed by CCl4 treatment (0.1 ml/100g body weight from day 8 till day 14) completely reversed back lipid peroxidation and the activities of catalase and glutathione reductase in the liver tissue towards normalcy. This treatment also reversed the elevated levels of the enzymes in the serum. Ethanolic leaf extract alone treatment did not produce any change in all the parameters studied. The results suggest antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of C. fistula during its pretreatment against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:15991578

Pradeep, K; Mohan, C Victor Raj; Anand, K Gobi; Karthikeyan, S

2005-06-01

105

Puerarin mediates hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis rats through attenuation of inflammation response and amelioration of metabolic function.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the potential effects of puerarin (PR), an effective isoflavonoid compound purified from Pueraria lobata, in treating hepatic fibrosis (HF) rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4), 2 mL kg(-1) d(-1)). Compared to model control, PR treatment effectively lowered the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin (Alb), total protein (TP) in HF rats. Masson stained analysis showed that the condition of HF rats was mitigated. Meanwhile, the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) expressions were significantly down-regulated at protein level by PR intervention. Additionally, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was elevated, while the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lessened in liver tissue. As revealed by immunohistochemistry assay, PR therapy resulted in reduced production of transforming growth factor-?l (TGF-?l). Moreover, it also was attributed to decreased mRNA level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) using RT-PCR analysis. These findings demonstrate that puerarin successfully reverses hepatotoxicity in CCl(4)-induced HF rats via the underlying mechanisms of regulating serum enzymes and attenuating TNF-?/NF-?B pathway for anti-inflammation response, as well as improving metabolic function in liver tissue. PMID:23146695

Li, Rong; Xu, Lingyuan; Liang, Tao; Li, Yongwen; Zhang, Shijun; Duan, Xiaoqun

2012-11-09

106

Synergistic effect of silymarin and standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in Rattus norvegicus.  

PubMed

In search of the effective and standardized hepatoprotective combination therapy, silymarin and standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus has been evaluated against CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Eight groups of rats were used. The animals of group A served as normal and were given only vehicle. The animals of group B served as toxin control and were administered with CCl(4) (50% solution of CCl(4) in liquid paraffin, 2 ml/kg b.w., intraperitoneally). The animals of groups C-H received silymarin (100 mg/kg b.w.), Phyllanthus amarus aqueous extract (100 mg/kg b.w.), Phyllanthus amarus ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg b.w.), silymarin (50 mg/kg b.w.)+P. amarus aq. ext. (50 mg/kg b.w.), silymarin (50 mg/kg b.w.)+P. amarus eth. ext. (50 mg/kg b.w.) and marketed formulation (M.F.) 5 ml/kg b.w. for 6 days orally as well as CCl(4) (2 ml/kg b.w.) on 4th day intraperitoneally. The test materials were found effective as hepatoprotective as evidenced by plasma and liver biochemical parameters. The combination of silymarin and Phyllanthus amarus showed synergistic effect for hepatoprotection and silymarin with ethanolic extract of P. amarus showed better activity due to the higher concentration of phyllanthin in ethanolic extract in comparison to aqueous extract of P. amarus as estimated by HPLC. PMID:18848770

Yadav, Narayan P; Pal, Anirban; Shanker, Karuna; Bawankule, Dyaneshwar U; Gupta, Anil K; Darokar, Mahendra P; S Khanuja, Suman P

2008-10-10

107

Traditional extract of Pithecellobium dulce fruits protects mice against CCl(4) induced renal oxidative impairments and necrotic cell death.  

PubMed

The present study has been carried out to investigate the role of the aqueous extract of the fruits of Pithecellobium dulce (AEPD) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced renal oxidative injury in mice. HPLC analysis shows that AEPD contains phenolics, flavonoids and saponins as the major active components. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were assayed to determine renal protective action of AEPD in CCl(4)-induced renal pathophysiology. Its antioxidant activity was determined by measuring radical scavenging activity, antioxidant enzymes activities, GSH content, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation. In addition, FACS analysis, DNA fragmentation and histological studies were carried out to determine its effect in CCl(4) induced renal oxidative injury and cell death. CCl(4) exposure increased the intracellular reactive oxygen species production, decreased intracellular antioxidant defence, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, attenuated the intracellular ATP content and caused renal cell death mainly via the necrotic pathway as revealed by DNA fragmentation analysis. Treatment with AEPD both prior and post to the toxin exposure protected the organ from CCl(4) induced oxidative insult. Histological studies also support our results. Combining, results suggest that the protective role of AEPD against CCl(4) induced renal oxidative impairments is probably due to the antioxidative properties present in its active constituents. PMID:22424982

Pal, Pabitra Bikash; Pal, Sankhadeep; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C

2012-03-15

108

Protective effect of Launaea procumbens (L.) on lungs against CCl4-induced pulmonary damages in rat  

PubMed Central

Background Launaea procumbens (L.) is traditionally used in the treatment of various human ailments including pulmonary damages. The present study was arranged to evaluate the role of Launaea procumbens methanol extract (LME) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative pulmonary damages in rat. Methods 36 Sprague–Dawley male rats (170-180?g) were randomly divided into 06 groups. After a week of acclamization, group I was remained untreated while group II was given olive oil intraperitoneally (i.p.) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) orally, groups III, IV, V and VI were administered CCl4, 3?ml/kg body weight (30% in olive oil i.p.). Groups IV, V were treated with 100?mg/kg, 200?mg/kg of LME whereas group VI was administered with 50?mg/kg body weight of rutin (RT) after 48?h of CCl4 treatment for four weeks. Antioxidant profile in lungs were evaluated by estimating the activities of antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), quinone reductase (QR) and reduced glutathione (GSH). CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with conjugation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damages, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) counts and histopathology. Results Administration of CCl4 for 6?weeks significantly (p?CCl4-induced oxidative stress possibly by improving the antioxidant defence system.

2012-01-01

109

Coffee, Caffeine, and the Risk of Liver Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of the consumption of caffeine-containing beverages on the risk of symptomatic liver cirrhosis (LC).METHODS: From 1994 to 1998, all the consecutive cirrhotic inpatients admitted in 19 collaborative hospitals for signs of liver decompensation in whom the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis was made for the first time (274 cases) and one or two gender, age, and

Giovanni Corrao; Antonella Zambon; Vincenzo Bagnardi; Amleto D'Amicis; Arthur Klatsky

2001-01-01

110

Motor dysfunction in patients with liver cirrhosis: impairment of handwriting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor dysfunction is an important clinical finding in patients with liver cirrhosis and mild forms of hepatic encephalopathy.\\u000a The mechanisms and clinical appearance of motor impairment in patients with liver cirrhosis are not completely understood.\\u000a We studied fine motor control in forty four patients with advanced liver cirrhosis (excluding those with hepatic encephalopathy\\u000a grade II) and 48 healthy controls using

Sergei Mechtcheriakov; Ivo W. Graziadei; André Kugener; Ingrid Schuster; Joerg Mueller; Hartmann Hinterhuber; W. Vogel; J. Marksteiner

2006-01-01

111

Isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside Protects against CCl4-Induced Hepatic Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to examine the hepatoprotective effect of isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside, a flavonoid glycoside isolated from Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Compositae), against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with vehicle or isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) 30 min before and 2 h after CCl4 (20 ?l/kg) injection. Serum aminotransferase activities and hepatic level of malondialdehyde were significantly higher after CCl4 treatment, and these increases were attenuated by isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside. CCl4 markedly increased serum tumor necrosis factor-? level, which was reduced by isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside. The levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase- 2 (COX-2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein and their mRNA expression levels were significantly increased after CCl4 injection. The levels of HO-1 protein and mRNA expression levels were augmented by isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside, while isorhamnetin- 3-O-galactoside attenuated the increases in iNOS and COX-2 protein and mRNA expression levels. CCl4 increased the level of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38, and isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside reduced these increases. The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), activating protein-1, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were signifi cantly increased after CCl4 administration. Isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside attenuated the increases of NF-?B and c-Jun nuclear translocation, while it augmented the nuclear level of Nrf2. These results suggest that isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside ameliorates CCl4-induced hepatic damage by enhancing the anti-oxidative defense system and reducing the inflammatory signaling pathways.

Kim, Dong-Wook; Cho, Hong-Ik; Kim, Kang-Min; Kim, So-Jin; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Yeong Shik; Lee, Sun-Mee

2012-01-01

112

Isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside Protects against CCl4-Induced Hepatic Injury in Mice.  

PubMed

This study was performed to examine the hepatoprotective effect of isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside, a flavonoid glycoside isolated from Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Compositae), against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with vehicle or isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) 30 min before and 2 h after CCl4 (20 ?l/kg) injection. Serum aminotransferase activities and hepatic level of malondialdehyde were significantly higher after CCl4 treatment, and these increases were attenuated by isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside. CCl4 markedly increased serum tumor necrosis factor-? level, which was reduced by isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside. The levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase- 2 (COX-2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein and their mRNA expression levels were significantly increased after CCl4 injection. The levels of HO-1 protein and mRNA expression levels were augmented by isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside, while isorhamnetin- 3-O-galactoside attenuated the increases in iNOS and COX-2 protein and mRNA expression levels. CCl4 increased the level of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38, and isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside reduced these increases. The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), activating protein-1, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were signifi cantly increased after CCl4 administration. Isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside attenuated the increases of NF-?B and c-Jun nuclear translocation, while it augmented the nuclear level of Nrf2. These results suggest that isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside ameliorates CCl4-induced hepatic damage by enhancing the anti-oxidative defense system and reducing the inflammatory signaling pathways. PMID:24009828

Kim, Dong-Wook; Cho, Hong-Ik; Kim, Kang-Min; Kim, So-Jin; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Yeong Shik; Lee, Sun-Mee

2012-07-01

113

Hypoxaemia and cirrhosis of the liver.  

PubMed Central

In order to determine the frequency of hypoxaemia and to evaluate the role of increased closing capacity in producing hypoxaemia in patients with cirrhosis of the liver, 13 patients with well-established cirrhosis were studied. Arterial blood gases, spirometry, lung volume, and closing capacity measurements were made with the patients in the seated and recumbent positions after exclusion of cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Four of 13 and six of 12 patients exhibited significant hypoxaemia in the seated and recumbent positions respectively. Five of 13 patients showed a closing capacity greater than predicted. This frequency of increased closing capacity was not higher than in a group of smokers of the same age. Unlike Ruff et al. (1971), we did not find a consistent relationship between hypoxaemia and closing capacity.

Funahashi, A; Kutty, A V; Prater, S L

1976-01-01

114

Hawk tea (Litsea coreana Levl. var. lanuginose) attenuates CCl(4)-induced hepatic damage in Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Hawk tea (Litsea coreana Levl. var. lanuginose) is a traditional Chinese drink similar to green tea. In the present study, the preventive effects of Hawk tea on hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. Silymarin was used as a positive control. Hawk tea was successfully shown to prevent hepatic damage in the rats. Serum levels of AST, ALT and LDH were significantly decreased when the rats were treated with varying concentrations of Hawk tea compared with silymarin (P<0.05). The lowest enzyme activities were exhibited in the 400 mg/kg Hawk tea group. This group showed reduced levels of the serum proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFN-? and TNF-?. In particular, the IFN-? level decreased markedly compared with the other concentration groups. The histopathology sections of liver tissue in the 400 mg/kg Hawk tea group recovered well from the CCl(4) damage, but the sections of the other concentration groups showed necrosis to a more serious degree. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses of the inflammation-related genes iNOS, COX-2, TNF-? and IL-1? in the rat livers were tested. The 400 mg/kg Hawk tea group showed significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-? and IL-1? compared with the control group. Accordingly, 400 mg/kg Hawk tea potentially contributes to the prevention of CCl(4)-induced hepatic damage in vivo. A 200 or 100 mg/kg dose of Hawk tea also demonstrated preventive effects against hepatic damage. PMID:23403509

Zhao, Xin

2012-11-28

115

Synergistic effect of silymarin and standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus against CCl 4-induced hepatotoxicity in Rattus norvegicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In search of the effective and standardized hepatoprotective combination therapy, silymarin and standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus has been evaluated against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Eight groups of rats were used. The animals of group A served as normal and were given only vehicle. The animals of group B served as toxin control and were administered with CCl4 (50% solution

Narayan P. Yadav; Anirban Pal; Karuna Shanker; Dyaneshwar U. Bawankule; Anil K. Gupta; Mahendra P. Darokar; Suman P. S. Khanuja

2008-01-01

116

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Commiphora berryi (Arn) Engl bark extract against CCl 4-induced oxidative damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative damage is involved in the pathogenesis of various hepatic injuries. In the present study the capacity of Commiphora berryi (Arn) Engl bark as an antioxidant to protect against CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in Albino Wistar rats was investigated. Intraperitoneal injection of CCl4, administered twice a week, produced a marked elevation in the serum levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine

N. L. Gowri Shankar; R. Manavalan; D. Venkappayya; C. David Raj

2008-01-01

117

The protective effects of aqueous extracts of wild-growing and fermented Royal Sun mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al. (higher basidiomycetes), in CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats.  

PubMed

Culinary-medicinal Royal Sun mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (AbS), has traditionally been used for the prevention of a range of diseases, including cancer, hepatitis, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and dermatitis. The hepatoprotective effect of the fermented mushroom of A. brasiliensis (FMAE) and wild-growing A. brasiliensis (WMAE) were studied in this paper. An in vivo study of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced antioxidant activity in 2-month-old rats was conducted by examining the levels of activities of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and the antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and catalase (CAT). Rats were divided into four groups, each containing six rats. The first group served as a control group. The second group was the CCl4 group. Group I and group II were treated orally with distilled water for 14 days respectively. Group III and Group IV were treated orally by WMAE and FMAE at oral doses of 50 mg/kg-day, respectively. Both WMAE and FMAE could reduce CCl4-induced toxicity, particularly hepatotoxicity, by suppressing ALT and AST activities, and increasing antioxidant enzyme activity. The studies demonstrate that both the fermented and wild-growing A. brasiliensis could protect the liver against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats. PMID:23510249

Zhang, Chunjing; Han, Chunchao; Zhao, Baosheng; Yu, Haitao

2012-01-01

118

Nanoemulsified ethanolic extract of Pyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn ameliorates CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Phyllanthus amarus (PA) is commonly used in traditional medicine for hepatoprotectivity. The major limitation is that, treatment requires a large quantity of herbal extract for a longer duration. Aim of the present study was to encapsulate ethanolic plant extract for sustained release of constituents in intestine and facilitate maximum absorption. The efficacy was compared for the hepatoprotective activity of nanoencapsulated ethanolic extract of P. amarus (NPA) and PA in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxic male rats. Based on total phenol content (TPC), the loading efficiency of nanocapsules was 89% (pH 7.0) and optimum concentration was 2:18 (mg/mL) for plant extract: olive oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a spherical morphology, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) identified mean particle diameter as 213 nm and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that the phytoconstituents were stable. An oral dose of NPA (20 mg/kg body wt.) showed a better hepatoprotective activity than PA (100 mg/kg body wt.) and also repeated dose oral toxicity proved to be safe. These biochemical assessments were supported by rat biopsy examinations. In conclusion, the nanoemulsification method may be applied for poor water-soluble ethanolic herbal extracts to reduce the dosage and time. PMID:23305029

Deepa, V; Sridhar, R; Goparaju, A; Reddy, P Neelakanta; Murthy, P Balakrishna

2012-11-01

119

Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) has been reported to be low in patients with liver cirrhosis. Previous studies\\u000a have, however, included mostly patients with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictive\\u000a factors of CAD in a cohort of consecutive patients with cirrhosis of various etiologies compared to the general population.\\u000a Methods

Evangelos Kalaitzakis; Annika Rosengren; Tomas Skommevik; Einar Björnsson

2010-01-01

120

Nonalcoholic cirrhosis of the liver in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Amongst the chronic hepatic disorders in India, the cirrhosis of liver is common and its etiopathogenesis which is largly\\u000a poorly understood, is at variance, to that of the West. During last two decades, several studies have been undertaken to study\\u000a the small bowel status in hepatic disorders, particularly in the alcoholic cirrhosis1–3). Similar studies on the tropical hepatic cirrhosis are

J. P. Gupta; B. C. Datiyar; B. Dube; K. N. Singh

1980-01-01

121

Thioacetamide and Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods of inducing liver cirrhosis in the rat were studied. Intragastric administration of CCl4 for 16 weeks according to Proctor and Chatamra was compared to the administration of thioacetamide in the drinking water (0.3 g\\/l) for the same period. CCl4 administration induced micronodular cirrhosis in 6\\/8 animals with a 27% mortality. Thioacetamide induced cirrhosis in 6\\/8 animals without mortality.

H. Dashti; B. Jeppsson; I. Hägerstrand; B. Hultberg; U. Srinivas; M. Abdulla; S. Bengmark

1989-01-01

122

Prevention of CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in adrenal gland by Digera muricata extract in rat.  

PubMed

Digera muricata (L.) Mart. is a weed and commonly found in waste places, road sides and in maize fields during the summer season. It possesses antioxidant capacity and is locally used for various disorders such as inflammation, urination, as refrigerant, aperient and in sexual anomalies. In this study antioxidant potential of Digera muricata methanol extract (DMME) and n-hexane extract (DMHE) was evaluated against CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress in adrenal gland of Sprague-Dawley male rats. 42 rats were equally divided into 7 groups of 6 rats in each. Group I remained untreated, while Group II treated with vehicles. Group III received only CCl(4) (1 ml/kg b.w., 10% in olive oil) once a week for 16 weeks. Group IV and VI received DMME and DMHE at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. along with CCl(4). Animals of Group V and VII administered with DMME and DMHE alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. once a week for 16 weeks. Lipid peroxidation significantly increased while activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, GST, GSR and GSH-Px) were reduced in adrenal gland samples by the administration of CCl(4). Glutathione (GSH) concentration was significantly decreased whereas DNA fragmentation% and AgNORs count was increased in adrenal gland by CCl(4) administration. Treatment of rat by both the extracts (DMME, DMHE) and CCl(4) increased the glutathione level and activities of antioxidant enzymes while reduced the lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation percent and AgNORs count in adrenal gland. These results indicate that Digera muricata extract is able to ameliorate oxidative stress in adrenal gland induced by CCl(4) in rat. PMID:21959806

Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Younus, Tahira

2011-10-01

123

Circulating microRNAs as a Fingerprint for Liver Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Background Sensitive and specific detection of liver cirrhosis is an urgent need for optimal individualized management of disease activity. Substantial studies have identified circulation miRNAs as biomarkers for diverse diseases including chronic liver diseases. In this study, we investigated the plasma miRNA signature to serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker for silent liver cirrhosis. Methods A genome-wide miRNA microarray was first performed in 80 plasma specimens. Six candidate miRNAs were selected and then trained in CHB-related cirrhosis and controls by qPCR. A classifier, miR-106b and miR-181b, was validated finally in two independent cohorts including CHB-related silent cirrhosis and controls, as well as non?CHB-related cirrhosis and controls as validation sets, respectively. Results A profile of 2 miRNAs (miR-106b and miR-181b) was identified as liver cirrhosis biomarkers irrespective of etiology. The classifier constructed by the two miRNAs provided a high diagnostic accuracy for cirrhosis (AUC?=?0.882 for CHB-related cirrhosis in the training set, 0.774 for CHB-related silent cirrhosis in one validation set, and 0.915 for non?CHB-related cirrhosis in another validation set). Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the combined detection of miR-106b and miR-181b has a considerable clinical value to diagnose patients with liver cirrhosis, especially those at early stage.

Fan, Jia; Zhou, Jian; Hu, Jie; Yu, Qian; Liu, Tao-Tao; Yang, Lei; Wu, Chun-Lei; Guo, Xiao-Ling; Huang, Xiao-Wu; Shen, Xi-Zhong

2013-01-01

124

Hepatoprotective effect of Arazyme on CCl 4-induced acute hepatic injury in SMP30 knock-out mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arazyme is a novel protease produced by the HY-3 strain of Aranicola proteolyticus, which is a Gram-negative aerobic bacterium that has been isolated from the intestine of the spider Nephila clavata. This study focused on the hepatoprotective effect of Arazyme on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatic injury in senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30) knock-out (KO) mice and SMP30 wild-type (WT)

Jin-Kyu Park; Da-Hee Jeong; Ho-Yong Park; Kwang-Hee Son; Dong-Ha Shin; Sun-Hee Do; Hai-Jie Yang; Dong-Wei Yuan; Il-Hwa Hong; Moon-Jung Goo; Hye-Rim Lee; Mi-Ran Ki; Akihito Ishigami; Kyu-Shik Jeong

2008-01-01

125

Hematological Disorders in Patients with Liver Viral Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the most frequent and severe complication of chronic C hepatitis. Results of recent researches indicated that HCV persists and replicates not only in hepatic tissue, but in the other organs, too. In patients with chronic C hepatitis and cirrhosis extrahepatocellular areas of virus persistence and replication and the extrahepatocytal manifestation of the disease complicates

Elza Vashakidze; Irina Kiladze

126

Arterial-venous shunting in liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Controversial data exist in the literature about the presence and clinical relevance of hepatic arterial-venous shunting. An interesting opportunity for reconsidering the problem has been provided by the use, in the study of liver function, of D-sorbitol, a substance whose first-pass hepatic extraction is very high in normal subjects, while being directly related to circulatory alterations in liver cirrhosis. Because of this property, the systemic bioavailability of D-sorbitol during hepatic arterial infusion can be assumed to reflect arterial-venous shunting. Thirteen biopsy-proven cirrhotic patients (ages 35-66 years), who required diagnostic arterial catheterization, entered the study. Patients were studied on two subsequent days, in which a sterile pyrogen-free solution (1.5%) of D-sorbitol was administered by direct low-rate infusion (15 mg/min for 20 min) into the hepatic artery and the systemic circulation, respectively. Urine samples were spontaneously collected for 8-hr periods before and during/after each infusion. The hepatic arterial bioavailability of D-sorbitol was calculated as the ratio between the net cumulative urinary outputs of D-sorbitol after infusions into the hepatic artery and the systemic vein. Observed values confirm the existence and the large variability (0-88.7%) of hepatic arterial-venous shunting in cirrhotic patients. PMID:9508535

Molino, G; Bar, F; Battista, S; Torchio, M; Niro, A G; Garello, E; Avagnina, P; Fava, C; Grosso, M; Spalluto, F

1998-01-01

127

Treatment of Hepatitis B in Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Chronic hepatitis B infection progresses from an asymptomatic persistently infected state to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, decompensated liver disease, and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. About 3% of patients with chronic hepatitis develop cirrhosis yearly, and about 5% of individuals with hepatitis B cirrhosis become decompensated annually. The outcome for patients with decompensated cirrhosis is bleak. Lamivudine, the first oral antiviral agent available for hepatitis B treatment is safe and effective and can improve or stabilize liver disease in patients with advanced cirrhosis and viraemia. Viral resistance restricts its prolonged use. Entecavir and tenofovir are newer agents with excellent resistance profile to date. These and some other antiviral agents are being investigated for optimal use in this rather challenging patient group.

Guan, Richard; Lui, Hock Foong

2011-01-01

128

Liver cirrhosis and hepatic stellate cells.  

PubMed

The cirrhosis represents the final stage of several chronic hepatic diseases and it is characterized by the presence of fibrosis and morphologic conversion from the normal hepatic architecture into structurally abnormal nodules. In the evolution of the disease there is loss of the normal vascular relationship and portal hypertension. There are also regenerative hepatocellular alterations that become more prominent with the progression of the disease. The liver transplantation continues to be the only therapeutic option in cases of disease in terminal phase. The hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are perisinusoidal cells that store vitamin A and produce growth factors, citocins, prostaglandins and other bioactive substances. They can suffer an activation process that convert them to cells with a phenotype similar to myofibroblasts. When activated, they present increased capacity of proliferation, mobility, contractility and synthesis of collagen and other components of extracellular matrix. They possess cytoplasmic processes adhered to sinusoids and can affect the sinusoidal blood flow. HSC are important in pathogenesis of fibrosis and portal hypertension. PMID:17013515

Brandão, Daniel Ferracioli; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Ramalho, Fernando Silva; Zucoloto, Sérgio; Martinelli, Ana de Lourdes Candolo; Silva, Orlando de Castro e

2006-01-01

129

Nutrition and survival in patients with liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the effect of malnutrition on survival has been demonstrated by a number of studies, it is not clear whether malnutrition represents an independent risk factor in patients with liver disease. We studied 212 hospitalized patients with liver cirrhosis who were followed clinically for 2 y or until death. Body fat and muscle mass were evaluated by triceps skinfold thickness

Franca Alberino; Angelo Gatta; Piero Amodio; Carlo Merkel; Lorenza Di Pascoli; Gina Boffo; Lorenza Caregaro

2001-01-01

130

Full dose dipyridamole significantly improves thrombocytopenia in liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombocytopenia in liver cirrhosis (LC) is characterized by increased splenic sequestration [1], reduced cell lifespan and compensatory bone marrow hyperactivity [2]. However, the precise etiology of the phenomenon is still unclear. Stein and Harker [2] suggested that :it could be caused by selective platelet adhesion to nonendothelialized vascular surfaces or the damaged liver. If this is so, the administration of

Guido Luzzatto; Fabrizio Fabris; Giuseppe De Franchis; Giorgio E. Gerunda; Antonio Girolami

1987-01-01

131

Experimental cirrhosis of the liver produced by dysentery toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cirrhosis of the liver can develop as a result of the effects of toxico-infection s. Epidemic hepatitis [2, 6, 9] and alcohol [4, 13-15] are regarded as important factors in the development of the disease. In about 30% of patients the cause of development of the cirrhosis cannot be established [3, 10]. Clinical observations suggest that chronic intestinal toxico-infeetions (enterocolitis,

M. N. Khanin; I. A. Alimova; M. K. Irgashev

1972-01-01

132

Introducing an Optimal Liver Allocation System for Liver Cirrhosis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Liver transplantation (LT) is the only treatment option for patients with advanced liver disease. Currently, liver donation to these patients, considering priorities, is based on the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD). MELD score is a tool for predicting the risk of mortality in patients with advanced liver disease. However, few studies have so far been conducted in Iran on the efficacy of MELD score of these patients. Objectives This study reviews the present status of the MELD score and introduces a new model for optimal prediction of the risk of mortality in Iranian patients with advanced liver disease. Patients and Methods Data required were collected from 305 patients with advanced liver disease who enrolled in a waiting list (WL) in Imam Khomeini Hospital from May 2008 to May 2009. All of the patients were followed up for at least 3 years until they died or underwent LT. Cox regression analysis was applied to select the factors affecting their mortality. Survival curves were plotted. Wilcoxson test and receiver operating characteristics curves for survival predictive model were used to compare the scores. All calculations were performed with the SPSS (version 13.0) and R softwares. Results During the study, 71 (23.3%) patients died due to liver cirrhosis and 43 (14.1%) underwent LT. Viral Hepatitis (43.7%) is the most common cause of end-stage liver disease among Iranian patients. A new model (NMELD) was proposed with the use of the natural logarithms of two blood serum variables (total bilirubin and albumin) and the patients' age (year) by applying the Cox model: NMELD = 10 × (0.736 × ln (bilirubin) – 1.312 × ln (albumin) + 0.025 × age + 1.776) Conclusions The results of the Wilcoxon test showed that there is a significant difference between the usual MELD and our proposed NMELD scores (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristics curve for survival predictive model indicated that the NMELD score is more efficient compared with the MELD score in predicting the risk of mortality. Since serum creatinine was not significant in NMELD score, further studies to clarify this issue are suggested.

Abolghasemi, Jamileh; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Nasiri Toosi, Mohsen; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas

2013-01-01

133

Readthrough Acetylcholinesterase Is Increased in Human Liver Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims There have been many studies on plasma butyrylcholinesterase in liver dysfunction. However, no data is available about acetylcholinesterase in human cirrhosis, although profound changes have been described in cirrhotic rat models. Methods Human serum and liver acetylcholinesterase and its molecular forms were determined enzymatically, after butyrylcholinesterase immunodepletion. The distinct species of acetylcholinesterase, with a distinct C-terminus, were determined by western blotting, and the level of liver transcripts by real-time PCR. Liver acetylcholinesterase was also evaluated by immunocytochemistry. Results In patients with liver cirrhosis, the activity of plasma acetylcholinesterase (rich in light species), appeared to be apparently unaffected. However, the levels of the soluble readthrough (R) acetylcholinesterase form, an acetylcholinesterase species usually associated with stress and pathology, was increased compared to controls. Human liver acetylcholinesterase activity levels were also unchanged, but protein levels of the acetylcholinesterase-R and other acetylcholinesterase subunit species were increased in the cirrhotic liver. This increase in acetylcholinesterase protein expression in the cirrhotic liver was confirmed by PCR analysis. Immunohistological examination confirmed that acetylcholinesterase immunoreactivity is increased in parenchymal cells of the cirrhotic liver. Conclusions We demonstrate significant changes in acetylcholinesterase at the protein and mRNA levels in liver cirrhosis, with no difference in enzymatic activity. The altered expression of acetylcholinesterase protein may reflect changes in its pathophysiological role.

Garcia-Ayllon, Maria-Salud; Millan, Cristina; Serra-Basante, Carol; Bataller, Ramon; Saez-Valero, Javier

2012-01-01

134

Pharmacokinetics of oltipraz in diabetic rats with liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: The incidence of diabetes mellitus is increased in patients with liver cirrhosis. Oltipraz is currently in trials to treat patients with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis induced by chronic hepatitis types B and C and is primarily metabolized via hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes CYP1A1/2, 2B1/2, 2C11, 2D1 and 3A1/2 in rats. We have studied the influence of diabetes mellitus on pharmacokinetics of oltipraz and on expression of hepatic, CYP1A, 2B1/2, 2C11, 2D and 3A in rats with experimental liver cirrhosis. Experimental approach: Oltipraz was given intravenously (10 mg·kg?1) or orally (30 mg·kg?1) to rats with liver cirrhosis induced by N-dimethylnitrosamine (LC rats) or with diabetes, induced by streptozotocin (DM rats) or to rats with both liver cirrhosis and diabetes (LCD rats) and to control rats, and pharmacokinetic variables measured. Protein expression of hepatic CYP1A, 2B1/2, 2C11, 2D and 3A was measured using Western blot analysis. Key results: After i.v. or p.o. administration of oltipraz to LC and DM rats, the AUC was significantly greater and smaller, respectively, than that in control rats. In LCD rats, the AUC was that of LC and DM rats (partially restored towards control rats). Compared with control rats, the protein expression of hepatic CYP1A increased, that of CYP2C11 and 3A decreased, but that of CYP2B1/2 and 2D was not altered in LCD rats. Conclusions and implications: In rats with diabetes and liver cirrhosis, the AUC of oltipraz was partially restored towards that of control rats.

Ahn, CY; Bae, SK; Bae, SH; Kim, T; Jung, YS; Kim, YC; Lee, MG; Shin, WG

2009-01-01

135

Strategy of gene therapy for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose. Liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, without effective\\u000a therapies. Our aim was to establish a novel approach for the diseases utilizing in-vivo gene therapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. To achieve effective gene expression in vivo, we employed a well-established transfection method, hemagglutinating virus\\u000a of Japan (HVJ)-liposome. Liver cirrhosis, characterized by parenchymal collapse, was induced

Yuji Iimuro; Jiro Fujimoto

2003-01-01

136

Studies of glucose intolerance in cirrhosis of the liver.  

PubMed

Patients with hepatic cirrhosis often have demonstrable glucose intolerance. We studied 21 patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), intravenous arginine stimulation tests (IVAST), and intravenous insulin tolerance tests (IVITT) were performed, and timed blood samples were obtained for the assay of glucose immunoreactive insulin (IRI), C-peptide (C-P), and immunoreactive glucagon (IRG). The 125I-insulin binding to circulating monocytes was studied in some of the patients. All results were compared to those of similar studies performed on healthy controls. During OGTT significant glucose intolerance was demonstrable in the patients with cirrhosis (2 hr plasma glucose 198.8 +/- 14.3 mg/dl in cirrhosis and 116.4 +/- 4.2 in controls; p less than 0.001). Two-hour plasma IRI, C-P, and IRG were significantly higher in the cirrhotic patients than in controls (p less than 0.001; less than 0.001; less than 0.025). In response to IVAST, the patients with cirrhosis showed a greater first-phase insulin secretion and controls had a slightly better second-phase insulin release. Plasma IRG rose from a basal value of 446 pg/ml to 1100 in the patients with cirrhosis and from 171 pg/ml to 494 in controls. After intravenous insulin administration, there was only a 40% decline in plasma glucose concentration from basal values in the patients with cirrhosis whereas the controls showed a 60% decline, demonstrating that the patients with cirrhosis had significant insulin resistance. Moreover, the half-life of insulin was prolonged in the patients with cirrhosis (t 1/2 = 15.5 min in cirrhosis and 10.3 in controls; p less than 0.001); and the ratio of C-P to insulin during OGTT was also reduced, indicating that the patients with cirrhosis have reduced hepatic clearance of insulin. The specific binding of 125I-insulin to circulating monocytes was 2.7% in cirrhosis, 2% in obese controls, and 4% in lean controls. There was a significant negative correlation between the fasting plasma insulin values and the specific binding of insulin. In conclusion, patients with hepatic cirrhosis have significant glucose intolerance characterized by hyperinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia, insulin resistance, and down-regulation of insulin receptors. Although hyperinsulinemia is probably caused by reduced hepatic clearance of insulin, hyperglucagonemia is primarily due to increased pancreatic secretion. PMID:6352838

Shankar, T P; Solomon, S S; Duckworth, W C; Himmelstein, S; Gray, S; Jerkins, T; Bobal, M A; Iyer, R S

1983-10-01

137

Liver Transplantation for Solitary Hepatocellular Carcinoma Less than 3 cm in Diameter in Child A Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the treatment of choice for patients with unresectable tumors within the Milan criteria associated with Child B or C cirrhosis. Liver transplantation provides the best cure for both the HCC and the underlying cirrhosis. In recent years, some authors have advocated liver transplantation even for resectable early HCC associated with Child A cirrhosis,

Ronnie T. P. Poon

2007-01-01

138

Antioxidant activity of Aulosira fertilisima on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free radicals cause cell injury, when they are generated in excess or when the antioxidant defense is impaired. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is used as a model for liver injury. In this study antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of A. fertilisima (EEA) was investigated using CCl4 intoxicated rat liver as the experimental model. Oral administration of EEA at a dose of

Gini C Kuriakose; G. Muraleedhara Kurup

139

Hepatoprotective action of ethanolic extracts of Melia azedarach Linn. and Piper longum Linn and their combination on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

A comparison of analysis in evaluating the hepatoprotective action of ethanolic extract of M. azedarach (MAE) and P. longum (PLE) with their combination biherbal extract (BHE) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage is reported in albino rats. There was a marked elevation of serum marker enzyme levels in CCl4 treated rats, which were restored towards normalization in the drug (MAE and/or PLE:50 mg/kg body weight po, once daily for 14 days) treated animals. The biochemical parameters like total protein, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea were also restored towards normal levels. The combined BHE showed more significant reduction of the enzymes than MAE or PLE against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. The results strongly indicate that BHE has more potent hepatoprotective action than MAE or PLE individually against CCl4 induced hepatic damage in rats. Among these extracts, BHE showed similar hepatoprotective action to silymarin, which was the positive control in this study. PMID:21614891

Rajeswary, H; Vasuki, R; Samudram, P; Geetha, A

2011-04-01

140

Nutritional assessment and treatment of patients with liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Prevalence of chronic liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis, is increasing worldwide. The nutritional state assessment in these patients is complicated, and besides anthropometry is based on several other tools in order to be more accurate. Specific dietary recommendations are needed in patients with chronic liver diseases in order to help prevent and treat liver decompensation because malnutrition is an independent predictor of mortality. This review focuses on essential aspects in the nutritional assessment of cirrhotic patients and some general recommendations for their treatment. PMID:23867207

Moctezuma-Velázquez, Carlos; García-Juárez, Ignacio; Soto-Solís, Rodrigo; Hernández-Cortés, Juan; Torre, Aldo

2013-07-16

141

Liver-Spleen Scintigrams, Epigastric Sonograms and Liver Function Scintigram for Comparative Studies of Various Cases of Liver Cirrhosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

23 patients where liver cirrhosis was established were subjected to an epigastric sonogram, a liver-spleen scintigram, a liver-function scintigram, and to various relevant laboratory tests. The liver-spleen scintigram was evaluated for size of the liver, ...

R. Geiger

1983-01-01

142

Liver cirrhosis in the medical critical care patient.  

PubMed

Critically ill cirrhotic patients are characterized by unique and complicated clinical scenarios related to some characteristic and clear-cut pathophysiological features of their chronic end-stage liver disease that challenge Intensive Care Unit (ICU) physicians with several management problems. This class of patients may require admission to the ICU because of decompensation of their pre-existing liver disease or due to medical problems independent of cirrhosis as pneumonia, trauma or surgery. Either way, it is acknowledged that, when feasible, without definitive treatment by way of liver transplantation, cirrhosis is an independent predictor of poor outcome in critically ill patients. In fact, cerebral, cardiopulmonary and kidney dysfunctions as well as portal vein hypertension, ascites and gastrointestinal bleeding can make the course of these patients very complicated and may further affect their outcome. Despite some improvement that was recently reported, patients with decompensated cirrhosis pose to ICU physicians several and, sometimes, dramatic dilemmas in terms of therapeutic strategies and efficacy of the treatments also due to the lack of large specific studies on this particular class of patients. This review will focus on kidney, cardiopulmonary and cerebral complications of severe cirrhosis as well as those related to portal hypertension and their management. PMID:22475806

Biancofiore, G; Auzinger, G; Mandell, S; Della Rocca, G

2012-04-04

143

DETECTION OF CCL4-INDUCED OXIDATION OF HEPATIC TISSUE IN VIVO BY OXYGEN-18 TRACING  

EPA Science Inventory

Oxygen can become a damaging influence in tissues and cells exposed to environmental pollutants. The paper describes the first application of a new technique for tracing oxygen in tissues exposed to pollutants. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was found to cause oxidation of liver tis...

