Science.gov

Sample records for cdm clean development

  1. Geophysics and clean development mechanisms (CDM) - Applications to coal fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Lambrecht, A.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    The largest hard coal resources worldwide are found in the coal belt through Northern China and Inner Mongolia. Because of still existing technological problems and a steeply rising demand of coal in this region the most coal fires occur. Once established, coal fires are difficult to extinguish, destroy large amounts of coal and are major challenge to the environment. The Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" conducts field investigations, laboratory measurements and experiments as well as numerical modelling of coal fires in close co-operation with Chinese coal fire fighting departments. A special task within this project is to help the Chinese partners to develop methodologies and project designs to extinguish coal fires under the frame of the Kyoto protocol. In practise, this task requires a robust method to estimate the CO2 baseline of coal fires including fire detection and monitoring. In order to estimate the fire volume, fire propagation and the resulting CO2 exhaust gas volume, different types of geophysical measurements are necessary as near surface temperature and gas measurements, ground penetrating radar etc. Three different types of CO2 exhaust gas estimations from coal fires are discussed: the energy approach, the volume approach and the direct approach. The energy approach highly depends on accurate near surface and gas temperature plus the gas flux data. The volume approach is based on radar and near surface geomagnetic surveying and monitoring. The direct approach relies on the exact knowledge of gas fluxes and volumes. All approaches need reference data as regional to local weather data and petrological parameters of the burning coal. The approaches are evaluated for their use in CO2 baseline estimations and thus for clean development mechanisms.

  2. Policy, institutional and market barriers to the implementation of clean development mechanisms (CDM) in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, L.; Yan, J.Y.

    2005-07-15

    This paper reviews current Chinese policies and administrative and institutional settings for CDM cooperation, and discusses existing policy, institutional and other barriers in the energy market by drawing on observations and experience from previous initiatives such as Cleaner Production and energy efficiency. Some options to remove these barriers are addressed. In order to make CDM projects feasible, China's government needs to promote awareness, streamline administrative systems, and be more active in budding a competitive edge in the world carbon market.

  3. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  4. Courseware Development Model (CDM): The Effects of CDM on Primary School Pre-Service Teachers' Achievements and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efendioglu, Akin

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to design a "Courseware Development Model" (CDM) and investigate its effects on pre-service teachers' academic achievements in the field of geography and attitudes toward computer-based education (ATCBE). The CDM consisted of three components: content (C), learning theory, namely, meaningful learning (ML), and…

  5. The Learning Process and Technological Change in Wind Power: Evidence from China's CDM Wind Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Tian; Popp, David

    2016-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a project-based carbon trade mechanism that subsidizes the users of climate-friendly technologies and encourages technology transfer. The CDM has provided financial support for a large share of Chinese wind projects since 2002. Using pooled cross-sectional data of 486 registered CDM wind projects in China…

  6. Possibility and potential of clean development mechanisms in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Weijun; Zhou, Nan; Li, Haifeng; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2007-10-01

    China has become the world's second largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter behind the United States. It emits approximately three billion tons of CO2 equivalents every year. Its growing economy and large population are making a wealthier, more consumption-oriented country. Energy demand is expected to grow 5 10% per year through 2030. Therefore, a large potential of GHG emission reduction in China can be expected. The clean development mechanism (CDM) put forward in the Kyoto Protocol for reductions of GHGs can support the sustainable development of developing countries and help developed countries to achieve their emission reduction targets at low cost. However, there are still many disagreements to be resolved between developing and developed countries. In this letter, we try to introduce the current development of CDM projects in China and discuss its potential and opportunities in the future decades.

  7. CDM analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Robert E.; Mcentire, Paul L.; Oreilly, John G.

    1993-01-01

    The C Data Manager (CDM) is an advanced tool for creating an object-oriented database and for processing queries related to objects stored in that database. The CDM source code was purchased and will be modified over the course of the Arachnid project. In this report, the modified CDM is referred to as MCDM. Using MCDM, a detailed series of experiments was designed and conducted on a Sun Sparcstation. The primary results and analysis of the CDM experiment are provided in this report. The experiments involved creating the Long-form Faint Source Catalog (LFSC) database and then analyzing it with respect to following: (1) the relationships between the volume of data and the time required to create a database; (2) the storage requirements of the database files; and (3) the properties of query algorithms. The effort focused on defining, implementing, and analyzing seven experimental scenarios: (1) find all sources by right ascension--RA; (2) find all sources by declination--DEC; (3) find all sources in the right ascension interval--RA1, RA2; (4) find all sources in the declination interval--DEC1, DEC2; (5) find all sources in the rectangle defined by--RA1, RA2, DEC1, DEC2; (6) find all sources that meet certain compound conditions; and (7) analyze a variety of query algorithms. Throughout this document, the numerical results obtained from these scenarios are reported; conclusions are presented at the end of the document.

  8. Possibility and potential of clean development mechanisms inChina

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Weijun; Zhou, Nan; Li, Haifeng; Kammen, Daniel

    2007-10-30

    China has become the world's second largest greenhouse gas(GHG) emitter behind the United States. It emits approximately threebillion tons of CO2 equivalents every year. Its growing economy and largepopulation are making a wealthier, more consumption-oriented country.Energy demand is expected to grow 5?10 percent per year through 2030.Therefore, a large potential of GHG emission reduction in Chinacan beexpected. The clean development mechanism (CDM) put forward in the KyotoProtocol for reductions of GHGs can support the sustainable developmentof developing countries and help developed countries to achieve theiremission reduction targets at low cost. However, there are still manydisagreements to be resolved between developing and developed countries.In this letter, we try to introduce the current development of CDMprojects in China and discuss its potential and opportunities in thefuture decades.

  9. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits. PMID:26247291

  10. Suitable scheme study of Chinese Building Energy Efficiency CDM Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Beijia; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Shaoping; Wang, Feng

    2010-11-01

    China has great potential to develop Building Energy Efficiency Clean Development Mechanism (BEE CDM) projects, although have many challenges. Our results show that large-scale public buildings and urban residential buildings have relatively high BEE CDM potential, when comparing their characteristics to the CDM project requirements. The building enclosure, illumination energy conservation, air condition energy saving, solar thermal, and solar photovoltaic technology have relatively high application potential while considering the energy saving potential and marginal emission reduction cost. Case study of large-scale buildings shows that technology integration of building enclosure, illumination energy conservation, air condition energy saving, solar thermal can reduce required building number to 130 in order to meet the 1×105 tCO2 e/a reduction criteria. Some suggestions are also given in this paper.

  11. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  12. Composting projects under the Clean Development Mechanism: Sustainable contribution to mitigate climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Rogger, Cyrill; Beaurain, Francois; Schmidt, Tobias S.

    2011-01-15

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries and at the same time to assist these countries in sustainable development. While composting as a suitable mitigation option in the waste sector can clearly contribute to the former goal there are indications that high rents can also be achieved regarding the latter. In this article composting is compared with other CDM project types inside and outside the waste sector with regards to both project numbers and contribution to sustainable development. It is found that, despite the high number of waste projects, composting is underrepresented and a major reason for this fact is identified. Based on a multi-criteria analysis it is shown that composting has a higher potential for contribution to sustainable development than most other best in class projects. As these contributions can only be assured if certain requirements are followed, eight key obligations are presented.

  13. Operationalizing clean development mechanism baselines: A case study of China's electrical sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenhof, Paul A.

    The global carbon market is rapidly developing as the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol draws closer and Parties to the Protocol with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets seek alternative ways to reduce their emissions. The Protocol includes the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a tool that encourages project-based investments to be made in developing nations that will lead to an additional reduction in emissions. Due to China's economic size and rate of growth, technological characteristics, and its reliance on coal, it contains a large proportion of the global CDM potential. As China's economy modernizes, more technologies and processes are requiring electricity and demand for this energy source is accelerating rapidly. Relatively inefficient technology to generate electricity in China thereby results in the electrical sector having substantial GHG emission reduction opportunities as related to the CDM. In order to ensure the credibility of the CDM in leading to a reduction in GHG emissions, it is important that the baseline method used in the CDM approval process is scientifically sound and accessible for both others to use and for evaluation purposes. Three different methods for assessing CDM baselines and environmental additionality are investigated in the context of China's electrical sector: a method based on a historical perspective of the electrical sector (factor decomposition), a method structured upon a current perspective (operating and build margins), and a simulation of the future (dispatch analysis). Assessing future emission levels for China's electrical sector is a very challenging task given the complexity of the system, its dynamics, and that it is heavily influenced by internal and external forces, but of the different baseline methods investigated, dispatch modelling is best suited for the Chinese context as it is able to consider the important regional and temporal dimensions of its economy and its future development

  14. The correlated factors of the uneven performances of the CDM host countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinshan

    2012-03-01

    The Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has experienced a rapid growth. Up to 2010, 2763 projects have been registered, standing for about 433 million ton CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq.) of annual carbon credits. However, the performances of CDM host countries are remarkably unbalanced. Previous literature suggested that economic and investment conditions, energy intensity, energy structure, the share of annual carbon credits from high global warming potential (GWP) green house gas (GHG), capacity and institutional buildings of domestic CDM governance can play important roles in promoting CDM. This quantitative analysis shows that domestic economic and investment conditions are the most decisive factors determining the performance of the CDM host countries. Additionally, the influence of carbon intensity of energy consumption is relatively modest, and energy intensity of GDP as well as the share of annual carbon credits from high GWP GHG is less significant. Moreover, several leading CDM countries are not as successful as they seem to be, when the influences of their vast territories, distinguished economic and investment conditions are excluded. Therefore, to simply transplant the CDM governances of these countries can hardly guarantee that other countries will boost their carbon credit outputs.

  15. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  16. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-12-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  17. Development of megasonic cleaning for silicon wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, A.

    1980-01-01

    A cleaning and drying system for processing at least 2500 three in. diameter wafers per hour was developed with a reduction in process cost. The system consists of an ammonia hydrogen peroxide bath in which both surfaces of 3/32 in. spaced, ion implanted wafers are cleaned in quartz carriers moved on a belt past two pairs of megasonic transducers. The wafers are dried in the novel room temperature, high velocity air dryer in the same carriers used for annealing. A new laser scanner was used effectively to monitor the cleaning ability on a sampling basis.

  18. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  19. Sustainable waste management in Africa through CDM projects.

    PubMed

    Couth, R; Trois, C

    2012-11-01

    Only few Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects (traditionally focussed on landfill gas combustion) have been registered in Africa if compared to similar developing countries. The waste hierarchy adopted by many African countries clearly shows that waste recycling and composting projects are generally the most sustainable. This paper undertakes a sustainability assessment for practical waste treatment and disposal scenarios for Africa and makes recommendations for consideration. The appraisal in this paper demonstrates that mechanical biological treatment of waste becomes more financially attractive if established through the CDM process. Waste will continue to be dumped in Africa with increasing greenhouse gas emissions produced, unless industrialised countries (Annex 1) fund carbon emission reduction schemes through a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol. Such a replacement should calculate all of the direct and indirect carbon emission savings and seek to promote public-private partnerships through a concerted support of the informal sector. PMID:22498573

  20. Benefits of clean development mechanism application on the life cycle assessment perspective: a case study in the palm oil industry.

    PubMed

    Chuen, Onn Chiu; Yusoff, Sumiani

    2012-03-01

    This study performed an assessment on the beneficial of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) application on waste treatment system in a local palm oil industry in Malaysia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to assess the environmental impacts of the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from the CDM application. Calculations on the emission reduction used the methodology based on AM002 (Avoided Wastewater and On-site Energy Use Emissions in the Industrial Sector) Version 4 published by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). The results from the studies showed that the introduction of CDM in the palm oil mill through conversion of the captured biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment into power generation were able to reduce approximate 0.12 tonnes CO2 equivalent concentration (tCO2e) emission and 30 kW x hr power generation per 1 tonne of fresh fruit bunch processed. Thus, the application of CDM methodology on palm oil mill wastewater treatment was able to reduce up to 1/4 of the overall environment impact generated in palm oil mill. PMID:22482288

  1. Community capacity for implementing clean development mechanism projects within community forests in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Minang, Peter A; McCall, Michael K; Bressers, Hans Th A

    2007-05-01

    There is a growing assumption that payments for environmental services including carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emission reduction provide an opportunity for poverty reduction and the enhancement of sustainable development within integrated natural resource management approaches. Yet in experiential terms, community-based natural resource management implementation falls short of expectations in many cases. In this paper, we investigate the asymmetry between community capacity and the Land Use Land Use Change Forestry (LULUCF) provisions of the Clean Development Mechanism within community forests in Cameroon. We use relevant aspects of the Clean Development Mechanism criteria and notions of "community capacity" to elucidate determinants of community capacity needed for CDM implementation within community forests. The main requirements are for community capacity to handle issues of additionality, acceptability, externalities, certification, and community organisation. These community capacity requirements are further used to interpret empirically derived insights on two community forestry cases in Cameroon. While local variations were observed for capacity requirements in each case, community capacity was generally found to be insufficient for meaningful uptake and implementation of Clean Development Mechanism projects. Implications for understanding factors that could inhibit or enhance community capacity for project development are discussed. We also include recommendations for the wider Clean Development Mechanism/Kyoto capacity building framework. PMID:17377732

  2. Community Capacity for Implementing Clean Development Mechanism Projects Within Community Forests in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Michael K.; Bressers, Hans Th. A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing assumption that payments for environmental services including carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emission reduction provide an opportunity for poverty reduction and the enhancement of sustainable development within integrated natural resource management approaches. Yet in experiential terms, community-based natural resource management implementation falls short of expectations in many cases. In this paper, we investigate the asymmetry between community capacity and the Land Use Land Use Change Forestry (LULUCF) provisions of the Clean Development Mechanism within community forests in Cameroon. We use relevant aspects of the Clean Development Mechanism criteria and notions of “community capacity” to elucidate determinants of community capacity needed for CDM implementation within community forests. The main requirements are for community capacity to handle issues of additionality, acceptability, externalities, certification, and community organisation. These community capacity requirements are further used to interpret empirically derived insights on two community forestry cases in Cameroon. While local variations were observed for capacity requirements in each case, community capacity was generally found to be insufficient for meaningful uptake and implementation of Clean Development Mechanism projects. Implications for understanding factors that could inhibit or enhance community capacity for project development are discussed. We also include recommendations for the wider Clean Development Mechanism/Kyoto capacity building framework. PMID:17377732

  3. Potential of wind power projects under the Clean Development Mechanism in India

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Pallav; Michaelowa, Axel

    2007-01-01

    Background So far, the cumulative installed capacity of wind power projects in India is far below their gross potential (≤ 15%) despite very high level of policy support, tax benefits, long term financing schemes etc., for more than 10 years etc. One of the major barriers is the high costs of investments in these systems. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol provides industrialized countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries to achieve a reduction in CO2 emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Wind power projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development, if developed correctly. Results Our estimates indicate that there is a vast theoretical potential of CO2 mitigation by the use of wind energy in India. The annual potential Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs) of wind power projects in India could theoretically reach 86 million. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of wind power projects based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 41 to 67 million and 78 to 83 million by 2020. Conclusion The projections based on the past diffusion trend indicate that in India, even with highly favorable assumptions, the dissemination of wind power projects is not likely to reach its maximum estimated potential in another 15 years. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential more rapidly as compared to the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced. PMID:17663772

  4. Multi-project baselines for potential clean development mechanism projects in the electricity sector in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, H.; Spalding-Fecher, R.; Sathaye, J.; Price, L.

    2002-06-26

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) aims to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in order to ''prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system'' and promote sustainable development. The Kyoto Protocol, which was adopted in 1997 and appears likely to be ratified by 2002 despite the US withdrawing, aims to provide means to achieve this objective. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of three ''flexibility mechanisms'' in the Protocol, the other two being Joint Implementation (JI) and Emissions Trading (ET). These mechanisms allow flexibility for Annex I Parties (industrialized countries) to achieve reductions by extra-territorial as well as domestic activities. The underlying concept is that trade and transfer of credits will allow emissions reductions at least cost. Since the atmosphere is a global, well-mixed system, it does not matter where greenhouse gas emissions are reduced. The CDM allows Annex I Parties to meet part of their emissions reductions targets by investing in developing countries. CDM projects must also meet the sustainable development objectives of the developing country. Further criteria are that Parties must participate voluntarily, that emissions reductions are ''real, measurable and long-term'', and that they are additional to those that would have occurred anyway. The last requirement makes it essential to define an accurate baseline. The remaining parts of section 1 outline the theory of baselines, emphasizing the balance needed between environmental integrity and reducing transaction costs. Section 2 develops an approach to multi-project baseline for the South African electricity sector, comparing primarily to near future capacity, but also considering recent plants. Five potential CDM projects are briefly characterized in section 3, and compared to the baseline in section 4. Section 5 concludes with a discussion of options and choices for South Africa regarding electricity

  5. Development of a coal cleaning control system

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.; Barnes, R.H.; Orban, J.E.; Webb, P.R.

    1990-03-09

    The US Department of Energy selected the Battelle-Electric Power Research Institute-Science Applications International Corporation team to evaluate and develop on-line slurry ash, percent solids, and sulfur analysis instrumentation and process control technology. The project's objectives were (1) to develop an accurate, versatile, easy to use, on-line coal slurry analyzer and (2) to develop control strategies for analysis, control, and optimization of advanced and conventional coal-cleaning plant. The project's scope included (1) the installation of a slurry test loop, ash, percent solids, and sulfur instruments; (2) evaluation of instrument accuracy with various coals, under various slurry conditions; and (3) assessment of the cost and benefits to be derived from on-line analysis and control 12 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Development of Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Theodore G.

    2000-01-01

    Certain missions require Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panels to establish a favorable environment for the operation of sensitive scientific instruments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ECSA panel that minimizes panel surface potential below 100mV in LEO and GEO charged particle environments, prevents exposure of solar cell voltage and panel insulating surfaces to the ambient environment, and provides an equipotential, grounded structure surrounding the entire panel. An ECSA panel design was developed that uses a Front Side Aperture-Shield (FSA) that covers all inter-cell areas with a single graphite composite laminate, composite edge clips for connecting the FSA to the panel substrate, and built-in tabs that interconnect the FSA to conductive coated coverglasses using a conductive adhesive. Analysis indicated the ability of the design to meet the ECSA requirements. Qualification coupons and a 0.5m x 0.5m prototype panel were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic performance and electrical grounding before and after exposure to acoustic and thermal cycling environments. The results show the feasibility of achieving electrostatic cleanliness with a small penalty in mass, photovoltaic performance and cost, with a design is structurally robust and compatible with a wide range of current solar panel technologies.

  7. Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-31

    Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

  8. Sustainable waste management in Africa through CDM projects

    SciTech Connect

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a compendium on GHG reductions via improved waste strategies in Africa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This note provides a strategic framework for Local Authorities in Africa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assists LAs to select Zero Waste scenarios and achieve sustained GHG reduction. - Abstract: Only few Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects (traditionally focussed on landfill gas combustion) have been registered in Africa if compared to similar developing countries. The waste hierarchy adopted by many African countries clearly shows that waste recycling and composting projects are generally the most sustainable. This paper undertakes a sustainability assessment for practical waste treatment and disposal scenarios for Africa and makes recommendations for consideration. The appraisal in this paper demonstrates that mechanical biological treatment of waste becomes more financially attractive if established through the CDM process. Waste will continue to be dumped in Africa with increasing greenhouse gas emissions produced, unless industrialised countries (Annex 1) fund carbon emission reduction schemes through a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol. Such a replacement should calculate all of the direct and indirect carbon emission savings and seek to promote public-private partnerships through a concerted support of the informal sector.

  9. Developing clean fuels: Novel techniques for desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehlsen, James P.

    The removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum is crucial to producing clean burning fuels. Sulfur compounds poison emission control catalysts and are the source of acid rain. New federal regulations require the removal of sulfur in both gasoline and diesel to very low levels, forcing existing technologies to be pushed into inefficient operating regimes. New technology is required to efficiently produce low sulfur fuels. Two processes for the removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum have been developed: the removal of alkanethiols by heterogeneous reaction with metal oxides; and oxidative desulfurization of sulfides and thiophene by reaction with sulfuric acid. Alkanethiols, common in hydrotreated gasoline, can be selectively removed and recovered from a hydrocarbon stream by heterogeneous reaction with oxides of Pb, Hg(II), and Ba. The choice of reactive metal oxides may be predicted from simple thermodynamic considerations. The reaction is found to be autocatalytic, first order in water, and zero order in thiol in the presence of excess oxide. The thiols are recovered by reactive extraction with dilute oxidizing acid. The potential for using polymer membrane hydrogenation reactors (PEMHRs) to perform hydrogenation reactions such as hydrodesulfurization is explored by hydrogenating ketones and olefins over Pt and Au group metals. The dependence of reaction rate on current density suggests that the first hydrogen addition to the olefin is the rate limiting step, rather than the adsorption of hydrogen, for all of the metals tested. PEMHRs proved unsuccessful in hydrogenating sulfur compounds to perform HDS. For the removal of sulfides, a two-phase reactor is used in which concentrated sulfuric acid oxidizes aromatic and aliphatic sulfides present in a hydrocarbon solvent, generating sulfoxides and other sulfonated species. The polar oxidized species are extracted into the acid phase, effectively desulfurizing the hydrocarbon. A reaction scheme is proposed for this

  10. Development of cleaning process for immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ching Yu; Yu, D. C.; Lin, John C.; Lin, Burn J.

    2006-03-01

    In immersion lithography, DI water fills the space between the resist surface and the last lens element. However water is also a good solvent for most of the leaching compounds from resists. The leaching materials from the resist and the original impurities in the water from pipelines pose a significant risk on bottom lens deterioration, wafer surface particles, and facility contamination. If the bottom lens surface deteriorates, it can cause flare and reduce transparency. Particles on the wafer surface can degrade image formation. In addition to contaminating the facility, the impurity inside the water can cause stains or defects after the water is evaporated from the wafer surface. In order to reduce the impact of such contamination, we have evaluated many chemicals for removing organic contamination as well as particles. We have collected and characterized immersion-induced particles from cleaning studies on bare silicon wafers. We have also used oxide wafers to simulate the lens damage caused by the cleaning chemicals. In case, a mega sonic power is not suitable for scanners last lens element in production FABs, the emulsion concept has also been adopted to remove the lens organic contaminants. We have studied many chemical and mechanical methods for tool cleaning, and identified those that possess good organic solubility and particle removal efficiency. These cleaning methods will be used in periodic maintenance procedures to ensure freedom from defects in immersion lithography.

  11. A correction in the CDM methodological tool for estimating methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites.

    PubMed

    Santos, M M O; van Elk, A G P; Romanel, C

    2015-12-01

    Solid waste disposal sites (SWDS) - especially landfills - are a significant source of methane, a greenhouse gas. Although having the potential to be captured and used as a fuel, most of the methane formed in SWDS is emitted to the atmosphere, mainly in developing countries. Methane emissions have to be estimated in national inventories. To help this task the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has published three sets of guidelines. In addition, the Kyoto Protocol established the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to assist the developed countries to offset their own greenhouse gas emissions by assisting other countries to achieve sustainable development while reducing emissions. Based on methodologies provided by the IPCC regarding SWDS, the CDM Executive Board has issued a tool to be used by project developers for estimating baseline methane emissions in their project activities - on burning biogas from landfills or on preventing biomass to be landfilled and so avoiding methane emissions. Some inconsistencies in the first two IPCC guidelines have already been pointed out in an Annex of IPCC latest edition, although with hidden details. The CDM tool uses a model for methane estimation that takes on board parameters, factors and assumptions provided in the latest IPCC guidelines, while using in its core equation the one of the second IPCC edition with its shortcoming as well as allowing a misunderstanding of the time variable. Consequences of wrong ex-ante estimation of baseline emissions regarding CDM project activities can be of economical or environmental type. Example of the first type is the overestimation of 18% in an actual project on biogas from landfill in Brazil that harms its developers; of the second type, the overestimation of 35% in a project preventing municipal solid waste from being landfilled in China, which harms the environment, not for the project per se but for the undue generated carbon credits. In a simulated landfill - the same

  12. Feasibility of Applying Clean Development Mechanism and GHGs Emission Reductions in the Gold Mining Industry: A Case of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittipongvises, Suthirat

    2015-12-01

    There is presently overwhelming scientific consensus that global climate change is indeed occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver. An increasingly resource and carbon constrained world will continue to pose formidable challenges to major industries, including mining. Understanding the implications of climate change mitigation for the mining industry, however, remains limited. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on the implementation of a clean development mechanism and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission reductions in the gold mining industry. It draws upon and extends the analysis of a case study conducted on gold mining operations in Thailand. The results from the case study indicated that total GHGs emissions by company A were approximately 36,886 tons carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e) per annual gold production capacity that meet the eligibility criteria for small-scaled clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. The electrostatic separation process was found to release the lowest amount of GHGs, whereas comminution (i.e. crushing and grinding) generated the highest GHGs emissions. By scope, the emission from purchased electricity (scope 2) is the most significant source. Opportunities for CDM projects implementation in the gold mining sector can be found in employing energy efficiency measures. Through innovation, some technical efficiency and technological development in gold processing (i.e. high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR), vertical roller mills (VRM), gravity pre-concentration and microwave heating technologies) that have the potential to reduce energy use and also lower carbon footprint of the gold mining were further discussed. The evidence reviews found that HPGR and VRM abatement technologies have shown energy and climate benefits as electricity savings and CO2 reduction of about 8-25.93 kWh/ton ore processed and 1.8-26.66 kgCO2/ton ore processed, respectively. Implications for further research and practice were

  13. Stem revenue losses with effective CDM management.

    PubMed

    Alwell, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Effective CDM management not only minimizes revenue losses due to denied claims, but also helps eliminate administrative costs associated with correcting coding errors. Accountability for CDM management should be assigned to a single individual, who ideally reports to the CFO or high-level finance director. If your organization is prone to making billing errors due to CDM deficiencies, you should consider purchasing CDM software to help you manage your CDM. PMID:14503149

  14. The financial attractiveness assessment of large waste management projects registered as clean development mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Bufoni, André Luiz

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Projects are not financially attractive without registration as CDMs. • WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance. • A sensitivity analysis reveal that revenue has more of an effect on the financial results. • Results indicate that an extensive database would reduce WM project risk and capital costs. • Disclosure standards would make information more comparable worldwide. - Abstract: This study illustrates the financial analyses for demonstration and assessment of additionality presented in the project design (PDD) and enclosed documents of the 431 large Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) classified as the ‘waste handling and disposal sector’ (13) over the past ten years (2004–2014). The expected certified emissions reductions (CER) of these projects total 63.54 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}eq, where eight countries account for 311 projects and 43.36 million metric tons. All of the projects declare themselves ‘not financially attractive’ without CER with an estimated sum of negative results of approximately a half billion US$. The results indicate that WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance, and the sensitivity analysis reveals that revenues have a greater effect on the financial results. This work concludes that an extensive financial database with simple standards for disclosure would greatly diminish statement problems and make information more comparable, reducing the risk and capital costs of WM projects.

  15. The financial attractiveness assessment of large waste management projects registered as clean development mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bufoni, André Luiz; Oliveira, Luciano Basto; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli

    2015-09-01

    This study illustrates the financial analyses for demonstration and assessment of additionality presented in the project design (PDD) and enclosed documents of the 431 large Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) classified as the 'waste handling and disposal sector' (13) over the past ten years (2004-2014). The expected certified emissions reductions (CER) of these projects total 63.54 million metric tons of CO2eq, where eight countries account for 311 projects and 43.36 million metric tons. All of the projects declare themselves 'not financially attractive' without CER with an estimated sum of negative results of approximately a half billion US$. The results indicate that WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance, and the sensitivity analysis reveals that revenues have a greater effect on the financial results. This work concludes that an extensive financial database with simple standards for disclosure would greatly diminish statement problems and make information more comparable, reducing the risk and capital costs of WM projects. PMID:26123976

  16. Optimal energy options under Clean Development Mechanism: Renewable energy projects for sustainable development and carbon emission reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilau, Asmerom M.

    This dissertation addresses two distinct objectives; designing cost-effective renewable energy powered projects including seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), aquaculture, and ice-making plant, and analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these projects in achieving low abatement costs and promoting sustainable developments under the Clean Development Mechanism. The results of SWRO analysis show that a wind powered system is the least expensive and a PV powered system the most expensive, with finished water costs of about 0.50 /m3 and 1.00 /m3, respectively. By international standards, these costs are competitive. The results of renewable energy powered commercial tilapia production indicate that a wind-diesel system has high potential for intensive tilapia production as well as carbon dioxide emission reductions. The study also investigates aeration failures in renewable energy powered tilapia production systems. With respect to the ice-making plant, unlike previous studies which consider nighttime operation only, we have found that a nighttime PV powered ice-making system is more expensive (1/kWh) than daytime ice-making system (0.70/kWh). Our optimal energy options analysis at project scale which includes SWRO, ice-making plant and household energy consumption for about 100 households shows that compared to diesel only energy option, PV-D, W-D, and PV-W-D hybrids are very cost-effective energy options. Moreover, energy options with high levels of renewable energy including 100% renewables have the lowest net present cost and they are already cost-effective without CDM. On the other hand, while the removal of about 87% carbon dioxide emissions could be achieved at negative cost, initial investment could increase by a factor of 40, which is one of the primary barriers hindering wider renewable energy applications in developing countries. Thus in order to increase developing countries' participation in the carbon market, CDM policy should shift from a purely market oriented

  17. International Clean Energy Analysis Gateway: Assisting Developing Countries with Clean Energy Deployment (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The International Clean Energy Analysis Gateway seeks to enhance developing country access to energy efficiency and renewable energy analysis tools, databases, methods, and other technical resources in a dynamic user interaction environment. In addition to providing information on available tools, the gateway also is a platform for Web seminars, online training, peer networks, and expert assistance. The gateway is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Further cooperation is desired with organizations that can help expand the information presented in the portal and assist with outreach and training.

  18. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Double-annular clean combustor technology development report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, D. W.; Burrus, D. L.; Sabla, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    A sector combustor technology development program was conducted to define an advanced double annular dome combustor sized for use in the quiet clean short haul experimental engine (QCSEE). A design which meets the emission goals, and combustor performance goals of the QCSEE engine program was developed. Key design features were identified which resulted in substantial reduction in carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emission levels at ground idle operating conditions, in addition to very low nitric oxide emission levels at high power operating conditions. Their significant results are reported.

  19. Development of Megasonic cleaning for silicon wafers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, A.

    1980-09-01

    The major goals to develop a cleaning and drying system for processing at least 2500 three-in.-diameter wafers per hour and to reduce the process cost were achieved. The new system consists of an ammonia-hydrogen peroxide bath in which both surfaces of 3/32-in.-spaced, ion-implanted wafers are cleaned in quartz carriers moved on a belt past two pairs of Megasonic transducers. The wafers are dried in the novel room-temperature, high-velocity air dryer in the same carriers used for annealing. A new laser scanner was used effectively to monitor the cleaning ability on a sampling basis. The following factors contribute to the improved effectiveness of the process: (1) recirculation and filtration of the cleaning solution permit it to be used for at least 100,000 wafers with only a relatively small amount of chemical make-up before discarding; (2) uniform cleanliness is achieved because both sides of the wafer are Megasonically scrubbed to remove particulate impurities; (3) the novel dryer permits wafers to be dried in a high-velocity room-temperature air stream on a moving belt in their quartz carriers; and (4) the personnel safety of such a system is excellent and waste disposal has no adverse ecological impact. With the addition of mechanical transfer arms, two systems like the one developed will produce enough cleaned wafers for a 30-MW/year production facility. A projected scale-up well within the existing technology would permit a system to be assembled that produces about 12,745 wafers per hour; about 11 such systems, each occupying about 110 square feet, would be needed for each cleaning stage of a 500-MW/year production facility.

  20. Development and testing of the cooling coil cleaning end effector

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.I.; Mullen, O.D.; Powell, M.R.; Daly, D.S.; Engel, D.W.

    1997-09-30

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancement (KPD{ampersand}E) program has developed and tested an end effector to support the waste retrieval mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The end effector was developed specifically to remove a sticky waste material from the cooling coils in the High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) tank, and to vacuum up a sediment layer that has settled beneath the cooling coils. An extensive testing program was conducted in the hydraulic test bed (HTB) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to evaluate the performance of the end effector under simulated in-tank conditions. A mock up of the cooling coils was installed in the test bed tank, and simulated waste materials were included to represent the sticky waste on the tubes and the particulate waste settled beneath them. The testing program focused on assessing long-duration mining strategies for cleaning the cooling coils and removing the particulate waste forms. The report describes the results of the end effector testing program at PNNL. Section 2 describes the physical characteristics of the HLLW tanks, including the layout of the cooling coils, and it also describes what is known of the waste forms in the tanks. Section 3 describes the cleaning and retrieval strategy that was used in developing the end effector design. Section 4 describes the cooling coil mockup in the hydraulic test bed. Section 5 discusses the rationale used in selecting the simulants for the tarry waste and particulate waste forms. Section 6 describes the tests that were performed to evaluate cleaning of the cooling coils and retrieval of the particulate simulant. Section 7 summarizes the cleaning and retrieval tests, assesses the relative importance of cleaning the cooling coils and retrieving the particulate waste, and suggests modifications that would simplify the end effector design.

  1. 75 FR 9181 - Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; Application... the Clean Energy Business Development Missions' Web site at http://www.trade.gov/CleanEnergyMission or... or CleanEnergyMission@doc.gov ). The application deadline has been extended to Friday, March 12,...

  2. 75 FR 9181 - Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission: Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission: Application... the Clean Energy Business Development Missions' Web site at http://www.trade.gov/CleanEnergyMission or... or CleanEnergyMission@doc.gov ). The application deadline has been extended to Friday, March 12,...

  3. Research and development of electric vehicles for clean transportation.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masayoshi

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the research and development of an electric vehicle (EV) in Department of Human-Robotics Saitama Institute of Technology, Japan. Electric mobile systems developed in our laboratory include a converted electric automobile, electric wheelchair and personal mobile robot. These mobile systems contribute to realize clean transportation since energy sources and devices from all vehicles, i.e., batteries and electric motors, does not deteriorate the environment. To drive motors for vehicle traveling, robotic technologies were applied. PMID:19803077

  4. Emission assessment at the Burj Hammoud inactive municipal landfill: Viability of landfill gas recovery under the clean development mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    El-Fadel, Mutasem; Abi-Esber, Layale; Salhab, Samer

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LFG emissions are measured at an abandoned landfill with highly organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mean headspace and vent emissions are 0.240 and 0.074 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At sites with high food waste content, LFG generation drops rapidly after site closure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The viability of LFG recovery for CDMs in developing countries is doubtful. - Abstract: This paper examines landfill gas (LFG) emissions at a large inactive waste disposal site to evaluate the viability of investment in LFG recovery through the clean development mechanism (CDM) initiative. For this purpose, field measurements of LFG emissions were conducted and the data were processed by geospatial interpolation to estimate an equivalent site emission rate which was used to calibrate and apply two LFG prediction models to forecast LFG emissions at the site. The mean CH{sub 4} flux values calculated through tessellation, inverse distance weighing and kriging were 0.188 {+-} 0.014, 0.224 {+-} 0.012 and 0.237 {+-} 0.008 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively, compared to an arithmetic mean of 0.24 l/m{sup 2} hr. The flux values are within the reported range for closed landfills (0.06-0.89 l/m{sup 2} hr), and lower than the reported range for active landfills (0.42-2.46 l/m{sup 2} hr). Simulation results matched field measurements for low methane generation potential (L{sub 0}) values in the range of 19.8-102.6 m{sup 3}/ton of waste. LFG generation dropped rapidly to half its peak level only 4 yrs after landfill closure limiting the sustainability of LFG recovery systems in similar contexts and raising into doubt promoted CDM initiatives for similar waste.

  5. Clean coal technologies: Research, development, and demonstration program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, has structured an integrated program for research, development, and demonstration of clean coal technologies that will enable the nation to use its plentiful domestic coal resources while meeting environmental quality requirements. The program provides the basis for making coal a low-cost, environmentally sound energy choice for electric power generation and fuels production. These programs are briefly described.

  6. Cleaning laser spark spectroscopy for online cleaning quality control method development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutin, T. Y.; Smirnov, V. N.; Veiko, V. P.; Volkov, S. A.

    2010-07-01

    This work is dedicated to spectroscopic investigations of laser spark during the laser cleaning process. The goal is to proof its analytical possibilities for chemical composition determination for online cleaning quality control. Photographic recordings of laser spark were performed to estimate its parameters. Fiber spectrometer was used to analyze the emission of cleaning process established with fiber laser. Conclusions have been made about fiber laser radiation usability for spectroscopic purpose.

  7. Cleaning laser spark spectroscopy for online cleaning quality control method development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutin, T. Y.; Smirnov, V. N.; Veiko, V. P.; Volkov, S. A.

    2011-02-01

    This work is dedicated to spectroscopic investigations of laser spark during the laser cleaning process. The goal is to proof its analytical possibilities for chemical composition determination for online cleaning quality control. Photographic recordings of laser spark were performed to estimate its parameters. Fiber spectrometer was used to analyze the emission of cleaning process established with fiber laser. Conclusions have been made about fiber laser radiation usability for spectroscopic purpose.

  8. Climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean. A review of the Bonn and Marrakech decisions and their effect on the clean development mechanism of the Kyoto protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Maggiora, C. della

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this document is to present an overview of recent climate change developments, in particular with regards to carbon markets under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The document is divided into three sections. The first section describes the history of the climate change negotiations. Section two presents an overview of the recent decisions adopted at the last international meetings (Bonn Agreements and Marrakech Accord), which have improved the odds of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by 2002. The third section analyzes the carbon credit market. The first part of this section briefly presents the available information regarding real carbon credit transactions, while the second section focuses on the literature review of several theoretical models and presents the theoretical estimates of the price and size of the carbon market.

  9. Preliminary assessment of potential CDM early start projects in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.; Lehman, B.; Schumacher, K.; van Vliet, O.; Moreira, J.R.

    2000-11-01

    The Brazil/US Aspen Global Forum on Climate Change Policies and Programs has facilitated a dialogue between key Brazil and US public and private sector leaders on the subject of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). With support from the US government, a cooperative effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo conducted an assessment of a number of projects put forth by Brazilian sponsors. Initially, we gathered information and conducted a screening assessment for ten projects in the energy sector and six projects in the forestry sector. Some of the projects appeared to offer greater potential to be attractive for CDM, or had better information available. We then conducted a more detailed assessment of 12 of these projects, and two other projects that were submitted after the initial screening. An important goal was to assess the potential impact of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) on the financial performance of projects. With the exception of the two forestry-based fuel displacement projects, the impact of CERs on the internal rate of return (IRR) is fairly small. This is true for both the projects that displace grid electricity and those that displace local (diesel-based) electricity production. The relative effect of CERs is greater for projects whose IRR without CERs is low. CERs have a substantial effect on the IRR of the two short-rotation forestry energy substitution projects. One reason is that the biofuel displaces coke and oil, both of which are carbon-intensive. Another factor is that the product of these projects (charcoal and woodfuel, respectively) is relatively low value, so the revenue from carbon credits has a strong relative impact. CERs also have a substantial effect on the NPV of the carbon sequestration projects. Financial and other barriers pose a challenge for implementation of most of the projects. In most cases, the sponsor lacks sufficient capital, and loans are available only at high interest

  10. Plasma Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL FINE COAL CLEANING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Manoj K. Mohanty

    2005-06-01

    The goal of the proposed project was to develop a novel fine coal separator having the ability to clean 1 mm x 0 size coal in a single processing unit. The novel fine coal separator, named as EG(Enhanced Gravity) Float Cell, utilizes a centrifugal field to clean 1 mm x 250 micron size coal, whereas a flotation environment to clean minus 250 micron coal size fraction. Unlike a conventional enhanced gravity concentrator, which rotates to produce a centrifugal field requiring more energy, the EG Float Cell is fed with a tangential feed slurry to generate an enhanced gravity field without any rotating part. A prototype EG Float Cell unit having a maximum diameter of 60 cm (24 inch) was fabricated during the first-half of the project period followed by a series of exploratory tests to make suitable design modification. Test data indicated that there was a significant concentration of coarse heavy materials in the coarse tailings discharge of the EG Float Cell. The increase in weight (%) of 1 mm x 250 micron (16 x 60 mesh) size fraction from 48.9% in the feed to 72.2% in the coarse tailings discharge and the corresponding increase in the ash content from 56.9% to 87.0% is indicative of the effectiveness of the enhanced gravity section of the EG Float Cell. However, the performance of the flotation section needs to be improved. Some of the possible design modifications may include more effective air sparging system for the flotation section to produce finer bubbles and a better wash water distributor.

  12. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  13. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF HAZARDOUS SLUDGE SIMULANTS FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.

    2010-04-12

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) tank closure. After bulk waste removal, the ECC process can be used to dissolve and remove much of the remaining sludge from HLW tanks. The ECC process uses dilute oxalic acid (1 wt %) with in-line pH monitoring and control. The resulting oxalate is decomposed through hydroxylation using an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP). Minimizing the amount of oxalic acid used for dissolution and the subsequent oxidative destruction of oxalic acid will minimize the potential for downstream impacts. Initial efficacy tests by AREVA demonstrated that previous tank heel simulants could be dissolved using dilute oxalic acid. The oxalate could be decomposed by an AOP that utilized ozone and ultraviolet (UV) light, and the resultant metal oxides and hydroxides could be separated out of the process.

  15. Development method of the motor winding's ultrasonic cleaning equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yingzhan; Wang, Caiyuan; Ao, Chenyang; Zhang, Haipeng

    2013-03-01

    The complicate question's solution of motor winding cleaning need new technologies such as ultrasonic cleaning. The mechanism of problems that the insulation level of the motor winding would be degraded with time and the motor winding would resumed tide soon after processing were analyzed. The ultrasonic cleaning method was studies and one ultrasonic cleaning device was designed. Its safety was verified by the destructive experiment. The test show that this device can clear away the depositional dirt in the winding thoroughly, which provides a new idea and method to ensure its insulation level and realize its safe and reliable operation.

  16. Dynamic CDM strategies in an EHR environment.

    PubMed

    Bieker, Michael; Bailey, Spencer

    2012-02-01

    A dynamic charge description master (CDM) integrates information from clinical ancillary systems into the charge-capture process, so an organization can reduce its reliance on the patient accounting system as the sole source of billing information. By leveraging the information from electronic ancillary systems, providers can eliminate the need for paper charge-capture forms and see increased accuracy and efficiency in the maintenance of billing information. Before embarking on a dynamic CDM strategy, organizations should first determine their goals for implementing an EHR system, include revenue cycle leaders on the EHR implementation team, and carefully weigh the pros and cons of CDM design decisions. PMID:22372294

  17. Designing Catalysts for Clean Technology, Green Chemistry, and Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurig Thomas, John; Raja, Robert

    2005-08-01

    There is a pressing need for cleaner fuels (free or aromatics and of minimal sulfur content) or ones that convert chemical energy directly to electricity, silently and without production of noxious oxides and particulates; chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical processes that may be conducted in a one-step, solvent-free manner and that use air as the preferred oxidant; and industrial processes that minimize consumption of energy, production of waste, or the use of corrosive, explosive, volatile, and nonbiodegradable materials. All these needs and other desiderata, such as the in situ production and containment of aggressive and hazardous reagents, and the avoidance of use of ecologically harmful elements, may be achieved by designing the appropriate heterogeneous inorganic catalyst, which ideally should be cheap, readily preparable and fully characterizable, preferably under in situ reaction conditions. A range of nanoporous and nanoparticle catalysts that meet most of the stringent demands of sustainable development and responsible (clean) technology is described. Specific examples that are highlighted include the production of adipic acid (precursor of polyamides and urethanes) without the use of concentrated nitric acid nor the production of greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide; the production of caprolactam (precursor of nylon) without the use of oleum and hydroxylamine sulfate; and the terminal oxyfunctionalization of linear alkanes in air. The topic of biocatalysis and sustainable development is also briefly discussed for the epoxidation of terpenes and fatty acid methyl esters; for the generation of polymers, polylactides, and polyesters; and for the production of 1,3-propanediol from corn.

  18. Development of an ultrasonic cleaning method for fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Heki, H.; Komura, S.; Kato, H.; Sakai, H. ); Hattori, T. )

    1991-01-01

    Almost all radiation buildup in light water reactors is the result of the deposition of activated corrosion and wear products in out-of-core areas. After operation, a significant quantity of corrosion and wear products is deposited on the fuel rods as crud. At refueling shutdowns, these activation products are available for removal. If they can be quickly and easily removed, buildup of radioactivity on out-of-core surfaces and individual exposure dose can be greatly reduced. After studying various physical cleaning methods (e.g., water jet and ultrasonic), the ultrasonic cleaning method was selected as the most effective for fuel assembly cleaning. The ultrasonic cleaning method is especially able to efficiently clean the fuel without removing the channel box. The removed crud in the channel box would be swept out to the filtration unit. Parameter survey tests were carried out to evaluate the optimum conditions for ultrasonic cleaning using a mock-up of a short section of fuel assembly with the channel box. The ultrasonic device used was a 600-W ultrasonic transducer operating at 26-kHz ultrasonic frequency.

  19. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  20. Development and applications of clean coal fluidized bed technology

    SciTech Connect

    Eskin, N.; Hepbasli, A.

    2006-09-15

    Power generation in Europe and elsewhere relies heavily on coal and coal-based fuels as the source of energy. The reliance will increase in the future due to the decreasing stability of price and security of oil supply. In other words, the studies on fluidized bed combustion systems, which is one of the clean coal technologies, will maintain its importance. The main objective of the present study is to introduce the development and the applications of the fluidized bed technology (FBT) and to review the fluidized bed combustion studies conducted in Turkey. The industrial applications of the fluidized bed technology in the country date back to the 1980s. Since then, the number of the fluidized bed boilers has increased. The majority of the installations are in the textile sector. In Turkey, there is also a circulating fluidized bed thermal power plant with a capacity of 2 x 160 MW under construction at Can in Canakkale. It is expected that the FBT has had, or will have, a significant and increasing role in dictating the energy strategies for Turkey.

  1. Development of a cleaning process for uranium chips machined with a glycol-water-borax coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    1984-12-01

    A chip-cleaning process has been developed to remove the new glycol-water-borax coolant from oralloy chips. The process involves storing the freshly cut chips in Freon-TDF until they are cleaned, washing with water, and displacing the water with Freon-TDF. The wash water can be reused many times and still yield clean chips and then be added to the coolant to make up for evaporative losses. The Freon-TDF will be cycled by evaporation. The cleaning facility is currently being designed and should be operational by April 1985.

