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Sample records for cea evolutions du

  1. Qualification sous irradiation du crayon cea: de la conception des composants a l'irradiation d'assemblages en reacteur de puissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Jean-François; Pillet, Claude; François, Bernard; Morize, Pierre; Petitgrand, Sylvie; Atabek, Rose-Marie; Houdaille, Brigitte

    1982-04-01

    Cet article résume les principaux résultats obtenus au CEA au cours des dix dernières années dans la conception, la qualification et la fabrication des différents éléments originaux constitutifs d'un assemblage de réacteur à eau pressurisée, notamment: l'oxyde UO 2 obtenu par le procédé du Double Cycle Inverse, la gaine en zircaloy 4 recris talllsée, la grille à ressort papillon, la structure à grilles coulissantes. Les etudes et essais hors-pile de comportement thermomécanique du crayon et thermohydraulique des composants de l'assemblage, les irradiations paramétriques de crayons jusqu'à une combustion massique élevée, la validation à partir d'examens aprés irradiation des principaux modèles introduits dans les calculs de conception, enfin l'introduction en réacteur prototype, puis en réacteur de puissance d'assemblages comportant ces différents éléments, constituent les principales étapes de ce développement.

  2. Evolution des quasiparticules nodales du cuprate supraconducteur YBa2Cu3Oy en conductivite thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rene de Cotret, Samuel

    Ce memoire presente des mesures de conductivite thermique sur les supraconducteurs YBCO et Tl-2201 afin de statuer sur la presence possible d'un point critique quantique (QCP) dans le diagramme de phase de cuprates. Ce point critique quantique serait a l'origine de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi, d'un large cylindre de trous en de petites poches de trous et d'electrons. La conductivite thermique dans le regime T → 0 permet d'extraire une quantite purement electronique liee aux vitesses de Fermi et du gap, au noeud. Une discontinuite dans cette quantite pourrait signaler la traversee du dopage critique qui reconstruit la surface de Fermi. Plusieurs sondes experimentales distinguent une transition de phase ou un crossover a T* a temperature finie. D'autres sondes mettent en evidence une transition de phase sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique. La presence ou non de cet ordre, a temperature et champ magnetique nul questionne la communaute depuis plusieurs annees. Dans cette etude, nous detectons une variation brusque de kappa0/T a p = 0.18 dans YBCO et a p = 0.20 dans Tl-2201. Ces sauts sont interpretes comme un signe de la transition a temperature nulle et sont en faveur d'un QCP. Le manque de donnees d'un meme materiau a ces dopages ne permet pas de valider hors de tout doute l'existence d'un point critique quantique. Le modele theorique YRZ decrit aussi bien les donnees de conductivite thermique. Des pistes de travaux experimentaux a poursuivre sont proposees pour determiner la presence ou non du QCP de facon franche. Mots-cles : Supraconducteurs, cuprates, conductivite thermique, point critique quantique.

  3. CEAS-ASC highlights 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, Stéphane

    2007-07-01

    The Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS) Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee (ASC) supports and promotes the interests of the scientific and industrial aeroacoustics community on a European scale and European aeronautics activities internationally. In this context, "aeroacoustics" encompasses all aerospace acoustics and related areas. Each year the committee highlights some of the research and development projects in Europe. This paper is a report on some highlights of aeroacoustics research in Europe in 2006, compiled from information provided to the ASC of the CEAS. During 2006, numerous research programmes were funded by the European Union. Some of the contributions submitted to the editor summarize selected findings from these programmes, while other articles cover issues supported by national associations. Furthermore, a concise summary of the workshop on "Aeroacoustics of Jet Noise" held in Dublin in September is included in this report. Enquiries concerning all contributions should be addressed to the authors who are given at the end of each subsection.

  4. CEA VARIABLE-THROAT VENTURI SCRUBBER EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives detailed results of fractional and overall mass efficiency tests of a Combustion Equipment Associates(CEA) variable-throat venturi scrubber. The tests were performed on a full-scale scrubber used for controlling particles and SOx emissions from a pulverized-coal-...

  5. Short and long term evolution of deep giant submarine dunes in continental shelf environment: the example of the 'Banc du Four' (Western Brittany, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzetti, M.; Le Roy, P.; Garlan, T.; Delacourt, C.; Thibaud, R.; Cancouet, R.; Graindorge, D.; Prunier, C.; Sukhovich, A.; Deschamps, A.

    2013-12-01

    The deep sandwave dynamics is still in debate. Understanding the migration processes and the resulting evolution of their 3D internal architecture are scientifically challenging. To address these questions we realized two swath bathymetry surveys complemented with seismic reflection across the large sandwaves field named 'Banc du Four'. It is located offshore the Western Brittany and is composed of more 500 dunes. Some of the dunes' wavelengths and heights exceed 1000m and 30m respectively placing them among the largest dunes ever described. Equilibrium laws obtained from our morphological analysis are not completely in agreement with those described in previous studies of similar structures in shallow waters. Relatively high migration velocities on deep continental shelves (from 3 to 20m.yr-1) attest of their still present dynamical equilibrium. Internal-external morphological and kinematical analyses show the existence of two different dynamic regimes. Interpretation of the seismic reflection data allowed reconstructing long-term evolution of the sandbank and the establishment of progressive connections between stepped submarine channels and tidal dynamics during the last sea-level rise.

  6. CEA TCB: A novel head-to-tail 2:1 T cell bispecific antibody for treatment of CEA-positive solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Bacac, Marina; Klein, Christian; Umana, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen T cell bispecific antibody (CEA TCB) is a bispecific antibody used to recognize CEA and CD3e via a novel molecular format (2:1) that induces T cell-mediated killing of CEA over-expressing tumors while sparing primary cells with low CEA expression. CEA TCB treatment inhibits tumor growth and generates a highly inflamed tumor microenvironment. PMID:27622073

  7. Phonetique evolutive et refections analogiques (le cas du grec) (Evolutionary Phonetics and Analogic Reconstructions [The Case of Greek]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawet, Francine

    2001-01-01

    The principle of "sound laws" is discussed from examples in Greek phonetics. It is shown how analogy and the weight of grammatical paradigms may modify the regularity of sound changes and interfere with our perceptions of reconstructed forms or stages of language evolution. The concept of morphophonology is also examined in relation to analogical…

  8. Evolution du francais au Quebec au cours des vingt dernieres annees (The Evolution of French in Quebec Over the Past Twenty Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darbelnet, Jean

    1975-01-01

    This is a survey of the evolution of Quebec French over the last twenty years away from anglicizations and toward a modernization which has a tendency to lessen the gap between it and International French. Examples are given of recent "refrancizations"; and reasons for, and obstacles to, this phenomenon are discussed. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  9. Simplifying CEA through Excel, VBA, and Subeq

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    Many people use compound equilibrium programs for very different reasons, varying from refrigerators to light bulbs to rockets. A commonly used equilibrium program is CEA. CEA can take various inputs such as pressure, temperature, and volume along with numerous reactants and run them through equilibrium equations to obtain valuable output information, including products formed and their relative amounts. A little over a year ago, Bonnie McBride created the program subeq with the goal to simplify the calling of CEA. Subeq was also designed to be called by other programs, including Excel, through the use of Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The largest advantage of using Excel is that it allows the user to input the information in a colorful and user-friendly environment while allowing VBA to run subeq, which is in the form of a FORTRAN DLL (Dynamic Link Library). Calling subeq in this form makes it much faster than if it were converted to VBA. Since subeq requires such large lists of reactant and product names, all of which can't be passed in as an array, subeq had to be changed to accept very long strings of reactants and products. To pass this string and adjust the transfer of input and output parameters, the subeq DLL had to be changed. One program that does this is Compaq Visual FORTRAN, which allows DLLs to be edited, debugged, and compiled. Compaq Visual FORTRAN uses FORTRAN 90/95, which has additional features to that of FORTRAN 77. My goals this summer include finishing up the excel spreadsheet of subeq, which I started last summer, and putting it on the Internet so that others can use it without having to download my spreadsheet. To finish up the spreadsheet I will need to work on debugging current options and problems. I will also work on making it as robust as possible, so that all errors that may arise will be clearly communicated to the user. New features will be added old ones will be changed as I receive comments from people using the spreadsheet

  10. Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1978-01-01

    Traces the history of evolution theory from Lamarck and Darwin to the present. Discusses natural selection in detail. Suggests that, besides biological evolution, there is also a cultural evolution which is more rapid than the former. (MA)

  11. CEA TCB: A novel head-to-tail 2:1 T cell bispecific antibody for treatment of CEA-positive solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bacac, Marina; Klein, Christian; Umana, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carcinoembryonic antigen T cell bispecific antibody (CEA TCB) is a bispecific antibody used to recognize CEA and CD3e via a novel molecular format (2:1) that induces T cell-mediated killing of CEA over-expressing tumors while sparing primary cells with low CEA expression. CEA TCB treatment inhibits tumor growth and generates a highly inflamed tumor microenvironment. PMID:27622073

  12. Amorphous silicon technology improvement at CEA-LETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottin, Eric; Bain, Astrid; Castelein, Pierre; Ouvrier-Buffet, Jean-Louis; Tissot, Jean-Luc; Yon, Jean-Jacques; Chatard, Jean-Pierre

    2002-05-01

    The emergence of uncooled infrared detectors has opened new opportunities for IR imaging both for military and civil applications. Infrared imaging sensors that operate without cryogenic cooling have the potential to provide the military or civilian users with infrared vision capabilities packaged in a camera of extremely small size, weight and power. Uncooled infrared sensor technology has advanced rapidly in the past few years. Higher performance sensors, electronics integration at the sensor, and new concepts for signal processing are generating advanced infrared focal plane arrays. This would significantly reduce the cost and accelerate the implementation of sensors for applications such as surveillance or predictive maintenance. We present the uncooled infrared detector operation principle and the development at CEA/LETI from the 256 x 64 with a pitch of 50 micrometers to the 320 x 240 with a pitch of 35 micrometers . LETI has been involved in Amorphous Silicon uncooled microbolometer development since 1992. This silicon IR detection is now well mastered and matured so that industrial transfer of LETI technology was performed in 2000 towards Sofradir. Industrial production of 320 x 240 microbolometer array with 45micrometers pitch is then started. After a description of the technology and the methodology for reliability enhancement, we present the readout circuit architectures designs and its evolution from the 256 x 64 array to the different version of 320 x 240 arrays. Electro-optical results obtained from these IRCMOS are presented. NEDT close to 30 mK is now obtained with our standard microbolometer amorphous silicon technology.

  13. Processus mis en jeu dans l'evolution morpho-dynamique de Roberts Bank (Delta du Fraser): Observation et modelisation hydrodynamiques et sedimentaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meule, Samuel

    Roberts Bank couvre le delta intertidal entre le bras principal du fleuve Fraser et la pointe du Cap Roberts en Colombie Britannique, Canada. Sous la pression du developpement urbain et la modification du regime sedimentaire, cette plage de sable fin est soumise a une erosion significative. L'identification des forces hydrodynamiques, leur importance et leur interaction permettent de determiner les zones de transport, et donc la stabilite de Roberts Bank. Deux periodes de mesures associees a des phases de modelisation de la houle et des courants ont ete effectuees lors de ce travail. La premiere periode de mesure, entre le 29 juin et le 8 juillet 2001, a permis l'identification de processus hydrodynamiques et sedimentaires associes aux forts courants de maree presents le long de Roberts Bank. La seconde phase de mesure, entre le 1er mars et le 26 mars 2002, a permis d'etudier les processus de remise en suspension associes a la houle. Des phases de modelisation ont ete menees a partir des connaissances acquises sur le terrain, afin d'affiner la comprehension des processus sedimentaires et notamment les interactions houle - courant - sediment. Les mecanismes, mis en evidence dans cette etude, participent au faconnage de Roberts Bank, contribuent a son erosion et a la mise en place de nouvelles structures sedimentaires. Les courants de flot de maree vont initier la creation de nuages de resuspension de sediment depuis le fond. En eau peu profonde, la composante " onshore" du courant de maree induit un transport a la cote, tandis qu'en eau plus profonde une faible composante " offshore" du courant peut favoriser un transport au large le long de la pente. Les chenaux, les dunes subaquatiques et les surfaces d'erosion affleurantes fournissent une rugosite de fond suffisante a la generation de turbulence et donc de nuages de sediment en suspension. Lors de la maree de jusant, les sediments resuspendus en eau peu profonde, sont transportes vers le large a partir d

  14. Complete solid state lighting (SSL) line at CEA LETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, I. C.; Ferret, P.; Dussaigne, A.; Bougerol, C.; Salomon, D.; Chen, X. J.; Charles, M.; Tchoulfian, P.; Gasse, A.; Lagrange, A.; Consonni, M.; Bono, H.; Levy, F.; Desieres, Y.; Aitmani, A.; Makram-Matta, S.; Bialic, E.; Gorrochategui, P.; Mendizabal, L.

    2014-09-01

    With a long experience in optoelectronics, CEA-LETI has focused on Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting since 2006. Today, all the technical challenges in the implementation of GaN LED based solid state lighting (SSL) are addressed at CEA-LETI who is now an RandD player throughout the entire value chain of LED lighting. The SSL Line at CEA-LETI first deals with the simulation of the active structures and LED devices. Then the growth is addressed in particular 2D growth on 200 mm silicon substrates. Then, technological steps are developed for the fabrication of LED dies with innovative architectures. For instance, Versatile LED Array Devices are currently being developed with a dedicated μLED technology. The objective in this case is to achieve monolithical LED arrays reported and interconnected through a silicon submount. In addition to the required bonding and 3D integration technologies, new solutions for LED chip packaging, thermal management of LED lamps and luminaires are also addressed. LETI is also active in Smart Lighting concepts which offer the possibility of new application fields for SSL technologies. An example is the recent development at CEA LETI of Visible Light Communication Technology also called LiFi. With this technology, we demonstrated a transmission rate up to 10 Mb/s and real time HD-Video transmission.

  15. Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Ulmschneider

    When we are looking for intelligent life outside the Earth, there is a fundamental question: Assuming that life has formed on an extraterrestrial planet, will it also develop toward intelligence? As this is hotly debated, we will now describe the development of life on Earth in more detail in order to show that there are good reasons why evolution should culminate in intelligent beings.

  16. Le Changement linguistique: Evolution, variation, and heterogeneite. Actes du colloque de Neuchatel Universite (Neuchatel, Suisse, 2-4 Octobre 2000) (Linguistic Change: Evolution, Variation, Heterogeneity. Proceedings of the University of Neuchatel Colloquium [Neuchatel, Switzerland, October 2-4, 2000]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthey, Marinette, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue focus on language evolution, variation, and heterogeneity. The following are English translations of the French article titles appearing in the issue: "Irregular Phonetic Development Due to Frequency; Regional Traits in Proto-Romance"; "Linguistic Evolution and Evolution of Perspective in the Comparative Grammar of…

  17. Validation of the 4C code against data from the HELIOS loop at CEA Grenoble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanino, R.; Bonifetto, R.; Casella, F.; Savoldi Richard, L.

    2013-01-01

    We complete the first validation campaign of the Cryogenic Circuit Conductor and Coil (4C) code, focusing on the cryogenic circuit module of 4C, which is based on the component models from the recently developed "Cryogenics" Modelica library. Measured data from the HELIOS facility (HElium Loop for hIgh LOads Smoothing) at CEA Grenoble, France, are used as reference. HELIOS includes a supercritical He loop (cold circulator, pipes equipped with resistive heaters, control and bypass valves, heat exchangers) and a saturated He bath. A repetitive heat pulse test is simulated with 4C. The computed evolution of temperature, pressure and mass flow rate at different circuit locations, both in the loop and in the bath, shows a very good agreement with the measurements.

  18. Application of a MABEL Approach for a T-Cell-Bispecific Monoclonal Antibody: CEA TCB.

    PubMed

    Dudal, Sherri; Hinton, Heather; Giusti, Anna M; Bacac, Marina; Muller, Magali; Fauti, Tanja; Colombetti, Sara; Heckel, Tobias; Giroud, Nicolas; Klein, Christian; Umaña, Pablo; Benincosa, Lisa; Bachl, Juergen; Singer, Thomas; Bray-French, Katharine

    2016-09-01

    CEA TCB is a novel T-cell-bispecific (TCB) antibody targeting the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) expressed on tumor cells and the CD3 epsilon chain (CD3e) present on T cells, which is currently in Phase 1 clinical trials (NCT02324257) for the treatment of CEA-positive solid tumors. Because the human CEA (hCEA) binder of CEA TCB does not cross-react with cynomolgus monkey and CEA is absent in rodents, alternative nonclinical safety evaluation approaches were considered. These included the development of a cynomolgus monkey cross-reactive homologous (surrogate) antibody (cyCEA TCB) for its evaluation in cynomolgus monkey and the development of double-transgenic mice, expressing hCEA and human CD3e (hCEA/hCD3e Tg), as a potential alternative species for nonclinical safety studies. However, a battery of nonclinical in vitro/ex vivo experiments demonstrated that neither of the previous approaches provided a suitable and pharmacologically relevant model to assess the safety of CEA TCB. Therefore, an alternative approach, a minimum anticipated biological effect level (MABEL), based on an in vitro tumor lysis assay was used to determine the starting dose for the first-in-human study. Using the most conservative approach to the MABEL assessment, a dose of 52 μg was selected as a safe starting dose for clinical study. PMID:27404941

  19. Surface expression and CEA binding of hnRNP M4 protein in HT29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Laguinge, Luciana; Bajenova, Olga; Bowden, Emma; Sayyah, Jacqueline; Thomas, Peter; Juhl, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to participate in the progression and metastatic growth of colorectal cancer. However, its biological function remains elusive. Recently, we found that CEA protects colon cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis, suggesting a complex role that includes signal transduction activity. Additionally, it was reported that CEA binds to Kupffer cells and macrophages to a membrane-anchored homolog of heterogeneous nuclear protein M4 (hnRNP M4), which subsequently was named CEA-receptor (CEAR). Cytoplasmatic and membranous expression of CEAR in CEA-positive colon cancer tissues prompted us to analyze the CEA-CEAR interaction in HT29 colon cancer cells. Both, CEA and CEAR were found on the cell surface of HT29 cells, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Imaging analysis suggested co-localization and, thus, interaction of both molecules. To confirm this observation, immunoprecipitation experiments and Western blot analysis were performed and indicated binding of CEA and CEAR. Immunoprecipitation of CEA resulted in a pull down of CEAR. The pull down of CEAR correlated with the amount of CEA as demonstrated by ribozyme targeting of CEA. Finally, external treatment of HT29 cells with soluble CEA induced tyrosine phosphorylation of CEAR, suggesting a CEA-dependent role of CEAR in signal transduction. Future experiments will elucidate whether the CEA-CEAR interaction is involved in CEA's antiapoptotic role and mediates the prometastatic properties of CEA in colon cancer cells. PMID:15816515