144

Drinking of Salvia officinalis tea increases CCl 4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, the drinking of a Salvia officinalis tea (prepared as an infusion) for 14 days improved liver antioxidant status in mice and rats where, among other factors, an enhancement of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was observed. Taking in consideration these effects, in the present study the potential protective effects of sage tea drinking against a situation of hepatotoxicity

Cristovao F. Lima; Manuel Fernandes-Ferreira; Cristina Pereira-Wilson

2007-01-01

145

Hepatoprotection by freshwater clam extract against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.  

PubMed

Freshwater clam is traditionally used as a food and has been mentioned in ancient books to have a hepatoprotective effect. The hepatoprotective effect of freshwater clam extract was evaluated in the model of chronic hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated with freshwater clam extract (0.3, 0.6 and 1.5 g/kg of bw) or silymarin (0.2 g/kg of bw) along with the administration of CCl4 (0.5 ml/rat, 20% CCl4 in olive oil) for eight consecutive weeks. Blood samples were collected for assaying serum biochemical parameters. The livers were excised for evaluating peroxidation products and antioxidant substances, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Pathological histology was also performed. The data showed that supplementation of freshwater clam extract (0.6 g/kg bw) significantly reduced the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in rats treated with CCl4, and also decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroxyproline and excessive inflammation in the livers of CCl4-treated rats. Histopathological analysis of the liver showed that freshwater clam extract (0.6 g/kg bw) markedly reduced the injury score of the fibrosis induced by CCl4 in rats. The data suggest that oral administration with freshwater clam extract might provide a novel and alternative approach for treating chronic liver failure. PMID:20821820

Hsu, Chin-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Chen; Yen, Gow-Chin

2010-01-01

146

Hepatoprotective effects of polyprenols from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves on CCl 4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatoprotective effects of polyprenols from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in Sprague–Dawley rats. The elevated levels of serum ALT, AST, ALP, ALB, TP, HA, LN, TG, and CHO were restored towards normalization significantly by GBP in a dose dependent manner. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections.

Lan Yang; Cheng-zhang Wang; Jian-zhong Ye; Hai-tao Li

2011-01-01

147

Spectral CT: Preliminary Studies in the Liver Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the value of spectral CT imaging in the diagnosis and classification of liver cirrhosis during the arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PVP). Materials and Methods Thirty-eight patients with liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A/B/C: n = 10/14/14), and 43 patients with healthy livers, participated in this study. The researchers used abdominal spectral CT imaging during AP and PVP. Iodine concentration, derived from the iodine-based material-decomposition image and the iodine concentration ratio (ICratio) between AP and PVP, were obtained. Statistical analyses {two-sample t test, One-factor analysis of variance, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (A [z])} were performed. Results The mean normalized iodine concentration (NIC) (0.5 ± 0.12) during PVP in the control group was significantly higher than that in the study group (0.4 ± 0.10 on average, 0.4 ± 0.08 for Class A, 0.4 ± 0.15 for Class B, and 0.4 ± 0.06 for Class C) (All p < 0.05). Within the cirrhotic liver group, the mean NIC for Class C during the AP (0.1 ± 0.05) was significantly higher than NICs for Classes A (0.1 ± 0.06) and B (0.1 ± 0.03) (Both p < 0.05). The ICratio in the study group (0.4 ± 0.15), especially for Class C (0.5 ± 0.14), was higher than that in the control group (0.3 ± 0.15) (p < 0.05).The combination of NIC and ICratio showed high sensitivity and specificity for differentiating healthy liver from cirrhotic liver, especially in Class C cirrhotic liver. Conclusion Spectral CT Provides a quantitative method with which to analyze the cirrhotic liver, and shows the potential value in the classification of liver cirrhosis.

Lv, Peijie; Lin, Xiaozhu; Gao, Jianbo

2012-01-01

148

Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Rhododendron arboreum in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of pre-treatment with ethanolic extract of leaves of Rhododendron arboreum against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rat model. Liver damage was induced in experimental animals by administering CCl4. The ethanolic extract of R. arboreum (40, 60 and 100 mg\\/kg, po) was given for five days. Silymarin (100 mg\\/kg, po) was given

T. Prakash; Snehal Dayalal Fadadu; Uday Raj Sharma; V. Surendra; Divakar Goli; Perfect Stamin; D. Kotresha

149

Hepatoprotective effects of polyprenols from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

The hepatoprotective effects of polyprenols from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in Sprague-Dawley rats. The elevated levels of serum ALT, AST, ALP, ALB, TP, HA, LN, TG, and CHO were restored towards normalization significantly by GBP in a dose dependent manner. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Meanwhile, GBP also produced a significant and dose-dependent reversal of CCl(4)-diminished activity of the antioxidant enzymes and reduced CCl(4)-elevated level of MDA. In general, the effects of GBP were not significantly different from those of the standard drug Essentiale. PMID:21596107

Yang, Lan; Wang, Cheng-zhang; Ye, Jian-zhong; Li, Hai-tao

2011-05-10

150

Biochemical markers, extracellular components in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis are common sequelae to diverse liver injuries in the tropics or Nigeria. The development of hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis is due to increased synthesis, deposition, and possibly reduced degradation of hepatic extracellular matrix components, especially collagens, such as interstitial type I and III, basement membrane type IV, microfibrillar type VI, and pericellular type V, non-collagenous proteins, such as laminin, fibronectin, undulin, etc., and various types of proteoglycans, such as hyaluronan, etc. In Nigeria, the common approach for diagnosing or assessing the activity of connective tissue in this organ is the histological examination of a biopsy, if one is performed by a specialist physician. The liver biopsy provides a static picture of the changes that have already taken place in the liver. Another possible method is (where the facilities are available) a quantitative assessment of the liver biopsy by biochemical determination of total collagen via hydroxyproline. Biopsy is an invasive method and cannot be repeated often enough in the bid to ensuring an intensive follow-up of the changes taking place during the course of antifibrotic treatment or therapy. Thus, serum or other biological fluid assays for connective tissue proteins, such as the aminoterminal propeptide of type III Procollagen PIIINP, or the dimeric carboxyterminal domain of type IV collagen known as NCl or PIVCP, laminin, and others are essentially non-invasive and can be carried out repeatedly. In addition, the measurement of certain enzymes of connective tissue proteins in serum may the reflect activity of liver fibrogenesis. They offer the potential for diagnosis and therapeutic control. However, it is very important to note that circulating biochemical markers of fibrogenesis, fibrolysis or both may not reflect hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis, since they are not liver-specific. Thus, the best diagnostic approach would be the identification and measurement in serum of the driving force of fibrogenic process. PMID:17688172

Bolarin, D M; Azinge, E C

151

Necrotising fasciitis: clinical features in patients with liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Necrotising fasciitis is a fulminant and life-threatening infection. It is associated with a high mortality rate and is often seen in the aged and immunocompromised patients. Liver cirrhosis is regarded as a risk factor of necrotising fasciitis. From January 1995 to December 2003, 17 cirrhotic patients who had been admitted to our hospital for necrotising fasciitis were identified. The infection all developed in the lower extremities. Only six patients survived, and the overall case fatality rate was 64.7%. The cases were divided into two groups: survivors and nonsurvivors. Comparisons were made on age, gender, presenting symptoms, underlying medical diseases, laboratory data and clinical course. Underlying diabetes mellitus and grade C liver cirrhosis were the only statistically significant factors that led to poor prognosis (p< 0.05). PMID:15992530

Cheng, Nai-Chen; Tai, Hao-Chi; Tang, Yueh-Bih; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Wang, Jann-Tay

2005-07-01

152

Somatostatin infusion in liver cirrhosis: Glucagon control of glucose homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In order to evaluate the role of glucagon in blood glucose homeostasis in liver cirrhosis, ten normal subjects and ten cirrhotic patients were infused with somatostatin (500 g\\/h for 5 h) with and without glucagon (3 mg\\/kg\\/h) administration. Somatostatin infusion brought about a fall in plasma glucose both in normal (37%) and cirrhotic (41%) subjects in the first 90 minutes.

A. V. Greco; L. Altomonte; G. Ghirlanda; A. G. Rebuzzi; R. Manna; A. Bertoli

1980-01-01

153

Nodular amyloidosis in a patient with liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old Japanese man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis developed a nodule on the face 1 year prior to presentation. Histopathological examination showed amyloid deposition in the entire dermis, with numerous plasma cells. Nodular primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis is a rare form of amyloidosis, which needs long-term follow-up because of the possibility of the development of systemic amyloidosis. Also, this type of cutaneous amyloidosis may have other complications. PMID:21810395

Ueno, Makiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Yamanaka, Maaya; Matsunaga, Tsuyoshi

2011-07-15

154

Fleroxacin pharmacokinetics in patients with liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

In this open-label study, the disposition of fleroxacin in liver disease in 12 healthy male volunteers, 6 male cirrhotics without ascites (group A), and 6 male cirrhotics with ascites (group B) was evaluated. Fleroxacin (400 mg) was administered orally and intravenously to each subject in a random crossover fashion. Fleroxacin was completely absorbed and achieved similar peak concentrations in plasma in all three study groups (P greater than 0.05). The volume of distribution exceeded 1 liter/kg in healthy controls and was not affected by liver impairment (P greater than 0.05). Only group B demonstrated differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters evaluated: the systemic and renal clearances of fleroxacin and the renal clearances and clearances of the two major metabolites of fleroxacin formed, N-demethyl fleroxacin and fleroxacin N-oxide, were significantly lower and the half-lives of the parent drug and its metabolites were significantly longer in group B than in healthy controls and group A (P less than 0.05). The elimination of the two metabolites appeared to be formation rate limited in all three study groups. It was concluded from this study that a 50% reduction in the fleroxacin maintenance dose in patients with liver disease appears justified only in patients with ascites. However, no change in the fleroxacin loading dose is needed in patients with compromised liver function.

Blouin, R A; Hamelin, B A; Smith, D A; Foster, T S; John, W J; Welker, H A

1992-01-01

155

Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation in Cryptogenic Liver Cirrhosis Associated with Turner's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Turner's syndrome is a genetic disorder of the sex chromosomes (e.g., 45,X or 45,X/46,XX) that manifests as various congenital anomalies. Despite its numerous extragonadal manifestations and frequent accompanying abnormalities in liver function tests, liver cirrhosis associated with Turner's syndrome has not been reported in Korea. Moreover, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) have rarely been reported in association with liver cirrhosis, but there have been no reports of PAVMs occurring in cryptogenic liver cirrhosis associated with Turner's syndrome. We report a case of PAVM that occurred in cryptogenic liver cirrhosis associated with Turner's syndrome.

Kim, Ji Hoon; Jung, Young Kul; Jeong, Eun Seok; Seo, Yeon Seok; Yim, Hyung Joon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Shim, Jae Jeong; Byun, Kwan Soo

2010-01-01

156

Potent hepatoprotective effect in CCl4-induced hepatic injury in mice of phloroacetophenone from Myrcia multiflora  

PubMed Central

Background This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant properties of phloroacetophenone (2?,4?,6?-trihydroxyacetophenone – THA), an acetophenone derived from the plant Myrcia multiflora. Material & Method The free radical scavenging activity in vitro and induction of oxidative hepatic damage by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (0.5 ml/kg, i.p.) were tested in male Swiss mice (25±5 g). Results This compound exhibited in vitro antioxidant effects on FeCl2–ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mouse liver homogenate, scavenging hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The in vivo assays showed that THA significantly (p<0.01) prevented the increases of hepatic LPO as measured by the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, mitochondrial swelling. It also protected hepatocytes against protein carbonylation and oxidative DNA damage. Consistent with these observations, THA pre-treatment normalized the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, and increased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in CCl4-treated mice. In addition, THA treatment significantly prevented the elevation of serum enzymatic activities of alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as histological alterations induced by CCl4. Silymarin (SIL) (24 mg/kg), a known hepatoprotective drug used for comparison, led to a significant decrease (p<0.01) in activities of theses enzymes in way very similar to that observed in pre-treatment with THA. Conclusion These results suggest that the protective effects are due to reduction of oxidative damage induced by CCl4 resulting from the antioxidant properties of THA.

Ferreira, Eduardo Antonio; Gris, Eliana Fortes; Felipe, Karina Bettega; Correia, Joao Francisco Gomes; Cargnin-Ferreira, Eduardo; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

2010-01-01

157

Radiofrequency interstitial thermal ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma in liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The laparoscopic approach to radiofrequency interstitial thermal ablation (RITA) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with intraoperative\\u000a ultrasound guidance has been proposed with the aim of obtainning additional information for a better neoplastic staging and\\u000a a complete and effective treatment of the liver lesions in patients with a difficult percutaneous approach.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this pilot study, 29 patients with HCC in liver cirrhosis

M. Montorsi; R. Santambrogio; P. Bianchi; E. Opocher; M. Zuin; E. Bertolini; S. Bruno; M. Podda

2001-01-01

158

Atlas of Histopathology of Liver: Hepatitis and Cirrhosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Atlas focuses attention on acute and chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Representative lesions have been illustrated accompanied by brief textual descriptions. Uncommon forms of cirrhosis, such as pigment cirrhosis and also cirrhosis due to extrahepatic...

S. iramachari T. V. Madhavan

1974-01-01

159

Protective effects of Sonchus asper (L.) Hill, (Asteraceae) against CCl4-induced oxidative stress in the thyroid tissue of rats  

PubMed Central

Background Sonchus asper (L.) Hill, (Asteraceae) is used in Pakistan as a traditional (“folk”) medicine for the treatment of hormonal disorders and oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Sonchus asper (L.) Hill, (Asteraceae) methanolic extract (SAME) on hormonal dysfunction in thyroid tissue after carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress. Methods To examine the effects of SAME against the oxidative stress of CCl4 in thyroid tissue, 30 male albino rats were used. Protective effects of SAME were observed on thyroid hormonal levels, activities of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and DNA damage. Results Treatment with CCl4 significantly (P<0.01) reduced the levels of T3 and T4 and increased TSH levels. CCl4 exposure in rats reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes but increased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Co-administration of SAME significantly (P<0.01) improved these alterations with respect to hormonal levels, activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation close to those seen in control rats. Conclusion These results suggest that SAME can protect thyroid tissue against oxidative damage, possibly through the antioxidant effects of its bioactive compounds.

2012-01-01

160

Isolation, characterization and antioxidative effect of phyllanthin against CCl4-induced toxicity in HepG2 cell line.  

PubMed

The present study was an attempt to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidative property of Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) extract and phyllanthin. Phyllanthin, one of the active lignin present in this plant species was isolated from the aerial parts, by silica gel column chromatography employing gradient elution with hexane-ethyl acetate solvent mixture. It was obtained in high yields (1.23%), compared to reported procedures and the purity was ascertained by HPTLC and reversed-phase HPLC analysis. Characterization of phyllanthin was done by mp, UV-Visible spectrophotometry, elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral analysis. Free radical scavenging activity of P. amarus extract and phyllanthin was also examined using DPPH assay. The protective effect of P. amarus extract and phyllanthin was studied on CCl4-induced toxicity in human hepatoma HepG2 cell line. The results indicated that CCl4 treatment caused a significant decrease in cell viability. In addition, the toxin treatment initiated lipid peroxidation (LPO), caused leakage of enzymes like alanine transaminase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) with a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) levels. It was observed that phyllanthin effectively alleviated the changes induced by CCl4 in a concentration-dependent manner, with much smaller strengths as compared to P. amarus extract. PMID:19576190

Krithika, Rajesh; Mohankumar, Ramasamy; Verma, Ramtej J; Shrivastav, Pranav S; Mohamad, Illiyas L; Gunasekaran, Palani; Narasimhan, Srinivasan

2009-07-01

161

[Effect of liver cirrhosis on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs].  

PubMed

Metabolic liver functions are significantly involved in the total clearance of a number of drugs. In liver cirrhosis the reduced drug elimination is a result of the blood flow through the liver, hepatocytes function and volume of hepatic tissue. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes depend on the nature and degree of hepatic impairment and on the characteristics of the dosed drug. Hepatocytes have a different extraction ability with respect to the individual drugs. The following are examples of drugs with high hepatic extraction: anodyne, propranolol, metoprolol, verapamil and lidocaine. These drugs are significantly dependent on the first passage through the liver. Intrahepatic and extrahepatic collateral blood flows significantly increase their bio-logical availability and reduce the clearance. The reduction in hepatic clearance of drugs with low extraction coefficient, such as chlordiazepoxide, diazepam or furosemide, is a result of its own limited functional capacity to eliminate the drug. Predicting a hepatic metabolic disorder based on a common bio-chemical assessment of enzyme activities is not sufficient. In advanced liver cirrhosis a higher risk is demonstrated for drugs with a narrow therapeutic width. It is always necessary to take into account whether the pharmacotherapy is necessary, use small doses and cautiously monitor the patient. PMID:23909263

Perlík, F

2013-07-01

162

Liver cell dysplasia is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: A prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: In humans, the role of liver cell dysplasia as a preneoplastic lesion is still debated. A prospective, long-term, multicenter study was performed to establish whether liver cell dysplasia in cirrhosis is associated with an increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: A cohort of 307 consecutive patients in whom liver cirrhosis was diagnosed by histology was investigated for development

Mauro Borzio; Savino Bruno; Massimo Roncalli; Guido Colloredo Mels; Giorgio Ramella; Franco Borzio; Gioacchino Leandro; Ernesto Servida; Mauro Podda

1995-01-01

163

Small Intestinal Motility Disturbances and Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients With Liver Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Altered small bowel motility and a high prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been observed in patients with liver cirrhosis. Our aim was to explore the relationship between motility abnormalities, portal hypertension, and SIBO.METHODS:Twenty-four patients with liver cirrhosis were included. Twelve had portal hypertension (PH) and 12 had liver cirrhosis (LC) alone. Child-Pugh score was the same in

Steingerdur Anna Gunnarsdottir; Riadh Sadik; Steven Shev; Magnus Simrén; Henrik Sjövall; Per-Ove Stotzer; Hasse Abrahamsson; Rolf Olsson; Einar S. Bjornsson; Anna Gunnarsdottir

2003-01-01

164

Splenic siderotic nodules in patients with liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the interrelation between splenic siderotic nodules, hypersplenism and liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. The splenic enhanced susceptibility-weighted angiography (ESWAN) and conventional magnetic resonance images of 33 patients with liver cirrhosis were retrospectively studied and the ESWAN images were graded. The distribution and prevalence of the image grades for patients with and without hypersplenism were evaluated. In addition, the splenic volume and the distribution of Child-Pugh and albumin scores were compared between patients with and without siderotic nodules, and the correlation between splenic volume and the ESWAN image grades were evaluated in the patients with siderotic nodules. The ESWAN images revealed splenic siderotic nodules in 24 patients. The distribution and prevalence of the ESWAN image grades were demonstrated to be significantly different (P<0.001) between patients with and without hypersplenism. Furthermore, significant differences were observed between patients with and without siderotic nodules with regard to splenic volume and the distribution of Child-Pugh and serum albumin scores (P<0.001). No significant correlation was demonstrated between splenic volume and the ESWAN image grades (P>0.05). In conclusion, a higher prevalence of splenic siderotic nodules (72.7%) was observed using the ESWAN sequence, in comparison with results from previous studies, obtained using the T1-spoiled gradient echo sequence. The presence of splenic siderotic nodules was consistent with the occurrence of hypersplenism and was interrelated with reserved liver function.

OUYANG, HUANG-QING; GONG, ZUO-JIONG; ZHA, YUN-FEI; LIU, CHANG-SHENG; YANG, ZHAO-HUI

2013-01-01

165

[Diabetes mellitus and cirrhosis of the liver: a prognostically unfavourable combination].  

PubMed

We conducted a literature search to determine the prognostic effect of diabetes in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. We also searched for evidence on diagnosis and treatment of diabetes in these patients. Insulin resistance occurs in obese patients with cirrhosis due to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, but also develops in patients with alcoholic or viral cirrhosis. Eventually, 20-40% of patients with cirrhosis have manifest diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus may accelerate progression of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis and may lead to higher mortality rates among cirrhosis patients, largely due to infections and liver failure. Treatment of diabetes in patients with chronic liver disease can theoretically improve survival. In treating such patients, doctors should take into account the reduced clearance of insulin and oral antidiabetic agents in the liver. PMID:21329534

Wlazlo, Nick; Sauerwein, Hans P; Schoon, Erik J; Stehouwer, C D A Coen; Bravenboer, Bert

2011-01-01

166

Emergency liver transplant in patient with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis and strangulated umbilical hernia.  

PubMed

The authors report the case of a patient who presented with small bowel obstruction while awaiting liver transplant for Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis. He underwent emergency liver transplant with resection of the small bowel after the obstruction did not improve with conservative management. The authors believe this is the first case of successful emergency liver transplant with resection of the small bowel in a patient with decompensated Child-Pugh class C liver cirrhosis and strangulated umbilical hernia. This case suggests the possibility of improved outcomes of emergency hernia repair in patients with liver cirrhosis when small bowel resection is combined with liver transplant. PMID:23190414

Chaudhary, Abhideep; Daga, Sachin; Goyal, Neerav; Ramaswamy, Vasudevan Karisangal; Agarwal, Shaleen; Pareek, Shishir; Ray, Ramdip; Wadhawan, Manav; Gupta, Subash

2012-11-21

167

Risk of liver cancer among US male veterans with cirrhosis, 1969-1996  

PubMed Central

Background: Liver cancer incidence rates in the United States have increased for several decades for reasons that are not entirely clear. Regardless of aetiology, cirrhosis is a strong risk factor for liver cancer. As mortality from cirrhosis has been declining in recent decades, it is possible that the risk of liver cancer among persons with cirrhosis has been affected. Methods: Data from the US Veterans Affairs medical records database were analysed after adjustment for attained age, race, number of hospital visits, obesity, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modelling. Survival analyses were conducted using age as the time metric and incidence of cirrhosis as a time-dependent covariate. Results: Among 103?257 men with incident cirrhosis, 788 liver cancers developed. The HR of liver cancer was highest among men with viral-related cirrhosis (HR=37.59, 95% CI: 22.57–62.61), lowest among men with alcohol-related cirrhosis (HR=8.20, 95% CI: 7.55–8.91) and intermediate among men with idiopathic cirrhosis (HR=10.45, 95% CI: 8.52–12.81), when compared with those without cirrhosis. Regardless of cirrhosis type, white men had higher HRs than black men. The HR of developing liver cancer increased from 6.40 (95% CI: 4.40–9.33) in 1969–1973 to 34.71 (95% CI: 23.10–52.16) in 1992–1996 for those with cirrhosis compared with those without. Conclusion: In conclusion, the significantly increased HR of developing liver cancer among men with cirrhosis compared with men without cirrhosis in the United States may be contributing to the increasing incidence of liver cancer.

Persson, E C; Quraishi, S M; Welzel, T M; Carreon, J D; Gridley, G; Graubard, B I; McGlynn, K A

2012-01-01

168

Hepatoprotective effect of a protein-enriched fraction from the maggots ( Musca domestica ) against CCl 4 -induced hepatic damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatoprotective potential of a protein-enriched fraction (PEF) isolated from the maggots of housefly (Musca domestica) was evaluated in rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatic damage. Activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase increased by 4-\\u000a and 13-fold induced by CCl4, were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with 50, 100 and 200 mg PEF\\/kg. The formation of malondialdehyde was also

Fu-Rong Wang; Hui Ai; Xiao-Min Chen; Chao-Liang Lei

2007-01-01

169

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (2.5, 5 and 10 ?g\\/ml) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced carp hepatocyte damage in vitro. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after\\u000a (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl4. CCl4

Guojun YinLiping; Liping Cao; Pao Xu; Galina Jeney; Miki Nakao; Chengping Lu

2011-01-01

170

Evaluation of hepatoprotective effects of Helminthostachys zeylanica (L.) Hook against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rhizomes of Helminthostachys zeylanica (L.) are used by the Kattunaikan tribe of Kerala, for the treatment of various hepatic disorders. In the present study, the effect of the methanolic extract of Helminthostachys zeylanica rhizomes on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in Wistar rats was studied. The results showed that significant hepatoprotective effect was obtained against CCl4-induced liver damage, by

S. R. Suja; P. G. Latha; P. Pushpangadan; S. Rajasekharan

2004-01-01

171

[Liver cirrhosis patogenetics: polymorphism of glutation S-transferase genes].  

PubMed

Association of deletion polymorphism in GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes and polymorphic variant A313G of GSTP1 gene with cirrhosis diseases and 4-year survival rate for the Tomsk region (West Siberia) patients were tested. Homozygous deletion of GSTM1 gene (null genotype) was a protective factor for alcoholic and mixed (HCV, HBV and alcohol) liver cirrhosis development. The patients from the joint group (all etiology forms) as well as having alcoholic and mixed cirrhosis had lower frequency of GSTM1 null genotype (39.2, 39.0, and 34.2%, respectively) in comparison with the control group (64.6%). The GSTM1 null genotype and GSTP1 gene A313G polymorphic variant correlated with the patients' survival rate. The patients survived in comparison with the dead had higher frequency of a GSTM1 null genotype (46.6 vs. 30.2%) and GSTP1 AA genotype (63.1 vs. 40.5%), and lower frequency of GSTP1 AG (A313G) genotype (31.1 vs. 51.2%). A survival rate was 2.5 times higher for patients having GSTP1 AA genotype in comparison with the GG and AG genotype carriers and 2 times higher for patients having GSTM1 null genotype than the gene carriers. A 4-year fatal case probability was 2.3 times higher among the patients having heterozygous AG GSTP1 genotype in comparison with homozygous AA and GG genotype carriers. PMID:20608166

Goncharova, I A; Rachkovski?, M I; Beloborodova, E V; Gamal' Abd El'-Aziz Nasar, Kh; Puzyrev, V P

172

?-Fetoprotein, tissue polypeptide antigen and ferritin in diagnosing primary hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken in order to compare the usefulness of three indices of tumour proliferation in detecting primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and in differentiating this neoplasm from liver cirrhosis. In 10 patients with HCC and in 63 with liver cirrhosis serum a-fetoprotein (AFP), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) and ferritin were assayed. Increased levels of AFP but not of TPA

G. Leandro; Daniela Basso; C. Fabris; S. Zizzari; Silvana Elba; G. Del Favero; F. Di Mario; Tamara Meggiato; Cristina Angonese; R. Naccarato

1989-01-01

173

Observer error and sampling variability tested in evaluation of hepatitis and cirrhosis by liver biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 50 patients with chronic active liver disease, observer and sampling error in histologically evaluating hepatitis and cirrhosis after blind-needle biopsy of the liver was assessed from coded tissue. This was done by repeated readings of the same specimens by the same pathologist, by sequential biopsies from the same patients with cirrhosis, and by multiple simultaneous biopsies from adjacent areas

Roger D. Soloway; Archie H. Baggenstoss; Leslie J. Schoenfield; W. H. J. Summerskill

1971-01-01

174

Genomics and proteomics in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Genomics and proteomics have become increasingly important in biomedical science in the past decade, as they provide an opportunity for hypothesis-free experiments that can yield major insights not previously foreseen when scientific and clinical questions are based only on hypothesis-driven approaches. Use of these tools, therefore, opens new avenues for uncovering physiological and pathological pathways. Liver fibrosis is a complex disease provoked by a range of chronic injuries to the liver, among which are viral hepatitis, (non-) alcoholic steatohepatitis and autoimmune disorders. Some chronic liver patients will never develop fibrosis or cirrhosis, whereas others rapidly progress towards cirrhosis in a few years. This variety can be caused by disease-related factors (for example, viral genotype) or host-factors (genetic/epigenetic). It is vital to establish accurate tools to identify those patients at highest risk for disease severity or progression in order to determine who are in need of immediate therapies. Moreover, there is an urgent imperative to identify non-invasive markers that can accurately distinguish mild and intermediate stages of fibrosis. Ideally, biomarkers can be used to predict disease progression and treatment response, but these studies will take many years due to the requirement for lengthy follow-up periods to assess outcomes. Current genomic and proteomic research provides many candidate biomarkers, but independent validation of these biomarkers is lacking, and reproducibility is still a key concern. Thus, great opportunities and challenges lie ahead in the field of genomics and proteomics, which, if successful, could transform the diagnosis and treatment of chronic fibrosing liver diseases.

2012-01-01

175

Hepatic vein waveforms in liver cirrhosis re-evaluated  

PubMed Central

Objective There are many studies on changes in Doppler waveforms of hepatic veins in cirrhotic liver. It is postulated that dampening of phasic oscillations appears with worsening of liver function. Our aim was to reevaluate the significance of Doppler waveforms of hepatic vein in cirrhotic patients and to correlate with hepatic blood flow. Patients and method One hundred and thirty-five consecutive patients of liver cirrhosis and 60 age and sex matched non-cirrhotic controls were enrolled in this study. Doppler waveforms were obtained from right hepatic vein during normal respiration. Other parameters measured were flow volume of portal trunk, right portal vein and proper hepatic artery. Result Waveforms of the hepatic vein were classified into triphasic, biphasic and flat patterns. Flat waveform was rare and appeared in only 3% cases. There was no correlation between liver dysfunction and patterns of waveforms. Inflow, particularly to the right lobe, was significantly elevated in cases associated with the non-triphasic waveforms. Conclusion This study shows that the flat waveforms have no diagnostic value. Role of hepatic blood flow seems to be important suggesting hemodynamic changes rather than liver dysfunction as a plausible cause of change in waveforms.

Sharma, Dilip; Chataut, Saroj Prasad

2010-01-01

176

Laparoscopic liver resections for hepatocellular carcinoma. Is it a feasible option for patients with liver cirrhosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Laparoscopic surgery has gained growing acceptance, but this does not hold for laparoscopic surgery of the liver, above all\\u000a for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis. This approach mainly includes diagnostic procedures and interstitial\\u000a therapies. However, we believe there is room for laparoscopic liver resections in well-selected cases. The aim of this study\\u000a is to assess: (a) the risk

R. Santambrogio; L. Aldrighetti; M. Barabino; C. Pulitanò; M. Costa; M. Montorsi; G. Ferla; E. Opocher

2009-01-01

177

Amiodarone-Induced Cirrhosis of Liver: What Predicts Mortality?  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Amiodarone has been used for more than 5 decades for the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias and previously for the treatment of refractory angina. There are multiple well-established side effects of amiodarone. However, amiodarone-induced cirrhosis (AIC) of liver is an underrecognized complication. Methods. A systematic search of Medline from January 1970 to November 2012 by using the following terms, amiodarone and cirrhosis, identified 37 reported cases of which 30 were used in this analysis. Patients were divided into 2 subsets, survivors versus nonsurvivors, at 5 months. Results. Aspartate aminotransferase was significantly lower (P = 0.03) in patients who survived at 5-months (mean 103.33?IU/L) compared to nonsurvivors (mean 216.88?IU/L). There was no statistical difference in the levels of prothrombin time, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, cumulative dose, and latency period between the two groups. The prevalence of DM, HTN, HLD, CAD, and CHF was similar in the two groups. None of the above-mentioned variables could be identified as a predictor of survival at 5 months. Conclusion. AIC carries a mortality risk of 60% at 5 months once the diagnosis is established. Further prospective studies are needed to identify predictors of AIC and of mortality or survival in cases of AIC.

Hussain, Nasir

2013-01-01

178

Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously demonstrated that terahertz pulsed imaging is able to distinguish between rat tissues from different healthy organs. In this paper we report our measurements of healthy and cirrhotic liver tissues using terahertz reflection spectroscopy. The water content of the fresh tissue samples was also measured in order to investigate the correlations between the terahertz properties, water content, structural changes and cirrhosis. Finally, the samples were fixed in formalin to determine whether water was the sole source of image contrast in this study. We found that the cirrhotic tissue had a higher water content and absorption coefficient than the normal tissue and that even after formalin fixing there were significant differences between the normal and cirrhotic tissues' terahertz properties. Our results show that terahertz pulsed imaging can distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue due to differences in absorption originating from both water content and tissue structure.

Sy, Stanley; Huang, Shengyang; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Yu, Jun; Ahuja, Anil T.; Zhang, Yuan-ting; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

2010-12-01

179

Response to exercise in patients with liver cirrhosis: implications for liver transplantation.  

PubMed

End-stage liver cirrhosis is a systemic disease carrying a short-term desperate prognosis without liver transplantation. Given the discrepancy between the growing number of candidates and the limited available liver grafts, the pre-transplantation screening process has become a challenging task. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, by measuring maximal oxygen consumption at peak exercise, provides a global integrative approach of the health status of an individual. In the setting of liver cirrhosis, decreased oxygen consumption at peak exercise may result from a combination of multiple extra-hepatic complications, including deconditioning, malnutrition-associated muscle weakness, anaemia, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, and hepato-pulmonary syndrome for instance. In addition, oxygen consumption at peak exercise not only correlated with the severity of the liver disease, but it is also independently associated with survival following liver transplantation. The present article aims to review the numerous determinants of impaired aerobic capacity in patients with severe liver disease, and to discuss how useful is cardiopulmonary exercise testing as a critical tool in the pre-transplantation assessment of these patients. PMID:23137795

Lemyze, Malcolm; Dharancy, Sébastien; Wallaert, Benoît

2012-11-06

180

Antifibrotic effects of ZK14, a novel nitric oxide-donating biphenyldicarboxylate derivative, on rat HSC-T6 cells and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To study the pharmacologic effect of ZK14, a novel nitric oxide-donating biphenyldicarboxylate (DDB) derivative, on HSC-T6 cells and on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis.Methods:Inhibition of HSC-T6 cell growth by ZK14 was evaluated by MTT assay. The effect of ZK14 on the percentage of HSC-T6 cells undergoing apoptosis was measured using Annexin-V\\/PI double-staining and TUNEL assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and caspase activities

Li Dai; Hui Ji; Xiang-wen Kong; Yi-hua Zhang

2010-01-01

181

Alcohol and Cirrhosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources About Us for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and cirrhosis Alcohol and Hepatitis C Cirrhosis is ... liver to a liver with cirrhosis. How does alcohol affect cirrhosis? Alcohol increases the damage done to ...

182

Pathogenesis and treatment of liver fibrosis in alcoholics: 1996 update.  

PubMed

Fibrosis is a common end stage for most chronic liver diseases. It results from an imbalance between collagen production and degradation. One promising approach for prevention and treatment is the stimulation of collagenolytic processes. In nonhuman primates it was found that polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC), extracted from soybeans, protects against alcohol-induced fibrosis and cirrhosis and prevents the associated hepatic phosphatidylcholine (PC) depletion by increasing 18:2-containing PC species; it also attenuates the transformation of lipocytes into collagen-producing transitional cells. Furthermore, it increases collagen breakdown, as shown in cultured lipocytes enriched with pure dilinoleoyl PC (18:2-18:2 PC), the main PC species present in the extract, which may be the active ingredient. Since PC appears to promote the breakdown of collagen, there is reasonable hope that this treatment may affect not only the progression of the disease, but may also reverse preexisting fibrosis, as demonstrated for CCl4-induced cirrhosis in the rat. Therefore, PPC may be useful for the management of fibrosis of alcoholic and nonalcoholic etiologies as well. S-Adenosylmethionine opposes CCl4-induced fibrosis and can affect some of the consequences of the ethanol-induced oxidative stress in experimental animals and in man. Anti-inflammatory medications (corticosteroids, colchicine) are also being used and agents that interfere with collagen synthesis, such as inhibitors of prolyl-4-hydroxylase and antioxidants, are being tested. PMID:9101129

Lieber, C S

183

Chinese herb Radix Polygoni Multiflori as a therapeutic drug for liver cirrhosis in mice.  

PubMed

Liver regeneration not only plays a functional role in directing the restoration of liver mass after resection or injury, but also may have participated in effective therapy of liver cirrhosis. Additionally, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) appears to be a factor of great importance in liver regeneration and attenuated progression of experimental liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study is to use Radix Polygoni Multiflori (POMU) extract, a Chinese herb traditionally used for liver-protective therapy, as a reagent for the evaluation of its potential medicinal use in liver cirrhosis. We used in vitro coculture system to show that POMU could promote the expression of HGF by hepatic nonparenchymal cells, consequently the proliferation of primary liver cells and phagocytic activity of Kupffer cells using fluorescein-labeled Escherichia coli as the target, and inhibit the proliferation of stellate cells. Using dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver cirrhosis animal, POMU even at 20 mg/(kg day) dosage, was illustrated to reverse the pathogenic progression of the disease, decrease the hydroxyproline content and increases the expression of HGF messenger RNA in liver tissue. The survival rate was significantly increased in the POMU-treated animal. In conclusion, our study showed the promise of POMU in the medicinal use for the treatment of liver cirrhosis. PMID:17881167

Huang, Ching-Hsin; Horng, Lin-Yea; Chen, Chieh-Fu; Wu, Rong-Tsun

2007-08-11

184

Insulin resistance in liver cirrhosis. Positron-emission tomography scan analysis of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND. Insulin resistance and glucose intolerance are a major feature of patients with liver cirrhosis. However, site and mechanism of insulin resistance in cirrhosis are unknown. We investigated insulin-induced glucose metabolism of skeletal muscle by positron-emission tomography to identify possible defects of muscle glucose metabolism in these patients. METHODS. Whole body glucose disposal and oxidation were determined by the combined use of the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique (insulin infusion rate: 1 mU/kg body wt per min) and indirect calorimetry in seven patients with biopsy-proven liver cirrhosis (Child: 1A, 5B, and 1C) and five healthy volunteers. Muscle glucose uptake of the thighs was measured simultaneously by dynamic [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography scan. RESULTS. Both whole body and nonoxidative glucose disposal were significantly reduced in patients with liver cirrhosis (by 48%, P < 0.001, and 79%, P < 0.0001, respectively), whereas glucose oxidation and the increase in plasma lactate were normal. Concomitantly, skeletal muscle glucose uptake was reduced by 69% in liver cirrhosis (P < 0.003) and explained 55 or 92% of whole body glucose disposal in cirrhotics and controls, respectively. Analysis of kinetic constants using a three-compartment model further indicated reduced glucose transport (P < 0.05) but unchanged phosphorylation of glucose in patients with liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS. Patients with liver cirrhosis show significant insulin resistance that is characterized by both decreased glucose transport and decreased nonoxidative glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Images

Selberg, O; Burchert, W; vd Hoff, J; Meyer, G J; Hundeshagen, H; Radoch, E; Balks, H J; Muller, M J

1993-01-01

185

Alcohol cirrhosis alters nuclear receptor and drug transporter expression in human liver.  