  2. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research Development Center (Amax R D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  3. The galaxy velocity field and CDM models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tormen, Giuseppe; Moscardini, Lauro; Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino

    1993-01-01

    It is generally accepted that some kind of non-baryonic dark matter accounts for most of the mass density of the universe. Considering such a component has become, in the last decade, a key ingredient in current theories of structure formation. In particular, the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) scenario has proven to be quite successful in explaining most of the observed properties of galaxies and of their large-scale distribution. The standard CDM model is characterized by a primordial Zel'dovich spectrum, of random-phase adiabatic perturbations in a universe with density parameter omega sub 0 = 1 and vanishing cosmological constant. This poster paper presents an analysis of observational data on peculiar motion of optical galaxies in comparison to the predictions of CDM models where the assumptions of the standard scenario: omega sub 0 = 1, n = 1, and bias parameter b = 1 are relaxed. In particular, CDM models with 0 less than n less than 1 and 0.4 less than omega sub 0 less than 1 are considered.

  4. Degeneracy between CCDM and Λ CDM cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Marcelo Vargas dos; Waga, Ioav; Ramos, Rudnei O.

    2014-12-01

    The creation of cold dark matter cosmology model is studied beyond the linear perturbation level. The skewness is explicitly computed, and the results are compared to those from the Λ CDM model. It is explicitly shown that both models have the same signature for the skewness and cannot be distinguished by using this observable.

  5. MASS FUNCTION PREDICTIONS BEYOND {Lambda}CDM

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Suman; Lukic, Zarija; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; White, Martin; Wagner, Christian

    2011-05-10

    The statistics of dark matter halos is an essential component of precision cosmology. The mass distribution of halos, as specified by the halo mass function, is a key input for several cosmological probes. The sizes of N-body simulations are now such that, for the most part, results need no longer be statistics-limited, but are still subject to various systematic uncertainties. Discrepancies in the results of simulation campaigns for the halo mass function remain in excess of statistical uncertainties and of roughly the same size as the error limits set by near-future observations; we investigate and discuss some of the reasons for these differences. Quantifying error sources and compensating for them as appropriate, we carry out a high-statistics study of dark matter halos from 67 N-body simulations to investigate the mass function and its evolution for a reference {Lambda}CDM cosmology and for a set of wCDM cosmologies. For the reference {Lambda}CDM cosmology (close to WMAP5), we quantify the breaking of universality in the form of the mass function as a function of redshift, finding an evolution of as much as 10% away from the universal form between redshifts z = 0 and z = 2. For cosmologies very close to this reference we provide a fitting formula to our results for the (evolving) {Lambda}CDM mass function over a mass range of 6 x 10{sup 11}-3 x 10{sup 15} M{sub sun} to an estimated accuracy of about 2%. The set of wCDM cosmologies is taken from the Coyote Universe simulation suite. The mass functions from this suite (which includes a {Lambda}CDM cosmology and others with w {approx_equal} -1) are described by the fitting formula for the reference {Lambda}CDM case at an accuracy level of 10%, but with clear systematic deviations. We argue that, as a consequence, fitting formulae based on a universal form for the mass function may have limited utility in high-precision cosmological applications.

  6. Mass Function Predictions Beyond ΛCDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Suman; Heitmann, Katrin; White, Martin; Lukić, Zarija; Wagner, Christian; Habib, Salman

    2011-05-01

    The statistics of dark matter halos is an essential component of precision cosmology. The mass distribution of halos, as specified by the halo mass function, is a key input for several cosmological probes. The sizes of N-body simulations are now such that, for the most part, results need no longer be statistics-limited, but are still subject to various systematic uncertainties. Discrepancies in the results of simulation campaigns for the halo mass function remain in excess of statistical uncertainties and of roughly the same size as the error limits set by near-future observations; we investigate and discuss some of the reasons for these differences. Quantifying error sources and compensating for them as appropriate, we carry out a high-statistics study of dark matter halos from 67 N-body simulations to investigate the mass function and its evolution for a reference ΛCDM cosmology and for a set of wCDM cosmologies. For the reference ΛCDM cosmology (close to WMAP5), we quantify the breaking of universality in the form of the mass function as a function of redshift, finding an evolution of as much as 10% away from the universal form between redshifts z = 0 and z = 2. For cosmologies very close to this reference we provide a fitting formula to our results for the (evolving) ΛCDM mass function over a mass range of 6 × 1011-3 × 1015 M sun to an estimated accuracy of about 2%. The set of wCDM cosmologies is taken from the Coyote Universe simulation suite. The mass functions from this suite (which includes a ΛCDM cosmology and others with w ~= -1) are described by the fitting formula for the reference ΛCDM case at an accuracy level of 10%, but with clear systematic deviations. We argue that, as a consequence, fitting formulae based on a universal form for the mass function may have limited utility in high-precision cosmological applications.

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  8. Development of an Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Theodore G.; Krumweide, Duane; Gaddy, Edward; Katz, Ira

    2000-01-01

    The results of design, analysis, and qualification of an Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panel are described. The objective of the ECSA design is to provide an electrostatic environment that does not interfere with sensitive instruments on scientific spacecraft. The ECSA design uses large, ITO-coated coverglasses that cover multiple solar cells, an aperture grid that covers the intercell areas, stress-relieved interconnects for connecting the aperture grid to the coverglasses, and edge clips to provides an electromagnetically shielded enclosure for the solar array active circuitry. Qualification coupons were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic response, conductivity, and survivability to launch acoustic and thermal cycling environments simulating LEO and GEO missions. The benefits of reducing solar panel interaction with the space environment are also discussed.

  9. Development of CFC-Free Cleaning Processes at the NASA White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Harold; Kirsch, Mike; Hornung, Steven; Biesinger, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is developing cleaning and verification processes to replace currently used chlorofluorocarbon-113- (CFC-113-) based processes. The processes being evaluated include both aqueous- and solvent-based techniques. The presentation will include the findings of investigations of aqueous cleaning and verification processes that are based on a draft of a proposed NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) cleaning procedure. Verification testing with known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and commonly used oils, established correlations between nonvolatile residue and CFC-113. Recoveries ranged from 35 to 60 percent of theoretical. WSTF is also investigating enhancements to aqueous sampling for organics and particulates. Although aqueous alternatives have been identified for several processes, a need still exists for nonaqueous solvent cleaning, such as the cleaning and cleanliness verification of gauges used for oxygen service. The cleaning effectiveness of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225), tert-butylmethylether, and n-Hexane was evaluated using aerospace gauges and precision instruments and then compared to the cleaning effectiveness of CFC-113. Solvents considered for use in oxygen systems were also tested for oxygen compatibility using high-pressure oxygen autoignition and liquid oxygen mechanical impact testing.

  10. Development of High Erosivity Well Scale Cleaning Tools

    SciTech Connect

    K. M. Kalumuck; G. L. Chahine; G. S. Frederick; P. D. Aley

    1999-07-01

    Build up of scale deposits on the walls of geothermal wells can occur rapidly due to the high dissolved solids content of geothermal fluids. Scale formation is a significant problem for both the well and for surface heat transfer equipment. Geothermal brines contain a wide variety if dissolved salts including carbonates, silicates, sulfates, and metal sulfides. One technology recently proposed for scale removal is the use of an ultrasonic device. In the present effort we apply cavitation in a more direct manner by the use of acoustically enhanced cavitating water jets which can be made to be much more efficient and aggressive than ultrasonic devices. Cavitating and self-resonating jet technologies have been proven to enhance the erosive power of liquid jets in a number of cutting, cleaning, and drilling applications. In this study we investigated two related technologies - one that employs cavitation and one that breaks the jet up into a series of slugs that produce water hammer type pressures upon impact. These technologies enable operation in both submerged and nonsubmerged conditions.

  11. The influence and ethics of interest groups on policy incentives for clean energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, Mariana C.

    The clean energy revolution in the United States is not going to happen until diverse stakeholders in the coalition of clean energy proponents strengthen their cohesion and influence—two critical tools for interest group's to be successful in driving the formulation of public policy. Currently, clean energy technology and resource development is supported by a highly diverse coalition of interest groups such as environmental groups, health organizations, industry, and the Defense Department, whose primary goals are often unrelated. Yet their objectives are increasingly well served by pursuing clean energy development by pushing lawmakers for supportive policies. However, characteristics of this ad hoc coalition can hinder its influence and cohesion. Whereas, fossil fuel interests—exemplified by the coalition of oil proponents—are highly cohesive and influential. This thesis will analyze whether there is a correlation between public policies on clean energy, and the strength of interest group influence over those policy decisions. It will begin with an analysis of interest group theories. Next it will analyze the histories of the oil industry as the model opponent of clean energy policies, and the biofuels, wind energy, and solar energy industries as the model proponents of clean energy policies. The composition of the respective coalitions will reveal if they are diverse or similar, with broad or narrow goals, and other important characteristics. Their respective policy positions and messages will show what values are important to them, and the presidential support each coalition has been achieved, or failed to achieve, will provide further insight into their effectiveness. This thesis will then apply interest group theories to the supporter and opponent coalitions. Results obtained indicate that the coalition of oil interests is large, yet very cohesive and influential, while the coalition for clean energy is large, generally diffuse but with some important

  12. Development of construction specifications to attain clean rooms for the NOVA laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Benedix, C.P.

    1980-02-01

    This paper describes the process of defining technical requirements for a major Department of Energy Research and Development Facility and subsequent development of construction specifications for the clean spaces in that facility. The organizational interactions between technical client, Engineering and Construction elements are described. The importance of an interdisciplinary team approach is stressed. A brief description of the SHIVA Laser and NOVA Laser Clean Spaces is included to indicate the scope of the facility undertaking. A number of potential pitfalls are discussed that may be helpful to designers of new facilities.

  13. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, Frank J; Schields, Gene L; Jha, Mehesh C; Moro, Nick

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel™ column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW GRAVITY SEDIMENTATION PROCESS FOR DEWATERING FLUE GAS CLEANING WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop and test a novel system for dewatering flue gas cleaning (FGC) wastes at the pilot plant level. In this new system, the clarification and thickening functions are conducted in separate, but interconnected, pieces of equipment. The ...

  15. LIFE: a sustainable solution for developing safe, clean fusion power.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Susana; Dunne, Mike; Kramer, Kevin; Anklam, Tom; Havstad, Mark; Mazuecos, Antonio Lafuente; Miles, Robin; Martinez-Frias, Joel; Deri, Bob

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in California is currently in operation with the goal to demonstrate fusion energy gain for the first time in the laboratory-also referred to as "ignition." Based on these demonstration experiments, the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) power plant is being designed at LLNL in partnership with other institutions with the goal to deliver baseload electricity from safe, secure, sustainable fusion power in a time scale that is consistent with the energy market needs. For this purpose, the LIFE design takes advantage of recent advances in diode-pumped, solid-state laser technology and adopts the paradigm of Line Replaceable Units used on the NIF to provide high levels of availability and maintainability and mitigate the need for advanced materials development. The LIFE market entry plant will demonstrate the feasibility of a closed fusion fuel cycle, including tritium breeding, extraction, processing, refueling, accountability, and safety, in a steady-state power-producing device. While many fusion plant designs require large quantities of tritium for startup and operations, a range of design choices made for the LIFE fuel cycle act to reduce the in-process tritium inventory. This paper presents an overview of the delivery plan and the preconceptual design of the LIFE facility with emphasis on the key safety design principles being adopted. In order to illustrate the favorable safety characteristics of the LIFE design, some initial accident analysis results are presented that indicate potential for a more attractive licensing regime than that of current fission reactors. PMID:23629070

  16. Weak lensing cosmology beyond ΛCDM

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sudeep; Linder, Eric V.; Nakajima, Reiko; Putter, Roland de E-mail: rdeputter@icc.ub.edu E-mail: reiko@astro.uni-bonn.de

    2012-11-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is one of the key probes of the cosmological model, dark energy, and dark matter, providing insight into both the cosmic expansion history and large scale structure growth history. Taking into account a broad spectrum of physics affecting growth — dynamical dark energy, extended gravity, neutrino masses, and spatial curvature — we analyze the cosmological constraints. Similarly we consider the effects of a range of systematic uncertainties, in shear measurement, photometric redshifts, intrinsic alignments, and the nonlinear power spectrum, on cosmological parameter extraction. We also investigate, and provide fitting formulas for, the influence of survey parameters such as redshift depth, galaxy number densities, and sky area on the cosmological constraints in the beyond-ΛCDM parameter space. Finally, we examine the robustness of results for different fiducial cosmologies.

  17. An investment framework for clean energy and development: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-15

    This paper responds to the Development Committee Communique of April 2006 requesting the World Bank to review existing financial instruments and explore the potential value of new financial instruments to accelerate investment in clean energy. It builds on the report 'Clean Energy and Development: Towards an Investment Framework' that was presented to the Development Committee at the April 2006 Spring Meeting and concludes: The major financing gap for the energy for development and energy access agendas can be met by deepening and broadening energy sector policy reform to attract private sector investments and additional public sector financing. A long-term stable global regulatory framework, with differentiated responsibilities, is needed to stimulate private investments and provide predictability. The Bank proposes the development of a number of options to accelerate the transition to a low carbon economy. Risks of weather-related disasters need to be integrated into poverty and sustainable development strategies with a combination of public and private sector resources. Clean energy will address the following issues that affect poor people and undermine progress on many of the Millennium Development Goals: Pollution at the household level, especially indoor air pollution, which adversely affects human health; Environmental impacts at the local, national and regional level, including urban air pollution and acid deposition, which affects human health and ecological systems; and The adverse impacts of greenhouse gas emissions from the production of energy on agricultural productivity, water resources, human health, human settlements and ecological systems. 11 figs., 2 tabs., 2 annexes.

  18. Clean energy for development investment framework: the World Bank Group action plan

    SciTech Connect

    2007-03-06

    In September 2005 the Development Committee requested the World Bank to develop an Investment Framework for Clean Energy and Development - in the context of the Gleneagles Communique on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development which was issued in July 2005. This Action Plan provides an update of work undertaken to date as well as actions planned by the World Bank Group (WBG) in support of the Clean Energy for Development Investment Framework (CEIF). The Action Plan relies on partnerships, including with the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) and the private sector. While it concentrates on maximizing and extending existing instruments, it provides for continued dialogue with governments and the private sector on new approaches to accelerate the transition to a low carbon economy. In addition to increased investments, the private sector has an important role to play in closing the investment gap in many countries. Projects such as Bujagali (Uganda), Nam Theun II (Laos) and China and India Thermal Power Plant Rehabilitation projects are examples of how partnerships with the private sector can work, both on financing but also on enhancing the overall regulatory framework for enhanced partnerships. The report was prepared for the 15 April 2007 Development Committee meeting, a joint committee of the Board of Governors of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on the transfer of real resources to developing countries. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 5 annexes.

  19. Axion BEC: A model beyond CDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiaoli

    I started work on the field of dark matter and cosmology with Dr. Sikivie three years ago with a goal to distinguish observationally axions or axion-like particles (ALPs) from other dark matter candidates such as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) and sterile neutrinos. The subject is exciting because if one can determine the identity of the dark matter, it will be a mile-stone of physics beyond the standard model. On the high energy frontier, the standard model with three generation fermions is firmly established. However, it is not complete because the theory does not contain a plausible dark matter candidate, with properties required from observation, and the theory has fine-tuning problems such as the strong CP problem. On the cosmology and astrophysics frontiers, new observations of the dynamics of galaxy clusters, the rotation curves of galaxies, the abundances of light elements, gravitational lensing, and the anisotropies of the CMBR reach unprecedented accuracy. They imply cold dark matter (CDM) is 23% of the total energy density of the universe. Although many "beyond the standard model" theories may provide proper candidates to serve as CDM particles, the axion is especially compelling because it not only serves as the CDM particle, but also solves the strong CP problem. The axion was initially motivated by the strong CP problem, namely the puzzle why there is no CP violation in the strong interactions. Peccei and Quinn solved the problem by introducing a new UPQ(1) symmetry, and later Weinberg and Wilczek pointed out that the spontaneous breaking of UPQ(1) symmetry leads to a new pseudoscalar particle, the axion[1][2][3]. Axion models were proposed in which the symmetry breaking scale may be much larger than the electroweak scale, in which case the axion is very light and couples extremely weakly to ordinary matter. Furthermore, it was realized [4] that the cold axions, produced by the misalignment mechanism during the QCD phase transition, have

  20. CDM accelerating cosmology as an alternative to ΛCDM model

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, J.A.S.; Jesus, J.F.; Oliveira, F.A. E-mail: jfernando@astro.iag.usp.br

    2010-11-01

    A new accelerating cosmology driven only by baryons plus cold dark matter (CDM) is proposed in the framework of general relativity. In this scenario the present accelerating stage of the Universe is powered by the negative pressure describing the gravitationally-induced particle production of cold dark matter particles. This kind of scenario has only one free parameter and the differential equation governing the evolution of the scale factor is exactly the same of the ΛCDM model. For a spatially flat Universe, as predicted by inflation (Ω{sub dm}+Ω{sub baryon} = 1), it is found that the effectively observed matter density parameter is Ω{sub meff} = 1−α, where α is the constant parameter specifying the CDM particle creation rate. The supernovae test based on the Union data (2008) requires α ∼ 0.71 so that Ω{sub meff} ∼ 0.29 as independently derived from weak gravitational lensing, the large scale structure and other complementary observations.

  1. Development of the Ultra-Clean Dry Cleanup Process for Coal-Based Syngases

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Slimane, R.B.; Lau, F.S.; Jain, S.C.

    2002-09-20

    The Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) has proposed a novel scheme for polishing sulfur species, halides, and particulate from syngas to meet stringent cleaning requirements, the ''Ultra-Clean syngas polishing process.'' The overall development objective for this syngas polishing process is to economically achieve the most stringent cleanup requirements for sulfur species, halide species and particulate expected for chemical and fuel synthesis applications (total sulfur species < 60 ppbv, halides < 10 ppbv, and particulate < 0.1 ppmw). A Base Program was conducted to produce ground-work, laboratory test data and process evaluations for a conceptual feasibility assessment of this novel syngas cleaning process. Laboratory testing focused on the identification of suitable sulfur and halide sorbents and operating temperatures for the process. This small-scale laboratory testing was also performed to provide evidence of the capability of the process to reach its stringent syngas cleaning goals. Process evaluations were performed in the Base Program to identify process alternatives, to devise process flow schemes, and to estimate process material & energy balances, process performance, and process costs. While the work has focused on sulfur, halide, and particulate control, considerations of ammonia, and mercury control have also been included.

  2. The Kyoto protocol and payments for tropical forest: An interdisciplinary method for estimating carbon-offset supply and increasing the feasibility of a carbon market under the CDM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfaff, Alexander S.P.; Kerr, Suzi; Hughes, R. Flint; Liu, Shuguang; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. Arturo; Schimel, David; Tosi, Joseph; Watson, Vicente

    2000-01-01

    Protecting tropical forests under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could reduce the cost of emissions limitations set in Kyoto. However, while society must soon decide whether or not to use tropical forest-based offsets, evidence regarding tropical carbon sinks is sparse. This paper presents a general method for constructing an integrated model (based on detailed historical, remote sensing and field data) that can produce land-use and carbon baselines, predict carbon sequestration supply to a carbon-offsets market and also help to evaluate optimal market rules. Creating such integrated models requires close collaboration between social and natural scientists. Our project combines varied disciplinary expertise (in economics, ecology and geography) with local knowledge in order to create high-quality, empirically grounded, integrated models for Costa Rica.

  3. Development and testing of a low toxicity acid corrosion inhibitor for industrial cleaning applications

    SciTech Connect

    Frenier, W.W.

    1997-02-01

    A low toxicity corrosion inhibitor used in hydrochloric acid cleaning formulations has been developed. This formulation does not contain formaldehyde. It contains cinnamaldehyde, quaternary nitrogen salts, and a nonionic surfactant, none of which are currently known or suspected to be carcinogens. In laboratory tests, corrosion protection values were equivalent to those provided by current commercial acid inhibitors. Field tests using the low toxicity inhibitor were conducted.

  4. Institutional Capacity to Integrate Economic Development and Climate Change Considerations. An Assessment of DNAs in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Figueres, C.

    2004-10-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is the only market mechanism in the Kyoto Protocol that is open to the participation of developing countries. The CDM was established to: (1) Assist developing countries in achieving sustainable development; (2) Assist developing countries in contributing to the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, the ultimate goal of the U.N. Convention on Climate Change; and (3) Assist industrialized countries in achieving compliance with their emissions reductions commitments under the Protocol. While the text of the Protocol does not prioritize any one of these goals, current efforts to develop the CDM tend, even if unintentionally, to give more weight to helping industrialized countries meet their eventual reduction obligations. Current CDM efforts fall sadly short of assisting developing countries in achieving sustainable development or contributing to the stabilization of emissions concentrations. This disparity can be traced back to the historical roots of the CDM, and continues to this day. This study assesses existing institutional capacity to integrate economic development and climate change considerations in Latin America and the Caribbean. The study covers a total of twenty countries in the region,1 and is composed of three parts: (1) An assessment of the current institutional provisions for CDM in each of the twenty countries; (2) Select case studies of successful and failed linkages between GHG mitigation and economic development activities; (3) An examination of capacity building efforts to date in the region, and identification of strategic gaps. The study concludes with a view toward a sectoral CDM for the second commitment period, and recommendations on further actions that the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) may want to consider for its own participation in the CDM market. The annexes are published in a separate document.

  5. Applications and development of BitClean technology including selective nanoparticle manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tod; Brinkley, David; White, Roy; LeClaire, Jeff; Archuletta, Michael; Bozak, Ron; Yi, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The technology to selectively remove nanoparticles from a photomask surface by adhering it to an AFM tip (BitClean) first introduced with the Merlin® nanomachining mask repair platform has been successfully integrated in numerous mask house production centers across the globe over the last two years. One outstanding request for development from customers has been to develop the capability to not only selectively remove nanoparticles from a target surface, but to also redeposit in another target region. This paper reviews the preliminary work done to develop this capability with particular emphasis on its potential applications in creating realistic nanoparticle inspection sites for KLA systems at critical pattern print locations as well as the accumulation of trace amounts of contaminates for better compositional and print-impact analysis. There is also a feasibility study of new ultra-high aspect ratio (AR > 1.5) NanoBits for future BitClean process applications. The potential for these capabilities to be adapted for new applications will be examined for future work as well as a detailed parametric process analysis with the goal of showing how to make significant improvements in BitClean PRE.

  6. Clean Plate Movement and Empowerment of Civil Leadership for Developing Sustainable Life Style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kwang Soo; Kim, Seung Woo; Jung, Sin Yeong; Choi, Byeong Dae; Mun, Sung Joo; Lee, Dong Ho

    This paper describes the backgrounds, process, outcomes, and characteristics of "Clean plate" movement carried out in Korea. That was aimed at the reduction of food waste production as well as developing and disseminating a sustainable life style. Excessive foods are wasted every year in Korea and it reaches to 270 g/day/capita. Clean plate movement was started 2004 and over 1.5 million peoples, which is 3% of the population, did pledge for 15 months. Over one million students participated in the pledge campaign and they became conscious about the importance of food and get sustainable eating habit in which they don't leave any food behind. While the campaign carried out successfully, civil volunteers of a Buddhist NGO EcoBuddha, who were the housewives mainly, were in charge of the whole processes and were trained as civil leaders for sustainable development. They awakened to the interrelationship between human being and the nature, based on a series of Buddhist lectures and self practicing asceticism. Clean plate movement as an educational program for sustainable development has various factors in three pillars of environmental, economical and socio-cultural aspects for EfSD.

  7. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE): Acoustic treatment development and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, A.

    1979-01-01

    Acoustic treatment designs for the quiet clean short-haul experimental engines are defined. The procedures used in the development of each noise-source suppressor device are presented and discussed in detail. A complete description of all treatment concepts considered and the test facilities utilized in obtaining background data used in treatment development are also described. Additional supporting investigations that are complementary to the treatment development work are presented. The expected suppression results for each treatment configuration are given in terms of delta SPL versus frequency and in terms of delta PNdB.

  8. Toward the development of erosion-free ultrasonic cavitation cleaning with gas-supersaturated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Tatsuya; Ando, Keita

    2015-11-01

    In ultrasonic cleaning, contaminant particles attached at target surfaces are removed by liquid flow or acoustic waves that are induced by acoustic cavitation bubbles. However, the inertial collapse of such bubbles often involve strong shock emission or water hammer by re-entrant jets, thereby giving rise to material erosion. Here, we aim at developing an erosion-free ultrasonic cleaning technique with the aid of gas-supersaturated water. The key idea is that (gaseous) cavitation is triggered easily even with low-intensity sonication in water where gases are dissolved beyond Henry's saturation limit, allowing us to buffer violent bubble collapse. In this presentation, we report on observations of the removal of micron/submicron-sized particles attached at glass surfaces by the action of gaseous cavitation bubbles under low-intensity sonication.

  9. Clean steel technology -- Fundamental to the development of high performance steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.D.

    1999-07-01

    The use of clean steel technology (low sulfur with calcium treatment for inclusion shape control) is a fundamental building block in the development of high performance plate steels. A brief review will be presented of the benefits of calcium treatment and its effect on non-metallic inclusions (sulfides and oxides) and reducing sulfur levels. During the past thirty years the requirements for low sulfur levels have been reduced from 0.010% maximum to 0.001% maximum. The effects of clean steel practices on specific properties will be reviewed including tensile ductility, Charpy V-notch and fracture toughness, fatigue crack propagation and hydrogen-induced-cracking resistance. Traditional low sulfur plate steel applications have included pressure vessels. offshore platforms, plastic injection molds and line-pipe skelp. More recent applications will be discussed including bridge steels, high strength structural steels to 130 ksi (897 MPa) minimum yield strength, 9% nickel steels for cryogenic applications, and military armor.

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  11. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-08-28

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction and operation of 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). This report represents the findings of the PDU Advanced Column Flotation Testing and Evaluation phase of the program and includes a discussion of the design and construction of the PDU. Three compliance steam coals, Taggart, Indiana VII and Hiawatha, were processed in the PDU to determine performance and design parameters for commercial production of premium fuel by advanced flotation. Consistent, reliable performance of the PDU was demonstrated by 72-hr production runs on each of the test coals. Its capacity generally was limited by the dewatering capacity of the clean coal filters during the production runs rather than by the flotation capacity of the Microcel column. The residual concentrations of As, Pb, and Cl were reduced by at least 25% on a heating value basis from their concentrations in the test coals. The reduction in the concentrations of Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Ni and Se varied from coal to coal but the concentrations of most were greatly reduced from the concentrations in the ROM parent coals. The ash fusion temperatures of the Taggart and Indiana VII coals, and to a much lesser extent the Hiawatha coal, were decreased by the cleaning.

  12. ANNULUS CLOSURE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT INSPECTION/SALT DEPOSIT CLEANING MAGNETIC WALL CRAWLER

    SciTech Connect

    Minichan, R; Russell Eibling, R; James Elder, J; Kevin Kane, K; Daniel Krementz, D; Rodney Vandekamp, R; Nicholas Vrettos, N

    2008-06-01

    The Liquid Waste Technology Development organization is investigating technologies to support closure of radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Tank closure includes removal of the wastes that have propagated to the tank annulus. Although amounts and types of residual waste materials in the annuli of SRS tanks vary, simple salt deposits are predominant on tanks with known leak sites. This task focused on developing and demonstrating a technology to inspect and spot clean salt deposits from the outer primary tank wall located in the annulus of an SRS Type I tank. The Robotics, Remote and Specialty Equipment (RRSE) and Materials Science and Technology (MS&T) Sections of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collaborated to modify and equip a Force Institute magnetic wall crawler with the tools necessary to demonstrate the inspection and spot cleaning in a mock-up of a Type I tank annulus. A remote control camera arm and cleaning head were developed, fabricated and mounted on the crawler. The crawler was then tested and demonstrated on a salt simulant also developed in this task. The demonstration showed that the camera is capable of being deployed in all specified locations and provided the views needed for the planned inspection. It also showed that the salt simulant readily dissolves with water. The crawler features two different techniques for delivering water to dissolve the salt deposits. Both water spay nozzles were able to dissolve the simulated salt, one is more controllable and the other delivers a larger water volume. The cleaning head also includes a rotary brush to mechanically remove the simulated salt nodules in the event insoluble material is encountered. The rotary brush proved to be effective in removing the salt nodules, although some fine tuning may be required to achieve the best results. This report describes the design process for developing technology to add features to a commercial wall crawler and the results of the

  13. Differentiating CDM and baryon isocurvature models with 21 cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: sekiguti@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2011-10-01

    We discuss how one can discriminate models with cold dark matter (CDM) and baryon isocurvature fluctuations. Although current observations such as cosmic microwave background (CMB) can severely constrain the fraction of such isocurvature modes in the total density fluctuations, CMB cannot differentiate CDM and baryon ones by the shapes of their power spectra. However, the evolution of CDM and baryon density fluctuations are different for each model, thus it would be possible to discriminate those isocurvature modes by extracting information on the fluctuations of CDM/baryon itself. We discuss that observations of 21 cm fluctuations can in principle differentiate these modes and demonstrate to what extent we can distinguish them with future 21 cm surveys. We show that, when the isocurvature mode has a large blue-tilted initial spectrum, 21 cm surveys can clearly probe the difference.

  14. Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) - Interactive Webinars for Teacher Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogan, M.; Ledley, T. S.; Buhr, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change will have far reaching impacts that the citizens of tomorrow will need to be prepared to address. In order for the citizens of tomorrow to be prepared, there is a clear need to support teachers in improving their understanding of the climate system and give them the resources to help their students develop that understanding. CLEAN (http://cleanet.org) is a National Science Digital Library (http://www.nsdl.org) project that is stewarding a collection of resources for teaching climate and energy science in grades 6-16. The collection contains classroom activities, lab demonstrations, visualizations, simulations, videos, and more. We have implemented a series of nine interactive webinars (iWebinars), each of which focuses on an aspect of the Essential Principles of Climate Science, pairs a scientist and a teacher to convey the science and how to teach that science using the vetted resources in the CLEAN collection, and gives the participants the opportunity to ask questions and discuss with the presenters and each other how they would use the resources in their classrooms and what else they would need to effectively teach the topic under discussion. The iWebinars were recorded and posted to the CLEAN portal (http://cleanet.org/clean/community/webinars/index.html) so that the participants and others can view them in the future. In this presentation, we will describe the scope and structure of the iWebinars; how the scientist's and teacher's presentations were coordinated to most effectively help the participants learn both the science and how to best convey it to their students; and how we involved the teachers in discussions to deepen their engagement and learning.

  15. Development of durable self-cleaning coatings using organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Divya; Wu, Xinghua; Fu, Qitao; Ho, Jeffrey Weng Chye; Kanhere, Pushkar D.; Li, Lin; Chen, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Self-cleaning coatings with excellent water-repellence and good mechanical properties are in high demand. However, producing such coatings with resistance to mechanical abrasion and environmental weathering remains a key challenge. Mechanically robust coatings based on tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and glycidoxypropyltriethoxysilane (Glymo) have been prepared using a sol-gel method. Emphasis is given to the addition of Glymo, an epoxy silane which creates an organic matrix that blends with the inorganic Sisbnd Osbnd Si matrix formed from the TEOS. The combination of the blended matrix produced coatings with good adhesion to substrates and improved mechanical properties. Fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) and silica fillers were introduced to increase the hydrophobicity of the coating. It was found that the water contact angle (CA) of these coatings increases from 115° to 164° upon decreasing filler size from 1-5 μm to 10-20 nm. The sliding angle (SA) for coatings with 15 wt.% loading of 10-20 nm silica is around 2°. UV weathering does not show significant effect on the properties of the coatings. Mechanical properties and performances including hardness, Young's modulus, coating adhesion and abrasion resistance were systematically analyzed. In the current work, a simple self-cleaning test, which measures the extent of dirt accumulation and subsequent removal by water spray, was performed. The coatings with 15 wt.% loading of 10-20 nm silica particles show the best self-cleaning performance both before and after mechanical abrasion. The developed coating process is simple and can be easily scaled-up for large surfaces that require self-cleaning function.

  16. CDM/baryon isocurvature perturbations in a sneutrino curvaton model

    SciTech Connect

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Hayakawa, Taku; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: taku1215@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: shuichiro@rikkyo.ac.jp

    2014-10-01

    Matter isocurvature perturbations are strictly constrained from cosmic microwave background observations. We study a sneutrino curvaton model where both cold dark matter (CDM)/baryon isocurvature perturbations are generated. In our model, total matter isocurvature perturbations are reduced since the CDM/baryon isocurvature perturbations compensate for each other. We show that this model can not only avoid the stringent observational constraints but also suppress temperature anisotropies on large scales, which leads to improved agreement with observations.

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    a study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This document is the eighth quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1,1990 to September 30, 1990. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. The data from the basic research on coal surfaces, bench scale testing and proof-of-concept scale testing will be utilized to design a final conceptual flowsheet. The economics of the flowsheet will be determined to enable industry to assess the feasibility of incorporating the advanced fine coal cleaning technology into the production of clean coal for generating electricity. 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L.

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSOLUBLE SALT SIMULANT TO SUPPORT ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R

    2008-05-23

    The closure process for high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site will require dissolution of the crystallized salts that are currently stored in many of the tanks. The insoluble residue from salt dissolution is planned to be removed by an Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process. Development of a chemical cleaning process requires an insoluble salt simulant to support evaluation tests of different cleaning methods. The Process Science and Engineering section of SRNL has been asked to develop an insoluble salt simulant for use in testing potential ECC processes (HLE-TTR-2007-017). An insoluble salt simulant has been developed based upon the residues from salt dissolution of saltcake core samples from Tank 28F. The simulant was developed for use in testing SRS waste tank chemical cleaning methods. Based on the results of the simulant development process, the following observations were developed: (1) A composition based on the presence of 10.35 grams oxalate and 4.68 grams carbonate per 100 grams solids produces a sufficiently insoluble solids simulant. (2) Aluminum observed in the solids remaining from actual waste salt dissolution tests is probably precipitated from sodium aluminate due to the low hydroxide content of the saltcake. (3) In-situ generation of aluminum hydroxide (by use of aluminate as the Al source) appears to trap additional salts in the simulant in a manner similar to that expected for actual waste samples. (4) Alternative compositions are possible with higher oxalate levels and lower carbonate levels. (5) The maximum oxalate level is limited by the required Na content of the insoluble solids. (6) Periodic mixing may help to limit crystal growth in this type of salt simulant. (7) Long term storage of an insoluble salt simulant is likely to produce a material that can not be easily removed from the storage container. Production of a relatively fresh simulant is best if pumping the simulant is necessary for testing purposes. The insoluble

  20. How can environmental regulations promote clean coal technology adoption in APEC developing economies?

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The study examines both existing and emerging regulatory frameworks in order to determine which type of regulations that would be most effective at promoting clean coal technology adoption in development Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) economies and would be practical to implement. regulations targeting air emissions; regulations targeting water use; and regulations concerning coal combustion by-products. When considering the potential effect of existing and new environmental regulations on the adoption of clean coal the analysis of technologies was organised into three categories: environmental control technologies; high efficiency coal combustion technologies; and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). To target the recommendations towards APEC economies that would benefit the most from this analysis, the study focused on developing and transition APEC economies that are expected to rely on coal for a large part of their future generating capacity. These economies include China, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, Thailand, and Vietnam. ACARP provided funding to this study, under Project C15078. 10 figs., 14 tabs., 10 apps.

  1. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  2. Policies for accelerating access to clean energy, improving health, advancing development, and mitigating climate change.

    PubMed

    Haines, Andy; Smith, Kirk R; Anderson, Dennis; Epstein, Paul R; McMichael, Anthony J; Roberts, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodcock, James; Woods, Jeremy

    2007-10-01

    The absence of reliable access to clean energy and the services it provides imposes a large disease burden on low-income populations and impedes prospects for development. Furthermore, current patterns of fossil-fuel use cause substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Impending climate change, mainly driven by energy use, now also threatens health. Policies to promote access to non-polluting and sustainable sources of energy have great potential both to improve public health and to mitigate (prevent) climate disruption. There are several technological options, policy levers, and economic instruments for sectors such as power generation, transport, agriculture, and the built environment. However, barriers to change include vested interests, political inertia, inability to take meaningful action, profound global inequalities, weak technology-transfer mechanisms, and knowledge gaps that must be addressed to transform global markets. The need for policies that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate while addressing the energy needs of disadvantaged people is a central challenge of the current era. A comprehensive programme for clean energy should optimise mitigation and, simultaneously, adaption to climate change while maximising co-benefits for health--eg, through improved air, water, and food quality. Intersectoral research and concerted action, both nationally and internationally, will be required. PMID:17868819

  3. Is ΛCDM an effective CCDM cosmology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, J. A. S.; Santos, R. C.; Cunha, J. V.

    2016-03-01

    We show that a cosmology driven by gravitationally induced particle production of all non-relativistic species existing in the present Universe mimics exactly the observed flat accelerating ΛCDM cosmology with just one dynamical free parameter. This kind of scenario includes the creation cold dark matter (CCDM) model [1] as a particular case and also provides a natural reduction of the dark sector since the vacuum component is not needed to accelerate the Universe. The new cosmic scenario is equivalent to ΛCDM both at the background and perturbative levels and the associated creation process is also in agreement with the universality of the gravitational interaction and equivalence principle. Implicitly, it also suggests that the present day astronomical observations cannot be considered the ultimate proof of cosmic vacuum effects in the evolved Universe because ΛCDM may be only an effective cosmology.

  4. Can a void mimic the Λ in ΛCDM?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundell, Peter; Mörtsell, Edvard; Vilja, Iiro

    2015-08-01

    We investigate Lemaítre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models, whose early time evolution and bang time are homogeneous and the distance-redshift relation and local Hubble parameter are inherited from the ΛCDM model. We show that the obtained LTB models and the ΛCDM model predict different relative local expansion rates and that the Hubble functions of the models diverge increasingly with redshift. The LTB models show tension between low redshift baryon acoustic oscillation and supernova observations and including Lyman-α forest or cosmic microwave background observations only accentuates the better fit of the ΛCDM model compared to the LTB model. The result indicates that additional degrees of freedom are needed to explain the observations, for example by renouncing spherical symmetry, homogeneous bang time, negligible effects of pressure, or the early time homogeneity assumption.

  5. Constraints on deviations from ΛCDM within Horndeski gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Emilio; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2016-02-01

    Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard ΛCDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from ΛCDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time αi(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy ΩDE(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with ΛCDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against ΛCDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to ΛCDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from ΛCDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.

  6. Development of an emergency air-cleaning system for liquid-metal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, R.K.

    1980-11-01

    A novel air cleaning concept has been developed for potential use in venting future commercial liquid metal fast breeder reactor containment buildings in the unlikely event of postulated core disruptive accidents. The passive concept consists of a submerged gravel bed to collect the bulk of particulate contaminates carried by the vented gas. A fibrous scrubber could be combined with the submerged gravel scrubber to enhance collection efficiencies for the smaller sized particles. The submerged gravel scrubber is unique in that water flow through the packed bed is induced by the gas flow, eliminating the need for an active liquid pump. In addition, design gas velocities through the packed bed are 10 to 20 times higher than for a conventional sand bed filter.

  7. Development of a replacement for trichloroethylene in the two-stage cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1992-12-01

    A solvent was sought to replace trichloroethylene in the two-stage cleaning process that is used in the Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD) Miniature Electro-Mechanical Assembly Department. The process is an ultrasonic cleaning process in which product is first cleaned in trichloroethylene and then in isopropyl alcohol. After a general review of the properties of available solvents, isopropyl alcohol, d-limonene, and a synthetic mineral spirits, were chosen to be evaluated as trichloroethylene replacements. Stainless steel test panels were cleaned and then soiled with several different organic materials. Certain of the panels were cleaned by the two-stage process. The others were cleaned by the two-stage process using one or another of the solvents under evaluation in the place of the trichloroethylene. The cleanliness of the panels was determined by Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy. The panels cleaned with any of the three solvents under evaluation were found to be as clean as those cleaned by the standard two-stage process. Because of simplicity and minimization of inventory, it is recommended that the two-stage process be changed to use isopropyl alcohol in both stages.

  8. Development of an air cleaning system for dissolving high explosives from nuclear warheads

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Staggs, K.; Wapman, D.

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a major effort underway in dismantling nuclear weapons. In support of this effort we have been developing a workstation for removing the high explosive (HE) from nuclear warheads using hot sprays of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent to dissolve the HE. An important component of the workstation is the air cleaning system that is used to contain DMSO aerosols and vapor and radioactive aerosols. The air cleaning system consists of a condenser to liquefy the hot DMSO vapor, a demister pad to remove most of the DMSO aerosols, a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter to remove the remaining aerosols, an activated carbon filter to remove the DMSO vapor, and a final HEPA filter to meet the redundancy requirement for HEPA filters in radioactive applications. The demister pad is a 4{double_prime} thick mat of glass and steel fibers and was selected after conducting screening tests on promising candidates. We also conducted screening tests on various activated carbons and found that all had a similar performance. The carbon breakthrough curves were fitted to a modified Wheeler`s equation and gave excellent predictions for the effect of different flow rates. After all of the components were assembled, we ran a series of performance tests on the components and system to determine the particle capture efficiency as a function of size for dioctyl sebacate (DOS) and DMSO aerosols using laser particle counters and filter samples. The pad had an efficiency greater than 990% for 0.1 {mu}m DMSO particles. Test results on the prototype carbon filter showed only 70% efficiency, instead of the 99.9% in small scale laboratory tests. Thus further work will be required to develop the prototype carbon filter. 7 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Linear Scarifying End-Effector Developed For Wall Cleaning In Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, C.L.F.

    2001-02-04

    This paper describes the development and performance of a Linear Scarifying End-Effector (LSEE) designed and fabricated for deployment by a remotely operated vehicle. The end-effector was designed to blast or scarify in-grained residual contamination from gunite tank walls using high-pressure water jets after the bulk sludge had been removed from the tanks using an integrated suite of remotely operated tools. Two generations of the LSEE were fabricated, tested, and deployed in the gunite tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with varying levels of success. Because the LSEE was designed near the end of a four-year project to clean up the gunite tanks at Oak Ridge, a number of design constraints existed. The end-effector had to utilize pneumatic, hydraulic and electrical interfaces already available at the site; and to be deployable through one of the containment structures already in place for the other remote systems. Another primary design consideration was that the tool had to effectively extend the reach of an existing remotely operated vehicle from six ft. to at least ten ft. to allow cleaning the tank walls from floor to ceiling. In addition, the combined weight and thrust of the LSEE had to be manageable by the manipulator mounted on the vehicle. Finally, the end-effector had to follow an autonomous scarifying path such that the vehicle was only required to reposition the unit at the end of each pass after the mist had cleared from the tank. The prototypes successfully met each of these challenges, but did encounter other difficulties during actual tank operations.

  10. Advanced development of the Nested Fiber Filter: Phase 1, Evaluation of cleaning methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Litt, R.D.; Conkle, H.N.; Glover, R.C.; Jordan, H.

    1990-08-01

    Battelle has completed Phase I of the DOE program to evaluate cleaning methods for the Nested Fiber Filter (NFF). The results of the investigations into fly ash bonding mechanisms, and mechanical vibration and acoustic vibration techniques led to the conclusion that acoustic cleaning with a pulse combustor is the preferred integrated system for high-temperature, high-pressure applications.

  11. Advanced development of the Nested Fiber Filter: Phase 1, Evaluation of cleaning methods

    SciTech Connect

    Litt, R.D.; Conkle, H.N.; Glover, R.C.; Jordan, H.

    1990-08-01

    Battelle has completed Phase I of the DOE program to evaluate cleaning methods for the Nested Fiber Filter (NFF). The results of the investigations into fly ash bonding mechanisms, and mechanical vibration and acoustic vibration techniques led to the conclusion that acoustic cleaning with a pulse combustor is the preferred integrated system for high-temperature, high-pressure applications.

  12. Final report spent nuclear fuel retrieval system primary cleaning development testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ketner, G.L.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1997-09-01

    Developmental testing of the primary cleaning station for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and canisters is reported. A primary clean machine will be used to remove the gross sludge from canisters and fuel while maintaining water quality in the downstream process area. To facilitate SNF separation from canisters and minimize the impact to water quality, all canisters will be subjected to mechanical agitation and flushing with the Primary Clean Station. The Primary Clean Station consists of an outer containment box with an internally mounted, perforated wash basket. A single canister containing up to 14 fuel assemblies will be loaded into the wash basket, the confinement box lid closed, and the wash basket rotated for a fixed cycle time. During this cycle, basin water will be flushed through the wash basket and containment box to remove and entrain the sludge and carry it out of the box. Primary cleaning tests were performed to provide information concerning the removal of sludge from the fuel assemblies while in the basin canisters. The testing was also used to determine if additional fuel cleaning is required outside of the fuel canisters. Hydraulic performance and water demand requirements of the cleaning station were also evaluated. Thirty tests are reported in this document. Tests demonstrated that sludge can be dislodged and suspended sufficiently to remove it from the canister. Examination of fuel elements after cleaning suggested that more than 95% of the exposed fuel surfaces were cleaned so that no visual evidence of remained. As a result of testing, recommendations are made for the cleaning cycle. 3 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Clean room wiping liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A water-based liquid containing isopropyl alcohol, ammonium hydroxide, and surfactants was developed to replace 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane for the dampening of clean room wiping cloths used to wipe clean benches, clean room equipment, and latex finger cots and gloves.

  14. Active biopolymers in green non-conventional media: a sustainable tool for developing clean chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Pedro; Bernal, Juana M; Nieto, Susana; Gomez, Celia; Garcia-Verdugo, Eduardo; Luis, Santiago V

    2015-12-21

    The greenness of chemical processes turns around two main axes: the selectivity of catalytic transformations, and the separation of pure products. The transfer of the exquisite catalytic efficiency shown by enzymes in nature to chemical processes is an important challenge. By using appropriate reaction systems, the combination of biopolymers with supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and ionic liquids (ILs) resulted in synergetic and outstanding platforms for developing (multi)catalytic green chemical processes, even under flow conditions. The stabilization of biocatalysts, together with the design of straightforward approaches for separation of pure products including the full recovery and reuse of enzymes/ILs systems, are essential elements for developing clean chemical processes. By understanding structure-function relationships of biopolymers in ILs, as well as for ILs themselves (e.g. sponge-like ionic liquids, SLILs; supported ionic liquids-like phases, SILLPs, etc.), several integral green chemical processes of (bio)catalytic transformation and pure product separation are pointed out (e.g. the biocatalytic production of biodiesel in SLILs, etc.). Other developments based on DNA/ILs systems, as pathfinder studies for further technological applications in the near future, are also considered. PMID:26497761

  15. The First Generation of Stars in Lambda-CDM Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Liang; Abel, T.; Frenk, C.S.; Jenkins, A.; Springel, V.; Yoshida, N.; /Nagoya U.

