Science.gov

Sample records for cdna nucleotide sequence

  1. Nucleotide sequence of cDNA clones of the murine myb proto-oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Gonda, T J; Gough, N M; Dunn, A R; de Blaquiere, J

    1985-01-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones of murine c-myb mRNA which contain approximately 2.8 kb of the 3.9-kb mRNA sequence. Nucleotide sequencing has shown that these clones extend both 5' and 3' to sequences homologous to the v-myb oncogenes of avian myeloblastosis virus and avian leukemia virus E26. The sequence contains an open reading frame of 1944 nucleotides, and could encode a protein which is both highly homologous, and of similar size (71 kd), to the chicken c-myb protein. Examination of the deduced amino acid sequence of the murine c-myb protein revealed the presence of a 3-fold tandem repeat of 52 residues near the N terminus of the protein, and has enabled prediction of some of the likely structural features of the protein. These include a high alpha-helix content, a basic region toward the N terminus of the protein and an overall globular configuration. The arrangement of genomic c-myb sequences, detected using the cDNA clones as probes, was compared with the reported structure of rearranged c-myb in certain tumour cells. This comparison suggested that the rearranged c-myb gene may encode a protein which, like the v-myb protein, lacks the N-terminal region of c-myb. Images Fig. 5. PMID:2998780

  2. Human secreted carbonic anhydrase: cDNA cloning, nucleotide sequence, and hybridization histochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Aldred, P.; Fu, Ping; Barrett, G.; Penschow, J.D.; Wright, R.D.; Coghlan, J.P.; Fernley, R.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Complementary DNA clones coding for the human secreted carbonic anhydrase isozyme (CAVI) have been isolated and their nucleotide sequences determined. These clones identify a 1.45-kb mRNA that is present in high levels in parotid submandibular salivary glands but absent in other tissues such as the sublingual gland, kidney, liver, and prostate gland. Hybridization histochemistry of human salivary glands shows mRNA for CA VI located in the acinar cells of these glands. The cDNA clones encode a protein of 308 amino acids that includes a 17 amino acid leader sequence typical of secreted proteins. The mature protein has 291 amino acids compared to 259 or 260 for the cytoplasmic isozymes, with most of the extra amino acids present as a carboxyl terminal extension. In comparison, sheep CA VI has a 45 amino acid extension. Overall the human CA VI protein has a sequence identity of 35 {percent} with human CA II, while residues involved in the active site of the enzymes have been conserved. The human and sheep secreted carbonic anhydrases have a sequence identity of 72 {percent}. This includes the two cysteine residues that are known to be involved in an intramolecular disulfide bond in the sheep CA VI. The enzyme is known to be glycosylated and three potential N-glycosylation sites (Asn-X-Thr/Ser) have been identified. Two of these are known to be glycosylated in sheep CA VI. Southern analysis of human DNA indicates that there is only one gene coding for CA VI.

  3. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA for human liver arginase

    SciTech Connect

    Haraguchi, Y.; Takiguchi, M.; Amaya, Y.; Kawamoto, S.; Matsuda, I.; Mori, M.

    1987-01-01

    Arginase (EC3.5.3.1) catalyzes the last step of the urea cycle in the liver of ureotelic animals. Inherited deficiency of the enzyme results in argininemia, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hyperammonemia. To facilitate investigation of the enzyme and gene structures and to elucidate the nature of the mutation in argininemia, the authors isolated cDNA clones for human liver arginase. Oligo(dT)-primed and random primer human liver cDNA libraries in lambda gt11 were screened using isolated rat arginase cDNA as a probe. Two of the positive clones, designated lambda hARG6 and lambda hARG109, contained an overlapping cDNA sequence with an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 322 amino acid residues (predicted M/sub r/, 34,732), a 5'-untranslated sequence of 56 base pairs, a 3'-untranslated sequence of 423 base pairs, and a poly(A) segment. Arginase activity was detected in Escherichia coli cells transformed with the plasmid carrying lambda hARG6 cDNA insert. RNA gel blot analysis of human liver RNA showed a single mRNA of 1.6 kilobases. The predicted amino acid sequence of human liver arginase is 87% and 41% identical with those of the rat liver and yeast enzymes, respectively. There are several highly conserved segments among the human, rat, and yeast enzymes.

  4. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA for human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variant A(-)

    SciTech Connect

    Hirono, A.; Beutler, E. )

    1988-06-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase A(-) is a common variant in Blacks that causes sensitivity to drug- and infection-induced hemolytic anemia. A cDNA library was constructed from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cells from a male who was G6PD A(-). One of four cDNA clones isolated contained a sequence not found in the other clones nor in the published cDNA sequence. Consisting of 138 bases and coding 46 amino acids, this segment of cDNA apparently is derived from the alternative splicing involving the 3{prime} end of intron 7. Comparison of the remaining sequences of these clones with the published sequence revealed three nucleotide substitutions: C{sup 33} {yields} G, G{sup 202} {yields} A, and A{sup 376} {yields} G. Each change produces a new restriction site. Genomic DNA from five G6PD A(-) individuals was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. The findings of the same mutation in G6PD A(-) as is found in G6PD A(+) strongly suggests that the G6PD A(-) mutation arose in an individual with G6PD A(+), adding another mutation that causes the in vivo instability of this enzyme protein.

  5. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA for human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variant A(-).

    PubMed Central

    Hirono, A; Beutler, E

    1988-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD; D-glucose-6-phosphate:NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.49) A(-) is a common variant in Blacks that causes sensitivity to drug-and infection-induced hemolytic anemia. A cDNA library was constructed from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cells from a male who was G6PD A(-). One of four cDNA clones isolated contained a sequence not found in the other clones nor in the published cDNA sequence. Consisting of 138 bases and coding 46 amino acids, this segment of cDNA apparently is derived from the alternative splicing involving the 3' end of intron 7. Comparison of the remaining sequences of these clones with the published sequence revealed three nucleotide substitutions: C33----G, G202----A, and A376----G. Each change produces a new restriction site. Genomic DNA from five G6PD A(-) individuals was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. The base substitution at position 376, identical to the substitution that has been reported in G6PD A(+), was present in all G6PD A(-) samples and none of the control G6PD B(+) samples examined. The substitution at position 202 was found in four of the five G6PD A(-) samples and no normal control sample. At position 33 guanine was found in all G6PD A(-) samples and seven G6PD B(+) control samples and is, presumably, the usual nucleotide found at this position. The finding of the same mutation in G6PD A(-) as is found in G6PD A(+) strongly suggests that the G6PD A(-) mutation arose in an individual with G6PD A(+), adding another mutation that causes the in vivo instability of this enzyme protein. Images PMID:2836867

  6. Nucleotide sequence of the cDNA encoding the precursor of the beta subunit of rat lutropin.

    PubMed Central

    Chin, W W; Godine, J E; Klein, D R; Chang, A S; Tan, L K; Habener, J F

    1983-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequences of cDNAs encoding the precursor of the beta subunit of rat lutropin, a polypeptide hormone that regulates gonadal function, including the development of gametes and the production of steroid sex hormones. The cDNAs were prepared from poly(A)+ RNA derived from the pituitary glands of rats 4 weeks after ovariectomy and were cloned in bacterial plasmids. Bacterial colonies containing transfected plasmids were screened by hybridization with a 32P-labeled cDNA encoding the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin, a protein that is related in structure to lutropin. Several recombinant plasmids were detected that by nucleotide sequence analyses contained coding sequences for the precursor of the beta subunit of lutropin. Complete determination of the nucleotide sequences of these cDNAs, as well as of cDNA reverse-transcribed from pituitary poly(A)+ RNA by using a synthetic pentadecanucleotide as a primer of RNA, provided the entire 141-codon sequence of the precursor of the beta subunit of rat lutropin. The precursor consists of a 20 amino acid leader (signal) peptide and an apoprotein of 121 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of the rat lutropin beta subunit shows similarity to the beta subunits of the ovine/bovine, porcine, and human lutropins (81, 86, and 74% of amino acids identical, respectively). Blot hybridization of pituitary RNAs separated by electrophoresis on agarose gels showed that the mRNA encoding the lutropin beta subunit consists of approximately 700 bases. The availability of cDNAs for both the alpha and beta subunits of lutropin will facilitate studies of the regulation of lutropin expression. Images PMID:6192440

  7. Nucleotide sequence and expression of a maize H1 histone cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Razafimahatratra, P; Chaubet, N; Philipps, G; Gigot, C

    1991-01-01

    The first complete amino acid sequence of a H1 histone of a monocotyledonous plant was deduced from a cDNA isolated from a maize library. The encoded H1 protein is 245 amino acid-long and shows the classical tripartite organization of this class of histones. The central globular region of 76 residues shows 60% sequence homology with H1 proteins from dicots but only 20% with the animal H1 proteins. However, several of the amino acids considered as being important in the structure of the nucleosome are conserved between this protein and its animal counterparts. The N-terminal region contains an equal number of acidic and basic residues which appears as a general feature of plant H1 proteins. The 124 residue long and highly basic C-terminal region contains a 7-fold repeated element KA/PKXA/PAKA/PK. Southern-blot hybridization showed that the H1 protein is encoded by a small multigene family. Highly homologous H1 gene families were also detected in the genomes of several more or less closely related plant species. The general expression pattern of these genes was not significantly different from that of these genes encoding the core-histones neither during germination nor in the different tissues of adult maize. Images PMID:1709276

  8. Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that enhance choleragen ADP-ribosyltransferase activity: nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of an ADP-ribosylation factor cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Price, S R; Nightingale, M; Tsai, S C; Williamson, K C; Adamik, R; Chen, H C; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1988-01-01

    Three (two soluble and one membrane) guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) that enhance ADP-ribosylation of the Gs alpha stimulatory subunit of the adenylyl cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) complex by choleragen have recently been purified from bovine brain. To further define the structure and function of these ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), we isolated a cDNA clone (lambda ARF2B) from a bovine retinal library by screening with a mixed heptadecanucleotide probe whose sequence was based on the partial amino acid sequence of one of the soluble ARFs from bovine brain. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of lambda ARF2B with sequences of peptides from the ARF protein (total of 60 amino acids) revealed only two differences. Whether these are cloning artifacts or reflect the existence of more than one ARF protein remains to be determined. Deduced amino acid sequences of ARF, Go alpha (the alpha subunit of a G protein that may be involved in regulation of ion fluxes), and c-Ha-ras gene product p21 show similarities in regions believed to be involved in guanine nucleotide binding and GTP hydrolysis. ARF apparently lacks a site analogous to that ADP-ribosylated by choleragen in G-protein alpha subunits. Although both the ARF proteins and the alpha subunits bind guanine nucleotides and serve as choleragen substrates, they must interact with the toxin A1 peptide in different ways. In addition to serving as an ADP-ribose acceptor, ARF interacts with the toxin in a manner that modifies its catalytic properties. PMID:3135549

  9. Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence of a cDNA clone encoding part of human transketolase.

    PubMed

    Abedinia, M; Layfield, R; Jones, S M; Nixon, P F; Mattick, J S

    1992-03-31

    Transketolase is a key enzyme in the pentose-phosphate pathway which has been implicated in the latent human genetic disease, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Here we report the cloning and partial characterisation of the coding sequences encoding human transketolase from a human brain cDNA library. The library was screened with oligonucleotide probes based on the amino acid sequence of proteolytic fragments of the purified protein. Northern blots showed that the transketolase mRNA is approximately 2.2 kb, close to the minimum expected, of which approximately 60% was represented in the largest cDNA clone. Sequence analysis of the transketolase coding sequences reveals a number of homologies with related enzymes from other species. PMID:1567394

  10. Nucleotide sequence and expression in vitro of cDNA derived from mRNA of int-1, a provirally activated mouse mammary oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Y K; Shackleford, G M; Brown, A M; Sanders, G S; Varmus, H E

    1985-01-01

    The mouse int-1 gene is a putative mammary oncogene discovered as a target for transcriptionally activating proviral insertion mutations in mammary carcinomas induced by the mouse mammary tumor virus in C3H mice. We have isolated molecular clones of full- or nearly full-length cDNA transcribed from int-1 RNA (2.6 kilobases) in a virus-induced mammary tumor. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA clones with that of the int-1 gene (A. van Ooyen and R. Nusse, Cell 39:233-240, 1984) shows the following. The coding region of the int-1 gene is composed of four exons. The splice donor and acceptor sites conform to consensus; however, at least two closely spaced polyadenylation sites are used, and the transcriptional initiation site remains ambiguous. The major open reading frame is preceded by an open frame 10 codons in length. The mRNA encodes a 41-kilodalton protein with several striking features--a strongly hydrophobic amino terminus, a cysteine-rich carboxy terminus, and four potential glycosylation sites. There are no differences in nucleotide sequence between the known exons of the normal and a provirally activated allele. The length of the deduced open reading frame was further confirmed by in vitro translation of RNA transcribed from the cDNA clones with SP6 RNA polymerase. Images PMID:3018519

  11. Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, cyclophilin B cDNA sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclophilin B is a member of highly conserved immunophilins and ubiquitously found intracellularly. The complete sequence of the channel catfish cyclophilin B cDNA gene consisted of 996 nucleotides. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one open reading frame and 5’- and 3’-end untranslated...

  12. A comparative study of 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase in vertebrates: cDNA cloning and amino acid sequences for chicken and bullfrog enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kasama-Yoshida, H; Tohyama, Y; Kurihara, T; Sakuma, M; Kojima, H; Tamai, Y

    1997-10-01

    In mammalian brain, two 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.37) isoforms, CNP1 and CNP2, are translated, respectively, from the two mRNAs, which have been transcribed and processed by alternative use of the two transcription start points and by differential splicing. In the present study, the cDNAs encoding chicken CNP2 and bullfrog CNP1, respectively, were isolated, and the amino acid sequences of chicken CNP2 and bullfrog CNP1 were deduced. Western blot analysis showed that chicken brain contains a major CNP2-type protein together with a minor unidentified isoform, and bullfrog brain contains only a CNP1-type protein. All available amino acid sequences of vertebrate 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterases were aligned and compared. Three conserved motif sequences were noted: (a) an ATP-binding site near the amino terminus, (b) an isoprenylation site at the carboxyl terminus, and (c) a probable catalytic site resembling the active site of beta-ketoacyl synthase (EC 2.3.1.41). The second and the third motifs are conserved also in goldfish RICH (regeneration-induced 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase homologue), which has been shown recently to have 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase activity. The third motif (probably catalytic site) was assigned for the first time in the present report. PMID:9326261

  13. Cloning and partial nucleotide sequence of human immunoglobulin mu chain cDNA from B cells and mouse-human hybridomas.

    PubMed Central

    Dolby, T W; Devuono, J; Croce, C M

    1980-01-01

    Purified mRNAs coding for mu and kappa human immunoglobulin polypeptides were translated in vitro and their products were characterized. The mu-specific mRNAs, derived from both human lymphoblastoid cells (GM607) and from a mouse-human somatic cell hybrid secreting human mu chains (alpha D5-H11-BC11), were copied into cDNAs and inserted into the plasmid pBR322. Several recombinant cDNAs that were obtained were identified by a combination of colony hybridization with labeled probes, in vitro translation of plasmid-selected mu mRNAs, and DNA nucleotide sequence determination. One recombinant DNA, for which the sequence has been partially determined, contains the codons for part of the C3 constant region domain through the carboxy-terminal piece (155 amino acids total) as well as the entire 3' noncoding sequence up to the poly(A) site of the human mu mRNA. The sequence A-A-U-A-A occurs 12 nucleotides prior to the poly(A) addition site in the human mu mRNA. Considerable sequence homology is observed in the mouse and human mu mRNA 3' coding and noncoding sequences. Images PMID:6777778

  14. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a pu GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

  15. Method enabling fast partial sequencing of cDNA clones.

    PubMed

    Nordström, T; Gharizadeh, B; Pourmand, N; Nyren, P; Ronaghi, M

    2001-05-15

    Pyrosequencing is a nonelectrophoretic single-tube DNA sequencing method that takes advantage of cooperativity between four enzymes to monitor DNA synthesis. To investigate the feasibility of the recently developed technique for tag sequencing, 64 colonies of a selected cDNA library from human were sequenced by both pyrosequencing and Sanger DNA sequencing. To determine the needed length for finding a unique DNA sequence, 100 sequence tags from human were retrieved from the database and different lengths from each sequence were randomly analyzed. An homology search based on 20 and 30 nucleotides produced 97 and 98% unique hits, respectively. An homology search based on 100 nucleotides could identify all searched genes. Pyrosequencing was employed to produce sequence data for 30 nucleotides. A similar search using BLAST revealed 16 different genes. Forty-six percent of the sequences shared homology with one gene at different positions. Two of the 64 clones had unique sequences. The search results from pyrosequencing were in 100% agreement with conventional DNA sequencing methods. The possibility of using a fully automated pyrosequencer machine for future high-throughput tag sequencing is discussed. PMID:11355860

  16. The EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database.

    PubMed

    Stoesser, G; Tuli, M A; Lopez, R; Sterk, P

    1999-01-01

    The EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/embl.html) constitutes Europe's primary nucleotide sequence resource. Main sources for DNA and RNA sequences are direct submissions from individual researchers, genome sequencing projects and patent applications. While automatic procedures allow incorporation of sequence data from large-scale genome sequencing centres and from the European Patent Office (EPO), the preferred submission tool for individual submitters is Webin (WWW). Through all stages, dataflow is monitored by EBI biologists communicating with the sequencing groups. In collaboration with DDBJ and GenBank the database is produced, maintained and distributed at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). Database releases are produced quarterly and are distributed on CD-ROM. Network services allow access to the most up-to-date data collection via Internet and World Wide Web interface. EBI's Sequence Retrieval System (SRS) is a Network Browser for Databanks in Molecular Biology, integrating and linking the main nucleotide and protein databases, plus many specialised databases. For sequence similarity searching a variety of tools (e.g. Blitz, Fasta, Blast etc) are available for external users to compare their own sequences against the most currently available data in the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database and SWISS-PROT. PMID:9847133

  17. Sequencing of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, cyclophilin A cDNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclophilin A is a member of highly conserved immunophilins and ubiquitously found intracellularly. The complete sequence of the channel catfish cyclophilin A cDNA gene consisted of 1,170 nucleotides. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one open reading frame and 5’- and 3’-end untranslate...

  18. Nucleotide sequences 1986/1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    These eight volumes are the third annual published compendium of nucleic acid sequences included in the European Molecular Biology Laboratory Nucleotide Sequence Data Library and the GenBank Genetic Sequences Data Bank. Each volume surveys one or more subdivisions of the database. The volume subtitles are: Primates; Rodents; Other Vertebrates and Invertebrates, Plants and Organelles, Bacteria and Bacteriophage, Viruses, Structural RNA, Synthetic and Unannotated Sequences, and Database Directory and Master Indices.

  19. The nucleotide sequence of cowpea mosaic virus B RNA

    PubMed Central

    Lomonossoff, G.P.; Shanks, M.

    1983-01-01

    The complete sequence of the bottom component RNA (B RNA) of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) has been determined. Restriction enzyme fragments of double-stranded cDNA were cloned in M13 and the sequence of the inserts was determined by a combination of enzymatic and chemical sequencing techniques. Additional sequence information was obtained by primed synthesis on first strand cDNA. The complete sequence deduced is 5889 nucleotides long excluding the 3' poly(A), and contains an open reading frame sufficient to code for a polypeptide of mol. wt. 207 760. The coding region is flanked by a 5' leader sequence of 206 nucleotides and a 3' non-coding region of 82 residues which does not contain a polyadenylation signal. PMID:16453487

  20. Automated Identification of Nucleotide Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osman, Shariff; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Fox, George; Zhu, Dian-Hui

    2007-01-01

    STITCH is a computer program that processes raw nucleotide-sequence data to automatically remove unwanted vector information, perform reverse-complement comparison, stitch shorter sequences together to make longer ones to which the shorter ones presumably belong, and search against the user s choice of private and Internet-accessible public 16S rRNA databases. ["16S rRNA" denotes a ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence that is common to all organisms.] In STITCH, a template 16S rRNA sequence is used to position forward and reverse reads. STITCH then automatically searches known 16S rRNA sequences in the user s chosen database(s) to find the sequence most similar to (the sequence that lies at the smallest edit distance from) each spliced sequence. The result of processing by STITCH is the identification of the most similar well-described bacterium. Whereas previously commercially available software for analyzing genetic sequences operates on one sequence at a time, STITCH can manipulate multiple sequences simultaneously to perform the aforementioned operations. A typical analysis of several dozen sequences (length of the order of 103 base pairs) by use of STITCH is completed in a few minutes, whereas such an analysis performed by use of prior software takes hours or days.

  1. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 11 figures.

  2. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    2000-07-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  3. CDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  4. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  5. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 12 figs.

  6. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Namhai Chua; Kush, A.

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids.

  7. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  8. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  9. Long-range correlations in nucleotide sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, C.-K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Sciortino, F.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1992-03-01

    DNA SEQUENCES have been analysed using models, such as an it-step Markov chain, that incorporate the possibility of short-range nucleotide correlations1. We propose here a method for studying the stochastic properties of nucleotide sequences by constructing a 1:1 map of the nucleotide sequence onto a walk, which we term a 'DNA walk'. We then use the mapping to provide a quantitative measure of the correlation between nucleotides over long distances along the DNA chain. Thus we uncover in the nucleotide sequence a remarkably long-range power law correlation that implies a new scale-invariant property of DNA. We find such long-range correlations in intron-containing genes and in nontranscribed regulatory DNA sequences, but not in complementary DNA sequences or intron-less genes.

  10. Nucleotide sequence and expression of a Drosophila metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Lastowski-Perry, D; Otto, E; Maroni, G

    1985-02-10

    A Drosophila melanogaster cDNA clone was isolated based on its more intense hybridization to RNA sequences from copper-fed larvae than from control larval RNA. This clone showed strong hybridization to mouse metallothionein I cDNA at reduced stringency. Its nucleotide sequence includes an open reading segment which codes for a 40-amino acid protein; this protein is identified as metallothionein based on its similarity to the amino-terminal portion of mammalian and crab metalloproteins. The 10 cysteine residues present occur in five pairs of near vicinal cysteines (Cys-X-Cys). This cDNA sequence hybridized to a 400-nucleotide polyadenylated RNA whose presence in the cells of the alimentary canal of larvae was stimulated by ingestion of cadmium or copper; in other tissues this RNA was present at much lower levels. Mercury, silver, and zinc induced metallothionein to a lesser extent. The level of metallothionein RNA increased very soon after the initiation of metal treatment and reached a maximum after approximately 36 h. PMID:2578462

  11. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a novel human P2 nucleotide receptor.

    PubMed

    Southey, M C; Hammet, F; Hutchins, A M; Paidhungat, M; Somers, G R; Venter, D J

    1996-11-11

    A novel human P2 nucleotide receptor has been cloned from a T-cell cDNA library. The predicted amino acid sequence shows characteristics of a G-protein-coupled receptor, and shares 88% homology with a recently characterised rat P2 nucleotide receptor sequence. Distinctive features include an extremely short cytoplasmic tail with only one putative protein kinase C phosphorylation site. Northern blot analysis revealed a 1.9 kb transcript expressed in the placenta. PMID:8950181

  12. Statistical analysis of nucleotide sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Stückle, E E; Emmrich, C; Grob, U; Nielsen, P J

    1990-01-01

    In order to scan nucleic acid databases for potentially relevant but as yet unknown signals, we have developed an improved statistical model for pattern analysis of nucleic acid sequences by modifying previous methods based on Markov chains. We demonstrate the importance of selecting the appropriate parameters in order for the method to function at all. The model allows the simultaneous analysis of several short sequences with unequal base frequencies and Markov order k not equal to 0 as is usually the case in databases. As a test of these modifications, we show that in E. coli sequences there is a bias against palindromic hexamers which correspond to known restriction enzyme recognition sites. PMID:2251125

  13. The International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Guy; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2016-01-01

    The International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC; http://www.insdc.org) comprises three global partners committed to capturing, preserving and providing comprehensive public-domain nucleotide sequence information. The INSDC establishes standards, formats and protocols for data and metadata to make it easier for individuals and organisations to submit their nucleotide data reliably to public archives. This work enables the continuous, global exchange of information about living things. Here we present an update of the INSDC in 2015, including data growth and diversification, new standards and requirements by publishers for authors to submit their data to the public archives. The INSDC serves as a model for data sharing in the life sciences. PMID:26657633

  14. Nucleotide sequence of 3' untranslated portion of human alpha globin mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J T; deRiel, J K; Forget, B G; Marotta, C A; Weissman, S M

    1977-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of 75 nucleotides of the 3'-untranslated portion of normal human alpha globin mRNA which corresponds to the elongated amino acid sequence of the chain termination mutant Hb Constant Spring. This was accomplished by sequence analysis of cDNA fragments obtained by restriction endonuclease or T4 endonuclease IV cleavage of human globin cDNA synthesized from globin mRNA by use of viral reverse transcriptase. Analysis of cRNA synthesized from cDNA by use of RNA polymerase provided additional confirmatory sequence information. Possible polymorphism has been identified at one site of the sequence. Our sequence overlaps with, and extends the sequence of 43 nucleotides determined by Proudfood and coworkers for the very 3'-terminal portion of human alpha globin mRNA. The complete 3'-untranslated sequence of human alpha globin mRNA (112 nucleotides including termination codon) shows little homology to that of the human or rabbit beta globin mRNAs except for the presence of the hexanucleotide sequence AAUAAA which is found in most eukaryotic mRNAs near the 3'-terminal poly (A). Images PMID:909779

  15. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for human cathepsin D.

    PubMed Central

    Faust, P L; Kornfeld, S; Chirgwin, J M

    1985-01-01

    An 1110-base-pair cDNA clone for human cathepsin D was obtained by screening a lambda gt10 human hepatoma G2 cDNA library with a human renin exon 3 genomic fragment. Poly(A)+ RNA blot analysis with this cathepsin D clone demonstrated a message length of about 2.2 kilobases. The partial clone was used to screen a size-selected human kidney cDNA library, from which two cathepsin D recombinant plasmids with inserts of about 2200 and 2150 base pairs were obtained. The nucleotide sequences of these clones and of the lambda gt10 clone were determined. The amino acid sequence predicted from the cDNA sequence shows that human cathepsin D consists of 412 amino acids with 20 and 44 amino acids in a pre- and a prosegment, respectively. The mature protein region shows 87% amino acid identity with porcine cathepsin D but differs in having nine additional amino acids. Two of these are at the COOH terminus; the other seven are positioned between the previously determined junction for the light and heavy chains of porcine cathepsin D. A high degree of sequence homology was observed between human cathepsin D and other aspartyl proteases, suggesting a conservation of three-dimensional structure in this family of proteins. Images PMID:3927292

  16. Expressed sequence tags of Chinese cabbage flower bud cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, C O; Kim, H Y; Kim, M G; Lee, S I; Chung, W S; Park, S H; Hwang, I; Cho, M J

    1996-01-01

    We randomly selected and partially sequenced cDNA clones from a library of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis) flower bud cDNAs. Out of 1216 expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 904 cDNA clones were unique or nonredundant. Five hundred eighty-eight clones (48.4%) had sequence homology to functionally defined genes at the peptide level. Only 5 clones encoded known flower-specific proteins. Among the cDNAs with no similarity to known protein sequences (628), 184 clones had significant similarity to nucleotide sequences registered in the databases. Among these 184 clones, 142 exhibited similarities at the nucleotide level only with plant ESTs. Also, sequence similarities were evident between these 142 ESTs and their matching ESTs when compared using the deduced amino acid sequences. Therefore, it is possible that the anonymous ESTs encode plant-specific ubiquitous proteins. Our extensive EST analysis of genes expressed in floral organs not only contributes to the understanding of the dynamics of genome expression patterns in floral organs but also adds data to the repertoire of all genomic genes. PMID:8787028

  17. Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage fd DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, E; Sommer, R; Auerswald, E A; Kurz, C; Zink, B; Osterburg, G; Schaller, H; Sugimoto, K; Sugisaki, H; Okamoto, T; Takanami, M

    1978-01-01

    The sequence of the 6,408 nucleotides of bacteriophage fd DNA has been determined. This allows to deduce the exact organisation of the filamentous phage genome and provides easy access to DNA segments of known structure and function. PMID:745987

  18. [Construction and sequencing of full-length cDNA of peste des petits ruminants virus].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jun-Jun; Dou, Yong-Xi; Zhang, Hai-Rui; Mao, Li; Meng, Xue-Lian; Luo, Xuo-Nong; Cai, Xue-Peng

    2010-07-01

    To develop a reverse genetics system of Peste des petits ruminants virus(PPRV), five pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed on the basis of the full-length genomic sequence of PPRV Nigeria 75/ 1 strain. Using RT-PCR technique, five over-lapping cDNA fragments, designated as JF1, JF2, JF3, JF4 and JF5, respectively, were amplified, followed by cloning into pcDNA3.1(+)vector. An AscI restriction enzyme site and a T7 promoter sequence were introduced immediately upstream of 5'-end, while a PacI restriction enzyme site was engineered downstream of 3'-end. Using pok12 as a plasmid vector, the full-length cDNA clone pok12-PPRV of Nigeria 75/1 was assembled by connecting the five cDNA fragments via the unique restriction endonuclease site of PPRV genome. The resultant nucleotide sequence of the PPRV Nigeria 75/1 strain in the study was compared with other members of genus morbillivirus, and phylogenetic analysis was used to examine the evolutionary relationships. The results showed that PPRV Nigeria 75/ 1 was antigenically closely related to Rinderpest virus and Measles virus. Successful construction of full-length cDNA clone of PPRV Nigeria 75/1 strain lays the basis rescuing PPRV effectively and enables further research of PPRV at molecular level. PMID:20836386

  19. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of Tn10

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Ronald; Sewitz, Sven; Lipkow, Karen; Crellin, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Tn10 has been determined. The dinucleotide signature and percent G+C of the sequence had no discontinuities, indicating that Tn10 constitutes a homogeneous unit. The new sequence contained three new open reading frames corresponding to a glutamate permease, repressors of heavy metal resistance operons, and a hypothetical protein in Bacillus subtilis. The glutamate permease was fully functional when expressed, but Tn10 did not protect Escherichia coli from the toxic effects of various metals. PMID:10781570

  20. The multiple codes of nucleotide sequences.

    PubMed

    Trifonov, E N

    1989-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences carry genetic information of many different kinds, not just instructions for protein synthesis (triplet code). Several codes of nucleotide sequences are discussed including: (1) the translation framing code, responsible for correct triplet counting by the ribosome during protein synthesis; (2) the chromatin code, which provides instructions on appropriate placement of nucleosomes along the DNA molecules and their spatial arrangement; (3) a putative loop code for single-stranded RNA-protein interactions. The codes are degenerate and corresponding messages are not only interspersed but actually overlap, so that some nucleotides belong to several messages simultaneously. Tandemly repeated sequences frequently considered as functionless "junk" are found to be grouped into certain classes of repeat unit lengths. This indicates some functional involvement of these sequences. A hypothesis is formulated according to which the tandem repeats are given the role of weak enhancer-silencers that modulate, in a copy number-dependent way, the expression of proximal genes. Fast amplification and elimination of the repeats provides an attractive mechanism of species adaptation to a rapidly changing environment. PMID:2673451

  1. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Stefanie; Touchton, Greg; Wynn, Jessica; Geng, Tuoyu; Chong, Nelson W.

    2005-01-01

    The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences designated to be on the Z_random, while one matched a W chromosome sequence and could be useful in cataloguing functionally important genes on this sex chromosome. Additionally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and validated in 10 ESTs that showed 98% or higher sequence similarity to known chicken genes. Here, we have described resources that may be useful in comparative and functional genomic analysis of genes expressed in an important organ, the pineal gland, in a model and agriculturally important organism. PMID:18629218

  2. cDNA sequences of two apolipoproteins from lamprey

    SciTech Connect

    Pontes, M.; Xu, X.; Graham, D.; Riley, M.; Doolittle, R.F.