PubMed

Unsafe use of alcohol results in approximately 2.5 million deaths worldwide, with cirrhosis contributing to 16.6% of reported deaths. Serum insulin levels are often elevated in alcoholism and may result in diabetes, which is why alcoholic liver disease and diabetes often are present together. Because there is a sizable population with these diseases alone or in combination, the purpose of this study was to determine whether transporter expression in human liver is affected by alcoholic cirrhosis, diabetes, and alcoholic cirrhosis coexisting with diabetes. Transporters aid in hepatobiliary excretion of many drugs and toxic chemicals and can be determinants of drug-induced liver injury. Drug transporter expression and transcription factor-relative mRNA and protein expression in normal, diabetic, cirrhotic, and cirrhosis with diabetes human livers were quantified. Cirrhosis significantly increased ABCC4, 5, ABCG2, and solute carrier organic anion (SLCO) 2B1 mRNA expression and decreased SLCO1B3 mRNA expression in the liver. ABCC1, 3-5, and ABCG2 protein expression was also upregulated by alcoholic cirrhosis. ABCC3-5 and ABCG2 protein expression was also upregulated in diabetic cirrhosis. Cirrhosis increased nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 mRNA expression, whereas it decreased pregnane-X-receptor and farnesoid-X-receptor mRNA expression in comparison with normal livers. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that expressions of ABCC2, 3, and 6; SLCO1B1 and 1B3; and ABCC4 and 5 were more closely related in the livers from this cohort. Overall, alcoholic cirrhosis altered transporter expression in human liver. PMID:23462698

More, Vijay R; Cheng, Qiuqiong; Donepudi, Ajay C; Buckley, David B; Lu, Zhenqiang James; Cherrington, Nathan J; Slitt, Angela L

2013-03-05

186

Phase 1 Trial of Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The standard treatment for decompensated liver cirrhosis is liver transplantation. However, it has several limitations. Recent animal studies suggest that bone marrow stem cell transplantation can lead to regression of liver fibrosis. The objective of this study was to determine the safety and feasibility of autologous bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. Methods: In

Mehdi Mohamadnejad; Kamran Alimoghaddam; Mandana Mohyeddin-Bonab; Mohamad Bagheri; Maryam Bashtar BA; Hossein Ghanaati; Hossein Baharvand; Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh; Reza Malekzadeh

2007-01-01

187

Serum CA 125 Levels in Patients with Ovarian Cancer and Liver Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum CA 125 levels were studied in patients with ovarian cancer and liver cirrhosis. They were elevated > 35 U\\/ml in 87% (48\\/55) of patients with ovarian cancer, 80% (56\\/70) of patients with liver cirrhosis and 5% (2\\/40) of healthy subjects (control group). The mean ( ± SEM) CA 125 levels were 825.9 ( ± 188) U\\/ml in patients with

Abdurrahman Kadayifci; Halis Simsek; Cemil Savas

1997-01-01

188

Chronic active hepatitis and liver cirrhosis in association with combined tamoxifen\\/tegafur adjuvant therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two female breast cancer patients who received combined tamoxifen and tegafur as postsurgical adjuvant therapy developed severe hepatotoxicity after being treated for three and eight months, respectively. Shortly after the cessation of the treatment, routine liver tests showed gradual recovery, but liver biopsies revealed chronic active hepatitis in one patient and liver cirrhosis in the other. Four and five

Shigeo Maruyama; Chisato Hirayama; Juro Abe; Jun Tanaka; Katsuaki Matsui

1995-01-01

189

Physiologic and laboratory correlates of depression, anxiety, and poor sleep in liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have shown psychological distress in patients with cirrhosis, yet no studies have evaluated the laboratory and physiologic correlates of psychological symptoms in cirrhosis. This study therefore measured both biochemistry data and heart rate variability (HRV) analyses, and aimed to identify the physiologic correlates of depression, anxiety, and poor sleep in cirrhosis. Methods A total of 125 patients with cirrhosis and 55 healthy subjects were recruited. Each subject was assessed through routine biochemistry, 5-minutes ECG monitoring, and psychological ratings of depression, anxiety, and sleep. HRV analysis were used to evaluate autonomic functions. The relationship between depression, sleep, and physiologic correlates was assessed using a multiple regression analysis and stepwise method, controlling for age, duration of illness, and severity of cirrhosis. Results Reduced vagal-related HRV was found in patients with severe liver cirrhosis. Severity of cirrhosis measured by the Child-Pugh score was not correlated with depression or anxiety, and only had a weak correlation with poor sleep. The psychological distress in cirrhosis such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia were correlated specifically to increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), increased ratios of low frequency to high frequency power, or reduced nonlinear properties of HRV (?1 exponent of detrended fluctuation analysis). Conclusions Increased serum AST and abnormal autonomic nervous activities by HRV analysis were associated with psychological distress in cirrhosis. Because AST is an important mediator of inflammatory process, further research is needed to delineate the role of inflammation in the cirrhosis comorbid with depression.

2013-01-01

190

Circadian occurrence of variceal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Several clinical events have a rhythmicity over the 24 h period. We assessed the presence of periodic rhythm in the occurrence of haematemesis in patients with liver cirrhosis under different daylight regimens, namely during standard time and during daylight savings. Over a 48 month period there were 212 consecutive admissions of 118 cirrhotics with variceal bleeding. Complete data were available for 181 episodes of bleeding: 121 (66.9%) started with haematemesis and 60 (33.1%) started with melaena. One hundred and two (56%) episodes occurred during daylight savings and 79 (44%) occurred during standard time. The cosinor test showed a 24 h biphasic peak for the occurrence of haematemesis (09.45 and 21.45 h). Moreover, a biphasic diurnal asymmetric frequency was also found by multiple component rhythmometry. The time peaks of onset of variceal haemorrhage did not change significantly during standard time and daylight savings. Patients with more than one haematemesis episode significantly bled over the same time interval. The present study confirms that over the 24 h period variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients occurs with a predictable rhythmicity that does not seem to be under the control of the light-dark cycle. The finding of a chronorisk for variceal haemorrhage addresses specific questions for pathophysiological studies as well as for new treatment strategies. PMID:9034929

Siringo, S; Bolondi, L; Sofia, S; Hermida, R C; Gramantieri, L; Gaiani, S; Piscaglia, F; Carbone, C; Misitano, B; Corinaldesi, R

1996-12-01

191

Intestinal epithelial barrier function in liver cirrhosis: an extensive review of the literature.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that translocation of bacteria and bacterial products, such as endotoxin from the intestinal lumen into the systemic circulation is a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases and the development of complications in cirrhosis. In addition to alterations in the intestinal microbiota and immune system, dysfunction of the intestinal epithelial barrier may be an important factor facilitating bacterial translocation. This review aims to provide an overview of the current evidence of intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in human chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis, and to discuss possible contributing factors and mechanisms. Data suggest the presence of intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in patients with chronic liver diseases, but are more convincing in patients with cirrhosis, especially in those with complications. The barrier dysfunction can result from both direct and indirect effects of aetiological factors, such as alcohol and obesity, which can cause chronic liver diseases and ultimately cirrhosis. On the other hand characteristics of cirrhosis itself, including portal hypertension, alterations in the intestinal microbiota, inflammation and oxidative stress can affect barrier function of both small and large intestine and may contribute to the development of complications. In conclusion, there are indications for intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in patients with chronic liver diseases and especially in patients with cirrhosis, which can be caused by various factors affecting both the small and large intestine. PMID:23879434

Pijls, Kirsten E; Jonkers, Daisy M A E; Elamin, Elhaseen E; Masclee, Ad A M; Koek, Ger H

2013-07-23

192

Beyond "cirrhosis": a proposal from the International Liver Pathology Study Group.  

PubMed

"Cirrhosis" is a morphologic term that has been used for almost 200 years to denote the end stage of a variety of chronic liver diseases. The term implies a condition with adverse prognosis due to the well-known complications of portal hypertension, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. However, recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic liver diseases have changed the natural history of cirrhosis significantly. This consensus document by the International Liver Pathology Study Group challenges the usefulness of the word cirrhosis in modern medicine and suggests that this is an appropriate time to consider discontinuing the use of this term. The role of pathologists should evolve to the diagnosis of advanced stage of chronic liver disease, with emphasis on etiology, grade of activity, features suggestive of progression or regression, presence of other diseases, and risk factors for malignancy, within the perspective of an integrated clinicopathologic assessment. PMID:22180471

Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Snover, Dale C; Alves, Venancio; Balabaud, Charles; Bhathal, Prithi S; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Crawford, James M; Dhillon, Amar P; Ferrell, Linda; Guido, Maria; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Paradis, Valerie; Quaglia, Alberto; Theise, Neil D; Thung, Swan N; Tsui, Wilson M S; van Leeuwen, Dirk J

2012-01-01

193

Hepatic Sarcoidosis Presenting as Portal Hypertension and Liver Cirrhosis: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Systemic sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown etiology, with the liver being the third most commonly affected organ. Most cases of hepatic sarcoidosis are not clinically apparent, but a few can progress to liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension and ultimately liver failure. The diagnosis of hepatic sarcoidosis is difficult, considering that no single laboratory test or radiographic finding can definitively diagnose this systemic disease. Diagnosis of hepatic sarcoidosis relies heavily on histopathologic evaluation of two or more organs, a diagnostic modality that is invasive and may not be applicable to all patients. The treatment of hepatic sarcoidosis is challenging, with no large randomized controlled trials done to date. Physicians must be aware of the complications of hepatic sarcoidosis, and must include the same in the differential diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. We present a case of hepatic sarcoidosis complicated by portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis.

Tan, Christopher B.; Rashid, Sadat; Rajan, Dhyan; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Mustacchia, Paul

2012-01-01

194

Etiology of liver cirrhosis in Brazil: chronic alcoholism and hepatitis viruses in liver cirrhosis diagnosed in the state of Esp?rito Santo  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To report the etiology of liver cirrhosis cases diagnosed at the University Hospital in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: The medical charts of patients with liver cirrhosis who presented to the University Hospital in Vitoria were reviewed. Chronic alcoholism and the presence of hepatitis B or C infections (HBV and HCV, respectively) were pursued in all cases. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1,516 cases (male:female ratio 3.5:1, aged 53.2±12.6 years). The following main etiological factors were observed: chronic alcoholism alone (39.7%), chronic alcoholism in association with HBV or HCV (16.1%), HCV alone (14.5%) and in association with alcoholism (8.6%) (total, 23.1%), and HBV alone (13.1%) and in association with alcoholism (7.5%, total 20.6%). The remaining etiologies included cryptogenic cases (9.8%) and other causes (6.0%). The mean patient age was lower and the male-to-female ratio was higher in the cirrhosis cases that were associated with alcoholism or HBV compared with other causes. Intravenous drug abuse and a history of surgery or blood transfusion were significantly associated with HCV infection. Hepatocellular carcinoma was present at the time of diagnosis in 15.4% of cases. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection was significantly associated (p<0.001) with reduced age (at the time of cirrhosis diagnosis) and increased prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (p?=?0.052). CONCLUSION: Alcoholism, HCV and HBV are the main factors associated with liver cirrhosis in the state of Espirito Santo. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection reduced the age of patients at the time of liver cirrhosis diagnosis.

Goncalves, Patricia Lofego; da Penha Zago-Gomes, Maria; Marques, Carla Couzi; Mendonca, Ana Tereza; Goncalves, Carlos Sandoval; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima

2013-01-01

195

Body mass index and risk of liver cirrhosis in middle aged UK women: prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and liver cirrhosis and the contribution that BMI and alcohol consumption make to the incidence of liver cirrhosis in middle aged women in the UK. Design Prospective cohort study (Million Women Study). Setting Women recruited from 1996 to 2001 in NHS breast screening centres and followed by record linkage to routinely collected information on hospital admissions and deaths. Participants 1?230?662 women (mean age 56 years at recruitment) followed for an average of 6.2 years. Main outcome measures Relative risk and absolute risk of first hospital admission with or death from liver cirrhosis adjusted for age, recruitment region, alcohol consumption, smoking, socioeconomic status, and physical activity. Results 1811 women had a first hospital admission with or died from liver cirrhosis during follow-up. Among women with a BMI of 22.5 or above, increasing BMI was associated with an increased incidence of liver cirrhosis: the adjusted relative risk of cirrhosis increased by 28% (relative risk 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 1.38; P<0.001) for every 5 unit increase in BMI. Although the relative increase in the risk of liver cirrhosis per 5 unit increase in BMI did not differ significantly according to the amount of alcohol consumed, the absolute risk did. Among women who reported drinking less than 70 g alcohol per week, the absolute risk of liver cirrhosis per 1000 women over five years was 0.8 (0.7 to 0.9) for those with a BMI between 22.5 and 25 and 1.0 (0.9 to 1.2) for those with a BMI of 30 or more. Among women who reported drinking 150 g alcohol or more per week, the corresponding figures were 2.7 (2.1 to 3.4) and 5.0 (3.8 to 6.6). Conclusions Excess body weight increases the incidence of liver cirrhosis. In middle aged women in the UK, an estimated 17% of incident or fatal liver cirrhosis is attributable to excess body weight. This compares with an estimated 42% attributable to alcohol.

2010-01-01

196

Serum leptin levels in alcoholic liver cirrhosis: relationship with gender, nutritional status, liver function and energy metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine serum leptin levels in alcoholic liver cirrhosis and the relationship with gender, nutritional status, liver function, energy metabolism, inflammatory state and refeeding.Subjects: Thirty-seven hospitalized alcoholic cirrhotic patients (M\\/F: 24\\/13), 27 hospitalized patients at risk of malnutrition but with normal liver function (M\\/F: 15\\/12) as control patients, and 31 healthy control subjects (M\\/F: 17\\/14) participated.Design: Liver function was

B Campillo; E Sherman; JP Richardet; PN Bories

2001-01-01

197

Liver Cirrhosis Induced by Porphyria Cutanea Tarda: A Case Report and Review  

PubMed Central

Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is a metabolic disorder that results in a decrease in uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity. It is characterized by photosensitivity, bullae formation, and skin pigmentation. There are four types of PCT: acquired, familial, toxic, and hepatoerythropoietic. Uroporphyrin levels are elevated in the urine of PCT patients. PCT can be differentiated from other porphyrias by its clinical characteristics and the porphyrin levels in the serum, erythrocytes, urine, and feces. This metabolic disorder can lead to liver dysfunction as well as histological changes such as fatty infiltration or hepatic fibrosis. PCT rarely manifests as liver cirrhosis. We report herein a case of PCT-induced liver cirrhosis that progressed to hepatic failure.

Lee, Kwang Gyun; Hyun, Jong Jin; Seo, Yeon Seok; Keum, Bora; Yim, Hyung Joon; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Chun, Hoon Jai; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

2010-01-01

198

Gut-liver axis: an immune link between celiac disease and primary biliary cirrhosis.  

PubMed

The association between celiac disease and primary biliary cirrhosis is well established. The breakdown of gut-liver axis equilibrium plays a central role in the development of immune disorders involving the small bowel and liver. In celiac disease, immunologically active molecules generated from the cross-linking between tissue transglutaminase and food/bacterial antigens reach the liver through the portal circulation owing to the increased intestinal permeability. A molecular mimicry between bacterial antigens and the pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 component, recognized by antimitochondrial autoantibodies, may have a role in primary biliary cirrhosis pathogenesis. An aberrant intestinal T lymphocyte homing to the liver may contribute to trigger immune hepatic damage. Both celiac disease and primary biliary cirrhosis share several features, including a higher prevalence in females, autoimmune comorbidities and specific autoantibodies. Reciprocal screening for both diseases is recommended, as an early diagnosis with the appropriate treatment can improve the outcome of these patients. PMID:23445234

Volta, Umberto; Caio, Giacomo; Tovoli, Francesco; De Giorgio, Roberto

2013-03-01

199

Vascular Invasion and Histopathologic Grading Determine Outcome After Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection of patients suffering from hepatocellular carci- noma (HCC) in cirrhosis for liver transplantation follows limits of number and diameter of tumor nodules. It has not been investigated whether there is a correlation of these parameters with vascular invasion. From 1989 to 2000, 1,188 liver transplantations were performed in 1,087 pa- tients, including 120 patients (11%) with an HCC in

SVEN JONAS; WOLF O. BECHSTEIN; MARTIN HERRMANN; CORNELIA RADKE; THOMAS BERG; UTZ SETTMACHER; PETER NEUHAUS

200

The Role of Thrombopoietin in the Thrombocytopenia of Patients with Liver Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Thrombocytopenia is a common disorder among cirrhotics that has been traditionally explained by splenic platelet pooling and destruction. Thrombopoietin (TPO), the main stimuli for thrombopoiesis is produced primarily in the liver and degraded by circulating platelets, but its role in the thrombocytopenia of liver cirrhosis is not well understood. The main goal of this study is to clarify the role

Raquel Rios; Bruno Sangro; Ignacio Herrero; Jorge Quiroga; Jesus Prieto

2005-01-01

201

Liver Iron, HFE Gene Mutations, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Occurrence in Patients With Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: The influence of HFE gene mu- tations and liver iron overload on hepatocellular car- cinoma (HCC) occurrence in patients with cirrhosis is subjected to controversial results. The aim of this work was to clarify this influence in a large cohort of prospectively followed-up cirrhotic patients classified according to the cause of their liver disease. Methods: Three hundred

PIERRE NAHON; ANGELA SUTTON; PIERRE RUFAT; MARIANNE ZIOL; GABRIEL THABUT; PIERRE-OLIVIER SCHISCHMANOFF; DOMINIQUE VIDAUD; NATHALIE CHARNAUX; PHILIPPE COUVERT; NATHALIE GANNE-CARRIE; JEAN-CLAUDE TRINCHET; LILIANE GATTEGNO; MICHEL BEAUGRAND; UPRES EA; Service de Biochimie

2008-01-01

202

Inhibition of Experimental Liver Cirrhosis in Mice by Telomerase Gene Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerated telomere loss has been proposed to be a factor leading to end-stage organ failure in chronic diseases of high cellular turnover such as liver cirrhosis. To test this hypothesis directly, telomerase-deficient mice, null for the essential telomerase RNA (mTR) gene, were subjected to genetic, surgical, and chemical ablation of the liver. Telomere dysfunction was associated with defects in liver regeneration and accelerated the development of liver cirrhosis in response to chronic liver injury. Adenoviral delivery of mTR into the livers of mTR-/- mice with short dysfunctional telomeres restored telomerase activity and telomere function, alleviated cirrhotic pathology, and improved liver function. These studies indicate that telomere dysfunction contributes to chronic diseases of continual cellular loss-replacement and encourage the evaluation of ``telomerase therapy'' for such diseases.

Rudolph, Karl Lenhard; Chang, Sandy; Millard, Melissa; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole; DePinho, Ronald A.

2000-02-01

203

N-glycomic changes in hepatocellular carcinoma patients with liver cirrhosis induced by hepatitis B virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the use of blood serum N-glycan fingerprinting as a tool for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV). A group of 450 HBV-infected patients with liver fibrosis or cirrhosis with or without HCC were studied. HCC was diagnosed by -fetoprotein (AFP) analysis, ultrasonography, and\\/or computed tomography and was studied

Xue-En Liu; Liesbeth Desmyter; Chun-Fang Gao; Wouter Laroy; Sylviane Dewaele; Valerie Vanhooren; Ling Wang; Hui Zhuang; Nico Callewaert; Claude Libert; Roland Contreras; Cuiying Chen

2007-01-01

204

Invasive Mucormycosis in a Patient With Liver Cirrhosis: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cutaneous Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic infection caused by Zygomycetes class of fungi that is often fatal, requiring aggressive local control as well as systemic therapy. Few cases of mucormycosis were described in patients with liver cirrhosis, mostly rhino-orbital. To our knowledge, only two cases of upper extremity involvement was reported in cirrhosis while a few cases were reported in the post-transplant setting. We report herein the third case of upper extremity mucor infection in the setting of liver cirrhosis. Case Presentation We described a rare case of forearm infection originating in a traumatic intravenous access portal in a 25 year-old woman with liver cirrhosis secondary to autoimmune hepatitis. Discussion She developed acute on chronic liver failure during the last trimester of pregnancy, which was terminated. Painful, erythematous lesion was noted on her right forearm in the area of intravenous access, which later became necrotic. Extensive debridement was done and histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of mucormycosis. The patient started on Amphotericin B. Her condition continued to deteriorate and ended up with above elbow amputation followed by right shoulder disarticulation. She died two days later due to multi-organ failure. In conclusion, forearm mucromycosis in liver cirrhosis can be fatal.

Elsiesy, Hussien; Saad, Mohamed; Shorman, Mahmoud; Amr, Samir; Abaalkhail, Faisal; Hashim, Almoutaz; Al Hamoudi, Waleed; Al Sebayel, Mohamed; Selim, Khalid

2013-01-01

205

Liver cell surface localization of hepatitis B antigen and of immunoglobulins in acute and chronic hepatitis and in liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes immunofluorescence studies on liver cell surface localization of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and of IgG in acute and chronic hepatitis and in cirrhosis. In acute hepatitis B, HBsAg was found at the surface of hepatocytes in an early phase of the disease, but not during the recovery. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that immune reactions to HBsAg may be responsible for the liver cell lysis. In HBsAg-positive chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis the antigen was found in the cytoplasm, but not on the surface of the hepatocytes, while in HBsAg-negative cases the antigen could not be detected in the liver cells. Both in HBsAg-positive and in HBsAg-negative chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and cryptogenic cirrhosis IgG bound to the membrane of the hepatocytes could be detected, suggesting a role of antibodies in the pathogenesis of the disease.

Alberti, A; Realdi, G; Tremolada, F; Spina, G P

1976-01-01

206

Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa on thioacetamide induced liver cirrhosis in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatology research has focused on developing traditional therapies as pharmacological medicines to treat liver cirrhosis. Thus, this study evaluated mechanisms of the hepatoprotective activity of Curcuma longa rhizome ethanolic extract (CLRE) on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods The hepatoprotective effect of CLRE was measured in a rat model of thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis over 8 weeks. Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 and serum levels of TGF-?1 and TNF-? were evaluated. Oxidative stress was measured by malondialdehyde, urinary 8-hydroxyguanosine and nitrotyrosine levels. The protective activity of CLRE free-radical scavenging mechanisms were evaluated through antioxidant enzymes. Protein expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in animal blood sera was studied and confirmed by immunohistochemistry of Bax, Bcl2 proteins and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Results Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and liver biochemistry were significantly lower in the Curcuma longa-treated groups compared with controls. CLRE induced apoptosis, inhibited hepatocytes proliferation but had no effect on hepatic CYP2E1 levels. Conclusion The progression of liver cirrhosis could be inhibited by the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of CLRE and the normal status of the liver could be preserved.

2013-01-01

207

Effect of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs on lipolytic activities during CCl4 induced acute hepatic injury in albino rats.  

PubMed

Daily treatment of CCl4(3 ml/kg body wt) for 7 days induced acute hepatic necrosis in albino rats. Treatment of CCl4 caused significant alterations in the activities of acid lipase, alkaline lipase, lipoprotein lipase of liver, kidney and adipose tissue and hormone sensitive lipase of adipose tissue of albino rat. Administration of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs (kumari asav, kumari kalp, arogyavardhini and tamra bhasma) concomitant with CCl4 counteracted the action of CCl4 on lipolytic enzymes exhibiting hepatoprotection. The possible physiological significance of alterations in lipolytic enzymes during hepatic necrosis induced by CCl4 and hepatoprotection by the above ayurvedic drugs is discussed. PMID:8500840

Patil, S; Kanase, A; Varute, A T

1993-03-01

208

Trace element analysis by PIXE in liver samples from dogs with chronic active hepatitis and liver cirrhosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace element levels of liver samples obtained from necropsied dogs suffering from hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis were determined by PIXE. Two different techniques for preparation of the samples were compared: the pellet press method and wet digestion. Both methods gave similar results, but the pellet press method was chosen for the subsequent routine analyses because of its simplicity due to few preparation steps and little risk of contamination. Preliminary results indicate elevated levels of Cu in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. In hereditary copper-induced hepatitis (Bedlington hepatitis) Fe and Br levels were increased as well.

Andersson, Marianne; Ekholm, Ann-Kristin; Sevelius, Ewa

1990-04-01

209

[Spontaneous splenic vein rupture complicating liver cirrhosis: an autopsy case report].  

PubMed

A 70-year-old woman, who had hepatitis-C related liver cirrhosis died suddenly. Autopsy showed a massive retroperitoneal hematoma and ruptured splenic vein, as well as densely bloody ascites. This suggested that chronic and unnoticed retroperitoneal leak from the ruptured vein preceded the acute and fatal outcome of the intra-abdominal bleeding. Spontaneous rupture of the splenic vein is rarely reported in liver cirrhosis despite the presence of portal hypertension. This rare association is discussed with a literature review. PMID:23459537

Okubo, Satoshi; Kiriyama, Kazuo; Usui, Takeo; Takemura, Tadaharu; Ikeda, Kouichiro; Kanayama, Yoshio

2013-03-01

210

Cirrhosis  

MedlinePLUS

... results of medical tests done so far, including digital copies of CT, MRI or ultrasound images and ... liver damage. Magnetic resonance elastography. This noninvasive advanced imaging test, developed at Mayo Clinic, detects hardening of ...

211

What I Need to Know about Cirrhosis of the Liver  

MedlinePLUS

... which causes the body’s immune system to destroy liver cells nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which is often caused ... do not drink any alcohol. Alcohol can harm liver cells. Drinking large amounts of alcohol over many years ...

212

Effects of Athamanta turbith fruit essential oils on CCl4-induced hepatic failure in mice and their antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

The effects of essential oils isolated from mature fruits of Athamanta turbith ssp. hungarica (Borbás) Tutin and A. turbith ssp. haynaldii (Borbás & Uechtr.) Tutin (Umbelliferae) on some liver biochemical parameters in mice intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride were investigated. Pretreatment with both essential oils extenuated the effects caused by carbon tetrachloride. In order to investigate in vitro antioxidant properties of the oils, three methods were applied: scavenging of both 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and OH radicals, as well as a test of inhibition of Fe(2+)/ascorbic-induced lipid peroxidation. Investigated essential oils exhibited modest antioxidant capacity. Therefore, their influence on biochemical parameters in intoxicated animals might be linked to the inhibition of enzymes (cytochrome P450 2E1) involved in metabolic activation of halomethanes. PMID:19927273

Tomi?, Ana; Bozin, Biljana; Samojlik, Isidora; Milenkovi?, Marina; Mimica-Duki?, Neda; Petrovi?, Silvana

2010-05-01

213

Heart rhythm turbulence and NT-proBNP in decompensated liver cirrhosis - a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Heart rhythm turbulence (HRT) is a novel tool for evaluation of cardiovascular mortality. Liver cirrhosis is associated with hemodynamic and myocardial disturbances termed cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. In the stable stage of liver cirrhosis, systolic and myocardial dysfunction is correlated with brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). The aim was to evaluate HRT and its correlation with NT-proBNP, echocardiographic and biochemical parameters in patients with decompensation of liver cirrhosis. Material/Methods The study included 18 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and 18 healthy volunteers. Participants underwent echocardiography and 24-hour ECG monitoring. Serum NT-proBNP and other biochemical parameters were measured. Turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS) were used to indicate HRT. Results Mean HR (87/min vs. 75/min), TO (?0.385% vs. ?0.92%), NT-proBNP (304.85 pg/ml vs. 83.2 pg/ml), LAd (42.5 mm vs. 34.5 mm), RVdd (29.5 mm vs. 25 mm), SPAP (36.5 mmHg vs. 22.5 mmHg) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in patients with liver cirrhosis. Patients with normal TO and TS had better stage in Child-Pugh classification (P=0.04) than patients with abnormal values. Significant negative correlation was found between creatinine and TO, and between mean HR and TS, and significant positive correlation was found between LAd and TS. LV diastolic dysfunction was noted in a majority of cirrhotic patients (n=16). Conclusions Patients with decompensated cirrhosis had elevated levels of NT-proBNP and LV diastolic dysfunction. TO values in cirrhotic patients differed significantly from the control group. These findings can indicate risk of symptomatic heart failure development and may be a marker of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. HRT parameters seem not to be appropriate death predicators.

Poliwczak, Adam Rafal; Bialkowska, Jolanta; Broncel, Marlena; Kozirog, Marzena; Dworniak, Katarzyna; Kotecka, Kornelia; Jablkowski, Maciej

2011-01-01

214

Zinc supplementation in experimental liver cirrhosis: a morphological, structural and ultrastructural study.  

PubMed Central

Zinc treatment in liver cirrhosis is known to prevent a number of clinical symptoms. Previous studies have also indicated that Zn has a protective effect on the development of the clinical, biochemical and morphological manifestations of hepatic injury if administered simultaneously with the noxious agent. In this study, the protective effects of zinc treatment against the development of liver cirrhosis have been tested in cirrhotic rats treated by intragastric administration of CCl4. The development of morphological lesions has been investigated by means of standardized and comparable techniques, LM, TEM, SEM, microvascular casts and measurements of liver collagen content by colorimetric determination in paraffin embedded sections. LM and EM observations showed typical morphological features of cirrhosis in all CCl4 treated rats. In the same group of animals, the microvascular casts showed the development of the typical 'perinodular' branching and the various anastomoses of pre and post-sinusoidal vessels. Colorimetric evaluation has shown a significant increase in collagen content after CCl4 treatment. Qualitative and quantitative data of livers of CCl4 treated rats supplemented or not with zinc were significantly similar. In conclusion, zinc treatment influences biochemical parameters, but not the morphology of liver cirrhosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Gaudio, E.; Pannarale, L.; Franchitto, A.; Riggio, O.

1993-01-01

215

Hyponatremia in liver cirrhosis: pathophysiological principles of management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyponatremia is common in cirrhosis, where it impairs encephalopathy. It could be either due to excess water, or reduced Na, or a combination of both. The diagnosis can be established with clinical skills aided by simple data like weight, blood pressure and plasma electrolytes. The quantitative estimates of the water surfeit or solute deficit, easily performed with simple formulas and

L. Castello; M. Pirisi; P. P. Sainaghi; E. Bartoli

2005-01-01

216

Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into control, CCl4, CCl4+silymarin, and CCl4+ERW groups. CCl4-induced liver lesions include leukocytes infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, mitosis, calcification, fibrosis and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aminotransferase (AST) activity. In addition, CCl4 also significantly

Chia-Fang Tsai; Yu-Wen Hsu; Wen-Kang Chen; Wen-Huei Chang; Cheng-Chieh Yen; Yung-Chyuan Ho; Fung-Jou Lu

2009-01-01

217

Liver transduction with a simian virus 40 vector encoding insulin-like growth factor I reduces hepatic damage and the development of liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver transplantation is the only treatment for advanced liver cirrhosis. Therapies halting the progression of the disease are urgently needed. Administration of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (rIGF-I) induces hepatoprotective effects in experimental cirrhosis. Therefore, we analyzed the efficacy of a recombinant simian virus 40 vector (rSV40) encoding IGF-I (rSVIGF-I) to prevent cirrhosis progression. First, transgene expression was evaluated in mice

M Vera; L Sobrevals; M Zaratiegui; L Martinez; B Palencia; C M Rodríguez; J Prieto; P Fortes

2007-01-01

218

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Aegle marmelos Correa. against CCl4-induced oxidative stress and early tumor events.  

PubMed

The antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect on early tumor promoter markers of A. marmelos (25 and 50 mg/Kg b. wt. orally) have been evaluated. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated for seven consecutive days with A. marmelos prior to CCl4 (1 mL Kg(- 1) body weight p. o., in corn oil [1:1 v/v]) treatment. Pre-treatment with A. marmelos suppressed lipid peroxidation (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XO) and release of serum toxicity marker enzymes viz, SGOT, LDH, SGPT dose-dependently and significantly (p < 0.001). Hepatic antioxidant status viz, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), quinone reductase (QR), catalase (CAT) were concomitantly restored in A. marmelos-treated groups (p < 0.001). In addition, A. marmelos pretreatment also prevented the CCl4-enhanced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and hepatic DNA synthesis significantly (p < 0.001). In conclusion, carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity was strikingly attenuated by A. marmelos treatment and the study gives some insight into the mechanisms involved in diminution of free radical generating toxicants and enhancement of the antioxidant armory, hence preventing further tissue damage, injury and hyperproliferation. Thus, these findings indicate that A. marmelos attenuates CCl4-mediated hepatic oxidative stress, toxicity, tumor promotion and subsequent cell proliferation response in Wistar rats. PMID:18830880

Khan, Tajdar Hussain; Sultana, Sarwat

2009-04-01

219

Liver surgery in the presence of cirrhosis or steatosis: Is morbidity increased?  

PubMed Central

Background data The prevalence of steatosis and hepatitis-related liver cirrhosis is dramatically increasing together worldwide. Cirrhosis and, more recently, steatosis are recognized as a clinically important feature that influences patient morbidity and mortality after hepatic resection when compared with patients with healthy liver. Objective To review present knowledge regarding how the presence of cirrhosis or steatosis can influence postoperative outcome after liver resection. Methods A critical review of the English literature was performed to provide data concerning postoperative outcome of patients presenting injured livers who required hepatectomy. Results In clinical studies, the presence of steatosis impaired postoperative outcome regardless the severity and quality of the hepatic fat. A great improvement in postoperative outcome has been achieved using modern and multidisciplinary preoperative workup in cirrhotic patients. Due to the lack of a proper classification for morbidity and a clear definition of hepatic failure in the literature, the comparison between different studies is very limited. Although, many surgical strategies have been developed to protect injured liver surgery, no one have gained worldwide acceptance. Conclusion Surgeons should take the presence of underlying injured livers into account when planning the extent and type of hepatic surgery. Preoperative and perioperative interventions should be considered to minimize the additional damage. Further randomized trials should focus on the evaluation of novel preoperative strategies to minimize risk in these patients. Each referral liver center should have the commitment to report all deaths related to postoperative hepatic failure and to use a common classification system for postoperative complications.

McCormack, Lucas; Capitanich, Pablo; Quinonez, Emilio

2008-01-01

220

Safety and efficacy of hepatitis B vaccination in cirrhosis of liver.  

PubMed

Introduction. Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) are more likely to have severe morbidity and fatality rate due to superimposed acute or chronic hepatitis B (HBV) infection. The literature has shown that hepatitis B vaccines are safe and effective in patients with CLD, but the data in cirrhosis liver is lacking. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of HBV vaccine in patients with cirrhosis liver. Methods. CTP classes A and B CLD patients negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen were included. All patients received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine 20?mcg intramuscularly at 0, 30, and 60 days. Anti-HBs antibody was measured after 120 days. Results. 52 patients with mean age 47.48 ± 9.37 years were studied. Response rates in CTP classes A and B were 88% and 33.3%. We observed that the alcoholic chronic liver disease had less antibody response (44%) than other causes of chronic liver disease such as cryptogenic 69% and HCV 75%. Conclusions. Patients with cirrhosis liver will have low antibody hepatitis B titers compared to general population. As the age and liver disease progress, the response rate for hepatitis B vaccination will still remain to be weaker. PMID:23840211

Roni, D Ajith; Pathapati, Rama Mohan; Kumar, A Sathish; Nihal, Lalit; Sridhar, K; Tumkur Rajashekar, Sujith

2013-06-06

221

[Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and liver cirrhosis].  

PubMed

Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a polypeptide hormone secreted by multiple tissues in response to growth hormone (GH). It is partly responsible for GH activity, and also has glucose-lowering and anabolizing effects. Ninety percent of circulating IGF-I originates in the liver and has autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine effects, the latter on multiple tissues. Liver cirrhosis results in a progressive decline of hepatic IGF-I output, and this factor may become undetectable in advanced disease. Some cirrhosis complications, mainly those nutritional and metabolic in nature (insuline resistance, malnutrition, osteopenia, hypogonadism, intestinal disorders), may be at least partly related to this IGF-I deficiency, since some IGF-I effects represent a reverse image of cirrhosis complications. Despite this, IGF-I replacement therapy has been never suggested for cirrhosis. A number of experimental studies in cirrhotic rats showed that therapy using low-dose recombinant IGF-I exerts two types of effect on experimental cirrhosis: a) liver improvement driven by improved hepatocellular function, portal hypertension, and liver fibrosis; and b) cirrhosis-related extrahepatic disorder improvement driven by improved food efficiency, muscle mass, bone mass, gonadal function and structure, and intestinal function and structure, with a normalization of sugar and amino acid malabsorption, and improved intstinal barrier function, manifested by reduced endotoxemia and bacterial translocation. Subsequently, the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot clinical trial in a small number of cirrhotic patients showed increased serum albumin and improved energy metabolism as a result of IGF-I use. Further clinical trials are needed to identify adequate IGF-I doses, administration duration and frequency, and the subgroup of cirrhotic patients who will benefit most from this replacement therapy. PMID:17516829

Conchillo, M; Prieto, J; Quiroga, J

2007-03-01

222

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (2.5, 5 and 10 ?g/ml) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced carp hepatocyte damage in vitro. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl(4). CCl(4) at 8 mM in the culture medium produced significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Pre-treatment (5 ?g/ml) and pre- and post-treatment (5 and 10 ?g/ml) of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract significantly reduced the elevated levels of LDH, GOT, GPT and MDA and increased the reduced levels of SOD and GSH-Px by CCl(4); post-treatment of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract at 5 ?g/ml reduced the GPT and GOT levels and increased the GSH-Px level, but had no effect on the other parameters at all the studied concentrations. The results support the use of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in fish. PMID:20865324

Yin, Guojun; Cao, Liping; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Nakao, Miki; Lu, Chengping

2010-09-24

223

A proteomic strategy to identify novel serum biomarkers for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer in individuals with fatty liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a prevalence of over 20% in Western societies. Affected individuals are at risk of developing both cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Presently there is no cost effective population based means of identifying cirrhotic individuals and even if there were, our ability to perform HCC surveillance in the at risk group is inadequate. We

Joe Gray; Dipankar Chattopadhyay; Gary S Beale; Gillian L Patman; Luca Miele; Barry P King; Stephen Stewart; Mark Hudson; Christopher P Day; Derek M Manas; Helen L Reeves

2009-01-01

224

Enhanced external counterpulsation: a new technique to augment renal function in liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Advanced liver cirrhosis is characterized by cardiovascular changes, such as low arterial blood pressure, peripheral vasodilation and renal vasocon- striction. As a consequence, renal hypoperfusion, impaired diuresis and natriuresis and eventual hepato- renal syndrome may ensue. Previous studies using head-out water immersion to increase central blood volume have demonstrated the functional nature of the renal abnormalities. Enhanced external counter-

Dierk Werner; Peter Tragner; Andrea Wawer; Heiner Porst; Werner G. Daniel; Peter Gross

2005-01-01

225

Treatment of mastalgia with tamoxifen in male patients with liver cirrhosis: a randomized crossover study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Mastalgia is occasionally found in patients with liver cirrhosis, especially in those receiving spironolactone for treatment of ascites. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Estrogen excess in cirrhotic patients and estrogenic effects of the spironolactone are possible leading causes. Treatment directed against the preponderance of estrogenic stimulation in these patients has never been investigated. This study was designed to investigate the

Chung-Pin Li; Fa-Yauh Lee; Shinn-Jang Hwang; Full-Young Chang; Han-Chieh Lin; Benjamin Ing-Tiau Kuo; Chi-Jen Chu; Shou-Dong Lee

2000-01-01

226

[Imaging of collaterals and their impact on portal venous flow in patients with liver cirrhosis].  