    2006-10-10

    We have performed a large set of high-resolution cosmological simulations using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to study the formation of the first luminous objects in the {Lambda}CDM cosmology. We follow the collapse of primordial gas clouds in eight early structures and document the scatter in the properties of the first star-forming clouds. Our first objects span formation redshifts from z {approx} 10 to z {approx} 50 and cover an order of magnitude in halo mass. We find that the physical properties of the central star-forming clouds are very similar in all of the simulated objects despite significant differences in formation redshift and environment. This suggests that the formation path of the first stars is largely independent of the collapse redshift; the physical properties of the clouds have little correlation with spin, mass, or assembly history of the host halo. The collapse of proto-stellar objects at higher redshifts progresses much more rapidly due to the higher densities, which accelerates the formation of molecular hydrogen, enhances initial cooling and shortens the dynamical timescales. The mass of the star-forming clouds cover a broad range, from a few hundred to a few thousand solar masses, and exhibit various morphologies: some have disk-like structures which are nearly rotational supported; others form flattened spheroids; still others form bars. All of them develop a single protostellar ''seed'' which does not fragment into multiple objects up to the moment that the central gas becomes optically thick to H{sub 2} cooling lines. At this time, the instantaneous mass accretion rate onto the centre varies significantly from object to object, with disk-like structures having the smallest mass accretion rates. The formation epoch and properties of the star-forming clouds are sensitive to the values of cosmological parameters.

  16. Supporting Open Access to European Academic Courses: The ASK-CDM-ECTS Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G.; Zervas, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present and evaluate a web-based tool, namely ASK-CDM-ECTS, which facilitates authoring and publishing on the web descriptions of (open) academic courses in machine-readable format using an application profile of the Course Description Metadata (CDM) specification, namely CDM-ECTS. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  17. 78 FR 32250 - CDM Smith and Dynamac Corp; Transfer of Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... AGENCY CDM Smith and Dynamac Corp; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Confidential Business Information (CBI) by the submitter, will be transferred to CDM Smith and its subcontractor, Dynamac Corp, in accordance with 40 CFR 2.307(h)(3) and 2.308(i)(2). CDM Smith and...

  18. Further Developments in the Communication Link and Error Analysis (CLEAN) Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebel, William J.; Ingels, Frank M.

    1995-01-01

    During the period 1 July 1993 - 30 June 1994, significant developments to the Communication Link and Error ANalysis (CLEAN) simulator were completed. Many of these were reported in the Semi-Annual report dated December 1993 which has been included in this report in Appendix A. Since December 1993, a number of additional modules have been added involving Unit-Memory Convolutional codes (UMC). These are: (1) Unit-Memory Convolutional Encoder module (UMCEncd); (2) Hard decision Unit-Memory Convolutional Decoder using the Viterbi decoding algorithm (VitUMC); and (3) a number of utility modules designed to investigate the performance of LTMC's such as LTMC column distance function (UMCdc), UMC free distance function (UMCdfree), UMC row distance function (UMCdr), and UMC Transformation (UMCTrans). The study of UMC's was driven, in part, by the desire to investigate high-rate convolutional codes which are better suited as inner codes for a concatenated coding scheme. A number of high-rate LTMC's were found which are good candidates for inner codes. Besides the further developments of the simulation, a study was performed to construct a table of the best known Unit-Memory Convolutional codes. Finally, a preliminary study of the usefulness of the Periodic Convolutional Interleaver (PCI) was completed and documented in a Technical note dated March 17, 1994. This technical note has also been included in this final report.

  19. DEVELOPING AN OPTIMIZED PROCESS STRATEGY FOR ACID CLEANING OF THE SAVANNAH RIVERSITE HLW TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E

    2006-12-04

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), there remains approximately 35 million gallons of High Level Waste (HLW) that was mostly created from Purex and SRS H-Area Modified (HM) nuclear fuel cycles. The waste is contained in approximately forty-nine tanks fabricated from commercially available carbon steel. In order to minimize general corrosion, the waste is maintained as very-alkaline solution. The very-alkaline chemistry has caused hydrated metal oxides to precipitate and form a sludge heel. Over the years, the sludge waste has aged, with some forming a hardened crust. To aid in the removal of the sludge heels from select tanks for closure the use of oxalic acid to dissolve the sludge is being investigated. Developing an optimized process strategy based on laboratory analyses would be prohibitively costly. This research, therefore, demonstrates that a chemical equilibrium based software program can be used to develop an optimized process strategy for oxalic acid cleaning of the HLW tanks based on estimating resultant chemistries, minimizing resultant oxalates sent to the evaporator, and minimizing resultant solids sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF).

  20. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    SciTech Connect

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  1. Development of electro-optic systems for self cleaning concentrated solar reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Jeremy W.

    The current demand for energy usage in the world is increasing at a rapid pace; in China alone, the electricity usage has increased by 12% per year from 2006-2010, where more than 75% of electrical power is produced by coal burning facilities. Numerous studies have shown the effects of carbon dioxide emissions on global climate change, and even showing the permanence of high carbon dioxide levels after emissions cease. Current trends away from carbon emitting power facilities are pushing solar energy into a position for many new solar power plants to be constructed. Terrestrial solar energy at AM1.5 is generally given at 1kW/m2, which is a vast free source of energy that can be be harvested to meet the global demand for electricity. Aside from some areas receiving intermittent levels of solar insolation, one of the largest hindrances to large scale solar power production is obscuration of sunlight on solar collectors caused by dust deposition. In areas with the highest average solar insolation, dust deposition is a major problem for maintaining a constant maximum power output. The southern Negev desert in Israel receives on average 17g/m2 per month in dust deposition on solar installations, which in turn causes losses of a third of the total power output of the installation. In these areas, water is a scarce commodity, which can only be used to clean solar installations at a prohibitive cost. To resolve this problem, a cost effective solution would be the application of electrodynamic screens (EDS), which can be implemented by embedding a set of parallel electrodes into the sun facing surface of solar collectors, including concentrating mirrors or photovoltaic (PV) modules, and applying a low frequency pulsed voltage to these electrodes. Three major contributions made in the course of this research in advancing (EDS) for self-cleaning solar mirrors are: (1) development of non-contact specular reflectometer for solar mirrors that allows measurement of reflectance

  2. Research and development of Ro-boat: an autonomous river cleaning robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Aakash; Bhardwaj, Prashant; Vaibhav, Bipul; Mohommad, Noor

    2013-12-01

    Ro-Boat is an autonomous river cleaning intelligent robot incorporating mechanical design and computer vision algorithm to achieve autonomous river cleaning and provide a sustainable environment. Ro-boat is designed in a modular fashion with design details such as mechanical structural design, hydrodynamic design and vibrational analysis. It is incorporated with a stable mechanical system with air and water propulsion, robotic arms and solar energy source and it is proceed to become autonomous by using computer vision. Both "HSV Color Space" and "SURF" are proposed to use for measurements in Kalman Filter resulting in extremely robust pollutant tracking. The system has been tested with successful results in the Yamuna River in New Delhi. We foresee that a system of Ro-boats working autonomously 24x7 can clean a major river in a city on about six months time, which is unmatched by alternative methods of river cleaning.

  3. Development of a replacement for trichloroethylene in the two-stage cleaning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, W. B.

    1992-12-01

    Isopropyl alcohol, d-limonene, and a synthetic mineral spirits were compared for effectiveness as replacements for trichloroethylene in an ultrasonic cleaning process. All were found to be suitable. Isopropyl alcohol is recommended as the replacement.

  4. Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process. Final report, October 1, 1987--April 2, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-31

    Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

  5. Thermomechanical model to assess stresses developed during elevated-temperature cleaning of coated optics.

    PubMed

    Liddell, H P H; Lambropoulos, J C; Jacobs, S D

    2014-09-10

    A thermomechanical model is developed to estimate the stress response of an oxide coating to elevated-temperature chemical cleaning. Using a hafnia-silica multilayer dielectric pulse compressor grating as a case study, we demonstrate that substrate thickness can strongly affect the thermal stress response of the thin-film coating. As a result, coatings on large, thick substrates may be susceptible to modes of stress-induced failure (crazing or delamination) not seen in small parts. We compare the stress response of meter-scale optics to the behavior of small-scale test or "witness" samples, which are expected to be representative of their full-size counterparts. The effects of materials selection, solution temperature, and heating/cooling rates are explored. Extending the model to other situations, thermal stress results are surveyed for various combinations of commonly used materials. Seven oxide coatings (hafnia, silica, tantala, niobia, alumina, and multilayers of hafnia-silica and alumina-silica) and three glass substrates (BK7, borosilicate float glass, and fused silica) are examined to highlight some interesting results. PMID:25321665

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). Accomplishments during the quarter are described on the following tasks and subtasks: Development of near-term applications (engineering development and dewatering studies); Engineering development of selective agglomeration (bench-scale testing and process scale-up); PDU and advanced column flotation module (coal selection and procurement and advanced flotation topical report); Selective agglomeration module (module operation and clean coal production with Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana 7 coals); Disposition of the PDU; and Project final report. Plans for next quarter are discussed and agglomeration results of the three tested coals are presented.

  7. Beyond Λ CDM: Problems, solutions, and the road ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Philip; Akrami, Yashar; Adamek, Julian; Baker, Tessa; Bellini, Emilio; Beltrán Jiménez, Jose; Bentivegna, Eloisa; Camera, Stefano; Clesse, Sébastien; Davis, Jonathan H.; Di Dio, Enea; Enander, Jonas; Heavens, Alan; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Hu, Bin; Llinares, Claudio; Maartens, Roy; Mörtsell, Edvard; Nadathur, Seshadri; Noller, Johannes; Pasechnik, Roman; Pawlowski, Marcel S.; Pereira, Thiago S.; Quartin, Miguel; Ricciardone, Angelo; Riemer-Sørensen, Signe; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Sakstein, Jeremy; Saltas, Ippocratis D.; Salzano, Vincenzo; Sawicki, Ignacy; Solomon, Adam R.; Spolyar, Douglas; Starkman, Glenn D.; Steer, Danièle; Tereno, Ismael; Verde, Licia; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; von Strauss, Mikael; Winther, Hans A.

    2016-06-01

    Despite its continued observational successes, there is a persistent (and growing) interest in extending cosmology beyond the standard model, Λ CDM. This is motivated by a range of apparently serious theoretical issues, involving such questions as the cosmological constant problem, the particle nature of dark matter, the validity of general relativity on large scales, the existence of anomalies in the CMB and on small scales, and the predictivity and testability of the inflationary paradigm. In this paper, we summarize the current status of Λ CDM as a physical theory, and review investigations into possible alternatives along a number of different lines, with a particular focus on highlighting the most promising directions. While the fundamental problems are proving reluctant to yield, the study of alternative cosmologies has led to considerable progress, with much more to come if hopes about forthcoming high-precision observations and new theoretical ideas are fulfilled.

  8. Enabling clean access into Subglacial Lake Whillans: development and use of the WISSARD hot water drill system.

    PubMed

    Rack, Frank R

    2016-01-28

    Clean hot water drill systems (CHWDSs) are used with clean access protocols for the exploration of subglacial lakes and other subglacial aquatic environments (e.g. ice-shelf cavities) in Antarctica. A CHWDS developed for the Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) project by the Science Management Office at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL-SMO), USA, was specifically designed for use in West Antarctica, where the US Antarctic Program's South Pole Traverse could assist with logistical support. The initial goal was to provide clean access holes through ice up to 1000 m thick following environmental stewardship guidelines; however, the existing design allows this CHWDS to be used for ice thicknesses up to 2000 m following modifications to accommodate longer hose lengths. In January 2013, the WISSARD CHWDS successfully provided for the first time a clean access borehole through 800 m of ice into Subglacial Lake Whillans beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet for the deployment of scientific instruments and sampling tools. The development and initial use of the WISSARD CHWDS required the project team to address a number of constraints while providing contingencies to meet the defined project scope, schedule and budget. PMID:26667915

  9. Poverty alleviation and environmental restoration using the clean development mechanism: A case study from Humbo, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Douglas R; Dettmann, Paul; Rinaudo, Tony; Tefera, Hailu; Tofu, Assefa

    2011-08-01

    Poverty, hunger and demand for agricultural land have driven local communities to overexploit forest resources throughout Ethiopia. Forests surrounding the township of Humbo were largely destroyed by the late 1960s. In 2004, World Vision Australia and World Vision Ethiopia identified forestry-based carbon sequestration as a potential means to stimulate community development while engaging in environmental restoration. After two years of consultation, planning and negotiations, the Humbo Community-based Natural Regeneration Project began implementation--the Ethiopian organization's first carbon sequestration initiative. The Humbo Project assists communities affected by environmental degradation including loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and flooding with an opportunity to benefit from carbon markets while reducing poverty and restoring the local agroecosystem. Involving the regeneration of 2,728 ha of degraded native forests, it brings social, economic and ecological benefits--facilitating adaptation to a changing climate and generating temporary certified emissions reductions (tCERs) under the Clean Development Mechanism. A key feature of the project has been facilitating communities to embrace new techniques and take responsibility for large-scale environmental change, most importantly involving Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR). This technique is low-cost, replicable, and provides direct benefits within a short time. Communities were able to harvest fodder and firewood within a year of project initiation and wild fruits and other non-timber forest products within three years. Farmers are using agroforestry for both environmental restoration and income generation. Establishment of user rights and local cooperatives has generated community ownership and enthusiasm for this project--empowering the community to more sustainably manage their communal lands. PMID:21132292

  10. Recent developments in the Clean Water Act: Section 404 regulatory program

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsch, T. )

    1992-12-01

    Since the late 1970's and the 1980's, the Nation has become increasingly aware of the vital role wetlands play in providing habitat, protecting us from flooding and maintaining surface water quality. This public awakening came at the same time that the Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory published reports indicating that less than one half of the wetlands that existed when the Europeans came to the US remain. The reports also indicated that the US was continuing to lose approximately 450,000 acres of our wetlands per year. Although recent data updating the status and trends of wetland losses for the 1980's indicate that the rate of loss has decreased, the Fish and Wildlife Service estimates indicate that approximately 290,000 acres of wetlands are still lost each year. Any loss in the natural functions provided by wetlands is not just felt in the environment; we simultaneously sustain, as a loss to our national economy, a decline in the income that could have been derived from the fisheries, recreation and other critical services performed by wetland systems. Clearly wetlands merit protection. However, in the US, where over 75 percent of our remaining wetlands are on private property, the protection of wetlands is often a difficult and sometimes contentious issue -- evoking debate about private property rights, economic development, the public interest in protecting wetland values, and the kind of world we wish to leave for future generations. Section 404 of the Clean Water Act establishes the primary Federal regulatory program providing protection for the Nation's remaining wetlands. The Section 404 permit program is recognized by both its supporters and critics as one of the strongest, yet often most contentious, Federal environmental protection programs. This presentation provides an overview of the Section 404 regulatory requirements and discusses some of the recent developments that have stirred considerable interest in wetlands protection.

  11. Poverty Alleviation and Environmental Restoration Using the Clean Development Mechanism: A Case Study from Humbo, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Douglas R.; Dettmann, Paul; Rinaudo, Tony; Tefera, Hailu; Tofu, Assefa

    2011-08-01

    Poverty, hunger and demand for agricultural land have driven local communities to overexploit forest resources throughout Ethiopia. Forests surrounding the township of Humbo were largely destroyed by the late 1960s. In 2004, World Vision Australia and World Vision Ethiopia identified forestry-based carbon sequestration as a potential means to stimulate community development while engaging in environmental restoration. After two years of consultation, planning and negotiations, the Humbo Community-based Natural Regeneration Project began implementation—the Ethiopian organization's first carbon sequestration initiative. The Humbo Project assists communities affected by environmental degradation including loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and flooding with an opportunity to benefit from carbon markets while reducing poverty and restoring the local agroecosystem. Involving the regeneration of 2,728 ha of degraded native forests, it brings social, economic and ecological benefits—facilitating adaptation to a changing climate and generating temporary certified emissions reductions (tCERs) under the Clean Development Mechanism. A key feature of the project has been facilitating communities to embrace new techniques and take responsibility for large-scale environmental change, most importantly involving Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR). This technique is low-cost, replicable, and provides direct benefits within a short time. Communities were able to harvest fodder and firewood within a year of project initiation and wild fruits and other non-timber forest products within three years. Farmers are using agroforestry for both environmental restoration and income generation. Establishment of user rights and local cooperatives has generated community ownership and enthusiasm for this project—empowering the community to more sustainably manage their communal lands.

  12. Comparison of Cluster Lensing Profiles with Lambda CDM Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhurst, Tom; Umetsu, Keiichi; Medezinski, Elinor; Oguri, Masamune; Rephaeli, Yoel; /Tel Aviv U. /San Diego, CASS

    2008-05-21

    We derive lens distortion and magnification profiles of four well known clusters observed with Subaru. Each cluster is very well fitted by the general form predicted for Cold Dark Matter (CDM) dominated halos, with good consistency found between the independent distortion and magnification measurements. The inferred level of mass concentration is surprisingly high, 8 < c{sub vir} < 15 ( = 10.39 {+-} 0.91), compared to the relatively shallow profiles predicted by the {Lambda}CDM model, c{sub vir} = 5.06 {+-} 1.10 (for = 1.25 x 10{sup 15} M{sub {circle_dot}}/h). This represents a 4{sigma} discrepancy, and includes the relatively modest effects of projection bias and profile evolution derived from N-body simulations, which oppose each other with little residual effect. In the context of CDM based cosmologies, this discrepancy implies some modification of the widely assumed spectrum of initial density perturbations, so clusters collapse earlier (z {ge} 1) than predicted (z < 0.5) when the Universe was correspondingly denser.

  13. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, M.; Placha, M.; Bethell, P.

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of fine coal cleaning. The project will be completed in two phases: bench-scale testing and demonstration of four advanced flotation cells and; in-plant proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing of two flotation cells individually and in two-stage combinations. The goal is to ascertain if a two-stage circuit can result in reduced capital and operating costs while achieving improved separation efficiency. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation plant, cleans 1200 tph of raw coal. The plant produces approximately 4 million tonnes of clean coal per year at an average as received energy content of 30.2 MJ/Kg (13,000 Btu/lb).

  14. Cleaning validation 2: development and validation of an ion chromatographic method for the detection of traces of CIP-100 detergent.

    PubMed

    Resto, Wilfredo; Hernández, Darimar; Rey, Rosamil; Colón, Héctor; Zayas, José

    2007-05-01

    A cleaning validation method, ion chromatographic method with conductivity detection was developed and validated for the determination of traces of a clean-in-place (CIP) detergent. It was shown to be linear with a squared correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.9999 and average recoveries of 71.4% (area response factor) from stainless steel surfaces and 101% from cotton. The repeatability was found to be 2.17% and an intermediate precision of 1.88% across the range. The method was also shown to be sensitive with a detection limit (DL) of 0.13 ppm and a quantitation limit (QL) of 0.39 ppm for EDTA, which translates to less than 1 microL of CIP diluted in 100mL of diluent in both cases. The EDTA signal was well resolved from typical ions encountered in water samples or any other interference presented from swabs and surfaces. The method could be applied to cleaning validation samples. The validated method could be included as a suitable one for rapid and reliable cleaning validation program. PMID:17344013

  15. Myotonic Dystrophy: Increased expression of the normal allele in CDM infants muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Radvanyi, H.H.; Gourdon, G.; Junien, C. |

    1994-09-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is an autosomal dominant multisystemic disorder characterized by a highly variable clinical phenotype. The mutation has been identified as an unstable trinucleotide CTG repeat in the 3{prime} untranslated region of the myotonin-protein kinase (MT-PK) gene. Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM), which represents the most severe phenotype, is exclusively maternally inherited. Recent studies, analysis by Northern blots and RT-PCR provided apparently conflicting results on the mutated allele expression in samples from congenitally affected children. The level of expression of the mutant allele depends on the extent of the repeat in the adult form and is no longer expressed when over 800-1300 repeats, whether in adult forms or in CDM. Could this decrease account for the late onset forms? However, the differences between the two phenotypes cannot be explained by the same mechanism. Alternatively, these differences could be due to differences in expression of the normal allele. We analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR the expression of the MT-PK gene in muscle samples from four CDM infants and two aged-matched normal controls. In two of these, the mutant allele (3.3 and 8 kb) was undetectable on Northern blots. We observed an increased expression of the MT-PK gene (10- to 20-fold) in tissues of severely affected congenital patients which can be attributed to the normal allele. Since expression of the normal allele is either normal or slightly decreased in the adult form, the dramatic increase in the congenital form could reflect a disturbance in muscle differentiation. Expression studies of MT-PK at different stages of development and, especially after the 20th week, are therefore required.

  16. Developing an Online Database of National and Sub-National Clean Energy Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, R.; Cross, S.; Heinemann, A.; Booth, S.

    2014-06-01

    The Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) was established in 1995 to provide summaries of energy efficiency and renewable energy policies offered by the federal and state governments. This primer provides an overview of the major policy, research, and technical topics to be considered when creating a similar clean energy policy database and website.

  17. Development of Statistical Process Control Methodology for an Environmentally Compliant Surface Cleaning Process in a Bonding Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Dale E.; Doan, Patrick A.; Boothe, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Bonding labs at both MSFC and the northern Utah production plant prepare bond test specimens which simulate or witness the production of NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The current process for preparing the bonding surfaces employs 1,1,1-trichloroethane vapor degreasing, which simulates the current RSRM process. Government regulations (e.g., the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act) have mandated a production phase-out of a number of ozone depleting compounds (ODC) including 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In order to comply with these regulations, the RSRM Program is qualifying a spray-in-air (SIA) precision cleaning process using Brulin 1990, an aqueous blend of surfactants. Accordingly, surface preparation prior to bonding process simulation test specimens must reflect the new production cleaning process. The Bonding Lab Statistical Process Control (SPC) program monitors the progress of the lab and its capabilities, as well as certifies the bonding technicians, by periodically preparing D6AC steel tensile adhesion panels with EA-91 3NA epoxy adhesive using a standardized process. SPC methods are then used to ensure the process is statistically in control, thus producing reliable data for bonding studies, and identify any problems which might develop. Since the specimen cleaning process is being changed, new SPC limits must be established. This report summarizes side-by-side testing of D6AC steel tensile adhesion witness panels and tapered double cantilevered beams (TDCBs) using both the current baseline vapor degreasing process and a lab-scale spray-in-air process. A Proceco 26 inches Typhoon dishwasher cleaned both tensile adhesion witness panels and TDCBs in a process which simulates the new production process. The tests were performed six times during 1995, subsequent statistical analysis of the data established new upper control limits (UCL) and lower control limits (LCL). The data also demonstrated that the new process was equivalent to the vapor

  18. Dark subhalo accretion onto dwarf galaxies in CDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, Chervin Fabien Pierre; Penarrubia, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Baryonic feedback at high redshifts has been proposed to explain the inference of dark matter (DM) cores in low-surface brightness and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. However, in the currently favoured cosmological model, structure grows hierarchically and CDM predicts a myriad of small substructures orbiting dwarf galaxies, some luminous (which habe been observationally identified in recent years), some dark. If such dark subhalos get close enough to the centre of cored dwarfs, they could potentially lead to cusp regrowth.In this talk, I will present the evolution of the DM profiles of dwarf galaxies driven by the accretion of DM substructures through controlled N-body experiments. The initial conditions assume that supernova feedback erases the primordial DM cusps at high redshift of halos with final masses $10^{9}-10^{10} \\rm{M_{\\odot}}$ by z=0. The orbits and masses of the infalling substructures are borrowed from the {\\it Aquarius} cosmological simulations. I will show that some halos that undergo 1:3 down to 1:30 mergers are susceptible to reform a DM cusp by $z\\approx 0$ and how this depends on the internal structure of the infalling substructures. I will show that within CDM a non-negligible level of scatter in the mass profiles of dwarfs is to be expected given their stochastic mass accretion histories and their diverse (observed) star formation histories and that this effect could possibly explain the existence of dense dwarfs like Draco, Ursa Minor or Tucana. I will argue how this process is unique to CDM and may be falsifiable. If time allows, I will show preliminary results from suites of cosmological N-body simulations designed to address the statistics of this effect.

  19. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research & Development Center (Amax R&D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  20. Variable-Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE): Stability code development and clean-up glove data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozendaal, Roger A.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE) was to establish an improved swept wing transition criterion. The development of the Unified Stability System gave a way of quickly examining disturbance growth for a wide variety of laminar boundary layers. The disturbance growth traces shown are too scattered to define a transition criteria to replace the F-111 data band, which has been used successfully to design NLF gloves. Still, a careful review of the clean-up glove data may yield cases for which the transition location is known more accurately. Liquid crystal photographs of the clean-up glove show much spanwise variation in the transition front for some conditions, and this further complicates the analyses. Several high quality cases are needed in which the transition front is well defined and at a relatively constant chordwise station.

  1. GAS CLUMPING IN THE OUTSKIRTS OF {Lambda}CDM CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Daisuke; Lau, Erwin T.

    2011-04-10

    Recent Suzaku X-ray observations revealed that the observed entropy profile of the intracluster medium (ICM) deviates significantly from the prediction of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters. In this work, we show that gas clumping introduces significant biases in X-ray measurements of the ICM profiles in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. Using hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy cluster formation in a concordance {Lambda}CDM model, we demonstrate that gas clumping leads to an overestimate of the observed gas density and causes flattening of the entropy profile. Our results suggest that gas clumping must be taken into account when interpreting X-ray measurements of cluster outskirts.

  2. Which spectral distortions does ΛCDM actually predict?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chluba, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Ever refined cosmological measurements have established the ΛCDM concordance model, with the key cosmological parameters being determined to percent-level precision today. This allows us to make explicit predictions for the spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) created by various processes occurring in the early Universe. Here, we summarize all guaranteed CMB distortions and assess their total uncertainty within ΛCDM. We also compare simple methods for approximating them, highlighting some of the subtle aspects when it comes to interpreting future distortion measurements. Under simplified assumptions, we briefly study how well a PIXIE-like experiment may measure the main distortion parameters (i.e., μ and y). Next generation CMB spectrometers are expected to detect the distortion caused by reionization and structure formation at extremely high significance. They will also be able to constrain the small-scale power spectrum through the associated μ-distortion, improving limits on running of the spectral index. Distortions from the recombination era, adiabatic cooling of matter relative to the CMB and dark matter annihilation require a higher sensitivity than PIXIE in its current design. The crucial next step is an improved modeling of foregrounds and instrumental aspects, as we briefly discuss here.

  3. Which spectral distortions does ΛCDM actually predict?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chluba, Jens

    2016-07-01

    Ever refined cosmological measurements have established the ΛCDM concordance model, with the key cosmological parameters being determined to per cent-level precision today. This allows us to make explicit predictions for the spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) created by various processes occurring in the early Universe. Here, we summarize all guaranteed CMB distortions and assess their total uncertainty within ΛCDM. We also compare simple methods for approximating them, highlighting some of the subtle aspects when it comes to interpreting future distortion measurements. Under simplified assumptions, we briefly study how well a PIXIE-like experiment may measure the main distortion parameters (i.e. μ and y). Next-generation CMB spectrometers are expected to detect the distortion caused by reionization and structure formation at extremely high significance. They will also be able to constrain the small-scale power spectrum through the associated μ-distortion, improving limits on running of the spectral index. Distortions from the recombination era, adiabatic cooling of matter relative to the CMB and dark matter annihilation require a higher sensitivity than PIXIE in its current design. The crucial next step is an improved modelling of foregrounds and instrumental aspects, as we briefly discuss here.

  4. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  5. DATA COLLECTION AND DATABASE DEVELOPMENT FOR CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The primary goal of this task is to provide an easily accessible compilation of characterization information on clean coal technology (CCT) by-products to government agencies and industry to facilitate sound regulatory and management decisions. Supporting objectives are to (1) fully utilize information from previous DOE projects, (2) coordinate with industry and other research groups, (3) focus on by-products from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and gasification, and (4) provide information relevant to the EPA evaluation criteria for the decision on the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) status of fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) by-products.

  6. Building Successful Cleaning Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to build a successful cleaning process in order to most effectively maintain school facilities, explaining that the cleaning processes used plays a critical role in productivity. Focuses on: developing a standardized system; making sure that employees have the right tools for the work they perform; training employees; tracking and…

  7. BULLET CLUSTER: A CHALLENGE TO {Lambda}CDM COSMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jounghun; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2010-07-20

    To quantify how rare the bullet-cluster-like high-velocity merging systems are in the standard {Lambda} cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology, we use a large-volume (27 h {sup -3} Gpc{sup 3}) cosmological N-body MICE simulation to calculate the distribution of infall velocities of subclusters around massive main clusters. The infall velocity distribution is given at (1-3)R{sub 200} of the main cluster (where R{sub 200} is similar to the virial radius), and thus it gives the distribution of realistic initial velocities of subclusters just before collision. These velocities can be compared with the initial velocities used by the non-cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of 1E0657-56 in the literature. The latest parameter search carried out by Mastropietro and Burkert has shown that an initial velocity of 3000 km s{sup -1} at about 2R{sub 200} is required to explain the observed shock velocity, X-ray brightness ratio of the main and subcluster, X-ray morphology of the main cluster, and displacement of the X-ray peaks from the mass peaks. We show that such a high infall velocity at 2R{sub 200} is incompatible with the prediction of a {Lambda}CDM model: the probability of finding 3000 km s{sup -1} in (2-3)R{sub 200} is between 3.3 x 10{sup -11} and 3.6 x 10{sup -9}. A lower velocity, 2000 km s{sup -1} at 2R{sub 200}, is also rare, and moreover, Mastropietro and Burkert have shown that such a low initial velocity does not reproduce the X-ray brightness ratio of the main and subcluster or morphology of the main cluster. Therefore, we conclude that the existence of 1E0657-56 is incompatible with the prediction of a {Lambda}CDM model, unless a lower infall velocity solution for 1E0657-56 with {approx}<1800 km s{sup -1} at 2R{sub 200} is found.

  8. Magnetized completion of the {lambda}CDM paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, Massimo; Kunze, Kerstin E.

    2008-03-15

    The standard {lambda}CDM paradigm is complemented with a magnetized contribution whose effects on the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background are assessed by means of a dedicated numerical approach. The accuracy on the temperature and polarization correlations stems from the inclusion of the large-scale magnetic fields both at the level of the initial conditions and at the level of the Einstein-Boltzmann hierarchy which is consistently embedded in a generalized magnetohydrodynamical framework. Examples of the calculations of the temperature and polarization angular power spectra are illustrated and discussed. The reported results and the described numerical tools set the groundwork for a consistent inclusion of a magnetized contribution in current strategies of cosmological parameter estimation.

  9. Relativistic perturbations in ΛCDM: Eulerian & Lagrangian approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Eleonora; Rampf, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    We study the relativistic dynamics of a pressure-less and irrotational fluid of dark matter (CDM) with a cosmological constant (Λ), up to second order in cosmological perturbation theory. In our analysis we also account for vector and tensor perturbations and include primordial non-Gaussianity. We consider three gauges: the synchronous-comoving gauge, the Poisson gauge and the total matter gauge, where the first is the unique relativistic Lagrangian frame of reference, and the latters are convenient gauge choices for Eulerian frames. Our starting point is the metric and fluid variables in the Poisson gauge up to second order. We then perform the gauge transformations to the synchronous-comoving gauge and subsequently to the total matter gauge. Our expressions for the metrics, densities, velocities, and the gauge generators are novel and coincide with known results in the limit of a vanishing cosmological constant.

  10. Development of Thermoelectric and Permanent Magnet Nanoparticles for Clean Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phi-Khanh

    The global trend towards energy efficiency and environmental sustainability has generated a strong demand for clean energy technologies. Among the many energy solutions, the work in this dissertation contributes to two strategic goals: the reduction of fuel consumption in the transportation sector, and the increase of domestic wind power capacity. The key barriers to achieving these goals are materials challenges. Automobiles can be made more efficient by thermoelectric conversion of waste heat from the engine into electricity that can be used to power electrical components in the vehicle. Vehicles can forego petroleum fuel altogether by using electric or hybrid motors. Unfortunately, the conversion efficiency of current thermoelectric technology is too low to be considered economically feasible, and the permanent magnets used in electric vehicle motors and wind turbine generators require critical rare-earth elements that are economically unstable (often referred to as the "rare-earth crisis"). In order to combat these challenges, a "spark erosion" technique was utilized for producing nanoparticles that improve thermoelectric efficiency and contribute to the development of electromotors that do not require rare-earths. In Chapter 2 of this dissertation, I describe the utilization of spark erosion for producing high-quality thermoelectric nanoparticles at a remarkably high rate and with enhanced thermoelectric properties. The technique was employed to synthesize p-type bismuth-antimony telluride (BST) and n-type skutterudite nanoparticles, using a relatively small laboratory apparatus, with low energy consumption. The compacted BST nanocomposite samples made from these nanoparticles exhibit a well-defined, 20--50 nm size nanograin microstructure, and show an enhanced Figure of merit, ZT, of 1.36 at 360 K due to a reduction in lattice thermal conductivity. The skutterudite nanocomposites also show reduced thermal conductivity but still require enhancement in the

  11. Dynamical history of the Local Group in ΛCDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, Indranil; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2016-06-01

    The positions and velocities of galaxies in the Local Group (LG) measure the gravitational field within it. This is mostly due to the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31). We constrain their masses using distance and radial velocity (RV) measurements of 32 LG galaxies. To do this, we follow the trajectories of many simulated particles starting on a pure Hubble flow at redshift 9. For each observed galaxy, we obtain a trajectory which today is at the same position. Its final velocity is the model prediction for the velocity of that galaxy. Unlike previous simulations based on spherical symmetry, ours are axisymmetric and include gravity from Centaurus A. We find the total LG mass is {4.33^{+0.37}_{-0.32}× {10}^{12} M_{⊙}}, with 0.14 ± 0.07 of this being in the MW. We approximately account for IC 342, M81, the Great Attractor and the Large Magellanic Cloud. No plausible set of initial conditions yields a good match to the RVs of our sample of LG galaxies. Observed RVs systematically exceed those predicted by the best-fitting Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) model, with a typical disagreement of {45.1^{+7.0}_{-5.7}} km s-1 and a maximum of 110 ± 13 km s-1 for DDO 99. Interactions between LG dwarf galaxies cannot easily explain this. One possibility is a past close flyby of the MW and M31. This arises in some modified gravity theories but not in ΛCDM. Gravitational slingshot encounters of material in the LG with either of these massive fast-moving galaxies could plausibly explain why some non-satellite LG galaxies are moving away from us even faster than a pure Hubble flow.

  12. Supercritical fluids cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, S.; Hjeresen, D.; Silva, L.; Spall, D.; Stephenson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed multi-party research and development program which seeks to develop supercritical fluid cleaning technology as an alternative to existing solvent cleaning applications. While SCF extraction technology has been in commercial use for several years, the use of these fluids as cleaning agents poses several new technical challenges. Problems inherent in the commercialization of SCF technology include: the cleaning efficacy and compatibility of supercritical working fluids with the parts to be cleaned must be assessed for a variety of materials and components; process parameters and equipment design Have been optimized for extractive applications and must be reconsidered for application to cleaning; and co-solvents and entrainers must be identified to facilitate the removal of polar inorganic and organic contaminants, which are often not well solvated in supercritical systems. The proposed research and development program would address these issues and lead to the development and commercialization of viable SCF-based technology for precision cleaning applications. This paper provides the technical background, program scope, and delineates the responsibilities of each principal participant in the program.

  13. Ultrasonic cleaning: An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Mason, Timothy J

    2016-03-01

    The development of ultrasonic cleaning dates from the middle of the 20th century and has become a method of choice for a range of surface cleaning operations. The reasons why this has happened and the methods of assessing the efficiency of ultrasonic cleaning baths are reviewed. PMID:26054698

  14. U.S. OpenLabs: Promoting Clean Energy Development Through Access to Tools, Data, and Expertise Across U.S. National Laboratories (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    To assist in global access to cutting-edge clean energy analysis tools, databases, and other resources, the U.S. government has established the U.S. OpenLabs Web site. OpenLabs provides access to a broad array of resources across the U.S. national laboratory network organized to answer specific technical needs and questions related to clean energy development and deployment.

  15. Cleaning agents and asthma.

    PubMed

    Quirce, S; Barranco, P

    2010-01-01

    Although cleaners represent a significant part of the working population worldwide, they remain a relatively understudied occupational group. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between cleaning work and asthma, but the risk factors are uncertain. Cleaning workers are exposed to a large variety of cleaning products containing both irritants and sensitizers, as well as to common indoor allergens and pollutants. Thus, the onset or aggravation of asthma in this group could be related to an irritant-induced mechanism or to specific sensitization. The main sensitizers contained in cleaning products are disinfectants, quaternary ammonium compounds (such as benzalkonium chloride), amine compounds, and fragrances.The strongest airway irritants in cleaning products are bleach (sodium hypochlorite), hydrochloric acid, and alkaline agents (ammonia and sodium hydroxide), which are commonly mixed together. Exposure to the ingredients of cleaning products may give rise to both new-onset asthma, with or without a latency period, and work-exacerbated asthma. High-level exposure to irritants may induce reactive airways dysfunction syndrome. Cleaning workers may also have a greater relative risk of developing asthma due to prolonged low-to-moderate exposure to respiratory irritants. In addition, asthma-like symptoms without confirmed asthma are also common after exposure to cleaning agents. In many cleaners, airway symptoms induced by chemicals and odors cannot be explained by allergic or asthmatic reactions. These patients may have increased sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin, which is known to reflect sensory reactivity, and this condition is termed airway sensory hyperreactivity. PMID:21313993

  16. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  17. Black Carbon and Kerosene Lighting: An Opportunity for Rapid Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy for Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Arne; Bond, Tami C.; Lam, Nicholoas L.; Hultman, Nathan

    2013-04-15

    Replacing inefficient kerosene lighting with electric lighting or other clean alternatives can rapidly achieve development and energy access goals, save money and reduce climate warming. Many of the 250 million households that lack reliable access to electricity rely on inefficient and dangerous simple wick lamps and other kerosene-fueled light sources, using 4 to 25 billion liters of kerosene annually to meet basic lighting needs. Kerosene costs can be a significant household expense and subsidies are expensive. New information on kerosene lamp emissions reveals that their climate impacts are substantial. Eliminating current annual black carbon emissions would provide a climate benefit equivalent to 5 gigatons of carbon dioxide reductions over the next 20 years. Robust and low-cost technologies for supplanting simple wick and other kerosene-fueled lamps exist and are easily distributed and scalable. Improving household lighting offers a low-cost opportunity to improve development, cool the climate and reduce costs.

  18. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-07-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  19. Engineereing development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-02-18

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. The project has three major objectives: The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  20. International Assistance for Low-Emission Development Planning: Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) Inventory of Activities and Tools--Preliminary Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, S.; Benioff, R.

    2011-05-01

    The Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) is a voluntary network of international practitioners supporting low-emission planning in developing countries. The network seeks to improve quality of support through sharing project information, tools, best practices and lessons, and by fostering harmonized assistance. CLEAN has developed an inventory to track and analyze international technical support and tools for low-carbon planning activities in developing countries. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the inventory to help identify trends in assistance activities and tools available to support developing countries with low-emission planning.

  1. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  2. Comparison of cleaning processes with respect to cleaning efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesladek, Pavel; Osborne, Steve; Rode, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Photomask technology has attained feature sizes of about 50nm and below. Whereas the main feature size is still above 70-80nm at 20nm technology node recently reported e.g. by Toppan Printing Company as developed, assist features for this node are in the range of 50-60nm. One of the critical aspects of this technology development is the cleaning process. Processes are supposed to clean off contamination and particles down to a defect size of about 40nm and at the same time prevent damage to assist features in the same size range. Due to obvious trade offs between cleaning power and Feature Damage Probability (FPD), this task becomes tricky. Improvement of cleaning processes by raising the power of megasonic (MS) cleaning, or adjusting the speed and size of droplets for spray cleaning occurs at the expense of increased feature damage. Prolongation of physical cleaning steps does not necessarily leads to improvement of the cleaning as shown previously. Susceptibility to feature damage occurs predicatively according to dimension and orientation. This allows us to extrapolate a Feature Damage Limit (FDL) which approximates the smallest feature size for which a process has an acceptable probability of success. In a practical sense, the most advantageous approach seems to be to adjust the cleaning power to the maximum allowed by the FDP and then optimize to the lowest process time necessary to reach expected cleaning efficiency. Since there are several alternative physical cleaning principles, we have to pick the best one for a given application. At this point we have to raise the question of how to compare the cleaning efficiency of processes. The goal of this work is to provide a method for evaluation and comparison of cleaning efficiency between physical cleaning processes and demonstrate the method on an example. We will focus on comparing two physical cleaning processes 1MHz megasonic and binary spray process.

  3. GRAVITATIONAL LENSING CORRECTIONS IN FLAT {Lambda}CDM COSMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Kantowski, Ronald; Chen Bin; Dai Xinyu E-mail: Bin.Chen-1@ou.ed

    2010-08-01

    We compute the deflection angle to order (m/r {sub 0}){sup 2} and m/r{sub 0} x {Lambda}r {sup 2}{sub 0} for a light ray traveling in a flat {Lambda}CDM cosmology that encounters a completely condensed mass region. We use a Swiss cheese model for the inhomogeneities and find that the most significant correction to the Einstein angle occurs not because of the nonlinear terms but instead occurs because the condensed mass is embedded in a background cosmology. The Swiss cheese model predicts a decrease in the deflection angle of {approx}2% for weakly lensed galaxies behind the rich cluster A1689 and that the reduction can be as large as {approx}5% for similar rich clusters at z {approx} 1. Weak-lensing deflection angles caused by galaxies can likewise be reduced by as much as {approx}4%. We show that the lowest order correction in which {Lambda} appears is proportional to m/r{sub 0} x {radical}({Lambda}r{sub 0}{sup 2}) and could cause as much as a {approx}0.02% increase in the deflection angle for light that passes through a rich cluster. The lowest order nonlinear correction in the mass is proportional to m/r{sub 0}x{radical}(m/r{sub 0}) and can increase the deflection angle by {approx}0.005% for weak lensing by galaxies.

  4. Cleaning devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Horst W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Cleaning devices are described which include a vacuum cleaner nozzle with a sharp rim for directing incoming air down against the floor; a vacuum cleaner wherein electrostatically charged brushes that brush dirt off a floor, are electrically grounded to remove charges that could tend to hold dirt to the brushes; a vacuum cleaner head having slots that form a pair of counter-rotating vortices, and that includes an outlet that blows a stream of air at the floor region which lies between the vortices; a cleaning device that sweeps a group of brushes against the ground along a first direction, and then sweeps them along the same ground area but in a second direction angled from the first by an amount such as 90.degree., to sweep up particles lying in crevices extending along any direction; a device that gently cleans a surface to remove bacteria for analysis, including an inclined wall along which cleaning fluid flows onto the surface, a vacuum chamber for drawing in the cleaning fluid, and a dividing wall spaced slightly from the surface to separate the fluid source from the vacuum cleaner chamber; and a device for providing pulses of pressured air including a chamber to which pressured air is supplied, a ball that circulates around the chamber to repeatedly close an outlet, and an air source that directs air circumferentially to move the ball around the chamber.

  5. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-12

    Work completed produced the criteria for additional engineering analysis, computation and detailed experimental benchscale testing for areas of uncertainty. The engineering analysis, computation, bench-scale testing and component development was formulated to produce necessary design information to define a commercially operating system. In order to produce the required information by means of bench-scale testing and component development, a uniform coal sample was procured. After agreement with DOE, a selected sample of coal from those previously listed was secured. The test plan was developed in two parts. The first part listed procedures for engineering and computational analyses of those deficiencies previously identified that could be solved without bench scale testing. Likewise, the second part prepared procedures for bench-scale testing and component development for those deficiencies previously identified in Task 3.

  7. Suitability of hyperspectral imaging technique to evaluate the effectiveness of the cleaning of a crustose lichen developed on granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo-Antonio, J. S.; Fiorucci, M. P.; Rivas, T.; López, A. J.; Ramil, A.; Barral, D.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser cleaning of a complex biogenic patina, a crustose lichen, by means of hyperspectral imaging techniques. Samples of a Hercynian granite from NW Spain colonised by an endolithic crustose lichen ( Pertusaria amara) were collected and cleaned following three procedures: a scalpel, the third harmonic of a Nd:YVO4 ns laser and the scalpel followed by the laser. The suitability of the hyperspectral camera as a non-destructive, online, fast and in situ monitoring technique to assess the effectiveness of the cleaning was evaluated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and colour measurements in CIELAB space. The hyperspectral imaging technique allowed us to measure the reflectivity variations of the cleaned surfaces in a non-invasive way, allowing the identification of the cleaning effectiveness of each procedure. Nevertheless, the results of the hyperspectral imaging technique must be validated by conventional techniques.

  8. The HII Galaxy Hubble Diagram Strongly Favors Rh = ct over ΛCDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio

    2016-08-01

    We continue to build support for the proposal to use HII galaxies (HIIGx) and giant extragalactic HII regions (GEHR) as standard candles to construct the Hubble diagram at redshifts beyond the current reach of Type Ia supernovae. Using a sample of 25 high-redshift HIIGx, 107 local HIIGx, and 24 GEHR, we confirm that the correlation between the emission-line luminosity and ionized-gas velocity dispersion is a viable luminosity indicator, and use it to test and compare the standard model ΛCDM and the Rh = ct Universe by optimizing the parameters in each cosmology using a maximization of the likelihood function. For the flat ΛCDM model, the best fit is obtained with Ω _m= 0.40_{-0.09}^{+0.09}. However, statistical tools, such as the Akaike (AIC), Kullback (KIC) and Bayes (BIC) Information Criteria favor Rh = ct over the standard model with a likelihood of ≈94.8% - 98.8% versus only ≈1.2% - 5.2%. For wCDM (the version of ΛCDM with a dark-energy equation of state wde ≡ pde/ρde rather than wde = wΛ = -1), a statistically acceptable fit is realized with Ω _m=0.22_{-0.14}^{+0.16} and w_de= -0.51_{-0.25}^{+0.15} which, however, are not fully consistent with their concordance values. In this case, wCDM has two more free parameters than Rh = ct, and is penalized more heavily by these criteria. We find that Rh = ct is strongly favored over wCDM with a likelihood of ≈92.9% - 99.6% versus only 0.4% - 7.1%. The current HIIGx sample is already large enough for the BIC to rule out ΛCDM/wCDM in favor of Rh = ct at a confidence level approaching 3σ.

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-04-26

    The main purpose of this project is engineering development of advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies for cleaning coal. Development of these technologies is an important step in the Department of Energy program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected United States coals and that this fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for a portion of the premium fuels (oil and natural gas) burned by electric utility and industrial boilers in this country. Capturing a relatively small fraction of the total utility and industrial oil-fired boiler fuel market would have a significant impact on domestic coal production and reduce national dependence on petroleum fuels. Significant potential export markets also exist in Europe and the Pacific Rim for cost-effective premium fuels prepared from ultra-clean coal. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs, and boiler derating are kept to a minimum. Also, retrofit boiler emissions must be compatible with national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for the ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of ultra-clean coal discussed below. The cost-shared contract effort is for 48 months beginning September 30, 1992, and ending September 30, 1996. This report discusses the technical progress made during the second 3 months of the project, January 1 to March 31, 1993.