    1987-03-24

    The messages for two small but abundant apolipoproteins found in lamprey blood plasma were cloned with the aid of oligonucleotide probes based on amino-terminal sequences. In both cases, numerous clones were identified in a lamprey liver cDNA library, consistent with the great abundance of these proteins in lamprey blood. One of the cDNAs (LAL1) has a coding region of 105 amino acids that corresponds to a 21-residue signal peptide, a putative 8-residue propeptide, and the 76-residue mature protein found in blood. The other cDNA (LAL2) codes for a total of 191 residues, the first 23 of which constitute a signal peptide. The two proteins, which occur in the high-density lipoprotein fraction of ultracentrifuged plasma, have amino acid compositions similar to those of apolipoproteins found in mammalian blood; computer analysis indicates that the sequences are largely helix-permissive. When the sequences were searched against an amino acid sequence data base, rat apolipoprotein IV was the best matching candidate in both cases. Although a reasonable alignment can be made with that sequence and LAL1, definitive assignment of the two lamprey proteins to typical mammalian classes cannot be made at this point.

  3. Large-scale sequencing based on full-length-enriched cDNA libraries in pigs: contribution to annotation of the pig genome draft sequence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Along with the draft sequencing of the pig genome, which has been completed by an international consortium, collection of the nucleotide sequences of genes expressed in various tissues and determination of entire cDNA sequences are necessary for investigations of gene function. The sequences of expressed genes are also useful for genome annotation, which is important for isolating the genes responsible for particular traits. Results We performed a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis in pigs by using 32 full-length-enriched cDNA libraries derived from 28 kinds of tissues and cells, including seven tissues (brain, cerebellum, colon, hypothalamus, inguinal lymph node, ovary, and spleen) derived from pigs that were cloned from a sow subjected to genome sequencing. We obtained more than 330,000 EST reads from the 5′-ends of the cDNA clones. Comparison with human and bovine gene catalogs revealed that the ESTs corresponded to at least 15,000 genes. cDNA clones representing contigs and singlets generated by assembly of the EST reads were subjected to full-length determination of inserts. We have finished sequencing 31,079 cDNA clones corresponding to more than 12,000 genes. Mapping of the sequences of these cDNA clones on the draft sequence of the pig genome has indicated that the clones are derived from about 15,000 independent loci on the pig genome. Conclusions ESTs and cDNA sequences derived from full-length-enriched libraries are valuable for annotation of the draft sequence of the pig genome. This information will also contribute to the exploration of promoter sequences on the genome and to molecular biology-based analyses in pigs. PMID:23150988

  4. 70-Kilodalton heat shock polypeptides from rainbow trout: characterization of cDNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Kothary, R K; Jones, D; Candido, E P

    1984-01-01

    RTG-2 cells, a line of fibroblasts from rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii), are induced to synthesize a distinct set of heat-shock polypeptides after exposure to elevated temperature or to low concentrations of sodium arsenite. We isolated and characterized two cDNA sequences, THS70.7 and THS70.14, encoding partial information for two distinct species of 70-kilodalton heat shock polypeptide (hsp70) from these cells. These sequences are identical at 73.3% of the nucleotide positions in their regions of overlap, and their degree of sequence conservation at the polypeptide level is 88.1%. The two derived trout hsp70 polypeptide sequences show extensive homology with derived amino acid sequences for hsp70 polypeptides from Drosophila melanogaster and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Northern blot analysis of RNA from arsenite-induced RTG-2 cells, with the trout hsp70 cDNAs as probes, revealed the presence of three hsp70 mRNA species. Southern blot analysis of trout testis DNA cleaved with various restriction endonucleases revealed a small number of bands hybridizing to the hsp70 cDNAs, suggesting the existence of a small family of hsp70 genes in this species. Finally, trout hsp70 cDNA sequences cross-hybridized with restriction fragments in genomic DNA from HeLa cells, bovine liver, Caenorhabditis elegans, and D. melanogaster. Images PMID:6092938

  5. Cloning and sequencing of chloroperoxidase cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Fang, G H; Kenigsberg, P; Axley, M J; Nuell, M; Hager, L P

    1986-01-01

    An oligod-d(T) 12-18 primed cDNA library has been prepared from Caldariomyces fumago mRNA. A clone containing a full-length insert was sequenced on the supercoiled plasmid, pBR322. The complete primary sequence of chloroperoxidase has been derived. We have also determined about 73% of the peptide sequence by amino acid sequencing. The DNA sequence data matches all of the available known peptide sequences. The mature polypeptide contains 300 amino acids having a combined molecular weight of 32,974 daltons. A putative signal peptide of 21 amino acids is proposed from DNA sequence data. The chloroperoxidase gene encodes three potential glycosylation sites recognized as Asn-X-Thr/Ser sequences. Three cysteine residues are found in the protein sequence. A small region around Cys87 bears a minimal homology to the active site of cytochrome P450cam. No other heme protein homologues can be detected. We propose that Cys87 serves as a thiolate ligand to the iron of heme prosthetic group. A rare arginine codon, AGG, is used three times out of twelve in contrast to the very infrequent use of this codon in E. coli or yeast. PMID:3774552

  6. Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia) corticotropin-releasing hormone: cDNA sequence and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    van Enckevort, F H; Pepels, P P; Leunissen, J A; Martens, G J; Wendelaar Bonga, S E; Balm, P H

    2000-02-01

    Although hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is involved in the stress response in all vertebrate groups, only a limited number of studies on this neuroendocrine peptide deals with non-mammalian neuroendocrine systems. We determined the cDNA sequence of the CRH precursor of the teleost Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia) and studied the biological potency of the CRH peptide in a homologous teleost bioassay. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with degenerate and specific primers yielded fragments of tilapia CRH cDNA. Full-length CRH cDNA (988 nucleotides) was obtained by screening a tilapia hypothalamus cDNA library with the tilapia CRH PCR products. The precursor sequence (167 amino acids) contains a signal peptide, the CRH peptide and a motif conserved among all vertebrate CRH precursors. Tilapia CRH (41 aa) displays between 63% and 80% amino acid sequence identity to CRH from other vertebrates, whereas the degree of identity to members of the urotensin I/urocortin lineage is considerably lower. In a phylogenetic tree, based on alignment of all full CRH peptide precursors presently known, the three teleost CRH precursors (tilapia; sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka; white sucker, Catostomus commersoni) form a monophyletic group distinct from amphibian and mammalian precursors. Despite the differences between the primary structures of tilapia and rat CRH, maximally effective concentrations of tilapia and rat CRH were equally potent in stimulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and alpha-MSH release by tilapia pituitaries in vitro. The tilapia and salmon CRH sequences show that more variation exists between orthologous vertebrate CRH structures, and teleost CRHs in particular than previously recognized. Whether the structural differences reflect different mechanisms of action of this peptide in the stress response remains to be investigated. PMID:10718913

  7. Matrix genes of measles virus and canine distemper virus: cloning, nucleotide sequences, and deduced amino acid sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, W J; Englund, G; Richardson, C D; Rozenblatt, S; Lazzarini, R A

    1986-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences encoding the matrix (M) proteins of measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) were determined from cDNA clones containing these genes in their entirety. In both cases, single open reading frames specifying basic proteins of 335 amino acid residues were predicted from the nucleotide sequences. Both viral messages were composed of approximately 1,450 nucleotides and contained 400 nucleotides of presumptive noncoding sequences at their respective 3' ends. MV and CDV M-protein-coding regions were 67% homologous at the nucleotide level and 76% homologous at the amino acid level. Only chance homology was observed in the 400-nucleotide trailer sequences. Comparisons of the M protein sequences of MV and CDV with the sequence reported for Sendai virus (B. M. Blumberg, K. Rose, M. G. Simona, L. Roux, C. Giorgi, and D. Kolakofsky, J. Virol. 52:656-663; Y. Hidaka, T. Kanda, K. Iwasaki, A. Nomoto, T. Shioda, and H. Shibuta, Nucleic Acids Res. 12:7965-7973) indicated the greatest homology among these M proteins in the carboxyterminal third of the molecule. Secondary-structure analyses of this shared region indicated a structurally conserved, hydrophobic sequence which possibly interacted with the lipid bilayer. Images PMID:3754588

  8. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hev ein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    2000-07-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  9. Characterization of cDNA clones encoding rabbit and human serum paraoxonase: The mature protein retains its signal sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, C.; Richter, R.J.; Humbert, R.; Omiecinski, C.J.; Furlong, C.E. ); Chapline, C.; Crabb, J.W. )

    1991-10-22

    Serum paraoxonase hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. High serum paraoxonase levels appear to protect against the neurotoxic effects of organophosphorus substrates of this enzyme. The amino acid sequence accounting for 42% of rabbit paraoxonase was determined. From these data, two oligonucleotide probes were synthesized and used to screen a rabbit liver cDNA library. Human paraoxonase clones were isolated from a liver cDNA library by using the rabbit cDNA as a hybridization probe. Inserts from three of the longest clones were sequenced, and one full-length clone contained an open reading frame encoding 355 amino acids, four less than the rabbit paraoxonase protein. Amino-terminal sequences derived from purified rabbit and human paraoxonase proteins suggested that the signal sequence is retained, with the exception of the initiator methionine residue. Characterization of the rabbit and human paraoxonase cDNA clones confirms that the signal sequences are not processed, except for the N-terminal methionine residue. The rabbit and human cDNA clones demonstrate striking nucleotide and deduced amino acid similarities (greater than 85%), suggesting an important metabolic role and constraints on the evolution of this protein.

  10. cDNA cloning and sequencing of rat alpha sub 1 -macroglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Waermegaard, B.; Martin, N.; Johansson, S. )

    1992-03-03

    cDNA clones coding for the plasma protease inhibitor {alpha}{sub 1}-macroglobulin were isolated from a rat liver library. The obtained cDNA sequence contained 4701 nucleotides and had an open reading frame coding for a 1500 amino acid long protein, including a 24 amino acid signal peptide. The identity of the deduced protein sequence as {alpha}{sub 1}-macroglobulin was established by comparison with published peptide sequences of the protein. The mature protein shares 53% and 57% overall amino acid identity with the two other identified members of the rat {alpha}-macroglobulin family, {alpha}{sub 1}-inhibitor 3 and {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin. A sequence typical for an internal thiol ester was identified. Of the 24 cysteines, 23 are conserved with {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin. However, instead of the two most C-terminal cysteines in {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin, which forms a disulfide bridge in the receptor binding domain, {alpha}{sub 1}-macroglobulin contains phenylalanine. One MRNA species hybridizing with the {alpha}{sub 1}-macroglobulin probe was observed in rat and mouse liver RNA ({approximately} 6.2 kb), whereas no corresponding transcript was detected in RNA from human liver.

  11. Rat cellular retinol-binding protein: cDNA sequence and rapid retinol-dependent accumulation of mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, D R; Lloyd, R S; Chytil, F

    1987-01-01

    Cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) may be an important mediator of vitamin A action. We report here the identification of a cDNA clone corresponding to the rat CRBP gene. The cDNA is 695 nucleotides long, with an open reading frame corresponding to a protein of 134 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence is identical with that of rat CRBP. The nucleotide sequence shows 90.5% similarity with the human CRBP cDNA sequence. Genomic DNA analysis indicates that CRBP is present in one, or at most two, copies within the rat genome. Analysis of mRNA reveals a single species in every tissue tested and suggests that the isolated cDNA is full-length. Finally, when retinol-deficient rats are fed retinyl acetate for 4 hr, about 4-fold accumulation of CRBP-specific mRNA is observed in the lungs. This rapid effect suggests that the micronutrient retinol may directly influence the expression of its specific intracellular binding protein. Images PMID:3472205

  12. Insights into corn genes derived from large-scale cDNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, Nickolai N; Brover, Vyacheslav V; Freidin, Stanislav; Troukhan, Maxim E; Tatarinova, Tatiana V; Zhang, Hongyu; Swaller, Timothy J; Lu, Yu-Ping; Bouck, John; Flavell, Richard B; Feldmann, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    We present a large portion of the transcriptome of Zea mays, including ESTs representing 484,032 cDNA clones from 53 libraries and 36,565 fully sequenced cDNA clones, out of which 31,552 clones are non-redundant. These and other previously sequenced transcripts have been aligned with available genome sequences and have provided new insights into the characteristics of gene structures and promoters within this major crop species. We found that although the average number of introns per gene is about the same in corn and Arabidopsis, corn genes have more alternatively spliced isoforms. Examination of the nucleotide composition of coding regions reveals that corn genes, as well as genes of other Poaceae (Grass family), can be divided into two classes according to the GC content at the third position in the amino acid encoding codons. Many of the transcripts that have lower GC content at the third position have dicot homologs but the high GC content transcripts tend to be more specific to the grasses. The high GC content class is also enriched with intronless genes. Together this suggests that an identifiable class of genes in plants is associated with the Poaceae divergence. Furthermore, because many of these genes appear to be derived from ancestral genes that do not contain introns, this evolutionary divergence may be the result of horizontal gene transfer from species not only with different codon usage but possibly that did not have introns, perhaps outside of the plant kingdom. By comparing the cDNAs described herein with the non-redundant set of corn mRNAs in GenBank, we estimate that there are about 50,000 different protein coding genes in Zea. All of the sequence data from this study have been submitted to DDBJ/GenBank/EMBL under accession numbers EU940701-EU977132 (FLI cDNA) and FK944382-FL482108 (EST). PMID:18937034

  13. The nucleotide sequence and genome organization of strawberry mild yellow edge-associated potexvirus.

    PubMed

    Jelkmann, W; Maiss, E; Martin, R R

    1992-02-01

    The nucleotide sequence (5966 nucleotides) of cDNA clones of strawberry mild yellow edge-associated potexvirus was determined. The genome contains six open reading frames (ORFs) encoding putative proteins with Mrs of 149,423, 25,344, 11,576, 8079, 25,714 and 11,216. In the first three putative proteins and the coat protein considerable similarity was found to comparable polypeptides of the potexviruses potato virus X, clover yellow mosaic virus, narcissus mosaic virus, papaya mosaic virus, white clover mosaic virus and lily virus X. PMID:1339469

  14. WebGMAP: a web service for mapping and aligning cDNA sequences to genomes

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chun; Liu, Lin; Ji, Guoli

    2009-01-01

    The genomes of thousands of organisms are being sequenced, often with accompanying sequences of cDNAs or ESTs. One of the great challenges in bioinformatics is to make these genomic sequences and genome annotations accessible in a user-friendly manner to general biologists to address interesting biological questions. We have created an open-access web service called WebGMAP (http://www.bioinfolab.org/software/webgmap) that seamlessly integrates cDNA-genome alignment tools, such as GMAP, with easy-to-use data visualization and mining tools. This web service is intended to facilitate community efforts in improving genome annotation, determining accurate gene structures and their variations, and exploring important biological processes such as alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation. For routine sequence analysis, WebGMAP provides a web-based sequence viewer with many useful functions, including nucleotide positioning, six-frame translations, sequence reverse complementation, and imperfect motif detection and alignment. WebGMAP also provides users with the ability to sort, filter and search for individual cDNA sequences and cDNA-genome alignments. Our EST-Genome-Browser can display annotated gene structures and cDNA-genome alignments at scales from 100 to 50 000 nt. With its ability to highlight base differences between query cDNAs and the genome, our EST-Genome-Browser allows biologists to discover potential point or insertion-deletion variations from cDNA-genome alignments. PMID:19465381

  15. cDNA sequence, mRNA expression and genomic DNA of trypsinogen from the indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y C; Oppert, B; Kramer, K J; McGaughey, W H; Dowdy, A K

    2000-02-01

    Trypsin-like enzymes are major insect gut enzymes that digest dietary proteins and proteolytically activate insecticidal proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Resistance to Bt in a strain of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, was linked to the absence of a major trypsin-like proteinase (Oppert et al., 1997). In this study, trypsin-like proteinases, cDNA sequences, mRNA expression levels and genomic DNAs from Bt-susceptible and -resistant strains of the Indianmeal moth were compared. Proteinase activity blots of gut extracts indicated that the susceptible strain had two major trypsin-like proteinases, whereas the resistant strain had only one. Several trypsinogen-like cDNA clones were isolated and sequenced from cDNA libraries of both strains using a probe deduced from a conserved sequence for a serine proteinase active site. cDNAs of 852 nucleotides from the susceptible strain and 848 nucleotides from the resistant strain contained an open reading frame of 783 nucleotides which encoded a 261-amino acid trypsinogen-like protein. There was a single silent nucleotide difference between the two cDNAs in the open reading frame and the predicted amino acid sequence from the cDNA clones was most similar to sequences of trypsin-like proteinases from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, and the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. The encoded protein included amino acid sequence motifs of serine proteinase active sites, conserved cysteine residues, and both zymogen activation and signal peptides. Northern blotting analysis showed no major difference between the two strains in mRNA expression in fourth-instar larvae, indicating that transcription was similar in the strains. Southern blotting analysis revealed that the restriction sites for the trypsinogen genes from the susceptible and resistant strains were different. Based on an enzyme size comparison, the cDNA isolated in this study corresponded to the gene for the smaller of two

  16. Cataloging of the genes expressed in human keratinocytes: analysis of 607 randomly isolated cDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Konishi, K; Morishima, Y; Ueda, E; Kibe, Y; Nonomura, K; Yamanishi, K; Yasuno, H

    1994-07-29

    The partial nucleotide sequences of 607 cDNAs randomly isolated from a cDNA library of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes were determined by single pass sequencing. Homology search of the sequences to the non-redundant nucleotide databases revealed that 27% of the cDNAs matched registered human-or non-human genes encoding not only keratinocyte specific genes, but also a variety of functional proteins, the expression of which had not been identified in keratinocytes. Non-matching cDNAs covering 49% of the cDNAs were not homologous even to ESTs from other organs, suggesting that these cDNAs include novel genes expressed in the cells. The large scale sequencing of keratinocyte cDNAs provides a useful molecular source for research into biology and diseases of the skin. PMID:8048971

  17. The complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of pea streak virus (genus Carlavirus).

    PubMed

    Su, Li; Li, Zhengnan; Bernardy, Mike; Wiersma, Paul A; Cheng, Zhihui; Xiang, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Pea streak virus (PeSV) is a member of the genus Carlavirus in the family Betaflexiviridae. Here, the first complete genome sequence of PeSV was determined by deep sequencing of a cDNA library constructed from dsRNA extracted from a PeSV-infected sample and Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) PCR. The PeSV genome consists of 8041 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail and contains six open reading frames (ORFs). The putative peptide encoded by the PeSV ORF6 has an estimated molecular mass of 6.6 kDa and shows no similarity to any known proteins. This differs from typical carlaviruses, whose ORF6 encodes a 12- to 18-kDa cysteine-rich nucleic-acid-binding protein. PMID:26092422

  18. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) mitochondrial ATP synthase ATP5G1.

    PubMed

    Hou, W-R; Hou, Y-L; Ding, X; Wang, T

    2012-01-01

    The ATP5G1 gene is one of the three genes that encode mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit c of the proton channel. We cloned the cDNA and determined the genomic sequence of the ATP5G1 gene from the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using RT-PCR technology and touchdown-PCR, respectively. The cloned cDNA fragment contains an open reading frame of 411 bp encoding 136 amino acids; the length of the genomic sequence is of 1838 bp, containing three exons and two introns. Alignment analysis revealed that the nucleotide sequence and the deduced protein sequence are highly conserved compared to Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Bos taurus, and Sus scrofa. The homologies for nucleotide sequences of the giant panda ATP5G1 to those of these species are 93.92, 92.21, 92.46, 93.67, and 92.46%, respectively, and the homologies for amino acid sequences are 90.44, 95.59, 93.38, 94.12, and 91.91%, respectively. Topology prediction showed that there is one protein kinase C phosphorylation site, one casein kinase II phosphorylation site, five N-myristoylation sites, and one ATP synthase c subunit signature in the ATP5G1 protein of the giant panda. The cDNA of ATP5G1 was transfected into Escherichia coli, and the ATP5G1 fused with the N-terminally GST-tagged protein gave rise to accumulation of an expected 40-kDa polypeptide, which had the characteristics of the predicted protein. PMID:23007995

  19. Cost-Effective Sequencing of Full-Length cDNA Clones Powered by a De Novo-Reference Hybrid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, Sumio; Morishita, Shinichi; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Background Sequencing full-length cDNA clones is important to determine gene structures including alternative splice forms, and provides valuable resources for experimental analyses to reveal the biological functions of coded proteins. However, previous approaches for sequencing cDNA clones were expensive or time-consuming, and therefore, a fast and efficient sequencing approach was demanded. Methodology We developed a program, MuSICA 2, that assembles millions of short (36-nucleotide) reads collected from a single flow cell lane of Illumina Genome Analyzer to shotgun-sequence ∼800 human full-length cDNA clones. MuSICA 2 performs a hybrid assembly in which an external de novo assembler is run first and the result is then improved by reference alignment of shotgun reads. We compared the MuSICA 2 assembly with 200 pooled full-length cDNA clones finished independently by the conventional primer-walking using Sanger sequencers. The exon-intron structure of the coding sequence was correct for more than 95% of the clones with coding sequence annotation when we excluded cDNA clones insufficiently represented in the shotgun library due to PCR failure (42 out of 200 clones excluded), and the nucleotide-level accuracy of coding sequences of those correct clones was over 99.99%. We also applied MuSICA 2 to full-length cDNA clones from Toxoplasma gondii, to confirm that its ability was competent even for non-human species. Conclusions The entire sequencing and shotgun assembly takes less than 1 week and the consumables cost only ∼US$3 per clone, demonstrating a significant advantage over previous approaches. PMID:20479877

  20. cDNA sequences of variant forms of human placenta diamine oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Kim, J.; McIntire, S.

    1995-08-01

    Genes for two forms of human placenta diamine oxidase (dao) were cloned from a cDNA library and sequenced. One gene, pdao1, is identical in length to human kidney dao but differs from it by two bases in the coding region and differs slightly in the 3{prime} - and 5{prime}-noncoding regions. The second gene, pdao2, is nearly identical to these genes in the coding region, except that it has an extra 57-nucleotide coding segment near the 3{prime} end of this region. This segment corresponds to the contiguous sequence of the 3{prime} end of intron 3 of human kidney dao. pdao2 also differs significantly from pdao1 and human kidney dao in a 13-base sequence in the t{prime}-noncoding region. It is proposed that pdao1 and human kidney dao are polymorphic forms of the same allele. Whether pdao2 is a polymorph of these two is not certain, because of the significant differences in the coding and noncoding regions. pdao2 may represent a different allele. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Simplified computer programs for search of homology within nucleotide sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Kröger, M; Kröger-Block, A

    1984-01-01

    Four new computer programs for search of homology within nucleotide sequences are presented. The main scope of the program design is flexibility, independence of sequence length and the capability to be used by any molecular biologist without any prior computer experience. The programs offer a linear search, a search for maximal identity, an alignment along a given sequence and a search based on homology within the amino acid coding capacity of nucleotide sequences. The language is Fortran V. Copies are available on request. PMID:6546417

  2. Primary structure of bovine pituitary secretory protein I (chromogranin A) deduced from the cDNA sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, T.G.; Cohn, D.V.; Gorr, S.U.; Ornstein, D.L.; Kashdan, M.A.; Levine, M.A.

    1987-07-01

    Secretory protein I (SP-I), also referred to as chromogranin A, is an acidic glycoprotein that has been found in every tissue of endocrine and neuroendocrine origin examined but never in exocrine or epithelial cells. Its co-storage and co-secretion with peptide hormones and neurotransmitters suggest that it has an important endocrine or secretory function. The authors have isolated cDNA clones from a bovine pituitary lambdagt11 expression library using an antiserum to parathyroid SP-I. The largest clone (SP4B) hybridized to a transcript of 2.1 kilobases in RNA from parathyroid, pituitary, and adrenal medulla. Immunoblots of bacterial lysates derived from SP4B lysognes demonstrated specific antibody binding to an SP4B/..beta..-galactosidase fusion protein (160 kDa) with a cDNA-derived component of 46 kDa. Radioimmunoassay of the bacterial lystates with SP-I antiserum yielded parallel displacement curves of /sup 125/I-labeled SP-I by the SP4B lysate and authentic SP-I. SP4B contains a cDNA of 1614 nucleotides that encodes a 449-amino acid protein (calculated mass, 50 kDa). The nucleotide sequences of the pituitary SP-I cDNA and adrenal medullary SP-I cDNAs are nearly identical. Analysis of genomic DNA suggests that pituitary, adrenal, and parathyroid SP-I are products of the same gene.

  3. Nucleotide sequence of SHV-2 beta-lactamase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Garbarg-Chenon, A.; Godard, V.; Labia, R.; Nicolas, J.C. )

    1990-07-01

    The nucleotide sequence of plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase SHV-2 from Salmonella typhimurium (SHV-2pHT1) was determined. The gene was very similar to chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase LEN-1 of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Compared with the sequence of the Escherichia coli SHV-2 enzyme (SHV-2E.coli) obtained by protein sequencing, the deduced amino acid sequence of SHV-2pHT1 differed by three amino acid substitutions.

  4. Acetylcholinesterase of Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae): cDNA sequence, baculovirus expression, and biochemical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2193-nucleotide cDNA encoding acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) was expressed in the baculovirus system. The open reading frame encoded a 91 amino acid secretion signal peptide and a 613 amino acid mature protein with 96% and 94% identity to the AChEs of Haema...

  5. Amino acid sequence of the serine-repeat antigen (SERA) of Plasmodium falciparum determined from cloned cDNA.

    PubMed

    Bzik, D J; Li, W B; Horii, T; Inselburg, J

    1988-09-01

    We report the isolation of cDNA clones for a Plasmodium falciparum gene that encodes the complete amino acid sequence of a previously identified exported blood stage antigen. The Mr of this antigen protein had been determined by sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, by different workers, to be 113,000, 126,000, and 140,000. We show, by cDNA nucleotide sequence analysis, that this antigen gene encodes a 989 amino acid protein (111 kDa) that contains a potential signal peptide, but not a membrane anchor domain. In the FCR3 strain the serine content of the protein was 11%, of which 57% of the serine residues were localized within a 201 amino acid sequence that included 35 consecutive serine residues. The protein also contained three possible N-linked glycosylation sites and numerous possible O-linked glycosylation sites. The mRNA was abundant during late trophozoite-schizont parasite stages. We propose to identity this antigen, which had been called p126, by the acronym SERA, serine-repeat antigen, based on its complete structure. The usefulness of the cloned cDNA as a source of a possible malaria vaccine is considered in view of the previously demonstrated ability of the antigen to induce parasite-inhibitory antibodies and a protective immune response in Saimiri monkeys. PMID:2847041

  6. Reading biological processes from nucleotide sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, Anand

    Cellular processes have traditionally been investigated by techniques of imaging and biochemical analysis of the molecules involved. The recent rapid progress in our ability to manipulate and read nucleic acid sequences gives us direct access to the genetic information that directs and constrains biological processes. While sequence data is being used widely to investigate genotype-phenotype relationships and population structure, here we use sequencing to understand biophysical mechanisms. We present work on two different systems. First, in chapter 2, we characterize the stochastic genetic editing mechanism that produces diverse T-cell receptors in the human immune system. We do this by inferring statistical distributions of the underlying biochemical events that generate T-cell receptor coding sequences from the statistics of the observed sequences. This inferred model quantitatively describes the potential repertoire of T-cell receptors that can be produced by an individual, providing insight into its potential diversity and the probability of generation of any specific T-cell receptor. Then in chapter 3, we present work on understanding the functioning of regulatory DNA sequences in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here we use experiments that measure the transcriptional activity of large libraries of mutagenized promoters and enhancers and infer models of the sequence-function relationship from this data. For the bacterial promoter, we infer a physically motivated 'thermodynamic' model of the interaction of DNA-binding proteins and RNA polymerase determining the transcription rate of the downstream gene. For the eukaryotic enhancers, we infer heuristic models of the sequence-function relationship and use these models to find synthetic enhancer sequences that optimize inducibility of expression. Both projects demonstrate the utility of sequence information in conjunction with sophisticated statistical inference techniques for dissecting underlying biophysical

  7. Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of cloned human and mouse preprocathepsin B cDNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, S J; San Segundo, B; McCormick, M B; Steiner, D F

    1986-01-01

    Cathepsin B is a lysosomal thiol proteinase that may have additional extralysosomal functions. To further our investigations on the structure, mode of biosynthesis, and intracellular sorting of this enzyme, we have determined the complete coding sequences for human and mouse preprocathepsin B by using cDNA clones isolated from human hepatoma and kidney phage libraries. The nucleotide sequences predict that the primary structure of preprocathepsin B contains 339 amino acids organized as follows: a 17-residue NH2-terminal prepeptide sequence followed by a 62-residue propeptide region, 254 residues in mature (single chain) cathepsin B, and a 6-residue extension at the COOH terminus. A comparison of procathepsin B sequences from three species (human, mouse, and rat) reveals that the homology between the propeptides is relatively conserved with a minimum of 68% sequence identity. In particular, two conserved sequences in the propeptide that may be functionally significant include a potential glycosylation site and the presence of a single cysteine at position 59. Comparative analysis of the three sequences also suggests that processing of procathepsin B is a multistep process, during which enzymatically active intermediate forms may be generated. The availability of the cDNA clones will facilitate the identification of possible active or inactive intermediate processive forms as well as studies on the transcriptional regulation of the cathepsin B gene. PMID:3463996

  8. 5'-terminal nucleotide sequences of mammalian type C helper viruses are conserved in the genomes of replication-defective mammalian transforming viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Tronick, S R; Cabradilla, C D; Aaronson, S A; Haseltine, W A

    1978-01-01

    The RNAs of replication-defective murine and primate type C transforming viruses were analyzed for the presence of nucleotide sequences homologous to the genomes of their respective helper type C viruses by using DNAs complementary (cDNA) to either the 5'-terminal (cDNA5') or total (cDNAtotal) nucleotide sequences of the helper virus RNA. The defective viruses examined have previously been shown to vary in their ability to express helper viral gag gene proteins. With cDNAtotal as a probe, these transforming viruses were shown to vary in their representation of helper sequences (15 to 60% hybridization of cDNAtotal). In striking contrast, 5'-terminal-specific sequences of the helper virus were conserved in the RNAs of every transforming virus tested (is greater than 80% hybridization of cDNA5'). These findings suggest a critical role for these sequences in the life cycle of the defective transforming virus. PMID:209210

  9. Nucleotide sequence of the gene for human prothrombin

    SciTech Connect

    Degen, S.J.F.; Davie, E.W.

    1987-09-22

    A human genomic DNA library was screened for the gene coding for human prothrombin with a cDNA coding for the human protein. Eighty-one positive lambda phage were identified, and three were chosen for further characterization. These three phage hybridized with 5' and/or 3' probes prepared from the prothrombin cDNA. The complete DNA sequence of 21 kilobases of the human prothrombin gene was determined and included a 4.9-kilobase region that was previously sequenced. The gene for human prothrombin contains 14 exons separated by 13 intervening sequences. The exons range in size from 25 to 315 base pairs, while the introns range from 84 to 9447 base pairs. Ninety percent of the gene is composed of intervening sequence. All the intron splice junctions are consistent with sequences found in other eukaryotic genes, except for the presence of GC rather than GT on the 5' end of intervening sequence L. Thirty copies of Alu repetitive DNA and two copies of partial KpnI repeats were identified in clusters within several of the intervening sequences, and these repeats represent 40% of the DNA sequence of the gene. The size, distribution, and sequence homology of the introns within the gene were the compared to those of the genes for the other vitamin K dependent proteins and several other serine proteases.

  10. The complete nucleotide sequence and structure of the gene encoding bovine phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Batter, D K; D'Mello, S R; Turzai, L M; Hughes, H B; Gioio, A E; Kaplan, B B

    1988-03-01

    A cDNA clone for bovine adrenal phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) was used to screen a Charon 28 genomic library. One phage was identified, designated lambda P1, which included the entire PNMT gene. Construction of a restriction map, with subsequent Southern blot analysis, allowed the identification of exon-containing fragments. Dideoxy sequence analysis of these fragments, and several more further upstream, indicates that the bovine PNMT gene is 1,594 base pairs in length, consisting of three exons and two introns. The transcription initiation site was identified by two independent methods and is located approximately 12 base pairs upstream from the ATG translation start site. The 3' untranslated region is 88 base pairs in length and contains the expected polyadenylation signal (AATAAA). A putative promoter sequence (TATA box) is located about 25 base pairs upstream from the transcription initiation site. Computer comparison of the nucleotide sequence data with the consensus sequences of known regulatory elements revealed potential binding sites for glucocorticoid receptors and the Sp1 regulatory protein in the 5' flanking region of the gene. Additionally, comparison of the sequence of the exons of the PNMT gene with cDNA sequences for other enzymes involved in biogenic amine synthesis revealed no significant homology, indicating that PNMT is not a member of a multigene family of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:3379652

  11. Illumina sequencing of green stink bug nymph and adult cdna to identify potential rnai gene targets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole-body transcriptomes for nymphs and adults of the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say), were sequenced on an Illumina® Genome Analyzer IIx sequencer. The insects were collected from sites in North Carolina and Virginia, USA. The cDNA library for each sample was sequenced on one lane of an...