PubMed

When the portal hypertension syndrome occurs, patients with liver cirrhosis develop three major collateral blood flow pathways. These are gastroesophageal, splenorenal, and paraumbilical ones along the recanalized umbilical veins. Only both the splenorenal pathway of blood return from the portal venous system, which considerably reduces portal blood flow volume and the paraumbilical one that increases portal blood flow are of hemodynamic significance. PMID:22187898

Prozorovski?, K V; Pruchanski?, V S

227

Branched-chain amino acids as a protein- and energy-source in liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common manifestation in cirrhotic patients with reported incidences as high as 65-90%. PEM affects largely the patients' quality of life and survival. Thus, diagnosis of and intervention for PEM is important in the clinical management of liver cirrhosis. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) is indicated to improve protein malnutrition. As an intervention for energy malnutrition, frequent meal or late evening snack has been recently recommended. Plasma amino acid analysis characterizes the patients with liver cirrhosis to have decreased BCAA. Such reduction of BCAA is explained by enhanced consumption of BCAA for ammonia detoxication and for energy generation. Supplementation with BCAA raises in vitro the synthesis and secretion of albumin by cultured rat hepatocytes without affecting albumin mRNA expression. BCAA recover the impaired turnover kinetics of albumin both in rat cirrhotic model and in cirrhotic patients. Longer-term supplementation with BCAA raises plasma albumin, benefits quality of life issues, and finally improves survival in liver cirrhosis. Recent interests focused on the timing of administration of BCAA, since daytime BCAA are usually consumed by energy generation for physical exercise of skeletal muscles. Nocturnal BCAA seem to be more favorable as a source of protein synthesis by giving higher nitrogen balance. This minireview focuses on the basic and clinical aspects of BCAA as a pharmaco-nutritional source to control PEM in liver cirrhosis. PMID:14684176

Moriwaki, Hisataka; Miwa, Yoshiyuki; Tajika, Masahiro; Kato, Masahiko; Fukushima, Hideki; Shiraki, Makoto

2004-01-01

228

Nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase expressions in human liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: Portal hypertension is a common complication of liver cirrhosis. Intrahepatic pressure can be elevated in several ways. Abnormal architecture affecting the vasculature, an increase in vasoconstrictors and increased circulation from the splanchnic viscera into the portal system may all contribute. It follows that endogenous vasodilators may be able to alleviate the hypertension. We therefore aimed to investigate the levels

Beatrice J Goh; Bee Tee Tan; Wei Min Hon; Kang Hoe Lee; Hoon Eng Khoo

229

Portal cirrhosis and post-necrotic liver scarring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  It is now time to consider what conclusions are possible from the foregoing discussion. My purpose in writing this paper has\\u000a been to draw attention to the distinction between portal cirrhosis and post-necrotic scarring, because I believe that these\\u000a conditions are distinct and that it is of value to separate them where possible. The view has been adopted that the

Maurice Hickey

1956-01-01

230

Safety and efficacy of Mangafodipir trisodium in patients with liver lesions and cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Mangafodipir trisodium (Mn-DPDP, Teslascan) is a well-tolerated liver contrast agent. Although the enhancement characteristics\\u000a of the cirrhotic liver after Mangafodipir trisodium administration have been studied, at present there is no published data\\u000a on the impact that cirrhosis might have on the safety and efficacy profiles of this agent. Our objective is to evaluate by\\u000a means of a retrospective comparison the

Luis Martí-Bonmatí; Amura F. Fog; Bart Op de Beeck; Pauline Kane; Hans Fagertun

2003-01-01

231

Fatal copper storage disease of the liver in a German infant resembling Indian childhood cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A female child of non-consanguineous, healthy German parents fell ill at the age of 7 months with a progressive liver disease leading to irreversible hepatic failure 3 months later. Histological examination revealed severe liver cell necrosis, excessive Mallory body formation and veno-occlusive-like changes associated with massive storage of copper, similar to Indian childhood cirrhosis (ICC). Chronic copper contamination of drinking

Josef Müller-Höcker; Michael Weiß; Ulrike Meyer; Peter Schramel; Baldur Wiebecke; Bernd H. Belohradsky; Gerhard Hübner

1987-01-01

232

Demonstrating alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver by Tc99m BIDA scintigram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six patients with decompensated cirrhosis of the liver underwent Tc-99m BIDA studies. All demonstrated 1) persistently high blood pool activity in the heart, lung, and soft tissue, 2) slow hepatic tracer uptake, 3) prolonged liver-to-bowel transit time, and 4) visualization of an enlarged spleen. Four of the six patients demonstrated evidence of ascites and in one patient there were visible

WEI-JEN SHIH; FRANK H. DeLAND; PEGGY A. DOMSTAD

1984-01-01

233

Doppler Ultrasound of Hepatic and System Hemodynamics in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The progression of liver cirrhosis eventually increases cardiac output, while blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance\\u000a are reduced. A complex behavior of portal hemodynamic to hepatic artery and system circulation has not yet been presented.\\u000a There is a lack in knowledge about the correlation of local and systemic circulation parameters to the degree of liver failure,\\u000a with respect to

Zekanovic Drazen; Ljubicic Neven; Boban Marko; Nikolic Marko; Delic-Brkljacic Diana; Gacina Petar; Klarin Ivo; Turcinov Jadranko

2010-01-01

234

A dynamic plasma membrane proteome analysis of alcohol-induced liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Alcohol-induced injury has become one of the major causes for liver cirrhosis. However, the molecular mechanisms of ethanol-induced injury are not fully understood. To this end, we performed a dynamic plasma membrane proteomic research on rat model. A rat model from hepatitis to liver cirrhosis was developed. Plasma membrane from liver tissue with liver fibrosis stage of 2 and 4 (S2 and S4) was purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Its purification was verified by western blotting. Proteins from plasma membrane were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and differentially expressed proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. 16 consistent differentially expressed proteins from S2 to S4 were identified by mass spectrometry. The expression of differentially expressed proteins annexin A6 and annexin A3 were verified by western blotting, and annexin A3 was futher verified by immunohistochemistry. Our research suggests a possible mechanism by which ethanol alters protein expression to enhance the liver fibrosis progression. These differentially expressed proteins might be new drug targets for treating alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

2012-01-01

235

Carbohydrate deficient transferrin for detection of alcohol relapse after orthotopic liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Early diagnosis and monitoring of an alcohol relapse in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis is of importance for the long-term outcome. A prospective study of 97 patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplant for alcoholic cirrhosis has been performed. All of the recipients considered for analysis survived for at least 3 months and were under the care of one specialist psychologist. Mean follow-up amounted to 48.5+/-1.4 months. The rates of alcohol relapse at 1 and 3 years after orthotopic liver transplant were 6 and 9%, respectively. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a biological marker for alcohol abuse independently of liver disease and has been used for the first time ever in liver graft recipients. A total of 830 values were included prospectively in the study population. Detection of alcohol relapse had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 98%. Changes in carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels indicated clandestine and sporadic drinking after transplantation. Furthermore, clinical events were not found to influence carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, either in patients with or without alcoholic relapse. In our opinion, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a useful screening marker for alcohol relapse in patients after orthotopic liver transplant for alcoholic cirrhosis, to select those patients who need special attention from the psychologist. PMID:10342314

Berlakovich, G A; Windhager, T; Freundorfer, E; Lesch, O M; Steininger, R; Mühlbacher, F

1999-05-15

236

Determinants of progression to cirrhosis or fibrosis in pure alcoholic fatty liver.  

PubMed

"Pure" alcoholic fatty liver has been widely assumed to be "benign" with very low risk of progression to cirrhosis. Studies thus far have included either patients with coexisting recognised precursor lesions of cirrhosis or have been restricted to short-term histological follow-up. We have followed 88 patients, first seen between 1978 and 1985, with a histological diagnosis of pure alcoholic fatty liver and no evidence of fibrosis or alcoholic hepatitis, for a median of 10.5 years, to determine any factors predictive of disease progression. Of the 88, at follow-up nine had developed cirrhosis and a further seven fibrosis. Eight of nine patients with cirrhosis had continuing alcohol consumption of more than 40 units per week at follow-up; in the other patients, consumption was unknown. Independent histological predictors of progression on index biopsy were: presence of mixed macro/microvesicular fat, and presence of giant mitochondria. We can no longer regard alcoholic fatty liver as benign. In the presence of continuing high alcohol consumption the above histological features identified those at high risk (47-61%) of disease progression. Therefore, patients with these features should be counselled intensively regarding their alcohol consumption. PMID:7475591

Teli, M R; Day, C P; Burt, A D; Bennett, M K; James, O F

1995-10-14

237

[Primary and secondary prevention of alcoholic liver cirrhosis].  

PubMed

Alcohol--is the main causative factor of cirrhosis among the population in Russia. The primary prevention must be focused on exception of consumption of heavy doses of alcohol hepatitis and B vaccination. There are no healthy doses of alcohol. Secondary prevention means the use of the hepatoprotectors. List of hepatoprotectors and also amount of money spent to the purchase of these hepatoprotectors increase constantly. But, unfortunately, alongside with it, increases the mortality from hepatic disorders. Effectiveness of the most hepatoprotectors (such as Essential phospholipids, milk thistle) equals to the effectiveness of placebo. PMID:23808210

Beliakin, S A; Pliusnin, S V; Bobrov, A N

2013-03-01

238

The Expression of Embryonic Liver Development Genes in Hepatitis C Induced Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a difficult disease to study even after a decade of genomic analysis. Patient and disease heterogeneity, differences in statistical methods and multiple testing issues have resulted in a fragmented understanding of the molecular basis of tumor biology. Some researchers have suggested that HCC appears to share pathways with embryonic development. Therefore we generated targeted hypotheses regarding changes in developmental genes specific to the liver in HCV-cirrhosis and HCV-HCC. We obtained microarray studies from 30 patients with HCV-cirrhosis and 49 patients with HCV-HCC and compared to 12 normal livers. Genes specific to non-liver development have known associations with other cancer types but none were expressed in either adult liver or tumor tissue, while 98 of 179 (55%) genes specific to liver development had differential expression between normal and cirrhotic or HCC samples. We found genes from each developmental stage dysregulated in tumors compared to normal and cirrhotic samples. Although there was no single tumor marker, we identified a set of genes (Bone Morphogenetic Protein inhibitors GPC3, GREM1, FSTL3, and FST) in which at least one gene was over-expressed in 100% of the tumor samples. Only five genes were differentially expressed exclusively in late-stage tumors, indicating that while developmental genes appear to play a profound role in cirrhosis and malignant transformation, they play a limited role in late-stage HCC.

Behnke, Martha; Reimers, Mark; Fisher, Robert

2012-01-01

239

Prophylactic endoscopic sclerotherapy of oesophageal varices in liver cirrhosis. A multicentre prospective controlled randomised trial in Vienna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of prophylactic treatment of oesophageal varices by endoscopic injection sclerotherapy before the first episode of variceal haemorrhage was studied in patients with cirrhosis in a prospective, randomised and controlled multicentre trial. From February 1984 to March 1987 patients with liver cirrhosis and large varices (stage III-IV according to Paquet) were treated and followed up. The sample comprised 87

R Pötzi; P Bauer; W Reichel; E Kerstan; F Renner; A Gangl

1989-01-01

240

Branched-chain amino acid metabolism in isolated perfused liver of cirrhotic rats.  

PubMed

We examined the possible contribution of the liver to the alterations in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism in cirrhosis. The livers of male Sprague-Dawley rats with CCl4-induced cirrhosis were removed and placed in a recirculating perfusion system. Net amino acid uptake and release were determined over 55 min. Results were compared with those obtained with control animals, which were either pair-fed or fed ad libitum. Intrahepatic amino acid concentrations were determined at the end of the perfusion. The release of isoleucine and leucine was significantly lower in the cirrhotic livers than in the controls fed ad libitum. There was no difference between the cirrhotic and pair-fed groups with regard to the fluxes of the three BCAA. Intrahepatic concentrations of BCAA were reduced only in pair-fed controls. These results suggest that both cirrhosis and a low protein/calorie diet alter hepatic BCAA flux, but via different mechanisms. In cirrhosis, alterations could be due both to low food intake and to BCAA metabolism in non-parenchymal cells. PMID:1529274

Blonde-Cynober, F; De Bandt, J P; Ballet, F; Rey, C; Coudray-Lucas, C; Josset, P; Giboudeau, J; Cynober, L

1992-05-01

241

Lack of association of primary iron overload and common HFE gene mutations with liver cirrhosis in adult Indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  To find out the association of common HFE mutations (viz., C282Y and H63D) with primary iron overload (PIL) in liver cirrhosis\\u000a (CLD) patients of Indian origin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used for screening C282Y and H63D mutation in\\u000a 496 CLD patients (hepatitis B virus associated cirrhosis (HBVc)?=?74, hepatitis C virus associated cirrhosis (HCV)?=?50, alcoholic\\u000a cirrhosis with

Shalu Jain; Sarita Agarwal; Parag Tamhankar; Prashant Verma; Gourdas Choudhuri

242

Increase in type I and type III collagens in human alcoholic liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

Collagen in bulk was isolated in about 30% yield from the livers of normal human beings and from livers of persons with alcholic cirrhosis. Analyzed chemically and examined by electron microscopy, the collagen in each case was shown to consist of two types identical with, or resembling closely, type I and type III collagens of skin. The collagen from normal liver was predominantly type I, whereas, that from cirrhotic livers consisted or approximately equal amounts of the two types. By chromatography on carboxymethyl-cellulose, the type I collagen from the cirrhotic livers showed one alpha2chain and two alpha1 chains. The alpha1 chains were separable from one another, but gel electrophoretic patterns of peptides obtained from them after treatment with CNBr were almost identical, and resembled the pattern obtained with CNBr peptides of the alpha1 chain of rat skin type I collagen. The increased collagen of both types was responsible in part for the observed distortion of the architecture of the cirrhotic livers associated with increased rigidity of the stroma. The predominance of type III collagen in the areas of collapse of architecture where, as shown by others, few fibroblasts are present, suggests that hepatocytes might have an important function in fibrogenesis during the course of liver cirrhosis. Images

Rojkind, M; Martinez-Palomo, A

1976-01-01

243

Effects of S-adenosylmethionine on lipid peroxidation and liver fibrogenesis in carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of S-adenosyhnethionine on liver peroxidation and liver fibrogenesis in carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis. Methods: Cirrhosis was induced in three groups of six rats by repeated iqjections of carbon tetrachlo- ride over 9 weeks. One group of animals was treat- ed only with carbon tetrachloride, and the other two received carbon

Marta Gas; Mireia Rubio; Gregorio Varela; Maria Cabre; Joan Caballerfa; Elena Alonso; Ramon Deulofem; Jordi Camps; America Gimenez; Marfa Pajares; Albert Pares; Jose M. Mato; Joan Rod

1996-01-01

244

Effects of S-adenosylmethionine on lipid peroxidation and liver fibrogenesis in carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of S-adenosylmethionine on liver peroxidation and liver fibrogenesis in carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis.Methods: Cirrhosis was induced in three groups of six rats by repeated injections of carbon tetrachloride over 9 weeks. One group of animals was treated with carbon tetrachloride, and the other two received carbon tetrachloride plus S-adenosyl-methionine (10

Marta Gassó; Mireia Rubio; Gregorio Varela; María Cabré; Joan Caballería; Elena Alonso; Ramón Deulofem; Jordi Camps; América Giménez; María Pajares; Albert Parés; José M. Mato; Joan Rodés

1996-01-01

245

Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound using perflubutane microbubbles for diagnosing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in rats.  

PubMed

We determined the ability of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using perflubutane microbubbles to diagnose liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in rats using histology as the reference standard. Fibrosis was induced by oral administration of carbon tetrachloride to 32 Wistar rats. Features with baseline ultrasound (US) and enhancement level of liver and spleen with CEUS were obtained. In the post-vascular phase of CEUS, images of normal livers (n = 5) were significantly brighter than images of fibrotic (n = 6) and cirrhotic livers (n = 13) by quantitative analysis (all p < 0.05). The contrast between livers and spleens in rats with cirrhosis was quantitatively greater than that in normal rats and rats with fibrosis (all p < 0.05). Compared with US, CEUS improved sensitivity from 63% to 84% and accuracy from 71% to 88%. Specificity was 100% for both. The increased value of CEUS in diagnosing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in rats supports its evaluation in clinical trials. PMID:23969165

Liu, Guang Jian; Ji, Qiao; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Xie, Xiao Yan; Wang, Wei; Wong, Lai Hung; Lin, Man Xia; Lu, Ming De

2013-08-19

246

Interleukin6 and its soluble receptor in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the immunohistochemical localization of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) on tu- mor tissue specimens from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the serum levels of IL-6 and sIL-6R in a group of patients with HCC as well as liver cirrhosis (LC) in a group of patients with LC alone and in a control group.

Maurizio Soresi; Lydia Giannitrapani; Fabio D'Antona; Ada Maria Florena; Emanuele La Spada; Angela Terranova; Melchiorre Cervello; Natale D'Alessandro; Giuseppe Montalto

247

Baculovirus-mediated interferon alleviates dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver cirrhosis symptoms in a murine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wild-type baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) infects a range of mammalian cell types in vitro but does not replicate in these cells. The current study investigated the in vivo effect of AcMNPV in the mouse model of liver cirrhosis induced by the mutagen dimethylnitrosamine. Intraperitoneal injection of AcMNPV induced an immune response. The baculovirus was taken

Y Nishibe; H Kaneko; H Suzuki; T Abe; Y Matsuura; H Takaku

2008-01-01

248

Mössbauer studies of hemoglobin of the patients with liver cancer and cirrhosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red blood cells (RBC) of the patients with primary liver cancer and with cirrhosis were investigated by using Mössbauer spectroscopy. Control measurements were carried out on RBC from normal adults. The Mössbauer spectra of normal RBC are composed of two doublets corresponding to deoxy-Hb and Oxy-Hb. Besides disappearance or a decrease of the doublets corresponding to deoxy-Hb, no additional peak was detected in the samples from the patients.

Ni, Xinlei; Hsia, Yuanfu; Liu, Rongchuan; Lu, Qingyou; Huang, Runsheng; Sun, Yunhan; Wang, Quanxing; Long, Jianxui

1992-04-01

249

Hepatitis B virus infection in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in Jakarta Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and 144 cases with liver cirrhosis (LC) and 82 cases with hepatocellular\\u000a carcinoma (HCC), admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusmo Hospital in Jakarta, was investigated\\u000a within the period from January 1 until December 31,1984. The prevalence of HBsAg in 144 cases with LC was 41.1%, anti-HBs\\u000a 33.3% and

H. Ali Sulaiman

1989-01-01

250

Liver Transplantation in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Risk Assessment and 11Year Follow-Up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Liver transplantation (LTx) is the only established treatment in patients with end-stage primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Although short-term survival after LTx in this group of patients is usually good, few data exist on the long-term survival. The optimal timing of transplantation is difficult. Thus, the aims of this study were to assess the long-term survival of patients with PBC

Christian Rust; Horst Rau; Alexander L. Gerbes; Gerd R. Pape; Mathias Haller; Hans-Jörg Krämling; Friedrich W. Schildberg; Gustav Paumgartner; Ulrich Beuers

2000-01-01

251

Branchedchain amino acids as a protein- and energy-source in liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common manifestation in cirrhotic patients with reported incidences as high as 65–90%. PEM affects largely the patients’ quality of life and survival. Thus, diagnosis of and intervention for PEM is important in the clinical management of liver cirrhosis. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) is indicated to improve protein malnutrition. As an intervention for energy

Hisataka Moriwaki; Yoshiyuki Miwa; Masahiro Tajika; Masahiko Kato; Hideki Fukushima; Makoto Shiraki

2004-01-01

252

Posttraumatic intra-gallbladder hemorrhage in a patient with liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   We report a case of intra-gallbladder hemorrhage secondary to blunt abdominal trauma in a patient with liver cirrhosis. A\\u000a 58-year-old man was admitted to a local hospital with persistent right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Anemia was detected,\\u000a and computed tomography (CT) revealed a high-density mass in the gallbladder lumen. He was transferred to our hospital because\\u000a a gallbladder tumor

Manabu Nishiwaki; Hiroshi Ashida; Toshio Nishimura; Masahide Kimura; Ryuichiro Yagyu; Akihiko Nishioka; Joji Utsunomiya; Takehira Yamamura

1999-01-01

253

Chronic active hepatitis and liver cirrhosis in association with combined tamoxifen/tegafur adjuvant therapy.  

PubMed

Two female breast cancer patients who received combined tamoxifen and tegafur as postsurgical adjuvant therapy developed severe hepatotoxicity after being treated for three and eight months, respectively. Shortly after the cessation of the treatment, routine liver tests showed gradual recovery, but liver biopsies revealed chronic active hepatitis in one patient and liver cirrhosis in the other. Four and five years, respectively, after the cessation of the treatment, the results of liver tests were normal and distinct histological improvement was observed in both patients. Because these patients had no viral and immunoserological markers nor any history of alcohol abuse, this study suggested that the tamoxifen and tegafur regimen induced reversible chronic active liver disease. PMID:8536519

Maruyama, S; Hirayama, C; Abe, J; Tanaka, J; Matsui, K

1995-12-01

254

Health-State Utilities in Liver Cirrhosis: A Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Liver cirrhosis can change many aspects of life of the patients and their family and effects society. We aimed to study the utility of cirrhosis from the point of view of the patients, their family, and their care takers to find appropriate interventions, and training and counselling programmes to support patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study with a goal-based sampling method, 66 individuals constructed of 30 decompensated patients with cirrhosis, 21 of the patients family members, and 15 care takers were included. The data were collected through face to face interview and completing of questionnaire consisted of demographic information (age, gender, marital status, and income), the duration of illness, and assessment of utility of cirrhosis using techniques of time trade, standard gamble, rating scale, and the willingness to pay. Results: 52% of participants were men and 48% women which consisted of 58 married, 4 single, and 4 divorced or widowed with the mean duration of having cirrhosis of 3.7 ± 1.4 years. The mean scores of utility of the three groups in all preference-based measures had significant differences (P < 0.05). Different techniques of patient utility in this research from the highest to the lowest were standard gamble (0.55), willingness to pay (0.54), rating scale (0.25), and rating scale (0.05), respectively. Conclusions: The results of the currents study suggested that the cirrhosis status has had the most negative effect on patients, and that patients had a lower utility rate than their family members and caretakers.

Adibi, Peyman; Akbari, Leila; Kahangi, Leila Sadat; Abdi, Fatemeh

2012-01-01

255

Progressive visceral leishmaniasis misdiagnosed as cirrhosis of the liver: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis is a potentially life-threatening infectious disease which is caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania and characterized in most cases by the presence of fever as well as signs and symptoms similar to those found in liver cirrhosis. Case presentation In this case report we describe the history of a 50-year-old Caucasian man incorrectly diagnosed as having hepatitis C virus-associated liver cirrhosis, with a massive weight loss of around 100 kg during the previous 2 years. However, suspecting a lymphoproliferative disorder, we were able to make a correct diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis by bone marrow examination. After a course of therapy with Liposomal Amphotericin-B the patient recovered and now, 20 months post-treatment, he is well and has regained a good part of the lost weight. Conclusions This case taught us that patients with massive splenomegaly, even with a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, should be investigated for infectious or lymphoproliferative diseases.

2009-01-01

256

Meta-analysis of the clinical value of danshen injection and huangqi injection in liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Objective. To evaluate the clinical value of Danshen injection and Huangqi injection for the treatment of liver cirrhosis. Methods. The Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese Scientific Journals Full-Text Database (VIP), Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), PubMed, and EMBASE database were searched to collect the literatures about the randomized controlled trials involving the treatment of liver cirrhosis with Danshen injection combined with Huangqi injection, and the data analyses were performed using RevMan 4.2 software. Results. A total of 11 studies involving 1086 patients (trials group: 554 cases, control group: 532 cases) were included in this study. Compared with those in control group, the meta-analysis showed-that the total effectiveness rate and the level of serum albumin increased, while serum total bilirubin, alanine transmninase, type III procollagen, hyaluronic acid, laminin, and type-IV collagen decreased in trials group. The Jadad score ranged from 1 to 2 and the funnel plot analysis suggests that publication bias may occur. Conclusions. Danshen injection combined with Huangqi injection may promote the curative efficacy of liver cirrhosis, which is a promising novel treatment approach. The exact outcome needs to perform rigorously designed, multicenter, and large randomized controlled trials. PMID:24069058

Zhu, Changtai; Cao, Hao; Zhou, Xifa; Dong, Chunlei; Luo, Judong; Zhang, Changsong; Liu, Jinming; Ling, Yang

2013-08-28

257

Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Value of Danshen Injection and Huangqi Injection in Liver Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the clinical value of Danshen injection and Huangqi injection for the treatment of liver cirrhosis. Methods. The Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese Scientific Journals Full-Text Database (VIP), Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), PubMed, and EMBASE database were searched to collect the literatures about the randomized controlled trials involving the treatment of liver cirrhosis with Danshen injection combined with Huangqi injection, and the data analyses were performed using RevMan 4.2 software. Results. A total of 11 studies involving 1086 patients (trials group: 554 cases, control group: 532 cases) were included in this study. Compared with those in control group, the meta-analysis showed-that the total effectiveness rate and the level of serum albumin increased, while serum total bilirubin, alanine transmninase, type III procollagen, hyaluronic acid, laminin, and type-IV collagen decreased in trials group. The Jadad score ranged from 1 to 2 and the funnel plot analysis suggests that publication bias may occur. Conclusions. Danshen injection combined with Huangqi injection may promote the curative efficacy of liver cirrhosis, which is a promising novel treatment approach. The exact outcome needs to perform rigorously designed, multicenter, and large randomized controlled trials.

Zhu, Changtai; Cao, Hao; Zhou, Xifa; Dong, Chunlei; Luo, Judong; Zhang, Changsong; Liu, Jinming; Ling, Yang

2013-01-01

258

Calcium receptors located in fibrotic septa: a new target to reduce portal pressure in liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

In rats with experimental liver cirrhosis, the kidney contains reduced amounts of membrane-bound CaRs (calcium-sensing receptors), and the specific stimulation of CaRs causes the generation of PGE2 (prostaglandin E2), renal vasodilation and increased natriuresis. CaR content and function in the liver of cirrhotic rats are unknown. To assess the activity of this Ca2+-dependent vasomotor system, we evaluated the effects of intravenous administration of PolyAg (poly-L-arginine), a selective CaR agonist, on hormonal status, portal haemodynamics, MAP (mean arterial pressure) in rats with liver cirrhosis induced by chronic CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride) administration. Two groups of eight control rats received intravenously 1 ml of 5% (w/v) glucose solution alone or containing 0.5 mg of PolyAg; two groups of ten cirrhotic rats were administered vehicle or PolyAg. Compared with controls, at baseline cirrhotic rats showed higher portal pressure (P<0.01), lower estimated functional liver plasma flow, measured as CICG (Indocyanine Green clearance) (P<0.03) and reduced hepatic protein content of CaRs (P<0.03), which were located mainly in sub-endothelial layers of portal venules and in myofibroblasts of fibrotic septa (immunohistochemistry and indirect immunofluorescence staining of liver sections). In cirrhotic animals, 0.5 mg of PolyAg decreased portal pressure (P<0.01) and increased CICG (P<0.05), without effects on arterial pressure and hormonal status. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that in experimental cirrhosis agonists of liver CaRs elicit beneficial portal hypotensive effects by reducing intrahepatic resistance to portal flow. Moreover, these drugs are devoid of effects on systemic haemodynamics. PMID:23384153

Sansoè, Giovanni; Aragno, Manuela; Mastrocola, Raffaella; Paternostro, Claudia; Parola, Maurizio

2013-07-01

259

[Copper-induced liver cirrhosis in a 13-month old boy].  

PubMed

A micronodular liver cirrhosis with a massive accumulation of copper in hepatocytes was found in a 13-months old boy. The causal factor was due to the increased copper concentration within the drinking water, which caused liver disease of the boy who had been completely weaned at the age of four weeks. The cooper concentration found in the drinking water exceeded 12 mg/l after a twelve hour stagnation time; after several days of stagnation the highest measured concentration was 28.6 mg/l. This increase is caused by the combined effect of copper pipes and acidulous well water. PMID:8527884

Bent, S; Böhm, K

1995-10-01

260

Dysplastic nodules in liver cirrhosis: detection with triple phase helical dynamic CT.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of triple phase helical dynamic CT for detecting dysplastic nodules in patients with liver cirrhosis. 76 dysplastic nodules were confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver specimens after surgical resection in 21 patients or after explantation of the whole liver in 20 patients. Triple phase helical dynamic CT including arterial, portal venous and delayed phases was performed as a pre-operative evaluation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Two readers retrospectively evaluated the images. The presence of dysplastic nodules was determined by one-to-one correlation of the CT images and the pathological results in terms of the anatomical location and size of each nodule. Helical dynamic triple phase CT depicted eight of 76 dysplastic nodules (10%): five of 35 high grade dysplastic nodules (14%) and three of 41 low grade dysplastic nodules (7%). Triple phase helical dynamic CT is insensitive for detection of dysplastic nodules in cirrhotic livers. PMID:15507413

Lim, J H; Kim, M J; Park, C K; Kang, S S; Lee, W J; Lim, H K

2004-11-01

261

Hepatoprotective Activity of the Total Saponins from Actinidia valvata Dunn Root against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Damage in Mice  

PubMed Central

The protective activity of the total saponins from Actinidia valvata Dunn root (TSAV) was studied against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute liver injury in mice. Mice were orally administered TSAV (50, 100, and 200?mg/kg) for five days and then given CCl4. TSAV pretreatment significantly prevented the CCl4-induced hepatic damage as indicated by the serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP). Parallel to these changes, TSAV also prevented CCl4-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA) and restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GR, and GPX), GSH and GSSG. In addition, TSAV attenuated the serum TNF-? and IL-6 levels and inhibited the serum iNOS and NO levels. Liver histopathology indicated that TSAV alleviated CCl4-induced inflammatory infiltration and focal necrosis. TSAV (200?mg/kg) also significantly decreased Bak, Bax mRNA and Fas, FasL, p53, and NF-?B p65 protein expressions and increased Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expressions. Meanwhile, TSAV significantly downregulated caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities and prevented CCl4-induced hepatic cell apoptosis. In addition, TSAV exhibited antioxidant activity through scavenging hydroxyl and DPPH free radicals in vitro. These results indicated that TSAV could protect mice against CCl4-induced acute liver damage possibly through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities and regulating apoptotic-related genes.

Qu, Liping; Xin, Hailiang; Zheng, Guoyin; Su, Yonghua; Ling, Changquan

2012-01-01

262

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression in experimentally induced liver cirrhosis in rats.  

PubMed

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a key player of Renin Angiotensin System (RAS), involved in conversion of active product, angiotensin-II. Alterations in RAS have been implicated in the pathophysiology of various diseases involving heart, kidney, lung and liver. This study is designed to investigate the association of ACE gene expression in induction of liver cirrhosis in rats. Total 12 male albino Wistar rats were selected and divided in two groups. Control group received 0.9% NaCl, where as Test group received thioacidamide (TAA), dissolved in 0.9%NaCl, injected intraperitoneally at a dosage of 200mg/Kg of body weight, twice a week for 12 weeks. The rats were decapitated and blood sample was collected at the end of experimental period and used for liver functions, enzyme activity, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation estimations. Genomic DNA was isolated from excised tissue determine the ACE genotypes using specific primers. The ACE gene expression in liver tissue was assessed using the quantitative RT-PCR method. The activity of ALT, total and direct bilirubin, SOD and CAT levels were significantly high (p<0.05) and level of MDA was significantly low (p<0.05) in TAA treated rats as compared to control rats. The ACE gene expression after 12 weeks TAA treatment in cirrhotic rats was significantly increased (p<0.05) in comparison to controls. This study describes the importance of RAS in the development of hepatic fibrosis and the benefits of modulation of this system ACE gene expression. The finding of major up-regulation of ACE in the experimental rat liver provides further insight into the complexities of the RAS and its regulation in liver injury. The development of specific modulators of ACE activity and function, in future, will help determine the role of ACE and its genetic variants in the pathophysiology of liver disease. Keywords: ACE gene, liver cirrhosis, thiacetamide, antioxidant, lipid peroxidation. PMID:24035938

Shahid, Syed Muhammad; Fatima, Syeda Nuzhat; Mahboob, Tabassum

2013-09-01

263

Prior splenic irradiation reduces hematologic adverse events during chemotherapy in pancreatic tail cancer: a report of a patient with liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombocytopenia is a major complication of liver cirrhosis that often limits the use of anticancer drugs. In this report,\\u000a we describe a thrombocytopenic patient with liver cirrhosis who developed pancreatic tail cancer and underwent splenic irradiation.\\u000a Particular emphasis was placed on the impact of irradiation on thrombocytopenia. A 73-year-old male with liver cirrhosis was\\u000a diagnosed with pancreatic tail cancer infiltrating

Kazuyoshi Ohkawa; Kazuhiro Katayama; Kenji Ikezawa; Tsukasa Kawaguchi; Chie Tamai; Kazuho Imanaka; Hiroyuki Uehara; Kunihito Gotoh; Hidenori Takahashi; Terumasa Yamada; Hiroaki Ohigashi; Kinji Nishiyama; Osamu Ishikawa

2010-01-01

264

[Pleural empyema caused by Cryptococcus neoformans in a patient with liver cirrhosis].  

PubMed

Gram negative infections, particularly by E. coli, are usually observed in cirrhotic patients while infections by Cryptococcus neoformans are commonly found in immunosuppressed patients. The case of a cirrhotic patient with hepatitis C virus infection who developed pleural infection by C. neoformans is presented. No disease other than cirrhosis was observed in the patient. The treatment with oral fluconazole was initiated with good clinical response and infection cure. The efficacy of fluconazole in infections by this microorganism has been reported in other cases, mainly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The fact that the patient may be a liver transplant candidate, given the hepatic cirrhosis, leads to speculation as to the need for chronic treatment with fluconazole to avoid reactivation of C. neoformans on initiation of pharmacologic immunosuppression. PMID:8754417

Sort, P; Morales, M; Gómez, J; Parés, A; Rodés, J

265

In vitro Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effect of the Whole Plant of Glossocardia bosvallea (L. f.) D. C. against CCl4Induced Oxidative Stress in Liver Slice Culture Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glossocardia boswallea (Pittapapda or Parpat) is used in the Indian system of traditional medicine. The present study investigated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of hexane (GH), ethanol (GE), and water extract (GW) of the whole plant. Results showed that GH and GE inhibited 1,1-diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) radicals in a dose-dependent manner. The

Anagha A. Rajopadhye; Anuradha S. Upadhye

2012-01-01

266

The liver in siblings of patients with Indian childhood cirrhosis: a light and electron microscopic study.  

PubMed Central

Liver biopsies from 29 siblings of patients with Indian childhood cirrhosis (ICC) and from two age-matched controls were examined by routine light and transmission electron microscopy. Histochemical stainings for copper and copper-binding protein were also carried out. The mild and non-specific structural alterations that were observed did not differ from those seen in control livers, even though a slight to moderate excess of copper and copper-binding protein was demonstrated in the majority. Aggregates of microtubules seen in some siblings, as well as in control livers, may indicate the preconditions for development of Mallory hyaline. It is possible that these features suggest a susceptibility for the development of ICC but not early disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Nayak, N C; Marwaha, N; Kalra, V; Roy, S; Ghai, O P

1981-01-01

267

Hepatic silicosis, cirrhosis, and liver tumors in mice and hamsters: Studies of transforming growth factor beta expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatic silicosis, cirrhosis, liver cell adenoma, and carcinomas developed in nude mice (NCr-Nu) given quartz by the subcutaneous and intraperitoneal routes. Syrian golden hamsters (15:16 EHS:cr) given quartz by both routes developed extensive fibrosis and cirrhosis and had higher morbidity and mortality rates after 3 months. Crystalline silica (quartz) induces fibrosis, adenomas, and carcinomas in the lungs of Fisher 344

AO Williams; AD Knapton

1996-01-01

268

Development of cell therapy using autologous bone marrow cells for liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

The plasticity of bone marrow has been confirmed by the autopsy of a female recipient of bone marrow cell transplantation from a male donor. To establish new clinical cell therapies using autologous bone marrow cells for patients with liver failure, we developed a new in vivo model named the green fluorescent protein (GFP)/carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) model. Using the GFP/CCl4 model, we found that transplanted Liv8-negative cells efficiently repopulated into cirrhotic liver tissue and differentiated into albumin-producing hepatocytes under persistent liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. Moreover, bone marrow cell transplantation into mice with liver cirrhosis improved liver function and liver fibrosis with the strong expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-9 activity, resulting in an improved survival rate. Results from the GFP/CCl4 model showed that cell therapy using autologous bone marrow cells has the potential to become an effective treatment for patients with liver failure. A summary of findings from the GFP/CCl4 model is described. PMID:16378227

Sakaida, Isao; Terai, Shuji; Nishina, Hiroshi; Okita, Kiwamu

2005-12-01

269

Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Associated with Chronic Liver Disease without Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Background. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the leading causes of death for compensated chronic liver disease. Aim. The evaluation of technical success as primary ablation rate, local tumor progression, safety, and long­-term patients outcome of radiofrequency ablation in single (less than 3.5 cm in diameter) or multiple nodules (up to 3, sized less than 3 cm) of hepatocellular carcinoma associated to chronic liver disease without cirrhosis. Materials and Methods. 25 consecutive patients, mainly chronic hepatitis C, with surgical unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma due to comorbidity or tumor location recruited from a local sonographic screening, were treated. Results. Primary ablation was obtained in 96% of patients (24 out of 25) and in 93 % of nodules (27 out of 29). 1, 3, and 5-year local tumor progression rates after treatment were 4, 14, and 14%. Survival rates at 1,3, and 5-year were 92, 72, and 64%. No treatment-related deaths and severe complications were recorded. Conclusions. Radiofrequency ablation is effective with 96% of primary ablation with few tumoral recurrence and limited morbidity in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma associated with chronic liver disease without cirrhosis, it could represent a valid alternative treatment whenever surgical therapy is not safe.