  20. The CEA/CD3-Bispecific Antibody MEDI-565 (MT111) Binds a Nonlinear Epitope in the Full-Length but Not a Short Splice Variant of CEA

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiaqi; Brohawn, Philip; Morehouse, Chris; Lekstrom, Kristen; Baeuerle, Patrick A.; Wu, Herren; Yao, Yihong; Coats, Steven R.; Dall’Acqua, William; Damschroder, Melissa; Hammond, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    MEDI-565 (also known as MT111) is a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE®) antibody in development for the treatment of patients with cancers expressing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). MEDI-565 binds CEA on cancer cells and CD3 on T cells to induce T-cell mediated killing of cancer cells. To understand the molecular basis of human CEA recognition by MEDI-565 and how polymorphisms and spliced forms of CEA may affect MEDI-565 activity, we mapped the epitope of MEDI-565 on CEA using mutagenesis and homology modeling approaches. We found that MEDI-565 recognized a conformational epitope in the A2 domain comprised of amino acids 326–349 and 388–410, with critical residues F326, T328, N333, V388, G389, P390, E392, I408, and N410. Two non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs10407503, rs7249230) were identified in the epitope region, but they are found at low homozygosity rates. Searching the National Center for Biotechnology Information GenBank® database, we further identified a single, previously uncharacterized mRNA splice variant of CEA that lacks a portion of the N-terminal domain, the A1 and B1 domains, and a large portion of the A2 domain. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of multiple cancers showed widespread expression of full-length CEA in these tumors, with less frequent but concordant expression of the CEA splice variant. Because the epitope was largely absent from the CEA splice variant, MEDI-565 did not bind or mediate T-cell killing of cells solely expressing this form of CEA. In addition, the splice variant did not interfere with MEDI-565 binding or activity when co-expressed with full-length CEA. Thus MEDI-565 may broadly target CEA-positive tumors without regard for expression of the short splice variant of CEA. Together our data suggest that MEDI-565 activity will neither be impacted by SNPs nor by a splice variant of CEA. PMID:22574157

  1. Baseline carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) serum levels predict bevacizumab-based treatment response in metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prager, Gerald W; Braemswig, Kira H; Martel, Alexandra; Unseld, Matthias; Heinze, Georg; Brodowicz, Thomas; Scheithauer, Werner; Kornek, Gabriela; Zielinski, Christoph C

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) affects tumorigenesis by enhancing tumor cell survival and by inducing tumor angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate baseline CEA serum levels to predict bevacizumab-based therapy effect and survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Two hundred and ninety eight mCRC patients receiving chemotherapy plus either bevacizumab or cetuximab were analyzed in a retrospective study. Disease control (DC), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were assessed and related to pretreatment CEA serum levels. Patients with baseline CEA serum levels below the statistical median of 26.8 ng/mL (group I) were compared with patients with higher CEA levels (group II). The cetuximab-based treatment cohort was analyzed for specificity assessment of CEA to predict the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor effect in mCRC. Baseline CEA serum levels inversely correlated with therapeutic response in patients receiving bevacizumab-based treatment (disease control rate, 84% vs 60%), inversely correlated with median PFS leading to a median PFS benefit of 2.1 months for patients in group I when compared with group II, as well as inversely correlated with median overall survival (37.5 months vs 21.4 months). In an independent cohort of 129 patients treated with cetuximab-based therapy, no association of therapeutic response or PFS with CEA serum levels was found. As expected, baseline CEA levels were prognostic for mCRC. These data give first evidence that baseline serum CEA levels might constitute an important predictor for the efficacy of first-line bevacizumab-based therapy in patients with mCRC. Previously, we found that CEA induces angiogenesis independent of VEGF. The data presented here now give first evidence that baseline serum CEA levels in patients might constitute an important predictor for the efficacy of first-line bevacizumab-based therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:24850362

  2. Relationship between serum CA19-9 and CEA levels and prognosis of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; Huang, Peijun; Wang, Fang; Li, Daqian; Xie, Erfu; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background To explore the relationship between preoperative serum CA19-9 and CEA levels and prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC). Methods The clinicopathological data of 128 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who were treated in our center between January 2012 and December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The relationships between serum CA19-9 and CEA levels and survival were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox regression analysis. The cut-off values for serum CA19-9 and CEA levels were 39 U/mL and 4.7 ng/mL, respectively. Results Among these 128 patients, the mean age was 62 years, and median survival was 12.2 days. The positive rate of CA19-9 and CEA was 78.1% and 37.5%, respectively. Patients with increased CA19-9 or CEA level suffered a poorer prognosis than those with normal CA19-9 or CEA level (CA19-9: P=0.027; CEA: P=0.036). Cox logistic analysis revealed that lymphatic metastasis, CA19-9 >39 U/mL, and CEA >4.7 ng/mL were independent prognostic factors in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Conclusions Preoperative serum CA19-9 and CEA level are closely related with survival time in PC patients and therefore may be used for evaluating the prognosis for PC. PMID:26734638

  3. Serum CEA testing in the post-operative surveillance of colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Hine, K. R.; Dykes, P. W.

    1984-01-01

    Six hundred and sixty-three patients were followed with serial serum CEA measurements in addition to routine clinical surveillance after radical resection of colorectal carcinoma. Of 626 available for analysis, 366 (58.4%) remained clinically free of recurrence and had a normal CEA (less than 20 ng ml-1) throughout and 89 (14.2%) had a temporary non-progressive rise in CEA with no evidence of secondary disease. Of 171 patients who developed proven or suggestive recurrence, 114 had a preceding rise in the serum CEA and in further 21 the CEA rose simultaneously with recurrence. In 36 patients secondary disease was detected while the CEA was still within normal limits. CEA was more effective as an early index of distant metastasis, thus in 76% of those patients with a preceding rise in CEA, the secondary disease was disseminated, whereas only 20% had localised recurrence. The pattern of rise in CEA was of no practical value in distinguishing localised from distant recurrence. PMID:6733018

  4. "Cirque du Freak."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and child readers. (SG)

  5. In vivo kinetics of radiolabeled monoclonal anti-CEA antibodies in animal models

    SciTech Connect

    Hagan, P.L.; Halpern, S.E.; Chen, A.; Krishnan, L.; Frincke, J.; Bartholomew, R.M.; David, G.S.; Carlo, D.

    1985-12-01

    Studies were performed to determine the effect of the radiolabel and circulating carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) on the pharmacodynamics of monoclonal anti-CEA antibodies (MoAbs). The studies were performed in normal BALB/c mice and in nude mice bearing human colon tumors. Three different tumors were used, each of which produced CEA levels characteristic of that particular tumor's secretory rate. The CEJ-326 MoAb labeled with either 111In or 125I was used in all studies. Circulating CEA induced the removal of 125I and 111In MoAbs from the vascular compartment. Liver concentrations of 111In increased and 125I levels decreased as the CEA secretory rate of the tumor rose. This indicates that circulating CEA complexes form in the vascular compartment which, in an animal model, are removed by the liver and spleen. This results in decreased tumor uptake of the labeled MoAb. The iodinated MoAb complexes are dehalogenated while the 111In is retained by the liver. This dehalogenation may account for the relatively low liver activity observed in radioimmunoimaging with intact radioiodinated anti-CEA MoAbs, provided the CEA complexes are similarly removed from the vascular compartment by the human liver.

  6. CEA in policies and plans: UK case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Lourdes M.

    2011-09-15

    This paper examines how cumulative effects assessment (CEA) has been considered in Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of regional and local plans in a number of case studies in the UK. Initially, the paper presents the legislative and regulatory requirements for assessing cumulative effects in plans and programmes in the UK. The two approaches for assessing plans in the UK, Sustainability Appraisal (SA) and SEA are discussed and in most cases, a combined SA and SEA process is undertaken by Regional and Local Planning Authorities. The strengths and weaknesses of this approach are explored, as well as their usefulness in decision making. There are problems relating to baseline, establishing trends and predicting cumulative effects at the strategic level. The issues in assessing cumulative effects within this SA/SEA framework are discussed and recommendations for improvements are made.

  7. Cryogenic turbulence test facilities at CEA/SBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, B.; Baudet, C.; Bon Mardion, M.; Bourgoin, M.; Braslau, A.; Daviaud, F.; Diribarne, P.; Dubrulle, B.; Gagne, Y.; Gallet, B.; Gibert, M.; Girard, A.; Lehner, T.; Moukharski, I.; Sy, F.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, CEA Grenoble SBT has designed, built and tested three liquid helium facilities dedicated to turbulence studies. All these experiments can operate either in HeI or HeII within the same campaign. The three facilities utilize moving parts inside liquid helium. The SHREK experiment is a von Kármán swirling flow between 0.72 m diameter counterrotating disks equipped with blades. The HeJet facility is used to produce a liquid helium free jet inside a 0.200 m I.D., 0.47 m length stainless steel cylindrical testing chamber. The OGRES experiment consists of an optical cryostat equipped with a particle injection device and an oscillating grid. We detail specific techniques employed to accommodate these stringent specifications. Solutions for operating these facilities without bubbles nor boiling/cavitation are described. Control parameters as well as Reynolds number and temperature ranges are given.

  8. The du Bois sign.

    PubMed

    Voelpel, James H; Muehlberger, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    According to the current literature, the term "du Bois sign" characterizes the condition of a shortened fifth finger as a symptom of congenital syphilis, Down syndrome, dyscrania, and encephalic malformation. Modern medical dictionaries and text books attribute the eponym to the French gynecologist Paul Dubois (1795-1871). Yet, a literature analysis revealed incorrect references to the person and unclear definitions of the term. Our findings showed that the origin of the term is based on observations made by the Swiss dermatologist Charles du Bois (1874-1947) in connection with congenital syphilis. In addition, a further eponymical fifth finger sign is closely associated with the du Bois sign. In conclusion, the du Bois sign has only limited diagnostic value and is frequently occurring in the normal healthy population. PMID:21263293

  9. A Phase I Study of a Combination of Yttrium-90 labeled Anti-CEA Antibody and Gemcitabine in Patients with CEA Producing Advanced Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Stephen; Raubitschek, Andrew; Leong, Lucille; Koczywas, Marianna; Williams, Lawrence; Zhan, Jiping; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the maximum tolerated dose of combined therapy using an yttrium-90 labeled anti-CEA antibody with gemcitabine in patients with advanced CEA producing solid tumors. Experimental Design The chimeric human/murine cT84.66 is an anti-CEA intact IgG1, with high affinity and specificity to CEA. This was given at a fixed yttrium-90 labeled dose of 16.6 mCi/m2 to subjects who had and an elevated CEA in serum or in tumor by immunohistochemistry. Also required was a tumor that imaged with an 111In labeled cT84.66 antibody. Patients were treated with escalating doses of gemcitabine given intravenously over 30 minutes on day 1 and 3 after the infusion of the yttrium-90 labeled antibody. Patients were treated in cohorts of 3. The maximum tolerated dose was determined as the highest level at which no more than 1 of 6 patients experienced a dose limiting toxicity. Results A total of 36 patients were enrolled, and all but one had prior systemic therapy. The maximum tolerated dose of gemcitabine in this combination was 150mg/m2. Dose limiting toxicities at a gemcitabine dose of 165mg/m2 included a grade 3 rash and grade 4 neutropenia. One partial response was seen in a patient with colorectal cancer, and 4 patients had a > 50% decrease in baseline CEA levels associated with stable disease. Human antichimeric antibody responses were the primary reason for stopping treatment in 12 patients. Conclusions feasibility of combining gemcitabine with an yttrium-90 labeled anti-CEA antibody is demonstrated with preliminary evidence of clinical response. PMID:19351765

  10. Electrochromic sensing platform based on steric hindrance effects for CEA detection.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qingfeng; Zhang, Xiaowei; Xia, Yong; Li, Jing; Wang, Erkang

    2016-06-20

    In this work, an electrochromic sensing platform with prussian blue (PB) as the indicator was proposed for signaling carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) using the bipolar electrode (BPE) system. The CEA aptamer was pre-anchored on the anode pole of the BPE for capturing CEA through strong binding affinity. The presence of CEA induced the increase of steric hindrance and led to lower electrochemical currents. Due to the quantitative relationship between the two reactions occurring at both ends of the BPE, the amount of deposited PB in situ can be used as an indicator for reporting target protein concentration. Using CEA concentration in normal human serum as a reference (5 ng mL(-1)), this electrochromic sensing platform can be used for distinguishing persons with cancer from normal humans easily and quickly, which is very important for subsequent treatment of patients. This novel electrochromic platform has great selectivity for target tumor proteins and provides a fast, visual method for CEA detection. Finally, the proposed biosensor can be applied to detect CEA in human serum, which holds great potential for point-of-care diagnostics combined with the advantage of the closed BPE system. PMID:27160521

  11. Selectively assaying CEA based on a creative strategy of gold nanoparticles enhancing silver nanoclusters' fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoming; Zhuo, Yan; Zhu, Shanshan; Luo, Yawen; Feng, Yuanjiao; Xu, Yan

    2015-02-15

    Herein, we have successfully built up connections between nanoparticles and nanoclusters, and further constructed a surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) strategy based on the two types of nanomaterials for selectively assaying carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Specifically, silver nanoclusters provided the original fluorescence signal, while gold nanoparticles modified with DNA served as the fluorescence enhancer simultaneously. On the basis of this proposed nano-system, the two nanomaterials were linked by CEA-aptamer, thus facilitating SEF occurring. Nevertheless, more competitive interactions between CEA and CEA-aptamer emerged once CEA added, leading to SEF failed and their fluorescence decreased. Significantly, this creative method was further applied to detect CEA, and showed the linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity and CEA concentrations in the range of 0.01-1 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 3 pg mL(-1) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, demonstrating its sensitivity and promising towards multiple applications. On the whole, this approach we established may broaden potential ways of combining nanoparticles and nanoclusters for detecting trace targets in bioanalytical fields. PMID:25259877

  12. Correlation between serum CEA levels and EGFR mutations in Chinese nonsmokers with lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Bo; Dong, Yu; Wang, Hui-min; Huang, Jin-su; Han, Bao-hui

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in Chinese nonsmokers with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Methods: We sequenced exons 18–21 of the EGFR gene in 98 cases. The patients were divided into two groups based on their pre-treatment serum CEA levels (below or above 5 ng/mL) for analyzing the correlations with EGFR mutations. Results: Sixty-seven cases harbored EGFR mutations. The rates of EGFR mutations and exon 19 mutations in the high-CEA group (78.2% and 49.1%, respectively) were significantly higher those in the low-CEA group (55.8% and 20.9%, respectively). Serum CEA levels were found to be the only independent predictor of EGFR mutation (OR 2.837; 95% CI: 1.178–6.829) and exon 19 mutation (OR 3.618; 95% CI: 1.319–9.918). Furthermore, a higher serum CEA level was associated with a higher EGFR mutation rate and a higher exon 19 mutation rate: patients with serum CEA levels <5 ng/mL, ≥5 and <20 ng/mL, ≥20 ng/mL showed the EGFR mutation rate of 55.8%, 74.1%, 82.1%, respectively, and the exon 19 mutation rate of 20.9%, 40.7%, 57.1%, respectively. Patients with EGFR mutations displayed a significantly higher incidence of abnormal serum CEA levels (>5 ng/mL) than patients without EGFR mutations (64.2% vs 38.7%). Conclusion: Elevated serum CEA levels predict the presence of EGFR gene mutations in Chinese nonsmokers with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. PMID:24487967

  13. Imaging of pharyngeal and laryngeal carcinomas with indium-111-labeled monoclonal anti-CEA antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Kairemo, K.J.; Hopsu, E.V. )

    1990-10-01

    Localization of primary tumors, metastases, or recurrences in 13 consecutive patients with histological verification of squamous cell or adenocarcinoma was made with radioimmunodetection using monoclonal radiolabeled anti-CEA antibody. All surgical specimens stained immunohistochemically, except one, were positive for CEA. Of the known 19 tumor sites 17 were visualized in antibody scans. There were two positive findings that did not prove to be positive during 12 month follow-up. The scintigram findings did not correlate with CEA serum concentrations that, with one exception, were normal in all patients.

  14. BDDR, a new CEA technological and operating reactor database

    SciTech Connect

    Soldevilla, M.; Salmons, S.; Espinosa, B.

    2013-07-01

    The new application BDDR (Reactor database) has been developed at CEA in order to manage nuclear reactors technological and operating data. This application is a knowledge management tool which meets several internal needs: -) to facilitate scenario studies for any set of reactors, e.g. non-proliferation assessments; -) to make core physics studies easier, whatever the reactor design (PWR-Pressurized Water Reactor-, BWR-Boiling Water Reactor-, MAGNOX- Magnesium Oxide reactor-, CANDU - CANada Deuterium Uranium-, FBR - Fast Breeder Reactor -, etc.); -) to preserve the technological data of all reactors (past and present, power generating or experimental, naval propulsion,...) in a unique repository. Within the application database are enclosed location data and operating history data as well as a tree-like structure containing numerous technological data. These data address all kinds of reactors features and components. A few neutronics data are also included (neutrons fluxes). The BDDR application is based on open-source technologies and thin client/server architecture. The software architecture has been made flexible enough to allow for any change. (authors)

  15. Comparison of Ablation Predictions for Carbonaceous Materials Using CEA and JANAF-Based Species Thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    In most previous work at NASA Ames Research Center, ablation predictions for carbonaceous materials were obtained using a species thermodynamics database developed by Aerotherm Corporation. This database is derived mostly from the JANAF thermochemical tables. However, the CEA thermodynamics database, also used by NASA, is considered more up to date. In this work, the FIAT code was modified to use CEA-based curve fits for species thermodynamics, then analyses using both the JANAF and CEA thermodynamics were performed for carbon and carbon phenolic materials over a range of test conditions. The ablation predictions are comparable at lower heat fluxes where the dominant mechanism is carbon oxidation. However, the predictions begin to diverge in the sublimation regime, with the CEA model predicting lower recession. The disagreement is more significant for carbon phenolic than for carbon, and this difference is attributed to hydrocarbon species that may contribute to the ablation rate.