  12. Sequence rearrangement and duplication of double stranded fibronectin cDNA probably occurring during cDNA synthesis by AMV reverse transcriptase and Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I.

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, J B; Pastan, I; de Crombrugghe, B

    1980-01-01

    Two cloned cDNAs derived from the mRNA for cell fibronectin have been sequenced, providing evidence that transcription with AMV reverse transcriptase or Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I may not always result in double stranded cDNA that is exactly homologous with its mRNA template. Instead, the sequences of these cloned cDNAs are consistent with the duplication and rearrangement of sequences during synthesis of double stranded cDNA. PMID:6159581

  13. DNA sequence representation by trianders and determinative degree of nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Duplij, Diana; Duplij, Steven

    2005-01-01

    A new version of DNA walks, where nucleotides are regarded unequal in their contribution to a walk is introduced, which allows us to study thoroughly the “fine structure” of nucleotide sequences. The approach is based on the assumption that nucleotides have an inner abstract characteristic, the determinative degree, which reflects genetic code phenomenological properties and is adjusted to nucleotides physical properties. We consider each codon position independently, which gives three separate walks characterized by different angles and lengths, and that such an object is called triander which reflects the “strength” of branch. A general method for identifying DNA sequence “by triander” which can be treated as a unique “genogram” (or “gene passport”) is proposed. The two- and three-dimensional trianders are considered. The difference of sequences fine structure in genes and the intergenic space is shown. A clear triplet signal in coding sequences was found which is absent in the intergenic space and is independent from the sequence length. This paper presents the topological classification of trianders which can allow us to provide a detailed working out signatures of functionally different genomic regions. PMID:16052707

  14. Characterization of long cDNA clones from human adult spleen. II. The complete sequences of 81 cDNA clones.

    PubMed

    Jikuya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Jun; Kikuno, Reiko; Hirosawa, Makoto; Nagase, Takahiro; Nomura, Nobuo; Ohara, Osamu

    2003-02-28

    To accumulate information on the coding sequences (CDSs) of unidentified genes, we have conducted a sequencing project of human long cDNA clones. Both the end sequences of approximately 10,000 cDNA clones from two size-fractionated human spleen cDNA libraries (average sizes of 4.5 kb and 5.6 kb) were determined by single-pass sequencing to select cDNAs with unidentified sequences. We herein present the entire sequences of 81 cDNA clones, most of which were selected by two approaches based on their protein-coding potentialities in silico: Fifty-eight cDNA clones were selected as those having protein-coding potentialities at the 5'-end of single-pass sequences by applying the GeneMark analysis; and 20 cDNA clones were selected as those expected to encode proteins larger than 100 amino acid residues by analysis of the human genome sequences flanked by both the end sequences of cDNAs using the GENSCAN gene prediction program. In addition to these newly identified cDNAs, three cDNA clones were isolated by colony hybridization experiments using probes corresponding to known gene sequences since these cDNAs are likely to contain considerable amounts of new information regarding the genes already annotated. The sequence data indicated that the average sizes of the inserts and corresponding CDSs of cDNA clones analyzed here were 5.0 kb and 2.0 kb (670 amino acid residues), respectively. From the results of homology and motif searches against the public databases, functional categories of the 29 predicted gene products could be assigned; 86% of these predicted gene products (25 gene products) were classified into proteins relating to cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid management, and cell structure/motility. PMID:12693554

  15. Moss Phylogeny Reconstruction Using Nucleotide Pangenome of Complete Mitogenome Sequences.

    PubMed

    Goryunov, D V; Nagaev, B E; Nikolaev, M Yu; Alexeevski, A V; Troitsky, A V

    2015-11-01

    Stability of composition and sequence of genes was shown earlier in 13 mitochondrial genomes of mosses (Rensing, S. A., et al. (2008) Science, 319, 64-69). It is of interest to study the evolution of mitochondrial genomes not only at the gene level, but also on the level of nucleotide sequences. To do this, we have constructed a "nucleotide pangenome" for mitochondrial genomes of 24 moss species. The nucleotide pangenome is a set of aligned nucleotide sequences of orthologous genome fragments covering the totality of all genomes. The nucleotide pangenome was constructed using specially developed new software, NPG-explorer (NPGe). The stable part of the mitochondrial genome (232 stable blocks) is shown to be, on average, 45% of its length. In the joint alignment of stable blocks, 82% of positions are conserved. The phylogenetic tree constructed with the NPGe program is in good correlation with other phylogenetic reconstructions. With the NPGe program, 30 blocks have been identified with repeats no shorter than 50 bp. The maximal length of a block with repeats is 140 bp. Duplications in the mitochondrial genomes of mosses are rare. On average, the genome contains about 500 bp in large duplications. The total length of insertions and deletions was determined in each genome. The losses and gains of DNA regions are rather active in mitochondrial genomes of mosses, and such rearrangements presumably can be used as additional markers in the reconstruction of phylogeny. PMID:26615445

  16. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote and amastigote cDNA libraries.

    PubMed

    Agüero, Fernán; Abdellah, Karim Ben; Tekiel, Valeria; Sánchez, Daniel O; González, Antonio

    2004-08-01

    We have generated 2771 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from two cDNA libraries of Trypanosoma cruzi CL-Brener. The libraries were constructed from trypomastigote and amastigotes, using a spliced leader primer to synthesize the cDNA second strand, thus selecting for full-length cDNAs. Since the libraries were not normalized nor pre-screened, we compared the representation of transcripts between the two using a statistical test and identify a subset of transcripts that show apparent differential representation. A non-redundant set of 1619 reconstructed transcripts was generated by sequence clustering. This dataset was used to perform similarity searches against protein and nucleotide databases. Based on these searches, 339 sequences could be assigned a putative identity. One thousand one-hundred and sixteen sequences in the non-redundant clustered dataset (68.8%) are new expression tags, not represented in the T. cruzi epimastigote ESTs that are in the public databases. Additional information is provided online at http://genoma.unsam.edu.ar/projects/tram. To the best of our knowledge these are the first ESTs reported for the life cycle stages of T. cruzi that occur in the vertebrate host. PMID:15478800

  17. H3 and H4 histone cDNA sequences from Xenopus: a sequence comparison of H4 genes.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, P C; Woodland, H R

    1982-01-01

    Ovarian poly (A) + RNA from Xenopus laevis and Xenopus borealis was used to construct two cDNA libraries which were screened for histone sequences. cDNA clones to H4 mRNA were obtained from both species and an H3 cDNA clone from Xenopus laevis. The complete DNA sequences of these clones have been determined and are presented. These new sequences are compared with other H3 and H4 DNA sequences both in the coding and 3' noncoding regions. We find that there is considerable non-random codon usage in ten H4 genes. In addition there are some sequence similarities in the 3' noncoding regions of H3 and H4 genes. PMID:6896750

  18. Complete nucleotide sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus (NLVCV) was determined to be 4,172 nucleotides in length containing four open reading frames ORFs with a similar genetic organization and conceptual translations of virus species in the genus Carmovirus, family Tombusviridae. The orde...

  19. Sequence Characterization of cDNA Sequence of Encoding of an Antimicrobial Peptide With No Disulfide Bridge from the Iranian Mesobuthus Eupeus Venomous Glands

    PubMed Central

    Farajzadeh-Sheikh, Ahmad; Jolodar, Abbas; Ghaemmaghami, Shamsedin

    2013-01-01

    Background Scorpion venom glands produce some antimicrobial peptides (AMP) that can rapidly kill a broad range of microbes and have additional activities that impact on the quality and effectiveness of innate responses and inflammation. Objectives In this study, we reported the identification of a cDNA sequence encoding cysteine-free antimicrobial peptides isolated from venomous glands of this species. Materials and Methods Total RNA was extracted from the Iranian mesobuthus eupeus venom glands, and cDNA was synthesized by using the modified oligo (dT). The cDNA was used as the template for applying Semi-nested RT- PCR technique. PCR Products were used for direct nucleotide sequencing and the results were compared with Gen Bank database. Results A 213 BP cDNA fragment encoding the entire coding region of an antimicrobial toxin from the Iranian scorpion M. Eupeus venom glands were isolated. The full-length sequence of the coding region was 210 BP contained an open reading frame of 70 amino with a predicted molecular mass of 7970.48 Da and theoretical Pi of 9.10. The open reading frame consists of 210 BP encoding a precursor of 70 amino acid residues, including a signal peptide of 23 residues a propertied of 7 residues, and a mature peptide of 34 residues with no disulfide bridge. The peptide has detectable sequence identity to the Lesser Asian mesobuthus eupeus MeVAMP-2 (98%), MeVAMP-9 (60%) and several previously described AMPs from other scorpion venoms including mesobuthus martensii (94%) and buthus occitanus Israelis (82%). Conclusions The secondary structure of the peptide mainly consisted of α-helical structure which was generally conserved by previously reported scorpion counterparts. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the Iranian MeAMP-like toxin was similar but not identical with that of venom antimicrobial peptides from lesser Asian scorpion mesobuthus eupeus. PMID:23486842

  20. cDNA sequence analysis of a 29-kDa cysteine-rich surface antigen of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Torian, B.E.; Stroeher, V.L.; Stamm, W.E. ); Flores, B.M. ); Hagen, F.S. )

    1990-08-01

    A {lambda}gt11 cDNA library was constructed from poly(U)-Spharose-selected Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite RNA in order to clone and identify surface antigens. The library was screened with rabbit polyclonal anti-E. histolytica serum. A 700-base-pair cDNA insert was isolated and the nucleotide sequence was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA revealed a cysteine-rich protein. DNA hybridizations showed that the gene was specific to E. histolytica since the cDNA probe reacted with DNA from four axenic strains of E. histolytica but did not react with DNA from Entamoeba invadens, Acanthamoeba castellanii, or Trichomonas vaginalis. The insert was subcloned into the expression vector pGEX-1 and the protein was expressed as a fusion with the C terminus of glutathione S-transferase. Purified fusion protein was used to generate 22 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a mouse polyclonal antiserum specific for the E. histolytica portion of the fusion protein. A 29-kDa protein was identified as a surface antigen when mAbs were used to immunoprecipitate the antigen from metabolically {sup 35}S-labeled live trophozoites. The surface location of the antigen was corroborated by mAb immunoprecipitation of a 29-kDa protein from surface-{sup 125}I-labeled whole trophozoites as well as by the reaction of mAbs with live trophozoites in an indirect immunofluorescence assay performed at 4{degree}C. Immunoblotting with mAbs demonstrated that the antigen was present on four axenic isolates tested. mAbs recognized epitopes on the 29-kDa native antigen on some but not all clinical isolates tested.

  1. Overlapping open reading frames revealed by complete nucleotide sequencing of turnip yellow mosaic virus genomic RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Morch, M D; Boyer, J C; Haenni, A L

    1988-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) genomic RNA has been determined on a set of overlapping cDNA clones using a sequential sequencing strategy. The RNA is 6318 nucleotides long, excluding the cap structure. The genome organization deduced from the sequence confirms previous results of in vitro translation. A novel open reading frame (ORF) putatively encoding a Pro-rich and very basic 69K (K = kilodalton) protein is detected at the 5' end of the genome. It is initiated at the first AUG codon on the RNA and overlaps the major ORF that encodes the non structural 206K (previously referred to as 195K) protein of TYMV; its function is unknown. Several amino acid consensus sequences already described among plant and animal viruses are also found in the TYMV-encoded polypeptides. A comparison with other viruses whose RNA sequence is known leads to the conclusion that TYMV belongs to the "Sindbis-like" supergroup of viruses and could be related to Semliki forest virus. PMID:3399388

  2. Nucleotide sequence of the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) anionic peroxidase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-De-Leon, F.; Klotz, K.L.; Lagrimini, L.M. )

    1993-03-01

    Peroxidases have been implicated in numerous physiological processes including lignification (Grisebach, 1981), wound-healing (Espelie et al., 1986), phenol oxidation (Lagrimini, 1991), pathogen defense (Ye et al., 1990), and the regulation of cell elongation through the formation of interchain covalent bonds between various cell wall polymers (Fry, 1986; Goldberg et al., 1986; Bradley et al., 1992). However, a complete description of peroxidase action in vivo is not available because of the vast number of potential substrates and the existence of multiple isoenzymes. The tobacco anionic peroxidase is one of the better-characterized isoenzymes. This enzyme has been shown to oxidize a number of significant plant secondary compounds in vitro including cinnamyl alcohols, phenolic acids, and indole-3-acetic acid (Maeder, 1980; Lagrimini, 1991). A cDNA encoding the enzyme has been obtained, and this enzyme was shown to be expressed at the highest levels in lignifying tissues (xylem and tracheary elements) and also in epidermal tissue (Lagrimini et al., 1987). It was shown at this time that there were four distinct copies of the anionic peroxidase gene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). A tobacco genomic DNA library was constructed in the [lambda]-phase EMBL3, from which two unique peroxidase genes were sequenced. One of these clones, [lambda]POD1, was designated as a pseudogene when the exonic sequences were found to differ from the cDNA sequences by 1%, and several frame shifts in the coding sequences indicated a dysfunctional gene (the authors' unpublished results). The other clone, [lambda]POD3, described in this manuscript, was designated as the functional tobacco anionic peroxidase gene because of 100% homology with the cDNA. Significant structural elements include an AS-2 box indicated in shoot-specific expression (Lam and Chua, 1989), a TATA box, and two intervening sequences. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Method for the detection of specific nucleic acid sequences by polymerase nucleotide incorporation

    DOEpatents

    Castro, Alonso

    2004-06-01

    A method for rapid and efficient detection of a target DNA or RNA sequence is provided. A primer having a 3'-hydroxyl group at one end and having a sequence of nucleotides sufficiently homologous with an identifying sequence of nucleotides in the target DNA is selected. The primer is hybridized to the identifying sequence of nucleotides on the DNA or RNA sequence and a reporter molecule is synthesized on the target sequence by progressively binding complementary nucleotides to the primer, where the complementary nucleotides include nucleotides labeled with a fluorophore. Fluorescence emitted by fluorophores on single reporter molecules is detected to identify the target DNA or RNA sequence.

  4. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of cDNA for human. beta. -glucuronidase

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, A.; Kyle, J.W.; Miller, R.D.; Hoffmann, J.W.; Powell, P.P.; Grubb, J.H.; Sly, W.S.; Tropak, M.; Guise, K.S.; Gravel, R.A.

    1987-02-01

    The authors report here the cDNA sequence for human placental ..beta..-glucuronidase (..beta..-D-glucuronoside glucuronosohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.31) and demonstrate expression of the human enzyme in transfected COS cells. They also sequenced a partial cDNA clone from human fibroblasts that contained a 153-base-pair deletion within the coding sequence and found a second type of cDNA clone from placenta that contained the same deletion. Nuclease S1 mapping studies demonstrated two types of mRNAs in human placenta that corresponded to the two types of cDNA clones isolated. The NH/sub 2/-terminal amino acid sequence determined for human spleen ..beta..-glucuronidase agreed with that inferred from the DNA sequence of the two placental clones, beginning at amino acid 23, suggesting a cleaved signal sequence of 22 amino acids. When transfected into COS cells, plasmids containing either placental clone expressed an immunoprecipitable protein that contained N-linked oligosaccharides as evidenced by sensitivity to endoglycosidase F. However, only transfection with the clone containing the 153-base-pair segment led to expression of human ..beta..-glucuronidase activity. These studies provide the sequence for the full-length cDNA for human ..beta..-glucuronidase, demonstrate the existence of two populations of mRNA for ..beta..-glucuronidase in human placenta, only one of which specifies a catalytically active enzyme, and illustrate the importance of expression studies in verifying that a cDNA is functionally full-length.

  5. Nucleotide Sequencing and Identification of Some Wild Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sudip Kumar; Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K.; Gupta, Sudha; Paul, Rita; Saha, Aditi; Sengupta, Sonali; Dubey, Priyanka Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers) fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India) was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1) and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base) of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur) 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1)], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1)], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1)], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1)], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1)]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits. PMID:24489501

  6. Nucleotide sequencing and identification of some wild mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudip Kumar; Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K; Gupta, Sudha; Paul, Rita; Saha, Aditi; Sengupta, Sonali; Dubey, Priyanka Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers) fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India) was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1) and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base) of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur) 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1)], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1)], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1)], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1)], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1)]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits. PMID:24489501

  7. Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of tomato leaf curl geminivirus.

    PubMed

    Dry, I B; Rigden, J E; Krake, L R; Mullineaux, P M; Rezaian, M A

    1993-01-01

    The genome of tomato leaf curl virus (TLCV) from Australia was cloned and its complete nucleotide sequence determined. It is a single circular ssDNA of 2766 nucleotides containing the consensus nonanucleotide sequence present in all geminiviruses. It has six open reading frames with an organization resembling that of certain other dicotyledonous plant-infecting monopartite geminiviruses, i.e. tomato yellow leaf curl and beet curly top viruses. The regulatory sequences present indicate a bidirectional mode of transcription. A dimeric TLCV DNA clone was constructed in a binary vector and used to agroinoculate three different host species. Typical virus infections were produced, confirming that the single DNA component is sufficient for infectivity. PMID:8423446

  8. Nucleotide sequence of the L1 ribosomal protein gene of Xenopus laevis: remarkable sequence homology among introns.

    PubMed Central

    Loreni, F; Ruberti, I; Bozzoni, I; Pierandrei-Amaldi, P; Amaldi, F

    1985-01-01

    Ribosomal protein L1 is encoded by two genes in Xenopus laevis. The comparison of two cDNA sequences shows that the two L1 gene copies (L1a and L1b) have diverged in many silent sites and very few substitution sites; moreover a small duplication occurred at the very end of the coding region of the L1b gene which thus codes for a product five amino acids longer than that coded by L1a. Quantitatively the divergence between the two L1 genes confirms that a whole genome duplication took place in Xenopus laevis approximately 30 million years ago. A genomic fragment containing one of the two L1 gene copies (L1a), with its nine introns and flanking regions, has been completely sequenced. The 5' end of this gene has been mapped within a 20-pyridimine stretch as already found for other vertebrate ribosomal protein genes. Four of the nine introns have a 60-nucleotide sequence with 80% homology; within this region some boxes, one of which is 16 nucleotides long, are 100% homologous among the four introns. This feature of L1a gene introns is interesting since we have previously shown that the activity of this gene is regulated at a post-transcriptional level and it involves the block of the normal splicing of some intron sequences. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:3841512

  9. A compilation of partial sequences of randomly selected cDNA clones from the rat incisor.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Y; Nakashima, M; Amizuka, N; Warshawsky, H; Goltzman, D; Yamada, K M; Yamada, Y

    1995-01-01

    The formation of tooth organs is regulated by a series of developmental programs. We have initiated a genome project with the ultimate goal of identifying novel genes important for tooth development. As an initial approach, we constructed a unidirectional cDNA library from the non-calcified portion of incisors of 3- to 4-week-old rats, sequenced cDNA clones, and classified their sequences by homology search through the GenBank data base and the PIR protein data base. Here, we report partial DNA sequences obtained by automated DNA sequencing on 400 cDNA clones randomly selected from the library. Of the sequences determined, 51% represented sequences of new genes that were not related to any previously reported gene. Twenty-six percent of the clones strongly matched genes and proteins in the data bases, including amelogenin, alpha 1(I) and alpha 2(I) collagen chains, osteonectin, and decorin. Nine percent of clones revealed partial sequence homology to known genes such as transcription factors and cell surface receptors. A significant number of the previously identified genes were expressed redundantly and were found to encode extracellular matrix proteins. Identification and cataloging of cDNA clones in these tissues are the first step toward identification of markers expressed in a tissue- or stage-specific manner, as well as the genetic linkage study of tooth anomalies. Further characterization of the clones described in this paper should lead to the discovery of novel genes important for tooth development. PMID:7876422

  10. Acetylcholinesterase of the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli): cDNA sequence, baculovirus expression, and biochemical properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Millions of people and domestic animals around the world are affected by leishmaniasis, a disease caused by various species of flagellated protozoans in the genus Leishmania that are transmitted by several sand fly species. Insecticides are widely used for sand fly population control to try to reduce or interrupt Leishmania transmission. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major is vectored mainly by Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in Asia and Africa. Organophosphates comprise a class of insecticides used for sand fly control, which act through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the central nervous system. Point mutations producing an altered, insensitive AChE are a major mechanism of organophosphate resistance in insects and preliminary evidence for organophosphate-insensitive AChE has been reported in sand flies. This report describes the identification of complementary DNA for an AChE in P. papatasi and the biochemical characterization of recombinant P. papatasi AChE. Methods A P. papatasi Israeli strain laboratory colony was utilized to prepare total RNA utilized as template for RT-PCR amplification and sequencing of cDNA encoding acetylcholinesterase 1 using gene specific primers and 3’-5’-RACE. The cDNA was cloned into pBlueBac4.5/V5-His TOPO, and expressed by baculovirus in Sf21 insect cells in serum-free medium. Recombinant P. papatasi acetylcholinesterase was biochemically characterized using a modified Ellman’s assay in microplates. Results A 2309 nucleotide sequence of PpAChE1 cDNA [GenBank: JQ922267] of P. papatasi from a laboratory colony susceptible to insecticides is reported with 73-83% nucleotide identity to acetylcholinesterase mRNA sequences of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Lutzomyia longipalpis, respectively. The P. papatasi cDNA ORF encoded a 710-amino acid protein [GenBank: AFP20868] exhibiting 85% amino acid identity with acetylcholinesterases of Cx. pipiens, Aedes aegypti, and 92% amino acid identity for

  11. Evolution of vertebrate IgM: complete amino acid sequence of the constant region of Ambystoma mexicanum mu chain deduced from cDNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Fellah, J S; Wiles, M V; Charlemagne, J; Schwager, J

    1992-10-01

    cDNA clones coding for the constant region of the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) mu heavy immunoglobulin chain were selected from total spleen RNA, using a cDNA polymerase chain reaction technique. The specific 5'-end primer was an oligonucleotide homologous to the JH segment of Xenopus laevis mu chain. One of the clones, JHA/3, corresponded to the complete constant region of the axolotl mu chain, consisting of a 1362-nucleotide sequence coding for a polypeptide of 454 amino acids followed in 3' direction by a 179-nucleotide untranslated region and a polyA+ tail. The axolotl C mu is divided into four typical domains (C mu 1-C mu 4) and can be aligned with the Xenopus C mu with an overall identity of 56% at the nucleotide level. Percent identities were particularly high between C mu 1 (59%) and C mu 4 (71%). The C-terminal 20-amino acid segment which constitutes the secretory part of the mu chain is strongly homologous to the equivalent sequences of chondrichthyans and of other tetrapods, including a conserved N-linked oligosaccharide, the penultimate cysteine and the C-terminal lysine. The four C mu domains of 13 vertebrate species ranging from chondrichthyans to mammals were aligned and compared at the amino acid level. The significant number of mu-specific residues which are conserved into each of the four C mu domains argues for a continuous line of evolution of the vertebrate mu chain. This notion was confirmed by the ability to reconstitute a consistent vertebrate evolution tree based on the phylogenic parsimony analysis of the C mu 4 sequences. PMID:1382992

  12. Analysis of a cDNA clone expressing a human autoimmune antigen: full-length sequence of the U2 small nuclear RNA-associated B antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Habets, W.J.; Sillekens, P.T.G.; Hoet, M.H.; Schalken, J.A.; Roebroek, A.J.M.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Van de Ven, W.J.M.; Van Venrooij, W.J.

    1987-04-01

    A U2 small nuclear RNA-associated protein, designated B'', was recently identified as the target antigen for autoimmune sera from certain patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic diseases. Such antibodies enabled them to isolate cDNA clone lambdaHB''-1 from a phage lambdagt11 expression library. This clone appeared to code for the B'' protein as established by in vitro translation of hybrid-selected mRNA. The identity of clone lambdaHB''-1 was further confirmed by partial peptide mapping and analysis of the reactivity of the recombinant antigen with monospecific and monoclonal antibodies. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 1015-base-pair cDNA insert of clone lambdaHB''-1 revealed a large open reading frame of 800 nucleotides containing the coding sequence for a polypeptide of 25,457 daltons. In vitro transcription of the lambdaHB''-1 cDNA insert and subsequent translation resulted in a protein product with the molecular size of the B'' protein. These data demonstrate that clone lambdaHB''-1 contains the complete coding sequence of this antigen. The deduced polypeptide sequence contains three very hydrophilic regions that might constitute RNA binding sites and/or antigenic determinants. These findings might have implications both for the understanding of the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases as well as for the elucidation of the biological function of autoimmune antigens.

  13. Completion of Kunjin virus RNA sequence and recovery of an infectious RNA transcribed from stably cloned full-length cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Khromykh, A A; Westaway, E G

    1994-01-01

    Completion of the Kunjin virus (KUN) RNA sequence showed that it is the longest flavivirus sequence reported (11,022 bases), commencing with a 5' noncoding region of 96 bases. The 3' noncoding sequence of 624 nucleotides included a unique insertion sequence of 46 bases adjacent to the stop codon, but otherwise it had properties similar to those of RNAs of closely related flaviviruses. A full-length KUN cDNA clone which could be stably propagated in Escherichia coli DH5 alpha was constructed; SP6 polymerase RNA transcripts from amplified cDNA were infectious when transfected into BHK-21 cells. A mutational change abolishing the BamHI restriction site at position 4049, leading to a conservative amino acid change of Arg-175 to Lys in the NS2A protein, was introduced into the cDNA during construction and was retained in the recovered virus. Extra terminal nucleotides introduced during cloning of the cDNA were shown to be present in the in vitro RNA transcripts but absent in the RNA of recovered virus. Although recovered virus differed from the parental KUN by a smaller plaque phenotype and delayed growth rate in BHK-21 cells and mice, it was very similar as assessed by several other criteria, such as peak titer during growth in cells, infectivity titer in cells and in mice, rate of adsorption and penetration in cells, replication at 39 degrees C, and neurovirulence after intraperitoneal injection in mice. The KUN stably cloned cDNA will provide a useful basis for future studies in defining and characterizing functional roles of all the gene products. Images PMID:8207832

  14. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Mapping Using Genome-Wide Unique Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Leslie Y.Y.; Lu, Szu-Hsien; Shih, Edward S.C.; Hwang, Ming-Jing

    2002-01-01

    As more and more genomic DNAs are sequenced to characterize human genetic variations, the demand for a very fast and accurate method to genomically position these DNA sequences is high. We have developed a new mapping method that does not require sequence alignment. In this method, we first identified DNA fragments of 15 bp in length that are unique in the human genome and then used them to position single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequences. By use of four desktop personal computers with AMD K7 (1 GHz) processors, our new method mapped more than 1.6 million SNP sequences in 20 hr and achieved a very good agreement with mapping results from alignment-based methods. PMID:12097348

  15. The primary nucleotide sequence of U4 RNA.

    PubMed

    Reddy, R; Henning, D; Busch, H

    1981-04-10

    U4 RNA is one of the "capped" nuclear snRNAs recently found to be precipitable by anti-Sm antibodies as ribonucleoprotein particles. U4 RNA, along with other snRNAs, has been implicated in hnRNA processing, mRNA transport, or both (Lerner, M. R., Boyle, J., Mount, S., Wolin, S., and Steitz, J. A. (1980) Nature 283, 220-224). Since the proteins bound to different snRNAs appear to be the same, the functions of different snRNPs might be dependent on the RNA components. To help understand the function of U4 RNP, the nucleotide sequence of U4 RNA was determined. The sequence is (formula see text) In addition to the modified nucleotides in the "cap," U4 RNA contains Am at position 63 and m6A at position 98. It also exhibited A-C microheterogeneity at position 97. PMID:6162848

  16. Nucleotide-Specific Contrast for DNA Sequencing by Electron Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Davis, Ronald W.

    2016-01-01

    DNA sequencing by imaging in an electron microscope is an approach that holds promise to deliver long reads with low error rates and without the need for amplification. Earlier work using transmission electron microscopes, which use high electron energies on the order of 100 keV, has shown that low contrast and radiation damage necessitates the use of heavy atom labeling of individual nucleotides, which increases the read error rates. Other prior work using scattering electrons with much lower energy has shown to suppress beam damage on DNA. Here we explore possibilities to increase contrast by employing two methods, X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy. Using bulk DNA samples with monomers of each base, both methods are shown to provide contrast mechanisms that can distinguish individual nucleotides without labels. Both spectroscopic techniques can be readily implemented in a low energy electron microscope, which may enable label-free DNA sequencing by direct imaging. PMID:27149617

  17. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of factor C cDNA from the Singapore horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda.

    PubMed

    Ding, J L; Navas, M A; Ho, B

    1995-03-01

    Two forms of Factor C cDNAs: CrFC21 (3448 bp) and CrFC26 (4182 bp) have been cloned into lambda gt22. CrFC26 includes 568 nucleotides of 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) containing seven ATGs before the real initiation site, an open reading frame (ORF) of 3249 nucleotides, a stop codon, and 365 nucleotides of 3' untranslated sequence. There are four polyadenylation signals and six potential glycosylation sites. The ORF codes for a signal peptide of 24 amino acids and a Factor C zymogen of 1059 residues. The CrFC21 lacks most of the 5' UTR, and has some base changes in its ORF. The predicted secondary mRNA structures of the 5' end of CrFC26 showed numerous stem-and-loop structures, thus obscuring its real start codon. In contrast, CrFC21 has a well-exposed AUG start site, and expresses Factor C in transcription-translation reactions in vitro. There is a typical serine protease catalytic triad of Asp-His-Ser, which is structurally like prothrombin, but catalytically more similar to trypsin. Although an overall homology of 97.7% was observed in comparison with the Tachypleus tridentatus Factor C (TtFC) cDNA, there were notable differences in the restriction sites and subtle base substitutions in the CrFC cDNA. The high degree of homology between Factor C from T. tridentatus and C. rotundicauda substantiates, at the molecular level, the proximity of these two species in the course of evolution. This finding contravenes the apparent disparities with respect to their morphology, ecological habitat, and taxonomical classification. PMID:7538401

  18. 77 FR 65537 - Requirements for Patent Applications Containing Nucleotide Sequence and/or Amino Acid Sequence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Amino Acid Sequence Disclosures ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Patent applications that contain nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures must include a copy of the sequence listing in accordance with the requirements in 37 CFR...