Salmi, Andrea; Turrini, Renato; Lanzani, Giovanna; Savio, Antonella; Anglani, Livio

2008-01-01

270

Survey of non-B, non-C liver cirrhosis in Japan.  

PubMed

AIM: The aim of this survey was to reveal clinical features for each etiology of non-B, non-C liver cirrhosis (NBNC LC) in Japan. METHODS: In a nationwide survey of NBNC LC in Japan at the 15th General Meeting of the Japan Society of Hepatology, 6999 NBNC LC patients were registered at 48 medical institutions. Epidemiological and clinical factors were investigated. RESULTS: The percentage of NBNC LC among LC patients was 26%. NBNC LC patients were categorized into 11 types according to etiological agents: non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), 14.5%; alcoholic liver disease (ALD), 55.1%; fatty liver disease (FLD), except NASH, ALD, and other known etiology, 2.5%; primary biliary cirrhosis, 8.0%; other biliary cirrhosis, 0.8%; autoimmune hepatitis, 6.8%; metabolic disease, 0.6%; congestive disease, 0.8%; parasitic disease, 0.2%; other known etiology, 0.2%; and unknown etiology, 10.5%. Compared with previous surveys, the percentage of ALD remained unchanged, whereas that of NASH increased. The mean age and percentage of females were significantly higher in NASH patients than in ALD and FLD patients. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus was significantly higher in NASH and FLD patients than in ALD ones. Prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in NBNC LC patients was 35.9%. Among NASH, ALD and FLD patients, 50.9%, 34.3% and 54.5% had HCC, respectively. Positivity of hepatitis B core antibody was significantly higher in HCC patients than in those without HCC (41.1% vs 24.8%). CONCLUSION: This survey determined the etiology of NBNC LC in Japan. These results should contribute new ideas toward understanding NBNC LC and NBNC HCC. PMID:23347437

Suzuki, Yasuaki; Ohtake, Takaaki; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Onji, Morikazu; Kohgo, Yutaka

2012-12-26

271

An unusual cause of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Campylobacter fetus with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old man with severe alcoholic liver cirrhosis with a 2-day history of fatigue and abdominal pain was admitted. He reported eating sushi and sliced raw chicken a few days previously. His abdomen was distended, with shifting dullness. Based on the patient's history, physical examination and the results of abdominocentesis, he was diagnosed as having spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; blood and ascitic fluid cultures were positive for Campylobacter fetus. The patient was started on treatment with cefotaxime, which was switched after 1 week to ampicillin for an additional 3 weeks. The patient was successfully treated with the 4-week course of intravenous antibiotic therapy. PMID:23417384

Hadano, Yoshiro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

2013-02-14

272

The role of hepatic myofibroblasts in liver cirrhosis in fallow deer (Dama dama) naturally infected with giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna)  

PubMed Central

Background This paper describes liver cirrhosis in 35 fallow deer infected with the giant liver fluke, as well as the distribution, origin, and role of myofibroblasts in its development. Results In liver of infected deer, stripes of connective tissue are wound around groups of degenerated and regenerated liver lobuli. In the connective tissue, lymphocytes and macrophages which often contain parasite hematin are also present. The walls of the bile ducts are thickened, the epithelium multiplied with mucous metaplasia, and desquamated cells, parasite eggs and brown pigment are present in their lumen. In the livers with cirrhosis, immunopositivity to ?-SMA and desmin was observed in cells in portal and septal spaces, at the edge between fibrotic septa and the surrounding parenchyma and in perisinusoidal spaces. These cells vary in size, they are round, oval, spindle-shaped or irregular in shape, similar to vascular smooth muscle cells. The derangement of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions detected in chronic cholangiopathies is most probably the pro-fibrogenic mechanism in liver cirrhosis of fallow deer (Dama dama) infected with the giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna). Conclusion Myofibroblasts, especially hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), play an important role in the synthesis of extracellular matrix components in the development of parasitic fibrosis and cirrhosis in the liver of fallow deer.

2013-01-01

273

Occult Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Candidates for Liver Transplant With Cryptogenic Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Background Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new entity described by the presence of HCV-RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) specimens, and undetectable levels or absence of HCV-RNA and in the absence or presence of anti HCV antibodies in plasma by current laboratory methods. Objectives To evaluate the detection of HCV-RNA in PBMC specimens of the liver transplant candidates with cryptogenic cirrhosis by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR). Patients and Methods From November 2007 to March 2013, 45 patients from Liver Transplant Center of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, were enrolled in this cross sectional study. PBMC specimens were separated from the peripheral blood sample. After extraction of RNA from plasma and PBMC specimens, HCV-RNA status was tested by RT-nested PCR. The 5?-untranslated region (5?-UTR) genotyping of HCV-RNA amplified from PBMC specimens was performed by a standard methodology with the INNO-LiPATM HCV II kit. The PCR products of 5?-UTR were sequenced after cloning into the pJET1.2 / blunt cloning vector. Results Of 45 patients, 4 (8.9% [95% CI: 4.4-15.6]) had detectable genomic HCV-RNA in their PBMC specimens. HCV genotypes were determined in the PBMCs of these subjects showed that 2 (50.0%) subjects with occult HCV infection had HCV subtype 3a, and 2 (50.0%) had HCV subtype 1b. Conclusions This study found that 8.9 % of the Iranian candidates for liver transplant with cryptogenic cirrhosis had occult HCV infection. Therefore, designing prospective studies focusing on the diagnosis of occult HCV infection in these subjects prior to liver transplantation could be valuable.

Keyvani, Hossein; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza; Esghaei, Maryam; Nassiri Toosi, Mohssen; Fakhim, Shahin; Sadigh, Zohreh Azita; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

2013-01-01

274

A Simple Noninvasive Score Based on Routine Parameters can Predict Liver Cirrhosis in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C  

PubMed Central

Background Liver biopsy has remained the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C; even though, it has a low but non-negligible rate of both false negative and complications. Several authors have proposed noninvasive tools to diagnose cirrhosis. But none of them showed complete concordance with liver biopsy. Objectives To devise a score based on noninvasive routine parameters that discriminate between patients with a high risk, and those with a low risk of cirrhosis among patients with chronic hepatitis C without performing liver biopsy, and to compare this score with other ones using routine parameters devoted to this aim. Patients and Methods We reviewed the charts of patients with chronic hepatitis C who performed a liver biopsy between 2000 and 2004. Multivariate analysis was used to identify independent predictors of cirrhosis. An independent group of patients with chronic hepatitis C admitted for a liver biopsy between 2007 and 2012 constituted the validation set. Results We enrolled 249 patients who had complete laboratoristic data, and sufficient liver tissue for fibrosis staging. Age, AST, prothrombin activity, and platelets were identified as independent predictors of histological cirrhosis. We categorized these variables, and devised a novel score called CISCUN (Cirrhosis Score University of Naples), giving one point to each of the following predictors: age > 40 years; AST > 2 upper normal values; platelet count < 160.000/mmc; prothrombin activity < 100%. Cirrhosis rate was 2.9% for the 103 patients with a CISCUN = 0 or 1, 23.4% for the 124 patients with a CISCUN of 2 or 3, and 86.4% for the 22 patients with a CISCUN = 4. These results were confirmed in the independent validation group of 285 patients with similar characteristics. Conclusions Patients with chronic hepatitis C and with a CISCUN ? 1 had a very low rate of cirrhosis while those with a CISCUN = 4 had a high risk of cirrhosis. Patients with CISCUN = 2 or 3 had an intermediate rate of cirrhosis, and therefore needed to perform a liver biopsy to receive a reliable diagnosis.

Gentile, Ivan; Coppola, Nicola; Pasquale, Giuseppe; Liuzzi, Raffaele; D'Armiento, Maria; Di Lorenzo, Maria Emma; Capoluongo, Nicolina; Buonomo, Antonio Riccardo; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Morisco, Filomena; Caporaso, Nicola; Borgia, Guglielmo

2013-01-01

275

Effects of silymarin in alcoholic patients with cirrhosis of the liver: results of a controlled, double-blind, randomized and multicenter trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Silymarin has protective effects in different experimental conditions, but its efficacy in human liver cirrhosis has not been completely established. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the effect of silymarin in alcoholics with liver cirrhosis with respect to survival and clinical and laboratory changes.Methods: From February 1986 to June 1989, we enrolled 200 alcoholics with histologically or

Albert Parés; Ramón Planas; Miguel Torres; Joan Caballería; Josep M. Viver; Doroteo Acero; Juliá Panés; Joaquim Rigau; Justiniano Santos; Joan Rodés

1998-01-01

276

Massive T wave changes following a combined kidney and liver transplant in a young female with cirrhosis.  

PubMed

We report the case of a young female with PSC-associated cirrhosis and chronic renal failure who developed clinical and electrocardiographic signs consistent with acute myocardial infarction after a combined kidney and liver transplant. Cardiac investigations at that time were negative and she is currently asymptomatic one year post-transplant with resolution of most of her ECG abnormalities. Although the cause of her symptoms and ECG abnormalities is not immediately apparent, this case illustrates the difficulties in interpreting abnormal cardiac investigations in transplanted patients with liver cirrhosis who may have a background of subclinical cardiac disease. PMID:10430372

Therapondos, G; Plevris, J N; Currie, P F; Hayes, P C

277

Intestinal first pass metabolism of midazolam in liver cirrhosis - effect of grapefruit juice  

PubMed Central

Aims Grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4 in the intestinal wall leading to a reduced intestinal first pass metabolism and thereby an increased oral bioavailability of certain drugs. For example, it has been shown that the oral bioavailability of midazolam, a CYP3A4 substrate, increased by 52% in healthy subjects after ingestion of grapefruit juice. However, this interaction has not been studied in patients with impaired liver function. Accordingly, the effect of grapefruit juice on the AUC of midazolam and the metabolite ?-hydroxymidazolam was studied in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Methods An open randomized two-way crossover study was performed. Ten patients (3 females, 7 males) with liver cirrhosis based on biopsy or clinical criteria participated. Six patients had a Child-Pugh score of A, one B and three C. Tap water (200 ml) or grapefruit juice were consumed 60 and 15 min before midazolam (15 mg) was administered orally. Plasma samples were analysed for midazolam and ?-hydroxymidazolam. Results Grapefruit juice increased the AUC of midazolam by 106% (16, 197%) (mean (95% confidence interval)) and the AUC of the metabolite ?-hydroxymidazolam decreased to 25% (12, 37%) (P < 0.05 for both). The ratio of the AUCs of the metabolite ?-hydroxymidazolam to midazolam decreased from 0.77 (0.46, 1.07) to 0.11 (0.05, 0.19) (P<0.05). t1/2 remained unaltered for both drug and metabolite. Midazolam Cmax, tmax, and ?-hydroxymidazolam tmax increased, but these changes were not statistically significant, whereas Cmax of the metabolite decreased to 30% (14, 47%) (P<0.05). Conclusions A marked interaction between oral midazolam and grapefruit juice was found and the data are consistent with a reduced first-pass metabolism of midazolam. This is likely to occur at the intestinal wall inhibition of CYP3A4 activity by grapefruit juice. These results indicate that patients with liver cirrhosis are more dependent on the intestine for metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates than subjects with normal liver function.

Andersen, Vibeke; Pedersen, Natalie; Larsen, Niels-Erik; Sonne, Jesper; Larsen, Steen

2002-01-01

278

Effect of heme oxygenase-1 on renal function in rats with liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in pathogenesis of experimental hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). METHODS: Rats were divided into liver cirrhotic group, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) treatment group, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) treatment group and sham group. Biliary cirrhosis was established by bile duct ligation in the first three groups. Rats in the ZnPP and CoPP treatment groups received intraperitoneal injection of ZnPP and CoPP, respectively, 24 h before sample collection. Expression of HO-1 mRNA in kidney was detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, while protein expression was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to observe liver cirrhosis and renal structure. Renal artery blood flow, mean arterial pressure and portal vein pressure, 24 h total urinary volume, serum and urine sodium concentrations, and creatinine clearance rate (Ccr) were also measured. RESULTS: The HO-1 mRNA and protein expression levels in kidney, 24 h total urinary volume, renal artery blood flow, serum and urine sodium concentration and Ccr were lower in cirrhotic group than in sham group (P < 0.05). However, they were significantly lower in ZnPP treatment group than in cirrhotic group and significantly higher in CoPP treatment group than in cirrhotic group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Low HO-1 expression level in kidney is an important factor for experimental HRS.

Guo, Shi-Bin; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Li, Qing; Sun, Xiao-Yu

2011-01-01

279

Feature selection and syndrome prediction for liver cirrhosis in traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment is one of the safe and effective methods for liver cirrhosis. In the process of its treatment, a very important step, syndrome prediction is generally performed by physicians at present, which actually hinders the application prospects of TCM. Based on the data mining algorithm, a novel method called TCMSP (traditional Chinese medicine syndrome prediction) is proposed, which consists of two phases. In the first phase, based on an improved information gain method in multi-view, the critical features are filtered from the original features. In the second phase, the class label of a new case is predicted automatically based on accuracy-weighted majority voting. The proposed method is evaluated by the liver cirrhosis dataset, 20 critical features are selected from original 105 features and the corresponding syndromes of 138 new cases are identified respectively. The critical features are in sound agreement with those used by the physicians in making their clinical decisions. Finally, this new method is also demonstrated on three standard datasets (SPECT Heart, Lung Cancer and Iris) and the results are compared with some other methods. The experimental results show that TCMSP method performs well in the field of TCM diagnosis. PMID:19380172

Wang, Yan; Ma, Lizhuang; Liu, Ping

2009-04-19

280

[A case of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida septicemia due to cat bites in liver cirrhosis patient].  

PubMed

A 60-year-old male who had been suffering from liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital with high grade fever accompanied by right chest pain. Chest X-rays revealed a moderate amount of pleural fluid suggesting pleuritis. Multocida was isolated from the blood culture as well as the pleural fluid. Antibiotic therapy was initiated according to the drug susceptibility of the isolates. Ten days treatment was effective on the cessation of both septicemia and the clinical symptoms. Since the patient had been bitten several times by his own pet cats, their mouth swabs were taken for pathogenic investigations. Serotypes of the cats' isolates coincided with that of the patient's which consequently indicated the route of infection. P. multocida is a Gram negative coccobacillary organism that resides as normal flora in the oral cavity of animals, including dogs and cats. It has been originally known to be a causative agent for hemorrhagic septicemia in domestic animals. However, recently reports of P. multocida infections in man has been increasing due to the enlargement of pet populations. Although outbreaks of septicemia is rare, it occurs most often in immunologically compromised hosts, including patients with liver cirrhosis as in this case. Therefore, it is important to initiate an urgent antibiotic therapy in such cases. Overall, it is of utmost importance to instruct immunosuppressed patients to avoid excessive exposure to animals including pets. PMID:8708412

Shimizu, T; Hasegawa, K; Mitsuhashi, Y; Kojima, S; Ishikawa, K; Hayashi, N; Sawada, T

1995-11-01

281

The effectiveness of the treatment of octreotide on chylous ascites after liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Octreotide is a crucial drug used for treating patients with chylous ascites; however, there have been few reports related to octreotide that are being used in cirrhotic patients. Thus, this thesis is designed to determine the effects of octreotide on patients with chylous ascites after liver cirrhosis. Eight patients were diagnosed with chylous ascites, on the basis of laboratory findings on ascites samples, between January 2003 and May 2008. Octreotide was given to the six patients, while the remaining two were treated as a control. All patients had persistent peritoneal drainage with the quantity and quality of the drainage fluid observed once every other day. All the necessary care was individually given to the patients during the therapy. All patients properly received combined therapy including a low-fat and low-sodium diet, and diuretic and peritoneal drainage. The volume of the peritoneal drainage was reduced to zero in one of the six patients who received octreotide therapy, while the other five had the drainage volumes decreased from 2,000 to 50 ml with a clear appearance and negative qualitative analysis of chyle. For those two patients who did not receive octreotide therapy, the conditions of peritoneal drainage seldom changed both from the qualitative and quantitative aspects. In conclusion, Octreotide, along with combined therapy, can rapidly relieve portal hypertension and reduce triglyceride levels in ascites. It appears to be an effective therapy available for the treatment of chylous ascites caused by liver cirrhosis. PMID:19051030

Zhou, Dong Xun; Zhou, Hua Bang; Wang, Qing; Zou, Shan Shan; Wang, Hao; Hu, He Ping

2008-12-03

282

Renal effects of the novel selective adenosine A1 receptor blocker SLV329 in experimental liver cirrhosis in rats.  

PubMed

Liver cirrhosis is often complicated by an impaired renal excretion of water and sodium. Diuretics tend to further deteriorate renal function. It is unknown whether chronic selective adenosine A(1) receptor blockade, via inhibition of the hepatorenal reflex and the tubuloglomerular feedback, might exert diuretic and natriuretic effects without a reduction of the glomerular filtration rate. In healthy animals intravenous treatment with the novel A(1) receptor antagonist SLV329 resulted in a strong dose-dependent diuretic (up to 3.4-fold) and natriuretic (up to 13.5-fold) effect without affecting creatinine clearance. Male Wistar rats with thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis received SLV329, vehicle or furosemide for 12 weeks. The creatinine clearance of cirrhotic animals decreased significantly (-36.5%, p<0.05), especially in those receiving furosemide (-41.9%, p<0.01). SLV329 was able to prevent this decline of creatinine clearance. Mortality was significantly lower in cirrhotic animals treated with SLV329 in comparison to animals treated with furosemide (17% vs. 54%, p<0.05). SLV329 did not relevantly influence the degree of liver fibrosis, kidney histology or expression of hepatic or renal adenosine receptors. In conclusion, chronic treatment with SLV329 prevented the decrease of creatinine clearance in a rat model of liver cirrhosis. Further studies will have to establish whether adenosine A(1) receptor antagonists are clinically beneficial at different stages of liver cirrhosis. PMID:21423778

Hocher, Berthold; Heiden, Susi; von Websky, Karoline; Arafat, Ayman M; Rahnenführer, Jan; Alter, Markus; Kalk, Philipp; Ziegler, Dieter; Fischer, Yvan; Pfab, Thiemo

2011-03-10

283

Primary liver carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75, with special reference to hepatitis B surface antigen  

SciTech Connect

During 1961-75, 128 cases of primary liver carcinoma (PLC) in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation life-span study extended sample and 301 cases of liver cirrhosis in the pathology study sample were observed. The presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was assessed in all of the cases with the use of orcein and aldehyde fuchsin stains and was confirmed by the immunofluorescence technique. The incidence of PLC was two times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima, which was statistically significant, but little difference was noted in the prevalence of cirrhosis in the two cities. Findings that might possibly explain the higher PLC incidence in Nagasaki were 1) the 2.3 times higher presence in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima of HBsAg in the livers of subjects without liver disease and 2) the two times higher prevalence in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima of cirrhosis with PLC. We believe that the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki is attributable to hepatitis B virus infection, although other factors (e.g., immunologic competence affected by radiation) cannot be excluded. In both cities, a suggestive relationship of radiation dose to cirrhosis prevalence, but not to PCL prevalence, was noted. To clarify possible radiation effects on cirrhosis prevalence, further follow-up of the populations of these two cities is necessary.

Asano, M.; Kato, H.; Yoshimoto, K.; Seyama, S.; Itakura, H.; Hamada, T.; Iijima, S.

1982-12-01

284

Assessing liver dysfunction in cirrhosis: role of the model for end-stage liver disease and its derived systems.  

PubMed

The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) has replaced the role of the Child-Turcotte-Pugh system as a more commonly used system in evaluating the severity of liver dysfunction in patients with chronic liver disease, owing to its superior ability to predict survival. The United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) in the USA has used the MELD system for prioritizing donor grafts in advanced cirrhotic patients awaiting liver transplantation since 2002. Serum sodium level is another important prognostic predictor in cirrhosis. Consequently, by incorporating serum sodium into the original MELD, the MELD-Na, MELDNa, the MELD-to-sodium ratio (MESO) index, and the ReFit MELDNa were proposed in an attempt to improve the predictive ability of the original MELD. Nevertheless, there are some limitations of the MELD-based systems that need to be refined. The MELD-based systems merely use laboratory data as parameters for the equation, therefore, any lack in unification and standardization of laboratory methods will result in inconsistent data that affect the prioritization of liver transplantation. Furthermore, the MELD system includes creatinine as a parameter, and serum creatinine level may represent different degrees of renal dysfunction in men and women. Therefore, these limitations may compromise the fair process of organ allocation for female cirrhotic patients. Currently, the application of the MELD system has been extended to tumor staging of hepatocellular carcinoma. Several studies have replaced the Child-Turcotte-Pugh system with the MELD as a parameter, indicating that the use of different criteria of liver dysfunction in cancer staging may enhance prognostic accuracy. Although the outcome data of the modified staging systems need to be confirmed, the concept of using the MELD as a reference system for evaluating the severity of liver dysfunction has globally become an important issue. PMID:23746532

Lee, Yun-Hsuan; Hsu, Chia-Yang; Huo, Teh-Ia

2013-06-05

285

Gene expression profiling of HCV genotype 3a initial liver fibrosis and cirrhosis patients using microarray  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes liver fibrosis that may lead to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and may partially depend on infecting viral genotype. HCV genotype 3a is being more common in Asian population, especially Pakistan; the detail mechanism of infection still needs to be explored. In this study, we investigated and compared the gene expression profile between initial fibrosis stage and cirrhotic 3a genotype patients. Methods Gene expression profiling of human liver tissues was performed containing more than 22000 known genes. Using Oparray protocol, preparation and hybridization of slides was carried out and followed by scanning with GeneTAC integrator 4.0 software. Normalization of the data was obtained using MIDAS software and Significant Microarray Analysis (SAM) was performed to obtain differentially expressed candidate genes. Results Out of 22000 genes studied, 219 differentially regulated genes found with P ? 0.05 between both groups; 107 among those were up-regulated and 112 were down-regulated. These genes were classified into 31 categories according to their biological functions. The main categories included: apoptosis, immune response, cell signaling, kinase activity, lipid metabolism, protein metabolism, protein modulation, metabolism, vision, cell structure, cytoskeleton, nervous system, protein metabolism, protein modulation, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and transport activity. Conclusion This is the first study on gene expression profiling in patients associated with genotype 3a using microarray analysis. These findings represent a broad portrait of genomic changes in early HCV associated fibrosis and cirrhosis. We hope that identified genes in this study will help in future to act as prognostic and diagnostic markers to differentiate fibrotic patients from cirrhotic ones.

2012-01-01

286

Relationship of ?-fetoprotein levels and development of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C patients with liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

?-fetoprotein (AFP) is a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and has also been reported to reflect the effectiveness of long-term low-dose interferon (IFN) therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with chronic liver disease. The correlation between AFP levels and the incidence of HCC has been discussed over a long period. We investigated whether high levels of AFP at the time of diagnosis were associated with an increased incidence of HCC in patients with HCV. A total of 107 HCV patients with liver cirrhosis without other risks were evaluated for the predictive value of non-invasive risk factors for HCC, including age, gender, alcohol intake, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels, bilirubin, albumin, platelet count and AFP levels at study entry, as well as the IFN therapy received. During the follow-up period, HCC developed in 68 (63.6%) patients. Kaplan-Meier estimates were made to assess the cumulative risk of HCC. The 10-year cumulative incidence rate of HCC was 80%. Cox regression analysis was performed on several variables, including age, gender, alcohol consumption, experience of IFN therapy and biochemical parameters. The following factors were identified as exhibiting an increased risk of HCC by univariate analysis: aspartate transaminase (AST) ?71 IU/l, alanine transaminase (ALT) ?60 IU/l, AFP ?6 ng/ml and IFN therapy. Multivariate analysis identified that the AFP level [6–19 ng/ml: hazard ratio (HR), 2.22; P=0.006 and ?20 ng/ml: HR, 2.09; P=0.003] was an independent and significant risk factor for the development of HCC. A slightly elevated (6–19 ng/ml) AFP level may be a risk factor for HCC in certain cases. By contrast, AFP levels <6 ng/ml indicate a low risk of HCC development in HCV patients with liver cirrhosis.

TAURA, NAOTA; FUKUDA, SACHIKO; ICHIKAWA, TATSUKI; MIYAAKI, HISAMITSU; SHIBATA, HIDETAKA; HONDA, TAKUYA; YAMAGUCHI, TOHEI; KUBOTA, YOKO; UCHIDA, SHINJIRO; KAMO, YASUHIRO; YOSHIMURA, EMI; ISOMOTO, HAJIME; MATSUMOTO, TAKEHIRO; TAKESHIMA, FUMINAO; TSUTSUMI, TAKUYA; TSURUTA, SHOTARO; NAKAO, KAZUHIKO

2012-01-01

287

How to minimize blood loss during liver surgery in patients with cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Patients with liver disease frequently have substantial changes in their haemostatic system. This is reflected in abnormal test results on routine coagulation screening assays such as the prothrombin time (PT), activated thromboplastin time (APTT) and platelet count. Traditionally, attempts were made to correct abnormalities in the haemostatic system as measured by routine coagulation assays prior to invasive procedures by infusion of platelets or fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Recent laboratory and clinical data have indicated that the haemostatic reserve in cirrhotic patients is relatively well maintained although the coagulation screening assays suggest otherwise. Pre-procedural correction of coagulation tests with blood products may therefore not be necessary, and may even have harmful side-effects. In particular, fluid overload resulting in exacerbation of portal hypertension by infusion of blood products may in fact promote bleeding. In recent years, it has become clear that reduction of the central and portal venous pressure by fluid restriction and avoidance of blood product transfusion is a beneficial strategy in minimizing bleeding during liver surgery in cirrhotic patients. Some investigators have even taken this a step further and suggested pre-procedural phlebotomy in liver transplant recipients. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies and developments which have changed our understanding of the clinical relevance of abnormal coagulation tests in patients with cirrhosis, and which have contributed to a reduction in blood loss and transfusion requirements when liver surgery is needed in these patients.

Westerkamp, Andrie C; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J

2009-01-01

288

Regression of Fibrosis and Reversal of Cirrhosis in Rats by Galectin Inhibitors in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Galectin-3 protein is critical to the development of liver fibrosis because galectin-3 null mice have attenuated fibrosis after liver injury. Therefore, we examined the ability of novel complex carbohydrate galectin inhibitors to treat toxin-induced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Fibrosis was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injections with thioacetamide (TAA) and groups were treated with vehicle, GR-MD-02 (galactoarabino-rhamnogalaturonan) or GM-CT-01 (galactomannan). In initial experiments, 4 weeks of treatment with GR-MD-02 following completion of 8 weeks of TAA significantly reduced collagen content by almost 50% based on Sirius red staining. Rats were then exposed to more intense and longer TAA treatment, which included either GR-MD-02 or GM-CT-01 during weeks 8 through 11. TAA rats treated with vehicle developed extensive fibrosis and pathological stage 6 Ishak fibrosis, or cirrhosis. Treatment with either GR-MD-02 (90 mg/kg ip) or GM-CT-01 (180 mg/kg ip) given once weekly during weeks 8–11 led to marked reduction in fibrosis with reduction in portal and septal galectin-3 positive macrophages and reduction in portal pressure. Vehicle-treated animals had cirrhosis whereas in the treated animals the fibrosis stage was significantly reduced, with evidence of resolved or resolving cirrhosis and reduced portal inflammation and ballooning. In this model of toxin-induced liver fibrosis, treatment with two galectin protein inhibitors with different chemical compositions significantly reduced fibrosis, reversed cirrhosis, reduced galectin-3 expressing portal and septal macrophages, and reduced portal pressure. These findings suggest a potential role of these drugs in human liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

Traber, Peter G.; Chou, Hsin; Zomer, Eliezer; Hong, Feng; Klyosov, Anatole; Fiel, Maria-Isabel; Friedman, Scott L.

2013-01-01

289

Regression of fibrosis and reversal of cirrhosis in rats by galectin inhibitors in thioacetamide-induced liver disease.  

PubMed

Galectin-3 protein is critical to the development of liver fibrosis because galectin-3 null mice have attenuated fibrosis after liver injury. Therefore, we examined the ability of novel complex carbohydrate galectin inhibitors to treat toxin-induced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Fibrosis was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injections with thioacetamide (TAA) and groups were treated with vehicle, GR-MD-02 (galactoarabino-rhamnogalaturonan) or GM-CT-01 (galactomannan). In initial experiments, 4 weeks of treatment with GR-MD-02 following completion of 8 weeks of TAA significantly reduced collagen content by almost 50% based on Sirius red staining. Rats were then exposed to more intense and longer TAA treatment, which included either GR-MD-02 or GM-CT-01 during weeks 8 through 11. TAA rats treated with vehicle developed extensive fibrosis and pathological stage 6 Ishak fibrosis, or cirrhosis. Treatment with either GR-MD-02 (90 mg/kg ip) or GM-CT-01 (180 mg/kg ip) given once weekly during weeks 8-11 led to marked reduction in fibrosis with reduction in portal and septal galectin-3 positive macrophages and reduction in portal pressure. Vehicle-treated animals had cirrhosis whereas in the treated animals the fibrosis stage was significantly reduced, with evidence of resolved or resolving cirrhosis and reduced portal inflammation and ballooning. In this model of toxin-induced liver fibrosis, treatment with two galectin protein inhibitors with different chemical compositions significantly reduced fibrosis, reversed cirrhosis, reduced galectin-3 expressing portal and septal macrophages, and reduced portal pressure. These findings suggest a potential role of these drugs in human liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. PMID:24130706

Traber, Peter G; Chou, Hsin; Zomer, Eliezer; Hong, Feng; Klyosov, Anatole; Fiel, Maria-Isabel; Friedman, Scott L

2013-10-09

290

[Autologous bone marrow cell infusion therapy for liver cirrhosis--now and future].  

PubMed

Infused (transplanted) green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive bone marrow cells (BMCs) migrated into the peri-portal regions of the cirrhotic mouse liver induced continuous CCl4 injection without irradiation (without bone marrow ablation). The infused GFP-positive BMCs differentiated into hepatoblasts detected with Liv2-antibody and then differentiated into albumin-producing hepatocytes. The differentiation "niche" induced by persistent liver damage due to continuous CCl4 injection seems to be an essential factor. Microarry analysis showed that at an early stage after BMC infusion through mouse tail vein, the genes related to degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) e.g. MMP-9 were activated. BMC infusion improved liver fibrosis and the survival rate. Recent our finding indicates that mesencymal bone marrow cells will differentiate to hepatocytes and FGF2 will accelerate this differentiation of BMC to hepatocyte. Based on the results obtained in basic research using the GFP/CCl4 model, human trials are now undergoing. We have done this autologous bone marrow cell infusion therapy for 19 patients with advanced liver cirrhosis. The clinical study of liver cirrhosis (LC) cases that underwent autologous bone marrow cell infusion from peripheral vein is as follows. Subjects were LC patients with T.B. of < 3.0 mg/dl, Plt of > 5(10(10)/l) and no viable hepatocellular carcinoma by diagnostic imaging. Autologous bone marrow cells (BMCs, 400 ml) were isolated from the ilium under general anesthesia. BMCs were separated by cell washing and were infused via the peripheral vein. After BMC infusion, liver function was monitored by blood examination for 24 weeks. We could follow 9 cases more than 6 months so far. After washing, 5.20 +/- 0.63 x 10(9) BMCs were infused into LC patients. Serum albumin level and total protein were significantly improved at 24 weeks after BMC infusion (p < 0.05). The Child-Pugh score was significantly improved at 4 week and 24 weeks after BMC infusion (p < 0.05). No major adverse effects were noted. In conclusion, autologous BMC infusion might be considered as a novel treatment for advanced LC patients. PMID:22338911

Sakaida, Isao

2011-12-01

291

Clonal Analysis of Micronodules in Virus C-Induced Liver Cirrhosis Using Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) and HUMARA Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) arise from malignant transformation of regenerative cirrhotic nodules. Because HCC has a very poor prognosis, detection of these premalignant lesions may improve the management of patients with cirrhosis. In this regard, clonal analysis of liver micronodules should be of particular interest in order to differentiate polyclonal regenerative micronodules from monoclonal neoplastic potentially malignant micronodules. To address

Valérie Paradis; Delphine Dargere; Franck Bonvoust; Laura Rubbia-Brandt; Nathalie Bâ; Paulette Bioulac-Sage; Pierre Bedossa

2000-01-01

292

The role of gut-liver axis in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension.  

PubMed

Because of the anatomical position and its unique vascular system, the liver is susceptible to the exposure to the microbial products from the gut. Although large amount of microbes colonize in the gut, translocation of the microbes or microbial products into the liver and systemic circulation is prevented by gut epithelial barrier function and cleansing and detoxifying functions of the liver in healthy subjects. However, when the intestinal barrier function is disrupted, large amount of bacterial products can enter into the liver and systemic circulation and induce inflammation through their receptors. Nowadays, there have been various reports suggesting the role of gut flora and bacterial translocation in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease and portal hypertension. This review summarizes the current knowledge about bacterial translocation and its contribution to the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases and portal hypertension. PMID:23323248

Seo, Yeon Seok; Shah, Vijay H

2012-12-21

293

The role of gut-liver axis in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension  

PubMed Central

Because of the anatomical position and its unique vascular system, the liver is susceptible to the exposure to the microbial products from the gut. Although large amount of microbes colonize in the gut, translocation of the microbes or microbial products into the liver and systemic circulation is prevented by gut epithelial barrier function and cleansing and detoxifying functions of the liver in healthy subjects. However, when the intestinal barrier function is disrupted, large amount of bacterial products can enter into the liver and systemic circulation and induce inflammation through their receptors. Nowadays, there have been various reports suggesting the role of gut flora and bacterial translocation in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease and portal hypertension. This review summarizes the current knowledge about bacterial translocation and its contribution to the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases and portal hypertension.

Seo, Yeon Seok

2012-01-01

294

Glycyrrhizinate reduces portal hypertension in isolated perfused rat livers with chronic hepatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (Gly) on portal hypertension (PHT) in isolated portal perfused rat liver (IPPRL) with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic hepatitis. METHODS: PHT model was replicated with CCl4 in rats for 84 d. Model was identified by measuring the ascetic amounts, hepatic function, portal pressure in vivo, splenic index, and pathological alterations. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in liver was assessed by immunohistochemistry. IPPRLs were performed at d0, d28, d56, and d84. After phenylephrine-induced constriction, Gly was geometrically used to reduce PHT. Gly action was expressed as median effective concentration (EC50) and area under the curve (AUC). Underlying mechanism was exploited by linear correlation between AUC values of Gly and existed iNOS in portal triads. RESULTS: PHT model was confirmed with ascites, splenomegaly, serum biomarkers of hepatic injury, and elevated portal pressure. Pathological findings had shown normal hepatic structure at d0, degenerations at d28, fibrosis at d56, cirrhosis at d84 in PHT rats. Pseudo lobule ratios decreased and collagen ratios increased progressively along with PHT development. Gly does dose-dependently reduce PHT in IPPRLs with CCl4-induced chronic hepatitis. Gly potencies were increased gradually along with PHT development, characterized with its EC50 at 2.80 × 10-10, 3.03 × 10-11, 3.77 × 10-11 and 4.65×10-11 mol/L at d0, d28, d56 and d84, respectively. Existed iNOS was located at hepatocyte at d0, stellate cells at d28, stellate cells and macrophages at d56, and macrophages in portal triads at d84. Macrophages infiltrated more into portal triads and expressed more iNOS along with PHT development. AUC values of Gly were positively correlated with existed iNOS levels in portal triads. CONCLUSION: Gly reduces indirectly PHT in IPPRL with CCl4-induced chronic hepatitis. The underlying mechanisms may relate to rescue NO bioavailability from macrophage-derived peroxynitrite in portal triads.