  16. Iodine-131 labeled anti-CEA antibodies uptake by Huerthle cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Nabi, H.; Hinkle, G.H.; Falko, J.M.; Kelly, D.; Olsen, J.O.; Martin, E.W. Jr.

    1985-10-01

    Localization of Huerthle cell cancer deposits in the lung with I-131 labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody is described. This technique may prove useful if conventional scanning with I-131 sodium iodide for distant metastases is negative.

  17. Diagnostic value of mesothelin in pleural fluids: comparison with CYFRA 21-1 and CEA.

    PubMed

    Filiberti, Rosa; Parodi, Stefano; Libener, Roberta; Ivaldi, Giovanni Paolo; Canessa, Pier Aldo; Ugolini, Donatella; Bobbio, Barbara; Marroni, Paola

    2013-06-01

    CYFRA 21-1 and CEA have been applied for the differential diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The soluble mesothelin-related peptide (SMRP) has been proposed as a specific marker for distinguishing MPM from benign diseases and other malignancies in pleural effusions (PEs). In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of SMRP in PEs in the detection of mesotheliomas by comparing it with that of CYFRA 21-1, CEA, and with cytological examination. One hundred and seventy-seven consecutive patients (57 MPM, 64 metastatic tumors, and 56 benign diseases) were evaluated using commercial tests. The performance of the markers was analyzed by standard ROC analysis methods, using the area under a ROC curve (AUC) as a measure of accuracy. CYFRA 21-1 better differentiated malignant from benign effusions. The corresponding area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.87, while it was 0.74 for SMRP and 0.64 for CEA (p < 0.001). Conversely, SMRP differentiated MPM from all other PEs better than both CYFRA 21-1 and CEA (AUC = 0.84, 0.76, and 0.32, respectively, p = 0.003). Low levels of CEA were associated with a MPM diagnosis. The AUC for differentiating MPM from metastases was 0.81 for SMRP, 0.61 for CYFRA 21-1, and 0.20 for CEA (p < 0.001). In cases with negative or suspicious cytology, SMRP and CYFRA 21-1 identified 36/71 and 46/66 malignant PEs (29 and 31 MPM, respectively). Only 1 MPM showed a high CEA concentration. No single marker showed the best performance in any comparison. Results suggest that SMRP could improve CYFRA 21-1 and CEA accuracy in the differential diagnosis of MPM. PMID:23532816

  18. Unusual elevation of CEA in a patient with history of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tzu-Chi

    2006-12-01

    A 35-year-old female received right hemicolectomy for a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the ascending colon with lymph node metastasis (1/28) in February 1997. CEA was 1.68 ng/microl prior to colectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy with weekly 5-FU and leucovorin intravenously was started following surgery and discontinued after 17 doses in May 1997. She received bilateral salpingo-ophorecctomy for metastatic cancer in August 1999. Intravenous chemotherapy was resumed with weekly 5-FU and leucovorin intravenously in August 1999. CEA was 93.8 ng/microl in November 1999. Intravenous chemotherapy was discontinued after 20 doses and oral chemotherapy with futraful and leucovorin was started in January 2000. CEA was found to be 240.3 ng/microl in December 1999 and then elevated to 1521.3 ng/microl in June 2001, which was 10 months after resection of metastatic ovarian cancer. No metastatic lesions could be detected, however, with image studies. The CEA decreased to 396.6 ng/microl three months later. Futraful was switched to uracil-tegafur (UFUR) in September 2001. The CEA for the patient ranged from 68.5 to 298.9 ng/microl for the following 5 years without aggressive chemotherapy. No evidence of recurrence could be demonstrated by imaging studies. The patient is not a smoker and denied exposure to a smoking environment. She was also not known to have persistent infections, inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, or any benign tumors. The current case suggested that: (i) elevation of CEA is not necessarily well correlated with presence of metastatic colon cancer; (ii) some patients may live with elevated CEA for years without evidence of recurrence or metastasis; (iii) aggressive chemotherapy may not be necessary in patients with only elevated CEA. PMID:17060406

  19. Comparison of the CEAS and Williams-type barley yield models for North Dakota and Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leduc, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The CEAS and Williams type models were compared based on specified selection criteria which includes a ten year bootstrap test (1970-1979). Based on this, the models were quite comparable; however, the CEAS model was slightly better overall. The Williams type model seemed better for the 1974 estimates. Because that year spring wheat yield was particularly low, the Williams type model should not be excluded from further consideration.

  20. Expression of CEA, CA19-9, CA125, and EpCAM in pseudomyxoma peritonei.

    PubMed

    Nummela, Pirjo; Leinonen, Hannele; Järvinen, Petrus; Thiel, Alexandra; Järvinen, Heikki; Lepistö, Anna; Ristimäki, Ari

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a fatal clinical syndrome with mucinous tumor cells disseminated into peritoneal cavity and secreting abundant mucinous ascites. The serum tumor markers CEA, CA19-9, and CA125 are used to monitor pseudomyxoma peritonei remission, but their expression at tissue level has not been well characterized. Herein, we analyzed expression of these proteins and the adenocarcinoma marker EpCAM in 92 appendix-derived pseudomyxoma peritonei tumors by immunohistochemistry. All tumors were found to ubiquitously express CEA and EpCAM. In the majority of the tumors (94.6%), CEA showed polarized immunostaining, but in 5 aggressive high-grade tumors containing numerous signet ring cells, a nonpolarized staining was detected. We found preoperative CEA serum values to correlate with peritoneal cancer index. However, the serum values of the advanced cases with nonpolarized staining pattern were normal, and the patients died within 5 years after diagnosis. Thus, serum CEA measurements did not reflect aggressiveness of these tumors. CA19-9 showed strong immunopositivity in most of the tumors (91.3%), and mutated enzyme FUT3 was demonstrated from the cases showing negative or weak staining. CA125 was infrequently expressed by tumor cells (focal staining in 6.5% of the cases), but in most of the cases (79.3%), adjacent nonneoplastic mesothelial cells showed immunopositivity. As a conclusion, CEA and EpCAM are invariably expressed by pseudomyxoma peritonei tumor cells and could be exploited to targeted therapies against this malignancy. PMID:27038681

  1. Melanoma cell surface-expressed phosphatidylserine as a therapeutic target for cationic anticancer peptide, temporin-1CEa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Che; Chen, Yin-Wang; Zhang, Liang; Gong, Xian-Ge; Zhou, Yang; Shang, De-Jing

    2016-07-01

    We have previously reported that temporin-1CEa, a cationic antimicrobial peptide, exerts preferential cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. However, the exact molecular mechanism for this cancer-selectivity is still largely unknown. Here, we found that the negatively charged phosphatidylserine (PS) expressed on cancer cell surface serves as a target for temporin-1CEa. Our results indicate that human A375 melanoma cells express 50-fold more PS than non-cancerous HaCaT cells. The expression of cell surface PS in various cancer cell lines closely correlated with their ability to be recognized, bound and killed by temporin-1CEa. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of temporin-1CEa against A375 cells can be ameliorated by annexin V, which binds to cell surface PS with high affinity. Moreover, the data of isothermal titration calorimetry assay further confirmed a direct binding of temporin-1CEa to PS, at a ratio of 1:5 (temporin-1CEa:PS). Interestingly, the circular dichroism spectra analysis using artificial biomembrane revealed that PS not only provides electrostatic attractive sites for temporin-1CEa but also confers the membrane-bound temporin-1CEa to form α-helical structure, therefore, enhances the affinity and membrane disrupting ability of temporin-1CEa. In summary, these findings suggested that the melanoma cells expressed PS may serve as a promising target for temporin-1CEa or other cationic anticancer peptides. PMID:26596643

  2. The value of KRAS mutation testing with CEA for the diagnosis of pancreatic mucinous cysts

    PubMed Central

    Kadayifci, Abdurrahman; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; Atar, Mustafa; Dewitt, John M.; Forcione, David G.; Sherman, Stuart; Casey, Brenna W.; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Schmidt, C. Max; Pitman, Martha B.; Brugge, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Pancreatic cyst fluid (PCF) CEA has been shown to be the most accurate preoperative test for detection of cystic mucinous neoplasms (CMNs). This study aimed to assess the added value of PCF KRAS mutational analysis to CEA for diagnosis of CMNs. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective study of prospectively collected endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) fine-needle aspiration (FNA) data. KRAS mutation was determined by direct sequencing or equivalent methods. Cysts were classified histologically (surgical cohort) or by clinical (EUS or FNA) findings (clinical cohort). Performance characteristics of KRAS, CEA and their combination for detection of a cystic mucinous neoplasm (CMN) and malignancy were calculated. Results: The study cohort consisted of 943 patients: 147 in the surgical cohort and 796 in the clinical cohort. Overall, KRAS and CEA each had high specificity (100 % and 93.2 %), but low sensitivity (48.3 % and 56.3 %) for the diagnosis of a CMN. The positivity of KRAS or CEA increased the diagnostic accuracy (80.8 %) and AUC (0.84) significantly compared to KRAS (65.3 % and 0.74) or CEA (65.8 % and 0.74) alone, but only in the clinical cohort (P < 0.0001 for both). KRAS mutation was significantly more frequent in malignant CMNs compared to histologically confirmed non-malignant CMNs (73 % vs. 37 %, P = 0.001). The negative predictive value of KRAS mutation was 77.6 % in differentiating non-malignant cysts. Conclusions: The detection of a KRAS mutation in PCF is a highly specific test for mucinous cysts. It outperforms CEA for sensitivity in mucinous cyst diagnosis, but the data does not support its routine use. PMID:27092317

  3. An Information Building on Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy for the French CEA Cadarache Research Center - 13492

    SciTech Connect

    Brunel, Guy; Denis, Dominique; Boulet, Alain

    2013-07-01

    The CEA Cadarache research center is one of the 10 research centers of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Distributed throughout various research platforms, it focuses on nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, new energy technologies (hydrogen, solar, biomass) and fundamental research in the field of vegetal biology. It is the most important technological research and development centers for energy in Europe. Considering the sensitive nature of nuclear activities, the questions surrounding the issue of radioactive waste, the nuclear energy and the social, economic and environmental concerns for present and future generations, the French Government asked nuclear actors to open communication and to give all the information asked by the Local Information Commission (CLI) and the public [1]. In this context, the CEA Cadarache has decided to better show and explain its expertise and experience in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear power plant design, and to make it available to stakeholders and to the public. CEA Cadarache receives each year more than 9000 visitors. To complete technical visits of the research facilities and laboratories, a scientific cultural center has been built in 2011 to inform the public on CEA Cadarache research activities and to facilitate the acceptance of nuclear energy in a way suited to the level of knowledge of the visitors. A modern interactive exhibition of 150 m{sup 2} allows visitors to find out more about energy, CEA Cadarache research programs, radioactive waste management and radiological impact on the research center activities. It also offers an auditorium for group discussions and for school groups to discover science through enjoyment. This communication center has received several thousand visitors since its opening on October 2011; the initial results of this experience are now available. It's possible to explain the design of this exhibition, to give some statistics on the number of the visitors

  4. Uropathogenic E. coli Exploit CEA to Promote Colonization of the Urogenital Tract Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Muenzner, Petra; Kengmo Tchoupa, Arnaud; Klauser, Benedikt; Brunner, Thomas; Putze, Johannes; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Hauck, Christof R

    2016-05-01

    Attachment to the host mucosa is a key step in bacterial pathogenesis. On the apical surface of epithelial cells, members of the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family are abundant glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion and modulation of cell signaling. Interestingly, several gram-negative bacterial pathogens target these receptors by specialized adhesins. The prototype of a CEACAM-binding pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, utilizes colony opacity associated (Opa) proteins to engage CEA, as well as the CEA-related cell adhesion molecules CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 on human epithelial cells. By heterologous expression of neisserial Opa proteins in non-pathogenic E. coli we find that the Opa protein-CEA interaction is sufficient to alter gene expression, to increase integrin activity and to promote matrix adhesion of infected cervical carcinoma cells and immortalized vaginal epithelial cells in vitro. These CEA-triggered events translate in suppression of exfoliation and improved colonization of the urogenital tract by Opa protein-expressing E. coli in CEA-transgenic compared to wildtype mice. Interestingly, uropathogenic E. coli expressing an unrelated CEACAM-binding protein of the Afa/Dr adhesin family recapitulate the in vitro and in vivo phenotype. In contrast, an isogenic strain lacking the CEACAM-binding adhesin shows reduced colonization and does not suppress epithelial exfoliation. These results demonstrate that engagement of human CEACAMs by distinct bacterial adhesins is sufficient to blunt exfoliation and to promote host infection. Our findings provide novel insight into mucosal colonization by a common UPEC pathotype and help to explain why human CEACAMs are a preferred epithelial target structure for diverse gram-negative bacteria to establish a foothold on the human mucosa. PMID:27171273

  5. Uropathogenic E. coli Exploit CEA to Promote Colonization of the Urogenital Tract Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Muenzner, Petra; Kengmo Tchoupa, Arnaud; Klauser, Benedikt; Brunner, Thomas; Putze, Johannes; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Hauck, Christof R.

    2016-01-01

    Attachment to the host mucosa is a key step in bacterial pathogenesis. On the apical surface of epithelial cells, members of the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family are abundant glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion and modulation of cell signaling. Interestingly, several gram-negative bacterial pathogens target these receptors by specialized adhesins. The prototype of a CEACAM-binding pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, utilizes colony opacity associated (Opa) proteins to engage CEA, as well as the CEA-related cell adhesion molecules CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 on human epithelial cells. By heterologous expression of neisserial Opa proteins in non-pathogenic E. coli we find that the Opa protein-CEA interaction is sufficient to alter gene expression, to increase integrin activity and to promote matrix adhesion of infected cervical carcinoma cells and immortalized vaginal epithelial cells in vitro. These CEA-triggered events translate in suppression of exfoliation and improved colonization of the urogenital tract by Opa protein-expressing E. coli in CEA-transgenic compared to wildtype mice. Interestingly, uropathogenic E. coli expressing an unrelated CEACAM-binding protein of the Afa/Dr adhesin family recapitulate the in vitro and in vivo phenotype. In contrast, an isogenic strain lacking the CEACAM-binding adhesin shows reduced colonization and does not suppress epithelial exfoliation. These results demonstrate that engagement of human CEACAMs by distinct bacterial adhesins is sufficient to blunt exfoliation and to promote host infection. Our findings provide novel insight into mucosal colonization by a common UPEC pathotype and help to explain why human CEACAMs are a preferred epithelial target structure for diverse gram-negative bacteria to establish a foothold on the human mucosa. PMID:27171273

  6. Elevated Level of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Search for a Malignancy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Muhammad W

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to be associated with tumor burden in patients with colorectal cancer. However, it is also elevated to a significant degree in a number of other malignant and non-malignant conditions. We report a case of reversible CEA elevation in a patient using lithium for bipolar disorder. A 58-year-old female with a longstanding smoking history and a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bipolar illness, hypothyroidism, and obesity was found to have an elevated CEA level of 11.2 ng/ml (normal level <5 ng/ml) in the workup for postmenopausal bleeding. Her history was not positive for malignancy of colorectum, ovaries, thyroid, or breast.  She underwent a large number of imaging and endoscopic studies to evaluate for colorectal, breast, ovarian, and lung cancer; however, it did not reveal any evidence of malignancy. Upon review of her medications, she reported that she had recently started lithium for her bipolar illness. We followed up her CEA level while her dose of lithium was reduced from 450 to 300 mg per day. Her CEA level decreased from 25 mg/dl to 6.1 mg/dl and remained stable over the course of the next eight months. Our case is the first case report that identifies lithium as a potential cause of reversible CEA elevation. The underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated, but it underscores the importance of investigating the medications as part of the workup. PMID:27446768

  7. Elevated Level of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Search for a Malignancy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Asad-Ur-Rahman, Fnu; Saif, Muhammad W

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to be associated with tumor burden in patients with colorectal cancer. However, it is also elevated to a significant degree in a number of other malignant and non-malignant conditions. We report a case of reversible CEA elevation in a patient using lithium for bipolar disorder. A 58-year-old female with a longstanding smoking history and a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bipolar illness, hypothyroidism, and obesity was found to have an elevated CEA level of 11.2 ng/ml (normal level <5 ng/ml) in the workup for postmenopausal bleeding. Her history was not positive for malignancy of colorectum, ovaries, thyroid, or breast.  She underwent a large number of imaging and endoscopic studies to evaluate for colorectal, breast, ovarian, and lung cancer; however, it did not reveal any evidence of malignancy. Upon review of her medications, she reported that she had recently started lithium for her bipolar illness. We followed up her CEA level while her dose of lithium was reduced from 450 to 300 mg per day. Her CEA level decreased from 25 mg/dl to 6.1 mg/dl and remained stable over the course of the next eight months. Our case is the first case report that identifies lithium as a potential cause of reversible CEA elevation. The underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated, but it underscores the importance of investigating the medications as part of the workup. PMID:27446768

  8. Diagnostic value of CEA and CYFRA 21-1 tumor markers in primary lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Kyoko; Takayama, Koichi; Izumi, Miiru; Harada, Taishi; Furuyama, Kazuto; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is sometimes difficult to differentiate from benign lung diseases expressing nodular shadow in imaging study. We assessed the diagnostic value of two commonly used tumor markers in distinguishing primary lung cancer from benign lung disease. The serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1) were retrospectively analyzed in 655 lung cancer patients and 237 patients with benign lung disease. The standard cut-off levels of 3.2 ng/mL CEA and 3.5 ng/mL CYFRA 21-1 and twice these respective levels (6.4 ng/mL and 7.0 ng/mL) were used. CEA and CYFRA 21-1 levels were elevated in 32% and 11% of benign lung disease patients, respectively. CEA sensitivity and specificity for lung cancer diagnosis was 69% and 68% respectively, while that for CYFRA 21-1 was 43% and 89%, respectively. Thus, the combined value for the specificity of the two tumor markers was greater than either alone. Patients were grouped depending on their hospital status, and prevalence rates were determined. The prevalence rate of lung cancer in admitted patients was 51%, the prevalence rate of lung cancer in outpatients was 12%, and the prevalence rate of lung cancer identified during health check-ups was 0.1%. Positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated using Bayes' theorem, and varied with the serum tumor marker and prevalence rate: PPVs of CEA [prevalence rate] were 69.2% [51%], 22.7% [12%], and 0.22% [0.1%], while PPVs of CYFRA 21-1 were 80.3% [51%], 34.8% [12%], and 0.39% [0.1%]. However, PPVs for lung cancer diagnosis at a prevalence rate of 51% were 87.3% or higher when the patient exhibited positive CEA and CYFRA 21-1, or CEA or CYFRA 21-1 levels twice the standard cut-off. Our results indicate that CEA and CYFRA 21-1 are reliable serum tumor markers for the diagnosis of lung cancer in addition to CT scans when combined or used individually at twice the standard cut-off level in high prevalence rate groups. The prevalence rate should

  9. Latest pixel size reduction of uncooled IR-FPA at CEA, LETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Sebastien; Imperinetti, Pierre; Yon, Jean-Jacques; Ouvrier-Buffet, Jean-Louis; Goudon, Valérie; Hamelin, Antoine; Vialle, Claire; Arnaud, Agnès.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments at the Infrared Lab (LIR) of CEA, LETI have been concentrated on the pixel size reduction of uncooled infrared detectors. With the support from French company ULIS, we have successfully demonstrated the technological integration of 12μm pixels on a commercial TV-format read-out circuit (VGA-ROIC) supplied by ULIS. The 12μm pixel has been designed, processed and characterized in CEA, LETI and first results showed exceptional performances. This paper presents the characterization and associated imagery results.