  19. Metallothionein cDNA, promoter, and genomic sequences of the tropical green mussel, Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Khoo, H W; Patel, K H

    1999-09-01

    The primary structure of the cDNA and metallothionein (MT) genomic sequences of the tropical green mussel (Perna viridis) was determined. The complete cDNA sequences were obtained using degenerate primers designed from known metallothionein consensus amino acid sequences from the temperate species Mytilus edulis. The amino acid sequences of P. viridis metallothionein deduced from the coding region consisted of 72 amino acids with 21 cysteine residues and 9 Cys-X-Cys motifs corresponding to Type I MT class of other species. Two different genomic sequences coding for the same mRNA were obtained. Each putative gene contained a unique 5'UTR and two unique introns located at the same splice sites. The promoters for both genes were different in length and both contained metal responsive elements and active protein-binding sites. The structures of the genomic clones were compared with those of other species. J. Exp. Zool. 284:445-453, 1999. PMID:10451422

  20. Complete nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome X.

    PubMed Central

    Galibert, F; Alexandraki, D; Baur, A; Boles, E; Chalwatzis, N; Chuat, J C; Coster, F; Cziepluch, C; De Haan, M; Domdey, H; Durand, P; Entian, K D; Gatius, M; Goffeau, A; Grivell, L A; Hennemann, A; Herbert, C J; Heumann, K; Hilger, F; Hollenberg, C P; Huang, M E; Jacq, C; Jauniaux, J C; Katsoulou, C; Karpfinger-Hartl, L

    1996-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome X (745 442 bp) reveals a total of 379 open reading frames (ORFs), the coding region covering approximately 75% of the entire sequence. One hundred and eighteen ORFs (31%) correspond to genes previously identified in S. cerevisiae. All other ORFs represent novel putative yeast genes, whose function will have to be determined experimentally. However, 57 of the latter subset (another 15% of the total) encode proteins that show significant analogy to proteins of known function from yeast or other organisms. The remaining ORFs, exhibiting no significant similarity to any known sequence, amount to 54% of the total. General features of chromosome X are also reported, with emphasis on the nucleotide frequency distribution in the environment of the ATG and stop codons, the possible coding capacity of at least some of the small ORFs (<100 codons) and the significance of 46 non-canonical or unpaired nucleotides in the stems of some of the 24 tRNA genes recognized on this chromosome. Images PMID:8641269

  1. Partial sequence analysis of 130 randomly selected maize cDNA clones.

    PubMed Central

    Keith, C S; Hoang, D O; Barrett, B M; Feigelman, B; Nelson, M C; Thai, H; Baysdorfer, C

    1993-01-01

    As part of a project to identify novel maize (Zea mays L. cv B73) genes functionally, we have partially sequenced 130 randomly selected clones from a maize leaf cDNA library. Data base comparisons revealed seven previously sequenced maize cDNAs and 18 cDNAs with sequence similarity to related maize genes or to genes from other organisms. One hundred five cDNAs show little or no similarity to previously sequenced genes. Our results also establish the suitability of this library for large-scale sequencing in terms of its large insert size, proper insert orientation, and low duplication rate. PMID:8278499

  2. Structure and nucleotide sequence of the rat intestinal vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Krisinger, J; Darwish, H; Maeda, N; DeLuca, H F

    1988-01-01

    The vitamin D-dependent intestinal calcium binding protein (ICaBP, 9 kDa) is under transcriptional regulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3], the hormonal active form of the vitamin. To study the mechanism of gene regulation by 1,25-(OH)2D3, we isolated the rat ICaBP gene by using a cDNA probe. Its nucleotide sequence revealed 3 exons separated by 2 introns within approximately 3 kilobases. The first exon represents only noncoding sequences, while the second and third encode the two calcium binding domains of the protein. The gene contains a 15-base-pair imperfect palindrome in the first intron that shows high homology to the estrogen-responsive element. This sequence may represent the vitamin D-responsive element involved in the regulation of the ICaBP gene. The second intron shows an 84-base-pair-long simple nucleotide repeat that implicates Z-DNA formation. Genomic Southern analysis shows that the rat gene is represented as a single copy. Images PMID:3194402

  3. Genes galore: a summary of methods for accessing results from large-scale partial sequencing of anonymous Arabidopsis cDNA clones.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, T; de Bruijn, F J; Green, P; Keegstra, K; Kende, H; McIntosh, L; Ohlrogge, J; Raikhel, N; Somerville, S; Thomashow, M

    1994-01-01

    High-throughput automated partial sequencing of anonymous cDNA clones provides a method to survey the repertoire of expressed genes from an organism. Comparison of the coding capacity of these expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with the sequences in the public data bases results in assignment of putative function to a significant proportion of the ESTs. Thus, the more than 13,400 plant ESTs that are currently available provide a new resource that will facilitate progress in many areas of plant biology. These opportunities are illustrated by a description of the results obtained from analysis of 1500 Arabidopsis ESTs from a cDNA library prepared from equal portions of poly(A+) mRNA from etiolated seedlings, roots, leaves, and flowering inflorescences. More than 900 different sequences were represented, 32% of which showed significant nucleotide or deduced amino acid sequences similarity to previously characterized genes or proteins from a wide range of organisms. At least 165 of the clones had significant deduced amino acid sequence homology to proteins or gene products that have not been previously characterized from higher plants. A summary of methods for accessing the information and materials generated by the Arabidopsis cDNA sequencing project is provided. PMID:7846151

  4. The complete nucleotide sequence of pelargonium leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    McGavin, Wendy J; MacFarlane, Stuart A

    2016-05-01

    Investigation of a tombusvirus isolated from tulip plants in Scotland revealed that it was pelargonium leaf curl virus (PLCV) rather than the originally suggested tomato bushy stunt virus. The complete sequence of the PLCV genome was determined for the first time, revealing it to be 4789 nucleotides in size and to have an organization similar to that of the other, previously described tombusviruses. Primers derived from the sequence were used to construct a full-length infectious clone of PLCV that recapitulates the disease symptoms of leaf curling in systemically infected pelargonium plants. PMID:26906694

  5. HUGE: a database for human large proteins identified in the Kazusa cDNA sequencing project.

    PubMed

    Kikuno, R; Nagase, T; Suyama, M; Waki, M; Hirosawa, M; Ohara, O

    2000-01-01

    HUGE is a database for human large proteins newly identified in the Kazusa cDNA project, the aim of which is to predict the primary structure of proteins from the sequences of human large cDNAs (>4 kb). In particular, cDNA clones capable of coding for large proteins (>50 kDa) are the current targets of the project. HUGE contains >1100 cDNA sequences and detailed information obtained through analysis of the sequences of cDNAs and the predicted proteins. Besides an increase in the number of cDNA entries, the amount of experimental data for expression profiling has been largely increased and data on chromosomal locations have been newly added. All of the protein-coding regions were examined by GeneMark analysis, and the results of a motif/domain search of each predicted protein sequence against the Pfam database have been newly added. HUGE is available through the WWW at http://www.kazusa.or.jp/huge PMID:10592264

  6. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Cathepsin H and L cDNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cathepsin H and L, a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family, are ubiquitously expressed and involve in antigen processing. In this communication, the channel catfish cathepsin H and L transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. Total RNA from tissues was extracted and cDNA libraries we...

  7. Nucleotide sequences of five anti-lysozyme monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Darsley, M J; Rees, A R

    1985-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the heavy and light chain immunoglobulin mRNAs derived from five hybridomas (Gloop 1-5) secreting IgGs specific for the loop region of hen egg lysozyme were determined. These monoclonal antibodies recognise three distinct but overlapping epitopes within the loop region. The sequences of two pairs of antibodies with indistinguishable fine specificities were similar in both chains whereas the sequences of antibodies of non-identical specificities were very different. It is proposed that the D-segments expressed in two of the antibodies (Gloop3 and Gloop4) are the products of one, or perhaps two, previously unidentified germ line D-genes. Gloop1 and Gloop2 use a D-segment previously identified in antibodies specific for the hapten 2-phenyloxazolone; however it is recombined in a different reading frame in the anti-lysozyme antibodies, producing a different amino acid sequence. PMID:2410256

  8. Genomic and cDNA sequence tags of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum.

    PubMed Central

    Völkl, P; Markiewicz, P; Baikalov, C; Fitz-Gibbon, S; Stetter, K O; Miller, J H

    1996-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeum, Pyrobaculum aerophilum, grows optimally at 100 degrees C with a doubling time of 180 min. It is a member of the phylogenetically ancient Thermoproteales order, but differs significantly from all other members by its facultatively aerobic metabolism. Due to its simple cultivation requirements and its nearly 100% plating efficiency, it was chosen as a model organism for studying the genome organization of hyperthermophilic ancient archaea. By a G+C content of the DNA of 52 mol%, sequence analysis was easily possible. At least some of the mRNA of P. aerophilum carried poly-A tails facilitating the construction of a cDNA library. 245 sequence tags of a poly-A primed cDNA library and 55 sequence tags from a 1-2 kb Sau3AI-fragment containing genomic library were analyzed and the corresponding amino acid sequences compared with protein sequences from databases. Fourteen percent of the cDNA and >9% of genomic DNA sequence tags revealed significant similarities to proteins in the databases. Matches were obtained to proteins from archaeal, bacterial and eukaryal sources. Some sequences showed greatest similarity to eukaryal rather than to bacterial versions of proteins, other matches were found to proteins which had previously only been found in eukaryotes. PMID:8948626

  9. Conserved nucleotide sequences in the open reading frame and 3' untranslated region of selenoprotein P mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, K E; Lloyd, R S; Burk, R F

    1993-01-01

    Rat liver selenoprotein P contains 10 selenocysteine residues in its primary structure (deduced). It is the only selenoprotein characterized to date that has more than one selenocysteine residue. Selenoprotein P cDNA has been cloned from human liver and heart cDNA libraries and sequenced. The open reading frames are identical and contain a signal peptide, indicating that the protein is secreted by both organs and is therefore not exclusively produced in the liver. Ten selenocysteine residues (deduced) are present. Comparison of the open reading frame of the human cDNA with the rat cDNA reveals a 69% identity of the nucleotide sequence and 72% identity of the deduced amino acid sequence. Two regions in the 3' untranslated portion have high conservation between human and rat. Each of these regions contains a predicted stable stem-loop structure similar to the single stem-loop structures reported in 3' untranslated regions of type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase and glutathione peroxidase. The stem-loop structure of type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase has been shown to be necessary for incorporation of the selenocysteine residue at the UGA codon. Because only two stem-loop structures are present in the 3' untranslated region of selenoprotein P mRNA, it can be concluded that a separate stem-loop structure is not required for each selenocysteine residue. Images PMID:8421687

  10. Computer-Based Methods for the Mouse Full-Length cDNA Encyclopedia: Real-Time Sequence Clustering for Construction of a Nonredundant cDNA Library

    PubMed Central

    Konno, Hideaki; Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Shibata, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Masayoshi; Carninci, Piero; Sugahara, Yuichi; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2001-01-01

    We developed computer-based methods for constructing a nonredundant mouse full-length cDNA library. Our cDNA library construction process comprises assessment of library quality, sequencing the 3′ ends of inserts and clustering, and completing a re-array to generate a nonredundant library from a redundant one. After the cDNA libraries are generated, we sequence the 5′ ends of the inserts to check the quality of the library; then we determine the sequencing priority of each library. Selected libraries undergo large-scale sequencing of the 3′ ends of the inserts and clustering of the tag sequences. After clustering, the nonredundant library is constructed from the original libraries, which have redundant clones. All libraries, plates, clones, sequences, and clusters are uniquely identified, and all information is saved in the database according to this identifier. At press time, our system has been in place for the past two years; we have clustered 939,725 3′ end sequences into 127,385 groups from 227 cDNA libraries/sublibraries (see http://genome.gse.riken.go.jp/). [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the DDBJ data library under accession nos. AV00011–AV175734, AV204013–AV382295, and BB561685–BB609425.] PMID:11157791

  11. cDNA cloning, sequence analysis, and chromosomal localization of the gene for human carnitine palmitoyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Finocchiaro, G; Taroni, F; Rocchi, M; Martin, A L; Colombo, I; Tarelli, G T; DiDonato, S

    1991-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding human liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPTase; palmitoyl-CoA:L-carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.21), an inner mitochondrial membrane enzyme that plays a major role in the fatty acid oxidation pathway. Mixed oligonucleotide primers whose sequences were deduced from one tryptic peptide obtained from purified CPTase were used in a polymerase chain reaction, allowing the amplification of a 0.12-kilobase fragment of human genomic DNA encoding such a peptide. A 60-base-pair (bp) oligonucleotide synthesized on the basis of the sequence from this fragment was used for the screening of a cDNA library from human liver and hybridized to a cDNA insert of 2255 bp. This cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1974 bp that encodes a protein of 658 amino acid residues including 25 residues of an NH2-terminal leader peptide. The assignment of this open reading frame to human liver CPTase is confirmed by matches to seven different amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides derived from pure human CPTase and by the 82.2% homology with the amino acid sequence of rat CPTase. The NH2-terminal region of CPTase contains a leucine-proline motif that is shared by carnitine acetyl- and octanoyltransferases and by choline acetyltransferase. The gene encoding CPTase was assigned to human chromosome 1, region 1q12-1pter, by hybridization of CPTase cDNA with a DNA panel of 19 human-hamster somatic cell hybrids. Images PMID:1988962

  12. Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding a taste-modifying protein, miraculin.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Y; Nirasawa, S; Nakaya, K; Kurihara, Y

    1995-08-19

    A cDNA clone encoding a taste-modifying protein, miraculin (MIR), was isolated and sequenced. The encoded precursor to MIR was composed of 220 amino acid (aa) residues, including a possible signal sequence of 29 aa. Northern blot analysis showed that the mRNA encoding MIR was already expressed in fruits of Richadella dulcifica at 3 weeks after pollination and was present specifically in the pulp. PMID:7665074

  13. Human thyroid peroxidase: complete cDNA and protein sequence, chromosome mapping, and identification of two alternately spliced mRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, S.; Kotani, T.; McBride, O.W.; Umeki, K.; Hirai, K.; Nakayama, T.; Ohtaki, S.

    1987-08-01

    Two forms of human thyroid peroxidase cDNAs were isolated from a lambdagt11 cDNA library, prepared from Graves disease thyroid tissue mRNA, by use of oligonucleotides. The longest complete cDNA, designated phTPO-1, has 3048 nucleotides and an open reading frame consisting of 933 amino acids, which would encode a protein with a molecular weight of 103,026. Five potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites are found in the deduced amino acid sequence. The second peroxidase cDNA, designated phTPO-2, is almost identical to phTPO-1 beginning 605 base pairs downstream except that it contains 1-base-pair difference and lacks 171 base pairs in the middle of the sequence. This results in a loss of 57 amino acids corresponding to a molecular weight of 6282. Interestingly, this 171-nucleotide sequence has GT and AG at its 5' and 3' boundaries, respectively, that are in good agreement with donor and acceptor splice site consensus sequences. Using specific oligonucleotide probes for the mRNAs derived from the cDNA sequences hTOP-1 and hTOP-2, the authors show that both are expressed in all thyroid tissues examined and the relative level of two mRNAs is different in each sample. The results suggest that two thyroid peroxidase proteins might be generated through alternate splicing of the same gene. By using somatic cell hybrid lines, the thyroid peroxidase gene was mapped to the short arm of human chromosome 2.

  14. Nucleotide sequence of a complementary DNA encoding pea cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase. [Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.A.; Zilinskas, B.A. )

    1991-08-01

    The authors now report the nucleotide sequence of the cytosolic Cu/Zn SOD cloned from a {lambda}gt11 cDNA library constructed from mRNA extracted from leaves of 7- to 10-d pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.). The clone was isolated using a 22-base synthetic oligonucleotide complementary to the amino acid sequence CGIIGLQG. This sequence, found at the protein's carboxy terminus, is highly conserved among plant cytosolic Cu/Zn SODs but not chloroplastic Cu/Zn SODs. The 738-base pair sequence contains an open reading frame specifying 152 codons and a predicted M{sub r} of 18,024 D. The deduced amino acid sequence is highly homologous (79-82% identity) with the sequences of other known plant cytosolic Cu/Zn SODs but less highly conserved (63-65%) when compared with several chloroplastic Cu/Zn SODs including pea (10).

  15. Comparing compressed sequences for faster nucleotide BLAST searches.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Michael; Williams, Hugh E

    2007-01-01

    Molecular biologists, geneticists, and other life scientists use the BLAST homology search package as their first step for discovery of information about unknown or poorly annotated genomic sequences. There are two main variants of BLAST: BLASTP for searching protein collections and BLASTN for nucleotide collections. Surprisingly, BLASTN has had very little attention; for example, the algorithms it uses do not follow those described in the 1997 BLAST paper and no exact description has been published. It is important that BLASTN is state-of-the-art: Nucleotide collections such as GenBank dwarf the protein collections in size, they double in size almost yearly, and they take many minutes to search on modern general purpose workstations. This paper proposes significant improvements to the BLASTN algorithms. Each of our schemes is based on compressed bytepacked formats that allow queries and collection sequences to be compared four bases at a time, permitting very fast query evaluation using lookup tables and numeric comparisons. Our most significant innovations are two new, fast gapped alignment schemes that allow accurate sequence alignment without decompression of the collection sequences. Overall, our innovations more than double the speed of BLASTN with no effect on accuracy and have been integrated into our new version of BLAST that is freely available for download from http://www.fsa-blast.org/. PMID:17666756

  16. Identification of genomic sequences corresponding to cDNA clones

    SciTech Connect

    Spoerel, N.A.; Kafatos, F.C.

    1987-01-01

    The general methods applicable to the isolation of genomic sequences from phage lambda or cosmid libraries have been described. This chapter presents strategies for the investigation of genes that occur in several identical or nonidentical copies per genome, or that share a common conserved domain with other genes. The methods discussed are applicable both to the identification of the genes in Southern blots and to their isolation from libraries. Furthermore, the methods are well suited for the analysis of homologous genes in different species. A high proportion of genes in eukaryotes are known to be members of multigene families. Carefully controlled hybridization conditions and well-tailored probes are powerful tools in the isolation and analysis of genes which share a common domain or are members of multigene families. This chapter consists of a short review of recommended strategies and relevant parameters, which have been discussed in more detail earlier. Using three examples from the authors' analysis of the silk moth choriun locus, they demonstrate how powerful carefully tailored short single-stranded probes can be in the analysis of closely related gene copies.

  17. Bioinformatics comparison of sulfate-reducing metabolism nucleotide sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremberger, G.; Dehipawala, Sunil; Nguyen, A.; Cheung, E.; Sullivan, R.; Holden, T.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2015-09-01

    The sulfate-reducing bacteria can be traced back to 3.5 billion years ago. The thermodynamics details of the sulfur cycle have been well documented. A recent sulfate-reducing bacteria report (Robator, Jungbluth, et al , 2015 Jan, Front. Microbiol) with Genbank nucleotide data has been analyzed in terms of the sulfite reductase (dsrAB) via fractal dimension and entropy values. Comparison to oil field sulfate-reducing sequences was included. The AUCG translational mass fractal dimension versus ATCG transcriptional mass fractal dimension for the low temperature dsrB and dsrA sequences reported in Reference Thirteen shows correlation R-sq ~ 0.79 , with a probably of about 3% in simulation. A recent report of using Cystathionine gamma-lyase sequence to produce CdS quantum dot in a biological method, where the sulfur is reduced just like in the H2S production process, was included for comparison. The AUCG mass fractal dimension versus ATCG mass fractal dimension for the Cystathionine gamma-lyase sequences was found to have R-sq of 0.72, similar to the low temperature dissimilatory sulfite reductase dsr group with 3% probability, in contrary to the oil field group having R-sq ~ 0.94, a high probable outcome in the simulation. The other two simulation histograms, namely, fractal dimension versus entropy R-sq outcome values, and di-nucleotide entropy versus mono-nucleotide entropy R-sq outcome values are also discussed in the data analysis focusing on low probability outcomes.

  18. cDNA sequence and chromosomal localization of a novel human protein, RBQ-1 (RBBP6), that binds to the retinoblastoma gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Yoshihisa; Saijo, Masafumi; Taya, Yoichi

    1995-11-01

    We have previously isolated cDNA of a novel protein (RBQ-1, HGMW-approved symbol RBBP6) that binds to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRB). Total nucleotide sequence of the cDNA has now been determined. It encoded a protein of 140 kDa that consists of 948 amino acids and contains multiple repeated sequences like SRS, YRE, and VPPP. The region used for pRB binding was identified on a small region near the C-terminus. We have mapped this gene to 16p11.2-p12 using polymerase chain reaction analysis on a human-hamster hybrid cell panel and chromosomal fluorescence in situ hybridization. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Cytochrome b nucleotide sequence variation among the Atlantic Alcidae.

    PubMed

    Friesen, V L; Montevecchi, W A; Davidson, W S

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of cytochrome b nucleotide sequences of the six extant species of Atlantic alcids and a gull revealed an excess of adenines and cytosines and a deficit of guanines at silent sites on the coding strand. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the sequences of the common (Uria aalge) and Brünnich's (U. lomvia) guillemots, followed by the razorbill (Alca torda) and little auk (Alle alle). The black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) sequence formed a sister taxon, and the puffin (Fratercula arctica) fell outside the other alcids. Phylogenetic comparisons of substitutions indicated that mutabilities of bases did not differ, but that C was much more likely to be incorporated than was G. Imbalances in base composition appear to result from a strand bias in replication errors, which may result from selection on secondary RNA structure and/or the energetics of codon-anticodon interactions. PMID:7916741

  20. The nucleotide sequence of the bacteriophage T5 ltf gene.

    PubMed

    Kaliman, A V; Kulshin, V E; Shlyapnikov, M G; Ksenzenko, V N; Kryukov, V M

    1995-06-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the bacteriophage T5 Bg/II-BamHI fragment (4,835 bp in length) known to carry a gene encoding the LTF protein which forms the phage L-shaped tail fibers was determined. It was shown to contain an open reading frame for 1,396 amino acid residues that corresponds to a protein of 147.8 kDa. The coding region of ltf gene is preceded by a typical Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Downstream from the ltf gene there is a strong transcription terminator. Data bank analysis of the LTF protein sequence reveals 55.1% identity to the hypothetical protein ORF 401 of bacteriophage lambda in a segment of 118 amino acids overlap. PMID:7789514

  1. IMGT/LIGM-DB, the IMGT comprehensive database of immunoglobulin and T cell receptor nucleotide sequences.

    PubMed

    Giudicelli, Véronique; Duroux, Patrice; Ginestoux, Chantal; Folch, Géraldine; Jabado-Michaloud, Joumana; Chaume, Denys; Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2006-01-01

    IMGT/LIGM-DB is the IMGT comprehensive database of immunoglobulin (IG) and T cell receptor (TR) nucleotide sequences from human and other vertebrate species. It was created in 1989 by LIGM, Montpellier, France and is the oldest and the largest database of IMGT. IMGT/LIGM-DB includes all germline (non-rearranged) and rearranged IG and TR genomic DNA (gDNA) and complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences published in generalist databases. IMGT/LIGM-DB allows searches from the Web interface according to biological and immunogenetic criteria through five distinct modules depending on the user interest. For a given entry, nine types of display are available including the IMGT flat file, the translation of the coding regions and the analysis by the IMGT/V-QUEST tool. IMGT/LIGM-DB distributes expertly annotated sequences. The annotations hugely enhance the quality and the accuracy of the distributed detailed information. They include the sequence identification, the gene and allele classification, the constitutive and specific motif description, the codon and amino acid numbering, and the sequence obtaining information, according to the main concepts of IMGT-ONTOLOGY. They represent the main source of IG and TR gene and allele knowledge stored in IMGT/GENE-DB and in the IMGT reference directory. IMGT/LIGM-DB is freely available at http://imgt.cines.fr. PMID:16381979

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of potato spindle tuber viroid cDNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Robert A.; Cress, Dean E.

    1980-01-01

    Double-stranded cDNA has been synthesized from a polyadenylylated potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV) template and inserted in the Pst I endonuclease site of plasmid pBR322 by using the oligo(dC)·oligo(dG)-tailing procedure. Tetracycline-resistant ampicillin-sensitive transformants contained sequences complementary to PSTV [32P]cDNA, and one recombinant clone (pDC-29) contains a 460-base-pair insert. This cloned double-stranded PSTV cDNA contains the cleavage sites for six restriction endonucleases predicted by the published primary sequence of PSTV as well as one additional site each for Ava I, Hae III, Hpa II, and Sma I. The additional Ava I, Hpa II, and Sma I sites are explained by the presence of a second C-C-C-G-G-G sequence in the cloned double-stranded cDNA. The largest fragment released by Hae III digestion contains approximately 360 base pairs. These results suggest that we have cloned almost the entire sequence of PSTV, but the sequence cloned differs slightly from that published. Hybridization probes derived from pDC-29 insert have allowed detection and preliminary characterization of RNA molecules having the same size as PSTV but the opposite polarity. This RNA is present during PSTV replication in infected tomato cells. Images PMID:16592877

  3. Selection and sequence analysis of a cDNA clone encoding a known chorion protein of the A family.

    PubMed Central

    Tsitilou, S G; Regier, J C; Kafatos, F C

    1980-01-01

    Using as criteria the size, abundance and developmental specificity of hybridizing mRNA sequences, we have selected from our chorion cDNA library a clone corresponding to a specific chorion protein, A4--cl. Comparison between the clone sequence and the largely known sequence of A4--cl validates the use of the cDNA library for sequence analysis of the chorion multigene families. The two major chorion protein families, A and B, share certain structural similarities. Images PMID:7433133

  4. Nucleotide sequence corresponding to five chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Mutoh, N; Simon, M I

    1986-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of DNA which contains five chemotaxis-related genes of Escherichia coli, cheW, cheR, cheB, cheY, and cheZ, and part of the cheA gene was determined. Molecular weights of the polypeptides encoded by these genes were calculated from translated amino acid sequences, and they were 18,100 for cheW, 32,700 for cheR, 37,500 for cheB, 14,100 for cheY, and 24,000 for cheZ. Nucleotide sequences which could act as ribosome-binding sites were found in the upstream region of each gene. After the termination codon of the cheW gene, a typical rho-independent transcription termination signal was observed. There are no other open reading frames long enough to encode polypeptides in this region except those which code for the two previously reported genes tar and tap. PMID:3510184

  5. Nucleotide sequence of the gene for the b subunit of human factor XIII

    SciTech Connect

    Bottenus, R.E.; Ichinose, A.; Davie, E.W. )

    1990-12-01

    Factor XIII (M{sub r} 320 000) is a blood coagulation factor that stabilizes and strengthens the fibrin clot. It circulates in blood as a tetramer composed of two a subunits (M{sub r} 75 000 each) and two b subunits (M{sub r} 80 000 each). The b subunit consists of 641 amino acids and includes 10 tandem repeats of 60 amino acids known as GP-I structures, short consensus repeats (SCR), or sushi domains. In the present study, the human gene for the b subunit has been isolated from three different genomic libraries prepared in {lambda} phage. Fifteen independent phage with inserts coding for the entire gene were isolated and characterized by restriction mapping, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing. The gene was found to be 28 kilobases in length and consisted of 12 exons (I-XII) separated by 11 intervening sequences. The leader sequence was encoded by exon I, while the carbonyl-terminal region of the protein was encoded by exon XII. Exons II-XI each coded for a single sushi domain, suggesting that the gene evolved through exon shuffling and duplication. The 12 exons in the gene ranged in size from 64 to 222 base pairs, while the introns ranged in size from 87 to 9970 nucleotides and made up 92{percent} of the gene. One nucleotide change was found in the coding region of the gene when its sequence was compared to that of the cDNA. This difference, however, did not result in a change in the amino acid sequence of the protein.

  6. cDNA Library Enrichment of Full Length Transcripts for SMRT Long Read Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Benjamin; Reinhardt, Richard; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2016-01-01

    The utility of genome assemblies does not only rely on the quality of the assembled genome sequence, but also on the quality of the gene annotations. The Pacific Biosciences Iso-Seq technology is a powerful support for accurate eukaryotic gene model annotation as it allows for direct readout of full-length cDNA sequences without the need for noisy short read-based transcript assembly. We propose the implementation of the TeloPrime Full Length cDNA Amplification kit to the Pacific Biosciences Iso-Seq technology in order to enrich for genuine full-length transcripts in the cDNA libraries. We provide evidence that TeloPrime outperforms the commonly used SMARTer PCR cDNA Synthesis Kit in identifying transcription start and end sites in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, we show that TeloPrime-based Pacific Biosciences Iso-Seq can be successfully applied to the polyploid genome of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) not only to efficiently annotate gene models, but also to identify novel transcription sites, gene homeologs, splicing isoforms and previously unidentified gene loci. PMID:27327613

  7. Sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of 1227 Felis catus cDNA sequences enriched for developmental, clinical and nutritional phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The feline genome is valuable to the veterinary and model organism genomics communities because the cat is an obligate carnivore and a model for endangered felids. The initial public release of the Felis catus genome assembly provided a framework for investigating the genomic basis of feline biology. However, the entire set of protein coding genes has not been elucidated. Results We identified and characterized 1227 protein coding feline sequences, of which 913 map to public sequences and 314 are novel. These sequences have been deposited into NCBI's genbank database and complement public genomic resources by providing additional protein coding sequences that fill in some of the gaps in the feline genome assembly. Through functional and comparative genomic analyses, we gained an understanding of the role of these sequences in feline development, nutrition and health. Specifically, we identified 104 orthologs of human genes associated with Mendelian disorders. We detected negative selection within sequences with gene ontology annotations associated with intracellular trafficking, cytoskeleton and muscle functions. We detected relatively less negative selection on protein sequences encoding extracellular networks, apoptotic pathways and mitochondrial gene ontology annotations. Additionally, we characterized feline cDNA sequences that have mouse orthologs associated with clinical, nutritional and developmental phenotypes. Together, this analysis provides an overview of the value of our cDNA sequences and enhances our understanding of how the feline genome is similar to, and different from other mammalian genomes. Conclusions The cDNA sequences reported here expand existing feline genomic resources by providing high-quality sequences annotated with comparative genomic information providing functional, clinical, nutritional and orthologous gene information. PMID:22257742

  8. Was cDNA sequences modulate transgene expression of was promoter-driven lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Miguel G; Benabdellah, Karim; Muñoz, Pilar; Frecha, Cecilia; Cobo, Marién; Martín, Francisco

    2009-11-01

    Abstract The development of vectors that express a therapeutic transgene efficiently and specifically in hematopoietic cells (HCs) is an important goal for gene therapy of hematological disorders. We have previously shown that a 500-bp fragment from the proximal Was gene promoter in a lentiviral vector (LV) was sufficient to achieve more than 100-fold higher levels of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein in HCs than in nonhematopoietic cells (non-HCs). We show now that this differential was reduced up to 10 times when the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (eGFP) was expressed instead of Was in the same LV backbone. Insertion of Was cDNA sequences downstream of eGFP in these LVs had a negative effect on transgene expression. This effect varied in different cell types but, overall, Was cDNA sequences increased the hematopoietic specificity of Was promoter-driven LV. We have characterized the minimal fragment required to increase hematopoietic specificity and have demonstrated that the mechanism involves Was promoter regulation and RNA processing. In addition, we have shown that Was cDNA sequences interfere with the enhancer activity of the woodchuck posttranscriptional regulatory element. These results represent the first data showing the role of Was intragenic sequences in gene regulation. PMID:19630517

  9. Complete cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of human factor V

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny, R.J.; Pittman, D.D.; Toole, J.J.; Kriz, R.W.; Aldape, R.A.; Hewick, R.M.; Kaufman, R.J.; Mann, K.G.

    1987-07-01

    cDNA clones encoding human factor V have been isolated from an oligo(dT)-primed human fetal liver cDNA library prepared with vector Charon 21A. The cDNA sequence of factor V from three overlapping clones includes a 6672-base-pair (bp) coding region, a 90-bp 5' untranslated region, and a 163-bp 3' untranslated region within which is a poly(A)tail. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 2224 amino acids inclusive of a 28-amino acid leader peptide. Direct comparison with human factor VIII reveals considerable homology between proteins in amino acid sequence and domain structure: a triplicated A domain and duplicated C domain show approx. 40% identity with the corresponding domains in factor VIII. As in factor VIII, the A domains of factor V share approx. 40% amino acid-sequence homology with the three highly conserved domains in ceruloplasmin. The B domain of factor V contains 35 tandem and approx. 9 additional semiconserved repeats of nine amino acids of the form Asp-Leu-Ser-Gln-Thr-Thr/Asn-Leu-Ser-Pro and 2 additional semiconserved repeats of 17 amino acids. Factor V contains 37 potential N-linked glycosylation sites, 25 of which are in the B domain, and a total of 19 cysteine residues.

  10. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding partial putative molt-inhibiting hormone from Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zai-Zhao; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2002-09-01

    Total RNA was extracted from eyestalks of shrimp Penaeus chinensis. Eyestalk cDNA was obtained from total RNA by reverse transcription. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was initiated using eyestalk cDNA and degenerate primers designed from the amino acid sequence of molt-inhibiting hormone from shrimp Penaeus japonicus. A specific cDNA was obtained and cloned into a T vector for sequencing. The cDNA consisted of 201 base pairs and encoding for a peptide of 67 amino acid residues. The peptide of P. chinensis had the highest identity with molt-inhibiting hormones of P. japonicus. The cDNA could be a partial gene of molt-inhibiting hormones from P. chinensis. This paper reports for the first time cDNA encoding for neuropeptide of P. chinensis.