  10. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    E.T. Robinson; James P. Meagher; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Siv Aasland; Charles Besecker; Jack Chen Bart A. van Hassel; Olga Polevaya; Rafey Khan; Piyush Pilaniwalla

    2002-12-31

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from November 1, 2001 to December 31, 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1: Materials Development; Task 2: Composite Development; Task 4: Reactor Design and Process Optimization; Task 8: Fuels and Engine Testing; 8.1 International Diesel Engine Program; 8.2 Nuvera Fuel Cell Program; and Task 10: Program Management. Major progress has been made towards developing high temperature, high performance, robust, oxygen transport elements. In addition, a novel reactor design has been proposed that co-produces hydrogen, lowers cost and improves system operability. Fuel and engine testing is progressing well, but was delayed somewhat due to the hiatus in program funding in 2002. The Nuvera fuel cell portion of the program was completed on schedule and delivered promising results regarding low emission fuels for transportation fuel cells. The evaluation of ultra-clean diesel fuels continues in single cylinder (SCTE) and multiple cylinder (MCTE) test rigs at International Truck and Engine. FT diesel and a BP oxygenate showed significant emissions reductions in comparison to baseline petroleum diesel fuels. Overall through the end of 2002 the program remains under budget, but behind schedule in some areas.

  11. A Framework for Engaging Navajo Women in Clean Energy Development through Applied Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osnes, Beth; Manygoats, Adrian; Weitkamp, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Through applied theatre, Navajo women can participate in authoring a new story for how energy is mined, produced, developed, disseminated and used in the Navajo Nation. This article is an analysis of a creative process that was utilised with primarily Navajo women to create a Navajo Women's Energy Project (NWEP). The framework for this creative…

  12. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document a quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1, 1992 to September 30, 1992. This report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. The conceptual flowsheet must be examined to identify critical areas that need additional design data. This data will then be developed using batch and semi-continuous bench scale testing. In addition to actual bench scale testing, other unit operations from other industries processing fine material will be reviewed for potential application and incorporated into the design if appropriate. The conceptual flowsheet will be revised based on the results of the bench scale testing and areas will be identified that need further larger scale design data verification, to prove out the design.

  13. THE ABUNDANCE OF BULLET GROUPS IN ΛCDM

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Forero-Romero, J. E.; Foex, G.; Motta, V.; Verdugo, T. E-mail: je.forero@uniandes.edu.co

    2014-06-01

    We estimate the expected distribution of displacements between the two dominant dark matter (DM) peaks (DM-DM displacements) and between the DM and gaseous baryon peak (DM-gas displacements) in DM halos with masses larger than 10{sup 13} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}. As a benchmark, we use the observation of SL2S J08544–0121, which is the lowest mass system (1.0 × 10{sup 14} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}) observed so far, featuring a bi-modal DM distribution with a dislocated gas component. We find that (50 ± 10)% of the DM halos with circular velocities in the range 300-700 km s{sup –1} (groups) show DM-DM displacements equal to or larger than 186 ± 30 h {sup –1} kpc as observed in SL2S J08544–0121. For DM halos with circular velocities larger than 700 km s{sup –1} (clusters) this fraction rises to (70 ± 10)%. Using the same simulation, we estimate the DM-gas displacements and find that 0.1%-1.0% of the groups should present separations equal to or larger than 87 ± 14 h {sup –1} kpc, corresponding to our observational benchmark; for clusters, this fraction rises to (7 ± 3)%, consistent with previous studies of DM to baryon separations. Considering both constraints on the DM-DM and DM-gas displacements, we find that the number density of groups similar to SL2S J08544–0121 is ∼6.0 × 10{sup –7} Mpc{sup –3}, three times larger than the estimated value for clusters. These results open up the possibility for a new statistical test of ΛCDM by looking for DM-gas displacements in low mass clusters and groups.

  14. Cleaning Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpton, James L.

    This curriculum guide provides cleaning services instructional materials for a ninth- and tenth-grade Coordinated Vocational Education and Training: Home and Community Services program. It includes 2 sections and 11 instructional units. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities,…

  15. Partnerships for Clean Development and Climate: Business andTechnology Cooperation Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Price, Lynn; Kumar, Satish; de la Rue du Can,Stephane; Warfield, Corina; Padmanabhan, S.

    2006-08-22

    Development and poverty eradication are urgent andoverriding goals internationally. The World Summit on SustainableDevelopment made clear the need for increased access to affordable,reliable and cleaner energy and the international community agreed in theDelhi Declaration on Climate Change and Sustainable Development on theimportance of the development agenda in considering any climate changeapproach. To this end, six countries (Australia, China, India, Japan,Republic of Korea and the United States) have come together to form theAsia Pacific Partnership in accordance with their respective nationalcircumstances, to develop, deploy and transfer cleaner, more efficienttechnologies and to meet national pollution reduction, energy securityand climate change concerns consistent with the principles of the U.N.Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The APP builds on thefoundation of existing bilateral and multilateral initiativescomplements.APP has established eight public-private sector Task Forcescovering: (1) cleaner fossil energy; (2) renewable energy and distributedgeneration; (3) power generation and transmission; (4) steel; (5)aluminium; (6) cement; (7) coal mining; and (8) buildings and appliances.As a priority, each Task Force will formulate detailed action plansoutlining both immediate and medium-term specific actions, includingpossible "flagship" projects and relevant indicators of progress by 31August 2006. The partnership will help the partners build human andinstitutional capacity to strengthen cooperative efforts, and will seekopportunities to engage the private sector. The APP organized An OutreachWorkshop: Business&Technology Cooperation Opportunities forIndustry on August 26, 2006, New Delhi. This paper was prepared toprovide background information for participants of the Conference. Ithighlights energy efficiency, renewable energy, and climate technologies,barriers, and partnerships that are being implemented in the US, Indiaand other selected

  16. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-05-06

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effectve replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States as well as for advanced combustars currently under development. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals fbr clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 51-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress, made during the 6th quarter of the project from January 1 to March 31, 1994. The project has three major objectives: (1) The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. (2) A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. (3) A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  17. Locally Appropriate Energy Strategies for the Developing World: A focus on Clean Energy Opportunities in Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, Rebekah Grace

    This dissertation focuses on an integration of energy modeling tools to explore energy transition pathways for emerging economies. The spate of growth in the global South has led to a global energy transition, evidenced in part by a surge in the development of large scale energy infrastructure projects for the provision of reliable electricity service. The rational of energy security and exigency often usher these large scale projects through to implementation with minimal analysis of costs: social and environmental impact, ecological risk, or opportunity costs of alternative energy transition pathways foregone. Furthermore, development of energy infrastructure is inherently characterized by the involvement of a number of state and non-state actors, with varying interests, objectives and access to authority. Being woven through and into social institutions necessarily impacts the design, control and functionality of infrastructure. In this dissertation I therefore conceptualize energy infrastructure as lying at the intersection, or nexus, of people, the environment and energy security. I argue that energy infrastructure plans and policy should, and can, be informed by each of these fields of influence in order to appropriately satisfy local development needs. This case study explores the socio-techno-environmental context of contemporary mega-dam development in northern Borneo. I describe the key actors of an ongoing mega-dam debate and the constellation of their interaction. This highlights the role that information may play in public discourse and lends insight into how inertia in the established system may stymie technological evolution. I then use a combination of power system simulation, ecological modeling and spatial analysis to analyze the potential for, and costs and tradeoffs of, future energy scenarios. In this way I demonstrate reproducible methods that can support energy infrastructure decision making by directly addressing data limitation barriers. I

  18. Development of CNG direct injection (CNGDI) clean fuel system for extra power in small engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Yusoff; Shamsudeen, Azhari; Abdullah, Shahrir; Mahmood, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan

    2012-06-01

    A new design of fuel system for CNG engine with direct injection (CNGDI) was developed for a demonstration project. The development of the fuel system was done on the engine with cylinder head modifications, for fuel injector and spark plug openings included in the new cylinder head. The piston was also redesigned for higher compression ratio. The fuel rails and the regulators are also designed for the direct injection system operating at higher pressure about 2.0 MPa. The control of the injection timing for the direct injectors are also controlled by the Electronic Control Unit specially designed for DI by another group project. The injectors are selected after testing with the various injection pressures and spray angles. For the best performance of the high-pressure system, selection is made from the tests on single cylinder research engine (SCRE). The components in the fuel system have to be of higher quality and complied with codes and standards to secure the safety of engine for high-pressure operation. The results of the CNGDI have shown that better power output is produced and better emissions were achieved compared to the aspirated CNG engine.

  19. Development And Implementation Of A Strategic Technical Baseline Approach For Nuclear Decommissioning And Clean Up Programmes In The UK

    SciTech Connect

    Brownridge, M.; Ensor, B.

    2008-07-01

    The NDA mission as set out within the Energy Act 2004 and stated in the NDA strategy is clear: - 'to deliver a world class programme of safe, cost-effective, accelerated and environmentally responsible decommissioning of the UK's civil nuclear legacy in an open and transparent manner and with due regard to the socio-economic impacts on our communities. Critical to achieving the NDA main objective and overall mission is to accelerate and deliver clean-up programmes through the application of appropriate and innovative technology. The NDA remit also requires us to secure good practice by contractors and carry out and promote research into matters relating to the decommissioning and clean up of nuclear installations and sites. NDA have defined a strategic approach for the underpinning of operational and decommissioning activities where each nuclear site is required to write within the Life Time Plans (LTP) the proposed technical baseline for those activities. This enables the robustness of the activities to be assessed, the gaps and opportunities and accompanying Research and Developments (R and D) requirements to be highlighted and investment to be targeted at key technical issues. NDA also supports the development of a commercial framework where innovation is encouraged and improvements can be demonstrated against the technical baseline. In this paper we will present NDA's overall strategic approach, the benefits already realised and highlight the areas for continued development. In conclusion: The development and implementation of a strategic approach to robustly underpin the technical components of the lifetime plans for operational and decommissioning activities on NDA sites has been extremely successful. As well as showing how mature technology assumptions are and where the key gaps and risks are it has also provided a method for highlighting opportunities to improve on that baseline. The use of a common template across all NDA LTPs has enabled direct comparison

  20. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Task 6 -- Selective agglomeration laboratory research and engineering development for premium fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-06-27

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report represents the findings of Subtask 6.5 Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Testing and Process Scale-up. During this work, six project coals, namely Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Sunnyside, Taggart, Indiana VII, and Hiawatha were processed in a 25 lb/hr continuous selective agglomeration bench-scale test unit.

  2. Effects of AGN feedback on ΛCDM galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, Claudia Del P.; Cora, Sofía A.; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2008-08-01

    We study the effects of active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback on the formation and evolution of galaxies by using a combination of a cosmological N-body simulation of the concordance Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) paradigm and a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. This model is an improved version of the one described by Cora (2006), which now considers the growth of black holes (BHs) as driven by (i) gas accretion during merger-driven starbursts and mergers with other BHs, (ii) accretion during starbursts triggered by disc instabilities and (iii) accretion of gas cooled from quasi-hydrostatic hot gas haloes. It is assumed that feedback from AGN operates in the last case. The model has been calibrated in order to reproduce observational correlations between BH mass and mass, velocity dispersion and absolute magnitudes of the galaxy bulge. AGN feedback has a strong impact on reducing or even suppressing gas cooling, an effect that becomes important at lower redshifts. This phenomenon helps to reproduce the observed galaxy luminosity function (LF) in the optical and near-infrared bands at z = 0, and the cosmic star formation rate and stellar mass functions over a wide redshift range (0 <~ z <~ 5). It also allows us to have a population of massive galaxies already in place at z >~ 1, which are mostly early-type and have older and redder stellar populations than lower mass galaxies, reproducing the observed bimodality in the galaxy colour distribution, and the morphological fractions. The evolution of the optical QSO LF is also reproduced, provided that the presence of a significant fraction of obscured QSOs is assumed. We explore the effects of AGN feedback during starbursts finding that, in order to obtain a good agreement with observations, these need to be strong enough to expel the reheated gas away from the galaxy halo. We also test new, recent prescriptions for dynamical friction time-scales, and find that they produce an earlier formation of elliptical

  3. A differential CDM model for fatigue of unidirectional metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Kruch, S.

    1992-01-01

    A multiaxial, isothermal, continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model for fatigue of a unidirectional metal matrix composite volume element is presented. The model is phenomenological, stress based, and assumes a single scalar internal damage variable, the evolution of which is anisotropic. The development of the fatigue damage model, (i.e., evolutionary law) is based on the definition of an initially transversely isotropic fatigue limit surface, a static fracture surface, and a normalized stress amplitude function. The anisotropy of these surfaces and function, and therefore the model, is defined through physically meaningful invariants reflecting the local stress and material orientation. This transversely isotropic model is shown, when taken to it's isotropic limit, to directly simplify to a previously developed and validated isotropic fatigue continuum damage model. Results of a nondimensional parametric study illustrate (1) the flexibility of the present formulation in attempting to characterize a class of composite materials, and (2) the capability of the formulation in predicting anticipated qualitative trends in the fatigue behavior of unidirectional metal matrix composites. Also, specific material parameters representing an initial characterization of the composite system SiC/Ti 15-3 and the matrix material (Ti 15-3) are reported.

  4. σCDM coupled to radiation: Dark energy and Universe acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbyazov, Renat R.; Chervon, Sergey V.; Müller, Volker

    2015-07-01

    Recently, the Chiral Cosmological Model (CCM) coupled to cold dark matter (CDM) has been investigated as σCDM model to study the observed accelerated expansion of the Universe. Dark sector fields (as Dark Energy content) coupled to cosmic dust were considered as the source of Einstein gravity in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. Such model had a beginning at the matter-dominated era. The purposes of our present investigation are two-fold: To extend “life” of the σCDM for earlier times to radiation-dominated era and to take into account variation of the exponential potential V = V0exp -λ φ MP + V0exp -λ χ MP via variation of the interaction parameter λ. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) procedure to investigate possible values of initial conditions constrained by the measured amount of the dark matter, dark energy and radiation component today. Our analysis includes dark energy contribution to critical density, the ratio of the kinetic and potential energies, deceleration parameter, effective equation of state (EoS) and evolution of DE EoS with variation of coupling constant λ. A comparison with the ΛCDM model was performed. A new feature of the model is the existence of some values of potential coupling constant, leading to a σCDM solution without transition into accelerated expansion epoch.

  5. Where the world stands still: turnaround as a strong test of ΛCDM cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlidou, V.; Tomaras, T.N. E-mail: tomaras@physics.uoc.gr

    2014-09-01

    Our intuitive understanding of cosmic structure formation works best in scales small enough so that isolated, bound, relaxed gravitating systems are no longer adjusting their radius; and large enough so that space and matter follow the average expansion of the Universe. Yet one of the most robust predictions of ΛCDM cosmology concerns the scale that separates these limits: the turnaround radius, which is the non-expanding shell furthest away from the center of a bound structure. We show that the maximum possible value of the turnaround radius within the framework of the ΛCDM model is, for a given mass M, equal to (3GM/Λ c{sup 2}){sup 1/3}, with G Newton's constant and c the speed of light, independently of cosmic epoch, exact nature of dark matter, or baryonic effects. We discuss the possible use of this prediction as an observational test for ΛCDM cosmology. Current data appear to favor ΛCDM over alternatives with local inhomogeneities and no Λ. However there exist several local-universe structures that have, within errors, reached their limiting size. With improved determinations of their turnaround radii and the enclosed mass, these objects may challenge the limit and ΛCDM cosmology.

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 16, July--September, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Moro, N.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-10-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. 28 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Using the Career Decision-Making System-Revised To Enhance Students' Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Arthur J.; Harrington, Thomas F.

    2003-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the Career Decision- Making System-Revised (CDM-R) has the capacity to serve as a system in assisting students in developing a significant number of the career competencies. Provides background on the creation of the CDM-R, evaluation of the inventory and the related ancillary material of the CDM-R, and ways by which…

  8. Evaluating the CDM-Robustness of the input buffer with very fast transmission line pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Tzu-Cheng; Lee, Jian-Hsing; Hung, Chung-Yu; Lien, Chen-Hsin; Su, Hung-Der

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a scheme for how to utilize VFTLP (very fast transmission line pulse) data to design an input buffer circuit for CDM (charged-device model) ESD protection is reported. The impedance of the ESD device under VFTLP stress is nearly 120 Ω at the beginning of turn-on transient, and decreases with time toward 10 Ω prior to the voltage falling below 0 V. In this work, the fact that the dynamic-characteristic impedance of the ESD device under VFTLP testing is independent of the stress current is found. Since both VFTLP zapping and the CDM are nanosecond events, the dynamic-characteristic impedance of the ESD device can be used to evaluate the CDM threshold voltage of the input buffer based on the equivalent and simplified RLC circuit.

  9. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe imprint of cosmic superstructures: a problem for ΛCDM

    SciTech Connect

    Nadathur, Seshadri; Sarkar, Subir; Hotchkiss, Shaun E-mail: shaun.hotchkiss@helsinki.fi

    2012-06-01

    A crucial diagnostic of the ΛCDM cosmological model is the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect of large-scale structure on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The ISW imprint of superstructures of size ∼ 100 h{sup −1}Mpc at redshift z ∼ 0.5 has been detected with > 4σ significance, however it has been noted that the signal is much larger than expected. We revisit the calculation using linear theory predictions in ΛCDM cosmology for the number density of superstructures and their radial density profile, and take possible selection effects into account. While our expected signal is larger than previous estimates, it is still inconsistent by > 3σ with the observation. If the observed signal is indeed due to the ISW effect then huge, extremely underdense voids are far more common in the observed universe than predicted by ΛCDM.

  10. The stacked ISW signal of rare superstructures in ΛCDM

    SciTech Connect

    Flender, Samuel; Hotchkiss, Shaun; Nadathur, Seshadri E-mail: shaun.hotchkiss@helsinki.fi

    2013-02-01

    A detection of the stacked integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) signal in the CMB of rare superstructures identified in the SDSS Luminous Red Galaxy catalogue has been reported at very high statistical significance. The magnitude of the observed signal has previously been argued to be more than 3σ larger than the theoretical ΛCDM expectation. However, this calculation was made in the linear approximation, and relied on assumptions that may potentially have caused the ΛCDM expectation to be underestimated. Here we update the theoretical model calculation and compare it with an analysis of ISW maps obtained from N-body simulations of a ΛCDM universe. The differences between model predictions and the map analyses are found to be small and cannot explain the discrepancy with observation, which remains at > 3σ significance. We discuss the cosmological significance of this anomaly and speculate on the potential of alternative models to explain it.

  11. EPA CLEAN PRODUCTS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recent emphasis on developing information on achieving pollution prevention has resulted in increased research activity by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the area of clean product development. urrently the EPA's Pollution Prevention Research Branch (PPRB) has si...

  12. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.

    1994-03-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents in electronic component cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. In addition, the use of robotic and automated systems can reduce the manual handling of parts that necessitates additional cleaning. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  13. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect

    Drazga, B.

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  14. Development of Formulations for a-SiC and Manganese CMP and Post-CMP Cleaning of Cobalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagudu, Uma Rames Krishna

    We have investigated the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of amorphous SiC (a-SiC) and Mn and Post CMP cleaning of cobalt for various device applications. During the manufacture of copper interconnects using the damascene process the polishing of copper is followed by the polishing of the barrier material (Co, Mn, Ru and their alloys) and its post CMP cleaning. This is followed by the a-SiC hard mask CMP. Silicon carbide thin films, though of widespread use in microelectronic engineering, are difficult to process by CMP because of their hardness and chemical inertness. The earlier part of the SiC work discusses the development of slurries based on silica abrasives that resulted in high a-SiC removal rates (RRs). The ionic strength of the silica dispersion was found to play a significant role in enhancing material removal rate, while also providing very good post-polish surface-smoothness. For example, the addition of 50 mM potassium nitrate to a pH 8 aqueous slurry consisting of 10 wt % of silica abrasives and 1.47 M hydrogen peroxide increased the RR from about 150 nm/h to about 2100 nm/h. The role of ionic strength in obtaining such high RRs was investigated using surface zeta-potentials measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Evidently, hydrogen peroxide promoted the oxidation of Si and C to form weakly adhered species that were subsequently removed by the abrasive action of the silica particles. The effect of potassium nitrate in increasing material removal is attributed to the reduction in the electrostatic repulsion between the abrasive particles and the SiC surface because of screening of surface charges by the added electrolyte. We also show that transition metal compounds when used as additives to silica dispersions enhance a-SiC removal rates (RRs). Silica slurries containing potassium permanganate gave RRs as high as 2000 nm/h at pH 4. Addition of copper sulfate to this slurry further enhanced the RRs to ˜3500 nm/h at pH 6

  15. Galaxy clustering, CMB and supernova data constraints on ϕCDM model with massive neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun; Xu, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a scalar field dark energy model (i.e., ϕCDM model) with massive neutrinos, where the scalar field possesses an inverse power-law potential, i.e., V (ϕ) ∝ϕ-α (α > 0). We find that the sum of neutrino masses Σmν has significant impacts on the CMB temperature power spectrum and on the matter power spectrum. In addition, the parameter α also has slight impacts on the spectra. A joint sample, including CMB data from Planck 2013 and WMAP9, galaxy clustering data from WiggleZ and BOSS DR11, and JLA compilation of Type Ia supernova observations, is adopted to confine the parameters. Within the context of the ϕCDM model under consideration, the joint sample determines the cosmological parameters to high precision: the angular size of the sound horizon at recombination, the Thomson scattering optical depth due to reionization, the physical densities of baryons and cold dark matter, and the scalar spectral index are estimated to be θ* = (1.0415-0.0011+0.0012) ×10-2, τ =0.0914-0.0242+0.0266, Ωbh2 = 0.0222 ± 0.0005, Ωch2 = 0.1177 ± 0.0036, and ns =0.9644-0.0119+0.0118, respectively, at 95% confidence level (CL). It turns out that α < 4.995 at 95% CL for the ϕCDM model. And yet, the ΛCDM scenario corresponding to α = 0 is not ruled out at 95% CL. Moreover, we get Σmν < 0.262 eV at 95% CL for the ϕCDM model, while the corresponding one for the ΛCDM model is Σmν < 0.293 eV. The allowed scale of Σmν in the ϕCDM model is a bit smaller than that in the ΛCDM model. It is consistent with the qualitative analysis, which reveals that the increases of α and Σmν both can result in the suppression of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, when α is larger, in order to avoid suppressing the matter power spectrum too much, the value of Σmν should be smaller.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE SYSTEMS TO ENHANCE THE SELECTION OF LOW POLLUTING SURFACE CLEANING OPTIONS, SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE (SAGE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    FY03 Task Description: This is not a new task; only a newly assigned number to split SAGE from the other tools task. SAGE is interactive PC-based expert software system that recommend low polluting surface cleaning options and process costs. SAGE is used by Federal, State, and ...

  17. Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recently entered into a nonexclusive license agreement with Applied Cryogenic Solutions (ACS), Inc. (Galveston, TX) to commercialize its Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System technology. This technology, developed by KSC, is a critical component of processes being developed and commercialized by ACS to replace current mechanical and chemical cleaning and descaling methods used by numerous industries. Pilot trials on heat exchanger tubing components have shown that the ACS technology provides for: Superior cleaning in a much shorter period of time. Lower energy and labor requirements for cleaning and de-scaling uper.ninih. Significant reductions in waste volumes by not using water, acidic or basic solutions, organic solvents, or nonvolatile solid abrasives as components in the cleaning process. Improved energy efficiency in post-cleaning heat exchanger operations. The ACS process consists of a spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, a source of liquid gas; a novel, proprietary pumping system that permits pumping liquid nitrogen, liquid air, or supercritical carbon dioxide to pressures in the range of 20,000 to 60,000 psi; and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. The size and number of nozzles can be varied so the system can be built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. The system also can be used to verify if a part has been adequately cleaned.

  18. Alternate cleaning methods for LCCAs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate DI water followed by isopropyl alcohol (IPA) cleaning and no cleaning of leadless chip carriers (LCCs). Both environmentally safe methods were to be tested against the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) material cleaning baseline. Several experiments were run to compare production and electrical yields of LCCs cleaned by all three methods. The critical process steps most affected by cleaning were wire bonding, sealing, particle induced noise detection (PIND), moisture content, and electrical. Yields for the experimental lots cleaned by CFC, DI water plus IPA, and no cleaning were 56%, 72%, and 75%, respectively. The overall results indicated that vapor degreasing/ultrasonic cleaning in CFCs could be replaced by the aqueous method. No cleaning could also be considered if an effective dry method of particle removal could be developed.

  19. Contact cleaning of polymer film solar reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansom, Christopher; Fernández-García, Aránzazu; Sutter, Florian; Almond, Heather; King, Peter

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the accelerated ageing of polymer film reflecting surfaces under the conditions to be found during contact cleaning of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors in the presence of dust and sand particles. In these situations, contact cleaning using brushes and water is required to clean the reflecting surfaces. Whilst suitable for glass reflectors, this paper discusses the effects of existing cleaning processes on the optical and visual properties of polymer film surfaces, and then describes the development of a more benign but effective contact cleaning process for cleaning polymer reflectors. The effects of a range of cleaning brushes are discussed, with and without the presence of water, in the presence of sand and dust particles from selected representative locations. Reflectance measurements and visual inspection shows that a soft cleaning brush with a small amount of water can clean polymer film reflecting surfaces without inflicting surface damage or reducing specular reflectance.

  20. Formation of Primordial Stars in a Lambda-CDM Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Naoki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Hernquist, Lars; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-06-09

    Primordial stars are formed from a chemically pristine gas consisting of hydrogen and helium. They are believed to have been born at some early epoch in the history of the Universe and to have enriched the interstellar medium with synthesized heavy elements before the emergence of ordinary stellar populations. We study the formation of the first generation of stars in the standard cold dark matter model. We follow the gravitational collapse and thermal evolution of primordial gas clouds within early cosmic structures using very high-resolution, cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. Our simulation achieves a dynamic range of {approx} 10{sup 10} in length scale. With accurate treatment of atomic and molecular physics, it allows us to study the chemo-thermal evolution of primordial gas clouds to densities up to {rho} {approx} 2 x 10{sup -8}g cm{sup -3} (n{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 16}cm{sup -3}) without assuming any a priori equation of state; a six orders of magnitudes improvement over previous three-dimensional calculations. We implement an extensive chemistry network for hydrogen, helium and deuterium. All the relevant atomic and molecular cooling and heating processes, including cooling by collision-induced continuum emission, are implemented. For calculating optically thick H{sub 2} cooling at high densities, we use the Sobolev method (Sobolev 1960) and evaluate the molecular line opacities for a few hundred lines. We validate the accuracy of the method by performing a spherical collapse test and comparing the results with those of accurate one-dimensional calculations that treat the line radiative transfer problem in a fully self-consistent manner. We then perform a cosmological simulation adopting the standard {Lambda}CDM model. Dense gas clumps are formed at the centers of low mass ({approx} 10{sup 5-6}M{sub {circle_dot}}) dark matter halos at redshifts z {approx} 20, and they collapse gravitationally when the cloud mass exceeds a few hundred solar masses. To

  1. Complexation of synthetic CDM-AM copolymer with natamycin and carbendazim to improve solubility and fungicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Fu; Jin, Jing; Guo, Qin; Ha, Yi-Ming; Li, Qing-Peng

    2015-07-10

    The β-cyclodextrin-acrylamide (CDM-AM) copolymer was prepared from acrylamide and β-CD maleate (CDM) using K2S2O8 as initiator. The effects of the CDM-AM copolymer on the solubility and fungicidal activity of natamycin (NM) and carbendazim (MBC) were investigated. The stability constant of NM·CDM-AM and MBC·CDM-AM complexes at 303 K were of 10,725.45 M(-1) and 3000.89 M(-1), respectively. The complexes were characterized using phase solubility diagrams, NMR spectra and FT-IR spectra. The analysis of the biological activities of these two complexes indicated that they possessed enhancing fungicidal activities compared to NM and MBC alone. PMID:25857986

  2. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 15, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-07-25

    Goal is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on 6 coals to optimize these processes, followed by design/construction/operation of a 2-t/hr PDU. During this quarter, parametric testing of the 30-in. Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn plant was completed and clean coal samples submitted for briquetting. A study of a novel hydrophobic dewatering process continued at Virginia Tech. Benefits of slurry PSD (particle size distribution) modification and pH adjustment were evaluated for the Taggart and Hiawatha coals; they were found to be small. Agglomeration bench-scale test results were positive, meeting product ash specifications. PDU Flotation Module operations continued; work was performed with Taggart coal to determine scaleup similitude between the 12-in. and 6-ft Microcel{trademark} columns. Construction of the PDU selective agglomeration module continued.

  3. Testing ΛCDM with the growth function δ(a): Current constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesseris, S.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

    2008-01-01

    We have compiled a data set consisting of 22 data points at a redshift range (0.15, 3.8) which can be used to constrain the linear perturbation growth rate f=(dln⁡δ)/(dln⁡a). Five of these data points constrain directly the growth rate f through either redshift distortions or change of the power spectrum with redshift. The rest of the data points constrain f indirectly through the rms mass fluctuation σ8(z) inferred from Ly-α at various redshifts. Our analysis tests the consistency of the ΛCDM model and leads to a constraint of the Wang-Steinhardt growth index γ [defined from f=Ωm(a)γ] as γ=0.67-0.17+0.20. This result is clearly consistent at 1σ with the value γ=(6)/(11)=0.545 predicted by ΛCDM. We also apply our analysis on a new null test of ΛCDM which is similar to the one recently proposed by Chiba and Nakamura (arXiv:0708.3877) but does not involve derivatives of the expansion rate H(z). This also leads to the fact that ΛCDM provides an excellent fit to the current linear growth data.

  4. Consistency of the nonflat Λ CDM model with the new result from BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Suresh

    2015-11-01

    Using 137,562 quasars in the redshift range 2.1 ≤z ≤3.5 from the data release 11 (DR11) of the baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey (BOSS) of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-III, the BOSS-SDSS collaboration estimated the expansion rate H (z =2.34 )=222 ±7 km /s /Mpc of the Universe, and reported that this value is in tension with the predictions of flat Λ CDM model at around a 2.5 σ level. In this paper, we briefly describe some attempts made in the literature to relieve the tension, and show that the tension can naturally be alleviated in a nonflat Λ CDM model with positive curvature. We also perform the observational consistency check by considering the constraints on the nonflat Λ CDM model from Planck, WP and BAO data. We find that the nonflat Λ CDM model constrained with Planck+WP data fits better to the line of sight measurement H (z =2.34 )=222 ±7 km /s /Mpc , but only at the expense of still having a poor fit to the BAO transverse measurements.

  5. BUY CLEAN MANUAL INTERACTIVE CD-ROM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This interactive CD-ROM contains exercises and opportunities to help users develop a Buy Clean Program for janitorial cleaning products. CD users can learn about Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), complete an inventory list, and compare cleaning products to see which have the le...

  6. Density profiles of CDM microhalos and their implications for annihilation boost factors

    SciTech Connect

    Anderhalden, Donnino; Diemand, Juerg E-mail: diemand@physik.uzh.ch

    2013-04-01

    In a standard cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology, microhalos at the CDM cutoff scale are the first and smallest objects expected to form in the universe. Here we present results of high resolution simulations of three representative roughly Earth-mass microhalos in order to determine their inner density profile. We find that CDM microhalos in simulations without a cutoff in the power spectrum roughly follow the NFW density profile, just like the much larger CDM halos on galaxy and galaxy cluster scales. But having a cutoff in the initial power spectrum at a typical neutralino free streaming scale of 10{sup −7}M{sub s}un makes their inner density profiles considerably steeper, i.e. ρ∝r{sup −(1.3−1.4)}, in good agreement with the results from Ishiyama et al. (2010). An extrapolation of the halo and subhalo mass functions down to the cutoff scale indicates that microhalos are extremely abundant throughout the present day dark matter distribution and might contribute significantly to indirect dark matter detection signals. Assuming a transition from a NFW to a steeper inner profile (ρ∝r{sup −1.4}) two orders of magnitude above the cutoff scale, the total boost factor for a Milky Way sized dark matter halo increases from about 3.5 to 4. We further find that CDM microhalo concentrations are consistent with the Bullock et al. (2001) model and clearly rule out simplistic power law models for the mass dependence of concentrations and subhalo annihilation, which would erroneously lead to very large boost factors (a few hundred for galaxy halos and over 1000 for clusters)

  7. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  8. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  9. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  10. Laser surface cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Crivella, E.C.; Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Decontamination of contaminated metal and material recycle, two of 31 priority needs identified by the D&D focus group, are the most promising applications for laser ablation within the DOE complex. F2 Associates has developed a robotic laser ablation system that is capable of high contamination rates, waste volume reduction, surface pore cleaning, and real-time characterization of materials. It is being demonstrated that this system will be the most cost-effective technology for metal decontamination and material recycle.

  11. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  12. Development of a laser cleaning method for the first mirror surface of the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostics on ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A. P.; Buzinskij, O. I.; Gubsky, K. L.; Nikitina, E. A.; Savchenkov, A. V.; Tarasov, B. A.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2015-12-15

    A set of optical diagnostics is expected for measuring the plasma characteristics in ITER. Optical elements located inside discharge chambers are exposed to an intense radiation load, sputtering due to collisions with energetic atoms formed in the charge transfer processes, and contamination due to recondensation of materials sputtered from different parts of the construction of the chamber. Removing the films of the sputtered materials from the mirrors with the aid of pulsed laser radiation is an efficient cleaning method enabling recovery of the optical properties of the mirrors. In this work, we studied the efficiency of removal of metal oxide films by pulsed radiation of a fiber laser. Optimization of the laser cleaning conditions was carried out on samples representing metal substrates polished with optical quality with deposition of films on them imitating the chemical composition and conditions expected in ITER. It is shown that, by a proper selection of modes of radiation exposure to the surface with a deposited film, it is feasible to restore the original high reflection characteristics of optical elements.

  13. Development of a laser cleaning method for the first mirror surface of the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostics on ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. P.; Buzinskij, O. I.; Gubsky, K. L.; Nikitina, E. A.; Savchenkov, A. V.; Tarasov, B. A.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    A set of optical diagnostics is expected for measuring the plasma characteristics in ITER. Optical elements located inside discharge chambers are exposed to an intense radiation load, sputtering due to collisions with energetic atoms formed in the charge transfer processes, and contamination due to recondensation of materials sputtered from different parts of the construction of the chamber. Removing the films of the sputtered materials from the mirrors with the aid of pulsed laser radiation is an efficient cleaning method enabling recovery of the optical properties of the mirrors. In this work, we studied the efficiency of removal of metal oxide films by pulsed radiation of a fiber laser. Optimization of the laser cleaning conditions was carried out on samples representing metal substrates polished with optical quality with deposition of films on them imitating the chemical composition and conditions expected in ITER. It is shown that, by a proper selection of modes of radiation exposure to the surface with a deposited film, it is feasible to restore the original high reflection characteristics of optical elements.

  14. Using the Millennium II simulation to test CDM predictions for the structure of massive galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Andrew P.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Wang, Jing; White, Simon D. M.

    2013-07-01

    We have combined the semi-analytic galaxy formation model of Guo et al. (2011) with a novel particle-tagging technique to predict galaxy surface brightness profiles in a representative sample of ~1900 massive dark matter haloes (1012-1014 M⊙) from the Millennium II ΛCDM N body simulation. We focus on the outer regions of galaxies and stars accreted in mergers. Our simulations cover scales from the stellar haloes of Milky Way-like galaxies to the `cD envelopes' of groups and clusters, and resolve low surface brightness substructure such as the tidal streams of dwarf galaxies. We find that the spatial distribution of stars in low surface brightness regions is tightly correlated with DM halo mass and that collisionless merging during the hierarchical assembly of galaxies largely determines the structure of spheroidal stellar components. Our ΛCDM model agrees well with the available data.

  15. Hierarchy of N-point functions in the {Lambda}CDM and ReBEL cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Juszkiewicz, Roman; Weygaert, Rien van de

    2010-11-15

    In this work we investigate higher-order statistics for the {Lambda}CDM and ReBEL scalar-interacting dark matter models by analyzing 180h{sup -1} Mpc dark matter N-body simulation ensembles. The N-point correlation functions and the related hierarchical amplitudes, such as skewness and kurtosis, are computed using the counts-in-cells method. Our studies demonstrate that the hierarchical amplitudes S{sub n} of the scalar-interacting dark matter model significantly deviate from the values in the {Lambda}CDM cosmology on scales comparable and smaller than the screening length r{sub s} of a given scalar-interacting model. The corresponding additional forces that enhance the total attractive force exerted on dark matter particles at galaxy scales lower the values of the hierarchical amplitudes S{sub n}. We conclude that hypothetical additional exotic interactions in the dark matter sector should leave detectable markers in the higher-order correlation statistics of the density field. We focused in detail on the redshift evolution of the dark matter field's skewness and kurtosis. From this investigation we find that the deviations from the canonical {Lambda}CDM model introduced by the presence of the 'fifth' force attain a maximum value at redshifts 0.5

  16. A consistent approach to falsifying ΛCDM with rare galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Ian; Hotchkiss, Shaun E-mail: shaun.hotchkiss@helsinki.fi

    2013-07-01

    We consider methods with which to answer the question ''is any observed galaxy cluster too unusual for ΛCDM?'' After emphasising that many previous attempts to answer this question will overestimate the confidence level at which ΛCDM can be ruled out, we outline a consistent approach to these rare clusters, which allows the question to be answered. We define three statistical measures, each of which are sensitive to changes in cluster populations arising from different modifications to the cosmological model. We also use these properties to define the ''equivalent mass at redshift zero'' for a cluster — the mass of an equally unusual cluster today. This quantity is independent of the observational survey in which the cluster was found, which makes it an ideal proxy for ranking the relative unusualness of clusters detected by different surveys. These methods are then used on a comprehensive sample of observed galaxy clusters and we confirm that all are less than 2σ deviations from the ΛCDM expectation. Whereas we have only applied our method to galaxy clusters, it is applicable to any isolated, collapsed, halo. As motivation for future surveys, we also calculate where in the mass redshift plane the rarest halo is most likely to be found, giving information as to which objects might be the most fruitful in the search for new physics.

  17. The Use of CDM Analysis Techniques in High Temperature Creep Failure of Welded Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayhurst, David R.; Wong, Man Tak; Vakili-Tahami, Farid

    Techniques are reviewed for the calibration of constitutive relationships for the different phases of the weld. It is shown how the calibration is carried out using property ratios, and a knowledge of the constitutive equations of the parent material. The results of CDM analyses, obtained using the two-dimensional solver Damage XX, are reviewed for: a butt-welded pipe at 565°C and, a welded cylinder-sphere pipe intersection at 590°C. Results are then presented of a three-dimensional CDM solution for a three-degree slice of the welded cylinder-sphere pipe intersection, and shown to be in close agreement with the two-dimensional, Damage XX, solution. Then the paper examines damage growth at a constant temperature of 590°C in a ferritic steel butt-welded pipe subjected to a combined constant internal pressure of 4MPa and a constant global bending moment of 49kNm. The CDM results for a three-dimensional analysis are compared with qualitative experimental results, and good correlation is indicated.

  18. Can f(T) gravity theories mimic ΛCDM cosmic history

    SciTech Connect

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N. E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir

    2013-01-01

    Recently the teleparallel Lagrangian density described by the torsion scalar T has been extended to a function of T. The f(T) modified teleparallel gravity has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy to explain the late time acceleration of the universe. In order to reconstruct the function f(T) by demanding a background ΛCDM cosmology we assume that, (i) the background cosmic history provided by the flat ΛCDM (the radiation ere with ω{sub eff} = (1/3), matter and de Sitter eras with ω{sub eff} = 0 and ω{sub eff} = −1, respectively) (ii) the radiation dominate in the radiation era with Ω{sub 0r} = 1 and the matter dominate during the matter phases when Ω{sub 0m} = 1. We find the cosmological dynamical system which can obey the ΛCDM cosmic history. In each era, we find a critical lines that, the radiation dominated and the matter dominated are one points of them in the radiation and matter phases, respectively. Also, we drive the cosmologically viability condition for these models. We investigate the stability condition with respect to the homogeneous scalar perturbations in each era and we obtain the stability conditions for the fixed points in each eras. Finally, we reconstruct the function f(T) which mimics cosmic expansion history.

  19. Reconstruction, thermodynamics and stability of the ΛCDM model in f(T,{ T }) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junior, Ednaldo L. B.; Rodrigues, Manuel E.; Salako, Ines G.; Houndjo, Mahouton J. S.

    2016-06-01

    We reconstruct the ΛCDM model for f(T,{ T }) theory, where T is the torsion scalar and { T } the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. The result shows that the action of ΛCDM is a combination of a linear term, a constant (-2{{Λ }}) and a nonlinear term given by the product \\sqrt{-T}{F}g[({T}1/3/16π G) (16π G{ T }+T+8{{Λ }})], with F g being a generic function. We show that to maintain conservation of the energy-momentum tensor, we should impose that {F}g[y] must be linear on the trace { T }. This reconstruction decays in f (T) theory for {F}g\\equiv Q, with Q a constant. Our reconstruction describes the cosmological eras to the present time. The model present stability within the geometric and matter perturbations for the choice {F}g=y, where y=({T}1/3/16π G)(16π G{ T }+T+8{{Λ }}), except for the geometric part in the de Sitter model. We impose the first and second laws of thermodynamics to ΛCDM and find the condition where they are satisfied, that is, {T}A,{G}{{eff}}\\gt 0, however where this is not possible in the cases that we choose, this leads to a breakdown of positive entropy and Misner–Sharp energy.

  20. Development of sample preparation method for auxin analysis in plants by vacuum microwave-assisted extraction combined with molecularly imprinted clean-up procedure.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuling; Li, Yuanwen; Zhang, Yi; Li, Gongke; Chen, Yueqin

    2011-04-01

    A novel sample preparation method for auxin analysis in plant samples was developed by vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE) followed by molecularly imprinted clean-up procedure. The method was based on two steps. In the first one, conventional solvent extraction was replaced by VMAE for extraction of auxins from plant tissues. This step provided efficient extraction of 3-indole acetic acid (IAA) from plant with dramatically decreased extraction time, furthermore prevented auxins from degradation by creating a reduced oxygen environment under vacuum condition. In the second step, the raw extract of VMAE was further subjected to a clean-up procedure by magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) beads. Owing to the high molecular recognition ability of the magnetic MIP beads for IAA and 3-indole-butyric acid (IBA), the two target auxins in plants can be selectively enriched and the interfering substance can be eliminated by dealing with a magnetic separation procedure. Both the VMAE and the molecularly imprinted clean-up conditions were investigated. The proposed sample preparation method was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatogram and fluorescence detection for determination of IAA and IBA in peas and rice. The detection limits obtained for IAA and IBA were 0.47 and 1.6 ng/mL and the relative standard deviation were 2.3% and 2.1%, respectively. The IAA contents in pea seeds, pea embryo, pea roots and rice seeds were determined. The recoveries were ranged from 70.0% to 85.6%. The proposed method was also applied to investigate the developmental profiles of IAA concentration in pea seeds and rice seeds during seed germination. PMID:20953778

  1. Experimental search for hidden photon CDM in the eV mass range with a dish antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, J.; Horie, T.; Inoue, Y.; Minowa, M.

    2015-09-15

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter χ of ∼6×10{sup −12} for the hidden photon mass m{sub γ}=3.1±1.2 eV.

  2. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    Clean Cap mix generates more bleed water than the reference Saltstone formulation because the specific gravity of water, the carrier fluid, is less than that of the carrier fluid in Saltstone, 1 versus 1.1 to 1.2, respectively. In addition, the development of slurry structure as a result of hydration reactions is slightly slower than in the salt solution slurry. In other words, the Clean Cap mix has a slightly longer gel time. The lower density of the carrier fluid and the slower development of slurry structure, enable more settling to occur (more standing water) in the Clean Cap slurry. Consequently, for the same rheological properties, the Clean Cap slurry will have more bleed water. In an attempt to reduce the bleed water, the water to premix ratio was lowered and dispersants (high range water reducers) were added. Below water to premix ratios of 0.35, little bleed water and settling was observed. However, a low water to premix Clean Cap mix is not recommended because processing has not been demonstrated in the Saltstone facility. The lowest water to premix ratio processed in Z-Area was 0.478 in the last attempt to produce a clean cap. Although this option may provide significant advantages (less bleed water and potentially better flow) process testing in the Saltstone Facility or in a pilot scale facility in conjunction with laboratory testing will be required to demonstrate mixing, pumping and flow properties. Other additives were tested to minimize bleed water. These additives were found to be unsatisfactory in one or more ways and therefore, were not recommended at this time. An air entraining agent and a thickener had some benefit in reducing bleed water but were found too difficult to implement as an additive in the Saltstone facility. Surfactants (air entrainers) added to the mixing water in the hold tank could generate foam as the result of agitation to mix the tank, and the thickener increased the apparent viscosity and yield stress.

  3. Bright high z SnIa: A challenge for {lambda}CDM

    SciTech Connect

    Perivolaropoulos, L.; Shafieloo, A.

    2009-06-15

    It has recently been pointed out by Kowalski et. al.[Astrophys. J. 686, 749 (2008).] that there is 'an unexpected brightness of the SnIa data at z>1'. We quantify this statement by constructing a new statistic which is applicable directly on the type Ia supernova (SnIa) distance moduli. This statistic is designed to pick up systematic brightness trends of SnIa data points with respect to a best fit cosmological model at high redshifts. It is based on binning the normalized differences between the SnIa distance moduli and the corresponding best fit values in the context of a specific cosmological model (e.g. {lambda}CDM). These differences are normalized by the standard errors of the observed distance moduli. We then focus on the highest redshift bin and extend its size toward lower redshifts until the binned normalized difference (BND) changes sign (crosses 0) at a redshift z{sub c} (bin size N{sub c}). The bin size N{sub c} of this crossing (the statistical variable) is then compared with the corresponding crossing bin size N{sub mc} for Monte Carlo data realizations based on the best fit model. We find that the crossing bin size N{sub c} obtained from the Union08 and Gold06 data with respect to the best fit {lambda}CDM model is anomalously large compared to N{sub mc} of the corresponding Monte Carlo data sets obtained from the best fit {lambda}CDM in each case. In particular, only 2.2% of the Monte Carlo {lambda}CDM data sets are consistent with the Gold06 value of N{sub c} while the corresponding probability for the Union08 value of N{sub c} is 5.3%. Thus, according to this statistic, the probability that the high redshift brightness bias of the Union08 and Gold06 data sets is realized in the context of a (w{sub 0},w{sub 1})=(-1,0) model ({lambda}CDM cosmology) is less than 6%. The corresponding realization probability in the context of a (w{sub 0},w{sub 1})=(-1.4,2) model is more than 30% for both the Union08 and the Gold06 data sets indicating a much better

  4. Strongly coupled dark energy cosmologies: preserving ΛCDM success and easing low-scale problems - II. Cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macciò, Andrea V.; Mainini, Roberto; Penzo, Camilla; Bonometto, Silvio A.