  10. Assembly and analysis of cosmid contigs in the CEA-gene family region of human chromosome 19.

    PubMed Central

    Tynan, K; Olsen, A; Trask, B; de Jong, P; Thompson, J; Zimmermann, W; Carrano, A; Mohrenweiser, H

    1992-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-like genes are members of a large gene family which is part of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The CEA family is divided into two major subgroups, the CEA-subgroup and the pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG)-subgroup. In the course of an effort to develop a set of overlapping cosmids spanning human chromosome 19, we identified 245 cosmids in a human chromosome 19 cosmid library (6-7X redundant) by hybridization with an IgC-like domain fragment of the CEA gene. A fluorescence-based restriction enzyme digest fingerprinting strategy was used to assemble 212 probe-positive cosmids, along with 115 additional cosmids from a collection of approximately 8,000 randomly selected cosmids, into five contigs. Two of the contigs contain CEA-subgroup genes while the remaining three contigs contain PSG-subgroup genes. These five contigs range in size from 100 kb to over 300 kb and span an estimated 1 Mb. The CEA-like gene family was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization to map in the q13.1-q13.2 region of human chromosome 19. Analysis of the two CEA-subgroup contigs provided verification of the contig assembly strategy and insight into the organization of 9 CEA-subgroup genes. PMID:1579453

  11. Quantitative real-time detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) from pancreatic cyst fluid using 3-D surface molecular imprinting.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yingjie; Zhang, Qi; Buscaglia, Jonathan; Chang, Chung-Chueh; Liu, Ying; Yang, Zhenhua; Guo, Yichen; Wang, Yantian; Levon, Kalle; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2016-07-21

    In this study, a sensitive, yet robust, biosensing system with real-time electrochemical readout was developed. The biosensor system was applied to the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which is a common marker for many cancers such as pancreatic, breast, and colon cancer. Real time detection of CEA during a medical procedure can be used to make critical decisions regarding further surgical intervention. CEA was templated on gold surface (RMS roughness ∼3-4 nm) coated with a hydrophilic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the working electrode of an open circuit potentiometric network. The subsequent removal of template CEA makes the biosensor capable of CEA detection based on its specific structure and conformation. The molecular imprinting (MI) biosensor was further calibrated using the potentiometric responses in solutions with known CEA concentrations and a detection limit of 0.5 ng ml(-1) was achieved. Potentiometric sensing was then applied to pancreatic cyst fluid samples obtained from 18 patients when the cyst fluid was also evaluated using ELISA in a certified pathology laboratory. Excellent agreement was obtained between the quantitation of CEA obtained by both the ELISA and MI biosensor detection for CEA. A 3-D MI model, using the natural rms roughness of PVD gold layers, is presented to explain the high degree of sensitivity and linearity observed in those experiments. PMID:27193921

  12. Serum CA 242 in pancreatic cancer. Comparison with CA 19-9 and CEA.

    PubMed

    Pezzilli, R; Billi, P; Plate, L; Laudadio, M A; Sprovieri, G

    1995-01-01

    Serum CA 242, CA 19-9 and CEA concentrations were determined in 94 subjects divided into 5 groups: Group 1 consisted of 22 healthy subjects; Group 2 consisted of 40 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma; according to Cubilla and Fitzgerald's classification, 11 tumours were Stage I, 4 were Stage II, and 25 were Stage III. Group 3 consisted of 10 chronic pancreatitis patients, group 4 of 10 acute pancreatitis patients, group 5 of 12 patients with nonpancreatic digestive carcinomas. Ten of these 12 patients had distant metastases. The sensitivity of CA 19-9 in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer was higher than that of CEA and CA 242 (p < 0.05 and p < 0.005, respectively). In Stage I cancer patients the sensitivity of the markers studied was less than 50% (45% for CA 19-9, 18% for CEA, and 9% for CA 242) whereas most of the 25 patients with metastatic tumours of the pancreas had elevated serum levels of all 3 markers. The various combinations of the three markers did not significantly improve the sensitivity in diagnosing pancreatic cancer. No relationship was found between the localization of the tumour and the serum levels of the 3 markers studied. Similarly, no differences were found between patients with cholestasis and those without. The specificity of the 3 markers, evaluated in patients with benign pancreatic diseases, was 100% for CA 242, 90% for CA 199 and 70% for CEA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8562994

  13. 77 FR 74283 - Clearing Requirement Determination Under Section 2(h) of the CEA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ...\\ Clearing Requirement Determination Under Section 2(h) of the CEA; Proposed Rule, 77 FR 47170 (Aug. 7, 2012... to Trade Under Section 2(h)(8) of the Commodity Exchange Act, 76 FR 77728 (Dec. 14, 2011). Clearing... FR 44464 (July 26, 2011); 17 CFR 39.5. The determinations and rules adopted in this release...

  14. 15 CFR 950.7 - Center for Environmental Assessment Services (CEAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... experiment design, data analysis, and data management support to project managers and produces merged... key role in the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) experiments). (7) CEAS provides special... global oceanographic data base from observations taken during the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE)....

  15. 15 CFR 950.7 - Center for Environmental Assessment Services (CEAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... experiment design, data analysis, and data management support to project managers and produces merged... key role in the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) experiments). (7) CEAS provides special... global oceanographic data base from observations taken during the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE)....

  16. 15 CFR 950.7 - Center for Environmental Assessment Services (CEAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... experiment design, data analysis, and data management support to project managers and produces merged... key role in the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) experiments). (7) CEAS provides special... global oceanographic data base from observations taken during the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE)....

  17. 15 CFR 950.7 - Center for Environmental Assessment Services (CEAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... experiment design, data analysis, and data management support to project managers and produces merged... key role in the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) experiments). (7) CEAS provides special... global oceanographic data base from observations taken during the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE)....

  18. 15 CFR 950.7 - Center for Environmental Assessment Services (CEAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... experiment design, data analysis, and data management support to project managers and produces merged... key role in the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) experiments). (7) CEAS provides special... global oceanographic data base from observations taken during the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE)....

  19. Spanish Pre-University Students' Use of English: CEA Results from the University Entrance Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diez-Bedmar, Maria Belen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an updated overview of the main errors that Spanish students make when writing the English exam in the University Entrance Examination is provided. To do so, a Computer-aided Error Analysis (CEA) (Dagneaux, Denness & Granger, 1998) was conducted on a representative sample of the students who took the exam in June 2008 in Jaen, and…

  20. Mutational Profiles Reveal an Aberrant TGF-β-CEA Regulated Pathway in Colon Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Jogunoori, Wilma; Menon, Vipin; Majumdar, Avijit; Chen, Jiun-Sheng; Gi, Young Jin; Jeong, Yun Seong; Phan, Liem; Belkin, Mitchell; Gu, Shoujun; Kundra, Suchin; Mistry, Nipun A.; Zhang, Jianping; Su, Xiaoping; Li, Shulin; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Javle, Milind; McMurray, John S.; Rahlfs, Thomas F.; Mishra, Bibhuti; White, Jon; Rashid, Asif; Beauchemin, Nicole; Weston, Brian R.; Shafi, Mehnaz A.; Stroehlein, John R.; Davila, Marta; Akbani, Rehan; Weinstein, John N.; Wu, Xifeng; Mishra, Lopa

    2016-01-01

    Mutational processes and signatures that drive early tumorigenesis are centrally important for early cancer prevention. Yet, to date, biomarkers and risk factors for polyps (adenomas) that inordinately and rapidly develop into colon cancer remain poorly defined. Here, we describe surprisingly high mutational profiles through whole-genome sequence (WGS) analysis in 2 of 4 pairs of benign colorectal adenoma tissue samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustered transcriptomic analysis of a further 7 pairs of adenomas reveals distinct mutational signatures regardless of adenoma size. Transitional single nucleotide substitutions of C:G>T:A predominate in the adenoma mutational spectrum. Strikingly, we observe mutations in the TGF-β pathway and CEA-associated genes in 4 out of 11 adenomas, overlapping with the Wnt pathway. Immunohistochemical labeling reveals a nearly 5-fold increase in CEA levels in 23% of adenoma samples with a concomitant loss of TGF-β signaling. We also define a functional role by which the CEA B3 domain interacts with TGFBR1, potentially inactivating the tumor suppressor function of TGF-β signaling. Our study uncovers diverse mutational processes underlying the transition from early adenoma to cancer. This has broad implications for biomarker-driven targeting of CEA/TGF-β in high-risk adenomas and may lead to early detection of aggressive adenoma to CRC progression. PMID:27100181

  1. Environmental Profiles of Paper vs. Electronic UC-CEAS Annual Reports

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2010, the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering and Applied Sciences (UC-CEAS) created a new electronic format for the Annual Report that could be distributed through the college’s website to replace the prior print version. In order to determine the environmental co...

  2. 77 FR 47169 - Clearing Requirement Determination Under Section 2(h) of the CEA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Commodity Exchange Act, 76 FR 77728 (Dec. 14, 2011). Clearing is at the heart of the Dodd-Frank financial...; and (4) the staying of a clearing requirement. \\19\\ See 76 FR 44464 (July 26, 2011); 17 CFR 39.5. This... under Section 2(h) of the CEA, 76 FR 58186 (Sept. 20, 2011). This comment letter is available on...

  3. Mutational Profiles Reveal an Aberrant TGF-β-CEA Regulated Pathway in Colon Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Raju, Gottumukkala S; Jogunoori, Wilma; Menon, Vipin; Majumdar, Avijit; Chen, Jiun-Sheng; Gi, Young Jin; Jeong, Yun Seong; Phan, Liem; Belkin, Mitchell; Gu, Shoujun; Kundra, Suchin; Mistry, Nipun A; Zhang, Jianping; Su, Xiaoping; Li, Shulin; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Javle, Milind; McMurray, John S; Rahlfs, Thomas F; Mishra, Bibhuti; White, Jon; Rashid, Asif; Beauchemin, Nicole; Weston, Brian R; Shafi, Mehnaz A; Stroehlein, John R; Davila, Marta; Akbani, Rehan; Weinstein, John N; Wu, Xifeng; Mishra, Lopa

    2016-01-01

    Mutational processes and signatures that drive early tumorigenesis are centrally important for early cancer prevention. Yet, to date, biomarkers and risk factors for polyps (adenomas) that inordinately and rapidly develop into colon cancer remain poorly defined. Here, we describe surprisingly high mutational profiles through whole-genome sequence (WGS) analysis in 2 of 4 pairs of benign colorectal adenoma tissue samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustered transcriptomic analysis of a further 7 pairs of adenomas reveals distinct mutational signatures regardless of adenoma size. Transitional single nucleotide substitutions of C:G>T:A predominate in the adenoma mutational spectrum. Strikingly, we observe mutations in the TGF-β pathway and CEA-associated genes in 4 out of 11 adenomas, overlapping with the Wnt pathway. Immunohistochemical labeling reveals a nearly 5-fold increase in CEA levels in 23% of adenoma samples with a concomitant loss of TGF-β signaling. We also define a functional role by which the CEA B3 domain interacts with TGFBR1, potentially inactivating the tumor suppressor function of TGF-β signaling. Our study uncovers diverse mutational processes underlying the transition from early adenoma to cancer. This has broad implications for biomarker-driven targeting of CEA/TGF-β in high-risk adenomas and may lead to early detection of aggressive adenoma to CRC progression. PMID:27100181

  4. Evolution du Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni et As dans le Bassin d'Arcachon (France). Impact de la biomasse végétale sur la géochimie d'un environment lagunaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapaquellerie, Yvon; Latouche, Claude; Maillet, Noèle; Dumon, Jean-Claude; Carruesco, Christian

    1992-03-01

    The concentration of metals as Pb, Cu, Ni and As in suspended matters and sediments during 14 years shows for suspended matters and sediments that: Zn and Cu are increasing, Pb and As decreasing and Ni is stabilised. The evolution of the suspended matter can be explained by the quantitative evolution of algae and phanerogams during these last 14 years. The biomass evolution, which resulted in environmental nutrient contribution, intensifies the exchange factors of Pb and As in the lagoon. These remarks, beyond their local interests, provide notions of sedimentary environment model opposed to a polluting environment constituted by nautic tourism and a large area of monoculture (corn).

  5. MC32 tumor cells acquire Ag-specific CTL resistance through the loss of CEA in a colon cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yeul; Sin, Jeong-Im

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that MC32 cells resist carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) DNA vaccination by losing their antigen presentation to Ag-specific CTLs in the context of MHC class I antigens in a colon cancer therapeutic model. In this study, we selected 2 tumor cells, MC32-S2–2 and MC32-S4–2, which have the ability to form tumors in CEA DNA vaccine-immunized mice. Wild type MC32 cells grew significantly less in CEA-immunized mice (with Ag-specific CTL lytic activity) than in control mice (with no Ag-specific CTL lytic activity). However, MC32-S2–2 and MC32-S4–2 cells grew at a similar rate in both control and CEA-immunized mice, confirming their resistant status against CEA DNA vaccination. MC32-S2–2 and MC32-S4–2 cells were not susceptible to lysis by CEA-specific CD8+ T cells. Moreover, when MC32-S2–2 and MC32-S4–2 cells were used as stimulating agents of CEA-specific immune cells for IFN-γ production, these cells failed to stimulate the induction of Ag-specific IFN-γ, suggesting a loss of tumor cell recognition by Ag-specific immune cells. However, MC32-S2–2 and MC32-S4–2 cells expressed MHC class I antigens in a manner similar to that of wild type MC32 cells. Finally, Western blot assay confirmed that in MC32-S2–2 and MC32-S4–2 cells, CEA expression remained absent but mouse CEA was expressed. Taken together, these data show that MC32 cells may also be able to achieve resistance to CEA-specific CTLs by antigen loss in this model. PMID:25902414

  6. Dispersion of Radionuclides and Exposure Assessment in Urban Environments: A Joint CEA and LLNL Report

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, Lee; Gowardhan, Akshay; Lennox, Kristin; Simpson, Matthew; Yu, Kristen; Armand, Patrick; Duchenne, Christophe; Mariotte, Frederic; Pectorin, Xavier

    2014-12-19

    In the interest of promoting the international exchange of technical expertise, the US Department of Energy’s Office of Emergency Operations (NA-40) and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA) requested that the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California host a joint table top exercise with experts in emergency management and atmospheric transport modeling. In this table top exercise, LLNL and CEA compared each other’s flow and dispersion models. The goal of the comparison is to facilitate the exchange of knowledge, capabilities, and practices, and to demonstrate the utility of modeling dispersal at different levels of computational fidelity. Two modeling approaches were examined, a regional scale modeling approach, appropriate for simple terrain and/or very large releases, and an urban scale modeling approach, appropriate for small releases in a city environment. This report is a summary of LLNL and CEA modeling efforts from this exercise. Two different types of LLNL and CEA models were employed in the analysis: urban-scale models (Aeolus CFD at LLNL/NARAC and Parallel- Micro-SWIFT-SPRAY, PMSS, at CEA) for analysis of a 5,000 Ci radiological release and Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Models (LODI at LLNL/NARAC and PSPRAY at CEA) for analysis of a much larger (500,000 Ci) regional radiological release. Two densely-populated urban locations were chosen: Chicago with its high-rise skyline and gridded street network and Paris with its more consistent, lower building height and complex unaligned street network. Each location was considered under early summer daytime and nighttime conditions. Different levels of fidelity were chosen for each scale: (1) lower fidelity mass-consistent diagnostic, intermediate fidelity Navier-Stokes RANS models, and higher fidelity Navier-Stokes LES for urban-scale analysis, and (2) lower-fidelity single

  7. Variation of uptake of anti-CEA monoclonal antibody with tumor type and mass

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.E.; Philben, V.J.; Jakowatz, J.G.; Beatty, B.G.; Vlahos, W.G.; Paxton, R.J.; Shively, J.E.; Beatty, J.D.

    1985-05-01

    A nude mouse model xenografted with 3 human tumor (T) was studied with an anti-carcinoembryonic (..cap alpha..-CEA) monoclonal antibody (MoAb). The MoAb was labeled with In-111 using a bi-functional chelation technique. In vitro cross-reactivity with human blood (B) and liver (L) cells was minimal. Human colon tumors were WIDR, SW403 an LS174T. The murine carcinoma EMT6 was used as a control. In all cases only 62.5 ngm of ..cap alpha..-CEA charged at 10 ..mu..Ci/..mu..gm was given to each animal. The corresponding value in humans, 200 ..mu..gm, is probably subimmunogenic. Organ distribution in percent injected dose/gm (% ID/gm) and images were obtained at 48 h post-injection of the MoAb. CEA levels (mgm/gm of T) were measured for each tumor using the same MoAb (T 84.66). Variation of % ID/gm with LS174T mass (m) was also determined. Uptake by EMT6 was 2.4 +- 0.2 % ID/gm. LS174T uptake varied approximately as the inverse of tumor mass. The authors conclude that tumor accumulation of ..cap alpha..-CEA MoAb is not directly correlated with the amount of CEA in the lesion. The best uptake, T/B and T/L values occurred with LS174T; this was also borne out by the 48 h images. Because of the smaller average SW403 mass, this result cannot readily be explained as a tumor size effect.