  11. Nucleotide sequence of both genomic RNAs of a North American tobacco rattle virus isolate.

    PubMed

    Sudarshana, M R; Berger, P H

    1998-01-01

    The complete sequence of a North American tobacco rattle virus (TRV) isolate, 'Oregon yellow' (ORY), was determined from cDNA and RT-PCR clones derived from the two genomic RNAs of this isolate. The RNA-1 is 6790 bases and RNA-2 is 3261 bases. The sequence of TRV-ORY RNA-1 was similar to RNA-1 to TRV isolate SYM, and differs in 48 nucleotides. TRV-ORY RNA-1 was one base shorter than--SYM, and had 47 base substitutions resulting in 12 amino acid substitutions of which 4 were conservative. The RNA-2 of TRV-ORY was distinct from RNA-2 of other characterized TRV isolates and contained three open reading frames (ORFs) that could potentially code for proteins of MW 22.4 kDa, 37.6 kDa and 17.9 kDa. Based on the homology of the predicted amino acid sequence with those of other tobraviruses. ORF1 of RNA-2 encodes the coat protein (CP). The protein sequence of ORF2 had regions of limited similarity with those of ORF2 of two other TRV isolates and pea early browning tobravirus. The ORF3 was unique to TRV-ORY. Phylogenetic analysis of tobravirus CPs indicated that TRV-ORY was most closely related to pepper ringspot tobravirus and TRV-TCM. The relationship of tobravirus CPs to other rod-shaped tubular plant viruses is also discussed. PMID:9739332

  12. Nucleotide sequence of Bacillus phage Nf terminal protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, M C; Ito, J

    1987-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of Bacillus phage Nf gene E has been determined. Gene E codes for phage terminal protein which is the primer necessary for the initiation of DNA replication. The deduced amino acid sequence of Nf terminal protein is approximately 66% homologous with the terminal proteins of Bacillus phages PZA and luminal diameter 29, and shows similar hydropathy and secondary structure predictions. A serine which has been identified as the residue which covalently links the protein to the 5' end of the genome in luminal diameter 29, is conserved in all three phages. The hydropathic and secondary structural environment of this serine is similar in these phage terminal proteins and also similar to the linking serine of adenovirus terminal protein. PMID:3601672

  13. cDNA sequence, genomic organization, and evolutionary conservation of a novel gene from the WAGR region

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, F.; Eisenman, R.; Knoll, J.; Bruns, G.

    1995-09-20

    A new gene (239FB) with predominant and differential expression in fetal brain has recently been isolated from a chromosome 11p13-p14 boundary area near FSHB. The corresponding mRNA has an open reading frame of 294 amino acids, a 3` untranslated region of 1247 nucleotides, and a highly GC-rich 5` untranslated region. The coding and 3` UT sequence is specified by 6 exons within nearly 87 kb of isolated genomic locus. The 5` end region of the transcript maps adjacent to the only genomically defined CpG island in a chromosomal subregion that may be associated with part of the mental retardation of some WAGR (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation) syndrome patients. In addition to nucleotide and amino acid similarity to an EST from a normalized infant brain cDNA library, the predicted protein has extensive similarity to Caenorhbditis elegans polypeptides of, as yet, unknown function. The 239FB locus is, therefore, likely part of a family of genes with two members expressed in human brain. The extensive conservation of the predicted protein suggests a fundamental function of the gene product and will enable evaluation of the role of the 239FB gene in neurogenesis in model organisms. 48 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Expressed sequence tags from a NaCl-treated Suaeda salsa cDNA library.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Ma, X L; Zhang, Q; Ma, C L; Wang, P P; Sun, Y F; Zhao, Y X; Zhang, H

    2001-04-18

    Past efforts to improve plant tolerance to osmotic stress have had limited success owing to the genetic complexity of stress responses. The first step towards cataloging and categorizing genetically complex abotic stress responses is the rapid discovery of genes by the large-scale partial sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones or expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Suaeda salsa, which can survive seawater-level salinity, is a favorite halophytic model for salt tolerant research. We constructed a NaCl-treated cDNA library of Suaeda salsa and sequenced 1048 randomly selected clones, out of which 1016 clones produced readable sequences (773 showed homology to previously identified genes, 227 matched unknown protein coding regions, 16 anomalous sequences or sequences of bacterial origin were excluded from further analysis). By sequence analysis we identified 492 unique clones: 315 showed homology to previously identified genes, 177 matched unknown protein coding regions (101 of which have been found before in other organisms and 76 are completely novel). All our EST data are available on the Internet. We believe that our dbEST and the associated DNA materials will be a useful source to scientists engaging in stress-tolerance study. PMID:11313146

  15. Nucleotide sequences specific to Brucella and methods for the detection of Brucella

    DOEpatents

    McCready, Paula M.; Radnedge, Lyndsay; Andersen, Gary L.; Ott, Linda L.; Slezak, Thomas R.; Kuczmarski, Thomas A.

    2009-02-24

    Nucleotide sequences specific to Brucella that serves as a marker or signature for identification of this bacterium were identified. In addition, forward and reverse primers and hybridization probes derived from these nucleotide sequences that are used in nucleotide detection methods to detect the presence of the bacterium are disclosed.

  16. Nucleotide sequences specific to Francisella tularensis and methods for the detection of Francisella tularensis

    DOEpatents

    McCready, Paula M.; Radnedge, Lyndsay; Andersen, Gary L.; Ott, Linda L.; Slezak, Thomas R.; Kuczmarski, Thomas A.; Vitalis, Elizabeth A

    2007-02-06

    Described herein is the identification of nucleotide sequences specific to Francisella tularensis that serves as a marker or signature for identification of this bacterium. In addition, forward and reverse primers and hybridization probes derived from these nucleotide sequences that are used in nucleotide detection methods to detect the presence of the bacterium are disclosed.

  17. Nucleotide sequences specific to Francisella tularensis and methods for the detection of Francisella tularensis

    DOEpatents

    McCready, Paula M.; Radnedge, Lyndsay; Andersen, Gary L.; Ott, Linda L.; Slezak, Thomas R.; Kuczmarski, Thomas A.; Vitalis, Elizabeth A

    2009-02-24

    Described herein is the identification of nucleotide sequences specific to Francisella tularensis that serves as a marker or signature for identification of this bacterium. In addition, forward and reverse primers and hybridization probes derived from these nucleotide sequences that are used in nucleotide detection methods to detect the presence of the bacterium are disclosed.

  18. Nucleotide sequences specific to Yersinia pestis and methods for the detection of Yersinia pestis

    DOEpatents

    McCready, Paula M.; Radnedge, Lyndsay; Andersen, Gary L.; Ott, Linda L.; Slezak, Thomas R.; Kuczmarski, Thomas A.; Motin, Vladinir L.

    2009-02-24

    Nucleotide sequences specific to Yersinia pestis that serve as markers or signatures for identification of this bacterium were identified. In addition, forward and reverse primers and hybridization probes derived from these nucleotide sequences that are used in nucleotide detection methods to detect the presence of the bacterium are disclosed.

  19. Complete cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of the chaperonin containing T-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT) delta subunit from Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Blitvich, B J; Rayms-Keller, A; Blair, C D; Beaty, B J

    2001-01-01

    The chaperonin containing t-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT) assists in the ATP-dependent folding and assembly of newly translated actin and tubulin in the eukaryotic cytosol. CCT is composed of eight different subunits, each encoded by an independent gene. In this report, we used RT-PCR amplification and 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) to determine the complete cDNA sequence of the CCT delta subunit from Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes. The CCT delta cDNA is 1936 nucleotides in length and encodes a putative 533 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 57,179 daltons and pI of 7.15. Hydrophobic residues comprise 39.8% of the amino acid sequence and putative motifs for ATP-binding and ATPase-activity are present. The amino acid sequence displays strong sequence similarity to Drosophila melanogaster (92%), human (85%), puffer fish (84%) and mouse (84%) counterparts. CCT delta mRNA was detected in both biosynthetically active (embryonating) and dormant (diapausing) Ae. triseriatus embryos by RT-PCR analysis. PMID:11762197

  20. Brief report: genome sequence and construction of an infectious cDNA clone of Ribgrass mosaic virus from Chinese cabbage in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, So-Young; Hong, Jin-Sung; Rhee, Sun-Ju; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2012-04-01

    Ribgrass mosaic virus (RMV) has severely decreased the production and lowered quality of Chinese cabbage co-infected with Turnip mosaic virus (63.4%) in Korea. The complete genome sequence of RMV isolated from Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis was determined. The full genome consisted of 6,304 nucleotides and showed sequence identities of 91.5-94.2% with the corresponding genome of other RMV strains. Full-length cDNA of RMV-Br was amplified by RT-PCR with a 5'-end primer harboring a T7 promoter sequence and a 3'-end RMV specific primer. Subsequently, the full-length cDNA was cloned into plasmid vectors. Capped transcripts synthesized from the cDNA clone were highly infectious and caused characteristic symptoms in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and several indicator plants, similar to wild type RMV. Since there has not been found RMV resistant Chinese cabbage yet and the virus has been prevalent already throughout the natural fields of Korea, the identification of full sequence and development of infectious clone would help developing breeding program for RMV resistant crops. PMID:22143325

  1. Nucleotide sequence of the mRNA encoding the pre-alpha-subunit of mouse thyrotropin.

    PubMed Central

    Chin, W W; Kronenberg, H M; Dee, P C; Maloof, F; Habener, J F

    1981-01-01

    We have constructed and cloned in bacteria recombinant DNA molecules containing DNA sequences coding for the precursor of the alpha subunit of thyrotropin (pre-TSH-alpha). Double-stranded DNA complementary to total poly(A)+RNA derived from a mouse pituitary thyrotropic tumor was prepared enzymatically, inserted into the Pst I site of the plasmid pBR322 by using poly(dC).poly(dG) homopolymeric extensions, and cloned in Escherichia coli chi 1776. Cloned cDNAs encoding pre-TSH-alpha were identified by their hybridization to pre-TSH-alpha mRNA as determined by cell-free translations of hybrid-selected and hybrid-arrested RNA. The nucleotide sequences of two cDNAs (510 and 480 base pairs) were determined with chemical methods and corresponded to much of the region coding for the alpha subunit and the 3' untranslated region of pre-TSH-alpha mRNA. The sequence of the 5' end of the mRNA was determined from cDNA synthesized by using total mRNA as template and a restriction enzyme DNA fragment as primer. Together these sequences represented greater than 90% of the coding and noncoding regions of full-length pre-TSH-alpha mRNA, which was determined to be 800 bases long. The amino acid sequence of the pre-TSH-alpha deduced from the nucleotide sequence showed a NH2-terminal leader sequence of 24 amino acids followed by the 96-amino-acid sequence of the apoprotein of TSH-alpha. There is greater than 90% homology in the amino acid sequences among the murine, ruminant, and porcine alpha subunits and 75-80% homology among the murine, equine, and human alpha subunits. Several regions of the sequence remain absolutely conserved among all species, suggesting that these particular regions are essential for the biological function of the subunit. The successful cloning of the alpha subunit of TSH will permit further studies of the organization of the genes coding for the glycoprotein hormone subunits and the regulation of their expression. Images PMID:6272299

  2. Generalized Levy-walk model for DNA nucleotide sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1993-01-01

    We propose a generalized Levy walk to model fractal landscapes observed in noncoding DNA sequences. We find that this model provides a very close approximation to the empirical data and explains a number of statistical properties of genomic DNA sequences such as the distribution of strand-biased regions (those with an excess of one type of nucleotide) as well as local changes in the slope of the correlation exponent alpha. The generalized Levy-walk model simultaneously accounts for the long-range correlations in noncoding DNA sequences and for the apparently paradoxical finding of long subregions of biased random walks (length lj) within these correlated sequences. In the generalized Levy-walk model, the lj are chosen from a power-law distribution P(lj) varies as lj(-mu). The correlation exponent alpha is related to mu through alpha = 2-mu/2 if 2 < mu < 3. The model is consistent with the finding of "repetitive elements" of variable length interspersed within noncoding DNA.

  3. Mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gamma subunit: cDNA sequence and gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, L; LaPolla, R J; Davidson, N

    1986-01-01

    Clones coding for the mouse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) gamma subunit precursor have been selected from a cDNA library derived from a mouse myogenic cell line and sequenced. The deduced protein sequence consists of a signal peptide of 22 amino acid residues and a mature gamma subunit of 497 amino acid residues. There is a high degree of sequence conservation between this mouse sequence and published human and calf AChR gamma subunits and, after allowing for functional amino acid substitutions, also to the more distantly related chicken and Torpedo AChR gamma subunits. The degree of sequence conservation is especially high in the four putative hydrophobic membrane spanning regions, supporting the assignment of these domains. RNA blot hybridization showed that the mRNA level of the gamma subunit increases by 30 fold or more upon differentiation of the two mouse myogenic cell lines, BC3H-1 and C2C12, suggesting that the primary controls for changes in gene expression during differentiation are at the level of transcription. One cDNA clone was found to correspond to a partially processed nuclear transcript containing two as yet unspliced intervening sequences. Images PMID:3010242

  4. Identification and Sequencing of Candida krusei Aconitate Hydratase Gene Using Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends Method and Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fateh, Roohollah; Zaini, Farideh; Kordbacheh, Parivash; Falahati, Mehraban; Rezaie, Sasan; Daie Ghazvini, Roshanak; Borhani, Nahid; Safara, Mahin; Fattahi, Azam; Kanani, Ali; Farahyar, Shirin; Bolhassani, Manzar; Heidari, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Background: The production and development of an effective fungicidal drug requires the identification of an essential fungal protein as a drug target. Aconitase (ACO) is a mitochondrial protein that plays a vital role in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and thus production of energy within the cell. Objectives: The current study aimed to sequence Candida krusei ACO gene and determine any amino acid residue differences between human and fungal aconitases to obtain selective inhibition. Materials and Methods: Candida krusei (ATCC: 6258) aconitase gene was determined by 5’Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) method and degenerate Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and analyzed using bioinformatics softwares. Results: One thousand-four hundred-nineteen nucleotide of C. krusei aconitase gene were clarified and submitted in Genbank as a partial sequence and then taxonomic location of C. krusei was determined by nucleotide and amino acid sequences of this gene. The comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of Candida species ACO genes showed that C. krusei possessed characteristic sequences. No significant differences were observed between C. krusei and human aconitases within the active site amino acid residues. Conclusions: Results of the current study indicated that aconitase was not a suitable target to design new anti-fungal drugs that selectively block this enzyme. PMID:26855741

  5. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA species for mammalian dimeric dihydrodiol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed Central

    Arimitsu, E; Aoki, S; Ishikura, S; Nakanishi, K; Matsuura, K; Hara, A

    1999-01-01

    Cynomolgus and Japanese monkey kidneys, dog and pig livers and rabbit lens contain dimeric dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.20) associated with high carbonyl reductase activity. Here we have isolated cDNA species for the dimeric enzymes by reverse transcriptase-PCR from human intestine in addition to the above five animal tissues. The amino acid sequences deduced from the monkey, pig and dog cDNA species perfectly matched the partial sequences of peptides digested from the respective enzymes of these animal tissues, and active recombinant proteins were expressed in a bacterial system from the monkey and human cDNA species. Northern blot analysis revealed the existence of a single 1.3 kb mRNA species for the enzyme in these animal tissues. The human enzyme shared 94%, 85%, 84% and 82% amino acid identity with the enzymes of the two monkey strains (their sequences were identical), the dog, the pig and the rabbit respectively. The sequences of the primate enzymes consisted of 335 amino acid residues and lacked one amino acid compared with the other animal enzymes. In contrast with previous reports that other types of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, carbonyl reductases and enzymes with either activity belong to the aldo-keto reductase family or the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, dimeric dihydrodiol dehydrogenase showed no sequence similarity with the members of the two protein families. The dimeric enzyme aligned with low degrees of identity (14-25%) with several prokaryotic proteins, in which 47 residues are strictly or highly conserved. Thus dimeric dihydrodiol dehydrogenase has a primary structure distinct from the previously known mammalian enzymes and is suggested to constitute a novel protein family with the prokaryotic proteins. PMID:10477285

  6. Empirical Bayes Estimation of Coalescence Times from Nucleotide Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    King, Leandra; Wakeley, John

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the advantages of using information at many unlinked loci to better calibrate estimates of the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) at a given locus. To this end, we apply a simple empirical Bayes method to estimate the TMRCA. This method is both asymptotically optimal, in the sense that the estimator converges to the true value when the number of unlinked loci for which we have information is large, and has the advantage of not making any assumptions about demographic history. The algorithm works as follows: we first split the sample at each locus into inferred left and right clades to obtain many estimates of the TMRCA, which we can average to obtain an initial estimate of the TMRCA. We then use nucleotide sequence data from other unlinked loci to form an empirical distribution that we can use to improve this initial estimate. PMID:27440864

  7. Detection of spurious interruptions of protein-coding regions in cloned cDNA sequences by GeneMark analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirosawa, M; Ishikawa, K; Nagase, T; Ohara, O

    2000-09-01

    cDNA is an artificial copy of mRNA and, therefore, no cDNA can be completely free from suspicion of cloning errors. Because overlooking these cloning errors results in serious misinterpretation of cDNA sequences, development of an alerting system targeting spurious sequences in cloned cDNAs is an urgent requirement for massive cDNA sequence analysis. We describe here the application of a modified GeneMark program, originally designed for prokaryotic gene finding, for detection of artifacts in cDNA clones. This program serves to provide a warning when any spurious split of protein-coding regions is detected through statistical analysis of cDNA sequences based on Markov models. In this study, 817 cDNA sequences deposited in public databases by us were subjected to analysis using this alerting system to assess its sensitivity and specificity. The results indicated that any spurious split of protein-coding regions in cloned cDNAs could be sensitively detected and systematically revised by means of this system after the experimental validation of the alerts. Furthermore, this study offered us, for the first time, statistical data regarding the rates and types of errors causing protein-coding splits in cloned cDNAs obtained by conventional cloning methods. PMID:10984451

  8. Complete nucleotide sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Nancy L; Côté, Fabien; Paré, Christine; Leblanc, Eric; Bergeron, Michel G; Leclerc, Denis

    2007-12-01

    The complete genome sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus (NLVCV) was determined to be 4,172 nucleotides in length containing four open reading frames (ORFs) with a similar genetic organization of virus species in the genus Carmovirus, family Tombusviridae. The order and gene product size, starting from the 5'-proximal ORF consisted of: (1) polymerase/replicase gene, ORF1 (p27) and ORF1RT (readthrough) (p87), (2) movement proteins ORF2 (p7) and ORF3 (p9), and, (3) the 3'-proximal coat protein ORF4, (p37). The genomic 5'- and 3'-proximal termini contained a short (59 nt) and a relatively longer 405 nt untranslated region, respectively. The longer replicase gene product contained the GDD motif common to RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Phylogenetically, NLVCV formed a subgroup with the following four carmoviruses when separately comparing the amino acids of the coat protein or replicase protein: Angelonia flower break virus (AnFBV), Carnation mottle virus (CarMV), Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), and Saguaro cactus virus (SgCV). Whole genome nucleotide analysis (percent identities) among the carmoviruses with NLVCV suggested a similar pattern. The species demarcation criteria in the genus Carmovirus for the amino acid sequence identity of the polymerase (<52%) and coat (<41%) protein genes restricted NLVCV as a distinct species, and instead, placed it as a tentative strain of CarMV, PFBV, or SgCV when both the polymerase and CP were used as the determining factors. In contrast, the species criteria that included different host ranges with no overlap and lack of serology relatedness between NLVCV and the carmoviruses, suggested that NLVCV was a distinct species. The relatively low cutoff percentages allowed for the polymerase and CP genes to dictate the inclusion/exclusion of a distinct carmovirus species should be reevaluated. Therefore, at this time we have concluded that NLVCV should be classified as a tentative new species in the genus Carmovirus

  9. Structural of the class II enzyme of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase: combined cDNA and protein sequence determination of the. pi. subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeoeg, J.O.; von Bahr-Lindstroem, H.; Heden, L.O.; Holmquist, B.; Larsson, K.; Hempel, J.; Vallee, B.L.; Joernvall, H.

    1987-04-07

    The class II enzyme of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase was isolated, carboxymethylated, and cleaved with CNBr and proteolytic enzymes. Sequence analysis of peptides established structures corresponding to the ..pi.. subunit. Two segments from the C-terminal region unique to ..pi.. were selected for synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes to screen a human liver cDNA library constructed in plasmid pT4. Sequence analysis of two identical hybridization-positive clones with cDNA inserts of about 2000 nucleotides gave the entire coding region of the ..pi.. subunit, a 61-nucleotide 5' noncoding region and a 741-nucleotide 3' noncoding region containing four possible polyadenylation sites. Translation of the coding region yields a 391-residue polypeptide, which in all regions except the C-terminal segment corresponds to the protein structure as determined directly by peptide analysis. With the class I numbering system, the exception concerns a residue exchange at position 368, the actual C-terminus which is Phe-374 by peptide data but a 12 residue extension by cDNA data, and possibly two further residue exchanges at positions 303 and 312. The size difference might indicate the existence of posttranslational modifications of the mature protein or, in combination with the residue exchanges, the existence of polymorphism at the locus for class II subunits. The ..pi.. subunit analyzed directly results in a 379-residue polypeptide and is the only class II size thus far known to occur in the mature protein. Comparison of the ..pi.. structure with those of the class I subunits (..cap alpha.., ..beta.., and ..gamma..) reveals a homology with extensive differences. Large variations in segments affecting relationships at the active site and the area of subunit interactions account for the significant alterations of enzymatic specificities and other properties that differentiate class II from class I enzymes.

  10. cDNA cloning and sequencing of human fibrillarin, a conserved nucleolar protein recognized by autoimmune antisera

    SciTech Connect

    Aris, J.P.; Blobel, G. )

    1991-02-01

    The authors have isolated a 1.1-kilobase cDNA clone that encodes human fibrillarin by screening a hepatoma library in parallel with DNA probes derived from the fibrillarin genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NOP1) and Xenopus laevis. RNA blot analysis indicates that the corresponding mRNA is {approximately}1,300 nucleotides in length. Human fibrillarin expressed in vitro migrates on SDS gels as a 36-kDa protein that is specifically immunoprecipitated by antisera from humans with scleroderma autoimmune disease. Human fibrillarin contains an amino-terminal repetitive domain {approximately}75-80 amino acids in length that is rich in glycine and arginine residues and is similar to amino-terminal domains in the yeast and Xenopus fibrillarins. The occurrence of a putative RNA-binding domain and an RNP consensus sequence within the protein is consistent with the association of fibrillarin with small nucleolar RNAs. Protein sequence alignments show that 67% of amino acids from human fibrillarin are identical to those in yeast fibrillarin and that 81% are identical to those in Xenopus fibrillarin. This identity suggests the evolutionary conservation of an important function early in the pathway for ribosome biosynthesis.

  11. Time scale for cyclostome evolution inferred with a phylogenetic diagnosis of hagfish and lamprey cDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Kuraku, Shigehiro; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2006-12-01

    The Cyclostomata consists of the two orders Myxiniformes (hagfishes) and Petromyzoniformes (lampreys), and its monophyly has been unequivocally supported by recent molecular phylogenetic studies. Under this updated vertebrate phylogeny, we performed in silico evolutionary analyses using currently available cDNA sequences of cyclostomes. We first calculated the GC-content at four-fold degenerate sites (GC(4)), which revealed that an extremely high GC-content is shared by all the lamprey species we surveyed, whereas no striking pattern in GC-content was observed in any of the hagfish species surveyed. We then estimated the timing of diversification in cyclostome evolution using nucleotide and amino acid sequences. We obtained divergence times of 470-390 million years ago (Mya) in the Ordovician-Silurian-Devonian Periods for the interordinal split between Myxiniformes and Petromyzoniformes; 90-60 Mya in the Cretaceous-Tertiary Periods for the split between the two hagfish subfamilies, Myxininae and Eptatretinae; 280-220 Mya in the Permian-Triassic Periods for the split between the two lamprey subfamilies, Geotriinae and Petromyzoninae; and 30-10 Mya in the Tertiary Period for the split between the two lamprey genera, Petromyzon and Lethenteron. This evolutionary configuration indicates that Myxiniformes and Petromyzoniformes diverged shortly after the common ancestor of cyclostomes split from the future gnathostome lineage. Our results also suggest that intra-subfamilial diversification in hagfish and lamprey lineages (especially those distributed in the northern hemisphere) occurred in the Cretaceous or Tertiary Periods. PMID:17261918

  12. Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA for Akazara scallop troponin T.

    PubMed

    Inoue, A; Ojima, T; Nishita, K

    1996-10-01

    A cDNA clone encoding troponin T of Akazara scallop (Chlamys nipponensis akazara) striated adductor muscle has been isolated and sequenced. The complete sequence deduced consists of 314 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 37,206. Akazara scallop troponin T contains 55 amino acid residues more and 82 residues fewer than rabbit skeletal muscle troponin T and Drosophila melanogaster troponin T, respectively, showing almost the lowest sequence homology with rabbit troponin T (26%) but the highest homology with Drosophila troponin T (33%). Further, high sequence homology was seen in the functional regions: residues 33-120 and 174-227, corresponding respectively to residues 71-158 and 197-250 of rabbit troponin T (tropomyosin-binding regions); and residues 200-204, corresponding to 223 227 of rabbit troponin T (troponin I-binding region). In residues 1-70 (tropomyosin-binding region), however, only six residues are identical with rabbit troponin T. PMID:8947849

  13. The nucleotide sequence of the uvrD gene of E. coli.

    PubMed Central

    Finch, P W; Emmerson, P T

    1984-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a cloned section of the E. coli chromosome containing the uvrD gene has been determined. The coding region for the UvrD protein consists of 2,160 nucleotides which would direct the synthesis of a polypeptide 720 amino acids long with a calculated molecular weight of 82 kd. The predicted amino acid sequence of the UvrD protein has been compared with the amino acid sequences of other known adenine nucleotide binding proteins and a common sequence has been identified, thought to contribute towards adenine nucleotide binding. PMID:6379604

  14. Construction of cDNA library and preliminary analysis of expressed sequence tags from Siberian tiger

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang-Qing; Lu, Tao-Feng; Feng, Bao-Gang; Liu, Dan; Guan, Wei-Jun; Ma, Yue-Hui

    2010-01-01

    In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Siberian tiger, Panthera tigris altaica, the most well-known wild Animal. Total RNA was extracted from cultured Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro. The titers of primary and amplified libraries were 1.30×106 pfu/ml and 1.62×109 pfu/ml respectively. The proportion of recombinants from unamplified library was 90.5% and average length of exogenous inserts was 1.13 kb. A total of 282 individual ESTs with sizes ranging from 328 to 1,142bps were then analyzed the BLASTX score revealed that 53.9% of the sequences were classified as strong match, 38.6% as nominal and 7.4% as weak match. 28.0% of them were found to be related to enzyme/catalytic protein, 20.9% ESTs to metabolism, 13.1% ESTs to transport, 12.1% ESTs to signal transducer/cell communication, 9.9% ESTs to structure protein, 3.9% ESTs to immunity protein/defense metabolism, 3.2% ESTs to cell cycle, and 8.9 ESTs classified as novel genes. These results demonstrated that the reliability and representativeness of the cDNA library attained to the requirements of a standard cDNA library. This library provided a useful platform for the functional genomic research of Siberian tigers. PMID:20941376

  15. Benchmarking of the Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing for quantitative and qualitative assessment of cDNA populations

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomopoulos, Spyros; Wang, Yu Chang; Djambazian, Haig; Badescu, Dunarel; Ragoussis, Jiannis

    2016-01-01

    To assess the performance of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION sequencing platform, cDNAs from the External RNA Controls Consortium (ERCC) RNA Spike-In mix were sequenced. This mix mimics mammalian mRNA species and consists of 92 polyadenylated transcripts with known concentration. cDNA libraries were generated using a template switching protocol to facilitate the direct comparison between different sequencing platforms. The MinION performance was assessed for its ability to sequence the cDNAs directly with good accuracy in terms of abundance and full length. The abundance of the ERCC cDNA molecules sequenced by MinION agreed with their expected concentration. No length or GC content bias was observed. The majority of cDNAs were sequenced as full length. Additionally, a complex cDNA population derived from a human HEK-293 cell line was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500, PacBio RS II and ONT MinION platforms. We observed that there was a good agreement in the measured cDNA abundance between PacBio RS II and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.82, isoforms with length more than 700bp) and between Illumina HiSeq 2500 and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.75). This indicates that the ONT MinION can sequence quantitatively both long and short full length cDNA molecules. PMID:27554526

  16. Benchmarking of the Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing for quantitative and qualitative assessment of cDNA populations.

    PubMed

    Oikonomopoulos, Spyros; Wang, Yu Chang; Djambazian, Haig; Badescu, Dunarel; Ragoussis, Jiannis

    2016-01-01

    To assess the performance of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION sequencing platform, cDNAs from the External RNA Controls Consortium (ERCC) RNA Spike-In mix were sequenced. This mix mimics mammalian mRNA species and consists of 92 polyadenylated transcripts with known concentration. cDNA libraries were generated using a template switching protocol to facilitate the direct comparison between different sequencing platforms. The MinION performance was assessed for its ability to sequence the cDNAs directly with good accuracy in terms of abundance and full length. The abundance of the ERCC cDNA molecules sequenced by MinION agreed with their expected concentration. No length or GC content bias was observed. The majority of cDNAs were sequenced as full length. Additionally, a complex cDNA population derived from a human HEK-293 cell line was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500, PacBio RS II and ONT MinION platforms. We observed that there was a good agreement in the measured cDNA abundance between PacBio RS II and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.82, isoforms with length more than 700bp) and between Illumina HiSeq 2500 and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.75). This indicates that the ONT MinION can sequence quantitatively both long and short full length cDNA molecules. PMID:27554526

  17. Spatially localized generation of nucleotide sequence-specific DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dennis H.; King, Brett A.; Boxer, Steven G.; Hanawalt, Philip C.

    2001-01-01

    Psoralens linked to triplex-forming oligonucleotides (psoTFOs) have been used in conjunction with laser-induced two-photon excitation (TPE) to damage a specific DNA target sequence. To demonstrate that TPE can initiate photochemistry resulting in psoralen–DNA photoadducts, target DNA sequences were incubated with psoTFOs to form triple-helical complexes and then irradiated in liquid solution with pulsed 765-nm laser light, which is half the quantum energy required for conventional one-photon excitation, as used in psoralen + UV A radiation (320–400 nm) therapy. Target DNA acquired strand-specific psoralen monoadducts in a light dose-dependent fashion. To localize DNA damage in a model tissue-like medium, a DNA–psoTFO mixture was prepared in a polyacrylamide gel and then irradiated with a converging laser beam targeting the rear of the gel. The highest number of photoadducts formed at the rear while relatively sparing DNA at the front of the gel, demonstrating spatial localization of sequence-specific DNA damage by TPE. To assess whether TPE treatment could be extended to cells without significant toxicity, cultured monolayers of normal human dermal fibroblasts were incubated with tritium-labeled psoralen without TFO to maximize detectable damage and irradiated by TPE. DNA from irradiated cells treated with psoralen exhibited a 4- to 7-fold increase in tritium activity relative to untreated controls. Functional survival assays indicated that the psoralen–TPE treatment was not toxic to cells. These results demonstrate that DNA damage can be simultaneously manipulated at the nucleotide level and in three dimensions. This approach for targeting photochemical DNA damage may have photochemotherapeutic applications in skin and other optically accessible tissues. PMID:11572980

  18. Spatially localized generation of nucleotide sequence-specific DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Oh, D H; King, B A; Boxer, S G; Hanawalt, P C

    2001-09-25

    Psoralens linked to triplex-forming oligonucleotides (psoTFOs) have been used in conjunction with laser-induced two-photon excitation (TPE) to damage a specific DNA target sequence. To demonstrate that TPE can initiate photochemistry resulting in psoralen-DNA photoadducts, target DNA sequences were incubated with psoTFOs to form triple-helical complexes and then irradiated in liquid solution with pulsed 765-nm laser light, which is half the quantum energy required for conventional one-photon excitation, as used in psoralen + UV A radiation (320-400 nm) therapy. Target DNA acquired strand-specific psoralen monoadducts in a light dose-dependent fashion. To localize DNA damage in a model tissue-like medium, a DNA-psoTFO mixture was prepared in a polyacrylamide gel and then irradiated with a converging laser beam targeting the rear of the gel. The highest number of photoadducts formed at the rear while relatively sparing DNA at the front of the gel, demonstrating spatial localization of sequence-specific DNA damage by TPE. To assess whether TPE treatment could be extended to cells without significant toxicity, cultured monolayers of normal human dermal fibroblasts were incubated with tritium-labeled psoralen without TFO to maximize detectable damage and irradiated by TPE. DNA from irradiated cells treated with psoralen exhibited a 4- to 7-fold increase in tritium activity relative to untreated controls. Functional survival assays indicated that the psoralen-TPE treatment was not toxic to cells. These results demonstrate that DNA damage can be simultaneously manipulated at the nucleotide level and in three dimensions. This approach for targeting photochemical DNA damage may have photochemotherapeutic applications in skin and other optically accessible tissues. PMID:11572980

  19. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA coding for a lectin from Helianthus tuberosus callus and its jasmonate-induced expression.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, R; Yasokawa, D; Okumura, Y; Nagashima, K

    2000-06-01

    Two lectins (designated as HTA I and HTA II) that seemed to be isolectins were found in Helianthus tuberosus callus. cDNA encoding HTA I was isolated from a ZAP Express expression library by immunoselection by using the anti-HTA antiserum. The sequence of this cDNA consisted of 432 bp nucleotides coding for a polypeptide of 143 amino acid residues (Mr, 15,314). When introduced into E. coli, the cDNA directed the synthesis of active HTA I as indicated by the hemagglutination activity. The deduced amino acid sequence showed homology with some lectins and jasmonate-induced proteins. When callus was cultured in the presence of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), the hemagglutination activity increased in a dose-dependent manner. The levels of expression of the HTA protein and of the corresponding mRNA also increased in the treated callus. In view of these results, HTA I is considered to be a jasmonate-induced protein. PMID:10923797

  20. Isolation and sequence of a cDNA clone for human tyrosinase that maps at the mouse c-albino locus

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, B.S.; Haq, A.K.; Pomerantz, S.H.; Halaban, R.