    2015-10-01

    In this second paper, we present the first N-body cosmological simulations of strongly coupled Dark Energy (SCDEW) models, a class of models that alleviates theoretical issues related to the nature of dark energy (DE). SCDEW models assume a strong coupling between DE and an ancillary cold dark matter (CDM) component together with the presence of an uncoupled warm dark matter (WDM) component. The strong coupling between CDM and DE allows us to preserve small-scale fluctuations even if the warm particle is quite light (≈100 eV). Our large-scale simulations show that, for 1011 < M/M⊙ < 1014, SCDEW haloes exhibit a number density and distribution similar to a standard lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model, even though they have lower concentration parameters. High-resolution simulation of a galactic halo (M ˜ 1012 M⊙) shows ˜60 per cent less substructures than its ΛCDM counterpart, but the same cuspy density profile. On the scale of galactic satellites (M ˜ 109 M⊙), SCDEW haloes dramatically differ from ΛCDM. Due to the high thermal velocities of the WDM component they are almost devoid of any substructures and present strongly cored dark matter density profiles. These density cores extend for several hundreds of parsecs, in very good agreement with Milky Way satellites observations. Strongly coupled models, thanks to their ability to match observations on both large and small scales, might represent a valid alternative to a simple ΛCDM model.

  5. Constraints on Λ(t)CDM models as holographic and agegraphic dark energy with the observational Hubble parameter data

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Zhong-Xu; Liu, Wen-Biao; Zhang, Tong-Jie E-mail: tjzhang@bnu.edu.cn

    2011-08-01

    The newly released observational H(z) data (OHD) is used to constrain Λ(t)CDM models as holographic and agegraphic dark energy. By the use of the length scale and time scale as the IR cut-off including Hubble horizon (HH), future event horizon (FEH), age of the universe (AU), and conformal time (CT), we achieve four different Λ(t)CDM models which can describe the present cosmological acceleration respectively. In order to get a comparison between such Λ(t)CDM models and standard ΛCDM model, we use the information criteria (IC), Om(z) diagnostic, and statefinder diagnostic to measure the deviations. Furthermore, by simulating a larger Hubble parameter data sample in the redshift range of 0.1 < z < 2.0, we get the improved constraints and more sufficient comparison. We show that OHD is not only able to play almost the same role in constraining cosmological parameters as SNe Ia does but also provides the effective measurement of the deviation of the DE models from standard ΛCDM model. In the holographic and agegraphic scenarios, the results indicate that the FEH is more preferable than HH scenario. However, both two time scenarios show better approximations to ΛCDM model than the length scenarios.

  6. Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Frank

    1996-01-01

    The Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System Research Project consisted mainly of a feasibility study, including theoretical and engineering analysis, of a proof-of-concept prototype of this particular cleaning system developed by NASA-KSC. The cleaning system utilizes gas-liquid supersonic nozzles to generate high impingement velocities at the surface of the device to be cleaned. The cleaning fluid being accelerated to these high velocities may consist of any solvent or liquid, including water. Compressed air or any inert gas is used to provide the conveying medium for the liquid, as well as substantially reduce the total amount of liquid needed to perform adequate surface cleaning and cleanliness verification. This type of aqueous cleaning system is considered to be an excellent way of conducting cleaning and cleanliness verification operations as replacements for the use of CFC 113 which must be discontinued by 1995. To utilize this particular cleaning system in various cleaning applications for both the Space Program and the commercial market, it is essential that the cleaning system, especially the supersonic nozzle, be characterized for such applications. This characterization consisted of performing theoretical and engineering analysis, identifying desirable modifications/extensions to the basic concept, evaluating effects of variations in operating parameters, and optimizing hardware design for specific applications.

  7. International Clean Energy Coalition

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  8. Determination of triazine herbicides in seaweeds: development of a sample preparation method based on Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion and Solid Phase Extraction Clean-up.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, N; González-Castro, M J; Beceiro-González, E; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2014-04-01

    A method using dual process columns of Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) and Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) has been developed for extracting and cleaning-up of nine triazine herbicides (ametryn, atrazine, cyanazine, prometryn, propazine, simazine, simetryn, terbuthylazine and terbutryn) in seaweed samples. Under optimized conditions, samples were blended with 2g of octasilyl-derivatized silica (C8) and transferred into an SPE cartridge containing ENVI-Carb II/PSA (0.5/0.5 g) as a clean up co-sorbent. Then the dispersed sample was washed with 10 mL of n-hexane and triazines were eluted with 20 mL ethyl acetate and 5 mL acetonitrile. Finally the extract was concentrated to dryness, re-constituted with 1 mL methanol:water (1:1) and injected into the HPLC-DAD system. The linearity of the calibration curves was excellent in matrix matched standards, and yielded the coefficients of determination>0.995 for all the target analytes. The recoveries ranged from 75% to 100% with relative standard deviations lower than 7%. The achieved LOQs (<10 µg kg(-1)) for all triazines under study permits to ensure proper determination at the maximum allowed residue levels set in the European Union Legislation. Samples of three seaweeds were subjected to the procedure proving the suitability of MSPD method for the analysis of triazines in different seaweeds samples. PMID:24607126

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 23, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 24, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  11. Clean Room Apparel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    American Hospital Supply Corporation (AHSC), Baxter Healthcare Corporation's predecessor, used the NASA informational base on contamination control technology to improve industrial contamination control technology. When a study determined that microscopic body particles escaping through tiny "windows" in woven garments worn by workers were the greatest source of contamination, AHSC developed TYVEK. This non-woven material filters 99% of all particulate matter larger than half a micron. Baxter Healthcare added a polyimide coating which seals and ties down any loose fibers, providing greater durability. Stress points along seams have been minimized to make the garment almost tearproof. Micro-Clean 212 garments are individually packaged and disposable.

  12. Markets for Clean Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerman, A. Denny; Joskow, Paul L.; Schmalensee, Richard; Montero, Juan-Pablo; Bailey, Elizabeth M.

    2000-06-01

    Markets for Clean Air provides a comprehensive, in-depth description and evaluation of the first three years' experience with the U.S. Acid Rain Program. This environmental control program is the world's first large-scale use of a tradable emission permit system for achieving environmental goals. The book analyzes the behavior and performance of the market for emissions permits, called allowances in the Acid Rain Program, and quantifies emission reductions, compliance costs, and cost savings associated with the trading program. The book also includes chapters on the historical context in which this pioneering program developed and the political economy of allowance allocations.

  13. Development of a carbon dioxide pressure technique for chemical stabilization of alkaline clean coal technology (CCT) ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.J.; Gloss, S.P.; Drever, J.I.; Tawfic, T.A.

    1995-06-01

    Clean Coal Technology (CCT) ash may contain trace elements such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se), some of which may become mobile and leach from a disposal facility. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) pressure treatment on the leachability of trace elements in CCT ash. The CO{sub 2} pressure treatment was optimized using a three by five factorial design as well as a multiple regression analysis. Low, medium and high levels of moisture, reaction time, pressure, temperature and concentration of CO{sub 2} were tested. Treated and untreated CCT ash samples were subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and leachability studies. A 1:4 (solid:solution) suspension was used to monitor the pH changes after each treatment. Optimum CO{sub 2} treatment conditions rapidly precipitated calcite, and thus lowered the pH of CCT ash samples. For example, a stable pH drop from 12.47 to 7.05 for CCT-1, 12.74 to 9.34 for CCT-2 and 11.50 to 9.16 for CCT-3 was obtained. An increase in percent calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) content and percent CO{sub 2} uptake was observed in CO{sub 2} treated samples. Solubility studies suggested that Ca{sup 2+} concentration in CO{sub 2} treated CCT ash leachates appeared to be regulated by CaCO{sub 3}. Our results show that reacting moist CCT ash samples with CO{sub 2} under pressure is effective in lowering the concentrations of leachable trace elements (e.g., Cd, Pb, Cr, As and Se), which could prevent their migration from disposal environments into soils and groundwaters.

  14. What Is Clean Cities?

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  15. Twelve Home Cleaning Recipes

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Safe and Effective Disinfection Twelve Home Cleaning Recipes Safer alternatives to hazardous cleaning products exist for ... 24 hours at room temperature. All Purpose Cleaner recipes for use on counters, floors and other hard ...

  16. National Alliance of Clean Energy Incubator Activities - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Downing, P.E.

    2004-12-14

    Summary of activity related to development of the Alliance of Clean Energy Business Incubators and incubation services provided to the clean energy sector by the Advanced Technology Development Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

  17. Optimization of Ultrasonic Fabric Cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, T.E.

    1998-05-13

    The fundamental purpose of this project was to research and develop a process that would reduce the cost and improve the environmental efficiency of the present dry-cleaning industry. This second phase of research (see report KCP-94-1006 for information gathered during the first phase) was intended to allow the optimal integration of all factors of ultrasonic fabric cleaning. For this phase, Garment Care performed an extensive literature search and gathered data from other researchers worldwide. The Garment Care-AlliedSignal team developed the requirements for a prototype cleaning tank for studies and acquired that tank and the additional equipment required to use it properly. Garment Care and AlliedSignal acquired the transducers and generators from Surftran Martin-Walter in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Amway's Kelly Haley developed the test protocol, supplied hundreds of test swatches, gathered the data on the swatches before and after the tests, assisted with the cleaning tests, and prepared the final analysis of the results. AlliedSignal personnel, in conjunction with Amway and Garment Care staff, performed all the tests. Additional planning is under way for future testing by outside research facilities. The final results indicated repeatable performance and good results for single layered fabric swatches. Swatches that were cleaned as a ''sandwich,'' that is, three or more layers.

  18. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  19. Cleaning Animals' Cages With Little Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Benjamin J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed freeze/thaw method for cleaning animals' cages requires little extra weight and consumes little power and water. Cleaning concept developed for maintaining experimental rat cages on extended space missions. Adaptable as well to similar use on Earth. Reduces cleaning time. Makes use of already available facilities such as refrigerator, glove box, and autoclave. Rat waste adheres to steel-wire-mesh floor of cage. Feces removed by loosening action of freezing-and-thawing process, followed by blast of air.

  20. Aqueous cleaning and verification processes for precision cleaning of small parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Gale J.; Fishell, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) has developed a totally aqueous process for precision cleaning and verification of small components. In 1990 the Precision Cleaning Facility at KSC used approximately 228,000 kg (500,000 lbs) of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) 113 in the cleaning operations. It is estimated that current CFC 113 usage has been reduced by 75 percent and it is projected that a 90 percent reduction will be achieved by the end of calendar year 1994. The cleaning process developed utilizes aqueous degreasers, aqueous surfactants, and ultrasonics in the cleaning operation and an aqueous surfactant, ultrasonics, and Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) in the nonvolatile residue (NVR) and particulate analysis for verification of cleanliness. The cleaning and verification process is presented in its entirety, with comparison to the CFC 113 cleaning and verification process, including economic and labor costs/savings.

  1. Strongly coupled dark energy cosmologies: preserving ΛCDM success and easing low scale problems - I. Linear theory revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonometto, Silvio A.; Mainini, Roberto; Macciò, Andrea V.

    2015-10-01

    In this first paper we discuss the linear theory and the background evolution of a new class of models we dub SCDEW: Strongly Coupled DE, plus WDM. In these models, WDM dominates today's matter density; like baryons, WDM is uncoupled. Dark energy is a scalar field Φ; its coupling to ancillary cold dark matter (CDM), whose today's density is ≪1 per cent, is an essential model feature. Such coupling, in fact, allows the formation of cosmic structures, in spite of very low WDM particle masses (˜100 eV). SCDEW models yield cosmic microwave background and linear large scale features substantially undistinguishable from ΛCDM, but thanks to the very low WDM masses they strongly alleviate ΛCDM issues on small scales, as confirmed via numerical simulations in the second associated paper. Moreover SCDEW cosmologies significantly ease the coincidence and fine tuning problems of ΛCDM and, by using a field theory approach, we also outline possible links with inflationary models. We also discuss a possible fading of the coupling at low redshifts which prevents non-linearities on the CDM component to cause computational problems. The (possible) low-z coupling suppression, its mechanism, and its consequences are however still open questions - not necessarily problems - for SCDEW models. The coupling intensity and the WDM particle mass, although being extra parameters in respect to ΛCDM, are found to be substantially constrained a priori so that, if SCDEW is the underlying cosmology, we expect most data to fit also ΛCDM predictions.

  2. Clean fractionation of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The US DOE Alternative Feedstocks (AF) program is forging new links between the agricultural community and the chemicals industry through support of research and development (R&D) that uses green feedstocks to produce chemicals. The program promotes cost-effective industrial use of renewable biomass as feedstocks to manufacture high-volume chemical building blocks. Industrial commercialization of such processes would stimulate the agricultural sector by increasing the demand of agricultural and forestry commodities. A consortium of five DOE national laboratories has been formed with the objectives of providing industry with a broad range of expertise and helping to lower the risk of new process development through federal cost sharing. The AF program is conducting ongoing research on a clean fractionation process, designed to convert biomass into materials that can be used for chemical processes and products. The focus of the clean fractionation research is to demonstrate to industry that one technology can successfully separate all types of feedstocks into predictable types of chemical intermediates.

  3. Distinguishing interacting dark energy from wCDM with CMB, lensing, and baryon acoustic oscillation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väliviita, Jussi; Palmgren, Elina

    2015-07-01

    We employ the Planck 2013 CMB temperature anisotropy and lensing data, and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data to constrain a phenomenological wCDM model, where dark matter and dark energy interact. We assume time-dependent equation of state parameter for dark energy, and treat dark matter and dark energy as fluids whose energy-exchange rate is proportional to the dark-matter density. The CMB data alone leave a strong degeneracy between the interaction rate and the physical CDM density parameter today, ωc, allowing a large interaction rate |Γ| ~ H0. However, as has been known for a while, the BAO data break this degeneracy. Moreover, we exploit the CMB lensing potential likelihood, which probes the matter perturbations at redshift z ~ 2 and is very sensitive to the growth of structure, and hence one of the tools for discerning between the ΛCDM model and its alternatives. However, we find that in the non-phantom models (wde>-1), the constraints remain unchanged by the inclusion of the lensing data and consistent with zero interaction, -0.14 < Γ/H0 < 0.02 at 95% CL. On the contrary, in the phantom models (wde<-1), energy transfer from dark energy to dark matter is moderately favoured over the non-interacting model; 0-0.57 < Γ/H0 < -0.1 at 95% CL with CMB+BAO, while addition of the lensing data shifts this to -0.46 < Γ/H0 < -0.01.

  4. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 14, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-04-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by June 1997. During Quarter 14 (January--March 1996), parametric testing of the 30-inch Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Plant continued under Subtask 3.2. Subtask 3. 3 testing, investigating a novel Hydrophobic Dewatering process (HD), continued this quarter with parametric testing of the batch dewatering unit. Coal product moistures of 3 to 12 percent were achieved, with higher percent solids slurry feeds resulting in lower product moistures. For a given percent solids feed, the product moisture decreased with increasing butane to dry coal ratios. Stirring time, stirring rate, and settling time were all found to have little effect on the final moisture content. Continuing Subtask 6.4 work, investigating coal-water-fuel slurry formulation for coals cleaned by selective agglomeration, indicated that pH adjustment to 10 resulted in marginally better (lower viscosity) slurries for one of the two coals tested. Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing results indicate that the new Taggart coal requires a grind with a d{sub 80} of approximately 33 microns to achieve the 1 lb ash/MBtu product quality specification. Also under Subtask 6.5, reductions in the various trace element concentrations accomplished during selective agglomeration were determined. Work was essentially completed on the detailed design of the PDU selective agglomeration module under Task 7 with the issuing of a draft report.

  5. The spatial correlation properties of dark galaxy halos in a CDM universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainerd, Tereasa G.; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1993-01-01

    We use the Hierarchical Particle Mesh (HPM) N-body code written by J. V. Villumsen (Villumsen, 1989) to investigate the two-point spatial correlation function, xi(r), of dark galaxy halos as a function of halo mass and local environment (i.e. high, low, or average mass density). We assume a standard cold dark matter (CDM) universe (omega = 1, delta = 0, H sub 0 = 50,km/sec/Mpc). Because of the large dynamic ranges in mass and length that can be obtained with the HPM code, it is well-suited to an investigation of this sort.

  6. Exact analytic solution for non-linear density fluctuation in a ΛCDM universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jaiyul; Gong, Jinn-Ouk

    2016-07-01

    We derive the exact third-order analytic solution of the matter density fluctuation in the proper-time hypersurface in a ΛCDM universe, accounting for the explicit time-dependence and clarifying the relation to the initial condition. Furthermore, we compare our analytic solution to the previous calculation in the comoving gauge, and to the standard Newtonian perturbation theory by providing Fourier kernels for the relativistic effects. Our results provide an essential ingredient for a complete description of galaxy bias in the relativistic context.

  7. Stochastic contribution to the growth factor in the {lambda}CDM model

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, A. L. B.; Andrade, A. P. A.; Letelier, P. S.

    2009-01-15

    We study the effect of noise on the evolution of the growth factor of density perturbations in the context of the {lambda}CDM model. Stochasticity is introduced as a Wiener process amplified by an intensity parameter {alpha}. By comparing the evolution of deterministic and stochastic cases for different values of {alpha} we estimate the intensity level necessary to make noise relevant for cosmological tests based on large-scale structure data. Our results indicate that the presence of random forces underlying the fluid description can lead to significant deviations from the nonstochastic solution at late times for {alpha}{>=}10{sup -3}.

  8. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 26, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. This progress report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.

  9. How to clean surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Jean M.

    2004-06-01

    Various cleaning methods are available depending on the sizes of the parts, mounted or unmounted, and purpose of the cleaning. Dust and other particle contamination affect scattering and act as nuclei for defects in optical coatings. In some cases, these defects can initiate laser damage. Noncontact cleaning methods to eliminate particle contamination include blowing large particles from surfaces with an air bulb, "canned air," or a nitrogen gas jet, for a gentle cleaning and CO2 snow for more aggressive particle removal. Laser assisted particle removal is a new high tech method. A strip coating material applied to the surface and subsequently removed will remove large fresh particles and often fingerprints. Contamination films affect the quality and adherence of optical coatings. These are usually removed (from unmounted optics) by cleaning the surface in a detergent and water bath followed by extensive rinsing and non-contact drying. Alternate methods when immersion in water is not possible are drag wiping, or spraying or squirting organic solvents over the surface. Before cleaning, surfaces must be visually inspected to determine the type and location of the contamination, to decide if cleaning is necessary, and what type of cleaning technique to use. Finally, bad cleaning is much worse than no cleaning! Illustrations of the cleaning methods described above will be given.

  10. Knack for reticle cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masumi; Handa, Hitoshi; Shirai, Hisatsugu

    2000-07-01

    Cleaning is one of the most important processes in mask making, because it decides final quality. In cleaning process, it is necessary for reticle cleanliness to not only remove particles from reticle but also prevent adsorption and re-deposition onto reticle. There is the knack for reticle cleaning, and we introduce three keys in this paper. The first key is the rinse after chemical treatment. By the rinse sequence modification, the cleaner was refined and the particle removal ability was improved. The second key is quality control to grasp the situation of cleaner. By the daily check, cleaner's abnormal condition is found at an early stage, quick action is taken, and then stable cleaning quality is kept every day. And the third key is proper choice of cleaners. We have adopted pre-cleaning process and selected the adequate cleaner for each cleaning level and improved cleaning yield and quality.

  11. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  12. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 21, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. The conceptual flowsheet must be examined to identify critical areas that need additional design data. This data will then be developed using batch and semi-continuous bench scale testing. In addition to actual bench scale testing, other unit operations from other industries processing fine material will be reviewed for potential application and incorporated into the design if appropriate.

  13. A unified solution to the small scale problems of the ΛCDM model

    SciTech Connect

    Popolo, A. Del; Lima, J.A.S.; Fabris, Júlio C.; Rodrigues, Davi C. E-mail: limajas@astro.iag.usp.br E-mail: davi.rodrigues@cosmo-ufes.org

    2014-04-01

    We study, by means of the model proposed in Del Popolo (2009), the effect of baryon physics on the small scale problems of the CDM model. We show that, using this model, the cusp/core problem, the missing satellite problem (MSP), the Too Big to Fail (TBTF) problem, and the angular momentum catastrophe can be reconciled with observations. Concerning the cusp/core problem, the interaction among dark matter (DM) and baryonic clumps of 1% the mass of the halo, through dynamical friction (DF), is able to flatten the inner cusp of the density profiles. We moreover assume that haloes form primarily through quiescent accretion, in agreement with the spherical collapse model (SCM)-secondary infall model (SIM) prescriptions. The results of this paper follow from the two assumptions above. Concerning the MSP and TBTF problem, applying to the Via Lactea II (VL2) subhaloes a series of corrections similar to those of Brooks et al. (2013), namely applying a Zolotov et al. (2012)-like correction obtained with our model, and further correcting for the UV heating and tidal stripping, we obtain that the number of massive, luminous satellites is in agreement with the number observed in the MW. The model also produces an angular momentum distribution in agreement with observations, that is with the distribution of the angular spin parameter and angular momentum of the dwarfs studied by van den Bosch, Burkert, and Swaters (2001). In conclusion, the small scale problems of the CDM model can all be solved by introducing baryon physics.

  14. How smooth are particle trajectories in a ΛCDM Universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampf, Cornelius; Villone, Barbara; Frisch, Uriel

    2015-09-01

    It is shown here that in a flat, cold dark matter (CDM)-dominated Universe with positive cosmological constant (Λ), modelled in terms of a Newtonian and collisionless fluid, particle trajectories are analytical in time (representable by a convergent Taylor series) until at least a finite time after decoupling. The time variable used for this statement is the cosmic scale factor, i.e. the `a-time', and not the cosmic time. For this, a Lagrangian-coordinate formulation of the Euler-Poisson equations is employed, originally used by Cauchy for 3D incompressible flow. Temporal analyticity for ΛCDM is found to be a consequence of novel explicit all-order recursion relations for the a-time Taylor coefficients of the Lagrangian displacement field, from which we derive the convergence of the a-time Taylor series. A lower bound for the a-time where analyticity is guaranteed and shell-crossing is ruled out is obtained, whose value depends only on Λ and on the initial spatial smoothness of the density field. The largest time interval is achieved when Λ vanishes, i.e. for an Einstein-de Sitter universe. Analyticity holds also if, instead of the a-time, one uses the linear structure growth D-time, but no simple recursion relations are then obtained. The analyticity result also holds when a curvature term is included in the Friedmann equation for the background, but inclusion of a radiation term arising from the primordial era spoils analyticity.

  15. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  16. INNOVATIVE CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Innovative Clean Technologies case studies contained herein are the products of the "Pollution Prevention by and for Small Business" Program (P2SB). he P2SB was an outreach program directed to small businesses that had developed innovative concepts for pollution prevention in...

  17. Public/private cross-training programs to expedite clean-up and development of environmentally impaired property

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, B.

    1994-12-31

    There is a need to learn how to partner better. In this regard, it would be most useful to monitor a partnership from its inception and as it develops. Such a partnership to follow through its various development stages is the California Environmental Enterprise (CEE), a dynamic Statewide environmental technology services partnership linking private industry, the DOE National Laboratories, State and local governments, regulatory agencies community colleges and universities, public interest and environmental organizations, for the common purpose of facilitating the economic and rehabilitative reuse of environmentally impaired property. In cooperation with Federal agencies, CEE will work actively with the private sector and other major institutions to seek innovative technological solutions to environmental restoration and waste management problems. Through the development of public-private partnerships CEE will broker and facilitate private sector solutions that will leverage collective resources as well as demonstrating and commercializing environmental technologies and systems to the economic benefit of the State and the Nation.

  18. Three Case Studies in Green Cleaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Education Standard, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents case studies from three districts implementing green cleaning. In 2008, Missouri passed legislation requiring state education officials to convene a committee of stakeholders with the purpose of developing green cleaning guidelines and specifications for schools. The guide, published by the Department of Elementary and…

  19. Cleaning of Liquid N2O4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfeifer, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technique useful in reducing clogging of fluid lines. Metal nitrate impurities precipitated from N2O4 by cooling N2O4 in heat exchanger and passing through hydraulic pump. Precipitate removed by fine membrane filter. Technique developed for cleaning of liquid N2O4 adaptable to cleaning of variety of industrial fluids, including fuels.

  20. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Under-The-Wing (UTW) graphite/PMR cowl development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggles, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    The PMR process development, tooling concepts, testing conducted to generate materials properties data, and the fabrication of a subscale model of the inner cowl are presented. It was concluded that the materials, processes, and tooling concepts were satisfactory for making an inner cowl with adequate structural integrity.

  1. GET FiT Plus: De-risking clean energy business models in a developing country context

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-15

    GET Fit was first conceived in January 2010 when the United Nations Secretary General's Advisory Group on Energy and Climate Change (AGECC) invited Deutsche Bank Climate Change Advisors (DBCCA) to present new concepts to drive renewable energy investment in developing regions. DBCCA responded with the Global Energy Transfer Feed-in Tariffs Program (GET FiT), a proposal to support both renewable energy scale up and energy access through the creation of new international public-private partnerships. The concept was inspired by the theory that feed-in tariffs could serve as an effective policy structure for both public and private investment and knowledge transfer from the developed world. The original GET FiT concept was designed with input from over 160 individuals from the renewable energy, financial and international development communities. The original GET FiT report was issued in April 2010. This report reflects continued engagement of stakeholders around the world. GET FiT plus is an effort to capture the key outcomes of the GET FiT consultation process and use them to catalyze ongoing dialogue and debate about the future of international support for renewable energy in developing regions. These outcomes have been translated into key research priorities. These priorities, as well as some short issue briefs are part of this report.

  2. Non-local gravity and comparison with observational datasets. II. Updated results and Bayesian model comparison with ΛCDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirian, Yves; Foffa, Stefano; Kunz, Martin; Maggiore, Michele; Pettorino, Valeria

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive and updated comparison with cosmological observations of two non-local modifications of gravity previously introduced by our group, the so called RR and RT models. We implement the background evolution and the cosmological perturbations of the models in a modified Boltzmann code, using CLASS. We then test the non-local models against the Planck 2015 TT, TE, EE and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) lensing data, isotropic and anisotropic Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) data, JLA supernovae, H0 measurements and growth rate data, and we perform Bayesian parameter estimation. We then compare the RR, RT and ΛCDM models, using the Savage-Dickey method. We find that the RT model and ΛCDM perform equally well, while the performance of the RR model with respect to ΛCDM depends on whether or not we include a prior on H0 based on local measurements.

  3. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify new research

  4. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  5. FORMING REALISTIC LATE-TYPE SPIRALS IN A {Lambda}CDM UNIVERSE: THE ERIS SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Guedes, Javiera; Madau, Piero; Callegari, Simone; Mayer, Lucio

    2011-12-01

    Simulations of the formation of late-type spiral galaxies in a cold dark matter ({Lambda}CDM) universe have traditionally failed to yield realistic candidates. Here we report a new cosmological N-body/smooth particle hydrodynamic simulation of extreme dynamic range in which a close analog of a Milky Way disk galaxy arises naturally. Named 'Eris', the simulation follows the assembly of a galaxy halo of mass M{sub vir} = 7.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} with a total of N = 18.6 million particles (gas + dark matter + stars) within the final virial radius, and a force resolution of 120 pc. It includes radiative cooling, heating from a cosmic UV field and supernova explosions (blastwave feedback), a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold (n{sub SF} = 5 atoms cm{sup -3} rather than the canonical n{sub SF} = 0.1 atoms cm{sup -3}), and neglects any feedback from an active galactic nucleus. Artificial images are generated to correctly compare simulations with observations. At the present epoch, the simulated galaxy has an extended rotationally supported disk with a radial scale length R{sub d} = 2.5 kpc, a gently falling rotation curve with circular velocity at 2.2 disk scale lengths of V{sub 2.2} = 214 km s{sup -1}, an i-band bulge-to-disk ratio B/D = 0.35, and a baryonic mass fraction within the virial radius that is 30% below the cosmic value. The disk is thin, has a typical H I-to-stellar mass ratio, is forming stars in the region of the {Sigma}{sub SFR}-{Sigma}{sub HI} plane occupied by spiral galaxies, and falls on the photometric Tully-Fisher and the stellar-mass-halo-virial-mass relations. Hot (T > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K) X-ray luminous halo gas makes up only 26% of the universal baryon fraction and follows a 'flattened' density profile {proportional_to}r{sup -1.13} out to r = 100 kpc. Eris appears then to be the first cosmological hydrodynamic simulation in which the galaxy structural properties, the mass budget in the

  6. Cygnus: Electrochemical cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.G.; Sokcic-Kostic, M.; Vujic, J.; Solly, F.; Johnson, D.; Philipp, D.

    2000-07-01

    Electrochemical cleaning, commonly referred to as electropolishing, can be used to remove surface contamination by dissolving the underlying metal matrix. This is accomplished in the Cygnus process by passing an electric current through a dilute, acidic electrolyte. In the operation, the surface is polished, thereby removing contamination and irregularities to prevent recontamination. Mechanical decontamination processes, by comparison, leave the surface layer distorted, highly stressed, and contaminated with process media. Techniques employing grinding and particle impingement rework the surface of malleable metals such as stainless steel, folding the contamination into pockets where material is released for uncontrolled use. Solway, Ltd., developed the method to be more effective with respect to waste reduction and cost-effectiveness. Together with NUKEM Nuklear, the method was improved for a decontamination procedure in nuclear technology. One of the applications was the decontamination work at KRN Grundremmingen in Germany. The intensive work has shown that the method is suitable for decontamination services in both defense and commercial areas.

  7. Alternate cleaning methods for LCCAs. [LCC (Leadless Chip Carriers)

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate DI water followed by isopropyl alcohol (IPA) cleaning and no cleaning of leadless chip carriers (LCCs). Both environmentally safe methods were to be tested against the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) material cleaning baseline. Several experiments were run to compare production and electrical yields of LCCs cleaned by all three methods. The critical process steps most affected by cleaning were wire bonding, sealing, particle induced noise detection (PIND), moisture content, and electrical. Yields for the experimental lots cleaned by CFC, DI water plus IPA, and no cleaning were 56%, 72%, and 75%, respectively. The overall results indicated that vapor degreasing/ultrasonic cleaning in CFCs could be replaced by the aqueous method. No cleaning could also be considered if an effective dry method of particle removal could be developed.

  8. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    PubMed

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-01

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making. PMID:25664763

  9. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (< 1 mg0.1 m2), especially flammable residue. Traditionally chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been used in the precision cleaning of LOX systems, specifically CFC 113 (C2Cl3F3). CFCs have been known to cause the depletion of ozone and in 1987, were banned by the Montreal Protocol due to health, safety and environmental concerns. This has now led to the development of new processes in the precision cleaning of aerospace components. An ideal solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the

  10. Doppler Imaging with a Clean-Like Approach - Part One - a Newly Developed Algorithm Simulations and Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurster, M.

    1993-07-01

    A newly developed method for the Doppler imaging of star spot distributions on active late-type stars is presented. It comprises an algorithm particularly adapted to the (discrete) Doppler imaging problem (including eclipses) and is very efficient in determining the positions and shapes of star spots. A variety of tests demonstrates the capabilities as well as the limitations of the method by investigating the effects that uncertainties in various stellar parameters have on the image reconstruction. Any systematic errors within the reconstructed image are found to be a result of the ill-posed nature of the Doppler imaging problem and not a consequence of the adopted approach. The largest uncertainties are found with respect to the dynamical range of the image (brightness or temperature contrast). This kind of uncertainty is of little effect for studies of star spot migrations with the objectives of determining differential rotation and butterfly diagrams for late-type stars.

  11. Did CDM particles of mass 2.47 x 10(-3) eV interact with precursor biopolymers and nucleic acids to initiate and boost lifeforms on Earth?

    PubMed

    Rosen, Gerald

    2011-06-01

    Recent observations and theoretical studies have shown that non-baryonic Cold Dark Matter (CDM), which constitutes about 84% of all matter in the Universe, may feature a complex-scalar-field that carries particles of mass ≅ 2.47 x 10(-3)eV with the associated Compton range m(-1) ≅8.02 x 10(-3) cm, a distance on the scale of extended bionucleic acids and living cells. Such a complex-scalar-field can enter a weak-isospin Lorentz-invariant interaction that generates the flow of right-handed electrons and induces a chirality-imbued quantum chemistry on the m (-1) scale. A phenomenological Volterra-type equation is proposed for the CDM-impacted time development of N, the number of base pairs in the most advanced organism at Earth-age t. The solution to this equation suggests that the boosts in N at t ≅ 1.1 Gyr (advent of the first living prokaryotic cells), at t ≅ 2.9 Gyr (advent of eukaryotic single-celled organisms) and finally at t ≅ 4.0 Gyr (the Cambrian explosion) may be associated with three multi-Myr-duration cosmic showers of the complex-scalar-field CDM particles. If so, the signature of the particles may be detectible in Cambrian rocks. PMID:21057875

  12. Did CDM Particles of Mass 2.47 × 10-3 eV Interact with Precursor Biopolymers and Nucleic Acids to Initiate and Boost Lifeforms on Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Gerald

    2011-06-01

    Recent observations and theoretical studies have shown that non-baryonic Cold Dark Matter (CDM), which constitutes about 84% of all matter in the Universe, may feature a complex-scalar-field that carries particles of mass m ≅ 2.47 × {10^{{ - 3}}}eV with the associated Compton range {m^{{ - 1}}} ≅ 8.02 × {10^{{ - 3}}}cm, a distance on the scale of extended bionucleic acids and living cells. Such a complex-scalar-field can enter a weak-isospin Lorentz-invariant interaction that generates the flow of right-handed electrons and induces a chirality-imbued quantum chemistry on the m -1 scale. A phenomenological Volterra-type equation is proposed for the CDM-impacted time development of N, the number of base pairs in the most advanced organism at Earth-age t. The solution to this equation suggests that the boosts in N at t ≅ 1.1 Gyr (advent of the first living prokaryotic cells), at t ≅ 2.9 Gyr (advent of eukaryotic single-celled organisms) and finally at t ≅ 4.0 Gyr (the Cambrian explosion) may be associated with three multi-Myr-duration cosmic showers of the complex-scalar-field CDM particles. If so, the signature of the particles may be detectible in Cambrian rocks.

  13. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications: Subtask 3.3 - dewatering studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R. H.; Phillips, D. I.; Sohn, S. M.; Luttrell, G. H.

    1996-10-01

    If successful, the novel Hydrophobic Dewatering (HD) process being developed in this project will be capable of efficiently removing moisture from fine coal without the expense and other related drawbacks associated with mechanical dewatering or thermal drying. In the HD process, a hydrophobic substance is added to a coal-water slurry to displace water from the surface of coal, while the spent hydrophobic substance is recovered for recycling. For this process to have commercialization potential, the amount of butane lost during the process must be small. Earlier testing revealed the ability of the hydrophobic dewatering process to reduce the moisture content of fine coal to a very low amount as well as the determination of potential butane losses by the adsorption of butane onto the coal surface. Work performed in this quarter showed that the state of oxidation affects the amount of butane adsorbed onto the surface of the coal and also affects the final moisture content. the remaining work will involve a preliminary flowsheet of a continuous bench-scale unit and a review of the economics of the system. 1 tab.

  14. Waterless Clothes-Cleaning Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Glenn; Ganske, Shane

    2013-01-01

    A waterless clothes-cleaning machine has been developed that removes loose particulates and deodorizes dirty laundry with regenerative chemical processes to make the clothes more comfortable to wear and have a fresher smell. This system was initially developed for use in zero-g, but could be altered for 1-g environments where water or other re sources are scarce. Some of these processes include, but are not limited to, airflow, filtration, ozone generation, heat, ultraviolet light, and photocatalytic titanium oxide.

  15. Disruptive Technologies in Workmanship: pH-neutral Flux, CDM ESD Events, HDI PCBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette F.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes what it calls "disruptive technologies", i.e., "Low-end disruption" occurs when the rate at which products improve exceeds the rate at which customers can adopt the new performance. Therefore, at some point the performance of the product overshoots the needs of certain customer segments. At this point, a disruptive technology may enter the market and provide a product which has lower performance than the incumbent but which exceeds the requirements of certain segments, thereby gaining a foothold in the market. This concept is viewed in impacting incumbent technologies Rosin Flux, with a pH-neutral water soluble Flux; electrostatic discharge models being disrupted by the charge device model (CDM) concept; and High Density Interconnect Printed Circuit Boards (HDI PCB).

  16. Non-Gaussian initial conditions in ΛCDM: Newtonian, relativistic, and primordial contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruni, Marco; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Meures, Nikolai; Wands, David

    2014-04-10

    The goal of the present paper is to set initial conditions for structure formation at nonlinear order, consistent with general relativity, while also allowing for primordial non-Gaussianity. We use the nonlinear continuity and Raychaudhuri equations, which together with the nonlinear energy constraint, determine the evolution of the matter density fluctuation in general relativity. We solve this equations at first and second order in a perturbative expansion, recovering and extending previous results derived in the matter-dominated limit and in the Newtonian regime. We present a second-order solution for the comoving density contrast in a ΛCDM universe, identifying nonlinear contributions coming from the Newtonian growing mode, primordial non-Gaussianity and intrinsic non-Gaussianity, due to the essential nonlinearity of the relativistic constraint equations. We discuss the application of these results to initial conditions in N-body simulations, showing that relativistic corrections mimic a non-zero nonlinear parameter f {sub NL}.

  17. ΛCDM model in f(T) gravity: reconstruction, thermodynamics and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Salako, I.G.; Kpadonou, A.V.; Houndjo, M.J.S.; Tossa, J.; Rodrigues, M.E. E-mail: esialg@gmail.com E-mail: sthoundjo@yahoo.fr

    2013-11-01

    We investigate some cosmological features of the ΛCDM model in the framework of the generalized teleparallel theory of gravity f(T) where T denotes the torsion scalar. Its reconstruction is performed giving rise to an integration constant Q and other input parameters according to which we point out more analysis. Thereby, we show that for some values of this constant, the first and second laws of thermodynamics can be realized in the equilibrium description, for the universe with the temperature inside the horizon equal to that at the apparent horizon. Moreover, still within these suitable values of the constant, we show that the model may be stable using the de Sitter and Power-Law cosmological solutions.

  18. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  19. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  20. EIA's role in the analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the development of the National Allowance Database

    SciTech Connect

    Beamon, J.A.; Linders, M.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Throughout 1990 the Energy Information Administration (EIA) provided continuous data and analytic support to Congress during its deliberations on Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAA). Congress requested the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to review and analyze the sections that would affect electric utilities, specifically those relating to acid deposition (Title IV). By providing knowledgeable and impartial analysis, EIA clarified the likely effects of the various legislative proposals and helped Congress finalize the amendments. Even though the CAA is now law, EIA's efforts have not ended. During the analysis of the various proposals, EIA and EPA created a National Allowance Database (NAD). Now, under an agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a new version of the NAD is being developed to facilitate the implementation of the acid deposition provisions of the CAA. This article describes the analyses undertaken, points out where EIA's efforts led to improved understanding of the likely impacts of the CAA, and outlines EIA's continued efforts to assist EPA in the implementation of the amendments. 6 tabs.

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 18, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This task is the actual demonstration of the advanced froth flotation technology. All previous work has led to this task. ICF KE technicians and process engineers from the team will operate the plant over a 10 month period to demonstrate the capability of the technology to remove 85% of the pyritic sulfur from three different test coals while recovering at least 85% of the as-mined coal`s energy content. Six major subtasks have been included to better define the overall work scope for this task. The ICF KE team will test the Pittsburgh No. 8 seam, the Illinois No. 6 seam and the Upper Freeport seam; the team will operate the circuit in a continuous run; the team will analyze all samples generated in those runs and will develop a plan to store and dispose of the coal and refuse products. All laboratory data generated will be accessible to all team members and the DOE. The test program for the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal began during March 1, 1993. An arrangement has been made between ICF Kaiser Engineers (ICF KE) and American Electric Power (AEP), who is the host for the DOE POC facility. The arrangement calls for AEP to purchase the raw coal and use the clean coal generated by the DOE POC facility. This arrangement permits the processing of raw coal at a very minimal cost of purchasing the raw coal.

  2. REPLACING SOLVENT CLEANING WITH AQUEOUS CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents actions taken by Robert Bosch Corp., Charleston, SC, in replacing the cleaning solvents 1, 1, 2- trichloro-1, 2, 2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene (TCE) with aqueous solutions. Bosch has succeeded in eliminating all their CFC-113 use and so f...

  3. REPLACING SOLVENT CLEANING WITH AQUEOUS CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents actions taken by Robert Bosch Corp., Charleston, SC, in replacing the cleaning solvents 1, 1, 2- trichloro-1, 2, 2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene (TCE) with aqueous solutions. osch has succeeded in eliminating all their CFC-113 use and so far...

  4. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high

  5. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    PubMed Central

    Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Design Before-after trial. Setting Newly built community hospital. Intervention 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Methods Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. Results 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. Conclusion At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences. PMID

  6. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using an advanced froth flotation technique provides a low ash product, however, the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of advanced froth flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand the dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop the process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach under investigation utilizes synergistic effects of metal ions and surfactant to lower the moisture of clean coal using a conventional vacuum dewatering technique. During the last year's effort, it was reported that a combination of metal ion and surfactant provided a 22 percent moisture filter cake.

  7. Refining the mouse chromosomal location of Cdm, the major gene associated with susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular necrosis.

    PubMed

    Dalton, T P; Miller, M L; Wu, X; Menon, A; Cianciolo, E; McKinnon, R A; Smith, P W; Robinson, L J; Nebert, D W

    2000-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd++) is a widespread environmental pollutant and classifed as an IARC 'Category I' human carcinogen. Cd++ can also cause severe renal toxicity and may be involved clinically in cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Genetic differences in sensitivity to cadmium toxicity have been noted in humans, whereas, among inbred mouse strains, unequivocal genetic data exist. Resistance to cadmium-induced testicular damage was reported in 1973 to be associated with a single major recessive gene, named Cdm, which has now been localized to mouse chromosome (Chr) 3. Using polymorphic microsatellite markers and semiquantitative histological parameters, we have corroborated the original 1973 data concerning mendelian inheritance and have further refined the region containing the Cdm gene from more than 24 cM to 0.64 cM (estimated 40-80 genes). We phenotyped 26 recombinant inbred lines generated from C57BL/6J (B6, resistant) and DBA/2J (D2, sensitive) inbred mice, and determined that the Cdm gene maps between microsatellite markers D3Mit110 and D3Mit255. Although toxicity to numerous heavy metals is well known, virtually no molecular mechanisms have yet been uncovered either in humans or laboratory animals. Identification and characterization of the mouse Cdm gene should enhance our understanding of heavy metal toxicity by identifying and characterizing, for the first time, a major mammalian gene responsible for susceptibility to diseases caused by heavy metal toxicity. PMID:10762002

  8. Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  9. Clean Energy Policy Analyses. Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  10. Clean energy for development and economic growth: Biomass and other renewable options to meet energy and development needs in poor nations

    SciTech Connect

    Lilley, Art; Pandey, Bikash; Karstad, Elsen; Owen, Matthew; Bailis, Robert; Ribot, Jesse; Masera, Omar; Diaz, Rodolpho; Benallou, Abdelahanine; Lahbabi, Abdelmourhit

    2012-10-01

    The document explores the linkages between renewable energy, poverty alleviation, sustainable development, and climate change in developing countries. In particular, the paper places emphasis on biomass-based energy systems. Biomass energy has a number of unique attributes that make it particularly suitable to climate change mitigation and community development applications.

  11. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 13, October--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-01-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit. During Quarter 13 (October--December 1995), testing of the GranuFlow dewatering process indicated a 3--4% reduction in cake moisture for screen-bowl and solid-bowl centrifuge products. The Orimulsion additions were also found to reduce the potential dustiness of the fine coal, as well as improve solids recovery in the screen-bowl centrifuge. Based on these results, Lady Dunn management now plans to use a screen bowl centrifuge to dewater their Microcel{trademark} column froth product. Subtask 3.3 testing, investigating a novel Hydrophobic Dewatering process (HD), continued this quarter. Continuing Subtask 6.4 work, investigating coal-water-slurry formulation, indicated that selective agglomeration products can be formulated into slurries with lower viscosities than advanced flotation products. Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing results indicate that a very fine grind is required to meet the 2 lb ash/MBtu product specification for the Winifrede coal, while the Hiawatha coal requires a grind in the 100- to 150-mesh topsize range. Detailed design work remaining involves the preparation and issuing of the final task report. Utilizing this detailed design, a construction bid package was prepared and submitted to three Colorado based contractors for quotes as part of Task 9.

  12. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 11, April--June, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-07-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 tons of each of three project coals, by each process. During Quarter 11 (April--June, 1995), work continued on the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant with the installation and calibration of a refurbished 30-inch diameter column. The evaluation of toxic trace element data for column flotation samples continued, with preliminary analysis indicating that reasonably good mass balances were achieved for most elements, and that significant reductions in the concentration of many elements were observed from raw coal, to flotation feed, to flotation product samples. Significant progress was made on Subtask 6.5 selective agglomeration bench-scale testing. Data from this work indicates that project ash specifications can be met for all coals evaluated, and that the bulk of the bridging liquid (heptane) can be removed from the product for recycle to the process. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr selective agglomeration module progressed this quarter with the completion of several revisions of both the process flow, and the process piping and instrument diagrams. Procurement of coal for PDU operation began with the purchase of 800 tons of Taggart coal. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU continued through this reporting quarter and is currently approximately 60% complete.

  13. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly progress report No. 10, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-04-27

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 ton lots of each of three project coals, by each process. The project began in October, 1992 and is scheduled for completion by June, 1997. During Quarter 10 (January--March, 1995), preliminary work continued for the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant. Towards this end, laboratory flotation testing and refurbishing of the column have been started. The final version of the Subtask 4.2 Advanced Flotation Process Optimization Research topical report was issued, as was a draft version of the Subtask 4.3 report discussing the formulation of coal-water slurry fuels (CWF) from advanced flotation products. A number of product samples from Subtask 4.4 testing were sent to both Combustion Engineering and Penn State for combustion testing. The evaluation of toxic trace element analyses of column flotation products also continued. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr PDU was essentially completed with the approval of various process flow, plant layout, electrical, and vendor equipment drawings. The final version of the Subtask 6.5 -- Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Design and Test Plan Report was issued during this reporting quarter. Design and construction of this 25 lb/hr selective agglomeration test unit was completed and preliminary testing started. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU began following the selection of TIC. The Industrial Company as the construction subcontractor.

  14. Mechanical Agitation For Aqueous Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hosking, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    Cleaning basket placed in aqueous cleaning solution mechanically agitated by air spring. Compressed air at oscillating pressure supplied to air spring to produce repeated vertical motion of cleaning basket.

  15. The inner structure of ΛCDM haloes - II. Halo mass profiles and low surface brightness galaxy rotation curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, E.; Navarro, J. F.; Power, C.; Jenkins, A.; Frenk, C. S.; White, S. D. M.; Springel, V.; Stadel, J.; Quinn, T. R.