  8. Kyste hydatique primitif du sein

    PubMed Central

    Mouslik, Rabii; Settaf, Abdellatif; Elalami, Yacir; Lahnini, Hicham; Lahlou, Khalid; Chad, Bouziane

    2012-01-01

    Le kyste hydatique du sein est une parasitose rare même dans les pays endémiques. Nous rapportons une nouvelle observation d'une patiente de 30 ans qui présentait une masse du sein gauche. Le diagnostic de kyste hydatique du sein a été évoqué devant les données de l'examen clinique et de la mammographie couplée à l’échographie. Le geste chirurgical a consisté en une kystectomie. L'examen anatomopathologique de la pièce opératoire a confirmé le diagnostic. PMID:23133704

  9. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sajid, Khan Mohammad; Chaouachi, Kamal; Mahmood, Rubaida

    2008-01-01

    Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.). Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc.), prepared between 1 and 4 times a day with a quantity of up to 120 g of a tobacco-molasses mixture each (i.e. the tobacco weight equivalent of up to 60 cigarettes of 1 g each) and consumed in 1 to 8 sessions. Methods Enhanced chemiluminescent immunometric technique was applied to measure CEA levels in serum samples from 59 exclusive male smokers with age ranging from 20–80 years (mean = 58.8 ± 14.7 years) and 8–65 years of smoking (mean = 37.7 ± 16.8). 36 non-smokers served as controls. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the number of preparations; the number of sessions and the total daily smoking time: Light (1; 1; ≤ 20 minutes); Medium (1–3; 1–3; >20 min to ≤ 2 hrs) and Heavy smokers (2–4; 3–8; >2 hrs to ≤ 6 hrs). Because of the nature of distribution of CEA levels among our individuals, Wilcoxon's rank sum two-sample test was applied to compare the variables. Results The overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers (mean: 3.58 ± 2.61 ng/ml; n = 59) were not significantly different (p ≤ 0.0937) from the levels in non-smokers (2.35 ± 0.71 ng/ml). Mean levels in light, medium and heavy smokers were: 1.06 ± 0.492 ng/ml (n = 5); 2.52 ± 1.15 ng/ml (n = 28) and 5.11 ± 3.08 ng/ml (n = 26) respectively. The levels in medium smokers and non-smokers were also not significantly different (p ≤ 0.9138). In heavy smokers, the CEA levels were significantly higher than in non-smokers (p ≤ 0.0001567). Conclusion Overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers were

  10. Value of human chorionic gonadotropin compared to CEA in discriminating benign from malignant effusions.

    PubMed

    Lamerz, R; Stoetzer, O J; Mezger, J; Brandt, A; Darsow, M; Wilmanns, W

    1999-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is expressed in germ cell tumors and urothelial, breast, lung and colon cancers. The aim of the study was to investigate if the determination of HCG in comparison with CEA is able to discriminate between malignant and benign effusions. Effusion and partially serum samples of 61 patients with benign (g.i., heart/kidney isnuff.) and 116 patients with malignant diseases (g.i., gynec., lung, misc., CUP) were investigated. HCG was specifically determined by an IRMA using 2 monoclonal antibodies, CEA by a conventional double Ab RIA. Cytological staining was preformed using the Pappenheim-method on cytospin preparations. Significant differences (p < 0.001) were found for HCG between benign and malignant ascitic effusions with the best discrimination at 5 IU/l (ROC) and an overall sensitivity of 31.3% (spec. vs benign eff. 93.4%) increasing in subgroups from hematol. (5.8%) < misc. (31.3%) < gynec. (32.1%) < g.i. (36%) < lung (38.1%) to CUP (50%). CEA also showed significant differences between benign and malignant total and ascitic effusions, and weaker for the pleural subgroup (cutoff 9 ng/ml) with a total sensitivity of 44.6% (sp = 100%) increasing from misc. (30.8%) < lung (47.1%) < CUP (50%) < gynec. (60%) < g.i. (60.9%). Comparative cytology and TM determinations increased the positiverate of cytology (45.2%) to 58.3% for either cytology or HCG positive cases, or to 61.6% for either cytology or CEA positive cases. For the combined determination of cytologoy and HCG and CEA, the overall TM positive rate for 33 cytology-pos. cases was 78.8%, but in 40 cytology-negative cases 37.5% for TM positive cases. In conclusion HCG is useful in ascitic > pleural effusions with high specificity (90% at 5 IU/l) but low sensitivity of 31% increasing in g.i., lung and gynecologic cases, CEA a more general TM with higher sensitivity of 45% increasing in g.i., gynecologic and lung cases (sp. 100% at 9 ng/ml) both adding significantly to cytology

  11. Origine et évolution du bassin Nord-Banda (Indonésie): apport des données magnétiquesOrigin and evolution of the North Banda Basin (Indonesia): constraints from magnetic data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinschberger, Florent; Malod, Jacques-André; Réhault, Jean-Pierre; Dyment, Jérôme; Honthaas, Christian; Villeneuve, Michel; Burhanuddin, Safri

    2000-10-01

    The North Banda Sea Basin is located in Eastern Indonesia, close to the triple junction between the Eurasian, Pacific and Indo-Australian plates, and opened during Late Miocene time in a back arc setting. We use the magnetic and bathymetric data to depict this opening and the geodynamical evolution of the basin. We also take into account radiochronological datations available from some dredges of its basement. Sea floor spreading occurred from 12.5 to 7.15 Ma directed by three large NW-SE transform faults, namely the West Buru, Tampomas and Hamilton fracture zones. Finally, a schematic model of the North and South Banda basins evolution is presented.

  12. CEA serum level as early predictive marker of outcome during EGFR-TKI therapy in advanced NSCLC patients.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Francesco; Aldigeri, Raffaella; Aloe, Rosalia; Bortesi, Beatrice; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Tiseo, Marcello

    2015-08-01

    Considering the role of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) serum levels as potential useful predictive marker during chemotherapy treatment, we studied its applicability in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Our retrospective cohort consists of 79 patients (33 EGFR mutated and 46 EGFR wild type or unknown) affected by advanced NSCLC, for whom CEA serum values at the beginning of TKI therapy and after the first month of treatment were available, regardless of treatment line. Baseline CEA value, percentage of CEA reduction after 1 month, and percentage of patients with ≥20 % CEA decrease after 1 month (CEA response) were correlated with disease control rate (DCR), progression-free (PFS), and overall (OS) survival, according to EGFR mutational status. Median baseline CEA levels were significantly higher in EGFR mutated (40.9 ng/ml; interquartile range (IQR) 8.9-197.6) than in wild-type cases (6.2 ng/ml; IQR 2.8-12.8; p = 0.003). Both percentage reduction in CEA levels (-10.7 vs. +13.4 %) and percentage of cases with CEA response (42 vs. 20 %) were significantly higher in mutated vs. wild-type/unknown patients (p = 0.007 and p = 0.027, respectively). In wild-type/unknown patients, CEA response was significantly correlated with DCR (p = 0.001) and resulted as a significant predictor of PFS both in univariate (p = 0.002) and in multivariate analyses (hazard ratio (HR) 0.27; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.11-0.66; p = 0.004); only a trend was found for OS prediction (p = 0.082). In EGFR-mutated group, CEA reduction did not show any correlation either with PFS or OS. CEA response after 1 month of EGFR-TKI therapy could be a useful marker, worthy to further studies, as early predictor of treatment outcome in EGFR wild-type/unknown unselected NSCLC cases for which no molecular predictor is yet available. PMID:25731731

  13. C.-E.A. Winslow Day: Proceedings of the June 3, 1977 Centenary Celebration

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, Arthur J.

    1977-01-01

    Sponsored by Yale University, the City of New Haven, and the John B. Pierce Foundation, the C.-E.A. Winslow Day program consisted of speeches by Mr. Leonard Woodcock, President Emeritus, U.A.W., the Honorable Kenneth Gibson, Mayor of Newark, and Dr. Hector Acuña, Director, Pan American Health Organization; reminiscences of Ira Hiscock, Anna M.R. Lauder Professor Emeritus of Public Health, Mary Elizabeth Tennant, Associate Professor Emeritus of Nursing (Public Health), A. Pharo Gagge, Emeritus Fellow, John B. Pierce Foundation, and Mrs. Harriet Welch, Former President of the VNA of New Haven. The proceedings also included the presentation of gifts and the official C.-E.A. Winslow Day Proclamation. PMID:345631

  14. Decommissioning of the nuclear licensed facilities at the Fontenay aux Roses CEA center

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanjacques, Michel; Piketty, Laurence; Letuhaire, Nathalie; Mandard, Lionel; Meden, Igor; Estivie, David; Boissonneau, Jean Francois; Fouquereau, Alain; Pichereau, Eric; Binet, Cedric

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) center at Fontenay aux Roses (CEN-FAR) is the Commission's oldest center is located in the southern suburbs of Paris. It was opened on 26 March 1946 to host the first French nuclear reactor ZOE that went critical on 12 December 1946. The first laboratories were installed in existing buildings on the site. (authors)

  15. Thermal hydraulic characteristics study of prototype NET and CEA cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs)

    SciTech Connect

    Maekawa, Ryuji

    1995-10-31

    The thermal hydraulic characteristics of low temperature helium in a Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) significantly affects the overall design and performance of the associated large scale superconducting magnet system. It is essential to understand the transient and steady state behavior of the helium in the conductor. Throughout the development of CICCs, the reduction of flow impedance has been one of the key factors to improving the overall pressure drop. The newly developed CICC for the ITER project has a hybrid cooling scheme: a central channel that is surrounded by bundles, for which the thermal hydraulic characteristics are not well understood. This thesis describes an experimental and analytical investigation of thermal hydraulic characteristics of low temperature helium in conventional and hybrid CICCS. Pressure drop measurements for both NET and CEA conductors have been conducted, using low temperature helium and liquid nitrogen to obtain a range of Reynolds numbers. The results are correlated with classical friction factor and Reynolds number analysis. The flow impedance reduction of the CEA conductor is described by measures of a developed flow model. Thermally induced flow in the CEA conductor has been studied with an inductive heating method. The induced velocity in the central channel is measured by a Pitot tube with steady state Reynolds number up to {approximately}7000. The transient pressure wave propagation has been recorded with pressure transducers placed equally along the conductor. The supercritical helium temperature in the central channel has been measured with the thermometer probe. However, the reduction of the central channel area significantly affects the overall thermal hydraulic characteristics of the conductor. The results suggest the importance of the central channel. A transient heat transfer experiment studied the.transverse heat transfer mechanism in the CEA conductor. The temperatures in the central channel and bundle region

  16. Aeroacoustics research in Europe: The CEAS-ASC report on 2013 highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, G. J.; Kennedy, J.; Meskell, C.; Carley, M.; Jordan, P.; Rice, H.

    2015-03-01

    The Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS) Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee (ASC) supports and promotes the interests of the scientific and industrial aeroacoustics community on an European scale and European aeronautics activities internationally. In this context, "aeroacoustics" encompasses all aerospace acoustics and related areas. Each year the committee highlights some of the research and development projects in Europe. This paper is a report on highlights of aeroacoustics research in Europe in 2013, compiled from information provided to the ASC of the CEAS. During 2013, a number of research programmes involving aeroacoustics were funded by the European Commission. Some of the highlights from these programmes are summarised in this paper, as well as highlights from other programmes funded by national programmes or by industry. Furthermore, a concise summary of the CEAS-ASC workshop "Atmospheric and Ground Effects on Aircraft Noise" held in Seville, Spain in September 2013 is included in this report. Enquiries concerning all contributions should be addressed to the authors who are given at the end of each subsection. This issue of the "highlights" paper is dedicated to the memory of Prof. John A. Fitzpatrick, Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, and a valued member of the Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee. John passed away in September 2012 and is fondly missed across the globe by the friends he made in the Aeroacoustics Community. This paper is edited by PhD graduates and colleagues of John's who conduct research in aeroacoustics, inspired by his thirst for knowledge.

  17. Colorectal tumors: scintigraphy with In-111 anti-CEA monoclonal antibody and correlation with surgical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Nabi, H.H.; Schwartz, A.N.; Goldfogel, G.; Ortman-Nabi, J.A.; Matsuoka, D.M.; Unger, M.W.; Wechter, D.G.

    1988-03-01

    A prospective clinical study of 17 patients with a histologic diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma proved at colonoscopy and surgery was performed with indium-111 anticarcinoembryonic-antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody (MoAb), ZCE-025. MoAb scanning depicted nine of 16 primary colorectal carcinomas on planar scintigrams (true-positive findings = 56%) and ten of 16 lesions on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans (true-positive findings = 62%). Liver metastases were detected in three of three patients, and lymph node metastases were detected in one of four patients. Immunohistochemical examination for CEA in resected colorectal cancer tissues demonstrated a positive correlation between MoAb imaging of primary lesions and cytoplasmic-stromal intracellular CEA distribution. There was no correlation between CEA serum levels and lesion detectability with MoAb scanning.

  18. Synthesis and biological investigations of a ZnPc-antiCEA bioconjugate for imaging of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Inder; Li, Hairong; Ongarora, Benson; Devillier, Daniel; Vicente, M. Graça H.

    2014-01-01

    Two zinc(II) phthalocyanines (ZnPcs) were conjugated with a monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), using an in situ activated carboxylic acid on the ZnPcs. The bioconjugate with the highest ZnPc/MAb ratio of 3 was investigated in vitro for its ability to target and fluorescently label human colorectal HT-29 cells. The ZnPc-CEA MAb 2 was observed to efficiently target HT-29 cells, about 37 times more than unconjugated ZnPc. Furthermore, in the presence of a 4-fold excess of unlabelled anti-CEA antibody, the fluorescence signal of 2 was reduced by ~90% showing that the targeting is CEA-mediated. These studies further confirm the high specificity of Pc-antibody conjugates for antigens over-expressed on tumor cells and warrant further investigations of these immunoconjugates and their derivatives for imaging of colorectal cancer. PMID:25328375

  19. Covalent disulfide-linked anti-CEA diabody allows site-specific conjugation and radiolabeling for tumor targeting applications

    PubMed Central

    Olafsen, Tove; Cheung, Chia-wei; Yazaki, Paul J.; Li, Lin; Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Sherman, Mark A.; Williams, Lawrence E.; Shively, John E.; Raubitschek, Andrew A.; Wu, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    An engineered anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) diabody (scFv dimer, 55 kDa) was previously constructed from the murine anti-CEA T84.66 antibody. Tumor targeting, imaging and biodistribution studies in nude mice bearing LS174T xenografts with radiolabeled anti-CEA diabody demonstrated rapid tumor uptake and fast blood clearance, which are favorable properties for an imaging agent. Current radiolabeling approaches result in random modification of the protein surface, which may impair immunoreactivity especially for smaller antibody fragments. Site-specific conjugation approaches can direct modifications to reactive groups located away from the binding site. Here, cysteine residues were introduced into the anti-CEA diabody at three different locations, to provide specific thiol groups for chemical modification. One version (with a C-terminal Gly-Gly-Cys) existed exclusively as a disulfide-bonded dimer. This cysteine-modified diabody (Cys-diabody) retained high binding to CEA and demonstrated tumor targeting and biodistribution properties identical to the non-covalent diabody. Furthermore, following reduction of the disulfide bond, the Cys-diabody could be chemically modified using a thiol-specific bifunctional chelating agent, for radiometal labeling. Thus, the Cys-diabody provides a covalently linked alternative to conventional diabodies, which can be reduced and modified site-specifically. This format will provide a versatile platform for targeting a variety of agents to CEA-positive tumors. PMID:14985534

  20. Cri du Chat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cerruti Mainardi, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF) and δ-catenin (CTNND2), which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable progress has been made in

  1. L'Aventure du LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Cette présentation s?adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l?engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  2. L'Aventure du LHC

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Kosmotoga sp. Strain DU53 and Kosmotoga arenicorallina S304.

    PubMed

    Pollo, Stephen M J; Charchuk, Rhianna; Nesbø, Camilla L

    2016-01-01

    Here, we announce the draft genome sequences of two thermophilic Thermotogae bacteria: Kosmotoga sp. strain DU53, isolated from a continental oil reservoir, and Kosmotoga arenicorallina, isolated from hydrothermal sediments. The sequences will provide further insight into evolution of the Kosmotogales. PMID:27313308

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Kosmotoga sp. Strain DU53 and Kosmotoga arenicorallina S304

    PubMed Central

    Pollo, Stephen M. J.; Charchuk, Rhianna

    2016-01-01

    Here, we announce the draft genome sequences of two thermophilic Thermotogae bacteria: Kosmotoga sp. strain DU53, isolated from a continental oil reservoir, and Kosmotoga arenicorallina, isolated from hydrothermal sediments. The sequences will provide further insight into evolution of the Kosmotogales. PMID:27313308

  5. AIRIX: an induction accelerator facility developed at CEA for flash radiography in detonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavailler, Claude

    1999-06-01

    AIRIX is an induction linear accelerator which will be used for flash radiography in CEA/DAM. Designed to produce an X-ray dose of more than 500 Rads at 1 meter with an X-ray focal spot size diameter of less than 2 mm (LANL-CEA DAM definition), this facility consists in a 4 MeV/3.5 kA pulsed electron injector and 16 MeV induction accelerator powered by 32 high voltage generators. A prototype of this accelerator, called PIVAIR, has been studied and realized in CEA CESTA near Bordeaux. PIVAIR is a validation step for AIRIX at 8 MeV. It includes an injector (4 MeV, 3.5 kA, 60 ns) and 16 inductor cells supplied by 8 high voltage generators (250 kV, 70 ns). Two different technologies of induction cells have been tested (rexolite insulator or ferrite under vacuum). We have chosen ferrite under vacuum cells technology after comparison of results on beam transport and reliability tests. A focusing experiment at 7.2 MeV of the electron beam as been achieved during summer 1997. We have begun to produce X-rays in October 1997. A dose level of 50 Rad at 1 meter has been achieved with an X-ray spot size diameter of 3.5 to 4 mm (LANL-CEA DAM definition). Static flash radiography of very dense object have been achieved from November 97 until February 98. We have been able to test in situ new kinds of very high sensitive X- ray detectors and to check they had reached our very ambitious goals: (1) quantum efficiency at 5 MeV greater than 50% instead of 1% for luminous screens and film; (2) sensitivity less than 10 (mu) Rad (100 time more sensitive than radiographic luminous screens and films); (3) dynamic range greater than 100; (4) resolution less than 2 mm. We will present in this communication brand new kinds of detection systems, called high stopping power detectors, such as: (1) (gamma) camera with segmented thick crystal of BGO and MCP image intensifier; (2) multistep parallel plate avalanche chamber; (3) pixellized CdTe MeV photoconductor matrix. AIRIX accelerator is being

  6. Elecsys CEA, PSA and AFP. Clinical results of a multicentre evaluation.

    PubMed

    Uhl, W; Chan, D W; Jones, K; Kelley, C; Assmann, G; von Eckardstein, A; Sägers, A; Yvert, J P; Schneider, A M; Torralba, A; Fuentes-Arderiu, X; Gonzalez de la Presa, B; Vives, M; Greiling, H; Eberle, A; Niederau, C M; Cremer, P; Reiter, W; Vogeser, M; Neumeier, D; Luppa, P; Huber, U

    1998-01-01

    Three tumormarker assays, Elecsys CEA, PSA and AFP, have been evaluated in an international multicentre study to characterize their clinical performance and to verify the comparability with the corresponding tests of the Enzymun-Test product line and other methods. For each of the markers results were obtained from four laboratories. On the basis of 314 and 199 specimens respectively, (preliminary) reference ranges could be established for CEA and PSA. For the prostate marker, the age dependence of the antigen level could be clearly confirmed. Mean concentrations range between 0.51 ng/ml (< 40 years) and 3.57 ng/ml (> 70 years). Referring to CEA, 95th percentiles of 4.31 ng/ml and 2.69 ng/ml were elaborated for smokers and nonsmokers. In general, good to excellent correlations (r > 0.98) were found between the Elecsys and Enzymun-Tests. Regarding the systematic comparability of both systems, most of the slopes derived from the individual method comparison studies are within the +/- 10% range of the respective standardization results. The specific distribution pattern of the individual tumormarker values elaborated with sample material of known clinical background, reflects the well established categorization of different benign and malignant diseases according to their characteristic marker levels. Of utmost importance, however, is the excellent comparability of the Elecsys assays with the corresponding Enzymun-Tests and the FDA approved AIA 1200 tests from TOSOH in follow-up studies. Almost superimposable concentration curves guarantee that identical diagnostic information is derived from all three methods. Especially for PSA, a series of measurements on sera of prostatectomized patients proved the usability and clinical value of the test also for this particular indication. For either one of the Elecsys tests, the feasibility of using plasma as sample material was verified. PMID:9677672

  7. Development of recycled plastic composites for structural applications from CEA plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Agrim

    Plastic waste from consumer electronic appliances (CEAs) such as computer and printer parts including Polystyrene (PS), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), Polystyrene (PS) and PC/ABS were collected using handheld FTIR Spectrophotometer. The blends of these plastics with High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) are manufactured under special processing conditions in a single screw compounding injection molding machine. The blends are thermoplastics have high stiffness and strength, which may enhance the mechanical properties of HDPE like tensile modulus, ultimate tensile strength, tensile break and tensile yield. These composites have a potential to be used for the future application of recycled plastic lumber, thus replacing the traditional wood lumber.