Zhao, Xin; Deng, Bo; Xu, Xue-Yan; Yang, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Tao; Song, Yi-Jun; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Yue-Qi; Cai, Da-Yong

2013-01-01

295

Value of serum C-reactive protein measurement in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma superimposed on liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether, in Italian patients, C-reactive protein (CRP) determination could be considered a useful adjunct, complementary to a1-fetoprotein, in the detection of liver cancer. CRP was determined by particle-enhanced nephelometry in 171 subjects (102 male, 69 female). Fifty-five patients had mild chronic liver disease (CLD), 45 cirrhosis (CIR), 38 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); 33 subjects were healthy controls. Patients with

Carlo Fabris; Mario Pirisi; Giorgio Soardo; Edmondo Falleti; Francesca Pezzetta; Daniela Vitulli; Pierluigi Toniutto; Nadia Bortolotti; Fabio Gonano; Ettore Bartoli

1994-01-01

296

S-Adenosylmethionine in alcoholic liver cirrhosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: The efficacy of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) in the treatment of liver cell injury has been demonstrated in several experimental models. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AdoMet treatment in human alcoholic liver cirrhosis.Methods: A randomized, double-blind trial was performed in 123 patients treated with AdoMet (1200 mg\\/day, orally) or placebo for 2 years. All patients

Jose M Mato; Javier Cámara; Javier Fernández de Paz; Llorenç Caballería; Susana Coll; Antonio Caballero; Luisa García-Buey; Joaquín Beltrán; Vicente Benita; Joan Caballería; Ricard Solà; Ricardo Moreno-Otero; Félix Barrao; Antonio Martín-Duce; Jose A Correa; Albert Parés; Elena Barrao; Inmaculada García-Magaz; Jose Luis Puerta; Jorge Moreno; Gabrielle Boissard; Pablo Ortiz; Joan Rodés

1999-01-01

297

The progressive elevation of alpha fetoprotein for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common cause of primary liver neoplasms and is one of the main causes of death in patients with liver cirrhosis. High Alpha fetoprotein serum levels have been found in 60–70% of patients with Hepatocellular carcinoma; nevertheless, there are other causes that increase this protein. Alpha fetoprotein levels ?200 and 400 ng\\/mL in patients with

Oscar Arrieta; Bernardo Cacho; Daniela Morales-Espinosa; Ana Ruelas-Villavicencio; Diana Flores-Estrada; Norma Hernández-Pedro

2007-01-01

298

Elevated Soluble Tumour Necrosis Factor Receptor Serum Concentrations and Short-Term Mortality in Liver Cirrhosis without Acute Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Serum concentrations of the soluble 75-kDa tumour necrosis factor receptor (sTNF-R 75) are elevated in patients with severe liver disease and may be linked to mortality as well as to prognostic markers related to clinical outcome and metabolic functions in patients with liver cirrhosis. Patients and Methods: We prospectively studied the relation of sTNF-R 75 to Child-Pugh score points

Christoph Reichel; Thomas Sudhop; Barbara Braun; Karl-Anton Kreuzer; Corinna Hahn; Markus P. Look; Klaus von Bergmann; Tilman Sauerbruch; Ulrich Spengler

2000-01-01

299

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION FOR ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS: LONG TERM FOLLOW-UP AND IMPACT OF DISEASE RECURRENCE  

PubMed Central

Background Alcoholic liver disease has emerged as a leading indication for hepatic transplantation, although it is a controversial use of resources. We aimed to examine all aspects of liver transplantation associated with alcohol abuse. Methods Retrospective cohort analysis of 123 alcoholic patients with a median of 7 years follow-up at one center. Results In addition to alcohol, 43 (35%) patients had another possible factor contributing to cirrhosis. Actuarial patient and graft survival rates were, respectively, 84% and 81% (1 year); 72% and 66% (5 years); and 63% and 59% (7 years). After transplantation, 18 patients (15%) manifested 21 noncutaneous de novo malignancies, which is significantly more than controls (P=0.0001); upper aerodigestive squamous carcinomas were overrepresented (P=0.03). Thirteen patients had definitely relapsed and three others were suspected to have relapsed. Relapse was predicted by daily ethanol consumption (P=0.0314), but not by duration of pretransplant sobriety or explant histology. No patient had alcoholic hepatitis after transplantation and neither late onset acute nor chronic rejection was significantly increased. Multiple regression analyses for predictors of graft failure identified major biliary/vascular complications (P=0.01), chronic bile duct injury on biopsy (P=0.002), and pericellular fibrosis on biopsy (P=0.05); graft viral hepatitis was marginally significant (P=0.07) on univariate analysis. Conclusions Alcoholic liver disease is an excellent indication for liver transplantation in those without coexistent conditions. Recurrent alcoholic liver disease alone is not an important cause of graft pathology or failure. Potential recipients should be heavily screened before transplantation for coexistent conditions (e.g., hepatitis C, metabolic diseases) and other target-organ damage, especially aerodigestive malignancy, which are greater causes of morbidity and mortality than is recurrent alcohol liver disease.

Bellamy, Christopher O.C.; DiMartini, Andrea M.; Ruppert, Kris; Jain, Ashok; Dodson, Forrest; Torbenson, Michael; Starzl, Thomas E.; Fung, John J.; Demetris, Anthony J.

2010-01-01

300

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in refractory chylothorax due to liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

A pleural effusion containing chylomicrons is termed chylothorax and results from leakage of lymph fluid into the pleural cavity. We report on the case of a 59-year-old woman with severe dyspnea due to a large chylothorax. She was known to have liver cirrhosis but no ascites. There was no history of trauma, cardiac function was normal and thorough diagnostic work-up did not reveal any signs of malignancy. In summary, no other etiology of the chylothorax than portal hypertension could be found. Therapy with diuretics as well as parenteral feeding failed to relieve symptoms. After a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) had successfully been placed, pleural effusion decreased considerably. Eight months later, TIPS revision had to be performed because of stenosis, resulting in remission from chylothorax. This case shows that even in the absence of ascites, chylothorax might be caused by portal hypertension and that TIPS can be an effective treatment option.

Lutz, Philipp; Strunk, Holger; Schild, Hans Heinz; Sauerbruch, Tilman

2013-01-01

301

Gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with cirrhosis: a longitudinal study before and after liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in cirrhosis and have an impact on quality of life. Their pathophysiology and their relation to energy intake have not been fully elucidated and the effect of liver transplantation on GI symptoms has not been studied. We aimed to prospectively evaluate GI symptoms and their determinants before and after transplantation and their potential relation with energy intake in cirrhosis. Methods. A total of 108 cirrhotic liver transplant candidates completed the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Fasting serum glucose and insulin were measured in all patients. Serum thyrotropin, free T3/T4, cortisol, free testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? were measured in a subgroup of 80 patients. Transplant recipients were followed for 1 year. A separate cohort of 40 cirrhotic patients underwent a high-caloric satiation drinking test (SDT). Results. GI symptoms were more severe in cirrhotics compared to controls from the general population. In regression analysis, the total GSRS score was independently related to lactulose, anxiety and low free testosterone (p < 0.05 for all). Four out of six GSRS domain scores improved significantly 1 year post-transplant (p < 0.05) but the total GSRS score remained higher compared to controls. GI symptoms predicted ingestion of fewer calories at SDT compared to other patients and controls (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Psychological distress, lactulose treatment and low testosterone are predictors of GI symptoms which are common among cirrhotic transplant candidates. They are also associated with decreased energy intake as measured by a SDT. GI symptoms remain of concern post-transplant. PMID:24063547

Kalaitzakis, Evangelos; Josefsson, Axel; Castedal, Maria; Henfridsson, Pia; Bengtsson, Maria; Andersson, Bengt; Björnsson, Einar

2013-09-25

302

Attenuation of portal hypertension by natural taurine in rats with liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of natural taurine (NTau) on portal hypertension (PHT) in rats with experimentally-induced liver cirrhosis (LC). METHODS: Experimentally-induced LC Wistar rats (20 rats/group) were treated with either oral saline or oral NTau for 6 consecutive weeks. Evaluation parameters included portal venous pressure (PVP), portal venous resistance (PVR), portal venous flow (PVF), splanchnic vascular resistance (SVR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Vasoactive substance levels including nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were also measured. Histological investigation of type?I?and III collagen (COL?I?and III) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) was also performed. RESULTS: Treatment with NTau (1) significantly decreased PVP, PVR and PVF, and increased MAP and SVP; (2) markedly increased the vascular compliance and reduced the zero-stress of the portal vein; (3) markedly decreased the amount of NO and cGMP and activity of NOS; and (4) improved the pathological status of the liver tissue and reduced the expression of COL?I, COL III and TGF-?1. CONCLUSION: NTau inhibited the LC-induced PHT by improving hyperdynamic circulation, morphology of liver and biomechanical properties of the portal vein in experimentally-induced LC rats.

Liang, Jian; Deng, Xin; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Zhao, Li-Chun; Zhang, Xi-Liu

2009-01-01

303

Monitoring oxidative damage in patients with liver cirrhosis and different daily alcohol intake.  

PubMed Central

This study looked at the possible association between alcohol abuse and free radical mediated oxidative injury by examining the presence of oxidative damage, as monitored by erythrocyte malonildialdehyde and plasma lipid hydroperoxides, in patients with liver cirrhosis and different lifetime daily alcohol intake. All patients with an alcohol intake above 100 g/day (ALC) showed concentrations of malonildialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxide on average four to fivefold higher than cirrhotic patients with alcohol intake below 100 g/day (NAC) or healthy controls. Further subgrouping of ALC patients showed that those with alcohol intake ranging between 100 and 200 g/day (ALC1) had malonildialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxide concentrations significantly lower than those with an intake higher than 200 g/day (ALC2). These differences were not related to the extent of liver injury or to the liver derangement as assessed by Child's classification. The increase in lipid peroxidation markers in ALC cirrhotic patients was associated with a decrease in, respectively, plasma alpha-tocopherol and erythrocyte glutathione concentrations. Significant differences were also seen between ALC1 and ALC2 groups in plasma alpha-tocopherol, but not in erythrocyte glutathione concentrations. The concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and glutathione in the blood of NAC patients were in contrast not substantially different from those of healthy controls. The close association between oxidative damage and alcohol abuse suggested that free radical intermediates produced during ethanol metabolism might be responsible for causing oxidative damage.

Clot, P; Tabone, M; Arico, S; Albano, E

1994-01-01

304

Long-term clinical and virological outcome after liver transplantation for cirrhosis caused by chronic delta hepatitis.  

PubMed

Liver transplantation for liver diseases related to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) remains problematic because of the risk of viral recurrence. We report here the long-term virological outcome of patients transplanted for HDV-related liver cirrhosis (HDV cirrhosis). From December 1984 to December 1990, 76 patients with HDV cirrhosis underwent liver transplantation. Before transplantation, all the patients were HBsAg-positive/anti-HDV positive, and all but one were HBV DNA-negative by dot blot hybridization. HDV RNA was detected by HDV RT-PCR and liver HDAg by fluorescent HDV Ab. After transplantation, all the patients except four received continuous long-term anti-HBs passive immunoprophylaxis. The actuarial 5-year survival was 88%. All patients who did not receive anti-HBs immunoprophylaxis remained HBsAg-positive and developed hepatitis. Among the 68 patients receiving antiHBs immunoprophylaxis with a minimum follow-up of 2 months, HBsAg reappeared in 7 (10.3%) after a mean of 17 months. These seven patients developed hepatitis, with simultaneous HBV and HDV replication; and four cleared later HBsAg. Patients without HBV reinfection were studied for HDV reinfection: liver HD Ag or serum HDV RNA were present in 88% of the patients during the first year, without developing hepatitis; however, they were no longer detectable after 2 years in 95% of the patients. In conclusion, liver transplantation for HDV cirrhosis gives good results, with a 5-year actuarial survival of 88%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7843702

Samuel, D; Zignego, A L; Reynes, M; Feray, C; Arulnaden, J L; David, M F; Gigou, M; Bismuth, A; Mathieu, D; Gentilini, P

1995-02-01

305

Liver stiffness measurement versus liver biopsy to predict survival and decompensations of cirrhosis among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE:: To compare the prognostic performance of liver biopsy (LB)with that of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) to predict survival and liver decompensations among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. DESIGN:: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS:: Cohort of 297?HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, who underwent aLB and LSM separated by 12 months or less, followed in ten Spanish tertiary care centers from December 2005 to December 2011 (median follow-up, 5 years; interquartile range, 4.2-5.4 years). LB were staged following the Scheuer's score. LSM was obtained by hepatic transient elastometry. A survival analysis was carried out and the integrated discrimination improvement was computed to compare the ability of the survival models to predict outcomes. The incidence of death from any cause and of development of the first decompensation of cirrhosis were calculated. RESULTS:: Overall mortality rate was 1.63 (95%CI: 1.06-2.49) per 100 person-years. The adjusted hazard ratio [AHR (95%CI)] of baseline fibrosis (per stage of fibrosis) was 1.52 (1.08-2.15, p?=?0.017) and of LSM (per 5?KPa increase) 1.28 (1.12-1.46, p?liver decompensations, the AHR (95%CI) of baseline fibrosis by LB (per stage of fibrosis) was 1.67 (1.15-2.43, p?=?0.007) and of LSM (per 5?KPa increase) 1.37 (1.21-1.54, p?liver decompensations than LB. PMID:23736148

Macías, Juan; Camacho, Angela; Von Wichmann, Miguel A; López-Cortés, Luis F; Ortega, Enrique; Tural, Cristina; Ríos, Mjosé; Merino, Dolores; Téllez, Francisco; Márquez, Manuel; Mancebo, María; Pineda, Juan A

2013-06-01

306

Presence of disease specific autoantibodies against liver sinusoidal cells in primary biliary cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the presence of autoantibodies directed against liver sinusoidal cells in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). METHODS: Liver biopsies from 21 PBC patients were studied and compared with 12 liver biopsies from disease controls [3 patients with hepatitis B (HBV) virus, 3 patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV), 3 patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and 3 patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH)]. As healthy controls, we used tissue specimens adjacent to metastatic liver adenocarcinoma. Normal serum was taken from staff members of the unit. The determination of the cell type targeted by autoantibodies present in the patients sera was performed by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) analysis using paraffin-embedded liver sections as a substrate. Sera from homologous or heterologous PBC patients or sera from the disease control group were used as primary antibodies. The presence of autoantibodies was identified using confocal microscopy. RESULTS: In total, 18/21 (85.7%) PBC patients exhibited positive staining in the sinusoidal cells, 10/21 (47.6%) in lymphocytes, 8/21 (38%) in cholangiocytes and 7/21 (33.3%) in hepatocytes, when homologous serum and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated immunoglobulin type G (IgG) secondary antibody were used. PBC sections incubated with heterologous PBC serum showed reduced staining (20% for sinusoidal cells, 20% for lymphocytes, 20% for cholangiocytes and 13.3% for hepatocytes). When IgM immunoglobulin, instead of IgG, was used as secondary antibody, positive staining was observed in 75% of lymphocytes, 62.5% of cholangiocytes, 37.5% of hepatocytes and 50% of the sinusoidal cells with a much stronger staining intensity. No staining was observed when either normal or PBC sera were used as a primary antibody on liver sections from the disease control group. When PBC sera were incubated with healthy control sections, weak positive staining of cholangiocytes was observed in 3/21 (14.3%) PBC serum samples. Steatohepatitis serum on PBC sections gave a positive staining of some hepatocytes and lymphocytes but no staining on viral hepatitis sections. Incubation with HBV sera stained some hepatocytes, cholangiocytes and intra-sinusoidal or portal lymphocytes of PBC, HBV and AAH patients but not HCV patients. CONCLUSION: In this study, for the first time in diseased liver tissue, we have demonstrated that a large proportion of PBC patients have disease specific autoantibodies against liver sinusoidal cells.

Sfakianaki, Ourania; Tzardi, Maria; Voumvouraki, Argyro; Afgoustaki, Aikaterini; Koulentaki, Meri; Kouroumalis, Elias

2013-01-01

307

A polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (NanoCurc™) ameliorates CCl4-induced hepatic injury and fibrosis through reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stellate cell activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-derived polyphenols such as curcumin hold promise as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of chronic liver diseases. However, its development is plagued by poor aqueous solubility resulting in poor bioavailability. To circumvent the suboptimal bioavailability of free curcumin, we have developed a polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (NanoCurc™) that overcomes this major pitfall of the free compound. In this

Savita Bisht; Mehtab A Khan; Mena Bekhit; Haibo Bai; Toby Cornish; Masamichi Mizuma; Michelle A Rudek; Ming Zhao; Amarnath Maitra; Balmiki Ray; Debomoy Lahiri; Anirban Maitra; Robert A Anders

2011-01-01

308

Hypercalcemia of primary hyperparathyroidism was treated by cinacalcet in a patient with liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Cinacalcet is a type II calcimimetic agent which is an allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) located on the surface of the parathyroid cells. Cinacalcet increases the sensitivity of CaR via binding to the transmembrane region of CaR. Increasing sensitivity of CaR causes reduced secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and suppression of serum calcium levels. Cinacalcet has recently been approved by Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism on maintenance dialysis and hypercalcemia in patients with parathyroid cancer. It is used also in Europe for both indications. Several controlled studies have shown that cinacalcet is effective in normalizing serum calcium levels also in primary hyperparathyroidism. Cinacalcet is metabolized primarily in the liver by N-dealkylation leading to carboxylic acid and oxidation of naphthalene ring to form dihydrodiols. The safety and optimal dosage of the drug in hypercalcemic patients with liver impairment remains unclear. We present a patient with Child-Pugh B class primary biliary cirrhosis who presented with moderate hypercalcemia and was diagnosed as primary hyperparathyroidism. As she refused having parathyroid surgery for her parathyroid adenoma at first, her hypercalcemia was treated successfully with 30 mg/day cinacalcet for 6 months. Cinacalcet was discontinued after 6 months. Her calcium level increased gradually. As she accepted surgery this time, her parathyroid adenoma was removed by minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. Parathyroid adenoma was confirmed pathologically. Her calcium levels maintained within the normal ranges after surgery. PMID:18561096

Akinci, B; Comlekci, A; Tankurt, E

2008-06-17

309

E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Synoviolin Is Involved in Liver Fibrogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim Chronic hepatic damage leads to liver fibrosis, which is characterized by the accumulation of collagen-rich extracellular matrix. However, the mechanism by which E3 ubiquitin ligase is involved in collagen synthesis in liver fibrosis is incompletely understood. This study aimed to explore the involvement of the E3 ubiquitin ligase synoviolin (Syno) in liver fibrosis. Methods The expression and localization of synoviolin in the liver were analyzed in CCl4-induced hepatic injury models and human cirrhosis tissues. The degree of liver fibrosis and the number of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was compared between wild type (wt) and Syno+/? mice in the chronic hepatic injury model. We compared the ratio of apoptosis in activated HSCs between wt and Syno+/? mice. We also analyzed the effect of synoviolin on collagen synthesis in the cell line from HSCs (LX-2) using siRNA-synoviolin and a mutant synoviolin in which E3 ligase activity was abolished. Furthermore, we compared collagen synthesis between wt and Syno?/? mice embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) using quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting, and collagen assay; then, we immunohistochemically analyzed the localization of collagen in Syno?/? MEF cells. Results In the hepatic injury model as well as in cirrhosis, synoviolin was upregulated in the activated HSCs, while Syno+/? mice developed significantly less liver fibrosis than in wt mice. The number of activated HSCs was decreased in Syno+/? mice, and some of these cells showed apoptosis. Furthermore, collagen expression in LX-2 cells was upregulated by synoviolin overexpression, while synoviolin knockdown led to reduced collagen expression. Moreover, in Syno?/? MEF cells, the amounts of intracellular and secreted mature collagen were significantly decreased, and procollagen was abnormally accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the importance of the E3 ubiquitin ligase synoviolin in liver fibrosis.

Hasegawa, Daisuke; Fujii, Ryoji; Yagishita, Naoko; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Aratani, Satoko; Izumi, Toshihiko; Azakami, Kazuko; Nakazawa, Minako; Fujita, Hidetoshi; Sato, Tomoo; Araya, Natsumi; Koike, Junki; Tadokoro, Mamoru; Suzuki, Noboru; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Senoo, Haruki; Friedman, Scott L.; Nishioka, Kusuki; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Itoh, Fumio; Nakajima, Toshihiro

2010-01-01

310

Genetic variations in bile acid homeostasis are not overrepresented in alcoholic cirrhosis compared to patients with heavy alcohol abuse and absent liver disease.  

PubMed

Increased serum bile salt levels have been associated to a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the bile salt export pump (BSEP; ABCB11) in several acquired cholestatic liver diseases but there is little evidence in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Furthermore, a crosstalk between vitamin D and bile acid synthesis has recently been discovered. Whether this crosstalk has an influence on the course of ALD is unclear to date. Our aim was to analyse the role of genetic polymorphisms in BSEP and the vitamin D receptor gene (NR1I1) on the emergence of cirrhosis in patients with ALD. Therefore, 511 alcoholic patients (131 with cirrhosis and 380 without cirrhosis) underwent ABCB11 genotyping (rs2287622). Of these, 321 (131 with cirrhosis and 190 without cirrhosis) were also tested for NR1I1 polymorphisms (bat-haplotype: BsmI rs1544410, ApaI rs7975232 and TaqI rs731236). Frequencies of ABCB11 and NR1I1 genotypes and haplotypes were compared between alcoholic patients with and without cirrhosis and correlated to serum bile salt, bilirubin and aspartate aminotransferase levels in those with cirrhosis. Frequencies of ABCB11 and NR1I1 genotypes and haplotypes did not differ between the two subgroups and no significant association between genotypes/haplotypes and liver function tests could be determined for neither polymorphism. We conclude that ABCB11 and NR1I1 polymorphisms are obviously not associated with development of cirrhosis in patients with ALD. PMID:22522591

Many, Natalie; Stickel, Felix; Schmitt, Johannes; Stieger, Bruno; Soyka, Michael; Frei, Pascal; Götze, Oliver; Müllhaupt, Beat; Geier, Andreas

2012-04-19

311

Estimation of the binding ability of main transport proteins of blood plasma with liver cirrhosis by the fluorescent probe method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from an investigation of the binding ability of the main transport proteins (albumin, lipoproteins, and ?-1-acid glycoprotein) of blood plasma from patients at different stages of liver cirrhosis by the fluorescent probe method. We used the hydrophobic fluorescent probes anionic 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate, which interacts in blood plasma mainly with albumin; cationic Quinaldine red, which interacts with ?-1-acid glycoprotein; and neutral Nile red, which redistributes between lipoproteins and albumin in whole blood plasma. We show that the binding ability of albumin and ?-1-acid glycoprotein to negatively charged and positively charged hydrophobic metabolites, respectively, increases in the compensation stage of liver cirrhosis. As the pathology process deepens and transitions into the decompensation stage, the transport abilities of albumin and ?-1-acid glycoprotein decrease whereas the binding ability of lipoproteins remains high.

Korolenko, E. A.; Korolik, E. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskii, V. V.

2007-07-01

312

Hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism syndrome, plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 and outcome in critically ill patients with liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate the relation between the adrenal production of gluco- and mineralocorticoids, the inflammatory status and the\\u000a outcome in critically ill patients with liver cirrhosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Prospective descriptive study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Medical intensive care unit (ICU) in a university hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients  Fifty consecutive patients with liver cirrhosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Interventions  A corticotropin stimulation test within 12?h following ICU admission. Plasma cortisol concentration was measured before and\\u000a after the test.

Damien du Cheyron; Bruno Bouchet; Brigitte Cauquelin; Damien Guillotin; Michel Ramakers; Cédric Daubin; Jean-Jacques Ballet; Pierre Charbonneau

2008-01-01

313

Transplanted Human Amniotic Membrane-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Cirrhosis in Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHuman amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMCs) have the potential to reduce heart and lung fibrosis, but whether could reduce liver fibrosis remains largely unknown.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHepatic cirrhosis model was established by infusion of CCl4 (1 ml\\/kg body weight twice a week for 8 weeks) in immunocompetent C57Bl\\/6J mice. hAMCs, isolated from term delivered placenta, were infused into the spleen at

Dingguo Zhang; Minyue Jiang; Dengshun Miao; Syed Aziz

2011-01-01

314

Reduced mRNA abundance of the main enzymes involved in methionine metabolism in human liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: It has been known for at least 50 years that alterations in methionine metabolism occur in human liver cirrhosis. However, the molecular basis of this alteration is not completely understood. In order to gain more insight into the mechanisms behind this condition, mRNA levels of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT1A), glycine methyltransferase (GNMT), methionine synthase (MS), betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and

Matías A Avila; Carmen Berasain; Luis Torres; Antonio Martín-Duce; Fernando J Corrales; Heping Yang; Jesús Prieto; Shelly C Lu; Juan Caballería; Juan Rodés; José M Mato

2000-01-01

315

The Role of Fas/Fas Ligand System in the Pathogenesis of Liver Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The Fas receptor/ligand system including soluble forms is the most important apoptotic initiator in the liver. Dysregulation of this pathway may contribute to abnormal cell proliferation and cell death and is regarded as one of the mechanisms preventing the immune system from rejecting the tumor cells. Objectives To analyze the role of Fas system Fas/ Fas ligand (Fas/ FasL) in the multi-step process of hepatic fibrosis/carcinogenesis, and to use of the serum markers as possible candidate biomarkers for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients and Methods Ninety patients were enrolled: 30 cases of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) without cirrhosis, 30 cases of CHC with liver cirrhosis, and 30 cases of HCC and hepatitis V virus (HCV) infection. Ten wedge liver biopsies, taken during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were served as normal controls. Serum soluble Fas (sFas) levels were measured using ELISA technique; Fas and FasL proteins were detected in hepatic tissue by indirect Immuno-histochemical technique (IHC); electron microscopic (EM) and immune electron microscopic examinations were performed for detection of Fas expression on lymphocytes. Results Hepatic expression of both Fas and FasL as well as expression of Fas on separated lymphocytes were significantly increased in the diseased groups (P < 0. 01) compared to the control specimens. The highest expression was noticed in CHC specimens, particularly with the necro-inflammatory activity and advancement of the fibrosis. The sFas in cirrhotic patients and HCC were significantly higher than that in normal controls and CHC without cirrhosis group (P < 0.01). Conclusions Apoptosis and the Fas system were significantly involved in the process of converting liver cirrhosis into hepatocellular carcinoma. Down-regulation of Fas expression, up regulation of FasL expression in hepatocytes, and elevation of serum sFas levels were important in tumor evasion from immune surveillance, and in hepatic carcinogenesis.

Hammam, Olfat; Mahmoud, Ola; Zahran, Manal; Aly, Sohair; Hosny, Karim; Helmy, Amira; Anas, Amgad

2012-01-01

316

[Economic aspects of inpatient treatment for decompensated liver cirrhosis: a prospective study employing an evidence-based clinical pathway].  

PubMed

The introduction of the G-DRG reimbursement system has greatly increased the pressure to provide cost effective treatment in German hospitals. Reimbursement based on diagnosis-related groups, which requires stratification of costs incurred is still not sufficiently discriminating the disease severity and severity in relation to the intensive costs in gastroenterology. In a combined retrospective and prospective study at a tertial referral centre we investigated whether this also applies for decompensated liver cirrhosis. In 2006, 64 retrospective cases (age 57 ± 12.9; ? 69.2 %, ? 29.8 %) with decompensated liver cirrhosis (ICD code K76.4) were evaluated for their length of hospitalisation, reimbursement as well as Child and MELD scores. In 2008, 74 cases with decompensated liver cirrhosis were treated in a prospective study according to a standardised and evidence-based clinical pathway (age 57 ± 12.2; 73 % ?, ? 27 %). Besides a trend in the reduction of length of hospital stay (retrospective: 13.6 ± 8.6, prospective 13.0 ± 7.2, p = 0.85) overall revenues from patients treated according to a evidence-based clinical pathway were lower than the calculated costs from the InEK matrix. Costs of medication as a percentage of reimbursement amount increased with increasing severity. In both years we could demonstrate an inverse correlation between daily reimbursement and disease severity which precluded cost coverage. For the cost-covering hospital treatment of patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis an adjustment of the DRG based on clinical severity scores such as Child-Pugh or MELD is warranted, if evidence-based treatment standards are to be kept. PMID:23299901

Hahn, N; Bobrowski, C; Weber, E; Simon, P; Kraft, M; Aghdassi, A; Raetzell, M; Wilke, M; Lerch, M M; Mayerle, J

2013-01-08

317

Posttraumatic intra-gallbladder hemorrhage in a patient with liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

We report a case of intra-gallbladder hemorrhage secondary to blunt abdominal trauma in a patient with liver cirrhosis. A 58-year-old man was admitted to a local hospital with persistent right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Anemia was detected, and computed tomography (CT) revealed a high-density mass in the gallbladder lumen. He was transferred to our hospital because a gallbladder tumor was suspected. He had a history of habitual alcohol abuse and had sustained blunt abdominal trauma in the right upper quadrant 29 days before admission to our hospital (4 days before to the admission local hospital). The intra-gallbladder high-density mass depicted on the CT scan, observed as non-shadowing low-level echoes, was deemed to represent a blood clot on ultrasonography (US) performed 31 days after the trauma. US-guided percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder aspiration and cholecystography confirmed the presence of an old blood clot in the lumen. Because of the patient's persistent pain, a cholecystectomy was performed. The distended gallbladder was filled with old clotted blood. PMID:10213133

Nishiwaki, M; Ashida, H; Nishimura, T; Kimura, M; Yagyu, R; Nishioka, A; Utsunomiya, J; Yamamura, T

1999-04-01

318

Effects of oral branched-chain amino acids on hepatic encephalopathy and outcome in patients with liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) constituting of valine, leucine, and isoleucine act as both substrates of proteins and as key regulators for various nutrient metabolisms. Patients with liver cirrhosis frequently lack sufficient BCAAs and therefore suffer from various metabolic disorders. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a severe metabolic disorder with neurologic manifestations such as flapping tremors and coma in patients with liver cirrhosis. In addition, a mild form of HE known as minimal HE (MHE) is an important social issue because it occurs in up to 80% of patients with chronic liver disease and affects prognosis and activities of daily living, possibly resulting in falls and motor vehicle accidents. Although HE/MHE can be caused by various pathological conditions, including in an accumulation of mercaptans, short-chain fatty acids, and alterations in the gut flora, hyperammonemia has also been implicated in an important pathogenesis of HE/MHE. Besides urea cycle of liver, ammonia can be detoxified in the skeletal muscles by the amidation process for glutamine synthesis using BCAAs. Thus, BCAA supplementation may enhance detoxification of ammonia in skeletal muscle and may be a possible therapeutic strategy for HE/MHE. In this review, we summarize the clinical impacts of BCAA supplementation on HE/MHE and discuss possible mechanisms for a BCAA-induced improvement of HE/MHE. Furthermore, we present some modifications of oral BCAA therapy for improvement of efficacy in HE treatment. We also briefly describe pleiotropic benefits of BCAAs on life-threatening events and overall prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis. PMID:23945292

Kawaguchi, Takumi; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Sata, Michio

2013-08-14

319

Smoking as a risk factor for autoimmune liver disease: what we can learn from primary biliary cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a cholestatic liver disease characterised by the immune-mediated destruction of biliary epithelial cells in small intrahepatic bile ducts. The disease is characterised by circulating anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) as well as disease specific anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), cholestatic liver biochemistry, and characteristic histology. The disease primarily affects middle-aged females, and its incidence is apparently increasing worldwide. Epidemiological studies have indicated several risk factors for the development of PBC, with family history of PBC, recurrent urinary tract infection, and smoking being the most widely cited. Smoking has been implicated as a risk factor in several autoimmune diseases, including the liver, by complex mechanisms involving the endocrine and immunological systems to name a few. Studies of smoking in liver disease have also shown that smoking may progress the disease towards fibrosis and subsequent cirrhosis. This review will examine the literature surrounding smoking as a risk factor for PBC, as well as a potential factor in the progression of fibrosis in PBC patients. PMID:22166556

Smyk, Daniel S; Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Muratori, Luigi; Burroughs, Andrew K; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P

320

Egy-Score Predicts Severe Hepatic Fibrosis and Cirrhosis in Egyptians With Chronic Liver Diseases: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Non-invasive methods for assessment of hepatic fibrosis are increasingly needed. Recent studies showed that combined elevation of tumor markers CA 19-9 and CA 125 is predictive of severe hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis with high specificity. Objectives We aimed at developing a new panel of surrogate biomarkers for prediction of the stage of hepatic fibrosis by combining tumor markers with other known biomarkers of hepatic fibrosis. Patients and Methods A total of 92 patients with different types of chronic liver diseases (chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C and autoimmune hepatitis), were prospectively enrolled in our cohort. They were subjected to: ALT, AST, GGT, ALP, total bilirubin, INR, total cholesterol, albumin, platelet count, cancer antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3), haptoglobin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein A1, abdominal ultrasound, liver biopsy and histological staging of hepatic fibrosis using the METAVIR system. Results Combined elevation of CA 19-9 and CA 125 with a summated value > 37 U/mL is predictive of severe hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis (stage F3-F4 METAVIR) with a probability of 77.6%. Multivariate analysis showed that the most relevant collection of biomarkers for prediction of stage of hepatic fibrosis is: CA 19-9, age, alpha-2- macroglobulin, total bilirubin, platelet count & albumin. We developed a new score, named the “Egy-Score”, using a regression equation composed of this panel of biomarkers. Egy-Score could differentiate no or early fibrosis (stage F0-F2 METAVIR) from severe fibrosis or cirrhosis (stage F3-F4 METAVIR) with 83.7% accuracy. Conclusions Non-invasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis could be done using the Egy-Score. Egy-Score could differentiate no or early fibrosis (stage F0-F2 METAVIR) from severe fibrosis or cirrhosis (stage F3 - F4 METAVIR) with 83.7% accuracy.

Alboraie, Mohamed A.; Afifi, Mahmoud E.; Elghamry, Fathy G.; Shalaby, Helmy A.; Elshennawy, Gamal E.; Abdelaziz, Ahmed A.; Shaheen, Mohamed U.; Abo El-Seoud, Amany R.

2013-01-01

321

Cyclosporine A protects against primary biliary cirrhosis recurrence after liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) reoccurs in a proportion of patients following liver transplantation (LT). The aims of our study were to evaluate the risk factors associated with PBC recurrence and determine whether recurrent disease constitutes a negative predictor for survival. One hundred and eight patients receiving LT for end-stage PBC were studied. Recurrent disease was diagnosed in 28 patients (26%). Probability of recurrent PBC at 5 years was 13% and 29% at 10 years with an overall incidence of 3.97 cases per 100 patient years. By univariate Cox analysis use of tacrolimus (HR 6.28, 95% CI, 2.44-16.11, p < 0.001) and mycophenolate mofetil (HR 5.21, 95% CI, 1.89-14.33, p = 0.001) were associated with higher risk of recurrence; whereas use of cyclosporine A (CsA) and azathioprine were associated with reduced risk of recurrence (HR 0.13, 95% CI 0.05-0.35, p < 0.001 and HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.64, p = 0.003, respectively). In the multivariate Cox analysis, only CsA was independently associated with protection against recurrence (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.71, p = 0.02). Five-year probability of survival was 83% and 96%, in patients without and with recurrence (log-rank test, p = 0.3). Although PBC transplant recipients receiving CsA have a lower risk of disease recurrence, the development of recurrent PBC did not impact on long-term patient survival. PMID:20132169

Montano-Loza, A J; Wasilenko, S; Bintner, J; Mason, A L

2010-02-03

322

Alterations in arterial blood parameters in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites.  

PubMed

In cirrhotic patients, in addition to hepatocytes and Kuppfer cells dysfunction circulatory anatomic shunt and ventilation/perfusion (V(A)/ Q) ratio abnormalities can induce decrease in partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO(2)), in oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SaO(2)) as well as various acid-base disturbances. We studied 49 cases of liver cirrhosis (LC) with ascites compared to 50 normal controls. Causes were: posthepatic 37 (75.51%), alcoholic 7 (14.24%), cardiac 2 (4.08%), and cryptogenic 3 (6.12%). Complications were: upper gastrointestinal bleeding 24 (48.97), hepatic encephalopathy 20 (40.81%), gastritis 28 (57.14%), hepatoma 5 (10.2%), renal hepatic syndrome 2 (4.01%), HbsAg (+) 24 (48.97%), and hepatic pleural effusions 7 (14.28%). Average PaO(2) and SaO(2) were 75.2 mmHg and 94.5 mmHg, respectively, compared to 94.2 mmHg and 97.1 mmHg of the control group, respectively (p value in both PaO(2) and SaO(2 )was p<0.01). Respiratory alkalosis, metabolic alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis with respiratory alkalosis were acid-base disturbances observed. In conclusion, portopulmonary shunt, intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunt and V(A)/Q inequality can induce a decrease in PaO(2) and SaO(2) as well as various acid-base disturbances. As a result, pulmonary resistance is impaired and patients more likely succumb to infections and adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:17396160

Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschos, Dimitrios; Zoganas, Leonidas; Bablekos, George; Golias, Christos; Charalabopoulos, Alexander; Stagikas, Dimitrios; Karakosta, Angi; Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Karachalios, George; Batistatou, Anna

2007-03-06

323

Alterations in Arterial Blood Parameters in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis and Ascites  

PubMed Central

In cirrhotic patients, in addition to hepatocytes and Kuppfer cells dysfunction circulatory anatomic shunt and ventilation/perfusion (VA/ Q) ratio abnormalities can induce decrease in partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), in oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SaO2) as well as various acid-base disturbances. We studied 49 cases of liver cirrhosis (LC) with ascites compared to 50 normal controls. Causes were: posthepatic 37 (75.51%), alcoholic 7 (14.24%), cardiac 2 (4.08%), and cryptogenic 3 (6.12%). Complications were: upper gastrointestinal bleeding 24 (48.97), hepatic encephalopathy 20 (40.81%), gastritis 28 (57.14%), hepatoma 5 (10.2%), renal hepatic syndrome 2 (4.01%), HbsAg (+) 24 (48.97%), and hepatic pleural effusions 7 (14.28%). Average PaO2 and SaO2 were 75.2 mmHg and 94.5 mmHg, respectively, compared to 94.2 mmHg and 97.1 mmHg of the control group, respectively (p value in both PaO2 and SaO2 was p<0.01). Respiratory alkalosis, metabolic alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis with respiratory alkalosis were acid-base disturbances observed. In conclusion, portopulmonary shunt, intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunt and VA/Q inequality can induce a decrease in PaO2 and SaO2 as well as various acid-base disturbances. As a result, pulmonary resistance is impaired and patients more likely succumb to infections and adult respiratory distress syndrome.

Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschos, Dimitrios; Zoganas, Leonidas; Bablekos, George; Golias, Christos; Charalabopoulos, Alexander; Stagikas, Dimitrios; Karakosta, Angi; Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Karachalios, George; Batistatou, Anna

2007-01-01

324

S100 protein positive dendritic cells in primary biliary cirrhosis and other chronic inflammatory liver diseases. Relevance to pathogenesis?  

PubMed Central

A study to determine the location of dendritic cells, in chronic inflammatory liver disease was performed. S100 protein positivity and dendritic cytoplasmic morphology were used to identify dendritic cells. S100 protein positive dendritic cells (S100 + DC) were found inside the basement membrane between biliary epithelial cells of septal bile ducts of livers affected by early stage PBC, but were not present at later stages. S100 + DC also were seen in areas of piecemeal necrosis in chronic active hepatitis of various etiologies. In contrast, intra-epithelial S100 + DC were not found with any consistency in sclerosing cholangitis, secondary biliary cirrhosis, extrahepatic biliary atresia, or chronic liver allograft rejection, all of which are characterized by inflammatory bile duct damage. The possible relevance of DC in the pathogenesis of PBC is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Demetris, A. J.; Sever, C.; Kakizoe, S.; Oguma, S.; Starzl, T. E.; Jaffe, R.