    1987-11-01

    Screening of a lambdagt11 human melanocyte cDNA library with antibodies against hamster tyrosinase resulted in the isolation of 16 clones. The cDNA inserts from 13 of the 16 clones cross-hybridized with each other, indicating that they were form related mRNA species. One of the cDNA clones, Pmel34, detected one mRNA species with an approximate length of 2.4 kilobases that was expressed preferentially in normal and malignant melanocytes but not in other cell types. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence showed that the putative human tyrosinase is composed of 548 amino acids with a molecular weight of 62,610. The deduced protein contains glycosylation sites and histidine-rich sites that could be used for copper binding. Southern blot analysis of DNA derived from newborn mice carrying lethal albino deletion mutations revealed that Pmel34 maps near or at the c-albino locus, the position of the structural gene for tyrosinase.

  1. Serine protease variants encoded by Echis ocellatus venom gland cDNA: cloning and sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Hasson, S S; Mothana, R A; Sallam, T A; Al-balushi, M S; Rahman, M T; Al-Jabri, A A

    2010-01-01

    Envenoming by Echis saw-scaled viper is the leading cause of death and morbidity in Africa due to snake bite. Despite its medical importance, there have been few investigations into the toxin composition of the venom of this viper. Here, we report the cloning of cDNA sequences encoding four groups or isoforms of the haemostasis-disruptive Serine protease proteins (SPs) from the venom glands of Echis ocellatus. All these SP sequences encoded the cysteine residues scaffold that form the 6-disulphide bonds responsible for the characteristic tertiary structure of venom serine proteases. All the Echis ocellatus EoSP groups showed varying degrees of sequence similarity to published viper venom SPs. However, these groups also showed marked intercluster sequence conservation across them which were significantly different from that of previously published viper SPs. Because viper venom SPs exhibit a high degree of sequence similarity and yet exert profoundly different effects on the mammalian haemostatic system, no attempt was made to assign functionality to the new Echis ocellatus EoSPs on the basis of sequence alone. The extraordinary level of interspecific and intergeneric sequence conservation exhibited by the Echis ocellatus EoSPs and analogous serine proteases from other viper species leads us to speculate that antibodies to representative molecules should neutralise (that we will exploit, by epidermal DNA immunization) the biological function of this important group of venom toxins in vipers that are distributed throughout Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. PMID:20936075

  2. Nucleotide sequence and proposed secondary structure of Columnea latent viroid: a natural mosaic of viroid sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, R; Smith, D R; Diener, T O

    1989-01-01

    The Columnea latent viroid (CLV) occurs latently in certain Columnea erythrophae plants grown commercially. In potato and tomato, CLV causes potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV)-like symptoms. Its nucleotide sequence and proposed secondary structure reveal that CLV consists of a single-stranded circular RNA of 370 nucleotides which can assume a rod-like structure with extensive base-pairing characteristic of all known viroids. The electrophoretic mobility of circular CLV under nondenaturing conditions suggests a potential tertiary structure. CLV contains extensive sequence homologies to the PSTV group of viroids but contains a central conserved region identical to that of hop stunt viroid (HSV). CLV also shares some biological properties with each of the two types of viroids. Most probably, CLV is the result of intracellular RNA recombination between an HSV-type and one or more PSTV-type viroids replicating in the same plant. Images PMID:2602114

  3. Nucleotide sequence of a cloned woodchuck hepatitis virus genome: comparison with the hepatitis B virus sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Galibert, F; Chen, T N; Mandart, E

    1982-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a woodchuck hepatitis virus genome cloned in Escherichia coli was determined by the method of Maxam and Gilbert. This sequence was found to be 3,308 nucleotides long. Potential ATG initiator triplets and nonsense codons were identified and used to locate regions with a substantial coding capacity. A striking similarity was observed between the organization of human hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus. Nucleotide sequences of these open regions in the woodchuck virus were compared with corresponding regions present in hepatitis B virus. This allowed the location of four viral genes on the L strand and indicated the absence of protein coded by the S strand. Evolution rates of the various parts of the genome as well as of the four different proteins coded by hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus were compared. These results indicated that: (i) the core protein has evolved slightly less rapidly than the other proteins; and (ii) when a region of DNA codes for two different proteins, there is less freedom for the DNA to evolve and, moreover, one of the proteins can evolve more rapidly than the other. A hairpin structure, very well conserved in the two genomes, was located in the only region devoid of coding function, suggesting the location of the origin of replication of the viral DNA. Images PMID:7086958

  4. Complete nucleotide sequence of a maize chlorotic mottle virus isolate from Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome of a maize chlorotic mottle virus isolate from Nebraska (MCMV-NE) was cloned and sequenced. The MCMV-NE genome consists of 4,436 nucleotides and shares 99.5% nucleotide sequence identity with an MCMV isolate from Kansas (MCMV-KS). Of 22 polymorphic sites, most resulted from t...

  5. Cloning and sequence analysis of a full-length cDNA of SmPP1cb encoding turbot protein phosphatase 1 beta catalytic subunit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Fei; Guo, Huarong; Wang, Jian

    2008-02-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation, catalyzed by protein kinases and phosphatases, is an important and versatile mechanism by which eukaryotic cells regulate almost all the signaling processes. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is the first and well-characterized member of the protein serine/threonine phosphatase family. In the present study, a full-length cDNA encoding the beta isoform of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1(PP1cb), was for the first time isolated and sequenced from the skin tissue of flatfish turbot Scophthalmus maximus, designated SmPP1cb, by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. The cDNA sequence of SmPP1cb we obtained contains a 984 bp open reading frame (ORF), flanked by a complete 39 bp 5' untranslated region and 462 bp 3' untranslated region. The ORF encodes a putative 327 amino acid protein, and the N-terminal section of this protein is highly acidic, Met-Ala-Glu-Gly-Glu-Leu-Asp-Val-Asp, a common feature for PP1 catalytic subunit but absent in protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B). And its calculated molecular mass is 37 193 Da and pI 5.8. Sequence analysis indicated that, SmPP1cb is extremely conserved in both amino acid and nucleotide acid levels compared with the PP1cb of other vertebrates and invertebrates, and its Kozak motif contained in the 5'UTR around ATG start codon is GXXAXXGXX ATGG, which is different from mammalian in two positions A-6 and G-3, indicating the possibility of different initiation of translation in turbot, and also the 3'UTR of SmPP1cb is highly diverse in the sequence similarity and length compared with other animals, especially zebrafish. The cloning and sequencing of SmPP1cb gene lays a good foundation for the future work on the biological functions of PP1 in the flatfish turbot.

  6. Nuclear-encoded chloroplast ribosomal protein L12 of Nicotiana tabacum: characterization of mature protein and isolation and sequence analysis of cDNA clones encoding its cytoplasmic precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Elhag, G A; Thomas, F J; McCreery, T P; Bourque, D P

    1992-01-01

    Poly(A)+ mRNA isolated from Nicotiana tabacum (cv. Petite Havana) leaves was used to prepare a cDNA library in the expression vector lambda gt11. Recombinant phage containing cDNAs coding for chloroplast ribosomal protein L12 were identified and sequenced. Mature tobacco L12 protein has 44% amino acid identity with ribosomal protein L7/L12 of Escherichia coli. The longest L12 cDNA (733 nucleotides) codes for a 13,823 molecular weight polypeptide with a transit peptide of 53 amino acids and a mature protein of 133 amino acids. The transit peptide and mature protein share 43% and 79% amino acid identity, respectively, with corresponding regions of spinach chloroplast ribosomal protein L12. The predicted amino terminus of the mature protein was confirmed by partial sequence analysis of HPLC-purified tobacco chloroplast ribosomal protein L12. A single L12 mRNA of about 0.8 kb was detected by hybridization of L12 cDNA to poly(A)+ and total leaf RNA. Hybridization patterns of restriction fragments of tobacco genomic DNA probed with the L12 cDNA suggested the existence of more than one gene for ribosomal protein L12. Characterization of a second cDNA with an identical L12 coding sequence but a different 3'-noncoding sequence provided evidence that at least two L12 genes are expressed in tobacco. Images PMID:1542565

  7. cDNA sequence and deduced primary structure of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from a bruchid-resistant wild common bean.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Ishimoto, M; Kitamura, K

    1994-06-12

    alpha-Amylase inhibitor-2 (alpha AI-2), a seed storage protein present in a bruchid-resistant wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), inhibits the growth of bruchid pests. The authors isolated and determined the sequence of an 852 nucleotide cDNA, designated as alpha ai2, and found it to contain a 720 base open reading frame (ORF). This ORF encodes a 240 amino-acid alpha AI-2 polypeptide 75.8% identical with alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alpha AI-1) and 50.6-55.6% with arcelin-1, phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-L and PHA-E of common bean. The high degree of sequence homology suggests that there is an evolutionary relationship among these genes. PMID:8003534

  8. Complete nucleotide sequence of the temperate bacteriophage LBR48, a new member of the family Myoviridae.

    PubMed

    Jang, Se Hwan; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Chang, Hyo Ihl

    2011-02-01

    The complete genomic sequence of LBR48, a temperate bacteriophage induced from a lysogenic strain of Lactobacillus brevis, was found to be 48,211 nucleotides long and to contain 90 putative open reading frames. Based on structural characteristics obtained from microscopic analysis and nucleic acid sequence determination, phage LBR48 can be classified as a member of the family Myoviridae. Analysis of the genome showed the conserved gene order of previously reported phages of the family Siphoviridae from lactic acid bacteria, despite low nucleotide sequence similarity. Analysis of the attachment sites revealed 15-nucleotide-long core sequences. PMID:20976608

  9. Differential representation of sunflower ESTs in enriched organ-specific cDNA libraries in a small scale sequencing project

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Paula; Paniego, Norma; Lew, Sergio; Hopp, H Esteban; Heinz, Ruth A

    2003-01-01

    Background Subtractive hybridization methods are valuable tools for identifying differentially regulated genes in a given tissue avoiding redundant sequencing of clones representing the same expressed genes, maximizing detection of low abundant transcripts and thus, affecting the efficiency and cost effectiveness of small scale cDNA sequencing projects aimed to the specific identification of useful genes for breeding purposes. The objective of this work is to evaluate alternative strategies to high-throughput sequencing projects for the identification of novel genes differentially expressed in sunflower as a source of organ-specific genetic markers that can be functionally associated to important traits. Results Differential organ-specific ESTs were generated from leaf, stem, root and flower bud at two developmental stages (R1 and R4). The use of different sources of RNA as tester and driver cDNA for the construction of differential libraries was evaluated as a tool for detection of rare or low abundant transcripts. Organ-specificity ranged from 75 to 100% of non-redundant sequences in the different cDNA libraries. Sequence redundancy varied according to the target and driver cDNA used in each case. The R4 flower cDNA library was the less redundant library with 62% of unique sequences. Out of a total of 919 sequences that were edited and annotated, 318 were non-redundant sequences. Comparison against sequences in public databases showed that 60% of non-redundant sequences showed significant similarity to known sequences. The number of predicted novel genes varied among the different cDNA libraries, ranging from 56% in the R4 flower to 16 % in the R1 flower bud library. Comparison with sunflower ESTs on public databases showed that 197 of non-redundant sequences (60%) did not exhibit significant similarity to previously reported sunflower ESTs. This approach helped to successfully isolate a significant number of new reported sequences putatively related to responses

  10. 37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... acids are not intended to be embraced by this definition. Any amino acid sequence that contains post-translationally modified amino acids may be described as the amino acid sequence that is initially translated... sequence of four or more amino acids or an unbranched sequence of ten or more nucleotides....

  11. 37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... acids are not intended to be embraced by this definition. Any amino acid sequence that contains post-translationally modified amino acids may be described as the amino acid sequence that is initially translated... sequence of four or more amino acids or an unbranched sequence of ten or more nucleotides....

  12. 37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... acids are not intended to be embraced by this definition. Any amino acid sequence that contains post-translationally modified amino acids may be described as the amino acid sequence that is initially translated... sequence of four or more amino acids or an unbranched sequence of ten or more nucleotides....

  13. Cloning and sequence analysis of the coding sequence of β-actin cDNA from the Chinese alligator and suitable internal reference primers from the β-actin gene.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H N; Zhang, S Z; Zhou, Y K; Wang, C L; Wu, X B

    2015-01-01

    β-Actin is an essential component of the cytoskeleton and is stably expressed in various tissues of animals, thus, it is commonly used as an internal reference for gene expression studies. In this study, a 1731-bp fragment of β-actin cDNA from Alligator sinensis was obtained using the homology cloning technique. Sequence analysis showed that this fragment contained the complete coding sequence of the β-actin gene (1128 bp), encoding 375 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of β-actin is highly conserved and its nucleotide sequence is slightly variable. Multiple alignment analyses showed that the nucleotide sequence of the β-actin gene from A. sinensis is very similar to sequences from birds, with 94-95% identity. Ten pairs of primers with different product sizes and different annealing temperatures were screened by PCR amplification, agarose gel electrophoresis, and DNA sequencing, and could be used as internal reference primers in gene expression studies. This study expands our knowledge of β-actin gene phylogenetic evolution and provides a basis for quantitative gene expression studies in A. sinensis. PMID:26505364

  14. Nucleotide sequence analysis with polynucleotide kinase and nucleotide `mapping' methods. 5′-Terminal sequence of deoxyribonucleic acid from bacteriophages λ and 424

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kenneth

    1973-01-01

    The polynucleotide kinase reaction was used in analyses of complex mixtures of oligodeoxynucleotides which were fractionated by various two-dimensional nucleotide `mapping' procedures. Parallel ionophoretic analyses on DEAE-cellulose paper, pH2, and AE-cellulose paper, pH3.5, of venom phosphodiesterase partial digests of 5′-terminally labelled oligonucleotides enabled the sequence of the nucleotides to be deduced uniquely. A `diagonal ionophoresis' method has been used with mixtures of nucleotides. Application of these methods to 5′-terminally labelled DNA from bacteriophage λ gave the terminal sequences pA-G-G-T-C-G and pG-G-G-C-G. Identical 5′-terminal sequences were found with DNA from bacteriophage 424. ImagesPLATE 5PLATE 1PLATE 2PLATE 3PLATE 4 PMID:4352720

  15. The nucleotide sequence of the mouse immunoglobulin epsilon gene: comparison with the human epsilon gene sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, N; Ueda, S; Hayashida, H; Miyata, T; Honjo, T

    1982-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the immunoglobulin epsilon gene cloned from newborn mouse DNA. The epsilon gene sequence allows prediction of the amino acid sequence of the constant region of the epsilon chain and comparison of it with sequences of the human epsilon and other mouse immunoglobulin genes. The epsilon gene was shown to be under the weakest selection pressure at the protein level among the immunoglobulin genes although the divergence at the synonymous position is similar. Our results suggest that the epsilon gene may be dispensable, which is in accord with the fact that IgE has only obscure roles in the immune defense system but has an undesirable role as a mediator of hypersensitivity. The sequence data suggest that the human and murine epsilon genes were derived from different ancestors duplicated a long time ago. The amino acid sequence of the epsilon chain is more homologous to those of the gamma chains than the other mouse heavy chains. Two membrane exons, separated by an 80-base intron, were identified 1.7 kb 3' to the CH4 domain of the epsilon gene and shown to conserve a hydrophobic portion similar to those of other heavy chain genes. RNA blot hybridization showed that the epsilon membrane exons are transcribed into two species of mRNA in an IgE hybridoma. Images Fig. 4. PMID:6329728

  16. Completion of the nucleotide sequence of sunn-hemp mosaic virus: a tobamovirus pathogenic to legumes.

    PubMed

    Silver, S; Quan, S; Deom, C M

    1996-01-01

    Sunn-hemp mosaic virus (SHMV) is a member of the tobamovirus group of plant viruses. The nucleotide sequence of the 5'-untranslated region, the 129 kD protein gene, and a portion of the 186 kD protein gene of SHMV was determined. The 4,683 nucleotides (nts) reported here completes the sequence of the SHMV genome and complements previous work (Meshi, Ohno, and Okada, Nucleic Acids Res. 10, 6111-6117 [1982]; Mol. Gen. Genet. 184, 20-25 [1981]) to provide the first complete nucleotide sequence for a tobamovirus that is pathogenic to leguminous plants. PMID:8938983

  17. Complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of tobacco mosaic virus strain Cg.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, T; Komatani, H; Meshi, T; Naito, S; Ishikawa, M; Ohno, T

    1998-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-Cg is a crucifer-infecting tobamovirus that was isolated from field-grown garlic. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of TMV-Cg. The genomic RNA of TMV-Cg consists of 6303 nucleotides and encodes four large open reading frames, organized basically in the same way as that of other tobamoviruses. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences are very similar to those of the other crucifer-infecting tobamoviruses that have been sequenced so far. PMID:9608662

  18. Epitopes of human testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase deduced from a cDNA sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, J.L.; Driscoll, C.E.; LeVan, K.M.; Goldberg, E.

    1987-08-01

    The sequence and structure of human testis-specific L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDHC/sub 4/, LDHX; (L)-lactate:NAD/sup +/ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27) has been derived from analysis of a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone comprising the complete protein coding region of the enzyme. From the deduced amino acid sequence, human LDHC/sub 4/ is as different from rodent LDHC/sub 4/ (73% homology) as it is from human LDHA/sub 4/ (76% homology) and porcine LDHB/sub 4/ (68% homology). Subunit homologies are consistent with the conclusion that the LDHC gene arose by at least two independent duplication events. Furthermore, the lower degree of homology between mouse and human LDHC/sub 4/ and the appearance of this isozyme late in evolution suggests a higher rate of mutation in the mammalian LDHC genes than in the LDHA and -B genes. Comparison of exposed amino acid residues of discrete anti-genic determinants of mouse and human LDHC/sub 4/ reveals significant differences. Knowledge of the human LDHC/sub 4/ sequence will help design human-specific peptides useful in the development of a contraceptive vaccine.

  19. The complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Red clover vein mosaic virus (genus Carlavirus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover vein mosaic virus (RCVMV) is a serious pathogen of legume crops including pea, chickpea and lentil. The complete nucleotide sequence was generated from an isolate obtained from chickpea in Washington State. The complete genome of RCVMV consists of 8605 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) ...

  20. Cloning of human transketolase cDNAs and comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the coding region in Wernicke-Korsakoff and non-Wernicke-Korsakoff individuals.

    PubMed

    McCool, B A; Plonk, S G; Martin, P R; Singleton, C K

    1993-01-15

    Variants of the enzyme transketolase which possess reduced affinity for its cofactor thiamine pyrophosphate (high apparent Km) have been described in chronic alcoholic patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Since the syndrome has been shown to be directly related to thiamine deficiency, it has been hypothesized that such transketolase variants may represent a genetic predisposition to the development of this syndrome. To test this hypothesis, human transketolase cDNA clones were isolated, and their nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence were determined. Transketolase was found to be a single copy gene which produces a single mRNA of approximately 2100 nucleotides. Additionally, the nucleotide sequence of the transketolase coding region in fibroblasts derived from two Wernicke-Korsakoff (WK) patients was compared to that of two nonalcoholic controls. Although nucleotide and predicted amino acid differences were detected between fibroblast cultures and the original cDNAs and among the cultures themselves, no specific nucleotide variations, which would encode a variant amino acid sequence, were associated exclusively with the coding region from WK patients. Thus, allelic variants of the transketolase gene cannot account for the biochemically distinct forms of the enzyme found in these patients nor be considered as a mechanism for genetic predisposition to the development of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Instead, the underlying mechanism must be extragenic and may be a result of differences in post-translational processing/modification of the transketolase polypeptide. PMID:8419340

  1. Preparation of cDNA libraries for high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis of RNA 5′ ends

    PubMed Central

    Vvedenskaya, Irina O.; Goldman, Seth R.; Nickels, Bryce E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We provide a detailed protocol for preparing cDNA libraries suitable for high throughput sequencing that are derived specifically from the 5′ ends of RNA (5′ specific RNA-seq). The protocol describes how cDNA libraries for 5′ specific RNA-seq can be tailored to analyze specific classes of RNAs based upon the phosphorylation status of the 5′ end. Thus, the analysis of cDNA libraries generated by these methods provides information regarding both the sequence and phosphorylation status of the 5′ ends of RNAs. 5′ specific RNA-seq can be used to analyze transcription initiation and post-transcriptional processing of RNAs with single base pair resolution on a genome-wide level. PMID:25665566

  2. cDNA sequence and protein bioinformatics analyses of MSTN in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Kanjanaworakul, Poonmanee; Sawatdichaikul, Orathai; Poompuang, Supawadee

    2016-04-01

    Myostatin, also known as growth differentiation factor 8, has been identified as a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. The purpose of this study was to characterize and predict function of the myostatin gene of the African catfish (Cg-MSTN). Expression of Cg-MSTN was determined at three growth stages to establish the relationship between the levels of MSTN transcript and skeletal muscle growth. The partial cDNA sequence of Cg-MSTN was cloned by using published information from its congener walking catfish (Cm-MSTN). The Cg-MSTN was 1194 bp in length encoding a protein of 397 amino acids. The deduced MSTN sequence exhibited key functional sites similar to those of other members of the TGF-β superfamily, especially, the proteolytic processing site (RXXR motif) and nine conserved cysteines at the C-terminal. Expression of MSTN appeared to be correlated with muscle development and growth of African catfish. Protein bioinformatics revealed that the primary sequence of Cg-MSTN shared 98 % sequence identity with that of walking catfish Cm-MSTN with only two different residues, [Formula: see text]. and [Formula: see text]. The proposed model of Cg-MSTN revealed the key point mutation [Formula: see text] causing a 7.35 Å shorter distance between the N- and C-lobes and an approximately 11° narrow angle than those of Cm-MSTN. The substitution of a proline residue near the proteolytic processing site which altered the structure of myostatin may play a critical role in reducing proteolytic activity of this protein in African catfish. PMID:26912268

  3. Development of polymorphic genic-SSR markers by cDNA library sequencing in boxwood, Buxus spp. (Buxaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genic microsatellites or simple sequence repeat (genic-SSR) markers were developed in boxwood (Buxus taxa) for genetic diversity analysis, identification of taxa, and to facilitate breeding. cDNA libraries were developed from mRNA extracted from leaves of Buxus sempervirens ‘Vardar Valley’ and seque...

  4. Complete nucleotide sequence of a new isolate of passion fruit woodiness virus from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Masayuki; Wylie, Stephen J; Chiaki, Yuya; Iwai, Hisashi

    2013-08-01

    We determined the complete genome sequence of the passion fruit woodiness virus Gld-1 isolate (PWV-Gld-1) from Australia and compared it with that of PWV-MU-2, another Australian isolate of PWV. The genomes shared high sequence identity in both the complete nucleotide sequence and the ORF amino acid sequence. All of the cleavage sites of each protein were identical to those of MU-2, and the sequence identity for the individual proteins ranged from 97.2 % to 100.0 %. However, the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the Gld-1 isolate shared only 46.8 % sequence identity with that of PWV-MU-2 and was 177 nucleotides shorter. Re-sequencing of the 5'UTR of MU-2 revealed that the 5' end of the original sequence includes an artifact generated by deep sequencing. PMID:23508550

  5. Sequence analysis and mapping of a novel human mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit 9 cDNA (ATP5G3)

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, W.L.; Gusella, J.F. |; Haines, J.L. |

    1994-11-15

    The authors describe the cloning, sequence analysis, and chromosomal mapping of a novel mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit 9 cDNA, P3. Subunit 9 transports protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane to the F{sub 1}-ATPase protruding on the matrix side, resulting in the generation of ATP. Sequence analysis of the P3 cDNA reveals only 80% identity with the human subunit 9 genes P1 and P2 in the DNA sequence encoding the mature protein identical to P1 and P2. The predicted sequence of the P3 leader peptide differs from the P1 and P2 leaders, but retains the {open_quotes}RFS{close_quotes} motif critical for mitochondrial import and maturation. The P3 gene (ATP5G3) maps to chromosome 2. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Evaluation of intra- and interspecific divergence of satellite DNA sequences by nucleotide frequency calculation and pairwise sequence comparison

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Satellite DNA sequences are known to be highly variable and to have been subjected to concerted evolution that homogenizes member sequences within species. We have analyzed the mode of evolution of satellite DNA sequences in four fishes from the genus Diplodus by calculating the nucleotide frequency of the sequence array and the phylogenetic distances between member sequences. Calculation of nucleotide frequency and pairwise sequence comparison enabled us to characterize the divergence among member sequences in this satellite DNA family. The results suggest that the evolutionary rate of satellite DNA in D. bellottii is about two-fold greater than the average of the other three fishes, and that the sequence homogenization event occurred in D. puntazzo more recently than in the others. The procedures described here are effective to characterize mode of evolution of satellite DNA. PMID:12734555

  7. Evaluation of intra- and interspecific divergence of satellite DNA sequences by nucleotide frequency calculation and pairwise sequence comparison.

    PubMed

    Kato, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    Satellite DNA sequences are known to be highly variable and to have been subjected to concerted evolution that homogenizes member sequences within species. We have analyzed the mode of evolution of satellite DNA sequences in four fishes from the genus Diplodus by calculating the nucleotide frequency of the sequence array and the phylogenetic distances between member sequences. Calculation of nucleotide frequency and pairwise sequence comparison enabled us to characterize the divergence among member sequences in this satellite DNA family. The results suggest that the evolutionary rate of satellite DNA in D. bellottii is about two-fold greater than the average of the other three fishes, and that the sequence homogenization event occurred in D. puntazzo more recently than in the others. The procedures described here are effective to characterize mode of evolution of satellite DNA. PMID:12734555

  8. Cloning and sequence analysis of an Ophiophagus hannah cDNA encoding a precursor of two natriuretic peptide domains.

    PubMed

    Lei, Weiwei; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Guoyu; Jiang, Ping; He, Yingying; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2011-04-01

    The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the largest venomous snake. Despite the components are mainly neurotoxins, the venom contains several proteins affecting blood system. Natriuretic peptide (NP), one of the important components of snake venoms, could cause local vasodilatation and a promoted capillary permeability facilitating a rapid diffusion of other toxins into the prey tissues. Due to the low abundance, it is hard to purify the snake venom NPs. The cDNA cloning of the NPs become a useful approach. In this study, a 957 bp natriuretic peptide-encoding cDNA clone was isolated from an O. hannah venom gland cDNA library. The open-reading frame of the cDNA encodes a 210-amino acid residues precursor protein named Oh-NP. Oh-NP has a typical signal peptide sequence of 26 amino acid residues. Surprisingly, Oh-NP has two typical NP domains which consist of the typical sequence of 17-residue loop of CFGXXDRIGC, so it is an unusual NP precursor. These two NP domains share high amino acid sequence identity. In addition, there are two homologous peptides of unknown function within the Oh-NP precursor. To our knowledge, Oh-NP is the first protein precursor containing two NP domains. It might belong to another subclass of snake venom NPs. PMID:21334357

  9. Isolation and sequence analysis of a cDNA encoding the c subunit of a vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase from the CAM plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, D M; Rees, D J; Rambaut, A; Smith, J A

    1996-05-01

    We report the sequence of a cDNA clone encoding the c ("16 kDa') subunit of a vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) from Kalanchoë daigremontiana, a plant in which the cell vacuole plays a pivotal role in crassulacean acid metabolism. The clone, pKVA211, was isolated from a K. daigremontiana leaf cDNA library constructed in lambda ZAP II using a homologous PCR-generated cDNA probe for the V-ATPase c subunit. The KVA211 cDNA was 839 nucleotides long and included a 20 bp poly(A)+ tail together with a complete 495 bp coding region for a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 16659 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence was highly conserved across the wide range of eukaryotes (vertebrates, invertebrates, fungi, plants and protozoa) in which this gene has now been identified. Sequence comparison of several PCR products and genomic Southern analysis indicated that the V-ATPase c subunit in K. daigremontiana is encoded by a small multi-gene family. Steady-state levels of the KVA211 mRNA were much higher in leaves than in roots or flowers, and expression of this transcript in leaves was shown to be strongly light-dependent. PMID:8756609

  10. Nucleotide sequence of Neurospora crassa cytoplasmic initiator tRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Gillum, A M; Hecker, L I; Silberklang, M; Schwartzbach, S D; RajBhandary, U L; Barnett, W E

    1977-01-01

    Initiator methionine tRNA from the cytoplasm of Neurospora crassa has been purified and sequenced. The sequence is: pAGCUGCAUm1GGCGCAGCGGAAGCGCM22GCY*GGGCUCAUt6AACCCGGAGm7GU (or D) - CACUCGAUCGm1AAACGAG*UUGCAGCUACCAOH. Similar to initiator tRNAs from the cytoplasm of other eukaryotes, this tRNA also contains the sequence -AUCG- instead of the usual -TphiCG (or A)- found in loop IV of other tRNAs. The sequence of the N. crassa cytoplasmic initiator tRNA is quite different from that of the corresponding mitochondrial initiator tRNA. Comparison of the sequence of N. crassa cytoplasmic initiator tRNA to those of yeast, wheat germ and vertebrate cytoplasmic initiator tRNA indicates that the sequences of the two fungal tRNAs are no more similar to each other than they are to those of other initiator tRNAs. Images PMID:146192

  11. Identification and isolation of full-length cDNA sequences by sequencing and analysis of expressed sequence tags from guarana (Paullinia cupana).