  8. R and D Programs and Policy within the CEA-AREVA Joint Vitrification Lab (LCV) - 13592

    SciTech Connect

    Piroux, Jean Christophe; Paradis, Luc; Ladirat, Christian; Brueziere, Jerome; Chauvin, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Waste management is a key issue for the reprocessing industry; furthermore, vitrification is considered as the reference for nuclear waste management. In order to further improve and strengthen their historical cooperation in high temperature waste management, the CEA, R and D organization, and AREVA, Industrial Operator, decided, in September 2010, to create a Joint Vitrification Laboratory within the framework of a strategic partnership. The main objectives of the CEA-AREVA Joint Vitrification Laboratory (LCV) are (i) support AREVA's activities, notably in its La Hague plants and for new projects, (ii) strengthen the CEA's lead as a reference laboratory in the field of waste conditioning. The LCV is mandated to provide strong, innovative solutions through the performance of R and D on processes and materials for vitrification, fusion and incineration, for high, intermediate and low level waste. The activities carried out in the LCV include academic research on containment matrices (formulation, long-term behaviour), and the improvement of current technologies/development of new ones in lab-scale to full-scale pilot facilities, in non-radioactive and radioactive conditions, including modelling and experimental tools. This paper focuses on the programs and policy managed within the LCV, as well as the means employed by the CEA and AREVA to meet common short-,mid- and long-term challenges, from a scientific and industrial point of view. Among other things, we discuss the technical support provided for the La Hague vitrification facilities on hot melter and CCIM technologies, the start-up of new processes (decommissioning effluents, UMo FP) with CCIM, the preparation of future processes by means of an assessment of new technologies and containment matrices (improved glasses, ceramics, etc.), as well as incineration/vitrification for organic and metallic mixed waste or metallic fusion. The close relationship between the R and D teams and industrial operators enables

  9. Charting a course through the CEAs: diagnosis and management of medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher W; Bendinelli, Cino; McGrath, Shaun

    2016-09-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is an uncommon thyroid cancer that requires a high index of suspicion to facilitate diagnosis of early-stage disease amenable to surgical cure. The challenges of diagnosis, as well as management in the setting of persistent disease, are explored in the context of a case presenting with the incidental finding of elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and an (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18) F-FDG-PET)-positive thyroid incidentaloma detected following treatment of colorectal cancer. Strategies to individualize prognosis, and emerging PET-based imaging modalities, particularly the potential role of (18) F-DOPA-PET in staging, are reviewed. PMID:27230389

  10. Aeroacoustics research in Europe: The CEAS-ASC report on 2014 highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detandt, Yves

    2015-11-01

    The Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS) Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee (ASC) supports and promotes the interests of the scientific and industrial aeroacoustics community on an European scale and European aeronautics activities internationally. Each year the committee highlights some of the research and development projects in Europe. This paper is the 2014 issue of this collection of Aeroacoustic Highlights, compiled from informations submitted to the CEAS-ASC. The contributions are classified in different topics; the first categories being related to specific aeroacoustic challenges (airframe noise, fan and jet noise, helicopter noise, aircraft interior noise) and two last sections are respectively devoted to recent improvements and emerging techniques and to general advances in aeroacoustics. For each section, the present paper focus on accomplished projects, providing the state of the art in each research category in 2014. A number of research programmes involving aeroacoustics were funded by the European Commission. Some of the highlights from these programmes are summarised in this paper, as well as highlights funded by national programmes or by industry.

  11. Treatment of actinide exposures: a review of Ca-DTPA injections inside CEA-COGEMA plants.

    PubMed

    Grappin, Louise; Berard, Philippe; Menetrier, Florence; Carbone, Lise; Courtay, Catherine; Castagnet, Xavier; Le Goff, Jean-Pierre; Neron, Marie-Odile; Piechowski, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Calcium diethylenetriamine pentacetate (Ca-DTPA) has been used for medical treatment of plutonium and americium contaminations in the CEA and COGEMA plants from 1970 to 2003. This paper is a survey of the injections Ca-DTPA administered as a chelating molecule and it will be a part of the authorisation process for Ca-DTPA by intravenous administration. Out of 1158 injections administered to 469 persons, 548 events of possible or confirmed contamination were reported. These employees were followed by occupational physicians according to the current French regulations. These incidents took place at work, were most often minor, not requiring follow-up treatment. The authors present (1) a synthesis of the most recent findings. Due to its short biological half-time and its limited action in the blood, Ca-DTPA does not chelate with plutonium and americium as soon as these elements are deposited in the target organs. It justifies an early treatment, even in cases of suspected contamination followed by additional injections if necessary (2) data concerning these 1158 injections (route of contamination, dosage, adverse effects, etc.) The authors also investigated a study on the efficacy of the product on a group of persons having received five or more injections. These results were compared with the efficacy estimated theoretically. Dosages and therapeutic schemes were proposed based on these observations. This synthesis is the result of a collective work having mobilised the occupational medicine departments, the medical laboratories inside a working group CEA-COGEMA-SPRA. PMID:17940101

  12. High intensity ECR ion source (H+, D+, H-) developments at CEA/Saclay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, R.; Beauvais, P.-Y.; Bogard, D.; Charruau, G.; Delferrière, O.; Menezes, D. De; France, A.; Ferdinand, R.; Gauthier, Y.; Harrault, F.; Jannin, J.-L.; Lagniel, J.-M.; Leroy, P.-A.; Mattéi, P.; Sherman, J.; Sinanna, A.; Ausset, P.; Bousson, S.; Pottin, B.

    2002-02-01

    Source of light ions with high intensities The (SILHI) source has been producing proton beams since 1996. The first aim is to produce up to 100 mA cw beams at 95 keV for the injector of protons for high intensity demonstrator. This prototype is developed by a CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3 collaboration for applications such as accelerator driven systems for nuclear waste transmutation, production of radioactive ion beams, or secondary particles. To measure installation reliability, continuous 5 day long runs have been performed. In October 1999, a 99.96% availability was achieved with a single short beam off and a 103 H uninterrupted beam. A new extraction system leads to lower beam losses and higher LEBT transparency. SILHI now produces a 95 keV-130 mA total beam with a proton fraction higher than 80%. Up to a 157 mA (247 mA/cm2) total cw beam has been extracted. The new EPICS control system, electromagnetic interference hardened devices and automatic control procedures now allow us to do longer runs. To analyze the reliability of these upgrades, a 4 week test was planned. In the framework of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility project CEA participation, 135 mA-95 kV deuteron pulsed beams were produced. Extraction simulations and recent SILHI results are also presented. In addition, a new test bench has been recently developed to analyze H- beam production.

  13. Aeroacoustics research in Europe: The CEAS-ASC report on 2010 highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs Nagy, Attila

    2011-10-01

    The Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS) Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee (ASC) supports and promotes the interests of the scientific and industrial aeroacoustics community on an European scale and European aeronautics activities internationally. In this context, "aeroacoustics" encompasses all aerospace acoustics and related areas. Each year the committee highlights some of the research and development projects in Europe. This paper is a report on highlights of aeroacoustics research in Europe in 2010, compiled from information provided to the ASC of the CEAS. At the end of 2010, project X-NOISE EV of the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission has been launched as a continuation of the X-Noise series, with objectives of reducing aircraft noise and reaching the goal set by the ACARE 2020 Vision. Some contributions submitted to the editor summarizes selected findings from European projects launched before or concluded in 2010, while other articles cover issues supported by national associations or by industries. Furthermore, a concise summary of the workshop on "Aeroacoustics of High-Speed Aircraft Propellers and Open Rotors" held in Warsaw in October is included in this report. Enquiries concerning all contributions should be addressed to the authors who are given at the end of each subsection.

  14. Automation of Pic du Midi 2-m Telescope Bernard Lyot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie-Cambot, Jean-Marie; Lacassagne, F.; Ambert, P.; Arrotis, J.-M.; Argentin, Y.; Arberet, M.-P.; Chereau, E.; Decha, C.; Delaigue, C.; Guesdon, L.; Laurent-Burguiere, D.; Malbreil, G.

    2011-03-01

    Since 2007, Pic du Midi 2-m Telescope Bernard Lyot is dedicated to spectropolarimetry with a scientific niche in stella magnetism. In parallel, TBL is progressively evolving from an analogic human-controlled telescope, to a fully automated computer controlled digital telescope. This evolution required TBL team to replace all electronics and motors with digital system (parvex, brushless motors, buscan) components, and to integrate the dataflow system from proposal to archiving into a fully coordinates, remote-access software suite. A trained technician can already control remotely the telescope, instrument and science programs from anywhere. Further robotisation will require a high-level expert system to be defined.

  15. Radioimmunoimaging of metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland using an indium-111-labeled monoclonal antibody to CEA

    SciTech Connect

    Edington, H.D.; Watson, C.G.; Levine, G.; Tauxe, W.N.; Yousem, S.A.; Unger, M.; Kowal, C.D.

    1988-12-01

    Elevated levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or calcitonin after surgical therapy for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT) indicate the presence of residual or metastatic disease. CEA elevations appear to be prognostically more reliable in patients with metastatic disease and suggest a more virulent tumor. Attempts to stage the disease with use of conventional imaging techniques are usually inadequate, as is the therapy for disseminated or recurrent MCT. An indium-111-labeled anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (ZCE-025) was used to image metastases in a patient with MCT. Potential applications of monoclonal antibody technology in the management of MCT would include (1) preoperative differentiation of unicentric from multicentric thyroid gland involvement, (2) detection of regional or distant metastases or both, (3) measurement of response to systemic therapy, and (4) the facilitation of radionuclide immunoconjugate therapy.

  16. HIQA's CEA of Breast Screening: Pragmatic Policy Recommendations are Welcome, but ACERs Reported as ICERs are Not.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, James F; Normand, Charles

    2015-12-01

    The Health Information and Quality Authority (HIQA) is Ireland's statutory cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) agency. It recently published a CEA of screening strategies for women at elevated risk of breast cancer. Although the strategies recommended by HIQA exceed Ireland's cost-effectiveness threshold, they can reasonably be welcomed as a pragmatic response to constraints on disinvestment and are expected to improve screening cost-effectiveness. What is not welcome, however, is HIQA's reporting of average cost-effectiveness ratios (ACERs) as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). The distinction between ACERs and ICERs is well understood in CEA, as is the fact that ICERs not ACERs are the appropriate metric to determine cost-effectiveness. This article critiques HIQA's reporting, considering the implications for the particular case of breast cancer screening and the broader context of consistency of and confidence in CEA as a guide to resource allocation in Ireland. The reporting of ACERs as ICERs is unlikely to be of any great significance in the particular case of screening women at elevated risk of breast cancer, given likely constraints on disinvestment. Despite this, ICERs still need to be reported correctly. If thresholds are exceeded in certain cases, then it is important that decision makers appreciate by how much. More generally, using ACERs in some cases and ICERs in others raises concerns that methods are being applied inconsistently, which risks compromising confidence in CEA in Ireland. As Ireland's statutory CEA authority, HIQA has a special onus of responsibility to ensure established methods are applied correctly. PMID:26686777

  17. Comparison of Serum CA72-4 and CEA Levels in Patient with Endoscopically Suspected Gastric Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rehena, Z; Ghosh, C K; Afroz, F; Alam, M B; Ferdousi, S; Mahmuduzzaman, M; Sultana, T; Ahmed, A N

    2015-07-01

    Several serum tumour markers have been described for gastric cancer. Preoperative level of tumor marker helps to predict the diagnosis of gastric carcinoma. CA72-4 as a serum tumour marker for gastric cancer is evaluated, and compared its utility in this regard with that of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Analysis of gastric carcinoma by serum levels of CEA and CA72-4 and their correlation with histopathology help the clinician to develop his management strategies for gastric carcinoma. A prospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Clinical Pathology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) in collaboration with Department of Surgery BSMMU, DMCH, Delta Hospital Limited, Dhaka, during the period of October 2010 to September 2011. Serum CA72-4 and CEA were analyzed in 71 endoscopically suspected patients for gastric carcinoma. Among them 58 cases were diagnosed as malignant gastric disease and 13 cases were nonmalignant gastric disease. Sensitivity of CA 72-4 and CEA were 48.3% and 31% respectively and specificity were 92.3% and 76.9% respectively. In poorly differentiated carcinoma, positivity for CA72-4 and CEA were 55.6% and 36.1% respectively. Because of the high positivity of CA72-4 in poorly differentiated carcinoma, CA72-4 is reliable tumour marker in advanced cases. As the sensitivity of CA72-4 was more than that of CEA in diagnosis of gastric cancer, CA72-4 can be used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests like endoscopy that would be more helpful for the patients. PMID:26329953

  18. Different Levels of CEA, CA153 and CA125 in Milk and Benign and Malignant Nipple Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Song; Mei, Yu; Wang, Jianli; Zhang, Kai; Ma, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic values of three breast tumor markers (i.e., CEA, CA153 and CA125) in milk and nipple discharge in the prediction of different breast diseases diagnoses. Methods Three hundred thirty-six patients (96 breast cancer and 240 benign disease patients) with nipple discharge and a control group of 56 healthy parturient participants were enrolled in the present study. Nipple discharge samples were preoperatively collected from the patients, and milk was collected from the colostrum of the parturient participants. The samples were assayed for the CEA, CA153 and CA125 levels. Cutoff values were determined for the detection of breast diseases using ROC curves. Results The levels of CEA, CA153 and CA125 were significantly different between the nipple discharge and the milk (all ps < 0.001). In the nipple discharge, the CEA and CA153 levels in the breast cancer group were significantly greater than those in the benign group (all ps < 0.001), and cutoff values of 263.3 ng/mL and 1235.3 U/mL, respectively, were established. However, the expression of CA125 did not differ significantly between the breast cancer and benign groups. Conclusion Differences in the apparent expression levels of CEA, CA153 and CA125 in patients with nipple discharge and healthy persons were validated. The present data suggest that CEA and CA153 might potentially be useful in the differential diagnoses of benign tumors and breast cancer. CA125 did not seem to be useful for breast cancer detection. PMID:27327081

  19. Clinical significance of joint detection of serum CEA, SCCA, and bFGF in the diagnosis of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Yu, Haixiang; Han, Zhifeng; Gao, Nan; Xue, Jinru; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a type of malignant tumor with highest morbidity and mortality. This study tested three tumor marker levels including CEA, SCCA, and bFGF to explore their value in lung cancer diagnosis and pathological type judgment. Venous blood was extracted from lung cancer patients, lung benign lesion patients and healthy control. Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay was applied to detect serum CEA and SCCA content. ELISA was used to test serum bFGF level. Serum CEA, SCCA, and bFGF levels and positive rates were significantly higher in lung cancer group than that of lung benign disease group and health control (P < 0.05). bFGF showed higher detection sensitivity than CEA in lung cancer (P < 0.05). Three joint detection sensitivity was higher than single test (P < 0.05), while its specificity was lower (P < 0.05), and the accuracy presented no significant difference. Serum CEA and SCCA levels and positive rates were obviously higher in non-small cell lung cancer patients when compared with small cell lung cancer patients (P < 0.05), while bFGF level was similar between small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. bFGF showed higher detection rate than SCCA in small cell lung cancer (P < 0.05). Three joint detection exhibited higher positive rate in small cell lung cancer and non-small lung cancer than single test. Serum CEA, SCCA and bFGF joint detection improved detection sensitivity in lung cancer and had important reference value for pathological type deduction. PMID:26464712

  20. CEAS/AIAA/ICASE/NASA Langley International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics 1999. Pt. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Jr., Woodrow (Editor); Todd, Emily N. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings of a workshop sponsored by the Confederation of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Washington, D.C., and the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE), Hampton, Virginia, and held in Williamsburg, Virginia June 22-25, 1999 represent a collection of the latest advances in aeroelasticity and structural dynamics from the world community. Research in the areas of unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity, structural modeling and optimization, active control and adaptive structures, landing dynamics, certification and qualification, and validation testing are highlighted in the collection of papers. The wide range of results will lead to advances in the prediction and control of the structural response of aircraft and spacecraft.