    2004-12-01

    We use a set of high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations to investigate the inner mass profile of galaxy-sized cold dark matter (CDM) haloes. These simulations extend the numerical convergence study presented in Paper I of this series, and demonstrate that the mass profile of CDM galaxy haloes can be robustly estimated beyond a minimum converged radius of order rconv~ 1h-1 kpc in our highest-resolution runs. The density profiles of simulated haloes become progressively shallower from the virial radius inwards, and show no sign of approaching a well-defined power law near the centre. At rconv, the density profile is steeper than expected from the formula proposed by Navarro, Frenk & White, which has a ρ~r-1 cusp, but significantly shallower than the steeply divergent ρ~r-1.5 cusp proposed by Moore et al. We perform a direct comparison of the spherically averaged dark matter circular velocity profiles with Hα rotation curves of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. We find that most galaxies in the sample (about 70 per cent) have rotation curves that are consistent with the structure of CDM haloes. Of the remainder, 20 per cent have rotation curves which cannot be fit by any smooth fitting function with few free parameters, and 10 per cent are inconsistent with CDM haloes. However, the latter consist mostly of rotation curves that do not extend to large enough radii to accurately determine their shapes and maximum velocities. We conclude that the inner structure of CDM haloes is not manifestly inconsistent with the rotation curves of LSB galaxies.

  16. Clean solutions to the incoming wafer quality impact on lithography process yield limits in a dynamic copper/low-k research and development environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysaght, Patrick S.; Ybarra, Israel; Sax, Harry; Gupta, Gaurav; West, Michael; Doros, Theodore G.; Beach, James V.; Mello, Jim

    2000-06-01

    The continued growth of the semiconductor manufacturing industry has been due, in large part, to improved lithographic resolution and overlay across increasingly larger chip areas. Optical lithography continues to be the mainstream technology for the industry with extensions of optical lithography being employed to support 180 nm product and process development. While the industry momentum is behind optical extensions to 130 nm, the key challenge will be maintaining an adequate and affordable process latitude (depth of focus/exposure window) necessary for 10% post-etch critical dimension (CD) control. If the full potential of optical lithography is to be exploited, the current lithographic systems can not be compromised by incoming wafer quality. Impurity specifications of novel Low-k dielectric materials, plating solutions, chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) slurries, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) precursors are not well understood and more stringent control measures will be required to meet defect density targets as identified in the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS). This paper identifies several specific poor quality wafer issues that have been effectively addressed as a result of the introduction of a set of flexible and reliable wafer back surface clean processes developed on the SEZ Spin-Processor 203 configured for processing of 200 mm diameter wafers. Patterned wafers have been back surface etched by means of a novel spin process contamination elimination (SpCE) technique with the wafer suspended by a dynamic nitrogen (N2) flow, device side down, via the Bernoulli effect. Figure 1 illustrates the wafer-chuck orientation within the process chamber during back side etch processing. This paper addresses a number of direct and immediate benefits to the MicraScan IIITM deep-ultraviolet (DUV) step-and-scan system at SEMATECH. These enhancements have resulted from the resolution of three significant problems: (1) back surface

  17. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1981-02-27

    A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  18. Keeping condensers clean

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, K.

    2006-04-15

    The humble condenser is among the biggest contributors to a steam power plant's efficiency. But although a clean condenser can provide great economic benefit, a dirty one can raise plant heat rate, resulting in large losses of generation revenue and/or unnecessarily high fuel bills. Conventional methods for cleaning fouled tubes range form chemicals to scrapers to brushes and hydro-blasters. This article compares the available options and describes how one power station, Omaha Public Power District's 600 MW North Omaha coal-fired power station, cleaned up its act. The makeup and cooling water of all its five units comes from the Missouri River. 6 figs.

  19. Automated spray cleaning using flammable solvents in a glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, P.; Meirans, L.

    1998-05-01

    The phase-out of the ozone-depleting solvents has forced industry to look to solvents such as alcohol, terpenes and other flammable solvents to perform the critical cleaning processes. These solvents are not as efficient as the ozone-depleting solvents in terms of soil loading, cleaning time and drying when used in standard cleaning processes such as manual sprays or ultrasonic baths. They also require special equipment designs to meet part cleaning specifications and operator safety requirements. This paper describes a cleaning system that incorporates the automated spraying of flammable solvents to effectively perform precision cleaning processes. Key to the project`s success was the development of software that controls the robotic system and automatically generates robotic cleaning paths from three dimensional CAD models of the items to be cleaned.

  20. Development of sample extraction and clean-up strategies for target and non-target analysis of environmental contaminants in biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Baduel, Christine; Mueller, Jochen F; Tsai, Henghang; Gomez Ramos, Maria Jose

    2015-12-24

    Recently, there has been an increasing trend towards multi-targeted analysis and non-target screening methods as a means to increase the number of monitored analytes. Previous studies have developed biomonitoring methods which specifically focus on only a small number of analytes with similar physico-chemical properties. In this paper, we present a simple and rapid multi-residue method for simultaneous extraction of polar and non-polar organic chemicals from biological matrices, containing up to 5% lipid content. Our method combines targeted multi-residue analysis using gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) and a multi-targeted analysis complemented with non-target screening using liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). The optimization of the chemical extraction procedure and the effectiveness of different clean-up methods were evaluated for two biological matrices: fish muscle (lipid content ∼2%) and breast milk (∼4%). To extract a wide range of chemicals, the partition/extraction procedure used for the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach was tested as the initial step for the extraction of 77 target compounds covering a broad compound domain. All the target analytes have different physico-chemical properties (log Kow ranges from -0.3 to 10) and cover a broad activity spectrum; from polar pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) to highly lipophilic chemicals such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochloride pesticides (OCPs). A number of options were explored for the clean-up of lipids, proteins and other impurities present in the matrix. Zirconium dioxide-based sorbents as dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) and protein-lipid removal filter cartridges (Captiva ND Lipids) provided the best results for GC-MS and LC-MS analysis

  1. Cleaning up Floor Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Richard; McLean, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how educational-facility maintenance departments can cut costs in floor cleaning through careful evaluation of floor equipment and products. Tips for choosing carpet detergents are highlighted. (GR)

  2. Cleaning Up High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses cleaning techniques and equipment for areas in a school that are hard to reach, such as the high spacious ceilings, the tall windows of a school atrium, and high points in gymnasiums and auditoriums. (GR)

  3. Gasification: redefining clean energy

    SciTech Connect

    2008-05-15

    This booklet gives a comprehensive overview of how gasification is redefining clean energy, now and in the future. It informs the general public about gasification in a straight-forward, non-technical manner.

  4. Walnut Hulls Clean Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colberg, W. R.; Gordon, G. H.; Jackson, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Hulls inflict minimal substrate damage. Walnut hulls found to be best abrasive for cleaning aluminum surfaces prior to painting. Samples blasted with walnut hulls showed no compressive stress of surface.

  5. Clean Fleet Final Report

    DOE Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    ... &23; Crankshafts &23; Timing gears &23; Push rods &23; Stem and tip portions of the valves &23; Piston ... Accordingly, the CleanFleet program plan contained provisions for acquiring and analyzing ...

  6. Keep It Clean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickette, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    The printer is identified as the major maintenance problem in computer system and tips for reducing downtime are offered, including keeping the printer clean by using high quality paper and scheduling routine servicing. (MJL)

  7. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, Renee H.

    2010-11-01

    Renee Spires, Project Manager at Savannah River Remediation, opens Session 3 (Accelerated Waste Retrieval and Closure: Key Technologies) at the 2010 EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange with a talk on enhanced chemical cleaning.

  8. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... on any object the person touched or on equipment that was used during their care. Some germs ... why it is important to disinfect supplies and equipment. To disinfect something means to clean it to ...

  9. Nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters.

  10. #CleanTechNow

    SciTech Connect

    Moniz, Ernest

    2013-09-17

    Over the past four years, America's clean energy future has come into sharper focus. Yesterday's visionary goals are now hard data -- tangible evidence that our energy system is undergoing a transformation. The Energy Department's new paper "Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies" highlights these changes and shows how cost reductions and product improvements have sparked a surge in consumer demand for wind turbines, solar panels, electric cars and super efficient lighting.

  11. #CleanTechNow

    ScienceCinema

    Moniz, Ernest

    2014-01-10

    Over the past four years, America's clean energy future has come into sharper focus. Yesterday's visionary goals are now hard data -- tangible evidence that our energy system is undergoing a transformation. The Energy Department's new paper "Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies" highlights these changes and shows how cost reductions and product improvements have sparked a surge in consumer demand for wind turbines, solar panels, electric cars and super efficient lighting.

  12. Fluidized-Bed Cleaning of Silicon Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Hsu, George C.

    1987-01-01

    Fluidized-bed chemical cleaning process developed to remove metallic impurities from small silicon particles. Particles (250 micrometer in size) utilized as seed material in silane pyrolysis process for production of 1-mm-size silicon. Product silicon (1 mm in size) used as raw material for fabrication of solar cells and other semiconductor devices. Principal cleaning step is wash in mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids, leaching out metals and carrying them away as soluble chlorides. Particles fluidized by cleaning solution to assure good mixing and uniform wetting.

  13. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  14. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, L. M.; Simandl, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92 percent. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting, and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes, and swelling of epoxies.

  15. Testing ΛCDM cosmology at turnaround: where to look for violations of the bound?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanoglidis, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Tomaras, T. N.

    2015-12-01

    In ΛCDM cosmology, structure formation is halted shortly after dark energy dominates the mass/energy budget of the Universe. A manifestation of this effect is that in such a cosmology the turnaround radius—the non-expanding mass shell furthest away from the center of a structure— has an upper bound. Recently, a new, local, test for the existence of dark energy in the form of a cosmological constant was proposed based on this turnaround bound. Before designing an experiment that, through high-precision determination of masses and —independently— turnaround radii, will challenge ΛCDM cosmology, we have to answer two important questions: first, when turnaround-scale structures are predicted to be close enough to their maximum size, so that a possible violation of the bound may be observable. Second, which is the best mass scale to target for possible violations of the bound. These are the questions we address in the present work. Using the Press-Schechter formalism, we find that turnaround structures have in practice already stopped forming, and consequently, the turnaround radius of structures must be very close to the maximum value today. We also find that the mass scale of ~ 1013 Msolar characterizes the turnaround structures that start to form in a statistically important number density today —and even at an infinite time in the future, since structure formation has almost stopped. This mass scale also separates turnaround structures with qualitatively different cosmological evolution: smaller structures are no longer readjusting their mass distribution inside the turnaround scale, they asymptotically approach their ultimate abundance from higher values, and they are common enough to have, at some epoch, experienced major mergers with structures of comparable mass; larger structures exhibit the opposite behavior. We call this mass scale the transitional mass scale and we argue that it is the optimal for the purpose outlined above. As a corollary, we

  16. Clean intermittent catheterization revisited.

    PubMed

    Lamin, Eliza; Newman, Diane K

    2016-06-01

    Catheterization is the insertion of a hollow flexible tube (called a catheter) to drain the urine from the bladder and is probably one of the oldest urologic procedures, dating back 3000 years. Since 1972, when urologist Dr Jack Lapides described a procedure for performing clean intermittent catheterization, this method of bladder management has become lifesaving for an individual who cannot empty their bladder independently. If the bladder is not emptied regularly, elevated storage pressures can develop which may put the upper tracts at risk of subsequent deterioration. Intermittent catheterization (IC) has become the first-line and preferred method of drainage in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, as long as dexterity or available caregiver support and body habitus allow access. However, over the past 20 years, an evolution has occurred in the technology of catheters used for IC. But with these advances, so has controversy arisen. This article is a review of the current application of IC, the current technology in catheter material and systems, differences between reusable and one-time, or single-use catheters, the cost benefit of doing IC, and the infectious benefit. PMID:26956983

  17. Apparel for Cleaner Clean Rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In the 1960s NASA pioneered contamination control technology, providing a base from which aerospace contractors could develop control measures. NASA conducted special courses for clean room technicians and supervisors, and published a series of handbooks with input from various NASA field centers. These handbooks extended aerospace experience to the medical, pharmaceutical, electronics, and other industries where extreme cleanliness is important. American Hospital Supply Company (AHSC) felt that high technology products with increasingly stringent operating requirements in aerospace, electronics, pharmaceuticals and medical equipment manufacturing demanded improvement in contamination control techniques. After studying the NASA handbooks and visiting NASA facilities, the wealth of information gathered resulted in Micro-clean non-woven garments and testing equipment and procedures for evaluating effectiveness.

  18. Supersonic gas-liquid cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1994-01-01

    A system to perform cleaning and cleanliness verification is being developed to replace solvent flush methods using CFC 113 for fluid system components. The system is designed for two purposes: internal and external cleaning and verification. External cleaning is performed with the nozzle mounted at the end of a wand similar to a conventional pressure washer. Internal cleaning is performed with a variety of fixtures designed for specific applications. Internal cleaning includes tubes, pipes, flex hoses, and active fluid components such as valves and regulators. The system uses gas-liquid supersonic nozzles to generate high impingement velocities at the surface of the object to be cleaned. Compressed air or any inert gas may be used to provide the conveying medium for the liquid. The converging-diverging nozzles accelerate the gas-liquid mixture to supersonic velocities. The liquid being accelerated may be any solvent including water. This system may be used commercially to replace CFC and other solvent cleaning methods widely used to remove dust, dirt, flux, and lubricants. In addition, cleanliness verification can be performed without the solvents which are typically involved. This paper will present the technical details of the system, the results achieved during testing at KSC, and future applications for this system.

  19. State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Moreland, T.

    1997-12-31

    State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.

  20. Ultrasonic aqueous cleaning as a replacement for chlorinated solvent cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1992-06-05

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been involved in the replacement of chlorinated solvents since 1982. One of the most successful replacement efforts has been the substitution of vapor degreasers or soak tanks using chlorinated solvents with ultrasonic cleaning using aqueous detergents. Recently, funding was obtained from the Department of Energy Office (DOE) of Technology Development to demonstrate this technology. A unit has been procured and installed in the vacuum pump shop area to replace the use of a solvent soak tank. Initially, the solvents used in the shop were CFC-113 and a commercial brand cleaner which contained both perchloroethylene and methylene chloride. While the ultrasonic unit was being procured, a terpene-based solvent was used. Generally, parts were soaked overnight in order to soften baked-on vanish. Many times, wire brushing was used to help remove remaining contamination. Initial testing with the ultrasonic cleaner indicated cleaning times of 20 min were as effective as the overnight solvent soaks in removing contamination. Wire brushing was also not required following the ultrasonic cleaning as was sometimes required with the solvent soak.

  1. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  2. Is the continuous matter creation cosmology an alternative to ΛCDM?

    SciTech Connect

    Fabris, J.C.; Pacheco, J.A. de Freitas; Piattella, O.F. E-mail: pacheco@oca.eu

    2014-06-01

    The matter creation cosmology is revisited, including the evolution of baryons and dark matter particles. The creation process affects only dark matter and not baryons. The dynamics of the ΛCDM model can be reproduced only if two conditions are satisfied: 1) the entropy density production rate and the particle density variation rate are equal and 2) the (negative) pressure associated to the creation process is constant. However, the matter creation model predicts a present dark matter-to-baryon ratio much larger than that observed in massive X-ray clusters of galaxies, representing a potential difficulty for the model. In the linear regime, a fully relativistic treatment indicates that baryons are not affected by the creation process but this is not the case for dark matter. Both components evolve together at early phases but lately the dark matter density contrast decreases since the background tends to a constant value. This behaviour produces a negative growth factor, in disagreement with observations, being a further problem for this cosmology.

  3. Energy of Einstein's static universe and its implications for the ΛCDM cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Abhas

    2013-03-01

    The total Einstein energy (P{sub 0}) of a homogeneous and isotropic universe can be computed by using an appropriate superpotential (Rosen 1994) and also by a direct method (Mitra 2010). Irrespective of the physical significance of P{sub 0}, its eventual numerical value must be same in both the cases because both are derived from the same Einstein pseudo tensor and by employing the same coordinates. It follows then that the static isotropic and homogeneous universe, i.e., Einstein's static universe (ESU), must have an infinite radius and which tantamounts to a spatially flat case. The physical significance of this result is that the cosmological constant, Λ, is actually zero and ESU is the vacuous Minkowski spacetime. It is the same result which has recently been obtained in a completely independent manner (Mitra, Bhattacharyya and Bhatt 2013). Thus even though, mathematically, one can conceive of a static 3-sphere for the foundation of relativistic cosmology, physically, no such 3-sphere exists. On the other hand, the spatial section of the universe could essentially be an Euclidean space with local curvature spikes due to presence of lumpy matter. Since the ''Dark Energy'' is associated with Λ in the ΛCDM model, the result obtained here suggests that it is an artifact of departure of the lumpy and fractal universe from the ideal Friedmann Robertson Walker model (Jackson et al. 2012, Cowley et al. 2013)

  4. Quantifying substructures in Hubble Frontier Field clusters: comparison with ΛCDM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Irshad; Saha, Prasenjit; Williams, Liliya L. R.; Liesenborgs, Jori; Sebesta, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) are six clusters of galaxies, all showing indications of recent mergers, which have recently been observed for lensed images. As such they are the natural laboratories to study the merging history of galaxy clusters. In this work, we explore the 2D power spectrum of the mass distribution PM(k) as a measure of substructure. We compare PM(k) of these clusters (obtained using strong gravitational lensing) to that of ΛCDM simulated clusters of similar mass. To compute lensing PM(k), we produced free-form lensing mass reconstructions of HFF clusters, without any light traces mass (LTM) assumption. The inferred power at small scales tends to be larger if (i) the cluster is at lower redshift, and/or (ii) there are deeper observations and hence more lensed images. In contrast, lens reconstructions assuming LTM show higher power at small scales even with fewer lensed images; it appears the small scale power in the LTM reconstructions is dominated by light information, rather than the lensing data. The average lensing derived PM(k) shows lower power at small scales as compared to that of simulated clusters at redshift zero, both dark-matter only and hydrodynamical. The possible reasons are: (i) the available strong lensing data are limited in their effective spatial resolution on the mass distribution, (ii) HFF clusters have yet to build the small scale power they would have at z ˜ 0, or (iii) simulations are somehow overestimating the small scale power.

  5. Inhomogeneous post-inflationary ΛCDM cosmology as a moduli space expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Toby; Withers, Benjamin

    2011-12-01

    We model the large scale late time universe as a ΛCDM cosmology driven by cosmological constant and perfect dust fluid. Our aim is to find new solutions in the matter and Λ epoch consistent with inflationary initial conditions, namely, that to the far past in the matter era the cosmology tends to a flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker solution. We identify the moduli degrees of freedom that parametrize the flat Λ-dust Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker solution and then promote these moduli to slowly varying functions of the spatial coordinates and show how to solve the Einstein equations in a comoving gradient expansion, controlled by the cosmological constant length scale. Our initial conditions ensure that the approximation remains under control to the far past of the matter era, and to the far future of Λ domination. The solution is fully nonperturbative in the amplitude of the metric deformation, and we explicitly construct it to fourth order in derivatives. A general Λ-dust universe dominated by Λ in the future is characterized by a 3-metric and a stress tensor (with positive trace) defined on the future conformal boundary. The new cosmologies with inflationary initial conditions are characterized only by the boundary 3-metric, the stress tensor being locally determined entirely in terms of that metric.

  6. Sodium cleaning procedures for PEC prototype mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Caponetti, R.

    1985-09-01

    At Casaccia's Energy Research Center (CRE) of the Italian Commission for Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA), within the scope of testing activities for penetrating structures (mechanisms) of the Prova Elementi di Combustibile (PEC) reactor plug and of operating procedure acquisition for the PEC itself, a facility for the cleaning of mechanisms after in-sodium testing has been in operation for a number of years. The first phase of a component cleaning program is under way, based on the use of am organic solvent (2-butoxy-ethanol = ethylene glycol monobutyl ether = Butylcellosolve) and atomized water. Characterization activities were carried out in the laboratory on 2butoxy-ethanol, and the sodium-2-butoxy-ethanol reaction rate was measured at from 35 to 60/sup 0/C. A cleaning procedure for the prototypes of PEC mechanisms was defined after carrying out in-sodium test cycles. The final procedure used to clean the PEC mechanisms was developed by successive steps, and the entire task was divided as follows: cleaning facility correspondence check; effectiveness of alcohol versus aqueous cleaning methods; effectiveness of vacuum procedure; and effectiveness of the procedure for flood and alternate cycles of vacuum and pressurization on the 2-butoxy-ethanol liquid surface. The overall results of the testing have been used as the basis for determining a complete cleaning procedure suitable for all prototypes of the PEC mechanisms. The method selected is based on the utilization of 2-butoxy-ethanol. The nebulized water method is being used at present at Casaccia-CRE for cleaning other components with large values for the ratio of surface area to total sodium quantity. Nevertheless, a study is scheduled of a method using atomized water and carbon dioxide for the test cleaning of the fuel charge machine prototype.

  7. Indirectly Estimating International Net Migration Flows by Age and Gender: The Community Demographic Model International Migration (CDM-IM) Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Jiang, Leiwen

    2015-01-01

    Although data for the total number of international migrant flows is now available, no global dataset concerning demographic characteristics, such as the age and gender composition of migrant flows exists. This paper reports on the methods used to generate the CDM-IM dataset of age and gender specific profiles of bilateral net (not gross) migrant flows. We employ raw data from the United Nations Global Migration Database and estimate net migrant flows by age and gender between two time points around the year 2000, accounting for various demographic processes (fertility, mortality). The dataset contains information on 3,713 net migrant flows. Validation analyses against existing data sets and the historical, geopolitical context demonstrate that the CDM-IM dataset is of reasonably high quality. PMID:26692590

  8. Aqueous cleaning design presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maltby, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    The phase-out of CFC's and other ozone depleting chemicals has prompted industries to re-evaluate their present methods of cleaning. It has become necessary to find effective substitutes for their processes as well as to meet the new cleaning challenges of improved levels of cleanliness and to satisfy concerns about environmental impact of any alternative selected. One of the most popular alternatives being selected is aqueous cleaning. This method offers an alternative for removal of flux, grease/oil, buffing compound, particulates and other soils while minimizing environmental impact. What I will show are methods that can be employed in an aqueous cleaning system that will make it environmentally friendly, relatively simple to maintain and capable of yielding an even higher quality of cleanliness than previously obtained. I will also explore several drying techniques available for these systems and other alternatives along with recent improvements made in this technology. When considering any type of cleaning system, a number of variables should be determined before selecting the basic configuration. Some of these variables are: (1) Soil or contaminants being removed from your parts; (2) The level of cleanliness required; (3) The environmental considerations of your area; (4) Maintenance requirements; and (5) Operating costs.

  9. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01

    Development efforts have been underway for decades to replace dry-gas cleaning technology with humid-gas cleaning technology that would maintain the water vapor content in the raw gas by conducting cleaning at sufficiently high temperature to avoid water vapor condensation and would thus significantly simplify the plant and improve its thermal efficiency. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. conducted a program with the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) to develop a Novel Gas Cleaning process that uses a new type of gas-sorbent contactor, the ''filter-reactor''. The Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process described and evaluated here is in its early stages of development and this evaluation is classified as conceptual. The commercial evaluations have been coupled with integrated Process Development Unit testing performed at a GTI coal gasifier test facility to demonstrate, at sub-scale the process performance capabilities. The commercial evaluations and Process Development Unit test results are presented in Volumes 1 and 2 of this report, respectively. Two gas cleaning applications with significantly differing gas cleaning requirements were considered in the evaluation: IGCC power generation, and Methanol Synthesis with electric power co-production. For the IGCC power generation application, two sets of gas cleaning requirements were applied, one representing the most stringent ''current'' gas cleaning requirements, and a second set representing possible, very stringent ''future'' gas cleaning requirements. Current gas cleaning requirements were used for Methanol Synthesis in the evaluation because these cleaning requirements represent the most stringent of cleaning requirements and the most challenging for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process. The scope of the evaluation for each application was: (1) Select the configuration for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning Process, the arrangement of the individual gas cleaning stages, and the probable operating

  10. Chemical cleaning of oil and gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, M.B.; Trahan, D.O.

    1997-05-01

    In the pipeline industry, increased awareness of flow inhibiting sediments and deposits, are producing new developments in the field of chemical cleaning. The Pipeline Service Industry recognized the need for an improved method of cleaning oil, gas, and product pipelines; bringing about the development of several environmentally preferable chemical cleaning agents, possessing unique physical properties and service capabilities. These products are specially developed to be nonhazardous and environmentally friendly, both to pipeline workers and to the surrounding environment. The products are formulated using new cleaning chemistry technology to improve the cleaning of oil and gas pipelines. The products are highly concentrated liquid blends of biodegradable surfactant and synthetic solvents, capable of wetting and removing the most tenacious line deposits encountered in oil and gas pipelines. During the early years of oil industry, pipelines were cleaned by using crudely constructed pigging devices. These pigs were most often made on site from available materials, usually consisting nothing more than straw wrapped with barbed wire, rags, or pieces of leather bundled together. Since those early days, the technique of making pigs has come a long way. Companies involved in the design and construction of pigs have perfected their methods of construction, improving the performance of their products. Today, it is estimated that there are over 350 different types of pipeline pig designated for use in cleaning oil and gas pipelines. It has been found that the proper application of cleaning products used in conjunction with pipeline pigs, results in the removal of substantial volumes of sediment, not previously possible with the application of pipeline pigs alone.

  11. Constraints from growth-rate data on some coupled dark energy models mimicking a ΛCDM expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, Stéphane

    2016-05-01

    The ΛCDM expansion could be mimicked by a dark energy coupled to matter. Then, the equation of state bar{w} and coupling bar{Q} of this coupled dark energy could not be constrained by observations of the Hubble function alone. Also, in this paper, we determine the constraints on two such coupled dark energy models considering some current and forecast Euclid-like growth-rate data and assuming the prior on the ΛCDM dark matter density parameter today Ωm0 = 0.295 ± 0.04. The first model is defined by a constant equation of state. We find that at 2σ, bar{w}=-1.02_{-0.22}^{+0.06} and the coupling function bar{Q}_0 today is bar{Q}_0H_0^{-3}=0.057_{-0.148}^{+0.353} with H0 the Hubble constant. The second model is defined by a varying equation of state bar{w}=bar{w}_a-bar{w}_bln (1+z), with z the redshift and (bar{w}_a,bar{w}_b), two constants. We find that at 2σ, bar{w}_a=-0.99_{-0.90}^{+0.17}, bar{w}_b=-0.04_{-1.17}^{+0.31} and bar{Q}_0H_0^{-3}=0.0002_{-0.18}^{+1.35}. These constraints on coupled dark energy agreed with a ΛCDM model but are too poor to discard confidently a coupled dark energy different from vacuum but mimicking a ΛCDM expansion.

  12. Constraints from growth-rate data on some coupled dark energy models mimicking a ΛCDM expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    The ΛCDM expansion can be mimicked by dark energy coupled to matter. In this case, the equation of state bar{w} and coupling bar{Q} of this coupled dark energy cannot be constrained by observations of the Hubble function alone. In this article, we determine the constraints on two such coupled dark energy models, considering some current and forecast Euclid-like growth-rate data and assuming the prior on the ΛCDM dark matter density parameter today, Ωm0 = 0.295 ± 0.04. The first model is defined by a constant equation of state. We find that, at 2σ, bar{w}=-1.02_{-0.22}^{+0.06} and the coupling function bar{Q}_0 today is bar{Q}_0H_0^{-3}=0.057_{-0.148}^{+0.353}, with H0 the Hubble constant. The second model is defined by a varying equation of state bar{w}=bar{w}_a-bar{w}_bln (1+z), with z the redshift and (bar{w}_a,bar{w}_b) two constants. We find that, at 2σ, bar{w}_a=-0.99_{-0.90}^{+0.17}, bar{w}_b=-0.04_{-1.17}^{+0.31} and bar{Q}_0H_0^{-3}=0.0002_{-0.18}^{+1.35}. These constraints on coupled dark energy agree with a ΛCDM model but are too poor to discard with confidence coupled dark energy different from a vacuum but mimicking a ΛCDM expansion.

  13. Near-Roadway Pollution and Childhood Asthma: Implications for Developing “Win–Win” Compact Urban Development and Clean Vehicle Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Laura; Lurmann, Fred; Wilson, John; Pastor, Manuel; Brandt, Sylvia J.; Künzli, Nino

    2012-01-01

    Background: The emerging consensus that exposure to near-roadway traffic-related pollution causes asthma has implications for compact urban development policies designed to reduce driving and greenhouse gases. Objectives: We estimated the current burden of childhood asthma-related disease attributable to near-roadway and regional air pollution in Los Angeles County (LAC) and the potential health impact of regional pollution reduction associated with changes in population along major traffic corridors. Methods: The burden of asthma attributable to the dual effects of near-roadway and regional air pollution was estimated, using nitrogen dioxide and ozone as markers of urban combustion-related and secondary oxidant pollution, respectively. We also estimated the impact of alternative scenarios that assumed a 20% reduction in regional pollution in combination with a 3.6% reduction or 3.6% increase in the proportion of the total population living near major roads, a proxy for near-roadway exposure. Results: We estimated that 27,100 cases of childhood asthma (8% of total) in LAC were at least partly attributable to pollution associated with residential location within 75 m of a major road. As a result, a substantial proportion of asthma-related morbidity is a consequence of near-roadway pollution, even if symptoms are triggered by other factors. Benefits resulting from a 20% regional pollution reduction varied markedly depending on the associated change in near-roadway proximity. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there are large and previously unappreciated public health consequences of air pollution in LAC and probably in other metropolitan areas with dense traffic corridors. To maximize health benefits, compact urban development strategies should be coupled with policies to reduce near-roadway pollution exposure. PMID:23008270

  14. Physical and chemical coal cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelock, T. D.; Markuszewski, R.

    1981-02-01

    Coal is cleaned industrially by freeing the occluded mineral impurities and physically separating the coal and refuse particles on the basis of differences in density, settling characteristics, or surface properties. While physical methods are very effective and low in cost when applied to the separation of coarse particles, they are much less effective when applied to the separation of fine particles. Also they can not be used to remove impurities which are bound chemically to the coal. These deficiencies may be overcome in the future by chemical cleaning. Most of the chemical cleaning methods under development are designed primarily to remove sulfur from coal, but several methods also remove various trace elements and ash-forming minerals. Generally these methods will remove most of the sulfur associated with inorganic minerals, but only a few of the methods seem to remove organically bound sulfur. A number of the methods employ oxidizing agents as air, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, or a ferric salt to oxidize the sulfur compounds to soluble sulfates which are then extracted with water. The sulfur in coal may also be solubilized by treatment with caustic. Also sulfur can be removed by reaction with hydrogen at high temperature. Furthermore, it is possible to transform the sulfur bearing minerals in coal to materials which are easily removed by magnetic separation.

  15. Clean salt process final report

    SciTech Connect

    Herting, D.L.

    1996-09-30

    A process has been demonstrated in the laboratory for separating clean, virtually non-radioactive sodium nitrate from Hanford tank waste using fractional crystallization. The name of the process is the Clean Salt Process. Flowsheet modeling has shown that the process is capable of reducing the volume of vitrified low activity waste (LAW) by 80 to 90 %. Construction of the Clean Salt processing plant would cost less than $1 10 million, and would eliminate the need for building a $2.2 billion large scale vitrification plant planned for Privatization Phase 11. Disposal costs for the vitrified LAW would also be reduced by an estimated $240 million. This report provides a summary of five years of laboratory and engineering development activities, beginning in fiscal year 1992. Topics covered include laboratory testing of a variety of processing options; proof-of-principle demonstrations with actual waste samples from Hanford tanks 241-U-110 (U-110), 241-SY-101 (101-SY), and 241-AN-102 (102-AN); descriptions of the primary solubility phase diagrams that govem the process; a review of environmental regulations governing disposition of the reclaimed salt and an assessment of the potential beneficial uses of the reclaimed salt; preliminary plant design and construction cost estimates. A detailed description is given for the large scale laboratory demonstration of the process using waste from tank 241-AW-101 (101-AW), a candidate waste for 0044vitrification during Phase I Privatization.

  16. Clean Energy Application Center

    SciTech Connect

    Freihaut, Jim

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  17. Discovery of a Supercluster at z ~ 0.91 and Testing the ΛCDM Cosmological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Seong-Kook; Edge, Alastair C.; Hyun, Minhee; Kim, Dohyeong; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Jeon, Yiseul; Jun, Hyunsung David; Karouzos, Marios; Kim, Duho; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Yongjung; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin

    2016-04-01

    The ΛCDM cosmological model successfully reproduces many aspects of the galaxy and structure formation of the universe. However, the growth of large-scale structures (LSSs) in the early universe is not well tested yet with observational data. Here, we have utilized wide and deep optical–near-infrared data in order to search for distant galaxy clusters and superclusters (0.8 < z < 1.2). From the spectroscopic observation with the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS) on the Magellan telescope, three massive clusters at z ∼ 0.91 are confirmed in the SSA22 field. Interestingly, all of them have similar redshifts within Δ z ∼ 0.01 with velocity dispersions ranging from 470 to 1300 km s‑1. Moreover, as the maximum separation is ∼15 Mpc, they compose a supercluster at z ∼ 0.91, meaning that this is one of the most massive superclusters at this redshift to date. The galaxy density map implies that the confirmed clusters are embedded in a larger structure stretching over ∼100 Mpc. ΛCDM models predict about one supercluster like this in our surveyed volume, consistent with our finding so far. However, there are more supercluster candidates in this field, suggesting that additional studies are required to determine if the ΛCDM cosmological model can successfully reproduce the LSSs at high redshift.

  18. Clean Coal Draft for public comment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Department of Energy is asking the public to comment on the draft environmental impact statement for 22 clean coal technologies, from precombustion cleaning techniques to coal gasification and fuel cell systems. Incentives to promote use of these new methods for burning coal are included in President George Bush's proposed revisions to the Clean Air Act.The draft is based on a computer model developed at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, and run at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee. The model estimates the amounts of reduction by 2010 in national emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide that use of the new technologies could achieve. It also compares the amounts and kinds of solid waste produced by clean coal technologies to the solid waste of power-production technologies in use today.

  19. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  20. Development of sample clean up methods for the analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis methyl mycocerosate biomarkers in sputum extracts by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nicoara, Simona C.; Turner, Nicholas W.; Minnikin, David E.; Lee, Oona Y.-C.; O'Sullivan, Denise M.; McNerney, Ruth; Mutetwa, Reggie; Corbett, Liz E.; Morgan, Geraint H.

    2015-01-01

    A proof of principle gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method is presented, in combination with clean up assays, aiming to improve the analysis of methyl mycocerosate tuberculosis biomarkers from sputum. Methyl mycocerosates are generated from the transesterification of phthiocerol dimycocerosates (PDIMs), extracted in petroleum ether from sputum of tuberculosis suspect patients. When a high matrix background is present in the sputum extracts, the identification of the chromatographic peaks corresponding to the methyl derivatives of PDIMs analytes may be hindered by the closely eluting methyl ether of cholesterol, usually an abundant matrix constituent frequently present in sputum samples. The purification procedures involving solid phase extraction (SPE) based methods with both commercial Isolute-Florisil cartridges, and purpose designed molecularly imprinted polymeric materials (MIPs), resulted in cleaner chromatograms, while the mycocerosates are still present. The clean-up performed on solutions of PDIMs and cholesterol standards in petroleum ether show that, depending on the solvent mix and on the type of SPE used, the recovery of PDIMs is between 64 and 70%, whilst most of the cholesterol is removed from the system. When applied to petroleum ether extracts from representative sputum samples, the clean-up procedures resulted in recoveries of 36–68% for PDIMs, allowing some superior detection of the target analytes. PMID:25728371

  1. Clean coal today

    SciTech Connect

    1990-01-01

    This is the first issue of the Clean Coal Today publication. Each issue will provide project status reports, feature articles about certain projects and highlight key events concerning the US Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Projects described in this publication include: Colorado-Ute Electric Association Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project at Nucla, Colorado; Babcock and Wilcox coolside and limestone injection multistage burner process (dry sorbent injection); Coal Tech's Advanced Cyclone Combustor Project; and the TIDD pressurized fluidized bed combustor combined cycle facility in Brilliant, Ohio. The status of other projects is included.

  2. Environmental cleaning and disinfection.

    PubMed

    Traverse, Michelle; Aceto, Helen

    2015-03-01

    The guidelines in this article provide veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and veterinary health care workers with an overview of evidence-based recommendations for the best practices associated with environmental cleaning and disinfection of a veterinary clinic that deals with small animals. Hospital-associated infections and the control and prevention programs necessary to alleviate them are addressed from an environmental perspective. Measures of hospital cleaning and disinfection include understanding mechanisms and types of contamination in veterinary settings, recognizing areas of potential concern, addressing appropriate decontamination techniques and selection of disinfectants, the management of potentially contaminated equipment, laundry, and waste management, and environmental surveillance strategies. PMID:25555560

  3. Colorado's clean energy choices

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, N.; Jones, J.

    2000-04-15

    The daily choices made as consumers affect the environment and the economy. Based on the state of today's technology and economics, Colorado consumers can include energy efficiency and renewable energy into many aspects of their lives. These choices include where they obtain electricity, how they use energy at home, and how they transport themselves from one place to another. In addition to outlining how they can use clean energy, Colorado's Clean Energy Choices gives consumers contacts and links to Web sites for where to get more information.

  4. Comparative Mirror Cleaning Study: 'A Study on Removing Particulate Contamination'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Karrie

    2007-01-01

    The cleanliness of optical surfaces is recognized as an industry-wide concern for the performance of optical devices such as mirrors and telescopes, microscopes and lenses, lasers and interferometers, and prisms and optical filters. However, no standard has been established for optical cleaning and there is no standard definition of a 'clean' optical element. This study evaluates the effectiveness of commonly used optical cleaning techniques based on wafer configuration, contamination levels, and the number and size of removed particles. It is concluded that cleaning method and exposure time play a significant factor in obtaining a high removal percentage. The detergent bath and solvent rinse method displayed an increase in effective removal percentage as the contamination exposure increased. Likewise, CO2 snow cleaning showed a relatively consistent cleaning effectiveness. The results can help ensure mission success to flight projects developed for the NASA Origins Program. Advantages and disadvantages of each of the optical cleaning methods are described.

  5. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-01-13

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method are disclosed. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece. 11 figs.

  6. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Thomas W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece.

  7. Automated spray cleaning using flammable solvents in a glovebox environment

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, R.; Meirans, L.; Watterberg, P.; Drotning, W.

    1997-04-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments that have phased out the use of ozone depleting solvents (ODS) have given the precision cleaning industry a challenge that they must respond to if they are to continuously and economically improve quality of service. The phase out of the ozone depleting solvents has forced industry to look to solvents such as alcohol, terpenes and other flammable solvents to perform the critical cleaning processes. These solvents are not as efficient as their ODS counterparts in terms of soil loading, cleaning time and drying when used in standard cleaning processes such as manual sprays or ultrasonic baths. They also require special equipment designs to meet part cleaning specifications and operator safety requirements. This paper describes a cleaning system that incorporates the automated spraying of flammable solvents to effectively perform precision cleaning processes. The prototype workcell under development uses a robot that sprays Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) and terpene at pressures ranging to 600 psi in a glovebox environment. Key to the projects success was the development of software that controls the robotic system and automatically generates robotic cleaning paths from three dimensional CAD models of the items to be cleaned. Also key to the success of this prototype development is FM approval of the process and associated hardware which translates directly into operator and facilities safety.

  8. Quantifying substructures in Hubble Frontier Field clusters: comparison with ΛCDM simulations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mohammed, Irshad; Saha, Prasenjit; Williams, Liliya L. R.; Liesenborgs, Jori; Sebesta, Kevin

    2016-04-13

    The Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) are six clusters of galaxies, all showing indications of recent mergers, which have recently been observed for lensed images. As such they are the natural laboratories to study the merging history of galaxy clusters. In this work, we explore the 2D power spectrum of the mass distributionmore » $$P_{\\rm M}(k)$$ as a measure of substructure. We compare $$P_{\\rm M}(k)$$ of these clusters (obtained using strong gravitational lensing) to that of $$\\Lambda$$CDM simulated clusters of similar mass. In order to compute lensing $$P_{\\rm M}(k)$$, we produced free-form lensing mass reconstructions of HFF clusters, without any light traces mass (LTM) assumption. Moreover, the inferred power at small scales tends to be larger if (i)~the cluster is at lower redshift, and/or (ii)~there are deeper observations and hence more lensed images. In contrast, lens reconstructions assuming LTM show higher power at small scales even with fewer lensed images; it appears the small scale power in the LTM reconstructions is dominated by light information, rather than the lensing data. The average lensing derived $$P_{\\rm M}(k)$$ shows lower power at small scales as compared to that of simulated clusters at redshift zero, both dark-matter only and hydrodynamical. The possible reasons are: (i)~the available strong lensing data are limited in their effective spatial resolution on the mass distribution, (ii)~HFF clusters have yet to build the small scale power they would have at $$z\\sim 0$$, or (iii)~simulations are somehow overestimating the small scale power.« less

  9. How rare is the Bullet Cluster (in a ΛCDM universe)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraljic, David; Sarkar, Subir

    2015-04-01

    The Bullet Cluster (1E 0657-56) is well-known as providing visual evidence of dark matter but it is potentially incompatible with the standard ΛCDM cosmology due to the high relative velocity of the two colliding clusters. Previous studies have focussed on the probability of such a high relative velocity amongst selected candidate systems. This notion of `probability' is however difficult to interpret and can lead to paradoxical results. Instead, we consider the expected number of Bullet-like systems on the sky up to a specified redshift, which allows for direct comparison with observations. Using a Hubble volume N-body simulation with high resolution we investigate how the number of such systems depends on the masses of the halo pairs, their separation, and collisional angle. This enables us to extract an approximate formula for the expected number of halo-halo collisions given specific collisional parameters. We use extreme value statistics to analyse the tail of the pairwise velocity distribution and demonstrate that it is fatter than the previously assumed Gaussian form. We estimate that the number of dark matter halo pairs as or more extreme than 1E 0657-56 in mass, separation and relative velocity is 1.3+2.0-0.6 up to redshift z=0.3. However requiring the halos to have collided and passed through each other as is observed decreases this number to only 0.1. The discovery of more such systems would thus indeed present a challenge to the standard cosmology.

  10. COSMIC EMULATION: THE CONCENTRATION-MASS RELATION FOR wCDM UNIVERSES

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Juliana; Bhattacharya, Suman; Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman

    2013-05-10

    The concentration-mass relation for dark matter-dominated halos is one of the essential results expected from a theory of structure formation. We present a simple prediction scheme, a cosmic emulator, for the concentration-mass (c-M) relation as a function of cosmological parameters for wCDM models. The emulator is constructed from 37 individual models, with three nested N-body gravity-only simulations carried out for each model. The mass range covered by the emulator is 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} < M < 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun} with a corresponding redshift range of z = 0-1. Over this range of mass and redshift, as well as the variation of cosmological parameters studied, the mean halo concentration varies from c {approx} 2 to c {approx} 8. The distribution of the concentration at fixed mass is Gaussian with a standard deviation of one-third of the mean value, almost independent of cosmology, mass, and redshift over the ranges probed by the simulations. We compare results from the emulator with previously derived heuristic analytic fits for the c-M relation, finding that they underestimate the halo concentration at high masses. Using the emulator to investigate the cosmology dependence of the c-M relation over the currently allowable range of values, we find-not surprisingly-that {sigma}{sub 8} and {omega}{sub m} influence it considerably, but also that the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w has a substantial effect. In general, the concentration of lower-mass halos is more sensitive to changes in cosmological parameters as compared to cluster mass halos. The c-M emulator is publicly available from http://www.hep.anl.gov/cosmology/CosmicEmu.

  11. PREDICTING MERGER-INDUCED GAS MOTIONS IN ΛCDM GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Daisuke; Lau, Erwin T.; Avestruz, Camille; Rudd, Douglas H.; Nelson, Kaylea

    2013-11-10

    In the hierarchical structure formation model, clusters of galaxies form through a sequence of mergers and continuous mass accretion, which generate significant random gas motions especially in their outskirts where material is actively accreting. Non-thermal pressure provided by the internal gas motions affects the thermodynamic structure of the X-ray emitting intracluster plasma and introduces biases in the physical interpretation of X-ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect observations. However, we know very little about the nature of gas motions in galaxy clusters. The ASTRO-H X-ray mission, scheduled to launch in 2015, will have a calorimeter capable of measuring gas motions in galaxy clusters at the level of ∼< 100 km s{sup –1}. In this work, we predict the level of merger-induced gas motions expected in the ΛCDM model using hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy cluster formation. We show that the gas velocity dispersion is larger in more massive clusters, but exhibits a large scatter. We show that systems with large gas motions are morphologically disturbed, while early forming, relaxed groups show a smaller level of gas motions. By analyzing mock ASTRO-H observations of simulated clusters, we show that such observations can accurately measure the gas velocity dispersion out to the outskirts of nearby relaxed galaxy clusters. ASTRO-H analysis of merging clusters, on the other hand, requires multi-component spectral fitting and enables unique studies of substructures in galaxy clusters by measuring both the peculiar velocities and the velocity dispersion of gas within individual sub-clusters.

  12. Shapes of Gas, Gravitational Potential, and Dark Matter in ΛCDM Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Zentner, Andrew R.

    2011-06-01

    We present analysis of the three-dimensional shape of intracluster gas in clusters formed in cosmological simulations of the ΛCDM cosmology and compare it to the shape of dark matter distribution and the shape of the overall isopotential surfaces. We find that in simulations with radiative cooling, star formation, and stellar feedback (CSF), intracluster gas outside the cluster core (r >~ 0.1r 500) is more spherical compared to non-radiative (NR) simulations, while in the core the gas in the CSF runs is more triaxial and has a distinctly oblate shape. The latter reflects the ongoing cooling of gas, which settles into a thick oblate ellipsoid as it loses thermal energy. The shape of the gas in the inner regions of clusters can therefore be a useful diagnostic of gas cooling. We find that gas traces the shape of the underlying potential rather well outside the core, as expected in hydrostatic equilibrium. At smaller radii, however, the gas and potential shapes differ significantly. In the CSF runs, the difference reflects the fact that gas is partly rotationally supported. Interestingly, we find that in NR simulations the difference between gas and potential shape at small radii is due to random gas motions, which make the gas distribution more spherical than the equipotential surfaces. Finally, we use mock Chandra X-ray maps to show that the differences in shapes observed in a three-dimensional distribution of gas are discernible in the ellipticity of X-ray isophotes. Contrasting the ellipticities measured in simulated clusters against observations can therefore constrain the amount of cooling in the intracluster medium and the presence of random gas motions in cluster cores.

  13. Constraints on CDM cosmology from galaxy power spectrum, CMB and SNIa evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferramacho, L. D.; Blanchard, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.