    PubMed

    Figueirêdo, L C; Faria-Campos, A C; Astolfi-Filho, S; Azevedo, J L

    2011-01-01

    The current intense production of biological data, generated by sequencing techniques, has created an ever-growing volume of unanalyzed data. We reevaluated data produced by the guarana (Paullinia cupana) transcriptome sequencing project to identify cDNA clones with complete coding sequences (full-length clones) and complete sequences of genes of biotechnological interest, contributing to the knowledge of biological characteristics of this organism. We analyzed 15,490 ESTs of guarana in search of clones with complete coding regions. A total of 12,402 sequences were analyzed using BLAST, and 4697 full-length clones were identified, responsible for the production of 2297 different proteins. Eighty-four clones were identified as full-length for N-methyltransferase and 18 were sequenced in both directions to obtain the complete genome sequence, and confirm the search made in silico for full-length clones. Phylogenetic analyses were made with the complete genome sequences of three clones, which showed only 0.017% dissimilarity; these are phylogenetically close to the caffeine synthase of Theobroma cacao. The search for full-length clones allowed the identification of numerous clones that had the complete coding region, demonstrating this to be an efficient and useful tool in the process of biological data mining. The sequencing of the complete coding region of identified full-length clones corroborated the data from the in silico search, strengthening its efficiency and utility. PMID:21732283

  12. cDNA sequences and mRNA levels of two hexamerin storage proteins PinSP1 and PinSP2 from the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu Cheng; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J

    2002-05-01

    In insects, storage proteins or hexamerins accumulate apparently to serve as sources of amino acids during metamorphosis and reproduction. Two storage protein-like cDNAs obtained from a cDNA library prepared from fourth instar larvae of the Indianmeal moth (Plodia interpunctella) were cloned and sequenced. The first clone, PinSP1, contained 2431 nucleotides with a 2295 nucleotide open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein with 765 amino acid residues. The second cDNA, PinSP2, consisted of 2336 nucleotides with a 2250-nucleotide ORF encoding a protein with 750 amino acid residues. PinSP1 and PinSP2 shared 59% nucleotide sequence identity and 44% deduced amino acid sequence identity. A 17-amino acid signal peptide and a molecular mass of 90.4 kDa were predicted for the PinSP1 protein, whereas a 15-amino acid signal peptide and a mass of 88 kDa were predicted for PinSP2. Both proteins contained conserved insect larval storage protein signature sequence patterns and were 60-70% identical to other lepidopteran larval storage proteins. Expression of mRNA for both larval storage proteins was determined using the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Only very low levels were present in the second instar, but both mRNAs dramatically increased during the third instar, peaked in the fourth instar, decreased dramatically late in the same instar and pupal stages, and were undetectable during the adult stage. Males and females exhibited similar mRNA expression levels for both storage proteins during the pupal and adult stages. The results support the hypothesis that P. interpunctella, a species that does not feed after the larval stage, accumulates these two storage proteins as reserves during larval development for subsequent use in the pupal and adult stages. PMID:11891129

  13. Nucleotide sequences of 5S ribosomal RNA from four oomycete and chytrid water molds.

    PubMed

    Walker, W F; Doolittle, W F

    1982-09-25

    The nucleotide sequences of the 5S rRNAs of the oomycete water molds Saprolegnia ferax and Pythium hydnosporum and of the chytrid water molds Blastocladiella simplex and Phlyctochytrium irregulare were determined by chemical and enzymatic partial degradation of 3' and 5' end-labelled molecules, followed by gel sequence analysis. The two oomycete sequences differed in 24 positions and the two chytrid sequences differed in 27 positions. These pairs differed in a mean of 44 positions. The chytrid sequences clearly most resemble the sequence from the zygomycete Phycomyces, while the oomycete sequences appear to be allied with those from protozoa and slime molds. PMID:6890670

  14. CLEANUP: a fast computer program for removing redundancies from nucleotide sequence databases.

    PubMed

    Grillo, G; Attimonelli, M; Liuni, S; Pesole, G

    1996-02-01

    A key concept in comparing sequence collections is the issue of redundancy. The production of sequence collections free from redundancy is undoubtedly very useful, both in performing statistical analyses and accelerating extensive database searching on nucleotide sequences. Indeed, publicly available databases contain multiple entries of identical or almost identical sequences. Performing statistical analysis on such biased data makes the risk of assigning high significance to non-significant patterns very high. In order to carry out unbiased statistical analysis as well as more efficient database searching it is thus necessary to analyse sequence data that have been purged of redundancy. Given that a unambiguous definition of redundancy is impracticable for biological sequence data, in the present program a quantitative description of redundancy will be used, based on the measure of sequence similarity. A sequence is considered redundant if it shows a degree of similarity and overlapping with a longer sequence in the database greater than a threshold fixed by the user. In this paper we present a new algorithm based on an "approximate string matching' procedure, which is able to determine the overall degree of similarity between each pair of sequences contained in a nucleotide sequence database and to generate automatically nucleotide sequence collections free from redundancies. PMID:8670613

  15. Generation of expressed sequence tags of random root cDNA clones of Brassica napus by single-run partial sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Y S; Kwak, J M; Kwon, O Y; Kim, Y S; Lee, D S; Cho, M J; Lee, H H; Nam, H G

    1993-01-01

    Two hundred thirty-seven expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Brassica napus were generated by single-run partial sequencing of 197 random root cDNA clones. A computer search of these root ESTs revealed that 21 ESTs show significant similarity to the protein-coding sequences in the existing data bases, including five stress- or defense-related genes and four clones related to the genes from other kingdoms. Northern blot analysis of the 10 data base-matched cDNA clones revealed that many of the clones are expressed most abundantly in root but less abundantly in other organs. However, two clones were highly root specific. The results show that generation of the root ESTs by partial sequencing of random cDNA clones along with the expression analysis is an efficient approach to isolate genes that are functional in plant root in a large scale. We also discuss the results of the examination of cDNA libraries and sequencing methods suitable for this approach. PMID:8029332

  16. Complete sequence of HLA-B27 cDNA identified through the characterization of structural markers unique to the HLA-A, -B, and -C allelic series.

    PubMed Central

    Szöts, H; Riethmüller, G; Weiss, E; Meo, T

    1986-01-01

    Antigen HLA-B27 is a high-risk genetic factor with respect to a group of rheumatoid disorders, especially ankylosing spondylitis. A cDNA library was constructed from an autozygous B-cell line expressing HLA-B27, HLA-Cw1, and the previously cloned HLA-A2 antigen. Clones detected with an HLA probe were isolated and sorted into homology groups by differential hybridization and restriction maps. Nucleotide sequencing allowed the unambiguous assignment of cDNAs to HLA-A, -B, and -C loci. The HLA-B27 mRNA has the structural features and the codon variability typical of an HLA class I transcript but it specifies two uncommon amino acid replacements: a cysteine in position 67 and a serine in position 131. The latter substitution may have functional consequences, because it occurs in a conserved region and at a position invariably occupied by a species-specific arginine in humans and lysine in mice. The availability of the complete sequence of HLA-B27 and of the partial sequence of HLA-Cw1 allows the recognition of locus-specific sequence markers, particularly, but not exclusively, in the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Images PMID:3485286

  17. Nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from four jellyfishes.

    PubMed

    Hori, H; Ohama, T; Kumazaki, T; Osawa, S

    1982-11-25

    The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from four jellyfishes, Spirocodon saltatrix, Nemopsis dofleini, Aurelia aurita and Chrysaora quinquecirrha have been determined. The sequences are highly similar to each other. A fairly high similarity was also found between these jellyfishes and a sea anemone, Anthopleura japonica. PMID:6130512

  18. The nucleotide sequence of the tnpA gene completes the sequence of the Pseudomonas transposon Tn501.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, N L; Winnie, J N; Fritzinger, D; Pridmore, R D

    1985-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the gene (tnpA) which codes for the transposase of transposon Tn501 has been determined. It contains an open reading frame for a polypeptide of Mr = 111,500, which terminates within the inverted repeat sequence of the transposon. The reading frame would be transcribed in the same direction as the mercury-resistance genes and the tnpR gene. The amino acid sequence predicted from this reading frame shows 32% identity with that of the transposase of the related transposon Tn3. The C-terminal regions of these two polypeptides show slightly greater homology than the N-terminal regions when conservative amino acid substitutions are considered. With this sequence determination, the nucleotide sequence of Tn501 is fully defined. The main features of the sequence are briefly presented. PMID:2994007

  19. Diverse nucleotide compositions and sequence fluctuation in Rubisco protein genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Todd; Dehipawala, S.; Cheung, E.; Bienaime, R.; Ye, J.; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Schneider, P.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2011-10-01

    The Rubisco protein-enzyme is arguably the most abundance protein on Earth. The biology dogma of transcription and translation necessitates the study of the Rubisco genes and Rubisco-like genes in various species. Stronger correlation of fractal dimension of the atomic number fluctuation along a DNA sequence with Shannon entropy has been observed in the studied Rubisco-like gene sequences, suggesting a more diverse evolutionary pressure and constraints in the Rubisco sequences. The strategy of using metal for structural stabilization appears to be an ancient mechanism, with data from the porphobilinogen deaminase gene in Capsaspora owczarzaki and Monosiga brevicollis. Using the chi-square distance probability, our analysis supports the conjecture that the more ancient Rubisco-like sequence in Microcystis aeruginosa would have experienced very different evolutionary pressure and bio-chemical constraint as compared to Bordetella bronchiseptica, the two microbes occupying either end of the correlation graph. Our exploratory study would indicate that high fractal dimension Rubisco sequence would support high carbon dioxide rate via the Michaelis- Menten coefficient; with implication for the control of the whooping cough pathogen Bordetella bronchiseptica, a microbe containing a high fractal dimension Rubisco-like sequence (2.07). Using the internal comparison of chi-square distance probability for 16S rRNA (~ E-22) versus radiation repair Rec-A gene (~ E-05) in high GC content Deinococcus radiodurans, our analysis supports the conjecture that high GC content microbes containing Rubisco-like sequence are likely to include an extra-terrestrial origin, relative to Deinococcus radiodurans. Similar photosynthesis process that could utilize host star radiation would not compete with radiation resistant process from the biology dogma perspective in environments such as Mars and exoplanets.

  20. Complete nucleotide sequence of Alfalfa mosaic virus isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Bejerman, Nicolás; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) isolate infecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina, AMV-Arg, was determined. The virus genome has the typical organization described for AMV, and comprises 3,643, 2,593, and 2,038 nucleotides for RNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. The whole genome sequence and each encoding region were compared with those of other four isolates that have been completely sequenced from China, Italy, Spain and USA. The nucleotide identity percentages ranged from 95.9 to 99.1 % for the three RNAs and from 93.7 to 99 % for the protein 1 (P1), protein 2 (P2), movement protein and coat protein (CP) encoding regions, whereas the amino acid identity percentages of these proteins ranged from 93.4 to 99.5 %, the lowest value corresponding to P2. CP sequences of AMV-Arg were compared with those of other 25 available isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis based on the CP gene was carried out. The highest percentage of nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene was 98.3 % with a Chinese isolate and 98.6 % at the amino acid level with four isolates, two from Italy, one from Brazil and the remaining one from China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AMV-Arg is closely related to subgroup I of AMV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete nucleotide sequence of AMV from South America and the first worldwide report of complete nucleotide sequence of AMV isolated from alfalfa as natural host. PMID:24510307

  1. Characterization and cDNA sequence of Bothriechis schlegeliil-amino acid oxidase with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Vargas Muñoz, Leidy Johana; Estrada-Gomez, Sebastian; Núñez, Vitelbina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J

    2014-08-01

    Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins including l-amino acid oxidase (lAAO). A lAAO (named BslAAO) with a mass of 56kDa and a theoretical Ip of 5.79, was purified from Bothriechis schlegelii venom through size-exclusion, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. The entire protein sequence of 498 amino acids, was determined from cDNA using reverse-transcribed mRNA isolated from venom gland. The enzyme showed dose-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth. BslAAO showed inhibitory effect against S. aureus with a MIC of 4μg/mL and a MBC of 8μg/mL. Against Acinetobacter baumannii, showed a MIC of 2μg/mL and MBC of 4μg/mL, No effect was observed in Escherichia coli. This antibacterial activity was inhibited by catalase, indicating that antimicrobial activity was due to H2O2 production. BslAAO did not show any cytotoxic activity toward mouse myoblast cell line C2C12 or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The enzyme oxidated l-Leu, with a Km of 16.37μM and a Vmax of 0.39μM/min. Snake venoms lAAOs, are potential frames of different therapeutics molecules since these enzymes exhibit low MICs and MBCs and show to be harmless to human cells due to microorganisms being generally several fold more sensitive to reactive oxygen species than human tissues. PMID:24875315

  2. Nucleotide sequence of a human tRNA gene heterocluster

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.N.; Pirtle, I.L.; Pirtle, R.M.

    1986-05-01

    Leucine tRNA from bovine liver was used as a hybridization probe to screen a human gene library harbored in Charon-4A of bacteriophage lambda. The human DNA inserts from plaque-pure clones were characterized by restriction endonuclease mapping and Southern hybridization techniques, using both (3'-/sup 32/P)-labeled bovine liver leucine tRNA and total tRNA as hybridization probes. An 8-kb Hind III fragment of one of these ..gamma..-clones was subcloned into the Hind III site of pBR322. Subsequent fine restriction mapping and DNA sequence analysis of this plasmid DNA indicated the presence of four tRNA genes within the 8-kb DNA fragment. A leucine tRNA gene with an anticodon of AAG and a proline tRNA gene with an anticodon of AGG are in a 1.6-kb subfragment. A threonine tRNA gene with an anticodon of UGU and an as yet unidentified tRNA gene are located in a 1.1-kb subfragment. These two different subfragments are separated by 2.8 kb. The coding regions of the three sequenced genes contain characteristic internal split promoter sequences and do not have intervening sequences. The 3'-flanking region of these three genes have typical RNA polymerase III termination sites of at least four consecutive T residues.

  3. Methods for making nucleotide probes for sequencing and synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M; Zhang, Kun; Chou, Joseph

    2014-07-08

    Compositions and methods for making a plurality of probes for analyzing a plurality of nucleic acid samples are provided. Compositions and methods for analyzing a plurality of nucleic acid samples to obtain sequence information in each nucleic acid sample are also provided.

  4. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Lactobacillus casei lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S F; Baek, S J; Pack, M Y

    1991-01-01

    An allosteric L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 was cloned in Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence of the gene was determined. The gene was composed of an open reading frame of 981 bp, starting with a GTG codon and ending with a TAA codon. The sequences for the promoter and ribosome binding site were identified, and a sequence for a structure resembling a rho-independent transcription terminator was also found. Images PMID:1768113

  5. Nucleotide Sequence Diversity and Linkage Disequilibrium of Four Nuclear Loci in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica)

    PubMed Central

    He, Shui-lian; Yang, Yang; Morrell, Peter L.; Yi, Ting-shuang

    2015-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv) is one of the earliest domesticated grains, which has been cultivated in northern China by 8,700 years before present (YBP) and across Eurasia by 4,000 YBP. Owing to a small genome and diploid nature, foxtail millet is a tractable model crop for studying functional genomics of millets and bioenergy grasses. In this study, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity, geographic structure, and levels of linkage disequilibrium at four nuclear loci (ADH1, G3PDH, IGS1 and TPI1) in representative samples of 311 landrace accessions across its cultivated range. Higher levels of nucleotide sequence and haplotype diversity were observed in samples from China relative to other sampled regions. Genetic assignment analysis classified the accessions into seven clusters based on nucleotide sequence polymorphisms. Intralocus LD decayed rapidly to half the initial value within ~1.2 kb or less. PMID:26325578

  6. Complete cDNA sequence of human complement C1s and close physical linkage of the homologous genes C1s and C1r

    SciTech Connect

    Tosi, M.; Duponchel, C.; Meo, T.; Julier, C.

    1987-12-29

    Overlapping molecular clones encoding the complement subcomponent C1s were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence reconstructed from these clones spans about 85% of the length of the liver C1s messenger RNAs, which occur in three distinct size classes around 3 kilobases in length. Comparisons with the sequence of C1r, the other enzymatic subcomponent of C1, reveal 40% amino acid identity and conservation of all the cysteine residues. Beside the serine protease domain, the following sequence motifs, previously described in C1r, were also found in C1s: (a) two repeats of the type found in the Ba fragment of complement factor B and in several other complement but also noncomplement proteins, (b) a cysteine-rich segment homologous to the repeats of epidermal growth factor precursor, and (c) a duplicated segment found only in C1r and C1s. Differences in each of these structural motifs provide significant clues for the interpretation of the functional divergence of these interacting serine protease zymogens. Hybridizations of C1r and C1s probes to restriction endonuclease fragments of genomic DNA demonstrate close physical linkage of the corresponding genes. The implications of this finding are discussed with respect to the evolution of C1r and C1s after their origin by tandem gene duplication and to the previously observed combined hereditary deficiencies of Clr and Cls.

  7. Nucleotide sequence heterogeneity of alpha satellite repetitive DNA: a survey of alphoid sequences from different human chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Waye, J S; Willard, H F

    1987-01-01

    The human alpha satellite DNA family is composed of diverse, tandemly reiterated monomer units of approximately 171 basepairs localized to the centromeric region of each chromosome. These sequences are organized in a highly chromosome-specific manner with many, if not all human chromosomes being characterized by individually distinct alphoid subsets. Here, we compare the nucleotide sequences of 153 monomer units, representing alphoid components of at least 12 different human chromosomes. Based on the analysis of sequence variation at each position within the 171 basepair monomer, we have derived a consensus sequence for the monomer unit of human alpha satellite DNA which we suggest may reflect the monomer sequence from which different chromosomal subsets have evolved. Sequence heterogeneity is evident at each position within the consensus monomer unit and there are no positions of strict nucleotide sequence conservation, although some regions are more variable than others. A substantial proportion of the overall sequence variation may be accounted for by nucleotide changes which are characteristic of monomer components of individual chromosomal subsets or groups of subsets which have a common evolutionary history. PMID:3658703

  8. Genomic structure and complete nucleotide sequence of the Batten disease gene, CLN3

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchison, H.M.; Munroe, P.B.; O`Rawe, A.M.

    1997-03-01

    We recently cloned a cDNA for CLN3, the gene for juvenile-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis or Batten disease. To resolve the genomic organization we used a cosmid clone containing CLN3 to sequence the entire gene in addition to 1.1 kb 5{prime} of the start of the published CLN3 cDNA and 0.3 kb 3{prime} to the polyadenylation site. CLN3 is organized into at least 15 exons spanning 15 kb and ranging from 47 to 356 bp. The 14 introns vary from 80 to 4227 bp, and all exon/intron junction sequences conform to the GTAG rule. Numerous repetitive Alu elements are present within the introns and 5{prime}- and 3{prime}-untranslated regions. The 5{prime} region of the CLN3 gene contains several potential transcription regulatory elements but no consensus TATA-1 box was identified. CLN3 is homologous to 27 deposited human ESTs, and sequence comparisons suggest alternative splicing of the gene and the existence of transcribed sequences upstream to the start of the published CLN3 cDNA. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Human parainfluenza type 3 virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein: nucleotide sequence of mRNA and limited amino acid sequence of the purified protein.

    PubMed Central

    Elango, N; Coligan, J E; Jambou, R C; Venkatesan, S

    1986-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of mRNA for the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of human parainfluenza type 3 virus obtained from the corresponding cDNA clone had a single long open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 64,254 daltons consisting of 572 amino acids. The deduced protein sequence was confirmed by limited N-terminal amino acid microsequencing of CNBr cleavage fragments of native HN that was purified by immunoprecipitation. The HN protein is moderately hydrophobic and has four potential sites (Asn-X-Ser/Thr) of N-glycosylation in the C-terminal half of the molecule. It is devoid of both the N-terminal signal sequence and the C-terminal membrane anchorage domain characteristic of the hemagglutinin of influenza virus and the fusion (F0) protein of the paramyxoviruses. Instead, it has a single prominent hydrophobic region capable of membrane insertion beginning at 32 residues from the N terminus. This N-terminal membrane insertion is similar to that of influenza virus neuraminidase and the recently reported structures of HN proteins of Sendai virus and simian virus 5. Images PMID:3003381

  10. An Integrated System for DNA Sequencing by Synthesis Using Novel Nucleotide Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jia; Yu, Lin; Turro, Nicholas J.; Ju, Jingyue

    2010-01-01

    Conspectus The Human Genome Project has concluded, but its successful completion has increased, rather than decreased, the need for high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. The possibility of clinically screening a full genome for an individual's mutations offers tremendous benefits, both for pursuing personalized medicine as well as uncovering the genomic contributions to diseases. The Sanger sequencing method—although enormously productive for more than 30 years—requires an electrophoretic separation step that, unfortunately, remains a key technical obstacle for achieving economically acceptable full-genome results. Alternative sequencing approaches thus focus on innovations that can reduce costs. The DNA sequencing by synthesis (SBS) approach has shown great promise as a new sequencing platform, with particular progress reported recently. The general fluorescent SBS approach involves (i) incorporation of nucleotide analogs bearing fluorescent reporters, (ii) identification of the incorporated nucleotide by its fluorescent emissions, and (iii) cleavage of the fluorophore, along with the reinitiation of the polymerase reaction for continuing sequence determination. In this Account, we review the construction of a DNA-immobilized chip and the development of novel nucleotide reporters for the SBS sequencing platform. Click chemistry, with its high selectivity and coupling efficiency, was explored for surface immobilization of DNA. The first generation (G-1) modified nucleotides for SBS feature a small chemical moiety capping the 3′-OH and a fluorophore tethered to the base through a chemically cleavable linker; the design ensures that the nucleotide reporters are good substrates for the polymerase. The 3′-capping moiety and the fluorophore on the DNA extension products, generated by the incorporation of the G-1 modified nucleotides, are cleaved simultaneously to reinitiate the polymerase reaction. The sequence of a DNA template immobilized on a surface

  11. Complete nucleotide sequence of the human corticotropin-beta-lipotropin precursor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, H; Hakamata, Y; Watanabe, Y; Kikuno, R; Miyata, T; Numa, S

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of an 8658-base-pair human genomic DNA segment containing the entire corticotropin-beta-lipotropin precursor gene has been determined, and some sequence features of the gene and its flanking regions have been analysed. The gene is composed of 7665 base pairs including two introns of 3708 and 2886 base pairs. Comparison of the 5'-flanking sequences of the human, bovine and mouse corticotropin-beta-lipotropin precursor genes reveals the presence of a highly conserved region, which contains sequences of 14-15 base pairs homologous with sequences located upstream of the mRNA start site of other glucocorticoid-regulated genes. PMID:6314261

  12. Human glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT): Localization to 8q24.3, cDNA and genomic sequences, and polymorphic sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sohocki, M.M.; Sullivan, L.S.; Daiger, S.P.

    1997-03-01

    Two frequent protein variants of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) (E.C.2.6.1.2) have been used as genetic markers in humans for more than two decades, although chromosomal mapping of the GPT locus in the 1980s produced conflicting results. To resolve this conflict and develop useful DNA markers for this gene, we isolated and characterized cDNA and genomic clones of GPT. We have definitively mapped human GPT to the terminus of 8q using several methods. First, two cosmids shown to contain the GPT sequence were derived from a chromosome 8-specific library. Second, by fluorescence in situ hybridization, we mapped the cosmid containing the human GPT gene to chromosome band 8q24.3. Third, we mapped the rat gpt cDNA to the syntenic region of rat chromosome 7. Finally, PCR primers specific to human GPT amplify sequences contained within a {open_quotes}half-YAC{close_quotes} from the long arm of chromosome 8, that is, a YAC containing the 8q telomere. The human GPT genomic sequence spans 2.7 kb and consists of 11 exons, ranging in size from 79 to 243 bp. The exonic sequence encodes a protein of 495 amino acids that is nearly identical to the previously reported protein sequence of human GPT-1. The two polymorphic GPT isozymes are the result of a nucleotide substitution in codon 14. In addition, a cosmid containing the GPT sequence also contains a previously unmapped, polymorphic microsatellite sequence, D8S421. The cloned GPT gene and associated polymorphisms will be useful for linkage and physical mapping of disease loci that map to the terminus of 8q, including atypical vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD1) and epidermolysis bullosa simplex, type Ogna (EBS1). In addition, this will be a useful system for characterizing the telomeric region of 8q. Finally, determination of the molecular basis of the GPT isozyme variants will permit PCR-based detection of this world-wide polymorphism. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Assessing the utility of the Oxford Nanopore MinION for snake venom gland cDNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Portable DNA sequencers such as the Oxford Nanopore MinION device have the potential to be truly disruptive technologies, facilitating new approaches and analyses and, in some cases, taking sequencing out of the lab and into the field. However, the capabilities of these technologies are still being revealed. Here we show that single-molecule cDNA sequencing using the MinION accurately characterises venom toxin-encoding genes in the painted saw-scaled viper, Echis coloratus. We find the raw sequencing error rate to be around 12%, improved to 0–2% with hybrid error correction and 3% with de novo error correction. Our corrected data provides full coding sequences and 5′ and 3′ UTRs for 29 of 33 candidate venom toxins detected, far superior to Illumina data (13/40 complete) and Sanger-based ESTs (15/29). We suggest that, should the current pace of improvement continue, the MinION will become the default approach for cDNA sequencing in a variety of species. PMID:26623194

  14. Assessing the utility of the Oxford Nanopore MinION for snake venom gland cDNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Adam D; Mulley, John F

    2015-01-01

    Portable DNA sequencers such as the Oxford Nanopore MinION device have the potential to be truly disruptive technologies, facilitating new approaches and analyses and, in some cases, taking sequencing out of the lab and into the field. However, the capabilities of these technologies are still being revealed. Here we show that single-molecule cDNA sequencing using the MinION accurately characterises venom toxin-encoding genes in the painted saw-scaled viper, Echis coloratus. We find the raw sequencing error rate to be around 12%, improved to 0-2% with hybrid error correction and 3% with de novo error correction. Our corrected data provides full coding sequences and 5' and 3' UTRs for 29 of 33 candidate venom toxins detected, far superior to Illumina data (13/40 complete) and Sanger-based ESTs (15/29). We suggest that, should the current pace of improvement continue, the MinION will become the default approach for cDNA sequencing in a variety of species. PMID:26623194

  15. Nucleotide sequence of a small cryptic plasmid from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain A-6

    SciTech Connect

    F. Roberto

    2003-10-01

    A 2.1 kb cryptic plasmid from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain A-6 was isolated and cloned into the E. coli vector plasmid, pUC128. The cloned plasmid was mapped by restriction enzyme fragment analysis and subsequently sequenced. At this time over half the plasmid sequence has been determined and compared to sequences in the GenBank nucleotide and protein sequence databases. Much of the plasmid remains cryptic, but substantial nucleotide and protein sequence similarities have been observed to the putative replication protein, RepA, of the small cryptic plasmids pAYS and pAYL found in the ammonia-oxidizing Nitrosomonas sp. Strain ENI-11. These results suggest an entirely new class of plasmid is maintained in at least one strain of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and other acidophilic bacteria, and raises interesting questions about the origin of this plasmid in acidic environments.

  16. The complete nucleotide sequence and genomic characterization of tropical soda apple mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Fillmer, Kornelia; Adkins, Scott; Pongam, Patchara; D'Elia, Tom

    2016-08-01

    We report the first complete genome sequence of tropical soda apple mosaic virus (TSAMV), a tobamovirus originally isolated from tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) collected in Okeechobee, Florida. The complete genome of TSAMV is 6,350 nucleotides long and contains four open reading frames encoding the following proteins: i) 126-kDa methyltransferase/helicase (3354 nt), ii) 183-kDa polymerase (4839 nt), iii) movement protein (771 nt) and iv) coat protein (483 nt). The complete genome sequence of TSAMV shares 80.4 % nucleotide sequence identity with pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and 71.2-74.2 % identity with other tobamoviruses naturally infecting members of the Solanaceae plant family. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the 126-kDa and 183-kDa proteins and the complete genome sequence place TSAMV in a subcluster with PMMoV within the Solanaceae-infecting subgroup of tobamoviruses. PMID:27169599

  17. Complete nucleotide sequence and transcriptional analysis of snakehead fish retrovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, D; Frerichs, G N; Rambaut, A; Onions, D E

    1996-01-01

    The complete genome of the snakehead fish retrovirus has been cloned and sequenced, and its transcriptional profile in cell culture has been determined. The 11.2-kb provirus displays a complex expression pattern capable of encoding accessory proteins and is unique in the predicted location of the env initiation codon and signal peptide upstream of gag and the common splice donor site. The virus is distinguishable from all known retrovirus groups by the presence of an arginine tRNA primer binding site. The coding regions are highly divergent and show a number of unusual characteristics, including a large Gag coiled-coil region, a Pol domain of unknown function, and a long, lentiviral-like, Env cytoplasmic domain. Phylogenetic analysis of the Pol sequence emphasizes the divergent nature of the virus from the avian and mammalian retroviruses. The snakehead virus is also distinct from a previously characterized complex fish retrovirus, suggesting that discrete groups of these viruses have yet to be identified in the lower vertebrates. PMID:8648695

  18. Nucleotide composition of CO1 sequences in Chelicerata (Arthropoda): detecting new mitogenomic rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Arabi, Juliette; Judson, Mark L I; Deharveng, Louis; Lourenço, Wilson R; Cruaud, Corinne; Hassanin, Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    Here we study the evolution of nucleotide composition in third codon-positions of CO1 sequences of Chelicerata, using a phylogenetic framework, based on 180 taxa and three markers (CO1, 18S, and 28S rRNA; 5,218 nt). The analyses of nucleotide composition were also extended to all CO1 sequences of Chelicerata found in GenBank (1,701 taxa). The results show that most species of Chelicerata have a positive strand bias in CO1, i.e., in favor of C nucleotides, including all Amblypygi, Palpigradi, Ricinulei, Solifugae, Uropygi, and Xiphosura. However, several taxa show a negative strand bias, i.e., in favor of G nucleotides: all Scorpiones, Opisthothelae spiders and several taxa within Acari, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, and Pycnogonida. Several reversals of strand-specific bias can be attributed to either a rearrangement of the control region or an inversion of a fragment containing the CO1 gene. Key taxa for which sequencing of complete mitochondrial genomes will be necessary to determine the origin and nature of mtDNA rearrangements involved in the reversals are identified. Acari, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, and Pycnogonida were found to show a strong variability in nucleotide composition. In addition, both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes have been affected by higher substitution rates in Acari and Pseudoscorpiones. The results therefore indicate that these two orders are more liable to fix mutations of all types, including base substitutions, indels, and genomic rearrangements. PMID:22362465

  19. [Nucleotide sequence determination of yeast mitochondrial phenylalanine-tRNA].