  1. Science and Technology Research and Development in Support to ITER and the Broader Approach at CEA

    SciTech Connect

    Becoulet, A.; Hoang, G T; Abiteboul, J.; Achard, J.; Alarcon, T.; Klepper, C Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In parallel to the direct contribution to the procurement phase of ITER and Broader Approach, CEA has initiated research & development programmes, accompanied by experiments together with a significant modelling effort, aimed at ensuring robust operation, plasma performance, as well as mitigating the risks of the procurement phase. This overview reports the latest progress in both fusion science and technology including many areas, namely the mitigation of superconducting magnet quenches, disruption-generated runaway electrons, edge-localized modes (ELMs), the development of imaging surveillance, and heating and current drive systems for steady-state operation. The WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamaks) project, turning Tore Supra into an actively cooled W-divertor platform open to the ITER partners and industries, is presented.

  2. Recent progress on minor-actinide-bearing oxide fuel fabrication at CEA Marcoule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, Florent; Prieur, Damien; Horlait, Denis; Delahaye, Thibaud; Jankowiak, Aurélien; Léorier, Caroline; Jorion, Frédéric; Gavilan, Elisabeth; Desmoulière, François

    2013-07-01

    Partitioning and transmutation (P&T) of minor actinides (MA: americium, neptunium and curium) in fast neutron reactors or accelerator-driven systems is a route envisaged to reduce nuclear waste inventory. Over the years, several modes of P&T were proposed, each being based on the use of dedicated fuels such as inert-matrix fuels, MA-bearing MOX or MA-bearing blankets. In this context, progress on the manufacturing of such fuels is a key-challenge in order to render P&T viable at the industrial scale. Here, MA-bearing oxide fuel fabrication and characterization conducted in the CEA Marcoule Atalante facility is reviewed. A particular attention is also given to the research conducted on uranium-americium mixed-oxides fuels, which are now considered the reference fuels for MA transmutation in France.

  3. GEDEON: A joint venture between research (CEA and CNRS) and industry (EDF and FRAMATOME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schapira, J. P.

    1999-07-01

    Nuclear waste partitionning and transmutation (P & T) are considered in France as an official line of research, in accordance with the Law of December 30, 1991 concerning research in the field of long lived and highly active nuclear waste. A research group called GEDEON ( GEstion des DEchets par des Options Nouvelles) has been set up between CEA, CNRS, EDF and FRAMATOME with the aim to carry out basic research related to the use of accelerator driven subcritical systems (ADS) and of thorium as an option to reduce the waste long term impacts. In the partners agreement of GEDEON, the following subjects have been identified: spallation physics, nuclear data, subcritical neutronic studies, materials, thorium, system and scenario studies. The organization as well as the scientific program and activities of GEDEON are presented.

  4. Evaluation of the CEAS model for barley yields in North Dakota and Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, T. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The CEAS yield model is based upon multiple regression analysis at the CRD and state levels. For the historical time series, yield is regressed on a set of variables derived from monthly mean temperature and monthly precipitation. Technological trend is represented by piecewise linear and/or quadriatic functions of year. Indicators of yield reliability obtained from a ten-year bootstrap test (1970-79) demonstrated that biases are small and performance as indicated by the root mean square errors are acceptable for intended application, however, model response for individual years particularly unusual years, is not very reliable and shows some large errors. The model is objective, adequate, timely, simple and not costly. It considers scientific knowledge on a broad scale but not in detail, and does not provide a good current measure of modeled yield reliability.

  5. TRIPOLI-4®, CEA, EDF and AREVA Reference Monte Carlo Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of TRIPOLI-4®, the fourth generation of the 3D continuous-energy Monte Carlo code developed by the Service d'Etudes des Réacteurs et de Mathématiques Appliquées (SERMA) at CEA Saclay. The paper surveys the generic features: programming language, parallel operation, tracked particles, nuclear data, geometry, simulation modes, standard variance reduction techniques, sources, tracking and collision algorithms, tallies, sensitivity studies. Moreover, specific and recent features are also detailed: Doppler broadening of the elastic scattering kernel, neutron and photon material irradiation, advanced variance reduction techniques, Green's functions, cycle correlation correction, nuclear data management and depletion capabilities. The productivity tools (T4G, SALOME TRIPOLI, T4RootTools), the Verification & Validation process and the distribution and licensing policy are finally presented.

  6. Science and technology research and development in support to ITER and the Broader Approach at CEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bécoulet, A.; Hoang, G. T.; Abiteboul, J.; Achard, J.; Alarcon, T.; Alba-Duran, J.; Allegretti, L.; Allfrey, S.; Amiel, S.; Ané, J. M.; Aniel, T.; Antar, G.; Argouarch, A.; Armitano, A.; Arnaud, J.; Arranger, D.; Artaud, J. F.; Audisio, D.; Aumeunier, M.; Autissier, E.; Azcona, L.; Back, A.; Bahat, A.; Bai, X.; Baiocchi, B.; Balaguer, D.; Balme, S.; Balorin, C.; Barana, O.; Barbier, D.; Barbuti, A.; Basiuk, V.; Baulaigue, O.; Bayetti, P.; Baylard, C.; Beaufils, S.; Beaute, A.; Bécoulet, M.; Bej, Z.; Benkadda, S.; Benoit, F.; Berger-By, G.; Bernard, J. M.; Berne, A.; Bertrand, B.; Bertrand, E.; Beyer, P.; Bigand, A.; Bonhomme, G.; Borel, G.; Boron, A.; Bottereau, C.; Bottollier-Curtet, H.; Bouchand, C.; Bouquey, F.; Bourdelle, C.; Bourg, J.; Bourmaud, S.; Brémond, S.; Bribiesca Argomedo, F.; Brieu, M.; Brun, C.; Bruno, V.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Buravand, Y.; Cai, L.; Cantone, V.; Cantone, B.; Caprin, E.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Castagliolo, A.; Belo, J.; Catherine-Dumont, V.; Caulier, G.; Chaix, J.; Chantant, M.; Chatelier, M.; Chauvin, D.; Chenevois, J.; Chouli, B.; Christin, L.; Ciazynski, D.; Ciraolo, G.; Clairet, F.; Clapier, R.; Cloez, H.; Coatanea-Gouachet, M.; Colas, L.; Colledani, G.; Commin, L.; Coquillat, P.; Corbel, E.; Corre, Y.; Cottet, J.; Cottier, P.; Courtois, X.; Crest, I.; Dachicourt, R.; Dapena Febrer, M.; Daumas, C.; de Esch, H. P. L.; De Gentile, B.; Dechelle, C.; Decker, J.; Decool, P.; Deghaye, V.; Delaplanche, J.; Delchambre-Demoncheaux, E.; Delpech, L.; Desgranges, C.; Devynck, P.; Dias Pereira Bernardo, J.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doceul, L.; Dong, Y.; Douai, D.; Dougnac, H.; Dubuit, N.; Duchateau, J.-L.; Ducobu, L.; Dugue, B.; Dumas, N.; Dumont, R.; Durocher, A.; Durocher, A.; Duthoit, F.; Ekedahl, A.; Elbeze, D.; Escarguel, A.; Escop, J.; Faïsse, F.; Falchetto, G.; Farjon, J.; Faury, M.; Fedorzack, N.; Féjoz, P.; Fenzi, C.; Ferlay, F.; Fiet, P.; Firdaouss, M.; Francisquez, M.; Franel, B.; Frauche, J.; Frauel, Y.; Futtersack, R.; Garbet, X.; Garcia, J.; Gardarein, J.; Gargiulo, L.; Garibaldi, P.; Garin, P.; Garnier, D.; Gauthier, E.; Gaye, O.; Geraud, A.; Gerome, M.; Gervaise, V.; Geynet, M.; Ghendrih, P.; Giacalone, I.; Gibert, S.; Gil, C.; Ginoux, S.; Giovannangelo, L.; Girard, S.; Giruzzi, G.; Goletto, C.; Goncalves, R.; Gonde, R.; Goniche, M.; Goswami, R.; Grand, C.; Grandgirard, V.; Gravil, B.; Grisolia, C.; Gros, G.; Grosman, A.; Guigue, J.; Guilhem, D.; Guillemaut, C.; Guillerminet, B.; Guimaraes Filho, Z.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J. P.; Gurcan, O.; Guzman, F.; Hacquin, S.; Hariri, F.; Hasenbeck, F.; Hatchressian, J. C.; Hennequin, P.; Hernandez, C.; Hertout, P.; Heuraux, S.; Hillairet, J.; Honore, C.; Hornung, G.; Houry, M.; Hunstad, I.; Hutter, T.; Huynh, P.; Icard, V.; Imbeaux, F.; Irishkin, M.; Isoardi, L.; Jacquinot, J.; Jacquot, J.; Jiolat, G.; Joanny, M.; Joffrin, E.; Johner, J.; Joubert, P.; Jourd'Heuil, L.; Jouve, M.; Junique, C.; Keller, D.; Klepper, C.; Kogut, D.; Kubič, M.; Labassé, F.; Lacroix, B.; Lallier, Y.; Lamaison, V.; Lambert, R.; Larroque, S.; Latu, G.; Lausenaz, Y.; Laviron, C.; Le, R.; Le Luyer, A.; Le Niliot, C.; Le Tonqueze, Y.; Lebourg, P.; Lefevre, T.; Leroux, F.; Letellier, L.; Li, Y.; Lipa, M.; Lister, J.; Litaudon, X.; Liu, F.; Loarer, T.; Lombard, G.; Lotte, P.; Lozano, M.; Lucas, J.; Lütjens, H.; Magaud, P.; Maget, P.; Magne, R.; Mahieu, J.-F.; Maini, P.; Malard, P.; Manenc, L.; Marandet, Y.; Marbach, G.; Marechal, J.-L.; Marfisi, L.; Marle, M.; Martin, C.; Martin, V.; Martin, G.; Martinez, A.; Martino, P.; Masset, R.; Mazon, D.; Mellet, N.; Mercadier, L.; Merle, A.; Meshcheriakov, D.; Messina, P.; Meyer, O.; Millon, L.; Missirlian, M.; Moerel, J.; Molina, D.; Mollard, P.; Moncada, V.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, D.; Moreau, M.; Moreau, P.; Morel, P.; Moriyama, T.; Motassim, Y.; Mougeolle, G.; Moulton, D.; Moureau, G.; Mouyon, D.; Naim Habib, M.; Nardon, E.; Négrier, V.; Nemeth, J.; Nguyen, C.; Nguyen, M.; Nicolas, L.; Nicolas, T.; Nicollet, S.; Nilsson, E.; N'Konga, B.; Noel, F.; Nooman, A.; Norscini, C.; Nouailletas, R.; Oddon, P.; Ohsako, T.; Orain, F.; Ottaviani, M.; Pagano, M.; Palermo, F.; Panayotis, S.; Parrat, H.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Passeron, C.; Pastor, P.; Patterlini, J.; Pavy, K.; Pecquet, A.-L.; Pégourié, B.; Peinturier, C.; Pelletier, T.; Peluso, B.; Petrzilka, V.; Peysson, Y.; Pignoly, E.; Pirola, R.; Pocheau, C.; Poitevin, E.; Poli, V.; Poli, S.; Pompon, F.; Porchy, I.; Portafaix, C.; Preynas, M.; Prochet, P.; Prou, M.; Ratnani, A.; Raulin, D.; Ravenel, N.; Renard, S.; Ricaud, B.; Richou, M.; Ritz, G.; Roche, H.; Roubin, P.; Roux, C.; Ruiz, K.; Sabathier, F.; Sabot, R.; Saille, A.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Sakamoto, R.; Salasca, S.; Salmon, T.; Salmon, T.; Samaille, F.; Sanchez, S.; Santagiustina, A.; Saoutic, B.; Sarazin, Y.; Sardain, P.; Schlosser, J.; Schneider, M.; Schwob, J.; Segui, J.; Seguin, N.; Selig, G.; Serret, D.; Signoret, J.; Signoret, J.; Simonin, A.; Soldaini, M.; Soler, B.; Soltane, C.; Song, S.; Sourbier, F.; Sparagna, J.; Spitz, P.; Spuig, P.; Storelli, A.; Strugarek, A.; Tamain, P.; Tena, M.; Theis, J.; Thomine, O.; Thouvenin, D.; Torre, A.; Toulouse, L.; Travère, J.; Tsitrone, E.; Turck, B.; Urban, J.; Vallet, J.-C.; Vallory, J.; Valognes, A.; Van Helvoirt, J.; Vartanian, S.; Verger, J.-M.; Vermare, L.; Vermare, C.; Vezinet, D.; Vicente, K.; Vidal, J.; Vignal, N.; Vigne, T.; Villecroze, F.; Villedieu, E.; Vincent, B.; Volpe, B.; Volpe, D.; Volpe, R.; Wagrez, J.; Wang, H.; Wauters, T.; Wintersdorff, O.; Wittebol, E.; Zago, B.; Zani, L.; Zarzoso, D.; Zhang, Y.; Zhong, W.; Zou, X. L.

    2013-10-01

    In parallel to the direct contribution to the procurement phase of ITER and Broader Approach, CEA has initiated research & development programmes, accompanied by experiments together with a significant modelling effort, aimed at ensuring robust operation, plasma performance, as well as mitigating the risks of the procurement phase. This overview reports the latest progress in both fusion science and technology including many areas, namely the mitigation of superconducting magnet quenches, disruption-generated runaway electrons, edge-localized modes (ELMs), the development of imaging surveillance, and heating and current drive systems for steady-state operation. The WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamaks) project, turning Tore Supra into an actively cooled W-divertor platform open to the ITER partners and industries, is presented. Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives.

  7. Levels of CEA, CA153, CA199, CA724 and AFP in nipple discharge of breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Song; Mei, Yu; Wang, Yongmei; Zhu, Jiang; Zheng, Guixi; Ma, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between breast cancer and benign breast diseases with nipple discharge remains an important diagnostic challenge. The purpose of this study was to predict the potential usefulness of tumor markers in nipple discharge and to investigate the relationship of tumor markers and clinical characteristics with breast cancer.One hundred and eleven patients with nipple discharge received breast surgery from November 2013 to December 2014 were included in the study. We evaluated levels of five tumor markers (CEA, CA153, CA199, CA724 and AFP) prior to treatment. Patients were divided into two groups according to postoperative pathological results: 30 cases in breast cancer group and 81 cases in benign group. The relationships of clinical characteristics with breast cancer were investigated by multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model.It showed significant differences in levels of nipple discharge CEA (P < 0.001) and CA153 (P = 0.014), but not CA199 (P = 0.856), CA724 (P = 0.171), AFP (P = 0.834) among two groups. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated complaint, age, menopause, abnormal palpable mass, CEA and CA153 were associated with breast cancer. In summary, measurements of CA199, CA724 and AFP in nipple discharge are not of great clinical value. Detecting CEA and CA153 in nipple dischargecould potentially be used for the early detection of breast cancer with in high-risk populations. PMID:26885008

  8. "C.-E.A. Winslow and the early years of public health at Yale, 1915-1925".

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    C.-E.A. Winslow was the first chairman of the Department of Public Health at the Yale University School of Medicine. This paper considers the development and changing agenda of his department, the structure of Yale University, and the maturation of public health as a discipline. Winslow's successes and failures are discussed as they relate to Yale and external societal influences. PMID:6753362

  9. P21 and CEA expression and AgNOR counts in dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinoma in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Jing-Ying; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Gu, Da-Kun; Fang, Fang

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To study P21 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) expression and to measure argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) counts in various lesions of colonic mucosa and the mechanism of carcinogenesis. METHODS: Thirty-eight male Wistar rats were injected with dimethylhydrazine (DMH) once a week for 25 wk. P21 and CEA expression was detected by immunohistochemical methods, and AgNOR was counted by silver staining paraffin sections from various colonic lesions. RESULTS: The incidence of colonic carcinoma in DMH-treated rats was 71.05% (27/38), and lymph node metastasis occurred in six rats. Immunohistochemical studies showed that P21 was primarily expressed in dysplasia and carcinomas, while CEA was expressed in carcinomas and metastatic tumors. AgNOR counts were higher in dysplasia and carcinomas. There were significant differences in P21 and CEA expression between benign and malignant lesions (P < 0.05). The difference in AgNOR counts was also significant between normal and dysplastic tissues, and between dysplasia and malignant lesions (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Dysplasia is a premalignant change of colonic carcinoma. The detection of P21 via immunohistochemistry and AgNOR counting may be an important clinical screening technique for colon carcinoma and premalignant lesions.