    2009-05-01

    Aims: We examine the constraints that can be obtained on standard cold dark matter models from the most currently used data set: CMB anisotropies, type Ia supernovae and the SDSS luminous red galaxies. We also examine how these constraints are widened when the equation of state parameter w and the curvature parameter Ωk are left as free parameters. Finally, we investigate the impact on these constraints of a possible form of evolution in SNIa intrinsic luminosity. Methods: We obtained our results from MCMC analysis using the full likelihood of each data set. Results: For the ΛCDM model, our “vanilla” model, cosmological parameters are tightly constrained and consistent with current estimates from various methods. When the dark energy parameter w is free we find that the constraints remain mostly unchanged, i.e. changes are smaller than the 1 sigma uncertainties. Similarly, relaxing the assumption of a flat universe leads to nearly identical constraints on the dark energy density parameter of the universe Ω_Λ , baryon density of the universe Ω_b, the optical depth τ, the index of the power spectrum of primordial fluctuations n_S, with most one sigma uncertainties better than 5%. More significant changes appear on other parameters: while preferred values are almost unchanged, uncertainties for the physical dark matter density Ω_ch^2, Hubble constant H0 and σ8 are typically twice as large. The constraint on the age of the Universe, which is very accurate for the vanilla model, is the most degraded. We found that different methodological approaches on large scale structure estimates lead to appreciable differences in preferred values and uncertainty widths. We found that possible evolution in SNIa intrinsic luminosity does not alter these constraints by much, except for w, for which the uncertainty is twice as large. At the same time, this possible evolution is severely constrained. Conclusions: We conclude that systematic uncertainties for some estimated

  14. Cosmological constant vis-à-vis dynamical vacuum: Bold challenging the ΛCDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solà, Joan

    2016-08-01

    Next year we will celebrate 100 years of the cosmological term, Λ, in Einstein’s gravitational field equations, also 50 years since the cosmological constant problem was first formulated by Zeldovich, and almost about two decades of the observational evidence that a nonvanishing, positive, Λ-term could be the simplest phenomenological explanation for the observed acceleration of the Universe. This mixed state of affairs already shows that we do no currently understand the theoretical nature of Λ. In particular, we are still facing the crucial question whether Λ is truly a fundamental constant or a mildly evolving dynamical variable. At this point the matter should be settled once more empirically and, amazingly enough, the wealth of observational data at our disposal can presently shed true light on it. In this short review, I summarize the situation of some of these studies. It turns out that the Λ = const. hypothesis, despite being the simplest, may well not be the most favored one when we put it in hard-fought competition with specific dynamical models of the vacuum energy. Recently, it has been shown that the overall fit to the cosmological observables SNIa+BAO+H(z)+LSS+BBN+CMB do favor the class of “running” vacuum models (RVM’s) — in which Λ = Λ(H) is a function of the Hubble rate — against the “concordance” ΛCDM model. The support is at an unprecedented level of ˜ 4σ and is backed up with Akaike and Bayesian criteria leading to compelling evidence in favor of the RVM option and other related dynamical vacuum models. I also address the implications of this framework on the possible time evolution of the fundamental constants of Nature.

  15. Clean Cities Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  16. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-02-26

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  17. Healy clean coal project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and a heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. Resulting emission levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates are expected to be significantly better than the federal New Source Performance Standards. (VC)

  18. Healy clean coal project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. The emission levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates are expected to be significantly better then the federal New Source Performance Standards. (VC)

  19. Super Clean, Super Safe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Supersonic Gas/Liquid Cleaning System (SS-GLCS) has applications ranging from cleaning circuit boards to scouring building exteriors. The system does not abrade the surface of the hardware being cleaned, and it requires much lower levels of pressure while using very little water. An alternative to CFC-based solvents, the system mixes air and water from separate pressurized tanks, ejecting the gas- liquid mixture at supersonic speeds from a series of nozzles at the end of a hand-held wand. The water droplets have the kinetic energy to forcibly remove the contaminant material. The system leaves very little fluid that must be handled as contaminated waste. It can be applied in the aerospace, automotive, and medical industries, as well as to circuit boards, electronics, machinery, metals, plastics, and optics. With a nozzle that can be oriented in any direction, the system is adjustable to allow all sides of a part to be cleaned without reorientation. It requires minimal training and is easily moved on built-in casters

  20. Keep It Clean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William R.

    1998-01-01

    Offers ideas for cleaning and maintenance management of school food service areas to avoid possible waste, injuries, unsanitary conditions, and unnecessary risk to those using the facilities. Includes a self-inspection checklist and a list of the 12 essentials for managing toward cleaner facilities. (GR)

  1. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  2. Road-Cleaning Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  3. Laser cleaning -- A new surface cleaning method without pollutions

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Y.F.; Aoyagi, Y.

    1994-12-31

    Surface contaminations are removed by laser irradiation with pulse output and short wavelength from various substrate such as magnetic head slide, glass and metals. Laser cleaning is a new dry process to remove surface organic contaminations without using ultrasonic cleaning in organic solvents. This provides a new dry process to clean different substrate surfaces and can take the place of conventional wet cleaning processes such as ultrasonic cleaning with CFC and other organic solvents. The mechanisms of laser cleaning may include laser photodecomposition, laser ablation and surface vibration due to the impact of laser pulse. It is found that short wavelength and short pulse duration are necessary for effective cleaning. It is also found that an appropriate energy density is critical to achieve effective cleaning without causing surface oxidation and secondary contamination.

  4. Sonochemical cleaning efficiencies in dental instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiong, T. Joyce; Walmsley, A. Damien; Price, Gareth J.

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasound has been widely used for cleaning purposes in a variety of situations, including in dental practice. Cleaning is achieved through a combination of acoustically driven streaming effects and sonochemical effects arising from the production of inertial cavitation in a liquid. In our work, various dental instruments used for endodontic (root canal) treatment have been evaluated for their efficiency in producing sonochemical effects in an in-vitro cleaning environment. The areas where cavitation was produced were mapped by monitoring chemiluminescence from luminol solutions and this was correlated with their cleaning efficiencies - assessed by the ability to bleach a dye, to form an emulsion by mixing immiscible components and also to remove ink from a glass surface. The results showed good correlation (Pearson's coefficient > 0.9) between the cavitation and cleaning efficiencies, suggesting that the former plays an important role in cleaning. The methods developed and the results will be beneficial in endodontics research in order to optimise future root canal instruments and treatments.

  5. Pipe Cleaning Operating Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.; Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-01-24

    This cleaning procedure outlines the steps involved in cleaning the high purity argon lines associated with the DO calorimeters. The procedure is broken down into 7 cycles: system setup, initial flush, wash, first rinse, second rinse, final rinse and drying. The system setup involves preparing the pump cart, line to be cleaned, distilled water, and interconnecting hoses and fittings. The initial flush is an off-line flush of the pump cart and its plumbing in order to preclude contaminating the line. The wash cycle circulates the detergent solution (Micro) at 180 degrees Fahrenheit through the line to be cleaned. The first rinse is then intended to rid the line of the majority of detergent and only needs to run for 30 minutes and at ambient temperature. The second rinse (if necessary) should eliminate the remaining soap residue. The final rinse is then intended to be a check that there is no remaining soap or other foreign particles in the line, particularly metal 'chips.' The final rinse should be run at 180 degrees Fahrenheit for at least 90 minutes. The filters should be changed after each cycle, paying particular attention to the wash cycle and the final rinse cycle return filters. These filters, which should be bagged and labeled, prove that the pipeline is clean. Only distilled water should be used for all cycles, especially rinsing. The level in the tank need not be excessive, merely enough to cover the heater float switch. The final rinse, however, may require a full 50 gallons. Note that most of the details of the procedure are included in the initial flush description. This section should be referred to if problems arise in the wash or rinse cycles.

  6. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoding, David

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  7. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Robert

    2013-09-30

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  8. Laser Cleaning of Corroded Steel Surfaces: A Comparison with Mechanical Cleaning Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Y. S.; Powell, J.; Kaplan, A.; Carlevi, J.

    Conservation often requires the removal of oxide layers from metal artifacts and new cleaning methods are being developed all the time. This paper provides a quantitative comparison of eight cleaning methods, three of which are mechanical (brushing or micro-blasting with Al2O3 or glass beads) and five of which are laser dependent (TEA CO2 or Nd:YAG laser, with or without surface water). Surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy have been used to compare the cleaned surfaces with the original, known, surface geometries.

  9. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K.

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF ALTERNATIVE CLEANING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report focuses on substitute for solvent degreasing processes that eliminate the use of 33/50 chlorinated organic chemicals. The Center for Clean Products and Clean Technologies performed the technical, environmental, and economic evaluation of the solvent degreasing substit...

  11. Space-age vacuum cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1978-01-01

    Varied concepts for brushes and air handling remove dirt more effectively. Vacuum-cleaning techniques may be used in combination. Many of these concepts, while not appropriate for household cleaning, may find use in industry, research, and medicine.

  12. Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

  13. A microwave plasma cleaning apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. C.; Nelson, W. D.; Schechter, D. E.; Thompson, L. M.; Glover, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    In a microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source, reactive plasmas of oxygen and its mixtures of argon have been used for evaluating plasma cleaning technologies. Small aluminum samples (0.95 x 1.9 cm) were coated with thin films (less than or equal to 20 micrometers in thickness) of Shell Vitrea oil and cleaned with reactive plasmas. The discharge parameters, such as gas pressure, magnetic field, substrate biasing, and microwave power, were varied to change cleaning conditions. A mass spectroscopy (or residual gas analyzer) was used to monitor the status of plasma cleaning. Mass loss of the samples after plasma cleaning was measured to estimate cleaning rates. Measured cleaning rates of low-pressure (0.5-m torr) argon/oxygen plasmas were as high as 2.7 micrometers/min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine cleanliness of the sample surfaces. In this paper, significant results of the plasma cleaning are reported and discussed.

  14. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  15. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  16. Water-based cleaning fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A basic description of water-based alkaline cleaning is presented, The nature of soils is described. The compositions of conventional cleaning compounds are given with descriptions of the functions of the ingredients. The mechanisms by which soil is removed are explained. The degrees of cleanliness required, along with the influence of the material being cleaned, are discussed. Tests for cleanliness are described.

  17. Cleaning Processes across NASA Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, John M.

    2010-01-01

    All significant surfaces of the hardware must be pre-cleaned to remove dirt, grit, scale, corrosion, grease, oil and other foreign matter prior to any final precision cleaning process. Metallic parts shall be surface treated (cleaned, passivated, pickled and/or coated) as necessary to prevent latent corrosion and contamination.

  18. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultrafine clean coal obtained using the advanced column flotation technique from the Kerr-McGee's Galatia preparation plant fine coal waste stream. It is also the objective of the research program to utilize the basic study results, i.e., surface chemical, particle shape particle size distribution, etc., in developing a cost-effective dewatering method. The ultimate objective is to develop process criteria to obtain a dewatered clean coal product containing less that 20 percent moisture, using the conventional vacuum dewatering equipment. (VC)

  19. Green cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Knipe, R.

    1997-08-01

    Selecting environmentally safe metal cleaning alternatives requires a personal, careful, and comprehensive study. Before the days of depleting-the-ozone studies and volatile organic compound (VOC) regulations, the selection of a cleaning method for a particular metal process was simply tied to cost and result. Little, if any, consideration was given to the personal health of the operator or potential environmental impact. Nothing will ever be as simple as using methyl chloroform or other chlorinated solvents in a vapor degreaser. However, similar results can be achieved with greener technologies, provided that suitable procedures are followed. This article lists the questions to ask to properly evaluate current practices, explains the benefits and limitations of spray and immersion systems, describes environmentally benign aqueous and non-chlorinated solvent applications, and shows how to dispose of wastewater.

  20. Electrostatically clean solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Theodore Garry (Inventor); Krumweide, Duane Eric (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Provided are methods of manufacturing an electrostatically clean solar array panel and the products resulting from the practice of these methods. The preferred method uses an array of solar cells, each with a coverglass where the method includes machining apertures into a flat, electrically conductive sheet so that each aperture is aligned with and undersized with respect to its matched coverglass sheet and thereby fashion a front side shield with apertures (FSA). The undersized portion about each aperture of the bottom side of the FSA shield is bonded to the topside portions nearest the edges of each aperture's matched coverglass. Edge clips are attached to the front side aperture shield edges with the edge clips electrically and mechanically connecting the tops of the coverglasses to the solar panel substrate. The FSA shield, edge clips and substrate edges are bonded so as to produce a conductively grounded electrostatically clean solar array panel.

  1. Evaporator Cleaning Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-04-15

    Operation of the 242-16H High Level Waste Evaporator proves crucial to liquid waste management in the H-Area Tank Farm. Recent operational history of the Evaporator showed significant solid formation in secondary lines and in the evaporator pot. Additional samples remain necessary to ensure material identity in the evaporator pot. Analysis of these future samples will provide actinide partitioning information and dissolution characteristics of the solid material from the pot to ensure safe chemical cleaning.

  2. Clean room wiping cloths

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The suitability of various fabrics for use as clean room wiping cloths was investigated. These fabrics included knit polyester, knit nylon, urethane foam, woven cotton, nonwoven polyester, nonwoven rayon, nonwoven polyethylene and polypropylene, and woven nylon. These materials were tested for detachable lint and fibers, deterioration, and oil content which could leave contaminating films on wiped surfaces. Well-laundered nylon and polyester cloths knitted from filamentary yarn, with hems, were found to be suitable. (LCL)

  3. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  4. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  5. Assessment of coal cleaning for trace element control. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.; Arnold, B.

    1998-12-01

    Current methods of cleaning coal already reduce the concentration of most of the elements named as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) under Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments because most of these elements are associated with ash-forming or sulfur-bearing minerals. Advanced methods of physical cleaning may prove even more effective than conventional cleaning technologies, in HAPs control, especially if the coal is crushed before cleaning. The most significant disadvantage of conventional or advanced physical cleaning methods for HAPs control is that reductions of 90% or greater from as-fired coal may not be possible. Chemical and biologic methods of cleaning coal can potentially remove greater amounts of at least some HAPs elements than conventional or advanced physical cleaning methods. At least one promising chemical process (HAPs-Rx) has been developed and tested at laboratory scale that has the potential of removing over half of the mercury and arsenic remaining in coal after conventional cleaning. An assessment of the cost and effectiveness of conventional, advanced, and the HAPs-Rx chemical process was performed using laboratory data and computer simulations. The study found that the cost of removing a pound of mercury from coal by cleaning often compared favorably with cost projections by the Environmental Protection Agency for removing a pound of mercury by activated carbon injection.

  6. Development of anaerobic digestion methods for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment.

    PubMed

    Poh, P E; Chong, M F

    2009-01-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a highly polluting wastewater that pollutes the environment if discharged directly due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentration. Anaerobic digestion has been widely used for POME treatment with large emphasis placed on capturing the methane gas released as a product of this biodegradation treatment method. The anaerobic digestion method is recognized as a clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto protocol. Certified emission reduction (CER) can be obtained by using methane gas as a renewable energy. This review aims to discuss the various anaerobic treatments of POME and factors that influence the operation of anaerobic treatment. The POME treatment at both mesophilic and thermophilic temperature ranges are also analyzed. PMID:18657414

  7. THE VELOCITY FUNCTION IN THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT FROM {lambda}CDM AND {lambda}WDM CONSTRAINED SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zavala, J.; Jing, Y. P.; Faltenbacher, A.; Hoffman, Y.; Gottloeber, S.; Catinella, B.

    2009-08-01

    Using constrained simulations of the local universe for generic cold dark matter (CDM) and for 1 keV warm dark matter (WDM), we investigate the difference in the abundance of dark matter halos in the local environment. We find that the mass function (MF) within 20 h{sup -1} Mpc of the Local Group is {approx}2 times larger than the universal MF in the 10{sup 9}-10{sup 13} h{sup -1} M {sub sun} mass range. Imposing the field of view of the ongoing H I blind survey Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) in our simulations, we predict that the velocity function (VF) in the Virgo-direction region (VdR) exceeds the universal VF by a factor of 3. Furthermore, employing a scheme to translate the halo VF into a galaxy VF, we compare the simulation results with a sample of galaxies from the early catalog release of ALFALFA. We find that our simulations are able to reproduce the VF in the 80-300 km s{sup -1} velocity range, having a value {approx}10 times larger than the universal VF in the VdR. In the low-velocity regime, 35-80 km s{sup -1}, the WDM simulation reproduces the observed flattening of the VF. In contrast, the simulation with CDM predicts a steep rise in the VF toward lower velocities; for V{sub max} = 35 km s{sup -1}, it forecasts {approx}10 times more sources than the ones observed. If confirmed by the complete ALFALFA survey, our results indicate a potential problem for the CDM paradigm or for the conventional assumptions about energetic feedback in dwarf galaxies.

  8. EUV mask cleans comparison of frontside and dual-sided concurrent cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Lin Lee; Kindt, Louis; Turley, Christina; Leonhard, Dusty; Boyle, John; Robinson, Chris; Rankin, Jed; Corliss, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The cleaning requirements for EUV masks are more complex than optical masks due to the absence of available EUVcompatible pellicles. EUV masks must therefore be capable of undergoing more than 100 cleaning cycles with minimum impact to lithographic performance. EUV masks are created on substrates with 40 multilayers of silicon and molybdenum to form a Bragg reflector, capped with a 2.5nm-thick ruthenium layer and a tantalum-based absorber; during usage, both ruthenium and absorber are exposed to the cleaning process. The CrN layer on the backside is used to enable electrostatic clamping. This clamp side must also be free of particles that could impact printing and overlay, and particles could also potentially migrate to the frontside and create defects. Thus, the cleaning process must provide decent particle removal efficiencies on both front- and backside while maintaining reflectivity with minimal surface roughness change. In this paper, we report progress developing a concurrent patterned-side and clamped-side cleaning process that achieves minimal reflectivity change over 120 cleaning cycles, with XPS and EDS indicating the presence of ruthenium after 125 cleaning cycles. The change in surface roughness over 100 cleaning cycles is within the noise (0.0086nm) on a mask blank, and SEM inspection of 100nm and 200nm features on patterned masks after undergoing 100 cleaning cycles show no indications of ruthenium pitting or significant surface damage. This process was used on test masks to remove particles from both sides that would otherwise inhibit these masks from being used in the scanner.

  9. Gas cleaning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Newby, Richard Allen

    2006-06-06

    A gas cleaning system for removing at least a portion of contaminants, such as halides, sulfur, particulates, mercury, and others, from a synthesis gas (syngas). The gas cleaning system may include one or more filter vessels coupled in series for removing halides, particulates, and sulfur from the syngas. The gas cleaning system may be operated by receiving gas at a first temperature and pressure and dropping the temperature of the syngas as the gas flows through the system. The gas cleaning system may be used for an application requiring clean syngas, such as, but not limited to, fuel cell power generation, IGCC power generation, and chemical synthesis.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of the Supernova Legacy Survey Sample With ΛCDM and the Rh=ct Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio; Maier, Robert S.

    2015-03-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has thus far produced the most reliable measurement of the expansion history of the universe, suggesting that ΛCDM offers the best explanation for the redshift-luminosity distribution observed in these events. However, analysis of other kinds of sources, such as cosmic chronometers, gamma-ray bursts, and high-z quasars, conflicts with this conclusion, indicating instead that the constant expansion rate implied by the Rh = ct universe is a better fit to the data. The central difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or four nuisance parameters characterizing supernova (SN) luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model. Hence, in comparing competing models, one must reduce the data independently for each. We carry out such a comparison of ΛCDM and the Rh = ct universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. However, since Rh = ct has only one free parameter (the Hubble constant), it follows from a standard model selection technique that it is to be preferred over ΛCDM, the minimalist version of which has three (the Hubble constant, the scaled matter density, and either the spatial curvature constant or the dark energy equation-of-state parameter). We estimate using the Bayes Information Criterion that in a pairwise comparison, the likelihood of Rh = ct is ˜90%, compared with only ˜10% for a minimalist form of ΛCDM, in which dark energy is simply a cosmological constant. Compared to Rh = ct, versions of the standard model with more elaborate parametrizations of dark energy are judged to be even less likely. This work is dedicated to the memory of Prof. Tan Lu, who sadly passed away 2014 December 3. Among his many achievements, he is considered to be one of the founders of high-energy astrophysics, and a pioneer in modern cosmology, in China.

  11. Sulfur-free cleaning strategy for advanced mask manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindt, Louis; Watts, Andrew; Burnham, Jay; Aaskov, William

    2006-10-01

    Existing cleaning technology using sulfuric acid based chemistry has served the mask industry quite well over the years. However, the existence of residue on mask surfaces is becoming more and more of a problem at the high energy wavelengths used in lithography tool for wafer manufacturing. This is evident by the emergence of sub-pellicle defect growth and backside hazing issues. A large source of residual contamination on the surface of masks is from the mask manufacturing process, particularly the cleaning portion involving sulfuric acid. Cleaning strategies can be developed that eliminate the use of sulfuric acid in the cleaning process for advanced photomasks and alternative processes can be used for cleaning masks at various stages of the manufacturing process. Implementation of these new technologies into manufacturing will be discussed as will the resulting improvements, advantages, and disadvantages over pre-existing mask cleaning processes.

  12. Babcock and Wilcox clean-coal program

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, J.B. ); Kulig, J.S. ); Rackley, J.M. )

    1989-01-01

    The issue of acid rain is being addressed on a world-wide basis. The major industrial nations are all implementing new laws that are directed at reducing the emissions of gases that are believed to contribute to acid rain. The United States has been a pioneer in this area with a major clean-air bill that became law in the early 1970s and amended in the late 1970s. In the mid-1980s, the U.S. embarked on a program to develop new clean-coal technologies, which would provide a cost-effective means of further reducing gaseous emissions from fossil-fired power facilities. The clean coal program at Babcock and Wilcox is presented.

  13. Clean fuels from biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  14. The low-mass end of the neutral gas mass and velocity width functions of galaxies in ΛCDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaryura, C. Y.; Helmi, A.; Abadi, M. G.; Starkenburg, E.

    2016-04-01

    We use the high-resolution Aquarius cosmological dark matter simulations coupled to the semi-analytic model by Starkenburg et al. to study the H I content and velocity width properties of field galaxies at the low-mass end in the context of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM). We compare our predictions to the observed Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey H I mass and velocity width functions, and find very good agreement without fine-tuning, when considering central galaxies. Furthermore, the properties of the dark matter haloes hosting galaxies, characterized by their peak velocity and circular velocity at two radial disc scalelengths overlap perfectly with the inferred values from observations. This suggests that our galaxies are placed in the right dark matter haloes, and consequently at face value, we do not find any discrepancy with the predictions from the ΛCDM model. Our analysis indicates that previous tensions, apparent when using abundance matching models, arise because this technique cannot be straightforwardly applied for objects with masses Mvir < 1010M⊙.

  15. Technology: New Ways for Clean Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Water purification promotes healthy living. While the developing world is working to provide its citizens with future access to clean water sources, the demand for that water is a pressing need today. It should be understood that drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene are interwoven and are all necessary for the overall improved standard of…

  16. News from Online: Cleaning Up--Soap, Detergent, and More.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Carolyn Sweeney

    2002-01-01

    Provides a guide to web resources on cleaning and hygiene. Answers the questions, What do you want to clean--your hair? your carpet? your rusty lawn furniture? Develops special products for different tasks. Focuses on products to use and the environmental impact of our choices. (MM)

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES: TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a background against which requirements for further developments of coal cleaning technology and control techniques for the associated pollutants can be established, as part of a review of U.S. coal cleaning process technologies and related technologies for envir...

  18. SURFACTANT ENHANCEMENT OF LIQUID CO2 FOR SURFACE CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this research activity is to develop the technical basis for a liquid CO2 (LCO2) based surface cleaning technology for metals and fabrics utilizing CO2 compatible surfactants. The use of CO2 is considered attractive for surface cleaning since it is abundant, cheap t...

  19. PHASE I PILOT AIR CONVEYANCE SYSTEM DESIGN, CLEANING, AND CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop and refine surface and airborne contamination
    measurement techniques that can be used to evaluate air conveyance system (ACS) cleaning.
    (NOTE: ACS cleaning is advertized to homeowners as a service having a number of benefits...

  20. Precision Cleaning of Oxygen Systems and Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlin, Russell

    2009-01-01

    Currently, NASA uses Dichloropentafluoropropane (HCFC-225), a Class II ozone depleting substance (ODs), to clean contaminated oxygen systems. Starting in 20 15, the Montreal Protocols and Clean Air Act prohibit the production and importation of all hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), except for limited use in refrigeration applications. Thus, a new non-ozone depleting solvent needs to be developed for use in cleaning. Optimally, such a solvent should also be environmentally benign or green to avoid needing to replace the new solvent with yet another solvent in the future due to other environmental concerns. Work for the first year consisted of two parts. The first part was developing a method of testing the cleaning efficiency of potential solvents. Stainless steel coupons were contaminated with a known weight of various contaminants and contaminant combinations and then immersed in solvent for ten minutes. The coupons were then removed and dried in an oven until all solvent had evaporated. Once dry, the coupons were weighed and the mass of the non-volatile residue (NVR) left on the coupon was determined. The cleaning efficiency of the solvents is reported as percent cleaning, with 100% cleaning being zero NVR left on the test coupon. The second half of the first goal was to use the develop method to perform baseline testing on current solvents. The second part of the work was to begin exploring alternative cleaning solvents. A variety of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) were tested. Preliminary testing was also performed with ionic liquids and aqueous surfactant solutions. Once potential solvents were identified, an analysis of the performance and environmental characteristics of each was to be conducted. Four contaminants were specified for use in testing. These are Mil-Spec-H-5606 (5606), a hydraulic fluid, Mil-H-83282B (83282), another hydraulic fluid, diethylhexyl sebacate (Sebacate), and WD-40. The structures of these contaminants are all similar, with long aliphatic

  1. Active cleaning technique for removing contamination from optical surfaces in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.; Cruz, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    An active cleaning technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces in space was investigated with emphasis on the feasibility of using plasma exposure as a means of in-situ cleaning. The major work accomplished includes: (1) development of an in-situ reflectometer for use in conjunction with the contaminant film deposition/cleaning facility; (2) completion of Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) filter treatment experiments to assess the effects of plasma exposure on the UV transmittance; (3) attempts to correlate the atomic oxygen flux with cleaning rate; (4) completion of in-situ butadien contamination/plasma cleaning/UV reflectance measurement experiments; (5) carbon cleaning experiments using various gases; (6) completion of silicone contamination/cleaning experiments; and (7) experiments conducted at low chamber pressures to determine cleaning rate distribution and contamination of surfaces adjacent to those being cleaned.

  2. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    SciTech Connect

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  3. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  4. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  5. Healy clean coal project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and a heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. Resulting emission levels of SO[sub 2], NO[sub x], and particulates are expected to be significantly better than the federal New source Performance standards. During this past quarter, engineering and design continued on the boiler, combustion flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and turbine/generator systems. Balance of plant equipment procurement specifications continue to be prepared. Construction activities commenced as the access road construction got under way. Temporary ash pond construction and drilling of the supply well will be completed during the next quarter.

  6. Air cleaning system

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, J.H.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes an air cleaning system comprising: a motor housing; a motor mounted within the housing; a fan attached to and rotatably driven by the motor; a fan chamber surrounding the fan and having an air inlet and outlet; a separator housing means mounted adjacent to and in spaced relation with the motor housing, the separator housing means having an inlet disposed in communication with a chamber within separator housing means; an outlet disposed in communication with the fan chamber; an air driven separator means mounted in chamber of the separator housing means to receive airflow from inlet for rotation of the separator means and removal of foreign matter from airflow by centrifugal force responsive to rotation of the separator means; the airflow is further directed through the outlet of separator housing means to the fan chamber to be ejected by the fan.

  7. Self-cleaning geopolymer concrete - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norsaffirah Zailan, Siti; Mahmed, Norsuria; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Sandu, Andrei Victor

    2016-06-01

    Concrete is the most widely used construction materials for building technology. However, cement production releases high amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere that leads to increasing the global warming. Thus, an alternative, environmental friendly construction material such as geopolymer concrete has been developed. Geopolymer concrete applies greener alternative binder, which is an innovative construction material that replaces the Portland cement. This technology introduced nano-particles such as nanoclay into the cement paste in order to improve their mechanical properties. The concrete materials also have been developed to be functioned as self-cleaning construction materials. The self-cleaning properties of the concrete are induced by introducing the photocatalytic materials such as titania (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO). Self-cleaning concrete that contains those photocatalysts will be energized by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and accelerates the decomposition of organic particulates. Thus, the cleanliness of the building surfaces can be maintained and the air surrounding air pollution can be reduced. This paper briefly reviews about self-cleaning concrete.

  8. Clean coal technology: Export finance programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-30

    Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

  9. Automated Facility For Cleaning Large Flex Hoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, Louis E.

    1995-01-01

    Technicians no longer exposed to hazardous cleaning materials. Proposed computer-controlled facility cleans bellow-type expansion joints and large flex hoses. Major portions of automated cleaning facility contained in clean room. One piece of equipment in clean room tower in which hose or expansion joint to be cleaned hoisted by hydraulic machinery and hung vertically. Once hose or expansion joint hung in required position, technician initiates programmed cleaning procedure from console on computer monitoring system. Procedure includes degreasing, cleaning with detergents, rinsing, pickling, and passivating operations. After cleaning completed, technician removes hose or expansion joint from tower and wraps open ends to prevent recontamination of interior.

  10. Collodion technique of mirror cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyndall, J. B.

    1970-01-01

    Cleaning method is modified by addition of a layer of cheesecloth between thin coatings of U.S.P. collodion. After drying, the collodion is peeled off by an even pull on the cheesecloth, leaving the mirror clean and ready for use.

  11. Laser Cleaning of Avian Eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, L.; Ball, A.; Russell, D.

    A low vacuum SEM was used to evaluate the effect of using an Nd:YAG laser as a non-contact technique for cleaning avian eggshells. The technique shows potential, since there are no obvious deleterious effects from cleaning, but further study is required to understand how the laser is interacting with the sample surface.

  12. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    SciTech Connect

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2012-01-01

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  13. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... and what you can do if soap and clean, running water are not available. Whether you are at home, at work, traveling, or already sick, find out how good hand hygiene can protect you, your family, and others. More… Featured Video Keeping our hands clean is one of the best things we can ...

  14. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    ScienceCinema

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv;

    2013-05-29

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  16. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  17. Aqueous-Spray Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.; Simpson, Gareth L.

    1996-01-01

    Simple aqueous-spray cleaning system with overall dimensions comparable to large kitchen refrigerator constructed for use in cleaning hardware in shop. Made of commercially available parts and materials. Incorporates economical cleaner-and-rinse-recycling subsystem, as well as programmable logic-controller device for either manual or automatic operation.

  18. Clean then Assemble Versus Assemble then Clean: Several Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, Roger W.

    2004-01-01

    Cleanliness of manufactured parts and assemblies is a significant issue in many industries including disk drives, semiconductors, aerospace, and medical devices. Clean manufacturing requires cleanroom floor space and cleaning technology that are both expensive to own and expensive to operate. Strategies to reduce these costs are an important consideration. One strategy shown to be effective at reducing costs is to assemble parts into subassemblies and then clean the subassembly, rather than clean the individual parts first and then assemble them. One advantage is that assembly outside of the cleanroom reduces the amount of cleanroom floor space and its associated operating cost premium. A second advantage is that this strategy reduces the number of individual parts that must be cleaned prior to assembly, reducing the number of cleaning baskets, handling and, possibly, reducing the number of cleaners. The assemble then clean strategy also results in a part that is significantly cleaner because contamination generated during the assembly steps are more effectively removed that normally can be achieved by hand wiping after assembly in the cleanroom.

  19. Antibiotic prophylaxis is unnecessary in clean surgery.

    PubMed

    Hasan, G Z; Saleh, F M; Hossain, M Z; Amin, M R; Siddiqui, T H; Islam, M D; Chakraborty, S

    2013-04-01

    A significant number of paediatric surgical patients undergone clean surgical procedures. Most of the paediatric surgeon use perioperative prophylactic antibiotic in this clean procedure because of undue fear of infection in their mind. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether the use of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics have an effect to prevent post operative wound infection in clean operation in paediatric surgical patients. This study was conducted in the paediatric surgery department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and some private clinics of Dhaka city from January 2009 to December 2009. Two hundred patients who were undergone clean elective surgical procedure on day case basis were included in this study. They were divided into two equal groups (Group A and Group B). The patients of Group A were given intransverse Cephradine 30 minutes before incision and then oral Cephradine was advised postoperatively for 7 days. The patients of Group B were not given any perioperative antibiotic. All the patients of both groups were advised to come on 3rd, 6th and 10th postoperative day for examination of wound. In Group A (With chemo prophylaxis), five patients (5%) developed postoperative wound infection and in Group B (without chemo prophylaxis), three patients (3%) developed postoperative wound infection. Thus the rate of postoperative wound infection is slightly more in patients with chemo prophylaxis but it was not statistically significant by chi-square test. Based on the result of this study, it may be concluded that the antibiotic prophylaxis is not necessary in clean surgery in paediatric age group. PMID:23715359

  20. Waste Tank Heel Chemical Cleaning Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    2003-12-02

    At the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, there are approximately 40 million gallons of legacy High Level Waste stored in large capacity sub-surface tanks. Twelve of these tanks are single-containment, non-conforming tanks with leaks. These tanks were built in the 1950s. Some of these tanks contain sludge heels and are being considered for near-term removal efforts and vitrification. Currently, only mechanical methods (i.e., pumps) are used to remove the sludge waste with varying degrees of success. To provide for additional levels of removal, chemically-aided techniques are being considered. The objective of the was to collect and evaluate information available on chemical-based methods for removing residual solids from the Site's waste tanks. As part of this study, the team was requested to develop recommendations for chemical treatments to remove residual heels (primarily sludge). Ideally, one agent alone would be efficient at dissolving all residual tank heels and yet satisfy all safety and process concerns. No such chemical cleaning agent was found. The cleaning agents identified from the literature, included oxalic acid, a mixture of oxalic acid and citric acid, a combination of oxalic acid with hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, formic acid, and organics. A criteria matrix for evaluating the various cleaning agents was developed. The results of the evaluation conclusively support oxalic acid as the cleaning agent of choice for the immediate future. Oxalic acid scored nearly double the next closest cleaning agent. Nitric acid, formic acid, and oxalic acid with hydrogen peroxide were all closely grouped for the next best choice. The mixture of oxalic acid and citric acid rated poorly. Organics rated even more poorly due to large uncertainties in performance and downstream impacts.

  1. Plasma-assisted cleaning by electrostatics (PACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytle, W. M.; Neumann, M. J.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2006-03-01

    As feature sizes shrink, particle contamination on EUV masks used in the fabrication process of semiconductor chips is an increasingly difficult problem that leads to lower wafer throughput and higher costs of chip production. Current practices to remove particulates off of masks include using a sulfuric acid bath, ultrasonic cleansing, and rinsing in de-ionized water. However, nanometer-scale etching occurs through this cleaning process in addition to the presence of residual contamination due to the chemicals used, which leads to feature devolution. Currently, pellicles are used to protect the reticle with the pellicle being transparent to 193 nm light; however with current EUV technology being developed for 13.5 nm light, the pellicle is no longer transparent at this wavelength and thus cannot be used. Other mask-cleaning processes such as laser-induce plasma cleaning (LIP) run the risk of substrate damage due to potentially destructive methods. Plasma-assisted electrostatic cleaning involves using a potential drop in a plasma sheath electric field and charge imbalance between the particle and the substrate to propel the nanoparticles off the surface. Through applying a positive bias to the substrate and using a weak local plasma to charge the particles, the contamination is removed from the surface. As the particle size decreases the amount of time to charge the particle is longer thus leading to a longer removal period. However, as long as the particle is in the plasma sheath region, there is no theoretical limit on the size of the particle removed.

  2. The Clean Coal Technology Program: Lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is a unique partnership between the federal government and industry that has as its primary goal the successful introduction of new clean coal utilization technologies into the energy marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program are establishing a technology base that will enable the nation to meet more stringent energy and environmental goals. Most of the, demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under circumstances typical of commercial operations. These features allow the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. Each application addresses one of the following four market sectors: advanced electric power generation; environmental control devices; coal processing for clean fuels; and industrial applications. The purpose of this report is fourfold: Explain the CCT program as a model for successful joint government industry partnership for selecting and demonstrating technologies that have promise for adaptation to the energy marketplace; set forth the process by which the process has been implemented and the changes that have been made to improve that process; outline efforts employed to inform potential users and other interested parties about the technologies being developed; and examine some of the questions which must be considered in determining if the CCT Program model can be applied to other programs.

  3. Extending CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning for advanced optical and EUV mask cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Ivin; Bowers, Charles W.; Balooch, Mehdi

    2011-11-01

    has been removed from returned masks (after long term usage/exposure in the wafer fab), requires a very aggressive SPM wet clean, that drastically reduces the available budget for mask properties (CD, phase/transmission). We show that CO2aerosol cleaning can be utilized to remove the bulk of the glue residue effectively, while preserving the mask properties. This application required a differently designed nozzle to impart the required removal force for the sticky glue residue. A new nozzle was developed and qualified that resulted in PRE in the range of 92-98%. Results also include data on a patterned mask that was exposed in a lithography stepper in a wafer production environment. On EUV mask, our group has experimentally demonstrated that 50 CO2 cleaning cycles of Ru film on the EUV Front-side resulted in no appreciable reflectivity change, implying that no degradation of the Ru film occurs.

  4. Coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Kindig, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    Fine particle coal is beneficiated in specially designed dense medium cyclones to improve particle acceleration and enhance separation efficiency. Raw coal feed is first sized to remove fine coal particles. The coarse fraction is then separated into clean coal, middlings, and refuse. Middlings are comminuted for beneficiation with the fine fraction. The fine fraction is deslimed in a countercurrent cyclone circuit and then separated as multiple fractions of different size specifications in dense medium cyclones. The dense medium contains ultra-fine magnetite particles of a narrow size distribution which aid separation and improves magnetite recovery. Magnetite is recovered from each separated fraction independently, with non-magnetic effluent water from one fraction diluting feed to a smaller-size fraction, and improving both overall coal and magnetite recovery. Magnetite recovery is in specially designed recovery units, based on particle size, with final separation in a rougher-cleaner-scavenger circuit of magnetic drum separators incorporating a high strength rare earth magnet. 12 figs.

  5. Degreasing and cleaning superconducting RF Niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Rauchmiller, Michael; Kellett, Ron; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The purpose and scope of this report is to detail the steps necessary for degreasing and cleaning of superconducting RF Niobium cavities in the A0 clean room. It lists the required equipment and the cleaning procedure.

  6. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, Tom

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants • Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business • Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings • Lower regional energy costs • Strengthened energy security • Enhanced consumer choice • Reduced price risks for end-users • Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops

  7. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  8. Laser cleaning of paintings: from preliminary investigations to a laser cleaning station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, I.; Damian, V.; Garoi, F.; Iordache, I.; Bojan, M.; Apostol, D.; Morais, P. J.; Postolache, D.; Darida, I.

    2010-11-01

    UV laser beam interaction with painting layers in case of aged mock-ups was investigated and ablation and cleaning thresholds were estimated as a function of each layer and sub-layer composition. Ablation depth measurements as a function of incident laser intensities and subsequent irradiation pulse number was measured with white light interferometry (WLI) and profilometric methods, demonstrating a selectivity of the removal of painting layers from submicrometric domain to micrometric domain as a function of surface cleaning needs. The laser cleaning station was designed and developed after careful evaluation of the irradiation conditions proper to the removal of painting layers. A Q-switched Nd:Yag laser radiation is delivered to the artwork through a mirror system consisting in an articulated arm and a laser head. A complete control of the incident laser parameters was envisaged with the laser remote control interface. The system also comprises diagnosis and monitoring tools for the remote control of the cleaning operation. The prototype is controlled by an integrated interface based on a user-friendly software to perform the available operations (e.g. laser cleaning, LIBS, colorimetry, live color monitoring, multispectral analysis, database management). The user interface is also used to start the treatment of a new work, to review or continue a previously started work.

  9. What are our cleaning options

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Richards, H.L.; Glover, A.L.

    1992-02-13

    Cleaning has always been an important step in manufacturing operations. Cleaning proceeds functions such as machining, inspection, plating, bonding, welding, heat treatment, and painting. If a surface is not properly cleaned or prepared, the results can be disastrous. The majority of industry has used cleaning methods such as vapor degreasing or solvent cleaning with chlorinated solvents such as chlorofluorocarbons, methyl chloroform, or perchloroethylene. These solvents were non-flammable, were considered to have low toxicity, and worked fairly well. However, recent finding regarding these solvents have caused them to fall from favor. Chlorofluorocarbons and methyl chloroform have been implicated as ozone depleting substances and are being regulated as such. Current plans call for a ban on production of these substances in the year 2000 and 2005, respectively. Perchloroethylene has been classified as a suspect carcinogen and has also come under recent guidelines and regulations in the United States. Personnel at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant have been actively pursuing substitutes for these solvents. Ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent was originally implemented as a substitute for vapor degreasing at Y-12 approximately 7 years ago. This type of cleaning has been proven to be very reliable and effective. Organic solvents to replace chlorinated solvents have also been investigated for squirt bottle'' or wiping applications. The Y-12 Plant has implemented Solvent 140 and a solvent blend in these type applications. Results both experimentally and in the field have been favorable using these solvents. A with any cleaning method, there are some drawbacks with these substitutes. The ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent does require a rinse cycle, a drying cycle, and a capital investment. The Solvent 140 and solvent blend are slow evaporators when compared with the chlorinated solvents. However, these substitutes do work.

  10. What are our cleaning options?

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Richards, H.L.; Glover, A.L.

    1992-02-13

    Cleaning has always been an important step in manufacturing operations. Cleaning proceeds functions such as machining, inspection, plating, bonding, welding, heat treatment, and painting. If a surface is not properly cleaned or prepared, the results can be disastrous. The majority of industry has used cleaning methods such as vapor degreasing or solvent cleaning with chlorinated solvents such as chlorofluorocarbons, methyl chloroform, or perchloroethylene. These solvents were non-flammable, were considered to have low toxicity, and worked fairly well. However, recent finding regarding these solvents have caused them to fall from favor. Chlorofluorocarbons and methyl chloroform have been implicated as ozone depleting substances and are being regulated as such. Current plans call for a ban on production of these substances in the year 2000 and 2005, respectively. Perchloroethylene has been classified as a suspect carcinogen and has also come under recent guidelines and regulations in the United States. Personnel at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant have been actively pursuing substitutes for these solvents. Ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent was originally implemented as a substitute for vapor degreasing at Y-12 approximately 7 years ago. This type of cleaning has been proven to be very reliable and effective. Organic solvents to replace chlorinated solvents have also been investigated for ``squirt bottle`` or wiping applications. The Y-12 Plant has implemented Solvent 140 and a solvent blend in these type applications. Results both experimentally and in the field have been favorable using these solvents. A with any cleaning method, there are some drawbacks with these substitutes. The ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent does require a rinse cycle, a drying cycle, and a capital investment. The Solvent 140 and solvent blend are slow evaporators when compared with the chlorinated solvents. However, these substitutes do work.

  11. Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.; McCaffrey, M.

    2009-12-01

    “Climate Science Literacy is an understanding of your influence on climate and climate’s influence on you and society.” In order to ensure the nation increases its literacy, the Climate Literacy: Essential Principles of Climate Science document has been developed. In order to promote the implementation of these Climate Literacy Essential Principles the Climate Literacy Network (CLN, http://www.climateliteracynow.org) was formed in January 2008. Made up of a broad spectrum of stakeholders, this group addresses the complex issues involved in making climate literacy real for all citizens. Efforts within the CLN to improve climate literacy and energy awareness include: 1) the development of the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) Pathway project, recently funded by NSF’s National STEM Education Distributed Learning (NSDL) and Climate Change Education programs; and 2) the development of a regional model (Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network-New England - CLEAN-NE) to coordinate and leverage the wide range of activities focused on climate and energy that are already occurring, with plans that the model will be adapted to other regions around the country. The CLEAN Pathway project will steward a collection of resources that directly address the Climate Literacy: Essential Principles of Climate Science. In addition, it will provide a number of avenues of professional and community development opportunities to facilitate cyberlearning on climate and energy. CLEAN-NE is an initiative to educate high school and college students in the region about climate change and energy and its importance to our planet and society. Through this program, high school students will connect with college mentors, and together they will gain the foundation of climate literacy necessary to change their actions to reflect a more energy-conscious lifestyle. They will then engage their peers and communities in their mission to become climate-literate citizens and

  12. NREL's Clean Energy Policy Analyses Project. 2009 U.S. State Clean Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, Racel; Hummon, Marissa; McLaren, Joyce; Doris, Elizabeth

    2009-10-01

    This data book provides a summary of the status of state-level energy efficiency and renewable energy (taken together as clean energy) developments and supporting policy implementation. It is intended as a reference book for those interested in the progress of the states and regions toward a clean energy economy. Although some national-scale data are given in the initial section, the data are mostly aggregated by states and region, and no data on federal- or utility-level policies are presented here.

  13. Copper post-CMP cleaning process on a dry-in/dry-out tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Sanjay; Grief, Malcolm; Gupta, Anand; Murella, Krishna; VanDevender, Barrie

    1998-09-01

    Metal Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) and post CMP cleaning have continued to increase in importance in semiconductor manufacturing. The introduction of copper metallization into semiconductor manufacturing processes has created a need for integrating CMP and cleaning tools, as well as a demand for the development of novel cleaning solutions. One system designed for integrated CMP processing and cleaning, commonly referred to as dry-in/dry-out CMP, is the SpeedFam Auriga C. The Auriga C integrates a widely used polishing tool together with a proven cleaning technique. The key to the operation of the Auriga C cleaning process is the effective operation of the PVA brush cleaners, water track transport, final jet rinse and high-speed spinner dryer. The effective operation of the cleaning mechanism for copper post- CMP cleaning requires the use of new chemical solutions. Typical solutions used for post process cleaning of more mature CMP processes are either ineffective for cleaning or chemically incompatible with the copper process. This paper discusses the cleaning mechanism used in an integrated dry- in/dry-out tool and demonstrates an effective and novel cleaning solution for use with this type of post-CMP cleaning process.

  14. Data cleaning in the energy domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akouemo Kengmo Kenfack, Hermine N.

    This dissertation addresses the problem of data cleaning in the energy domain, especially for natural gas and electric time series. The detection and imputation of anomalies improves the performance of forecasting models necessary to lower purchasing and storage costs for utilities and plan for peak energy loads or distribution shortages. There are various types of anomalies, each induced by diverse causes and sources depending on the field of study. The definition of false positives also depends on the context. The analysis is focused on energy data because of the availability of data and information to make a theoretical and practical contribution to the field. A probabilistic approach based on hypothesis testing is developed to decide if a data point is anomalous based on the level of significance. Furthermore, the probabilistic approach is combined with statistical regression models to handle time series data. Domain knowledge of energy data and the survey of causes and sources of anomalies in energy are incorporated into the data cleaning algorithm to improve the accuracy of the results. The data cleaning method is evaluated on simulated data sets in which anomalies were artificially inserted and on natural gas and electric data sets. In the simulation study, the performance of the method is evaluated for both detection and imputation on all identified causes of anomalies in energy data. The testing on utilities' data evaluates the percentage of improvement brought to forecasting accuracy by data cleaning. A cross-validation study of the results is also performed to demonstrate the performance of the data cleaning algorithm on smaller data sets and to calculate an interval of confidence for the results. The data cleaning algorithm is able to successfully identify energy time series anomalies. The replacement of those anomalies provides improvement to forecasting models accuracy. The process is automatic, which is important because many data cleaning processes

  15. METHOD OF CLEANING METAL SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Winkler, H.W.; Morfitt, J.W.; Little, T.H.