    PubMed

    Martin, R; Sibler, A P; Schneller, J M; Keith, G; Stahl, A J; Dirheimer, G

    1978-10-01

    The primary structure of mitochondrial tRNAPhe from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, purified by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was determined using, standard procedures on in vivo 32P-labeled tRNA, as well as the new 5'-end postlabeling techniques. We propose a cloverleaf model which allows for tertiary interaction between cytosine in position 46 and guanine in position 15 and maximizes base pairing in the psi C stem, thus excluding the uracile in position 50 from base pairing in the psi C stem. Comparison of the primary structure of this tRNA with all other known procaryotic, chloroplastic or cytoplasmic tRNAsPhe sequences does not lead to any conclusion about the endosymbiotic theory of mitochondria evolution. PMID:103657

  20. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression in Escherichia coli of Camelus dromedarius glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNA.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Hesham Mahmoud; Alanazi, Mohammad Saud; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Al-Amri, Abdullah; Khan, Zahid

    2012-06-01

    This study determined the full length sequence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNA (G6PD) from the Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The C. dromedarius G6PD has an open reading frame of 1545 bp, and the cDNA encodes a protein of 515 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 59.0 KDa. The amino acid sequence showed the highest identity with Equus caballus (92%) and Homo sapiens (92%). The G6PD cDNA was cloned and expressed into Escherichia coli as a fusion protein and was purified in a single chromatographic step using nickel affinity gel column. The purity and the molecular weight of the enzyme were checked on SDS-PAGE and the purified enzyme showed a single band on the gel with a molecular weight of 63.0 KDa. The specific activity of G6PD was determined to be 289.6 EU/mg protein with a fold purification of 95.45 and yield of 56.8%. PMID:22538316

  1. Quantitative analysis of the relationship between nucleotide sequence and functional activity.

    PubMed Central

    Stormo, G D; Schneider, T D; Gold, L

    1986-01-01

    Matrices can be used to evaluate sequences for functional activity. Multiple regression can solve for the matrix that gives the best fit between sequence evaluations and quantitative activities. This analysis shows that the best model for context effects on suppression by su2 involves primarily the two nucleotides 3' to the amber codon, and that their contributions are independent and additive. Context effects on 2AP mutagenesis also involve the two nucleotides 3' to the 2AP insertion, but their effects are not independent. In a construct for producing beta-galactosidase, the effects on translational yields of the tri-nucleotide 5' to the initiation codon are dependent on the entire triplet. Models based on these quantitative results are presented for each of the examples. PMID:3092188

  2. Complete nucleotide sequence of the new potexvirus "Alstroemeria virus X". Brief report.

    PubMed

    Fuji, S; Shinoda, K; Ikeda, M; Furuya, H; Naito, H; Fukumoto, F

    2005-11-01

    A flexuous virus was isolated in Japan from an alstroemeria plant showing mosaic symptoms. The virus had a broad host range but had systemically latent infectivity in alstroemeria. The virus was assigned to the genus Potexvirus based on morphology and physical properties and on an analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence. The genomic RNA of the virus was 7,009 nucleotides in length, excluding the 3'-terminal poly (A) tail. It contained five open reading frames (ORFs), which was consistent with other members of the genus Potexvirus. Although nucleotide sequences of the ORFs differ from previously reported potexviruses, a phylogenetic analysis placed it phylogenetically close to Narcissus mosaic virus and Scallion virus X. Therefore, we propose that this virus should be designated as Alstroemeria virus X (AlsVX). PMID:15986173

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphism mining and nucleotide sequence analysis of Mx1 gene in exonic regions of Japanese quail

    PubMed Central

    Niraj, Diwesh Kumar; Kumar, Pushpendra; Mishra, Chinmoy; Narayan, Raj; Bhattacharya, Tarun Kumar; Shrivastava, Kush; Bhushan, Bharat; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Saxena, Vishesh; Sahoo, Nihar Ranjan; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An attempt has been made to study the Myxovirus resistant (Mx1) gene polymorphism in Japanese quail. Materials and Methods: In the present, investigation four fragments viz. Fragment I of 185 bp (Exon 3 region), Fragment II of 148 bp (Exon 5 region), Fragment III of 161 bp (Exon 7 region), and Fragment IV of 176 bp (Exon 13 region) of Mx1 gene were amplified and screened for polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism technique in 170 Japanese quail birds. Results: Out of the four fragments, one fragment (Fragment II) was found to be polymorphic. Remaining three fragments (Fragment I, III, and IV) were found to be monomorphic which was confirmed by custom sequencing. Overall nucleotide sequence analysis of Mx1 gene of Japanese quail showed 100% homology with common quail and more than 80% homology with reported sequence of chicken breeds. Conclusion: The Mx1 gene is mostly conserved in Japanese quail. There is an urgent need of comprehensive analysis of other regions of Mx1 gene along with its possible association with the traits of economic importance in Japanese quail. PMID:27047057

  4. The organization of repeated nucleotide sequences in the replicons of mammalian DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Mattern, M R; Painter, R B

    1977-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were irradiated with 100-5,000 rads of X-rays and inhibition of the initiation of replicons after irradiation was demonstrated by analyzing nascent DNA sedimented in alkaline sucrose gradients. The renaturation kinetics of DNA synthesized during 60 min of incubation after irradiation was compared with that of DNA synthesized during the 60 min after sham irradiation and with that of parental DNA. Nascent DNA from cells whose replicon initiation was inhibited renatured faster than nascent DNA from control cells in the COt range of repeated nucleotide sequences, suggesting that regions of the replicon not close to origins are enriched in repeated sequences and that regions close to origins are enriched in unique sequences. A class of repeated nucleotide sequences may be involved in the regulation of replicon initiation. PMID:880330

  5. On the feasibility of using the intrinsic fluorescence of nucleotides for DNA sequencing.

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, M. H.; Ray, K.; Johnson, R. L.; Gray, S. K.; Pond, J.; Lakowicz, J. R.; Univ. of Maryland; Univ. of Virginia; Lumerical Solutions, Inc.

    2010-04-29

    There is presently a worldwide effort to increase the speed and decrease the cost of DNA sequencing as exemplified by the goal of the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) to sequence a human genome for under $1000. Several high throughput technologies are under development. Among these, single strand sequencing using exonuclease appear very promising. However, this approach requires complete labeling of at least two bases at a time, with extrinsic high quantum yield probes. This is necessary because nucleotides absorb in the deep ultraviolet (UV) and emit with extremely low quantum yields. Hence intrinsic emission from DNA and nucleotides is not being exploited for DNA sequencing. In the present paper we consider the possibility of identifying single nucleotides using their intrinsic emission. We used the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to calculate the effects of aluminum nanoparticles on nearby fluorophores that emit in the UV. We find that the radiated power of UV fluorophores is significantly increased when they are in close proximity to aluminum nanostructures. We show that there will be increased localized excitation near aluminum particles at wavelengths used to excite intrinsic nucleotide emission. Using FDTD simulation we show that a typical DNA base when coupled to appropriate aluminum nanostructures leads to highly directional emission. Additionally we present experimental results showing that a thin film of nucleotides show enhanced emission when in close proximity to aluminum nanostructures. Finally we provide Monte Carlo simulations that predict high levels of base calling accuracy for an assumed number of photons that is derived from the emission spectra of the intrinsic fluorescence of the bases. Our results suggest that single nucleotides can be detected and identified using aluminum nanostructures that enhance their intrinsic emission. This capability would be valuable for the ongoing efforts toward the $1000 genome.

  6. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a Citrobacter freundii Plasmid Carrying KPC-2 in a Unique Genetic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yancheng; Imirzalioglu, Can; Hain, Torsten; Kaase, Martin; Gatermann, Soeren; Exner, Martin; Mielke, Martin; Hauri, Anja; Dragneva, Yolanta; Bill, Rita; Wendt, Constanze; Wirtz, Angela; Chakraborty, Trinad

    2014-01-01

    The complete and annotated nucleotide sequence of a 54,036-bp plasmid harboring a blaKPC-2 gene that is clonally present in Citrobacter isolates from different species is presented. The plasmid belongs to incompatibility group N (IncN) and harbors the class A carbapenemase KPC-2 in a unique genetic environment. PMID:25395635

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in rainbow trout by deep sequencing of a reduced representation library

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: To enhance capabilities for genomic analyses in rainbow trout, such as genomic selection, a large suite of polymorphic markers that are amenable to high-throughput genotyping protocols must be identified. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) have been used for single nucleotide polymorphism (...

  8. The complete nucleotide sequence of Pepper mottle virus-Florida RNA.

    PubMed

    Warren, C E; Murphy, J F

    2003-01-01

    The Pepper mottle virus-Florida (PepMoV-FL) RNA genome was cloned and sequenced, and shown to consist of 9,717 nucleotides (nt) excluding the poly (A) tail. A single open reading frame was identified beginning at nucleotide position 169 encoding a polyprotein of 3068 amino acids. Phylogenetic sequence analysis revealed that of 44 full-length viral RNA genomes analyzed within the family Potyviridae, PepMoV-FL was most closely related to PepMoV-California (PepMoV-CA), Potato virus Y-H (PVY-H), PVY-N, PVY(o) and Potato virus V-DV42 (PVV-DV42). Using the PepMoV-FL sequence as a basis for comparison, the overall nucleotide sequence identity was highest between PepMoV-FL and PepMoV-CA at 93%, while the relationship was more distant with PVV-DV42 at 64% and for the PVY strains at 61%. A unique direct repeat sequence of 76 nucleotides was identified in the PepMoV-FL 3'-untranslated region (UTR), and this repeat sequence was confirmed not to occur in the PepMoV-CA sequence. Since the Florida isolate was among the first of the PepMoV isolates described, extensive biological and serological data on this isolate are available, and it has now been cloned and sequenced, we recommend that PepMoV-FL be recognized as the PepMoV type strain. PMID:12536304

  9. Characterization of expressed sequence tags from a full-length enriched cDNA library of Cryptomeria japonica male strobili

    PubMed Central

    Futamura, Norihiro; Totoki, Yasushi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Igasaki, Tomohiro; Nanjo, Tokihiko; Seki, Motoaki; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Mari, Adriano; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Shinohara, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Background Cryptomeria japonica D. Don is one of the most commercially important conifers in Japan. However, the allergic disease caused by its pollen is a severe public health problem in Japan. Since large-scale analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the male strobili of C. japonica should help us to clarify the overall expression of genes during the process of pollen development, we constructed a full-length enriched cDNA library that was derived from male strobili at various developmental stages. Results We obtained 36,011 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from either one or both ends of 19,437 clones derived from the cDNA library of C. japonica male strobili at various developmental stages. The 19,437 cDNA clones corresponded to 10,463 transcripts. Approximately 80% of the transcripts resembled ESTs from Pinus and Picea, while approximately 75% had homologs in Arabidopsis. An analysis of homologies between ESTs from C. japonica male strobili and known pollen allergens in the Allergome Database revealed that products of 180 transcripts exhibited significant homology. Approximately 2% of the transcripts appeared to encode transcription factors. We identified twelve genes for MADS-box proteins among these transcription factors. The twelve MADS-box genes were classified as DEF/GLO/GGM13-, AG-, AGL6-, TM3- and TM8-like MIKCC genes and type I MADS-box genes. Conclusion Our full-length enriched cDNA library derived from C. japonica male strobili provides information on expression of genes during the development of male reproductive organs. We provided potential allergens in C. japonica. We also provided new information about transcription factors including MADS-box genes expressed in male strobili of C. japonica. Large-scale gene discovery using full-length cDNAs is a valuable tool for studies of gymnosperm species. PMID:18691438

  10. Proteome-wide Identification of Novel Ceramide-binding Proteins by Yeast Surface cDNA Display and Deep Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bidlingmaier, Scott; Ha, Kevin; Lee, Nam-Kyung; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Although the bioactive sphingolipid ceramide is an important cell signaling molecule, relatively few direct ceramide-interacting proteins are known. We used an approach combining yeast surface cDNA display and deep sequencing technology to identify novel proteins binding directly to ceramide. We identified 234 candidate ceramide-binding protein fragments and validated binding for 20. Most (17) bound selectively to ceramide, although a few (3) bound to other lipids as well. Several novel ceramide-binding domains were discovered, including the EF-hand calcium-binding motif, the heat shock chaperonin-binding motif STI1, the SCP2 sterol-binding domain, and the tetratricopeptide repeat region motif. Interestingly, four of the verified ceramide-binding proteins (HPCA, HPCAL1, NCS1, and VSNL1) and an additional three candidate ceramide-binding proteins (NCALD, HPCAL4, and KCNIP3) belong to the neuronal calcium sensor family of EF hand-containing proteins. We used mutagenesis to map the ceramide-binding site in HPCA and to create a mutant HPCA that does not bind to ceramide. We demonstrated selective binding to ceramide by mammalian cell-produced wild type but not mutant HPCA. Intriguingly, we also identified a fragment from prostaglandin D2synthase that binds preferentially to ceramide 1-phosphate. The wide variety of proteins and domains capable of binding to ceramide suggests that many of the signaling functions of ceramide may be regulated by direct binding to these proteins. Based on the deep sequencing data, we estimate that our yeast surface cDNA display library covers ∼60% of the human proteome and our selection/deep sequencing protocol can identify target-interacting protein fragments that are present at extremely low frequency in the starting library. Thus, the yeast surface cDNA display/deep sequencing approach is a rapid, comprehensive, and flexible method for the analysis of protein-ligand interactions, particularly for the study of non-protein ligands. PMID

  11. Complete nucleotide sequence of the M2 gene segment of reovirus type 3 dearing and analysis of its protein product mu 1.

    PubMed

    Jayasuriya, A K; Nibert, M L; Fields, B N

    1988-04-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the M2 gene segment of the mammalian reovirus prototype strain, type 3 Dearing, was determined from a cloned full-length cDNA copy of the viral double-stranded RNA segment. The gene comprises 2203 nucleotides and has a single long open reading frame that spans bases 30 through 2154 and encodes the 708 amino acid outer capsid protein mu 1. Aminoterminal sequence analysis of mu 1C, the proteolytically cleaved form of mu 1 that is found in purified reovirions, has identified the site of mu 1 to mu 1C cleavage between residues 42 and 43 in the mu 1 sequence. Aminoterminal sequence analysis of delta, the proteolytically cleaved product of mu 1C that is found in chymotrypsin-generated intermediate subviral particles, has indicated that the mu 1C to delta cleavage occurs near the carboxyterminus of mu 1C. Lastly, stoichiometric determinations using new sequence information have suggested that approximately equimolar amounts of mu 1C and the other major outer capsid component sigma 3 are present in virions. The data presented in this study should be useful for understanding the molecular basis of the functions of the mu 1 protein in reovirus entry into cells and in pathogenesis in the host animal. PMID:3354207

  12. Human bradykinin B2 receptor: Nucleotide sequence analysis and assignment to chromosome 14

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, S.J.; Slynn, G.; Thomas, C.; Hopkins, B.; Briggs, I.; Graham, A. )

    1993-02-01

    Functional cDNA clones for human bradykinin B2 receptor were isolated from uterus RNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method and by screening a human cosmid library with rat bradykinin B2 receptor probe. We isolated several overlapping clones from the cosmid library, each of which encodes the entire protein-coding sequence. The human bradykinin B2 receptor gene codes for a 364-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of 41,442 Da that is highly homologous to rat bradykinin B2 receptor cDNA (81%). The entire human cDNA sequence was cloned into an expression vector and mRNA was synthesised by in vitro transcription. Applications of bradykinin caused membrane current responses in Xenopus oocytes injected with the in vitro-synthesized mRNA. Preincubation with the potent B2 antagonist, HOE140, prevented this response. The genomic clone is intronless, and we have identified an upstream promoter region and a downstream polyadenylation signal. The human bradykinin B2 receptor gene has been mapped to chromosome 14 using PCR to specifically amplify DNA from somatic cell hybrids. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Sequence of cDNA for rat cystathionine gamma-lyase and comparison of deduced amino acid sequence with related Escherichia coli enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, P F; Maxwell, I H; Su, L J; Baumann, M; Glode, L M

    1990-01-01

    A cDNA clone for cystathionine gamma-lyase was isolated from a rat cDNA library in lambda gt11 by screening with a monospecific antiserum. The identity of this clone, containing 600 bp proximal to the 3'-end of the gene, was confirmed by positive hybridization selection. Northern-blot hybridization showed the expected higher abundance of the corresponding mRNA in liver than in brain. Two further cDNA clones from a plasmid pcD library were isolated by colony hybridization with the first clone and were found to contain inserts of 1600 and 1850 bp. One of these was confirmed as encoding cystathionine gamma-lyase by hybridization with two independent pools of oligodeoxynucleotides corresponding to partial amino acid sequence information for cystathionine gamma-lyase. The other clone (estimated to represent all but 8% of the 5'-end of the mRNA) was sequenced and its deduced amino acid sequence showed similarity to those of the Escherichia coli enzymes cystathionine beta-lyase and cystathionine gamma-synthase throughout its length, especially to that of the latter. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:2201285

  14. Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Dweet mottle virus and its relationship to members of the family Betaflexiviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nucleotide sequence of Dweet mottle virus (DMV) was determined and compared to sequences of members of the family Alpha- and Beta-flexiviridae. The DMV genome has 8747 nucleotides (nt) excluding the poly-(A) tail at the 3’ end of the genome. The overall G+C content of DMV genomic RNA is 40%. D...

  15. Nucleotide sequence of a cloned woodchuck hepatitis virus genome: evolutional relationship between hepadnaviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, K; Ogasawara, N; Yoshikawa, H; Murakami, S

    1985-01-01

    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of a cloned DNA of woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), the most oncogenic virus among hepadnaviruses. The genome, designated WHV2, is 3,320 base pairs long and contains four major open reading frames (ORFs) coded on the same strand of nucleotide sequence as in the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequences deduced from it among the genomes of various hepadnaviruses demonstrates that each protein shows an intrinsic property in conserving its amino acid sequence. A parameter, the ratio of the number of triplets with one-letter change but no amino acid substitution to the total number of triplets in which one-letter change occurred, was introduced to measure the intrinsic properties quantitatively. For each ORF, the parameter gave characteristic values in all combinations. Therefore, the relative evolutional distance between these hepadnaviruses can be measured by the amino acid substitution rate of any ORF. These comparisons suggest that (i) the difference between two WHV clones, WHV1 and WHV2, corresponds to that among clones of a HBV subtype, HBVadr, and (ii) WHV and ground squirrel hepatitis virus can be categorized in a way similar to the subgroups of HBV. PMID:3855246

  16. A likelihood method for the detection of selection and recombination using nucleotide sequences.

    PubMed

    Grassly, N C; Holmes, E C

    1997-03-01

    Different regions along nucleotide sequences are often subject to different evolutionary forces. Recombination will result in regions having different evolutionary histories, while selection can cause regions to evolve at different rates. This paper presents a statistical method based on likelihood for detecting such processes by identifying the regions which do not fit with a single phylogenetic topology and nucleotide substitution process along the entire sequence. Subsequent reanalysis of these anomalous regions may then be possible. The method is tested using simulations, and its application is demonstrated using the primate psi eta-globin pseudogene, the V3 region of the envelope gene of HIV-1, and argF sequences from Neisseria bacteria. Reanalysis of anomalous regions is shown to reveal possible immune selection in HIV-1 and recombination in Neisseria. A computer program which implements the method is available. PMID:9066792

  17. Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of atractylodes mottle virus, a new member of the genus Carlavirus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fumei; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Yoo, Ran Hee; Lee, Su-Heon; Moon, Jae Sun

    2015-11-01

    The complete genome sequence of a member of a distinct species of the genus Carlavirus in the family Betaflexiviridae, tentatively named atractylodes mottle virus (AtrMoV), has been determined. Analysis of its genomic organization indicates that it has a single-stranded, positive-sense genomic RNA of 8866 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tail, and consists of six open reading frames typical of members of the genus Carlavirus. The individual open reading frames of AtrMoV show moderately low sequence similarity to those of other carlaviruses at the nucleotide and amino acid sequence levels. Pairwise comparison and phylogenetic analysis suggest that AtrMoV is most closely related to chrysanthemum virus B. PMID:26264403

  18. Complete nucleotide sequence of the structural gene for alkaline proteinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa IFO 3455.

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, K; Morihara, K; Atsumi, Y; Takeuchi, H; Kawamoto, S; Kawasaki, H; Suzuki, K; Fukushima, J

    1990-01-01

    The DNA-encoding alkaline proteinase (AP) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa IFO 3455 was cloned, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. When the cloned gene was ligated to pUC18, the Escherichia coli expression vector, the gene-incorporated bacteria expressed high levels of both AP activity and AP antigens. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence revealed that the mature AP consists of 467 amino acids with a relative molecular weight of 49,507. The amino acid composition predicted from the DNA sequence was similar to the chemically determined composition of purified AP reported previously. The amino acid sequence analysis revealed that both the N-terminal side sequence of the purified AP and several internal lysyl peptide fragments were identical to the deduced amino acid sequences. The percent homology of amino acid sequences between AP and Serratia protease was about 55%. The zinc ligands and an active site of the AP were predicted by comparing the structure of the enzyme with of Serratia protease, thermolysin, Bacillus subtilis neutral protease, and Pseudomonas elastase. PMID:2123832

  19. QGRS Mapper: a web-based server for predicting G-quadruplexes in nucleotide sequences

    PubMed Central

    Kikin, Oleg; D'Antonio, Lawrence; Bagga, Paramjeet S

    2006-01-01

    The quadruplex structures formed by guanine-rich nucleic acid sequences have received significant attention recently because of growing evidence for their role in important biological processes and as therapeutic targets. G-quadruplex DNA has been suggested to regulate DNA replication and may control cellular proliferation. Sequences capable of forming G-quadruplexes in the RNA have been shown to play significant roles in regulation of polyadenylation and splicing events in mammalian transcripts. Whether quadruplex structure directly plays a role in regulating RNA processing requires investigation. Computational approaches to study G-quadruplexes allow detailed analysis of mammalian genomes. There are no known easily accessible user-friendly tools that can compute G-quadruplexes in the nucleotide sequences. We have developed a web-based server, QGRS Mapper, that predicts quadruplex forming G-rich sequences (QGRS) in nucleotide sequences. It is a user-friendly application that provides many options for defining and studying G-quadruplexes. It performs analysis of the user provided genomic sequences, e.g. promoter and telomeric regions, as well as RNA sequences. It is also useful for predicting G-quadruplex structures in oligonucleotides. The program provides options to search and retrieve desired gene/nucleotide sequence entries from NCBI databases for mapping G-quadruplexes in the context of RNA processing sites. This feature is very useful for investigating the functional relevance of G-quadruplex structure, in particular its role in regulating the gene expression by alternative processing. In addition to providing data on composition and locations of QGRS relative to the processing sites in the pre-mRNA sequence, QGRS Mapper features interactive graphic representation of the data. The user can also use the graphics module to visualize QGRS distribution patterns among all the alternative RNA products of a gene simultaneously on a single screen. QGRS Mapper can be

  20. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Streptomyces lividans plasmid pIJ101 and correlation of the sequence with genetic properties.

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, K J; Cohen, S N

    1988-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the multicopy Streptomyces plasmid pIJ101 has been determined and correlated with previously published genetic data. The circular DNA molecule is 8,830 nucleotides in length and has a G+C composition of 72.98%. The use of a computer program, FRAME, enabled identification in the sequence of seven open reading frames, four of which, tra (621 amino acids [aa]), spdA (146 aa), spdB (274 aa), and kilB (177 aa), appear to be genes involved in plasmid transfer. At least two of the above genes are predicted to be transcribed by known promoters that are regulated in trans by the products of the korA (241 aa) and korB (80 aa) loci on the plasmid. The segment of the plasmid capable of autonomous replication contains one large open reading frame (rep; 450 aa) and a noncoding region presumed to be the origin of replication. Four other small (less than 90 aa) open reading frames are also present on the plasmid, although no function can be attributed to them. The sequence of the pIJ101 replication segment present in several widely used cloning vectors (e.g., pIJ350 and pIJ702) has also been determined, so that the complete nucleotide sequences of these vectors are now known. PMID:3170481

  1. Complete nucleotide sequence of a subviral DNA molecule of porcine circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Wen, Han

    2016-07-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a member of the genus Circovirus in the family Circoviridae. Most subgenomic molecules of PCV2 have been mapped. Here, the first full-length sequence of a subviral molecule of PCV2 (CH-IVT12) containing a reverse complement sequence of the PCV2 genome was determined by sequencing DNA extracted from PK15 cells infected with PCV2. The circular CH-IVT12 DNA consists of 1136 nucleotides and contains one major open reading frame. PMID:27084550

  2. Sequence selective naked-eye detection of DNA harnessing extension of oligonucleotide-modified nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Verga, Daniela; Welter, Moritz; Marx, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    DNA polymerases can efficiently and sequence selectively incorporate oligonucleotide (ODN)-modified nucleotides and the incorporated oligonucleotide strand can be employed as primer in rolling circle amplification (RCA). The effective amplification of the DNA primer by Φ29 DNA polymerase allows the sequence-selective hybridisation of the amplified strand with a G-quadruplex DNA sequence that has horse radish peroxidase-like activity. Based on these findings we develop a system that allows DNA detection with single-base resolution by naked eye. PMID:26774580

  3. The nucleotide sequence at the termini of adenovirus type 5 DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergh, P H; Maat, J; van Ormondt, H; Sussenbach, J S

    1977-01-01

    The sequences of the first 194 base pairs at both termini of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) DNA have been determined, using the chemical degradation technique developed by Maxam and Gilbert (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 74 (1977), pp. 560-564). The nucleotide sequences 1-75 were confirmed by analysis of labeled RNA transcribed from the terminal HhaI fragments in vitro. The sequence data show that Ad5 DNA has a perfect inverted terminal repetition of 103 base pairs long. Images PMID:600799

  4. Nucleotide sequence of 5S ribosomal RNA from Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Piechulla, B; Hahn, U; McLaughlin, L W; Küntzel, H

    1981-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNA molecules isolated from the cytosol and the mitochondria of the ascomycetes A. nidulans and N. crassa were determined by partial chemical cleavage of 3'-terminally labelled RNA. The sequence identity of the cytosolic and mitochondrial RNA preparations confirms the absence of mitochondrion-specific 5S rRNA in these fungi. The sequences of the two organisms differ in 35 positions, and each sequence differs from yeast 5S rRNA in 44 positions. Both molecules contain the sequence GCUC in place of GAAC or GAUY found in all other 5S rRNAs, indicating that this region is not universally involved in base-pairing to the invariant GTpsiC sequence of tRNAs. Images PMID:6453331

  5. Nucleotide sequences of an important functional gene hnRNPA2/B1 from Ailuropoda melanoleuca and Ursus thibetanus mupinensis and its potential value in phylogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Du, Yu-jie; Hou, Yi-ling; Hou, Wan-ru

    2014-01-01

    The cDNA fragments of hnRNPA2/B1 were cloned from the giant panda and black bear using RT-PCR method, which were, respectively, 1029bp and 1026bp in length encoding 343 and 341 amino acids. Analysis indicated the cDNA cloned from the giant panda encoded variant B1 while the cDNA cloned from black bear encoded variant A2. Analyzing the hnRNPA2B1 peptide of the giant panda and black bear, 76 glycine residues and 86 glycine residues were, respectively, found, and moreover, most glycine are concentrated in the latter halves of the hnRNPA2B1 peptides. Functional sites prediction also showed many N-myristoylation sites existed in the glycine-rich domain, which is probably related to the role of telomere maintenance. From base bias and substitution analysis, we can conclude that the ORF of hnRNPA2/B1 biased G while hated C, and transition of the third site did not achieve the level of saturation. Orthology analysis indicated that both the nucleotide sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence showed high identity to other 26 hnRNPA2/B1 sequences from mammals and nonmammals reported. These sequences were used to construct phylogenetic trees employing the NJ method with 1000 bootstrap, and the obtained tree demonstrated similar topology with the classical systematics, which suggested the potential value of hnRNPA2/B1 in phylogenetic analysis. This report will be the first step to the study function of hnRNPA2/B1 in the giant panda and black bear, and will provide a scientific basis to disease surveillance, captive breeding, and conservation of the endangered species. PMID:24588753

  6. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid protein of the virulent A75/17-CDV strain of canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Stettler, M; Zurbriggen, A

    1995-05-01

    Virus persistence is essential in the chronic inflammatory canine distemper virus (CDV)-induced demyelinating disease. In the case of CDV there is a close association between persistence and virulence. Virulent CDV isolated from dogs with distemper shows immediate persistence in primary dog brain cell cultures (DBCC) and in different cell lines. We have evidence that the nucleocapsid (NP) protein plays an important role in the development of persistence. The NP-protein, the most abundant structural virus protein, also influences virus assembly and has some regulatory functions in virus transcription and replication. In this study we compared the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of a virulent CDV strain (A75/17-CDV) to a culture-attenuated non-virulent strain (OP-CDV). Viral RNA was extracted from DBCC infected with virulent CDV. Virulent CDV retains its in vivo properties, such as virulence and ability to cause demyelination, when propagated in these DBCC. The viral RNA was reverse transcribed and the resulting cDNA amplified by polymerase chain reaction for subsequent cloning. The nucleotide sequences of these clones were determined by the dideoxy chain termination method. The number of nucleotides and the putative NP-protein of the virulent strain matched the attenuated CDV strain. We observed a total of 105 nucleotide differences. Three were localised within the 3' and five within the 5' non-coding region of the NP-gene. The 97 nucleotide changes within the coding region resulted in 22 amino acid differences. 10 of these amino acid (AA) modifications were within the N-terminal region (AA 1 to 159) and 12 within the C-terminal area (AA 351 to 523).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8588315

  7. Nucleotide sequence specifying the glycoprotein gene, gB, of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Bzik, D J; Fox, B A; DeLuca, N A; Person, S

    1984-03-01

    The nucleotide sequence thought to specify the glycoprotein gene, gB, of the KOS strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been determined. A 3.1-kilobase (kb), viral-specified RNA was mapped to the left half of the BamHI-G fragment (0.345 to 0.399 map units). TATA, CAT-box, and possible mRNA start sequences characteristic of HSV-1 genes are found near 0.368 map units. The first available ATG codon is at 0.366 and the first in-phase chain terminator at 0.348 map units. A polyA-addition signal (AATAAA) occurs 17 nucleotides past the chain terminator. Translation of these sequences would yield a 100.3-kilodalton (kDa) polypeptide characterized by a 5' signal sequence, nine N-linked saccharide addition sites, a strongly hydrophobic membrane-spanning sequence, and a highly charged 3' cytoplasmic anchor sequence. Two mutants of KOS, tsJ12 and tsJ20, that are temperature-sensitive for viral growth and for the production of gB, have been physically mapped to 0.357 to 0.360 and 0.360 to 0.364 map units, respectively (DeLuca et al., in preparation). The nucleotide sequence of the mutants was determined in these regions. In both cases a single amino acid replacement within the 100.3-kDa polypeptide is predicted from the sequence analysis. PMID:6324454

  8. Complete nucleotide sequence of cherry virus A (CVA) infecting sweet cherry in India.

    PubMed

    Noorani, M S; Awasthi, P; Singh, Rahul Mohan; Ram, Raja; Sharma, M P; Singh, S R; Ahmed, N; Hallan, V; Zaidi, A A

    2010-12-01

    Cherry virus A (CVA) is a graft-transmissible member of the genus Capillovirus that infects different stone fruits. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L; family Rosaceae) is an important deciduous temperate fruit crop in the Western Himalayan region of India. In order to determine the health status of cherry plantations and the incidence of the virus in India, cherry orchards in the states of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and Himachal Pradesh (H.P.) were surveyed during the months of May and September 2009. The incidence of CVA was found to be 28 and 13% from J&K and H.P., respectively, by RT-PCR. In order to characterize the virus at the molecular level, the complete genome was amplified by RT-PCR using specific primers. The amplicon of about 7.4 kb was sequenced and was found to be 7,379 bp long, with sequence specificity to CVA. The genome organization was similar to that of isolates characterized earlier, coding for two ORFs, in which ORF 2 is nested in ORF1. The complete sequence was 81 and 84% similar to that of the type isolate at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively, with 5' and 3' UTRs of 54 and 299 nucleotides, respectively. This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence of cherry virus A infecting sweet cherry in India. PMID:20938696

  9. Linking the human cytogenetic map with nucleotide sequence: the CCAP clone set.

    PubMed

    Jang, Wonhee; Yonescu, Raluca; Knutsen, Turid; Brown, Theresa; Reppert, Tricia; Sirotkin, Karl; Schuler, Gregory D; Ried, Thomas; Kirsch, Ilan R

    2006-07-15

    We present the completed dataset and clone repository of the Cancer Chromosome Aberration Project (CCAP), an initiative developed and funded through the intramural program of the U.S. National Cancer Institute, to provide seamless linkage of human cytogenetic markers with the primary nucleotide sequence of the human genome. Spaced at 1-2 Mb intervals across the human genome, 1,339 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones have been localized to chromosomal bands through high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping. Of these clones, 99.8% can be positioned on the primary human genome sequence and 95% are placed at or close to their precise nucleotide starts and stops. This dataset can be studied and manipulated within generally available public Web sites. The clones are available from a commercial repository. The CCAP BAC clone set provides anchors for the interrogation of gene and sequence involvement in oncogenic and developmental disorders when the starting point is the recognition of a structural, numerical, or interstitial chromosomal aberration. This dataset also provides a current view of the quality and coherence of the available genome sequence and insight into the nucleotide and three-dimensional structures that manifest as Giemsa light and dark chromosomal banding patterns. PMID:16843097

  10. Complete nucleotide sequence of the hypervirulent CFH strain of beet curly top virus.

    PubMed

    Stenger, D C

    1994-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the hypervirulent CFH strain of beet curly top geminivirus (BCTV) has been determined. The circular DNA genome of BCTV-CFH consists of 2,927 nucleotides and shares extensive sequence homology with the biologically distinct California strain of BCTV. Analysis of the CFH nucleotide sequence indicated that the rightward open reading frames (ORFs) R1, R2, and R3 are highly conserved (> 95% amino acid chemical similarity) in the CFH and California strains, although CFH ORF R2 was extended by 24 carboxy-terminal amino acid residues not present in the California strain. The CFH leftward ORFs L1, L2, and L3 shared varying levels of amino acid chemical similarity with the corresponding ORFs of the California strain (78.8, 66.5, and 86.7%, respectively). CFH ORF L4 was the least conserved ORF present in both strains, encoding a 9.9-kDa protein of 87 amino acid residues, which shares 57.6% chemical similarity with 85 carboxy-terminal amino acid residues of the 19.4-kDa ORF L4 of the California strain. The CFH DNA sequence also contained a unique 12.5-kDa ORF (R4); however, there is no evidence to suggest that R4 is expressed. Comparison of the CFH and California strain nucleotide sequences indicates that certain regions of the BCTV genome have diverged, and this divergence may account for differences in the pathogenic properties of the two strains. PMID:8167369