1989-01-01

325

Nephrectomy for a Renal Metastasis of Undiagnosed Hepatocellular Carcinoma Arising From an Orthotopic Liver Transplant Undertaken for Cryptogenic Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Urological involvement of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rare; HCC arising in an orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) is exceptionally rare. Here we report the case of a 70-year-old man who was incidentally found to have metastatic HCC in the right kidney arising from his OLT undertaken for cryptogenic cirrhosis 10 years previously. Adding to the complexity of this case was the lack of an obvious liver primary HCC at the time of the radical nephrectomy, thus making the final diagnosis all but impossible. We believe this report represents the first report of HCC metastasizing to the kidney after OLT and adds to the few reports in the literature of HCC arising in transplanted livers.

Ong, Kevin W K; Joseph, Binoy; Gyomber, Dennis V; Bolton, Damien M

2013-01-01

326

Metabolomic approach by 1H NMR spectroscopy of serum for the assessment of chronic liver failure in patients with cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Assessment of chronic liver failure (CLF) in cirrhotic patients is needed to make therapeutic decisions. A biological score is usually performed, using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD), to evaluate CLF. Nevertheless, MELD does not take into account metabolic perturbations produced by liver-function impairment. In contrast, metabolomics can investigate many metabolic perturbations within biological systems. The purpose of this study was to assess whether metabolomic profiles of serum, obtained by proton NMR spectroscopy from cirrhotic patients, are affected by the severity of CLF. An orthogonal projection to latent-structure analysis was performed to compare MELD scores and NMR spectra of 124 patients with cirrhosis. The statistical model obtained showed a good explained variance (R(2)X = 0.87 and R(2)Y = 0.86) and a good predictability (Q(2)Y = 0.64). Metabolomic profiles showed significant differences regarding various metabolites depending of severity of CLF: levels of high-density lipoprotein and phosphocholine resonances were significantly higher in patients with mild CLF compared to severe CLF. Other metabolites such as lactate, pyruvate, glucose, amino acids, and creatinine were significantly higher in patients with severe CLF than mild CLF. Our conclusion is that metabolomic NMR analysis provides new insights into metabolic processes related to the severity of hepatic function impairment in cirrhosis. PMID:21568267

Amathieu, Roland; Nahon, Pierre; Triba, Mohamed; Bouchemal, Nadia; Trinchet, Jean-Claude; Beaugrand, Michel; Dhonneur, Gilles; Le Moyec, Laurence

2011-06-02

327

Nutritional copper intoxication in three German infants with severe liver cell damage (features of Indian childhood cirrhosis).  

PubMed

Three of the four children of two unrelated German families fell ill in the first year of life with severe hepatopathy leading to death in two of the children so far, after a progressive clinical course and severe hepatic failure. Laboratory and morphological investigations revealed a high concentration of copper in the liver and to a lesser degree in the kidneys and other organs. The liver architecture was severely altered by micronodular cirrhosis with toxic liver cell damage similar to that found in Indian childhood cirrhosis. Epidemiologically, copper intoxication of the drinking water was verified. The drinking water was obtained from wells via copper pipes. The copper content of the drinking water went as high as 3400 micrograms/l in the two families while water taken directly from the well showed normal content but had lowered pH (6.2). Both parents were clinically healthy, as was an older son who had not been exposed to copper intoxication during the first nine months of his life. Therefore, copper intoxication during the perinatal period appears to be a prerequisite for manifestation of the disease. PMID:2980804

Schramel, P; Müller-Höcker, J; Meyer, U; Weiss, M; Eife, R

1988-06-01

328

Major Histocompatibility Class II Pathway Is Not Required for the Development of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice  

PubMed Central

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms within major histocompatibility class II (MHC II) genes have been associated with an increased risk of drug-induced liver injury. However, it has never been addressed whether the MHC II pathway plays an important role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common form of liver disease. We used a mouse model that has a complete knockdown of genes in the MHC II pathway (MHCII?/?). Firstly we studied the effect of high-fat diet-induced hepatic inflammation in these mice. Secondly we studied the development of carbon-tetra-chloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic cirrhosis. After the high-fat diet, both groups developed obesity and hepatic steatosis with a similar degree of hepatic inflammation, suggesting no impact of the knockdown of MHC II on high-fat diet-induced inflammation in mice. In the second study, we confirmed that the CCl4 injection significantly upregulated the MHC II genes in wild-type mice. The CCl4 treatment significantly induced genes related to the fibrosis formation in wild-type mice, whereas this was lower in MHCII?/? mice. The liver histology, however, showed no detectable difference between groups, suggesting that the MHC II pathway is not required for the development of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4.

Willemin, Gilles; Roger, Catherine; Bauduret, Armelle; Minehira, Kaori

2013-01-01

329

Laparoscopic versus open liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with histologically proven cirrhosis: short- and middle-term results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Liver surgery, especially for cirrhotic patients, is one of the last areas of resistance to progress in laparoscopic surgery.\\u000a This study compares the postoperative results and the 2-year patient outcomes between laparoscopic and open resection for\\u000a hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with histologically proven cirrhosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From May 2000 to October 2004, 23 consecutive cirrhotic patients who underwent laparoscopic hepatectomy (LH) for

G. Belli; C. Fantini; A. D’Agostino; L. Cioffi; S. Langella; N. Russolillo; A. Belli

2007-01-01

330

Embryonic hepatocyte transplantation for hepatic cirrhosis: Efficacy and mechanism of action  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the efficacy and mechanism of action of allogeneic embryonic hepatocyte transplantation for the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis. METHODS: Rat embryonic hepatocytes were characterized by examining cell markers. Wistar rats with CCl4-induced cirrhosis were randomly divided into two groups: a model group receiving continuous CCl4, and a cell transplantation group receiving continuous CCl4 and transplanted with embryonic fluorescent-labeled hepatocytes. In addition, a normal control group was composed of healthy rats. All rats were sacrificed after 2 wk following the initiation of the cell transplant. Ultrasound, pathological analyses and serum biochemical tests were used to evaluate the efficacy of embryonic hepatocyte transplantation. To analyze the recovery status of cirrhotic hepatocytes and the signaling pathways influenced by embryonic hepatocyte transplantation, real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine the mRNA expression of stellate activation-associated protein (STAP), c-myb, ? smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and endothelin-1 (ET-1). Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were employed to detect ?-SMA and ET-1 protein expression in hepatic tissues. RESULTS: Gross morphological, ultrasound and histopathological examinations, serum biochemical tests and radioimmunoassays demonstrated that hepatic cirrhosis was successfully established in the Wistar rats. Stem cell factor receptor (c-kit), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met), Nestin, ? fetal protein, albumin and cytokeratin19 markers were observed in the rat embryonic hepatocytes. Following embryonic hepatocyte transplantation, there was a significant reversal in the gross appearance, ultrasound findings, histopathological properties, and serum biochemical parameters of the rat liver. In addition, after the activation of hepatic stellate cells and STAP signaling, ?-SMA, c-myb and ET-1 mRNA levels became significantly lower than in the untreated cirrhotic group (P < 0.05). These levels, however, were not statistically different from those of the normal healthy group. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analyses revealed that ?-SMA and ET-1 protein expression levels in the transplantation group were significantly lower than in the untreated cirrhotic group, but being not statistically different from the normal group. CONCLUSION: Transplantation of embryonic hepatocytes in rats has therapeutic effects on cirrhosis. The described treatment may significantly reduce the expression of STAP and ET-1.

Bin, Wen-Ting; Ma, Li-Mei; Xu, Qing; Shi, Xiao-Lin

2012-01-01

331

Spontaneous reversal of portal blood flow: the case for and against its occurrence in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.  

PubMed Central

Because of its presumed serious clinical significance, we made an analysis of the evidence for and against the occurrence of spontaneous reversal of portal flow in cirrhosis of the liver. We examined the evidence obtained from manometric studies, radioactive tracer studies, radiologic studies, and actual measurements of magnitude and direction of portal blood flow. Concerning manometric studies, we introduced a physical analysis, based on first principles, which demonstrates that the occluded portal pressures cannot be used to construct a hydraulic gradient for portal flow. Similarly, we examined the weakness of the evidence derived from radioactive tracer and radiologic studies and, in the latter, the drastically opposite results reported by different investigators. Finally, we found that actual measurements of magnitude and direction of portal flow provide impressive evidence against the occurrence of spontaneous reversal of portal flow in cirrhosis. We conclude that unless new and convincing evidence is provided, it may not serve the best interests of medicine and of our patients to continue accepting spontaneous reversal of portal flow in cirrhosis as if it were a proven phenomenon. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 5.

Moreno, A H; Burchell, A R; Reddy, R V; Steen, J A; Panke, W F; Nealson, T F

1975-01-01

332

Hepatoprotective effect of ghrelin on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & AimsRecent studies have revealed that ghrelin may be an antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent. Oxidative stress are considered to play a prominent causative role in the development of various hepatic disorders. We investigated whether ghrelin plays a protective role against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in rats.

Ebru Çetin; Murat Kanbur; Nazmi Çetin; Gökhan Eraslan; Ayhan Atasever

2011-01-01

333

Clinical outcome and predictors of survival after TIPS insertion in patients with liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the clinical outcome and predictors of survival after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPS) implantation in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Eighty-one patients with liver cirrhosis and consequential portal hypertension had TIPS implantation (bare metal) for either refractory ascites (RA) (n = 27) or variceal bleeding (VB) (n = 54). Endpoints for the study were: technical success, stent occlusion and stent stenosis, rebleeding, RA and mortality. Clinical records of patients were collected and analysed. Baseline characteristics [e.g., age, sex, CHILD score and the model for end-stage liver disease score (MELD score), underlying disease] were retrieved. The Kaplan-Meier method was employed to calculate survival from the time of TIPS implantation and comparisons were made by log rank test. A multivariate analysis of factors influencing survival was carried out using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results were expressed as medians and ranges. Comparisons between groups were performed by using the Mann-Whitney U-test and the ?2 test as appropriate. RESULTS: No difference could be seen in terms of age, sex, underlying disease or degree of portal pressure gradient (PPG) reduction between the ascites and the bleeding group. The PPG significantly decreased from 23.4 ± 5.3 mmHg (VB) vs 22.1 ± 5.5 mmHg (RA) before TIPS to 11.8 ± 4.0 vs 11.7 ± 4.2 after TIPS implantation (P = 0.001 within each group). There was a tendency towards more patients with stage CHILD A in the bleeding group compared to the ascites group (24 vs 6, P = 0.052). The median survival for the ascites group was 29 mo compared to > 60 mo for the bleeding group (P = 0.009). The number of radiological controls for stent patency was 6.3 for bleeders and 3.8 for ascites patients (P = 0.029). Kaplan-Meier calculation indicated that stent occlusion at first control (P = 0.027), ascites prior to TIPS implantation (P = 0.009), CHILD stage (P = 0.013), MELD score (P = 0.001) and those patients not having undergone liver transplantation (P = 0.024) were significant predictors of survival. In the Cox regression model, stent occlusion (P = 0.022), RA (P = 0.043), CHILD stage (P = 0.015) and MELD score (P = 0.004) turned out to be independent prognostic factors of survival. The anticoagulation management (P = 0.097), the porto-systemic pressure gradient (P = 0.460) and rebleeding episodes (P = 0.765) had no significant effect on the overall survival. CONCLUSION: RA, stent occlusion, initial CHILD stage and MELD score are independent predictors of survival in patients with TIPS, speaking for a close follow-up in these circumstances.

Heinzow, Hauke S; Lenz, Philipp; Kohler, Michael; Reinecke, Frank; Ullerich, Hansjorg; Domschke, Wolfram; Domagk, Dirk; Meister, Tobias

2012-01-01

334

[Protective effects of antioxidants on experimental liver injuries].  

PubMed

Protective effects of 14 kinds of antioxidant on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were investigated in terms of serum enzyme activities and bilirubin concentration. Consequently, the significant protective effects were found in sesamol, ellagic acid, cysteamine and cysteine. These antioxidants clearly decreased the lipid peroxide in the liver tissue. The protective effects on CCl4-induced liver injury in vivo were independent of the inhibitory activities on lipid peroxidation in hepatic mitochondria fraction in vitro. PMID:2262882

Suzuki, M; Kumazawa, N; Ohta, S; Kamogawa, A; Shinoda, M

1990-09-01

335

Optical biopsy of liver fibrosis by use of multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the application of multiphoton microscopy in diagnosing toxin- CCl4 - induced liver fibrosis in mice. Although hepatocyte autofluorescence does not vary significantly, different degrees of necrosis and stellate cell proliferation at necrotic sites in livers with fibrosis (ex vivo) can be detected easily from multiphoton-induced autofluorescence images by use of 780-nm excitation. Our result suggests that multiphoton microscopy can be developed into an effective technique for the detection and diagnosis of liver fibrosis in vivo.

Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Hsiao-Ching; Chiou, Ling-Ling; Huang, Guan-Tarn; Lo, Wen; Dong, Chen-Yuan

2004-11-01

336

Liver-protective actions of desoxypodophyllotoxin and its analogs.  

PubMed

Effects on CCl(4)-induced liver lesion in mice and on D-galactosamine-induced liver lesion in rats of desoxypodophyllotoxin (1) and its analogs, podophyllotoxin (2), podophyllotoxon (3), beta-peltatin (4), alpha-peltatin (5), 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxin (6) and picropodophyllin (7), were investigated. 1 and 7 in CCl(4)-induced liver lesion and 1,4,5, and 6 in D-galactosamine-induced liver lesion have shown marked protective actions. These results suggest that these analogs have liver-protective actions in general and the substituents at C-4 in ring C, C-5 in ring B and C-4' in ring E, and the configuration at C-2 in ring C are important for the revelation of the activity. PMID:7153836

Kiso, Y; Konno, C; Hikino, H; Yagi, Y; Hashimoto, I

1982-08-01

337

Coexpression of Smad7 and UPA attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background There is a great need for developing novel therapies to treat liver fibrosis. Previous studies showed that both Smad7 and uPA were inhibitors of liver fibrosis. Therefore, we explored the therapeutic effects of combinational gene therapy with Smad7 and uPA on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Material/Methods Smad7 and uPA genes were cloned into an adenovirus vector. To observe the therapeutic effects of coexpression of Smad7 and uPA genes, the recombinant adenovirus were delivered into CCL4-induced fibrosis models. Fibrillar collagen, hydroxyproline, ?-SMA, TGF-?1, MMP-13, TIMP-1, HGF and PCNA were detected to evaluate the fibrosis and to explore the mechanisms underlying the treatment with Smad7 and uPA. Results The results showed that single Smad7 or uPA adenovirus reduced CCL4 induced liver fibrosis significantly; while combination of Smad7 and uPA had more significant therapeutic effect on CCl4 induced liver fibrosis. Then the markers underlying the therapeutic effect of combination of Smad7 and uPA were also explored. Over-expression of Smad7 and uPA inhibited the expression of ?-SMA and TGF-?1 significantly. Combinational gene therapy also enhanced extracellular matrix degradation by increasing the expression of MMP-13, inhibiting TIMP-1 expression, and promoted hepatocyte proliferation, while single Smad7 or uPA only induced part of these changes. Conclusions These results suggest that combinational gene therapy with Smad7 and uPA inhibited CCl4-induced rat liver fibrosis by simultaneously targeting multiple pathogenic pathways.

Wang, Baocan; Li, Wenxi; Chen, Yingwei; Wang, Yuqin; Sun, Chao; Chen, Yuanwen; Lu, Hanming; Fan, Jiangao; Li, Dingguo

2012-01-01

338

Chronomics of circulating plasma lipid peroxides and anti-oxidant enzymes and other related molecules in cirrhosis of liver  

PubMed Central

Background The chronome (from chronos, time, and nomos, rule; time structure) of lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant defense mechanisms may relate to the efficacy and management of preventive and curative chronotherapy. Patients and methods Thirty patients with liver cirrhosis, 25–45 years of age, and 60 age-matched clinically healthy volunteers were synchronized for 1 week with diurnal activity from about 06:00 to about 22:00 and nocturnal rest. Breakfast was around 08:30, lunch around 13:30 and dinner around 20:30. Drugs known to affect the free-radical system were not taken. Blood samples were collected at 6-h intervals for 24 h under standardized, presumably 24-h synchronized conditions. Determinations included plasma lipid peroxides, in the form of malondialdehyde (MDA), blood superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and serum total protein, albumin, ascorbic acid, and uric acid concentrations. Results A marked circadian variation was demonstrated for each variable in each group by population-mean cosinor (P < 0.01). In addition to anticipated differences in overall mean value (MESOR), patients differed from healthy volunteers also in terms of their circadian pattern. Conclusion Mapping the broader time structure (chronome) with age and multifrequency rhythm characteristics of antioxidants and pro-oxidants is needed for exploring their putative role as markers in the treatment and management of liver cirrhosis.

Singh, R.; Singh, R. K.; Singh, R. K.; Tripathi, A. K.; Cornelissen, G.; Schwartzkopff, O.; Otsuka, K.; Halberg, F.

2008-01-01

339

Two classifiers based on serum peptide pattern for prediction of HBV-induced liver cirrhosis using MALDI-TOF MS.  

PubMed

Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis (LC) in China. Although liver biopsy is the reference method for evaluation of cirrhosis, it is an invasive procedure with inherent risk. The aim of this study is to discover novel noninvasive specific serum biomarkers for the diagnosis of HBV-induced LC. We performed bead fractionation/MALDI-TOF MS analysis on sera from patients with LC. Thirteen feature peaks which had optimal discriminatory performance were obtained by using support-vector-machine-(SVM-) based strategy. Based on the previous results, five supervised machine learning methods were employed to construct classifiers that discriminated proteomic spectra of patients with HBV-induced LC from those of controls. Here, we describe two novel methods for prediction of HBV-induced LC, termed LC-NB and LC-MLP, respectively. We obtained a sensitivity of 90.9%, a specificity of 94.9%, and overall accuracy of 93.8% on an independent test set. Comparisons with the existing methods showed that LC-NB and LC-MLP held better accuracy. Our study suggests that potential serum biomarkers can be determined for discriminating LC and non-LC cohorts by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These two classifiers could be used for clinical practice in HBV-induced LC assessment. PMID:23509784

Cao, Yuan; He, Kun; Cheng, Ming; Si, Hai-Yan; Zhang, He-Lin; Song, Wei; Li, Ai-Ling; Hu, Cheng-Jin; Wang, Na

2013-02-19

340

Copper storage disease of the liver and chronic dietary copper intoxication in two further German infants mimicking Indian childhood cirrhosis.  

PubMed

A severe copper storage disease of the liver with micronodular cirrhosis resembling Indian childhood cirrhosis (ICC) was found in two siblings of a German family leading to death in one infant at the age of 13 months. The fatal outcome correlated with severe ballooning of hepatocytes and excessive formation of Mallory bodies. The copper content of the liver was 698 micrograms per gramme wet weight (control 5 micrograms) in the living patient and 2154 micrograms per gramme dry weight (controls 39, 54 micrograms) in the dead infant. In both cases copper was stored not only in hepatocytes but also to a high degree in mesenchymal cells. Chronic contamination of drinking water supplied from a well via copper pipes could be verified as the cause of copper intoxication, lending further support to ICC as an environmental, acquired disorder. Accumulation of exogenic copper already very early in infancy appears most important for the development of the disease, as both the parents and one child not exposed to copper intoxication during the first 9 months of its life are clinically healthy. PMID:3362750

Müller-Höcker, J; Meyer, U; Wiebecke, B; Hübner, G; Eife, R; Kellner, M; Schramel, P

1988-02-01

341

Smoking and liver cancer in China: case-control comparison of 36,000 liver cancer deaths vs. 17,000 cirrhosis deaths.  

PubMed

Liver cancer and liver cirrhosis are common causes of death in China, where chronic lifelong hepatitis B infection is a major cause of both diseases. To help determine whether smoking is a cofactor for the development of liver cancer, we ascertained retrospectively the smoking habits of 36,000 adults who had died from liver cancer (cases) and 17,000 who had died from cirrhosis (controls) in 24 Chinese cities and 74 rural counties. Calculations of the smoker vs. nonsmoker risk ratios (RR) for liver cancer mortality were standardised for age and locality. Among adult men (aged 35+) there was a 36% excess risk of death from liver cancer among smokers (smoker vs. nonsmoker standardised risk ratio [RR] =1.36, with 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-1.43, 2p<0.00001; attributable fraction 18%). In the general male population this indicates absolute risks of death from liver cancer before age 70 of about 4% in smokers and 3% in nonsmokers (in the absence of other causes). Most liver cancer, however, occurs among the 10-12% of men with haematological evidence of chronic hepatitis B infection, so among them the corresponding risks would be about 33% in smokers and 25% in nonsmokers. The RR was approximately independent of age, was similar in urban and rural areas, was not significantly related to the age when smoking started but was significantly (p<0.001) greater for cigarette smokers than for smokers of other forms of tobacco. Among men who smoked only cigarettes, the RR was significantly (p<0.001 for trend) related to daily consumption, with a greater hazard among those who smoked 20/day (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.39-1.62) than among those who smoked fewer (mean 10/day: RR=1.32, 95% CI 1.23-1.41). Smoking was also associated with a significant excess of liver cancer death in women (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.29, 2p=0.003; attributable fraction 3%), but fewer women (17%) than men (62%) were smokers, and their cigarette consumption per smoker was lower. Among women who smoked only cigarettes, there was a significantly greater hazard among those who smoked at least 20/day (mean 22/day: RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.18-1.79) than among those who smoked fewer (mean 8/day: RR=1.09, 95% CI 0.94-1.25). These associations indicate that tobacco is currently responsible for about 50,000 liver cancer deaths each year in China, chiefly among men with chronic HBV infection. PMID:12925964

Chen, Zheng-Ming; Liu, Bo-Qi; Boreham, Jillian; Wu, Ya-Ping; Chen, Jun-Shi; Peto, Richard

2003-10-20

342

Heteropolymerization of S, I, and Z ?1-antitrypsin and liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

The association between Z ?1-antitrypsin deficiency and juvenile cirrhosis is well-recognized, and there is now convincing evidence that the hepatic inclusions are the result of entangled polymers of mutant Z ?1-antitrypsin. Four percent of the northern European Caucasian population are heterozygotes for the Z variant, but even more common is S ?1-antitrypsin, which is found in up to 28% of southern Europeans. The S variant is known to have an increased susceptibility to polymerization, although this is marginal compared with the more conformationally unstable Z variant. There has been speculation that the two may interact to produce cirrhosis, but this has never been demonstrated experimentally. This hypothesis was raised again by the observation reported here of a mixed heterozygote for Z ?1-antitrypsin and another conformationally unstable variant (I ?1-antitrypsin; 39Arg?Cys) identified in a 34-year-old man with cirrhosis related to ?1-antitrypsin deficiency. The conformational stability of the I variant has been characterized, and we have used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to demonstrate the formation of heteropolymers between S and Z ?1-antitrypsin. Taken together, these results indicate that not only may mixed variants form heteropolymers, but that this can causally lead to the development of cirrhosis.

Mahadeva, Ravi; Chang, Wun-Shaing W.; Dafforn, Timothy R.; Oakley, Diana J.; Foreman, Richard C.; Calvin, Jacqueline; Wight, Derek G.D.; Lomas, David A.

1999-01-01

343

Ultrasound imaging in an experimental model of fatty liver disease and cirrhosis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Domestic dogs and cats are very well known to develop chronic hepatic diseases, including hepatic lipidosis and cirrhosis. Ultrasonographic examination is extensively used to detect them. However, there are still few reports on the use of the ultrasound B-mode scan in correlation with histological findings to evaluate diffuse hepatic changes in rodents, which represent the most important animal group

Andréia S Lessa; Bruno D Paredes; Juliana V Dias; Adriana B Carvalho; Luiz Fernando Quintanilha; Christina M Takiya; Bernardo R Tura; Guilherme FM Rezende; Antonio C Campos de Carvalho; Célia MC Resende; Regina CS Goldenberg

2010-01-01

344

Liver Metabolic Zonation and Hepatic Microcirculation in Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Experimental Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exact cause of the hepatic failure in livercirrhosis is currently unclear, and two main theorieshave been proposed: the first is based on the alteredhepatocyte function (sick hepatocyte hypothesis); the second on the abnormal hepatic architecture(intact hepatocyte hypothesis). Moreover, themicrocirculation, a fundamental component in liverstructure, shows dramatic changes in cirrhosis thatwould heavily influence the development of thedisease. In order to

Eugenio Gaudio; Paolo Onori; Antonio Franchitto; Roberta Sferra; Oliviero Riggio

1997-01-01

345

Thyroid and Hepatic Haemodynamic Alterations among Egyptian Children with Liver Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Background. Alterations in thyroid hormones regulation and metabolism are frequently observed in patients with cirrhosis. Aims. To assess alterations in thyroid volume (TV), haemodynamics, and hormones in patients with cirrhosis and their relation to hepatic arterial haemodynamics, and disease severity. Methods. Forty cirrhotic patients were compared to 30 healthy subjects regarding TV, free triiodiothyronine (fT3), free tetraiodothyronine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and pulsatility and resistance indices in the inferior thyroid and hepatic arteries. Results. TV (P = 0.042), thyroid volume standard deviation score (TVSDS, P = 0.001), Inferior Thyroid Artery Pulsatility Index (ITAPI, P = 0.001), Inferior Thyroid Artery Resistance Index (ITARI, P = 0.041), Hepatic Artery Pulsatility Index (HAPI, P = 0.029) and Hepatic Artery Resistance Index (HARI, P = 0.035) were higher among cases being highest in Child-C patients. FT3 was lower in patients than controls (P = 0.001) and correlated negatively with ITAPI (r = ?0.71, P = 0.021) and ITARI (r = ?0.79, P = 0.011). ITAPI and ITARI correlated directly with HAPI and HARI (r = 0.62, P = 0.03, and r = 0.42, P = 0.04, resp.). Conclusions. Thyroid is involved in the haemodynamic alterations of cirrhosis. Routine study of thyroid by Doppler and assessment of thyroid functions should be performed in patients with cirrhosis to offer proper treatment if needed.

El-Kabbany, Zeinab A.; Hamza, Rasha T.; Abd El Hakim, Ahmed S.; Tawfik, Lamis M.

2012-01-01

346

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of ethanol extract of Vitex glabrata on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of the ethanol extract of Vitex glabrata (EEVG) in a CCl4-induced liver damage model in rats; and to isolate and characterise the bioactive constituent from EEVG. Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by changes in the levels of the serum enzymes viz. AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin, and further by

V. K. Sridevi; Hemendra S. Chouhan; Narendra K. Singh; Sushil K. Singh

2011-01-01

347

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of ethanol extract of Vitex glabrata on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of the ethanol extract of Vitex glabrata (EEVG) in a CCl4-induced liver damage model in rats; and to isolate and characterise the bioactive constituent from EEVG. Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by changes in the levels of the serum enzymes viz. AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin, and further by

V. K. Sridevi; Hemendra S. Chouhan; Narendra K. Singh; Sushil K. Singh

2012-01-01

348

The modulatory effect of Cochlospermum tinctorium a rich aqueous root extract on liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous root extract of Cochlospermum tinctorium (CTR) was investigated for its phytochemical composition; acute oral toxicity and hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in rats. Phytochemical screening indicates the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, triterpenes, cyanogenic glycosides and volatile oils while steroids and anthraquinones were absent. Administration of 5000 mg\\/kg (body weight) of

E. U. Etuk; B. M. Agaie; M. J. Ladan; I. Garba

349

Social epidemiology of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis mortality in the United States, 1935-1997: trends and differentials by ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and alcohol consumption.  

PubMed

This study examines trends and ethnic and socioeconomic differentials in chronic liver disease and cirrhosis mortality in the United States. Age-adjusted death rates from the National Vital Statistics System were used to analyze race and sex-specific mortality trends from 1968 through 1997. Age-adjusted liver cirrhosis mortality and per capita alcohol consumption data from 1935 through 1996 were modeled using time-series regression. Moreover, the Cox hazards regression was applied to the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, 1979-1989, to examine socioeconomic differentials at the individual level, whereas multivariate ordinary least squares regression was used to model state-specific cirrhosis mortality from 1990 to 1992 as a function of socioeconomic variables and alcohol consumption at the ecological level. Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis continues to be an important cause of death in the United States, even after three decades of consistently declining mortality rates. For both men and women aged 25 years and older, significant mortality differentials were found by age, race/ethnicity, marital status, family income, and employment status. For men, marked differentials were also found by nativity, rural-urban residence, and education. Unemployment, minority concentration, and alcohol consumption were major predictors of state-specific cirrhosis mortality. Both time-series and cross-sectional data indicate a strong correlation between alcohol consumption and US cirrhosis mortality. Substantial ethnic and socioeconomic differences in cirrhosis mortality suggest the need for social and public health policies and interventions that target such high-risk groups as American Indians, Hispanic Americans, the socially isolated, and the poor. PMID:11126726

Singh, G K; Hoyert, D L

2000-10-01

350

Evidence for altered vascular responses to exogenous endothelin-1 in patients with advanced cirrhosis with restoration of the normal vasoconstrictor response following successful liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims: There is evidence that dampened responses to endogenous vasoconstrictors contribute to the hyperdynamic circulation that is characteristic of advanced cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an altered vascular responsiveness to the endothelium derived constricting factor endothelin-1 (ET-1) in patients with decompensated chronic liver disease which might contribute to this abnormal circulatory

R B Vaughan; P W Angus; J P F Chin-Dusting

2003-01-01

351

Molecular identification of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene in liver tissue of primary biliary cirrhosis: Is Propionibacterium acnes involved in granuloma formation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiopathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains speculative. Epithelioid granulomas are often found in the vicinity of damaged interlobular bile ducts in PBC, raising the possibility of a reaction to microbial materials. In this study, we tried to detect and identify bacterial DNA within granulomatous lesions in PBC. Using liver sections from 9 patients with PBC and 13 control

Kenichi Harada; Koichi Tsuneyama; Yoshiko Sudo; Shinji Masuda; Yasuni Nakanuma

2001-01-01

352

Oral Amino Acid Load Mimicking Hemoglobin Results in Reduced Regional Cerebral Perfusion and Deterioration in Memory Tests in Patients with Cirrhosis of the Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests the hypothesis that administration of an oral amino acid load mimicking hemoglobin in patients with cirrhosis of the liver causes deterioration in neuropsychological function and a reduction in regional cerebral perfusion. Eight overnight fasted, metabolically stable cirrhotic patients with no evidence of overt hepatic encephalopathy were studied prior to and 4 h after simulating an upper gastrointestinal

Rajiv Jalan; Steven W. M. Olde Damink; Hock F. Lui; Mike Glabus; Nicolaas E. P. Deutz; Peter C. Hayes; Klaus Ebmeier

2003-01-01

353

Idiopathic Fanconi Syndrome, Epilepsy and Liver Cirrhosis: Is There A Link?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a rare case of idiopathic Fanconi syndrome in a 20-year-old male who after 15 years of follow-up developed\\u000a hepatic cirrhosis of unknown etiology. He was diagnosed with idiopathic Fanconi syndrome at 5 years of age. A few months later\\u000a he developed epilepsy; treatment with valproic acid and carbamazepine was started. He was admitted to our Pediatric Department\\u000a at 20 years

Sónia Fernandes Garcês; Vanessa Mendonça; Rute Vaz; Teresa Campos; Eunice Trindade; Ana Maria Maia; António Caldas Afonso

2009-01-01

354

A Large Spontaneous Splenorenal Shunt in a Patient with Liver Cirrhosis and Uncomplicated Portal Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss, on the basis of a thorough review of the literature, the case of a 70‐year‐old woman with probable cirrhosis secondary to chronic hepatitis B and C, uncomplicated portal hypertension (without ascites, encephalopathy or bleeding varices), splenomegaly and hypersplenism, and an unusual, spontaneous, large splenorenal shunt and recanalization of the umbilical

Silvia Iannello; Luciano Libertini; Romeo Martini; Sebastiano Spina; Giancarlo Busacca; Nunziato Ricciardi; Giuseppe Andreozzi; Francesco Belfiore

1999-01-01

355

Multidetector computed tomography for preoperative assessment of hepatic vasculature and prediction of splenic artery steal syndrome in patients with liver cirrhosis before transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of MDCT for preoperative assessment of hepatic vascular anatomy and\\u000a the identification of liver-transplantation (OLT) patients at risk of developing subsequent splenic artery steal syndrome\\u000a (SASS). A total of 145 patients with liver cirrhosis who had undergone OLT and had pre-operative three-phase MDCT (4- to 64-rows)\\u000a within 100 days before OLT

Christian Grieser; Timm Denecke; Ingo G. Steffen; Maria Avgenaki; Vera Fröhling; Martina Mogl; Dirk Schnapauff; Lukas Lehmkuhl; Lars Stelter; Florian Streitparth; Jan Langrehr; Jan-Holger Rothe; Bernd Hamm; Enrique Lopez Hänninen

2010-01-01

356

Molecular Analysis of A1AT (S and Z) and HFE (C282Y and H63D) Gene Mutations in Egyptian Cases with HCV Liver Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) S and Z deficiency alleles and hemochromatosis (HFE) mutant C282Y, H63D alleles were reported to potentially affect the liver even if present in a heterozygous state. Objectives. This is a cross-sectional, randomized, case controlled study for evaluation of the frequency of these alleles in Egyptian patients with HCV liver cirrhosis and of their association with the disease.

Ahmad Settin; Mahmoud El-Bendary; Rabab Abo-Al-Kassem; Rizk El Baz

357

Serum amyloid A-positive hepatocellular neoplasms in the resected livers from 3 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Twelve hepatocellular nodules were characterized in the resected livers from 3 patients (2 men and a woman) with alcoholic cirrhosis. Imaging techniques suggested that the nodules were hypervascular and may be hepatocellular carcinoma. Five nodules (4-31 mm in diameter) were serum amyloid A-positive hepatocellular neoplasm, which shares features with inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma. The remaining 7 nodules (5-8 mm) were focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules showing focal or no immunostaining for serum amyloid A. The serum amyloid A-positive hepatocellular neoplasms showed increased cellular density, inflammatory infiltrate, sinusoidal dilatation, and ductular reaction to various degrees. These histologic features tended to be less extensive in focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules. Three of 4 serum amyloid A-positive hepatocellular neoplasms showed slight hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase on the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) enhancement. In contrast, 3 focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules showed iso-intensity in the hepatobiliary phase. This study further confirms characteristics of serum amyloid A-positive hepatocellular neoplasm arising in alcoholic cirrhosis that share features with inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas. Serum amyloid A-positive hepatocellular neoplasms sometimes co-exist with focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules and may show different findings on Gd-EOB-enhanced MR imaging. PMID:23690168

Sasaki, Motoko; Kondo, Fukuo; Sawai, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Yasuharu; Kadowaki, Susumu; Sano, Keiji; Fukusato, Toshio; Matsui, Osamu; Nakanuma, Yasuni

2013-05-21

358

Protein isolate from the herb, Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae), plays hepatoprotective role against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage via its antioxidant properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) (P. niruri) is a well-known hepatoprotective herbal plant. In the present study, hepatoprotective potential of the protein isolate of P. niruri was investigated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in vivo. Protein isolate of P. niruri was intraperitoneally injected in mice either prior to (preventive) or after the induction of toxicity (curative). Levels of different

Rajesh Bhattacharjee; Parames C. Sil

2007-01-01

359

Pharmacokinetics of dl-praeruptorin A after single-dose intravenous administration to rats with liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Background and the purpose of the study As a novel drug in the treatment of cardiac diseases, dl-praeruptorin A (Pd-Ia) is the major active component of traditional herbal medicine Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn and is metabolized primarily via cytochrome P450 isozymes (CYP) 3A1 and 3A2 in rats. In the present study, the influence of liver cirrhosis on pharmacokinetics of Pd-Ia and hepatic mRNA expression of CYP3A1 and 3A2 in rats with experimental liver cirrhosis (LC rats) were evaluated. Methods Pd-Ia was given intravenously (5 mg kg?1) to LC rats induced by dimethylnitrosamine and pharmacokinetic variables were measured. Enzyme kinetic metabolism of Pd-Ia in rat hepatic microsomes was also investigated and hepatic mRNA expression of CYP3A1 and 3A2 were measured by real-time PCR. Results and major conclusion After intravenous administration in LC rats, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-8) was significantly greater than that in control rats, which might be due to slower rate of the hepatic blood flow and significant slower hepatic intrinsic clearance (CLint) in rats. The decreased metabolic clearance of Pd-Ia in LC rats might be at least partly caused by the decreased levels of CYP3A1 and 3A2 responsible for Pd-Ia metabolism. These findings may provide new insights into the inter- and intra-individual pharmacokinetic variability of Pd-Ia.

Zhang, Z; Liang, XF; Su, MQ; Liang, Q; Li, LP; Zhang, XH; Wang, XM; Zhu, X

2011-01-01

360

Large volume abdominal paracentesis effect on some humoral factors and cardiac performance in patients with liver cirrhosis and tense ascities.  

PubMed

Tense ascites is one of the most disabling and distressing manifestation of liver cirrhosis. In the presence of ascites alteration in ventricular function is marked. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous system, whose activation is marked when tense ascites develops, could be involved as pathogenic factors causing increased left ventricular wall thickness. Large volume paracentesis (LVP) is an old but safe and effective procedure to mobilize ascitic fluid in cirrhotic patients. The study evaluated the left ventricular function in patients with liver cirrhosis and tense ascites and determine the effect of total abdominal paracentesis on cardiac performance and correlated between cardiac performance and some humoral factors (renin, aldosterone, nor-epinephrine and epinephrine) in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Fifty cirrhotic patients with tense ascites, besides 20 normal persons matched with patients in age and gender as a control group were included in our study. All patients were hospitalized and, submitted to a 4 days bed rest, low sodium diet and subjected to full investigations clinically and laboratory. Abdominal paracentesis was done to all patients (mean volume 7.5 + 11.7 L) with dexran-70 infusion. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after paracentesis for neurohormonal assay (plasma rennin activity PRA, plasma aldosterone PA, plasma nor-epinephrine and epinephrine). The plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone, plasma epinephrine, and plasma nor epinephrine was significantly higher than control. They showed significant reduction after paracentesis but still significantly higher than control levels. The results showed that sudden abdominal decompression could play a role in the post paracentesis systemic haemodynamic changes through mechanical decompression of the splanchinic vascular bed. Total paracentesis with albumin infusion causes immediate favorable effects; increasing cardiac output, suppressing plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone, decreasing serum createnine and blood urea nitrogen and reducing portal pressure and Porto collateral blood flow. PMID:17985589

El-Ashry, Naema; El-Damarawy, Mervat; Salem, Mohamed; Mogawer, Sherif

2007-08-01

361

[Isolated injury of the gallbladder. A rare cause of hemorrhagic shock after blunt abdominal trauma in a patient with liver cirrhosis].  