    1959-05-19

    Cleaning fluids for removing deposits from metal surfaces are described. The cleaning agents of the invention consist of aqueous nitric acid and an amhydrous nitrate salt of a metal which is lower in the electromotive series than the element of the deposit to be removed. In general, the salt content of thc cleaning agents ranged from 10 to 90%, preferably from 10 to 40% by weight; and the balance of the composition comprises nitric acid of any strength from extremely dilute up to concentrated strength.

  16. Chemical coal cleaning using selective oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.R.; Hippo, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the removal of both mineral and organic sulfur from Illinois coals using low temperature selective oxidation. This overall objective is to develop new methods for either physical/chemical or physical/microbial cleaning of Illinois coal. Innovative approaches to achieve deep cleaned products, containing both ash and sulfur contents less than 0.5 percent, will be considered. Experiments focus on developing cost-effective methods for the removal of organic sulfur and finely disseminated mineral impurities, especially fine pyrite particles, from coal. Rates and mechanisms for organic sulfur removal will be studied. Chemical reagent recycling and/or reagent wastes will be studied. Chemical reagent recycling and/or reagent wastes handling are included. Bench scale studies are performed.

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-12

    Work completed produced the criteria for additional engineering analysis, computation and detailed experimental benchscale testing for areas of uncertainty. The engineering analysis, computation, bench-scale testing and component development was formulated to produce necessary design information to define a commercially operating system. In order to produce the required information by means of bench-scale testing and component development, a uniform coal sample was procured. After agreement with DOE, a selected sample of coal from those previously listed was secured. The test plan was developed in two parts. The first part listed procedures for engineering and computational analyses of those deficiencies previously identified that could be solved without bench scale testing. Likewise, the second part prepared procedures for bench-scale testing and component development for those deficiencies previously identified in Task 3.

  18. Designing a carbon market that protects forests in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Niesten, Eduard; Frumhoff, Peter C; Manion, Michelle; Hardner, Jared J

    2002-08-15

    Firmly incorporated into the Kyoto Protocol, market mechanisms offer an innovative and cost-effective means of controlling atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, as with markets for many other goods and services, a carbon market may generate negative environmental externalities. Possible interpretations and application of Kyoto provisions under COP-6bis and COP-7 raise concerns that rules governing forestry with respect to the Kyoto carbon market may increase pressure on native forests and their biodiversity in developing countries. In this paper, we assess the following two specific concerns with Kyoto provisions for forestry measures. First, whether, under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), by restricting allowable forestry measures to afforestation and reforestation, and explicitly excluding protection of threatened native forests, the Kyoto Protocol will enhance incentives for degradation and clearing of forests in developing countries; second, whether carbon crediting for forest management in Annex I (industrialized) regions under Article 3.4 creates a dynamic that can encourage displacement of timber harvests from Annex I countries to developing nations. Given current timber extraction patterns in developing regions, additional harvest pressure would certainly entail a considerable cost in terms of biodiversity loss. In both cases, we find that the concerns about deleterious impacts to forests and biodiversity are justified, although the scale of such impacts is difficult to predict. Both to ensure reliable progress in managing carbon concentrations and to avoid unintended consequences with respect to forest biodiversity, the further development of the Kyoto carbon market must explicitly correct these perverse incentives. We recommend several steps that climate policymakers can take to ensure that conservation and restoration of biodiversity-rich natural forests in developing countries are rewarded rather than penalized. To correct

  19. Ultrasonic cleaning of fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, Keisuke; Fujita, Chitoshi; Sakai, Hitoshi

    1994-12-31

    During fuel transportation, contamination of the transfer cask can lead to radiation dosage. That is radioactive crud becomes detached from the fuel surface and is deposited inside the cask. To avoid this at the Tsuruga Power Station Unit 1, crud was removed from fuel assemblies in advance of fuel transportation work. An ultrasonic cleaning process was adopted for this purpose; ultrasonic methods excel over other methods for this type of cleaning. Our process is also able to clean fuel assemblies without removing the channel box. Since this is the first time that the ultrasonic method was applied to fuel assemblies at the light water reactor in Japan on a large scale, the efficiency and the impact on plant instrumentation of the method were examined by performing preliminary test. Based on these tests, an optimum cleaning procedure was established.

  20. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  1. EDIN-USVI Clean Energy Quarterly: Volume 1 November 2010, Energy Development in Island Nations, U.S. Virgin Islands (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This quarterly newsletter provides timely news and information about the plans and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project, including significant events and milestones, work undertaken by each of the five working groups, and EDIN-sponsored renewable energy and energy efficiency projects.

  2. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 11, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This document a quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1, 1992 to September 30, 1992. This report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. The conceptual flowsheet must be examined to identify critical areas that need additional design data. This data will then be developed using batch and semi-continuous bench scale testing. In addition to actual bench scale testing, other unit operations from other industries processing fine material will be reviewed for potential application and incorporated into the design if appropriate. The conceptual flowsheet will be revised based on the results of the bench scale testing and areas will be identified that need further larger scale design data verification, to prove out the design.

  3. EDIN-USVI Clean Energy Quarterly: Volume 1, Issue 2, March 2011, Energy Development in Island Nations, U.S. Virgin Islands (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-03-01

    This quarterly newsletter provides timely news and information about the plans and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project, including significant events and milestones, work undertaken by each of the five working groups, and project-related renewable energy and energy efficiency projects.

  4. Clean power generation from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.W.; Basu, P.

    2007-09-15

    The chapter gives an overview of power generation from coal, describing its environmental impacts, methods of cleaning coal before combustion, combustion methods, and post-combustion cleanup. It includes a section on carbon dioxide capture, storage and utilization. Physical, chemical and biological cleaning methods are covered. Coal conversion techniques covered are: pulverized coal combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, supercritical boilers, cyclone combustion, magnetohydrodynamics and gasification. 66 refs., 29 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Energy 101: Clean Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-09

    Most of us have a basic understanding of manufacturing. It's how we convert raw materials, components, and parts into finished goods that meet our essential needs and make our lives easier. But what about clean energy manufacturing? Clean energy and advanced manufacturing have the potential to rejuvenate the U.S. manufacturing industry and open pathways to increased American competitiveness. Watch this video to learn more about this exciting movement and to see some of these innovations in action.

  6. Automated carbon dioxide cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, David T.

    1991-01-01

    Solidified CO2 pellets are an effective blast media for the cleaning of a variety of materials. CO2 is obtained from the waste gas streams generated from other manufacturing processes and therefore does not contribute to the greenhouse effect, depletion of the ozone layer, or the environmental burden of hazardous waste disposal. The system is capable of removing as much as 90 percent of the contamination from a surface in one pass or to a high cleanliness level after multiple passes. Although the system is packaged and designed for manual hand held cleaning processes, the nozzle can easily be attached to the end effector of a robot for automated cleaning of predefined and known geometries. Specific tailoring of cleaning parameters are required to optimize the process for each individual geometry. Using optimum cleaning parameters the CO2 systems were shown to be capable of cleaning to molecular levels below 0.7 mg/sq ft. The systems were effective for removing a variety of contaminants such as lubricating oils, cutting oils, grease, alcohol residue, biological films, and silicone. The system was effective on steel, aluminum, and carbon phenolic substrates.

  7. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx

  8. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ulta-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells Budget Period 3

    SciTech Connect

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; Siv Aasland; Kjersti Kleveland; Ann Hooper; Leo Bonnell; John Hemmings; Jack Chen; Bart A. Van Hassel

    2004-12-31

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from January 1, 2003 through December 31,2004 in the following task areas: Task 1--Materials Development; Task 2--Composite Development; Task 4--Reactor Design and Process Optimization; Task 8--Fuels and Engine Testing; 8.1 International Diesel Engine Program; and Task IO: Program Management. Most of the key technical objectives for this budget period were achieved. Only partial success was achieved relative to cycle testing under pressure Major improvements in material performance and element reliability have been achieved. A breakthrough material system has driven the development of a compact planar reactor design capable of producing either hydrogen or syngas. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and costs compared to either steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery or autothermal reforming. The fuel and engine testing program is complete The single cylinder test engine evaluation of UCTF fuels begun in Budget Period 2 was finished this budget period. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCl engine was completed.

  9. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    SciTech Connect

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  10. The Healy clean coal project: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.B.; McCrohan, D.V.

    1997-12-31

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the US Department of Energy under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program is currently in construction. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the US Department of Energy. Construction is scheduled to be completed in August of 1997, with startup activity concluding in December of 1997. Demonstration, testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of NOx, SO{sub 2} and particulates from this 50 megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards. The project status, its participants, a description of the technology to be demonstrated, and the operational and performance goals of this project are presented.

  11. Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

  12. Motion planning for robotic spray cleaning with environmentally safe solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong K.; Meirans, L.; Drotning, W.D.

    1993-09-01

    Automatic motion planning of a spray cleaning robot with collision avoidance is presented in this paper. In manufacturing environments, electronic and mechanical components are traditionally cleaned by spraying or dipping them using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents. As new scientific data show that such solvents are major causes for stratospheric ozone depletion, an alternate cleaning method is needed. Part cleaning with aqueous solvents is environmentally safe, but can require precision spraying at high pressures for extended time periods. Operator fatigue during manual spraying can decrease the quality of the cleaning process. By spraying with a robotic manipulator, the necessary spray accuracy and consistency to manufacture highreliability components can be obtained. Our motion planner was developed to automatically generate motions for spraying robots based on the part geometry and cleaning process parameters. For spraying paint and other coatings a geometric description of the parts and robot may be sufficient for motion planning, since coatings are usually done over the visible surfaces. For spray cleaning, the requirement to reach hidden surfaces necessitates the addition of a rule-based method to the geometric motion planning.

  13. 46 CFR 153.1106 - Cleaning agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning agents. 153.1106 Section 153.1106 Shipping... Handling of Categories A, B, C, and D Cargo and Nls Residue § 153.1106 Cleaning agents. No tank cleaning agent other than water or steam may be used to clean an NLS residue from a cargo tank except...

  14. Ultrasonic cleaning: Fundamental theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, F. John

    1995-01-01

    This presentation describes: the theory of ultrasonics, cavitation and implosion; the importance and application of ultrasonics in precision cleaning; explanations of ultrasonic cleaning equipment options and their application; process parameters for ultrasonic cleaning; and proper operation of ultrasonic cleaning equipment to achieve maximum results.

  15. Environmentally conscious closed-loop aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning systems for defluxing and degreasing

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.D.; Christoff, G.W.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop an environmentally conscious closed-loop cleaning process which would meet the cleaning needs of ATC, reduce worker exposure to hazardous chemicals, and eliminate or reduce their hazardous waste. In order to accomplish this, new cleaning materials needed to be tested for cleaning efficacy as compared to trichloroethylene. The project work plan was broken down into five phases including establishing a baseline cleaning level, evaluating alternative cleaners, specifying and purchasing closed-loop cleaning equipment, installing and evaluating the new equipment, and publicizing the results. In general, it was the responsibility of the KCP to perform cleaning efficacy measurements on sample panels and actual parts that were processed by ATC. The cleaners chosen were evaluated for their abilities to remove the potential contaminants using an ultrasonic cleaning process at the KCP. The cleaning abilities of 20 different cleaners were compared to that of trichloroethylene, the baseline cleaning material. At least nine alternative cleaners produced cleaning results which exceeded trichloroethylene for this application. After evaluating the alternative cleaners and as new cleaning equipment was being tested, ATC terminated the Cooperative Agreement. Further equipment evaluations were suspended.

  16. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  17. The Development of Mini Portable Digester Designs for Domestic and Restaurant Solid Waste Processing to be Clean Biogas as Energy's Alternative to Replace LPG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, A.; Janari dan, D.; Setiawan, N.

    2016-02-01

    Biofuel is developed as an alternative source of second generation energy that could be attained from organic waste. This research is purposed to create applicative and cheap Portable digester unit for society. The design concepts’ screening that was made under considerations of the experts is finally resumed. Design 1 with final weight score of 1, design 2 with final weight score of -1, design 3 with final weight score of 2, design 4 with final weight score 3, design 5 with final weight score of -1, design 6 with final weight score of 0. Accepted designs for further concept assessment are design 1, 2 and 6. The result of concept assessment applies weighting for the scoring. Design 1 resulting 2.67, design 2 results 2.15 while design 3 results 2.52. Design 1 is concluded as the design with biggest result, which is 2.67. Its specification is explained as follows: tank capacity of 60 liters, manual rotating crank pivot, tank's material is plastic with symbol 1, material of axle swivel arm is grey cast iron, 2 mm rotary blades with hole. The experiment 1 contained 23.78% methane and 13.65 carbon dioxide that resulted from content test.

  18. A unified solution to the small scale problems of the ΛCDM model II: introducing parent-satellite interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Popolo, A. Del; Delliou, M. Le E-mail: delliou@ift.unesp.br

    2014-12-01

    We continue the study of the impact of baryon physics on the small scale problems of the ΛCDM model, based on a semi-analytical model (Del Popolo, 2009). With such model, we show how the cusp/core, missing satellite (MSP), Too Big to Fail (TBTF) problems and the angular momentum catastrophe can be reconciled with observations, adding parent-satellite interaction. Such interaction between dark matter (DM) and baryons through dynamical friction (DF) can sufficiently flatten the inner cusp of the density profiles to solve the cusp/core problem. Combining, in our model, a Zolotov et al. (2012)-like correction, similarly to Brooks et al. (2013), and effects of UV heating and tidal stripping, the number of massive, luminous satellites, as seen in the Via Lactea 2 (VL2) subhaloes, is in agreement with the numbers observed in the MW, thus resolving the MSP and TBTF problems. The model also produces a distribution of the angular spin parameter and angular momentum in agreement with observations of the dwarfs studied by van den Bosch, Burkert, and Swaters (2001)

  19. Exact analytical solution of the linear structure growth rate in {Lambda}CDM cosmology and its cosmological applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Pengjie

    2011-03-15

    We derive the exact analytical solution of the linear structure growth rate in {Lambda}CDM cosmology with flat or curved geometry, under the Newtonian gauge. Unlike the well known solution under the Newtonian limit [D. J. Heath, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 179, 351 (1977)], our solution takes all general relativistic corrections into account and is hence valid at both the sub- and superhorizon scales. With this exact solution, we evaluate cosmological impacts induced by these relativistic corrections. (1) General relativistic corrections alter the density growth from z=100 to z=0 by 10% at k=0.01 h/Mpc and the impact becomes stronger toward larger scales. We caution the readers that the overdensity is not gauge invariant and the above statement is restrained to the Newtonian gauge. (2) Relativistic corrections introduce a k{sup -2} scale dependence in the density fluctuation. It mimics a primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type with f{sub NL}{sup local{approx}}1. This systematical error may become non-negligible for future all sky deep galaxy surveys. (3) Cosmological simulations with box size greater than 1 Gpc are also affected by these relativistic corrections. We provide a postprocessing recipe to correct for these effects. (4) These relativistic corrections affect the redshift distortion. However, at redshifts and scales relevant to redshift distortion measurements, such effect is negligible.

  20. Cleaning of parts for new manufacturing and parts rebuilding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Jeff

    1994-06-01

    Parts cleaning is the largest single expense, and the most time consuming activity, in rebuilding and new manufacturing. On average, 25% to 40% of the total labor and overhead burden is spent on cleaning. EPA and OSHA pressures add to the burden by making some methods and chemicals obsolete. Some of the processes and chemicals in current use will be curtailed and or outlawed in the future. How can a shops and industries make long term decisions or capital investments in cleaning and process improvements when the government keeps changing its rules? At the MART Corporation in Saint Louis, Missouri, we manufacture a line of cabinet-style batch cleaning machines known as Power Washers. Twenty years ago MART invented and patented the Power Washer process, a cleaning method that recycles wash solution and blasts contaminates as they are washed off the more heavily contaminated parts. Since the initial invention MART has continued to R&D the washing process and develop ancillary systems that comply with EPA and OSHA regulations. For applications involving new industrial parts or items requiring specification cleaned surfaces. MART provides filtration and solution conditioning systems, part drying operations, and triple rinsing. Units are available in stainless steel or higher alloys. We are not alone in the washer manufacturing business. You have many choices of cleaning solutions (no pun intended) which will perform in your operations and yield good results. As a manufacturer, we are interested in your success with our equipment. We have all heard the horror stories of companies having selected inappropriate cleaning systems and or processes which then brought the company to its knees, production wise. Assembly, appearance, warranty, and performance shortcomings of finished products can often be directly related to the cleaning process and its shortcomings.

  1. Hose- and Tube-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollins, F. P.; Glass, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Self-contained, single-use module enables hose or tube to be cleaned thoroughly in field, in one operation, using water of unknown or questionable quality. Previously, chemicals for flow cleaning had to be mixed, diluted and pumped through tubes and hoses in many successive steps; deionizers, water-treatment facilities, and chemical storage required. With proposed device cleaning performed safely, without special training. Ready to use, device packaged as cleaning kit with tube to be cleaned.

  2. Guideline implementation: surgical instrument cleaning.

    PubMed

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-05-01

    Cleaning, decontaminating, and handling instructions for instruments vary widely based on the type of instrument and the manufacturer. Processing instruments in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions can help prevent damage and keep devices in good working order. Most importantly, proper cleaning and disinfection may prevent transmission of pathogenic organisms from a contaminated device to a patient or health care worker. The updated AORN "Guideline for cleaning and care of surgical instruments" provides guidance on cleaning, decontaminating, transporting, inspecting, and storing instruments. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel implement appropriate instrument care protocols in their practice settings. The key points address timely cleaning and decontamination of instruments after use; appropriate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning parameters for the decontamination area; processing of ophthalmic instruments and laryngoscopes; and precautions to take with instruments used in cases of suspected prion disease. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:25946180

  3. Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines

    SciTech Connect

    Craig N. Eatough

    2004-11-16

    In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction

  4. Cleaning Study of Genesis Sample 60487

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, Kim R.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allton, J. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind and brought it back to Earth in order to provide precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions. The ions in the solar wind were stopped in the collectors at depths on the order of 10 to a few hundred nanometers. This shallow implantation layer is critical for scientific analysis of the composition of the solar wind and must be preserved throughout sample handling, cleaning, processing, distribution, preparation and analysis. Particles of Genesis wafers, brine from the Utah Testing Range and an organic film have deleterious effects on many of the high-resolution instruments that have been developed to analyze the implanted solar wind. We have conducted a correlative microscopic study of the efficacy of cleaning Genesis samples with megasonically activated ultrapure water and UV/ozone cleaning. Sample 60487, the study sample, is a piece of float-zone silicon from the B/C array approximately 4.995mm x 4.145 mm in size

  5. Vacuum-cleaning System for Isolation Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Yale, Charles E.

    1969-01-01

    To encourage the utilization of the isolation chamber as a research tool, the cost of its use should be lowered. Methods and devices must be developed which make more efficient use of the space within the isolator and allow the operator to work more effectively in this confined area. A simple vacuum-cleaning system is described; it consists of a nozzle and flexible hose which connect through the isolator wall to an externally placed waste tank, attached by way of its outlet filter to a source of vacuum. The cylindrical waste tank [48 inches (1.219 m) high and 36 inches (0.914 m) in diameter] was sterilized in a large autoclave. During a 9-month test period, the system was used to remove soiled corncob bedding from a large isolator containing 90 adult monocontaminated rats. During this period, the microbial flora of the isolator was unchanged, and the time required to clean the cages was reduced by 50%. This vacuum-cleaning system is a safe, convenient, and economical means of increasing the efficiency of an isolation chamber. Images PMID:5775913

  6. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    SciTech Connect

    Dillingham, Gavin

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  7. It's a Clean Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) from Lewis Research Center, Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) developed the Advanced Technology Catalytic Combustor. The research proved the viability of efficient, cost-effective catalytic reduction of gas turbine nitrogen oxide emissions along with fuel efficiency. PCI has signed agreements with Westinghouse, other gas turbine manufacturers, including Capstone Turbine Corporation to develop a catalytic combustor for their hybrid electric vehicle.

  8. High-Power Ultrasound in Surface Cleaning and Decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Sami B.

    High-power ultrasound is being widely utilized for decontamination in different industrial applications. The same technology is also being investigated as an effective tool for cleaning of components in the decontamination of produce. An understanding of the basic technology and how it works in cleaning various industrial parts should help in applying it on a large scale in the food industry. The technology has evolved throughout the past four decades. Different frequencies were developed and are now industrially available. The frequency range is from 20 kHz to 1 MHz. Current sound technology provides a uniform ultrasonic activity throughout the cleaning vessel, which was a major disadvantage in the earlier technology. The two main driving forces that affect cleaning of surfaces are cavitation and acoustic streaming. Both are generated as a result of the direct interaction of high-frequency sound waves with fluids.

  9. Evaluation of a no-clean soldering process designed to eliminate the use of ozone depleting chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Iman, R.L.; Armendariz, M.E.; Anderson, D.J. |; Lichtenberg, L.; Van Buren, P.; Paffett, M.T.

    1992-11-01

    The destruction of the Earth`s protective ozone layer is one of today`s largest environmental concerns. Solvent emissions released during the cleaning of printed wiring boards (PWBs) have been identified as a primary contributor to ozone destruction. No-clean soldering (sometimes referred to as self-cleaning) processes represent an ideal solution since they eliminate the need for cleaning after soldering. Elimination of solvent cleaning operations significantly reduces the emissions of ozone depleting chemicals (ODCs), reduces energy consumption, and reduces product costs. Several no-clean soldering processes have been developed over the past few years. The program`s purpose was to evaluate the no-clean soldering process and to determine if hardware produced by the process is acceptable for military applications. That is, determine if the no-clean process produces hardware that is as reliable as that soldered with the existing rosin-based flux solvent cleaning process.

  10. Dry cleaning of Turkish coal

    SciTech Connect

    Cicek, T.

    2008-07-01

    This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

  11. Senate passes clean air bill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In an 89 to 11 vote the Senate passed a clean air bill aimed at reducing pollution by the turn of the century by imposing tougher controls on American industry. The bill is the first revision of the Clean Air Act of 1970 in 13 years and calls for new limits on auto pollution to clean up smog in most U.S. cities, decreasing by half emissions by power plants that cause acid rain to protect the ecology, and increasing technological controls on factories to protect against cancer-causing and toxic substances. The bill will add about $20 billion per year to the estimated $33 billion cost of complying with current pollution laws.

  12. A Tale of Two Sites: Lessons on Leadership from the Implementation of a Long-term Care Delivery Model (CDM) in Western Canada

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, Denise; Cox, Amy; Kampen, Ruth; Kobayashi, Karen; Cook, Heather; Taylor, Deanne; Gaspard, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Residential, long-term care serves vulnerable older adults in a facility-based environment. A new care delivery model (CDM) designed to promote more equitable care for residents was implemented in a health region in Western Canada. Leaders and managers faced challenges in implementing this model alongside other concurrent changes. This paper explores the question: How did leadership style influence team functioning with the implementation of the CDM? Qualitative data from interviews with leadership personnel (directors and managers, residential care coordinators and clinical nurse educators), and direct care staff (registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, health care aides, and allied health therapists), working in two different facilities comprise the main sources of data for this study. The findings reveal that leaders with a servant leadership style were better able to create and sustain the conditions to support successful model implementation and higher team functioning, compared to a facility in which the leadership style was less inclusive and proactive, and more resistant to the change. Consequently, staff at the second facility experienced a greater sense of overload with the implementation of the CDM. This study concludes that strong leadership is key to facilitating team work and job satisfaction in a context of change. PMID:27417591

  13. A Tale of Two Sites: Lessons on Leadership from the Implementation of a Long-term Care Delivery Model (CDM) in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Denise; Cox, Amy; Kampen, Ruth; Kobayashi, Karen; Cook, Heather; Taylor, Deanne; Gaspard, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Residential, long-term care serves vulnerable older adults in a facility-based environment. A new care delivery model (CDM) designed to promote more equitable care for residents was implemented in a health region in Western Canada. Leaders and managers faced challenges in implementing this model alongside other concurrent changes. This paper explores the question: How did leadership style influence team functioning with the implementation of the CDM? Qualitative data from interviews with leadership personnel (directors and managers, residential care coordinators and clinical nurse educators), and direct care staff (registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, health care aides, and allied health therapists), working in two different facilities comprise the main sources of data for this study. The findings reveal that leaders with a servant leadership style were better able to create and sustain the conditions to support successful model implementation and higher team functioning, compared to a facility in which the leadership style was less inclusive and proactive, and more resistant to the change. Consequently, staff at the second facility experienced a greater sense of overload with the implementation of the CDM. This study concludes that strong leadership is key to facilitating team work and job satisfaction in a context of change. PMID:27417591

  14. Carbon dioxide cleaning pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, L.; Blackman, T.E.

    1994-01-21

    In 1989, radioactive-contaminated metal at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was cleaned using a solvent paint stripper (Methylene chloride). One-third of the radioactive material was able to be recycled; two-thirds went to the scrap pile as low-level mixed waste. In addition, waste solvent solutions also required disposal. Not only was this an inefficient process, it was later prohibited by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 268. A better way of doing business was needed. In the search for a solution to this situation, it was decided to study the advantages of using a new technology - pelletized carbon dioxide cleaning. A proof of principle demonstration occurred in December 1990 to test whether such a system could clean radioactive-contaminated metal. The proof of principle demonstration was expanded in June 1992 with a pilot project. The purpose of the pilot project was three fold: (1) to clean metal so that it can satisfy free release criteria for residual radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP); (2) to compare two different carbon dioxide cleaning systems; and (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of decontamination process in a production situation and compare the cost of shipping the metal off site for waste disposal. The pilot project was completed in August 1993. The results of the pilot project were: (1) 90% of those items which were decontaminated, successfully met the free release criteria , (2) the Alpheus Model 250 was selected to be used on plantsite and (3) the break even cost of decontaminating the metal vs shipping the contaminated material offsite for disposal was a cleaning rate of 90 pounds per hour, which was easily achieved.

  15. MiniCLEAN surface backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Boqian; Schnee, Richard; Deap/Clean Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    MiniCLEAN is a dark matter experiment using 150kg fiducial mass of liquid cryogen (argon or neon) to search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). MiniCLEAN seeks to detect scintillation photons from WIMP-induced argon recoils. A potentially dominant background is from alpha decays on the inner surfaces of the containment vessel. Such events can mimic the prompt signal characteristic of nuclear recoils. This talk will show the expected background rates, methods of background discrimination, and their expected effectiveness.

  16. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  17. Chemical cleaning re-invented: clean, lean and green.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Margaret; Vangeel, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A project undertaken in the Central Cleaning Department of Janssen, a Johnson and Johnson pharmaceutical company, demonstrates how ergonomics, environmental and industrial hygiene risks and quality concerns can be tackled simultaneously. The way equipment was cleaned was re-designed by an in-house cross-functional team to ensure a 'clean, lean and green' process. Initiatives included a new layout of the area, and new work processes and equipment to facilitate cleaning and handling items. This resulted in significant improvements: all ergonomics high risk tasks were reduced to moderate or low risk; hearing protection was no longer required; respirator requirement reduced by 67%; solvent use reduced by 73%; productivity improved, with 55% fewer operator hours required; and quality improved 40-fold. The return on investment was estimated at 3.125 years based on an investment of over €1.5 million (2008 prices). This win-win intervention allowed ergonomics, environmental, industrial hygiene, productivity and quality concerns all to be addressed. PMID:24858515

  18. WATER AS A REACTION MEDIUM FOR CLEAN CHEMICAL PROCESSES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemistry is a rapid developing new field that provides us a pro-active avenue for the sustainable development of future science and technologies. When designed properly, clean chemical technology can be developed in water as a reaction media. The technologies generated f...

  19. Clean Renewable Energy and Economic Development Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2009-03-05

    03/05/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2839-2845) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Air-cleaning systems for sodium-fire-aerosol control. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, R.K.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1982-05-01

    A development program has been carried out at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) with the purpose of developing and proof testing air cleaning components and systems for use under severe sodium fire conditions, including those involving high levels of radioactivity. The air cleaning components tested can be classified as either dry filters or aqueous scrubbers. Test results are presented.

  1. Cardiac data mining (CDM); organization and predictive analytics on biomedical (cardiac) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal, M. Musa; Hussain, Masood; Basharat, Iqra; Fatima, Mamuna

    2013-10-01

    Data mining and data analytics has been of immense importance to many different fields as we witness the evolution of data sciences over recent years. Biostatistics and Medical Informatics has proved to be the foundation of many modern biological theories and analysis techniques. These are the fields which applies data mining practices along with statistical models to discover hidden trends from data that comprises of biological experiments or procedures on different entities. The objective of this research study is to develop a system for the efficient extraction, transformation and loading of such data from cardiologic procedure reports given by Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology. It also aims to devise a model for the predictive analysis and classification of this data to some important classes as required by cardiologists all around the world. This includes predicting patient impressions and other important features.

  2. A nonlinear CDM model for ductile failure analysis of steel bridge columns under cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen Van Do, Vuong; Lee, Chin-Hyung; Chang, Kyong-Ho

    2014-06-01

    A nonlinear cyclic plasticity damage model for ductile metals, which is able to take large deformation effects into consideration, has been developed using a new damage dissipation potential formulation in order to predict the cyclic inelastic behavior of steel bridge piers. The cyclic constitutive equations that employ the combined isotropic-kinematic hardening rule for plastic deformation is incorporated into the damage mechanics in conjunction with the large strain formulation. The damage growth law is based on the experimental observations that the evolution of microvoids results in nonlinear damage accumulation with plastic deformation. The damage model parameters and the procedure for their identification are presented. The proposed model has been validated and successfully applied to thin-walled steel bridge tubular columns subjected to alternating lateral displacements to evaluate the seismic performance.

  3. Assessment and evaluation of ceramic filter cleaning techniques: Task Order 19

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Zaharchuk, R.; Harbaugh, L.B.; Klett, M.

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and evaluate the effectiveness, appropriateness and economics of ceramic barrier filter cleaning techniques used for high-temperature and high-pressure particulate filtration. Three potential filter cleaning techniques were evaluated. These techniques include, conventional on-line pulse driven reverse gas filter cleaning, off-line reverse gas filter cleaning and a novel rapid pulse driven filter cleaning. These three ceramic filter cleaning techniques are either presently employed, or being considered for use, in the filtration of coal derived gas streams (combustion or gasification) under high-temperature high-pressure conditions. This study was divided into six subtasks: first principle analysis of ceramic barrier filter cleaning mechanisms; operational values for parameters identified with the filter cleaning mechanisms; evaluation and identification of potential ceramic filter cleaning techniques; development of conceptual designs for ceramic barrier filter systems and ceramic barrier filter cleaning systems for two DOE specified power plants; evaluation of ceramic barrier filter system cleaning techniques; and final report and presentation. Within individual sections of this report critical design and operational issues were evaluated and key findings were identified.

  4. Everybody wants clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Alter, H.

    1987-09-01

    The polarization in the press and in legislative debates is rooted in history, wherein lie the debaters on the spectrum of isms. Environmental depictions in the popular press illustrate that public judgment of resources and environmental management is shaped by arguments at the extremes. These arguments, which are not necessarily by experts, often emphasize horror stories or speculation. Stereotypical images are that all environmental proponents are good, that none work for the private sector, and that all large companies are uncaring, if not actually evil. Cartoons still show black, belching smokestacks and the like, which are relics of the past, virtually unknown today in the US. Ignored is the fact that quality environmental management and restoration are costly and can be afforded only by large companies and affluent governments. Economic and industrial development, which require environmental management and controls, generate the wealth needed to afford this same management and controls, if there is to be subsequent quality of life. The recent report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, stated emphatically that the greatest pollution is poverty and that environmental quality can be assured only through sustainable economic development.

  5. The extent of gravitationally bound structure in a ΛCDM universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, David W.

    2015-05-01

    A new analytical model for constraining the extent of gravitationally bound structure in the Universe is presented. This model is based on a simple modification of the spherical collapse model (SCM), and its performance in predicting the limits of bound structure in N-body simulations is compared to that of two previous models with the aid of new software named COLDGAS - compute unified device architecture object location determination in GADGET2 snapshots - which was developed by the author. All of these models can be distilled down to a single unique parameter ξ, here named the critical parameter, which was found to have values of 3 and 1.18 from the previous studies, and a value of 1.89 from the modified SCM. While still on the conservative side, this new model tends to better identify what structure is gravitationally bound in simulations. All three analytical models are applied to the Corona Borealis supercluster, with the modified SCM and ξ = 1.18 model making predictions that are in agreement with recent work showing that A2056, A2061, A2065, A2067, and A2089 comprise a gravitationally bound supercluster. As an additional test, the modified SCM is used to estimate the mass within the turn-around radius of the Virgo cluster, providing results in good agreement with studies relating the virial mass of clusters to the total mass within turn-around.

  6. Simulated ΛCDM analogues of the thin Plane of Satellites around the Andromeda galaxy are not kinematically coherent structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Tobias; Dutton, Aaron A.; Macciò, Andrea V.

    2016-05-01

    A large fraction of the dwarf satellites orbiting the Andromeda galaxy are surprisingly aligned in a thin, extended and apparently kinematically coherent planar structure. Such a structure is not easily found in simulations based on the Cold Dark Matter model (ΛCDM). Using 21 high resolution cosmological simulations we analyse the kinematics of planes of satellites similar to the one around Andromeda. We find good agreement when co-rotation is characterized by the line-of-sight velocity. At the same time, when co-rotation is inferred by the angular momenta of the satellites, the planes are in agreement with the plane around our Galaxy. We find such planes to be common in our high concentration haloes. The number of co-rotating satellites obtained from the sign of the line-of-sight velocity shows large variations depending on the viewing angle and is consistent with that obtained from a sample with random velocities. We find that the clustering of angular momentum vectors of the satellites in the plane is a better measure of the kinematic coherence. Thus we conclude that the line-of-sight velocity is not well suited as a proxy for the kinematical coherence of the plane. Analysis of the kinematics of our planes shows a fraction of ˜30% chance aligned satellites. Tracking the satellites in the plane back in time reveals that these planes are a transient feature and not kinematically coherent as would appear at first sight. Thus we expect some of the satellites in the plane around Andromeda to have high velocities perpendicular to the plane.

  7. ΛCDM Halo Models of Galaxy Clustering and Evolution in the PRIMUS Survey at 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skibba, Ramin A.; Coil, Alison L.; Mendez, Alexander; Blanton, Michael R.; Eisenstein, Daniel; Primus

    2015-01-01

    We utilize ΛCDM halo occupation models of galaxy clustering to investigate the evolving stellar mass and star formation dependent clustering of galaxies in the PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) from redshifts of z=0.2 to z=1. These clustering measurements provide new constraints on the spatial distribution of galaxies in the 'cosmic web' and on the connections between dark matter halo properties and galaxy properties in the context of the evolving large-scale structure of the universe. Using an analytic model and mock galaxy catalogs, we find a strong correlation between galaxy stellar mass and dark matter halo mass over a wide range of masses, consistent with previous results. However, the stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) and the mass scale where star formation efficiency reaches a maximum appear to evolve more strongly than other models in the literature. Our halo mass constraints obtained from modeling clustering and the stellar mass function are self-consistent only when the COSMOS field, which has relatively strong clustering, is excluded, thus highlighting the importance of 'cosmic variance' effects. We find that the fraction of satellite galaxies in haloes of a given mass increases at higher redshift such that the M1/Mmin ratio decreases from ≈20 to ≈12 at z~1. Considering the evolution of the subhalo mass function, this trend has implications for relations between satellite galaxies and halo substructures and for the growth of intracluster mass. Finally, based on the clustering of star-forming and quiescent galaxies, we argue that the efficiency of star formation quenching of central galaxies evolves significantly over the last eight billion years of cosmic time.

  8. Simulated ΛCDM analogues of the thin plane of satellites around the Andromeda galaxy are not kinematically coherent structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Tobias; Dutton, Aaron A.; Macciò, Andrea V.

    2016-08-01

    A large fraction of the dwarf satellites orbiting the Andromeda galaxy are surprisingly aligned in a thin, extended and apparently kinematically coherent planar structure. Such a structure is not easily found in simulations based on the cold dark matter model (ΛCDM). Using 21 high-resolution cosmological simulations, we analyse the kinematics of planes of satellites similar to the one around Andromeda. We find good agreement when co-rotation is characterized by the line-of-sight velocity. At the same time, when co-rotation is inferred by the angular momenta of the satellites, the planes are in agreement with the plane around our Galaxy. We find such planes to be common in our high-concentration haloes. The number of co-rotating satellites obtained from the sign of the line-of-sight velocity shows large variations depending on the viewing angle and is consistent with that obtained from a sample with random velocities. We find that the clustering of angular momentum vectors of the satellites in the plane is a better measure of the kinematic coherence. Thus we conclude that the line-of-sight velocity is not well suited as a proxy for the kinematical coherence of the plane. Analysis of the kinematics of our planes shows a fraction of ˜30 per cent chance-aligned satellites. Tracking the satellites in the plane back in time reveals that these planes are a transient feature and not kinematically coherent as would appear at first sight. Thus we expect some of the satellites in the plane around Andromeda to have high velocities perpendicular to the plane.

  9. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  10. Portable sandblaster cleans small areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Severin, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Portable sandblasting unit rapidly and effectively cleans localized areas on a metal surface. The unit incorporates a bellows enclosure, masking plate, sand container, and used sand accummulator connected to a vacuum system. The bellows is equipped with an inspection window and light for observation of the sanding operation.

  11. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  12. Mechanisms of single bubble cleaning.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Fabian; Mettin, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of collapsing bubbles close to a flat solid is investigated with respect to its potential for removal of surface attached particles. Individual bubbles are created by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses focused into water close to glass plates contaminated with melamine resin micro-particles. The bubble dynamics is analysed by means of synchronous high-speed recordings. Due to the close solid boundary, the bubble collapses with the well-known liquid jet phenomenon. Subsequent microscopic inspection of the substrates reveals circular areas clean of particles after a single bubble generation and collapse event. The detailed bubble dynamics, as well as the cleaned area size, is characterised by the non-dimensional bubble stand-off γ=d/Rmax, with d: laser focus distance to the solid boundary, and Rmax: maximum bubble radius before collapse. We observe a maximum of clean area at γ≈0.7, a roughly linear decay of the cleaned circle radius for increasing γ, and no cleaning for γ>3.5. As the main mechanism for particle removal, rapid flows at the boundary are identified. Three different cleaning regimes are discussed in relation to γ: (I) For large stand-off, 1.8<γ<3.5, bubble collapse induced vortex flows touch down onto the substrate and remove particles without significant contact of the gas phase. (II) For small distances, γ<1.1, the bubble is in direct contact with the solid. Fast liquid flows at the substrate are driven by the jet impact with its subsequent radial spreading, and by the liquid following the motion of the collapsing and rebounding bubble wall. Both flows remove particles. Their relative timing, which depends sensitively on the exact γ, appears to determine the extension of the area with forces large enough to cause particle detachment. (III) At intermediate stand-off, 1.1<γ<1.8, only the second bubble collapse touches the substrate, but acts with cleaning mechanisms similar to an effective small γ collapse: particles are removed by

  13. Gypsum scaling and cleaning in forward osmosis: measurements and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mi, Baoxia; Elimelech, Menachem

    2010-03-15

    This study investigates gypsum scaling and cleaning behavior in forward osmosis (FO). The results show that gypsum scaling in FO is almost fully reversible, with more than 96% recovery of permeate water flux following a water rinse without addition of chemical cleaning reagents. Parallel comparisons of fouling and cleaning were made between FO (without hydraulic pressure) and RO (under high hydraulic pressure) modes. The shape of the water flux decline curves during gypsum scaling is similar in the two modes, but the flux recovery in FO mode is higher than that in RO mode by about 10%. This behavior suggests that operating in FO mode may reduce the need for chemical cleaning. The role of membrane materials in controlling gypsum scaling and cleaning was investigated using cellulose acetate (CA) and polyamide (PA) membranes. Gypsum scaling of PA membranes causes more severe flux decline and is harder to clean than that of CA membranes. AFM force measurements were performed between a gypsum particle probe and the membrane surfaces to elucidate gypsum scaling mechanisms. Analysis of adhesion force data indicates that gypsum scaling of the PA membrane is dominated by heterogeneous/surface crystallization, while gypsum scaling of the CA membrane is dominated by bulk crystallization and subsequent particle deposition.This finding implies that membrane surface modification and new material development can be an effective strategy to mitigate membrane scaling. PMID:20151636

  14. Benzotriazole removal on post-Cu CMP cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiying, Tang; Yuling, Liu; Ming, Sun; Shiyan, Fan; Yan, Li

    2015-06-01

    This work investigates systematically the effect of FA/O II chelating agent and FA/O I surfactant in alkaline cleaning solutions on benzotriazole (BTA) removal during post-Cu CMP cleaning in GLSI under the condition of static etching. The best detergent formulation for BTA removal can be determined by optimization of the experiments of single factor and compound cleaning solution, which has been further confirmed experimentally by contact angle (CA) measurements. The resulting solution with the best formulation has been measured for the actual production line, and the results demonstrate that the obtained cleaning solution can effectively and efficiently remove BTA, CuO and abrasive SiO2 without basically causing interfacial corrosion. This work demonstrates the possibility of developing a simple, low-cost and environmentally-friendly cleaning solution to effectively solve the issues of BTA removal on post-Cu CMP cleaning in a multi-layered copper wafer. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308).

  15. Effects of fluid dynamics on cleaning efficacy of supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, M.R.; Willcox, W.A.; Silva, L.J.; Butner, R.S.

    1993-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Boeing Aerospace Company are developing a process to clean metal parts using a supercritical solvent. This work is part of an effort to address issues inhibiting the rapid commercialization of Supercritical Fluid Parts Cleaning (SFPC). PNL assembled a SFPC test stand to observe the relationship between the fluid dynamics of the system and the mass transfer of a contaminant from the surface of a contaminated metal coupon into the bulk fluid. The bench-scale test stand consists of a Berty'' autoclave modified for these tests and supporting hardware to achieve supercritical fluids parts cleaning. Three separate sets of tests were conducted using supercritical carbon dioxide. For the first two tests, a single stainless steel coupon was cleaned with organic solvents to remove surface residue, doped with a single contaminant, and then cleaned in the SFPC test stand. Contaminants studied were Dow Corning 200 fluid (dimethylpolysiloxane) and Castle/Sybron X-448 High-temperature Oil (a polybutane/mineral oil mixture). A set of 5-minute cleaning runs was conducted for each dopant at various autoclave impeller speeds. Test results from the first two sets of experiments indicate that precision cleaning for difficult-to-remove contaminants can be dramatically improved by introducing and increasing turbulence within the system. Metal coupons that had been previously doped with aircraft oil were used in a third set of tests. The coupons were placed in the SFPC test stand and subjected to different temperatures, pressures, and run times at a constant impeller speed. The cleanliness of each part was measured by Optically Stimulated Electron Emission. The third set of tests show that levels of cleanliness attained with supercritical carbon dioxide compare favorably with solvent and aqueous cleaning levels.

  16. Effects of fluid dynamics on cleaning efficacy of supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, M.R.; Willcox, W.A.; Silva, L.J.; Butner, R.S.

    1993-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Boeing Aerospace Company are developing a process to clean metal parts using a supercritical solvent. This work is part of an effort to address issues inhibiting the rapid commercialization of Supercritical Fluid Parts Cleaning (SFPC). PNL assembled a SFPC test stand to observe the relationship between the fluid dynamics of the system and the mass transfer of a contaminant from the surface of a contaminated metal coupon into the bulk fluid. The bench-scale test stand consists of a ``Berty`` autoclave modified for these tests and supporting hardware to achieve supercritical fluids parts cleaning. Three separate sets of tests were conducted using supercritical carbon dioxide. For the first two tests, a single stainless steel coupon was cleaned with organic solvents to remove surface residue, doped with a single contaminant, and then cleaned in the SFPC test stand. Contaminants studied were Dow Corning 200 fluid (dimethylpolysiloxane) and Castle/Sybron X-448 High-temperature Oil (a polybutane/mineral oil mixture). A set of 5-minute cleaning runs was conducted for each dopant at various autoclave impeller speeds. Test results from the first two sets of experiments indicate that precision cleaning for difficult-to-remove contaminants can be dramatically improved by introducing and increasing turbulence within the system. Metal coupons that had been previously doped with aircraft oil were used in a third set of tests. The coupons were placed in the SFPC test stand and subjected to different temperatures, pressures, and run times at a constant impeller speed. The cleanliness of each part was measured by Optically Stimulated Electron Emission. The third set of tests show that levels of cleanliness attained with supercritical carbon dioxide compare favorably with solvent and aqueous cleaning levels.

  17. Clean catalytic combustor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekstedt, E. E.; Lyon, T. F.; Sabla, P. E.; Dodds, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    A combustor program was conducted to evolve and to identify the technology needed for, and to establish the credibility of, using combustors with catalytic reactors in modern high-pressure-ratio aircraft turbine engines. Two selected catalytic combustor concepts were designed, fabricated, and evaluated. The combustors were sized for use in the NASA/General Electric Energy Efficient Engine (E3). One of the combustor designs was a basic parallel-staged double-annular combustor. The second design was also a parallel-staged combustor but employed reverse flow cannular catalytic reactors. Subcomponent tests of fuel injection systems and of catalytic reactors for use in the combustion system were also conducted. Very low-level pollutant emissions and excellent combustor performance were achieved. However, it was obvious from these tests that extensive development of fuel/air preparation systems and considerable advancement in the steady-state operating temperature capability of catalytic reactor materials will be required prior to the consideration of catalytic combustion systems for use in high-pressure-ratio aircraft turbine engines.

  18. EPA`s clean air power initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Critchfield, L.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Power Initiative (CAPI) is a multi-stakeholder project intended to improve air pollution control efforts involving the power generating industry. This paper documents the progress made in the first year of the initiative, which included a number of meetings with interested stakeholders and development and analysis of alternative approaches for more efficient and effective pollution control. The project`s goal is to develop an integrated regulatory strategy or three major pollutants emitted from electric power generators; namely, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and, potentially, mercury. Major reductions in these pollutants are expected to be needed to reduce the detrimental health effects of ground-level ozone, fine particles, and hazardous air pollutants and reduce the environmental effects of acidification, eutrophication, ecosystem, crop, and materials damage, and regional haze. The Clean Air Power Initiative has considered, where feasible, new approaches to pollution control that recognize the long-range transport of many air pollutants and the economic benefits of emissions trading. The project was initiated by EPA`s Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation in 1995. As individual companies develop and implement strategies to participate in more competitive power markets, they could benefit from greater certainty in being able to plan for and reduce costs of future environmental regulations. The EPA is interested in reinventing its regulatory approach to reduce the number, administrative complexity, and cost of its requirements while improving the likelihood of achieving environmental results.

  19. 7 CFR 29.1004 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1004 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles. Leaves grown on the lower position of the stalk normally contain more sand or...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3507 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3507 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles. Leaves grown on the lower portion of the stalk normally contain more dirt or...