PubMed

Isolated injuries to the gallbladder are extremely rare in blunt abdominal trauma, with a reported incidence of less than 2%. We report a case with partial avulsion of the gallbladder and subsequent hemorrhagic shock in a patient with liver cirrhosis. Although the gallbladder injury was demonstrated on CT images (with contrast enhancement in the bed of the gallbladder), the correct diagnosis was not established preoperatively. Emergency laparotomy revealed partial avulsion of the gallbladder and the underlying condition of severe liver cirrhosis with ascites. We estimate that the gallbladder avulsion occurred due to compressional waves of the ascites (during blunt abdominal injury) which may have sheared off the gallbladder from the cirrhotic liver. The patient received cholecystectomy, which is recommended as standard in case of gallbladder injury. PMID:16437229

Sandor, L; Kiss, L

2006-08-01

362

Mitigation of carbon tetrachloride-induced damage by Phyllanthus amarus in liver of mice.  

PubMed

Liver disease has become a global concern worldwide. In absence of reliable liver protective drugs in modem medicine, a large number of medicinal preparations are recommended for the treatment of liver disorders as they are believed to be harmless based on their natural origin. The aim of the present study was to determine the hepatoprotective activity of Phyllanthus amarus plant extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage in female mice. Carbon tetrachloride administration caused a significant increase in liver and serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP), while total protein content significantly decreased as compared to vehicle control. The effect was dose-dependent. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus along with carbon tetrachloride caused significant mitigation of CCl4-induced changes. PMID:19702178

Krithika, Rajesh; Verma, Ramtej J

363

Clearance by the liver in cirrhosis. II. Characterization of propranolol uptake with the multiple-indicator dilution technique.  

PubMed

We studied the steady-state hepatic extraction and single-pass hepatic uptake of propranolol in isolated perfused livers from normal rats and compared these values with those of rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis, rats treated with chlorpromazine (an inhibitor of propranolol metabolism) and rats with acute liver injury. The kinetics of propranolol transport in the liver were characterized by means of the multiple-indicator dilution technique, and estimates of cellular influx, efflux and sequestration rate constants were obtained with a computer fit to the model of Goresky. The outflow pattern of propranolol in the hepatic veins was then resolved into throughput material, which had swept past the hepatocytes along with albumin, and returning material, which had entered the cells but returned in the outflow after escaping metabolic sequestration. The steady-state extraction of propranolol was significantly decreased in the three experimental groups compared with that in controls, but the outflow profile differed within each group. In cirrhotic animals, influx was markedly decreased and the sequestration rate constant remained unchanged; most of the propranolol in the outflow consisted of throughput material. In rats treated with chlorpromazine, the sequestration rate constant was decreased, and propranolol in the outflow was mainly returning material. In rats with acute liver injury, both influx and sequestration rate constants were decreased. Indicator dilution curves for nonsequestered tracers showed a decreased transit time for red blood cells and abnormal diffusion of albumin and sucrose into the space of Disse in cirrhotic rats compared with the other groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8406355

Gariépy, L; Fenyves, D; Kassissia, I; Villeneuve, J P

1993-10-01

364

Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver, CREST syndrome and primary biliary cirrhosis: an overlap syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver (NRHL) has been found in association with collagen vascular diseases, after drug therapy, with autoimmune disease, and with a variety of haematological disorders. The association of NRHL with the syndrome of Calcinosis cutis, Raynaud's phenomenon, oesophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia (CREST syndrome) has only been reported on two previous occasions. The liver disease usually

R F McMahon; C Babbs; T W Warnes

1989-01-01

365

End-stage liver cirrhosis with severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia, treated by blood type-incompatible living donor liver transplantation: a case report.  

PubMed

We present a case of successful living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for liver cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus with severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) using an ABO-incompatible (ABOi) graft. The patient was a 47-year-old woman who had a history of ruptured esophageal varices, accumulation of intractable ascites, frequent hepatic encephalopathy and severe anemia, with a hemoglobin value of approximately 3 g/dL due to AIHA. We treated the patient by LDLT using an ABOi liver graft. The treatment strategy included anti-CD20 antibody, plasma exchange and transfusion before LDLT. The patient's anemia improved after surgery; she required only 2 units of irradiated red blood cell concentrates-leukocytes reduced. The patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 35. Two years after surgery, the patient still shows normal hepatic and hematological findings. The immunomodulation protocol for ABOi LDLT was effective not only to avoid humoral reactions associated with ABOi LDLT, but also those associated with AIHA. PMID:21693332

Sanefuji, K; Ikegami, T; Nagata, S; Sugimachi, K; Gion, T; Uchiyama, H; Soejima, Y; Taketomi, A; Shirabe, K; Maehara, Y

2011-06-01

366

Coffee, Cirrhosis, and Transaminase Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A minority of persons at risk develop liver cirrhosis, but knowledge of risk modulators is sparse. Sev- eral reports suggest that coffee drinking is associated with lower cirrhosis risk. Methods: We studied 125 580 multiethnic members of a comprehensive prepaid health care plan without known liver disease who supplied baseline data at voluntary health examinations from 1978 to 1985.

Arthur L. Klatsky; Cynthia Morton; Natalia Udaltsova; Gary D. Friedman

2006-01-01

367

Expression and coordinated regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis C virus-induced liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are central to tissue remodelling; however, little is known about the temporal pattern and differential regulation of hepatic MMP expression in the course of chronic human liver disease. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR ELISA assays, we studied hepatic mRNA expression of MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -9, -10, -11, -13 and -14 in patients with chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis C virus-induced end-stage liver cirrhosis and controls. Results were compared with histology, hepatic expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, -2 and -3, procollagen types I and IV, laminin, and with circulating protein levels of hyaluronate, TIMP-1 and -2 and MMP proenzymes, as measured by ELISA. The impact of the MMP-3(-1171) promoter polymorphism on hepatic MMP-3 expression was analysed. Hepatic mRNA expression data identified differentially regulated groups of MMPs during the course of chronic hepatitis C, showing either steadily increasing mRNA expression with disease progression (MMP-1, -2, -7 and -14) or transiently elevated expression (MMP-9, -11 and -13). The first group closely correlated to the parameters of fibrogenesis. Hepatic MMP-3 expression was unrelated to disease stage, but was determined by the MMP-3(-1171) promoter polymorphism. In conclusion, MMP expression during the course of chronic hepatitis C appears to be a closely regulated process, with different clusters of coordinately regulated MMP genes being identified. PMID:12760742

Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Bahr, Matthias J; Wehmeier, Michael; Michels, Dirk; Haberkorn, Christian I; Arndt, Burkhard; Flemming, Peer; Manns, Michael P; Boeker, Klaus H W

2003-09-01

368

A large spontaneous splenorenal shunt in a patient with liver cirrhosis and uncomplicated portal hypertension.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss, on the basis of a thorough review of the literature, the case of a 70-year-old woman with probable cirrhosis secondary to chronic hepatitis B and C, uncomplicated portal hypertension (without ascites, encephalopathy or bleeding varices), splenomegaly and hypersplenism, and an unusual, spontaneous, large splenorenal shunt and recanalization of the umbilical vein. The tortuous and varicose splenorenal shunt was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound and CT investigations. A duplex Doppler ultrasonography evaluation was performed to study shunt flow direction and velocity. No gastroesophageal varices were identified on endoscopic examination. The clinical relevance of spontaneous splenorenal shunt, often associated with fundic gastric varices, is discussed. PMID:10754366

Iannello, S; Libertini, L; Martini, R; Spina, S; Busacca, G; Ricciardi, N; Andreozzi, G; Belfiore, F

1999-01-01

369

Aflatoxin-Induced TP53 R249S Mutation in HepatoCellular Carcinoma in Thailand: Association with Tumors Developing in the Absence of Liver Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Primary Liver Cancer (PLC) is the leading cause of death by cancer among males in Thailand and the 3rd among females. Most cases are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but cholangiocarcinomas represent between 4 and 80% of liver cancers depending upon geographic area. Most HCC are associated with chronic infection by Hepatitis B Virus while a G?T mutation at codon 249 of the TP53 gene, R249S, specific for exposure to aflatoxin, is detected in tumors for up to 30% of cases. We have used Short Oligonucleotide Mass Analysis (SOMA) to quantify free circulating R249S-mutated DNA in plasma using blood specimens collected in a hospital case:control study. Plasma R249S-mutated DNA was detectable at low concentrations (?67 copies/mL) in 53 to 64% of patients with primary liver cancer or chronic liver disease and in 19% of controls. 44% of patients with HCC and no evidence of cirrhosis had plasma concentrations of R249S-mutated DNA ?150 copies/mL, compared to 21% in patients with both HCC and cirrhosis, 22% in patients with cholangiocarcinoma, 12% in patients with non-cancer chronic liver disease and 3% of subjects in the reference group. Thus, plasma concentrations of R249S-mutated DNA ?150 copies/mL tended to be more common in patients with HCC developing without pre-existing cirrhosis (p?=?0.027). Overall, these results support the preferential occurrence of R249S-mutated DNA in HCC developing in the absence of cirrhosis in a context of HBV chronic infection.

Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Gouas, Doriane; Nogueira da Costa, Andre; Plymoth, Amelie; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Kalalak, Anant; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Friesen, Marlin D.; Groopman, John D.; Hainaut, Pierre

2012-01-01

370

Adenosine deaminase activity in tuberculous peritonitis among patients with underlying liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the value of adenosine deaminase (ADA) for early detection of tuberculous peritonitis (TBP) among cirrhotic patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 22 patients with TBP from July 1990 to June 2010. Twenty-five cirrhotic patients with uninfected ascites were prospectively enrolled as the cirrhosis control group from July 2010 to June 2011. An additional group of 217 patients whose ascites ADA levels were checked in various clinical conditions were reviewed from July 2008 to June 2010 as the validation group. RESULTS: The mean ascites ADA value of cirrhotic patients with TBP (cirrhotic TBP group, n = 8) was not significantly different from that of non-cirrhotic patients (non-cirrhotic TBP group, n = 14; 58.1 ± 18.8 U/L vs 70.6 ± 29.8 U/L, P = 0.29), but the mean ascites ADA value of the cirrhotic TBP group was significantly higher than that of the cirrhosis control group (58.1 ± 18.8 U/L vs 7.0 ± 3.7 U/L, P < 0.001). ADA values were correlated with total protein values (r = 0.909, P < 0.001). Using 27 U/L as the cut-off value of ADA, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 93.3%, respectively, for detecting TBP in the validation group. CONCLUSION: Even with lower ADA activity in ascites among cirrhotic patients, ADA values were significantly elevated during TBP, indicating that ADA can still be a valuable diagnostic tool.

Liao, Yi-Jun; Wu, Chun-Ying; Lee, Shou-Wu; Lee, Chia-Ling; Yang, Sheng-Shun; Chang, Chi-Sen; Lee, Teng-Yu

2012-01-01

371

Ursodiol use is possibly associated with lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C virus-associated liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

In a previous study of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated liver cirrhosis (HCV-LC), we showed that increased liver inflammation, as assessed by higher serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), was associated with increased risk for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This suggested that suppression of inflammation might inhibit HCC development in HCV-LC. Several agents have been suggested to possess chemopreventive potential against the development of HCC in chronic HCV-associated liver disease, including herbal medicines, such as Stronger-Neo-Minophagen C (glycyrrhizin) and Sho-saiko-to (TJ-9). Ursodiol [ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)], a bile acid widely used to treat cholestatic liver diseases, also possesses anti-inflammatory properties in liver disease. We hypothesized that suppression of liver inflammation, as assessed by decreases in serum ALT, might inhibit HCC occurrence in patients with HCV-LC. In this study, the preventive effect of UDCA on HCC was examined in patients with early-stage HCV-LC. One hundred two patients with HCV-LC (Child stage A) were treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, Stronger-Neo-Minophagen C,Sho-saiko-to, or UDCA, with the goal of lowering the average serum ALT level to <80 IU. Iftheaverage ALT level did not remain <80 IU after treatment with one agent, multiagent therapy was initiated. The patients were followed up for >5 years and were retrospectively subdivided into two groups: 56 UDCA users (group A) and 46 UDCA nonusers (group B). The mean +/- SD dosage of UDCA administered in group A was 473.7 +/- 183.0 mg/d. The average duration of UDCA administration in group A was 37.3 +/- 15.9 months over the 5-year study period. The cumulative incidence of HCC was recorded. The 5-year incidence of HCC in group A was 17.9% (10 of 56) and was significantly lower than that in group B (39.1%, 18 of 46; P = 0.025). The risk for HCC incidence, calculated by a logistic regression model, showed that the administration of UDCA significantly decreased hepatocarcinogenesis (P = 0.036). The herbal medicines used were comparable in dosage and treatment duration in the UDCA and non-UDCA groups. In conclusion, UDCA might prevent HCC development in HCV-LC. Interestingly, because the serum ALT trends over time were nearly the same in both groups, the chemopreventive effectiveness of UDCA was not accompanied by greater reductions in ALT compared with the UDCA nonusers. PMID:15668491

Tarao, Kazuo; Fujiyama, Shigetoshi; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Miyakawa, Kaoru; Tamai, Setsuo; Hirokawa, Satoru; Masaki, Takahiro; Tanaka, Katsuaki

2005-01-01

372

Detection of hepatitis B virus DNA by polymerase chain reaction in HBsAg negative Senegalese patients suffering from cirrhosis or primary liver cancer.  

PubMed

The polymerase chain reaction was used to search for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA sequences in the sera of HBsAg-negative Senegalese patients suffering from liver cirrhosis or liver cancer. Amplified HBV-DNA sequences were detected by hybridization with a digoxigenin-labelled HBV-DNA probe. HBV-DNA was detected in 17% of HBsAg negative Senegalese subjects from the general population and in 44% and 58% of the patients suffering from cirrhosis or primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHCC) respectively. In the control group, amplified HBV-DNA was detected in 25% of the subjects without HBsAg and anti-HBs antibodies, and in 6% of subjects positive for anti-HBs antibodies. This study confirmed the hypothesis that there is an etiologic link between HBV and PHCC in HBsAg-negative patients. PMID:1778420

Coursaget, P; Le Cann, P; Leboulleux, D; Diop, M T; Bao, O; Coll, A M

1991-09-15

373

Resolution of liver cirrhosis using vitamin A–coupled liposomes to deliver siRNA against a collagen-specific chaperone  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are currently no approved antifibrotic therapies for liver cirrhosis. We used vitamin A–coupled liposomes to deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA) against gp46, the rat homolog of human heat shock protein 47, to hepatic stellate cells. Our approach exploits the key roles of these cells in both fibrogenesis as well as uptake and storage of vitamin A. Five treatments with

Yasushi Sato; Kazuyuki Murase; Junji Kato; Masayoshi Kobune; Tsutomu Sato; Yutaka Kawano; Rishu Takimoto; Kouichi Takada; Koji Miyanishi; Takuya Matsunaga; Tetsuji Takayama; Yoshiro Niitsu

2008-01-01

374

Studies on the effects of estrogen on In Vitro antibody production in autoimmune liver diseases, including lupoid hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Antibody-forming cells produced by adding trinitrophenylated sheep red blood cells (TNP-SRBC) were induced, when peripheral\\u000a blood mononuclear cells from normal individuals and patients with autoimmune liver diseases, including lupoid hepatitis and\\u000a primary biliary cirrhosis, were stimulatedin vitro with pokeweed mitogen (PWM). Although antibody responses were significantly augmented by adding estrogen simultaneously with\\u000a PWM to mononuclear cell cultures prepared from normal

Yasuhiro Mizoguchi; Yoshihiro Ikemoto; Sukeo Yamamoto; Seiji Morisawa

1985-01-01

375

Transforming growth factor-? gene expression in normal and fibrotic rat liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is considered to be an important mediator in the development of fibrosis in several chronic liver diseases. To understand the mechanism(s) by which TGF-? exerts its action(s), we investigated the cellular distribution of TGF-?1,2,3 transcripts in normal and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced fibrotic rat liver.Methods: Parenchymal, sinusoidal endothelial, Kupffer and stellate cells were isolated and purified.

Pieter J. De Bleser; Toshiro Niki; Vera Rogiers; Albert Geerts

1997-01-01

376

Effective protection of Terminalia catappa L. leaves from damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in liver mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effects of chloroform extracts of Terminalia catappa L. leaves (TCCE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage and the possible mechanisms involved in the protection were investigated in mice. We found that increases in the activity of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and the level of liver lipid peroxidation (2.0-fold, 5.7-fold and 2.8-fold) induced by CCl4 were significantly

Xinhui Tang; Jing Gao; Yanping Wang; Yi-Mei Fan; Li-Zhi Xu; Xiao-ning Zhao; Qiang Xu; Zhong Ming Qian

2006-01-01

377

Platelet-derived growth factor isoform expression in carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic liver injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has an essential role in liver fibrogenesis, as PDGF-B and -D both act as potent mitogens on culture-activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Induction of PDGF receptor type-? (PDGFR?) in HSC is well documented in single-dose carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury. Of the newly discovered isoforms PDGF-C and -D, only PDGF-D shows significant upregulation in bile

Erawan Borkham-Kamphorst; Evgenia Kovalenko; Claudia R C van Roeyen; Nikolaus Gassler; Michael Bomble; Tammo Ostendorf; Jürgen Floege; Axel M Gressner; Ralf Weiskirchen

2008-01-01

378

Identification of liver proteins and their roles associated with carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a common hepatotoxin used in experimental models to elicit liver injury. To identify the proteins involved in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was employed followed by mass spectrometry - mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS) to study the differentially expressed proteins during CCl4 exposure in the Fischer 344 rat liver proteome for 5 weeks. Ten spots with notable changes

Leo Lap Yan Wong; Sheung Tat Fan; Kwan Man; Wai-Hung Sit; Ping Ping Jiang; Irene Wing-Yan Jor; Carol Yee-Ki Lee; Wai Lim Ling; Kin Tung Tam; Jennifer Man-Fan Wan

2011-01-01

379

Low incidence of vascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus associated with liver cirrhosis as compared with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

We compared clinical features and vascular complications of patients with diabetes mellitus associated with liver cirrhosis versus patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subjects were 19 patients (LC-DM group) in whom diabetes was diagnosed after development of liver cirrhosis. Control consisted of 38 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM group) matched for sex, age, duration of diabetes, body mass index, treatment, and degree of glycemic control, which was determined by glycoalbumin. The LC-DM group had significantly more smokers, higher serum insulin levels, more insulin resistance calculated by homeostasis model assessment, lower blood counts (white and red blood cells, hemoglobin, and platelets), and lower serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipoprotein (Lp)(a) than the T2DM group. The incidence of diabetic retinopathy and cerebrovascular disease was significantly lower in the LC-DM group compared to the T2DM group. Logistic regression analysis indicated that Lp(a) and the diabetes duration were significant predictors for the retinopathy, while Lp(a) was a significant predictor for the cerebrovascular complication. In diabetes associated with liver cirrhosis, the incidence of diabetic retinopathy and cerebrovascular disease is lower than in type 2 diabetes mellitus in this study, probably because of lower levels of serum Lp(a). PMID:15750328

Fujiwara, Fumikado; Ishii, Mototsugu; Taneichi, Haruhito; Miura, Masanori; Toshihiro, Makiko; Takebe, Noriko; Ishida, Wataru; Kaneko, Yoshihito; Kato, Akinobu; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Satoh, Jo

2005-04-01

380

Primary biliary cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic and slowly progressive cholestatic liver disease of autoimmune etiology characterized by injury of the intrahepatic bile ducts that may eventually lead to liver failure. Affected individuals are usually in their fifth to seventh decades of life at time of diagnosis, and 90% are women. Annual incidence is estimated between 0.7 and 49 cases

Teru Kumagi; E Jenny Heathcote

2008-01-01

381

Level of oxidative stress in the red blood cells of patients with liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: The level of methaemoglobin was significantly higher ( P < 0.001) in the red blood cells of liver cirrhotic patients with bleeding complication compared to that of non bleeding patients. The activity level of NADH-methaemoglobin reductase was significantly lower ( P<0.001) compared to that of normal subjects. Levels of oxidative stress markers including nitric oxide were found to be

A. Geetha; M. D. Lakshmi Priya; S. Annie Jeyachristy; R. Surendran

2007-01-01

382

[A case with chronic hepatitis C who developed liver cirrhosis due to liver dysfunction caused by pegylated interferon plus ribavirin treatment despite negativity of serum HCV RNA, during therapy].  

PubMed

We report a case of chronic hepatitis C in whom liver cirrhosis was later diagnosed following abnormality of ALT levels during pegylated interferon ?2a and ribavirin treatment. A 62-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C was treated with pegylated interferon ?2a plus ribavirin for 72 weeks. Her HCV RNA became negative 16 weeks after the start of treatment and continued to be negative for most of the treatment duration. Her AST/ALT, ALP/?-GTP levels became elevated soon after the initiation of treatment and thereafter remained unchanged. However, most of these levels normalized after the end of treatment. Post-treatment liver biopsy showed liver cirrhosis, probably due to the interferon treatment itself. This unusual therapeutic outcome should be considered if the levels of hepatic dysfunction during interferon treatment are severe. PMID:21307632

Ohkoshi, Shogo; Morita, Shin-Ichi; Tanaka, Yukari; Yano, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Manabu; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Ikeda, Haruo; Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yasunobu; Nomoto, Minoru; Aoyagi, Yutaka

2011-02-01

383

[Anesthetic management of a patient with a giant bulla and liver cirrhosis using a laryngeal mask airway and epidural analgesia].  

PubMed

A laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and epidural analgesia were used for anesthetic management of microwave coagulo-necrotic therapy for multiple hepatoma in a 76-year-old male with a giant bulla and liver cirrhosis. Since bleeding times, PT and APTT were within normal limits, an epidural catheter was inserted between Th9 and 10 interspaces in operating room. After preoxygenation, general anesthesia was induced with propofol 120 mg. After insertion of a LMA, anesthesia was maintained under spontaneous breathing with sevoflurane (1-1.5%) in about 45% oxygen and nitrogen. During the operation, 2% lidocaine was injected continuously into the epidural space. Continuous epidural injection of 2% lidocaine was found to be very effective for obtaining abdominal muscle relaxation and perioperative pain management. Postoperative chest X ray did not show any signs of rupture of the giant bulla, and any neurological abnormalities due to the epidural hematoma were not encountered. We could reduce the risk of rupture of a giant bulla during general anesthesia using a LMA and epidural analgesia. PMID:11452473

Nozaki, K; Endou, A; Sakurai, K; Takahata, O; Iwasaki, H

2001-06-01

384

Relationship between MIF-173 G/C polymorphism and susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B and HBV-induced liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, played an important role in immune-mediated diseases. The promoter region of MIF, which had functional polymorphisms, controlled MIF expression. MIF polymorphism was associated with many inflammatory diseases. But the association of MIF polymorphism with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) or HBV-induced liver cirrhosis (HC) had not yet been reported. In present study, polymorphism of MIF-173 was genotyped in 95 CHB patients, 73 HC patients and 90 healthy controls in southern China. The frequency of MIF-173 C/C genotype in patients with CHB or HC was statistically significantly higher than that in healthy controls, respectively. Moreover, difference in the distribution of MIF-173 C allele between CHB patients and healthy controls was statistically significant. However, there was no statistical relationship between MIF-173 genotype and clinical features in patients with CHB or HC. Our results suggest that MIF-173 C/C polymorphism might be associated with increased risk of CHB or HC in Chinese southern population. PMID:23770720

Zhang, Ka; Pan, Xingfei; Shu, Xin; Cao, Hong; Chen, Lubiao; Zou, Yong; Deng, Hong; Li, Gang; Xu, Qihuan

2013-05-06

385

Protective effect of potato peel extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats.  

PubMed

Our earlier studies have shown that extracts derived from potato peel (PPE) are rich in polyphenols and possess strong antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo. The objective of the present study was to investigate its potential to offer protection against acute liver injury in rats. Rats pretreated with PPE (oral, 100mg/kgb.w./day for 7 days) were administered a single oral dose carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4), 3ml/kg b.w., 1:1 in groundnut oil) and sacrificed 8h of post-treatment. Hepatic damage was assessed by employing biochemical parameters (transaminase enzyme levels in plasma and liver [AST-aspartate transaminase; ALT-alanine transaminase, LDH-lactate dehydrogenase]). Further, markers of hepatic oxidative damage were measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA), enzymic antioxidants (CAT, SOT, GST, GPX) and GSH (reduced glutathione) levels. In addition, the CCl(4)-induced pathological changes in liver were evaluated by histopathological studies. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment of rats with PPE significantly prevented the increased activities of AST and ALT in serum, prevented the elevation of hepatic MDA formation as well as protected the liver from GSH depletion. PPE pretreatment also restored CCl(4)-induced altered antioxidant enzyme activities to control levels. The protective effect of PPE was further evident through the decreased histological alterations in liver. Our findings provide evidences to demonstrate that PPE pretreatment significantly offsets CCl(4)-induced liver injury in rats, which may be attributable to its strong antioxidant propensity. PMID:21791371

Singh, Nandita; Kamath, Vasudeva; Narasimhamurthy, K; Rajini, P S

2008-06-08

386

Next-generation sequence analysis of genes associated with obesity and nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease-related cirrhosis in extreme obesity.  

PubMed

Objectives: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in or near several loci that are associated with the risk of obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that missense variants in GWAS and related candidate genes may underlie cases of extreme obesity and NAFLD-related cirrhosis, an extreme manifestation of NAFLD. Methods: We performed whole-exome sequencing on 6 Caucasian patients with extreme obesity [mean body mass index (BMI) 84.4] and 4 obese Caucasian patients (mean BMI 57.0) with NAFLD-related cirrhosis. Results: Sequence analysis was performed on 24 replicated GWAS and selected candidate obesity genes and 5 loci associated with NAFLD. No missense variants were identified in 19 of the 29 genes analyzed, although all patients carried at least 2 missense variants in the remaining genes without excess homozygosity. One patient with extreme obesity carried 2 novel damaging mutations in BBS1 and was homozygous for benign and damaging MC3R variants. In addition, 1 patient with NAFLD-related cirrhosis was compound heterozygous for rare damaging mutations in PNPLA3. Conclusions: These results indicate that analyzing candidate loci previously identified by GWAS analyses using whole-exome sequencing is an effective strategy to identify potentially causative missense variants underlying extreme obesity and NAFLD-related cirrhosis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24081230

Gerhard, Glenn S; Chu, Xin; Wood, G Craig; Gerhard, Genevieve M; Benotti, Peter; Petrick, Anthony T; Gabrielsen, Jon; Strodel, William E; Still, Christopher D; Argyropoulos, George

2013-09-27

387

Hepatocellular nodules in cirrhosis: focus on diagnostic criteria on liver biopsy. A Western experience.  

PubMed

The spectrum of so-called space-occupying small (0.5-2.5 cm) sizable nodules arising in the cirrhotic liver includes a series of hyperplastic (large regenerative), dysplastic (low- and high-grade dysplastic), and malignant hepatocellular (well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC) nodules. Major progress in their classification and understanding was achieved through image analysis techniques and careful histological dissection of explanted native livers. Needless to say, the actual understanding of their natural history is crucial to a proper histological classification. The differential diagnosis of these hepatocellular nodules is difficult, particularly on biopsy specimens of focal liver lesions revealed by ultrasound (US), taken during the follow-up of cirrhotic patients. In this study we attempted to summarize, on the basis of our experience, essential clinicopathological features useful to distinguish the different nodules on needle biopsy. Synoptic tables of differential diagnosis and figures of elementar lesions, which have to be looked for, are provided. Only the continuous integration of clinical features, image analysis information of pathological findings, and follow-up data allows establishing the autonomy of these polymorphic and controversial entities and the boundaries between them. PMID:14762832

Roncalli, Massimo

2004-02-01

388

Hepatoprotective effect and its possible mechanism of Coptidis rhizoma aqueous extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic liver hepatotoxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceCoptidis rhizoma is traditionally used for heat-clearing and toxic-scavenging and it belongs to liver meridian in Chinese medicine practice. Clinically, Coptidis rhizoma can be used for hepatic and biliary disorders, yet details in the therapies of liver diseases and underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that Coptidis rhizoma aqueous extract (CRAE) against CCl4-induced acute liver damage was

Yibin Feng; Ning Wang; Xingshen Ye; Huangyun Li; Yigang Feng; Fan Cheung; Tadashi Nagamatsu

389

Impairment of Response Inhibition Precedes Motor Alteration in the Early Stage of Liver Cirrhosis: A Behavioral and Electrophysiological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormality in movement initiation may partially explain psychomotor delay of cirrhotic patients, even in the absence of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms of psychomotor delay observed in patients with cirrhosis in the absence of overt HE. Fourteen patients with nonalcoholic cirrhosis and 12 healthy matched control subjects underwent the lateralized

Sami Schiff; Antonino Vallesi; Daniela Mapelli; Raffaele Orsato; Andrea Pellegrini; Carlo Umiltà; Angelo Gatta; Piero Amodio

2005-01-01

390

Protective effect of Panax ginseng against serum biochemical changes and apoptosis in liver of rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate possible beneficial effects of Panax ginseng (PG) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. CCl(4) challenge elevated serum enzyme activities of liver and some biochemical parameters, but these effects were prevented by the pretreatment of rats with PG. Histologically, a great amount of mononuclear cells infiltration, necrotic cells and few fibroblasts were observed in liver of CCl(4) group. Also, CD68(+) and caspase-3 staining cells were diffused in both lobular and portal areas. However, PG pretreatment had a little influence on the number of caspase-3 immunopositive staining cells in the liver, but CD68(+) staining areas were significantly decreased in the PG+CCl(4) when compared to CCl(4) group. We conclude that PG treatment may play a protective role by enhancing liver enzyme activities and recovering biochemical parameters, and improving the changes in histological structure against CCl(4)-induced liver damages in rats. PMID:21880419

Karakus, Emre; Karadeniz, Ali; Simsek, Nejdet; Can, Ismail; Kara, Adem; Yildirim, Serap; Kalkan, Yildiray; Kisa, Fikrullah

2011-08-16

391

Liver scan  

MedlinePLUS

... syndrome High pressure in the liver blood vessels (portal hypertension) Infection Injury Liver disease (such as cirrhosis or hepatitis ) Superior vena cava obstruction Splenic infarction (tissue death) Tumors

392

Alcohol and liver cirrhosis mortality in the US: Comparison of methods for the analyses of time-series panel data models  

PubMed Central

Background To explore various model specifications in estimating relationships between liver cirrhosis mortality rates and per capita alcohol consumption in aggregate level cross-section time-series data. Methods Using series of liver cirrhosis mortality rates from 1950 to 2002 for 47 US states, the effects of alcohol consumption were estimated from pooled ARIMA models and four types of panel data models: GEE, GLS, fixed effect and multi-level models. Various specifications of error term structure under each type of model were also examined. Different approaches controlling for time trends and for using concurrent or accumulated consumption as predictors were also evaluated. Results When cirrhosis mortality was predicted by total alcohol, highly consistent estimates were found between ARIMA and panel data analyses, with an average overall effect of 0.07–0.09. Less consistent estimates were derived using spirits, beer and wine consumption as predictors. Conclusions When multiple geographic time series are combined as panel data, none of existent models could accommodate all sources of heterogeneity such that any type of panel model must employ some form of generalization. Different types of panel data models should thus be estimated to examine the robustness of findings. We also suggest cautious interpretation when beverage-specific volumes are used as predictors.

Ye, Yu; Kerr, William C.

2010-01-01

393

Effect of Tinospora crispa on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of the dried stems of Tinospora crispa in a male rat model of hepatic fibrosis caused by the hepatotoxin, thioacetamide. Materials and Methods: The extract was gavaged daily to the rats, at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg along with thioacetamide at a dose of 200 mg/kg twice weekly. To assess the effectivity of extract, against thioacetamide, the activity of aminotransferases (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase), alkaline phosphatase (AP); and bilirubin were measured, together with morphological and histopathological indices in the liver of healthy and thioacetamide-treated rats. Results: A significant increase in the activity of liver enzymes, bilirubin and G-glutamyl transferase and gross and histopathological changes were determined. Although previous in vitro study established that this extract had strong antioxidant activity, this in vivo study establishes that this extract contains hepatotoxins whose identity may be quite different from those compounds with antioxidant properties. Conclusion: The study confirms that complete reliance on data obtained using in vitro methodologies may lead to erroneous conclusions pertaining to the safety of phytopharmaceuticals.

Kadir, Farkaad A.; Othman, Faizah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Hussan, Farida; Hassandarvish, Pouya

2011-01-01

394

Effects of silymarin on the resolution of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.  

PubMed

Silymarin, a standardized extract of the milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has a long tradition as a herbal remedy, and was introduced as a hepatoprotective agent a few years ago. However, the therapeutic effects of silymarin remain undefined. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a xenobiotic used extensively to induce oxidative stress and is one of the most widely used hepatic toxins for experimental induction of liver fibrosis in the laboratory. In this study, we investigated the restoration of the CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis by high dose of silymarin in rats. After treatment with oil (as normal group; n = 6) or CCl4 [as model (n = 7) and therapeutic (n = 7) groups] by intragastric delivery for 8 weeks for the induction of liver fibrosis, the rats in the normal and model group were administered orally normal saline four times a week for 3 weeks whilst the therapeutic group received silymarin (200 mg/kg). The histopathological changes were observed with Masson staining. The results showed that the restoration of the CCl4-induced damage of liver fibrosis in the therapeutic group was significantly increased as compared to that in the model group. Moreover, silymarin significantly decreased the elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase in serum, and also reversed the altered expressions of alpha-smooth muscle actin in liver tissue. Therefore, these findings indicated that silymarin may have the potential to increase the resolution of the CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. PMID:18397225

Tsai, J H; Liu, J Y; Wu, T T; Ho, P C; Huang, C Y; Shyu, J C; Hsieh, Y S; Tsai, C C; Liu, Y C

2008-04-04

395

Impaired evoked and resting-state brain oscillations in patients with liver cirrhosis as revealed by magnetoencephalography???  

PubMed Central

A number of studies suggest that the clinical manifestation of neurological deficits in hepatic encephalopathy results from pathologically synchronized neuronal oscillations and altered oscillatory coupling. In the present study spontaneous and evoked oscillatory brain activities were analyzed jointly with established behavioral measures of altered visual oscillatory processing. Critical flicker and fusion frequencies (CFF, FUF) were measured in 25 patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were collected at rest and during a visual task employing repetitive stimulation. Resting MEG and evoked fields were analyzed. CFF and FUF were found to be reduced in patients, providing behavioral evidence for deficits in visual oscillatory processing. These alterations were found to be related to resting brain activity in patients, namely that the lower the dominant MEG frequency at rest, the lower the CFF and FUF. An analysis of evoked fields at sensor level indicated that in comparison to normal controls, patients were not able to dynamically adapt to flickering visual stimulation. Evoked activity was also analyzed based on independent components (ICs) derived by independent component analysis. The similarity between the shape of each IC and an artificial sine function representing the stimulation frequency was tested via magnitude squared coherence. In controls, we observed a small number of components that correlated strongly with the sine function and a high number of ICs that did not correlate with the sine function. Interestingly, patient data were characterized by a high number of moderately correlating components. Taken together, these results indicate a fundamental divergence of the cerebral resonance activity in cirrhotic patients.

Gotz, Theresa; Huonker, Ralph; Kranczioch, Cornelia; Reuken, Philipp; Witte, Otto W.; Gunther, Albrecht; Debener, Stefan

2013-01-01

396

Treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is generally a progressive disease, the rate of progression varies greatly from one patient to another. The terminal phase is characterized by hyperbilirubinaemia (>100?mol\\/l), a major decrease in the number of intrahepatic bile ducts, and extensive fibrosis or cirrhosis. It is now well established that orthotopic liver transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients

Raoul Poupon; Renée Eugénie Poupon

2000-01-01

397

Impact of untreated portal vein thrombosis on pre and post liver transplant outcomes in cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Background and aims. Most portal vein thromboses (PVT) in cirrhotics are discovered incidentally. While case series demonstrate improved portal vein patency with anti-coagulation, there is little information on impact of PVT on morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to compare morbidity and mortality in cirrhotics with untreated PVT with those without PVT. Material and methods. Cirrhotics evaluated for orthotopic liver transplant in a single large transplant center were prospectively followed. Subjects had contrast CT or MRI at initial evaluation and serial imaging every 6 months until transplantation, removal from the list or death. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to assess associations between new PVT and factors of interest. Results. Of the 290 prospectively followed cirrhotics who met inclusion criteria, PVT was detected in 70 (24.1%)-47 had PVT at the time of initial evaluation and 23 developed one during the pre-transplant study period. A third of the patients with PVT had re-canalization or spontaneous resolution of thrombus while awaiting transplantation. There was no difference in the pre or posttransplant mortality between cirrhotics with and without PVT. Conclusion. Cirrhotics with untreated PVT fared equally well as those without PVT before and after transplantation. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to determine if anticoagulation therapy truly improves outcomes in cirrhotics with portal vein thrombosis. PMID:24114826

Bv, John; R, Konjeti; A, Aggarwal; R, Lopez; A, Atreja; C, Miller; Nn, Zein; Wd, Carey

398

A polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (NanoCurc(TM)) ameliorates CCl4-induced hepatic injury and fibrosis through reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stellate cell activation  

PubMed Central

Plant-derived polyphenols such as curcumin hold promise as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of chronic liver diseases. However, its development is plagued by poor aqueous solubility resulting in poor bioavailability. To circumvent the suboptimal bioavailability of free curcumin, we have developed a polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (NanoCurc™) that overcomes this major pitfall of the free compound. In this study, we show that NanoCurc™ results in sustained intrahepatic curcumin levels that can be found in both hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells. NanoCurc™ markedly inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis. It also enhances antioxidant levels in the liver and inhibits pro-fibrogenic transcripts associated with activated myofibroblasts. Finally, we show that NanoCurc™ directly induces stellate cell apoptosis in vitro. Our results suggest that NanoCurc™ might be an effective therapy for patients with chronic liver disease.

Bisht, Savita; Khan, Mehtab A; Bekhit, Mena; Bai, Haibo; Cornish, Toby; Mizuma, Masamichi; Rudek, Mic