  10. Prognostic value of serum CYFRA21-1 and CEA for non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Han, Yun-Wei; Liang, Hui; Wang, Le-Min

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the clinical prognostic value of serum cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Literatures related to effects of serum CYFRA21-1 and CEA on the prognosis of lung cancer patients were retrieved from databases such as PubMed, Springer Link, Embase, Wanfang, and CNKI. Meta-analysis was carried out using RevMan 5.1 software. Ten literatures involving 1990 NSCLC patients were selected in this study. Total survive estimation merging hazard ratio (HR) in all NSCLC patients with high-level serum CYFRA21-1 was 1.64 (95% CI 1.46-1.84, P < 0.001) and that in all NSCLC patients with high level serum CEA was 1.46 (95% CI 1.28-1.65, P < 0.001). Serum CYFRA21-1 and CEA can be used as prognostic factors of NSCLC patients. Combinative detection of the two indices will be more reliable. PMID:26333429

  11. Prognostic value of serum CYFRA21-1 and CEA for non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Han, Yun-Wei; Liang, Hui; Wang, Le-Min

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the clinical prognostic value of serum cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Literatures related to effects of serum CYFRA21-1 and CEA on the prognosis of lung cancer patients were retrieved from databases such as PubMed, Springer Link, Embase, Wanfang, and CNKI. Meta-analysis was carried out using RevMan 5.1 software. Ten literatures involving 1990 NSCLC patients were selected in this study. Total survive estimation merging hazard ratio (HR) in all NSCLC patients with high-level serum CYFRA21-1 was 1.64 (95% CI 1.46–1.84, P < 0.001) and that in all NSCLC patients with high level serum CEA was 1.46 (95% CI 1.28–1.65, P < 0.001). Serum CYFRA21-1 and CEA can be used as prognostic factors of NSCLC patients. Combinative detection of the two indices will be more reliable. PMID:26333429

  12. [Clinical evaluation of the tumor marker CA 19-9 in comparison with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in surgical pre- and postoperative diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Lorenz, M; Happ, J; Hottenrott, C; Maul, F D; Baum, R P; Hör, G; Encke, A

    1986-02-01

    A new tumor marker (CA 19-9) was investigated. CA 19-9 is a tumor-associated antigen which is detected by a monoclonal antibody. CA 19-9 (CIS-Centocor) was compared simultaneously with CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) in 347 patients. 123 patients with gastrointestinal tumors showed a sensitivity of 31% for CA 19-9 (CEA 49%), combination increased sensitivity to 58%. The highest sensitivity was found in pancreas carcinoma (CA 19-9 75%, CEA 66%, combination 92%); it was lower in gastric, colon, and oesophagus carcinomas. In relapsed colorectal carcinomas sensitivity was 53% (CEA 78%, combination 85%). In cases of relapse, tumor markers may become positive even if they were not detectable before resection of the primary tumor. Specificity for CA 19-9 was 100% (CEA 84%) compared to a group of non-malignant diseases including patients with inflammations and patients with nicotin abuse (n = 102). Because of its high specificity and superior sensitivity to CEA in pancreas carcinomas CA 19-9 should be determined in primary and relapse diagnosis in combination with CEA. PMID:3459133

  13. Binding of insecticidal lectin Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) to midgut receptors of Bemisia tabaci and Lipaphis erysimi provides clues to its insecticidal potential.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amit; Gupta, Sumanti; Hess, Daniel; Das, Kali Pada; Das, Sampa

    2014-07-01

    The insecticidal potential of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin-related lectins against hemipterans has been experimentally proven. However, the basis behind the toxicity of these lectins against hemipterans remains elusive. The present study elucidates the molecular basis behind insecticidal efficacy of Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) against Bemisia tabaci and Lipaphis erysimi. Confocal microscopic analyses highlighted the binding of 25 kDa stable homodimeric lectin to insect midgut. Ligand blots followed by LC MS/MS analyses identified binding partners of CEA as vacuolar ATP synthase and sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum type Ca(2+) ATPase from B. tabaci, and ATP synthase, heat shock protein 70 and clathrin heavy chain assembly protein from L. erysimi. Internalization of CEA into hemolymph was confirmed by Western blotting. Glycoprotein nature of the receptors was identified through glycospecific staining. Deglycosylation assay indicated the interaction of CEA with its receptors to be probably glycan mediated. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed the interaction kinetics between ATP synthase of B. tabaci with CEA. Pathway prediction study based on Drosophila homologs suggested the interaction of CEA with insect receptors that probably led to disruption of cellular processes causing growth retardation and loss of fecundity of target insects. Thus, the present findings strengthen our current understanding of the entomotoxic potentiality of CEA, which will facilitate its future biotechnological applications. PMID:24753494

  14. Approche de prise en charge du trouble du spectre de l’autisme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick F.; Thomas, Roger E.; Lee, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Se pencher sur les critères diagnostiques du trouble du spectre de l’autisme (TSA) comme les définit le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, cinquième édition (DSM-V), et concevoir une approche de prise en charge du TSA à l’aide du cadre CanMEDS–Médecine familiale (CanMEDS-MF). Sources d’information Le DSM-V, publié par l’American Psychiatric Association en mai 2013, énonce de nouveaux critères diagnostiques du TSA. Le cadre CanMEDS-MF du Collège des médecins de famille du Canada fournit un plan d’orientation pour la prise en charge complexe du TSA. Nous avons utilisé des données recueillies par le Centers for Disease Control and Prevention afin de déterminer la prévalence du TSA, ainsi que la revue systématique et méta-analyse détaillée effectuée par le National Institute for Health and Care Excellence du R.-U. pour ses lignes directrices sur le TSA dans le but d’évaluer les données probantes issues de plus de 100 interventions. Message principal Selon les données du Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, la prévalence du TSA se chiffrait à 1 sur 88 en 2008 aux États-Unis. La classification du TSA dans la quatrième édition du DSM incluait l’autisme, le syndrome d’Asperger, le trouble envahissant du développement et le trouble désintégratif de l’enfance. La dernière révision du DSM-V réunit tous ces troubles sous la mention TSA, avec différents niveaux de sévérité. La prise en charge du TSA est complexe; elle exige les efforts d’une équipe multidisciplinaire ainsi que des soins continus. Les rôles CanMEDS-MF fournissent un cadre de prise en charge. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont au cœur de l’équipe de soins multidisciplinaire pour le TSA, et le cadre CanMEDS-MF tient lieu de plan détaillé pour guider la prise en charge d’un enfant atteint de TSA et aider la famille de cet enfant.

  15. Training and Certification Program for Certified Energy Auditors (CEA) and Certified Building Commissioning Professionals (CBCP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Bill

    2012-08-24

    The Association of Energy Engineers (AEE) has offered energy efficiency training and certification programs for over 30 years. During that time AEE has certified more than 22,000 professionals. All of our certification programs are the result of extensive industry research and program development and oversight by certification boards. For this project award, AEE proposed to work with the Department of Energy to utilize and extend existing industry recognized Certified Energy Auditor (CEA) and Certified Building Commissioning Professional (CBCP) programs under this Training Program Development Announcement. These expanded training programs will have significant impact in training professionals for building commissioning and energy auditing to achieve the goal of bringing existing buildings up to their optimal energy performance potential and ensuring that new buildings maintain their expected optimal level of performance. The goals and objectives of the training development project were achieved with the development of new training programs that are now being offered as self-sustaining commercial training and certification programs. These new programs are training and certifying professionals who are accomplishing the goal of increasing building energy performance in both existing and new buildings.

  16. Treatment of G1 Baskets at the CEA Marcoule Site - 12027

    SciTech Connect

    Fourquet, Line; Boya, Didier

    2012-07-01

    In the dismantling program for the first-generation French reactors in accordance with the nonproliferation treaty, the CEA is in charge of cleanup and dismantling operations for the facilities at Marcoule, including the decladding units. The G1 decladding was built between 1955 and 1957 in order to de-clad spent fuel elements from the G1 plutonium-producing reactor and prepare them for dissolution. The facility was also used for interim storage of G1, G2 and G3 fuel dissolution baskets, which had been used during plant operation for transfer (from the decladding facility to the UP1 plant) and/or dissolution of spent fuel elements. One of the cleanup projects involves recovery of the baskets, which will be cut up, sorted, and conditioned in metal bins. The bins will be immobilized with cement grout, then transferred to the onsite solid waste conditioning facility (CDS) and to the repository operated by the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). The project is now in progress, after special safety permits were issued and measurement stations and dedicated tools were developed to handle all types of baskets (which differed according to their origin and use). The disposal of all the baskets is scheduled to last 2 years and will produce 55 metal waste bins. (authors)

  17. The 400W at 1.8K Test Facility at CEA-Grenoble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, P.; Girard, A.; Jager, B.; Rousset, B.; Bonnay, P.; Millet, F.; Gully, P.

    2006-04-01

    A new test facility with a cooling capacity respectively of 400W at 1.8K or 800W at 4.5K, is now under nominal operation in SBT (Low Temperature Department) at CEA Grenoble. It has been recently used for thermohydraulic studies of two phase superfluid helium in autumn 2004. In the near future, this test bench will allow: - to test industrial components at 1.8K (magnets, cavities of accelerators) - to continue the present studies on thermohydraulics of two phase superfluid helium - to develop and simulate new cooling loops for ITER Cryogenics, and other applications such as high Reynolds number flows This new facility consists of a cold box connected to a warm compressor station (one subatmospheric oil ring pump in series with two screw compressors). The cold box, designed by AIR LIQUIDE, comprises two centrifugal cold compressors, a cold turbine, a wet piston expander, counter flow heat exchangers and two phase separators at 4.5K and 1.8K. The new facility uses a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) connected to a bus for the measurements. The design is modular and will allow the use of saturated fluid flow (two phase flow at 1.8K or 4.5K) or single phase fluid forced flow. Experimental results and cooling capacity in different operation modes are detailed.

  18. X-ray detector calibration at CEA/Bruyères-le-Châtel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L.; Stemmler, P.; Ban, G.; Villette, B.; Frotté, V.; Bizeuil, C.; Boutin, J.-Y.; Nazet, C.

    1996-02-01

    At CEA/Bruyères-le-Châtel (Service CEM), there are facilities to calibrate X-ray detectors from 200 eV to 100 keV, with an accuracy of 4% at high energies ( E > 3 keV). The source is the direct radiation from the X-ray tubes [C Kα (277 eV) to Ti KαKβ (4.51/4.93 keV)] or fluorescence emission from secondary targets [Mg Kα (1.25 keV) to U Kα (98 keV)]. In addition, calibrations are carried out with the synchrotron radiation of the Super-ACO storage ring (LURE-Orsay), by selecting the monoenergetic beams with a double crystal monochromator which is tunable between 0.8 and 8 keV. The resolution is better than 1 eV. This last tool is very useful in the study of the absorption edges of the detector compounds (for example, Si K-edge and Ar K-edge). Some examples are presented of results obtained between 1 and 50 keV, with special reference to high flux detectors such as gold photocathodes and silicon avalanche photodiodes. Thick silicon photodiodes (for the high energy range) were also calibrated.

  19. A Review of 25 Years of Corrosion Studies on HLW Container Materials at the CEA

    SciTech Connect

    Helie, Max

    2007-07-01

    The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA, French Atomic Energy Commission) has been involved in researches on nuclear waste management for more than 25 years. One of the key issues is the prediction of the long term behavior and aging of the High Level Waste (HLW) containers in order to develop concepts that will ensure the confinement of the activity over extremely long periods of time. Preliminary studies were carried out on two concepts, one of a thin 'corrosion resistant' container made of titanium or nickel base alloy, and the other on a thick 'corrosion allowance' container made or carbon steel. The results of these experiments showed that the 'corrosion resistant' concept led to a high uncertainty on the development and propagation rate of localized forms of corrosion, and the concept of geological disposal in an argillaceous host formation of thick waste containers made of carbon steel was chosen as the reference for further studies. This eventually led to the voting of a law relative to nuclear waste management on June 28 2006, which endorses the geological disposal of corrosion allowance containers as the reference solution, while stating than an effort must be kept on the research on actinides transmutation to reduce the time during which a geological disposal facility has to be proven capable to ensure the confinement of the radioactive waste. Studies are still in progress to better assess the corrosion mechanisms relevant to this situation in order to provide reliable models for the long term prediction of the containers corrosion behavior. (author)

  20. Status of the light ion source developments at CEA/Saclay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, R.; Beauvais, P.-Y.; Bogard, D.; Charruau, G.; Delferrière, O.; De Menezes, D.; France, A.; Ferdinand, R.; Gauthier, Y.; Harrault, F.; Mattéi, P.; Benmeziane, K.; Leherissier, P.; Paquet, J.-Y.; Ausset, P.; Bousson, S.; Gardes, D.; Olivier, A.; Celona, L.; Sherman, J.

    2004-05-01

    SILHI (High Intensity Light Ion Source) is an ECR ion source producing high intensity proton or deuteron beams at 95 keV. It is now installed in the IPHI site building, at the CEA/Saclay center. IPHI is a front end demonstrator of high power accelerator. The source regularly delivers more than 130 mA protons in cw mode and already produced more than 170 mA deuterons in pulsed mode at nominal energy. The last beam characterizations, including emittance measurements, space charge compensation analysis, and diagnostic improvements, will be reported. Taking into account the SILHI experience, new developments are in progress to build and test a 5 mA deuteron source working in cw mode. This new source will also operate at 2.45 GHz and permanent magnets will provide the magnetic configuration. This source, of which the design will be discussed, will have to fit in with the SPIRAL 2 accelerator developed at GANIL to produce radioactive ion beams. The H- test stand status is briefly presented here and detailed in companion papers.

  1. World heritage site - Bien du Patrimoine Mondial - Kluane/Wrangell-St. Elias/Glacier Bay/Tatshenshini-Alsek

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labay, Keith A.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2004-01-01

    The four parks depicted on this map make up a single World Heritage Site that covers 24.3 million acres. Together, they comprise the largest internationally protected land-based ecosystem on the planet. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) established the World Heritage Program in 1972 for the identification and protection of the world?s irreplaceable natural and cultural resources. World Heritage Sites are important as storehouses of memory and evolution, as anchors for sustainable tourism and community, and as laboratories for the study and understanding of the earth and culture. This World Heritage Site protects the prominent mountain ranges of Kluane, Wrangell, Saint Elias, and Chugach. It includes many of the tallest peaks on the continent, the world's largest non-polar icefield, extensive glaciers, vital watersheds, and expanses of dramatic wilderness. [Les quatre parcs figurant sur cette carte ne constituent qu?un seul site du patrimoine mondial recouvrant plus de 99 millions de km2, ce qui en fait le plus grand ecosysteme terrestre protege par loi internationale. En 1972, L?UNESCO (l?organisation des Nations Unies pour les sciences, l'education et la culture) a etabli le programme du patrimoine mondial afin d?identifier et de proteger les ressources naturelles et culturelles irremplacables de notre plan?te. Si les sites du patrimoine mondial sont si importants c'est parce qu'ils representent a la fois des livres ouverts sur l?histoire de la Terre, le point de depart du tourisme durable et du developpement des collectivites, des laboratoires pour etudier et comprendre la nature et la culture. Ce site du patrimoine mondial assure la protection des chaines de montagnes de Kluane, Wrangell, Saint Elias, et Chugach. On y trouve plusieurs des plus hauts sommets du continent, le plus grand champ de glace non-polaire du monde, d?immenses glaciers, des bassins hydrologiques essentiels, et de la nature sauvage a perte de vue.

  2. Application of boronated anti-CEA immunoliposome to tumour cell growth inhibition in in vitro boron neutron capture therapy model.

    PubMed Central

    Yanagië, H.; Tomita, T.; Kobayashi, H.; Fujii, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Hasumi, K.; Nariuchi, H.; Sekiguchi, M.

    1991-01-01

    An immunoliposome containing a 10B-compound has been examined as a selective drug delivery system in boron neutron-capture therapy. Liposomes, conjugated with monoclonal antibodies specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were shown to bind selectively to cells bearing CEA on their surface. The immunoliposomes attached to tumour cells suppressed growth in vitro upon thermal neutron irradiation and suppression was dependent upon the concentration of the 10B-compound in the liposomes and on the density of antibody conjugated to the liposomes. The results suggest that immunoliposomes containing the 10B-compound could act as a selective and efficient carrier of 10B atoms to target tumour cells in boron neutron-capture therapy. Images Figure 1 PMID:2021537

  3. Les plaies du tendon patellaire

    PubMed Central

    Mechchat, Atif; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Mardy, Abdelhak; Elayoubi, Abdelghni; Shimi, Mohammed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Les plaies du tendon patellaire sont peu fréquentes et sont peu rapportés dans la littérature, contrairement aux ruptures sous cutanées. Les sections du tendon patellaire nécessitent une réparation immédiate afin de rétablir l'appareil extenseur et de permettre une récupération fonctionnelle précoce. A travers ce travail rétrospectif sur 13 cas, nous analysons les aspects épidémiologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de ce type de pathologie en comparant différents scores. L’âge moyen est de 25 ans avec une prédominance masculine. Les étiologies sont dominées par les accidents de la voie publique (68%) et les agressions par agent tranchant (26%) et contendant (6 %). Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d'un parage chirurgical avec suture tendineuse direct protégée par un laçage au fils d'aciers en légère flexion. La rééducation est débutée après sédation des phénomènes inflammatoires. Au dernier recul les résultats sont excellents et bon à 92%. Nous n'avons pas noté de différence de force musculaire et d'amplitude articulaire entre le genou sain et le genou lésé. Les lésions ouvertes du tendon patellaire est relativement rare. La prise en charge chirurgicale rapide donne des résultats assez satisfaisants. La réparation est généralement renforcée par un semi-tendineux, synthétique ou métallique en forme de cadre de renfort pour faciliter la réadaptation et réduire le risque de récidive après la fin de l'immobilisation. PMID:25170379

  4. Enhanced antitumor effect of combining TRAIL and MnSOD mediated by CEA-controlled oncolytic adenovirus in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Ma, B; Xiao, B; Huang, F; Huang, P; Ying, C; Liu, T; Wang, Y

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a superb non-small-cell lung cancer marker candidate, showed a beneficial effect in cancer therapy with oncolytic adenovirus in recent studies. Cancer-targeting dual gene-virotherapy delivers two therapeutic genes, linked by a connexon, in the replication-deficient vector instead of one gene so that they can work in common. In this study, we constructed a tumor-specific oncolytic adenovirus, CD55-TRAIL-IETD-MnSOD. The virus has the fusion protein complementary DNAs for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and for manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) complementary DNA linked through a 4-amino acid caspase-8 cleavage site (IETD), and uses a CEA promoter to control virus E1A express. This is the first work to use a CEA promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus carrying two therapeutic genes for cancer research. Its targeting and anticancer capacity was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results indicated that CD55-TRAIL-IETD-MnSOD caused more cell apoptosis than CD55-TRAIL or CD55-MnSOD alone, or their combination in vitro, with low cytotoxicity of normal cells. In the A549 tumor xenograft model in nude mice, data showed that CD55-TRAIL-IETD-MnSOD could effectively suppress tumor growth than single gene groups, with no histological damage in liver, spleen or kidney tissues. Thus, the CEA-regulated dual-gene oncolytic virus CD55-TRAIL-IETD-MnSOD may be a novel potential therapy for lung cancer. PMID:27080225

  5. Comparison of CEAS and Williams-type models for spring wheat yields in North Dakota and Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, T. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The CEAS and Williams-type yield models are both based on multiple regression analysis of historical time series data at CRD level. The CEAS model develops a separate relation for each CRD; the Williams-type model pools CRD data to regional level (groups of similar CRDs). Basic variables considered in the analyses are USDA yield, monthly mean temperature, monthly precipitation, and variables derived from these. The Williams-type model also used soil texture and topographic information. Technological trend is represented in both by piecewise linear functions of year. Indicators of yield reliability obtained from a ten-year bootstrap test of each model (1970-1979) demonstrate that the models are very similar in performance in all respects. Both models are about equally objective, adequate, timely, simple, and inexpensive. Both consider scientific knowledge on a broad scale but not in detail. Neither provides a good current measure of modeled yield reliability. The CEAS model is considered very slightly preferable for AgRISTARS applications.

  6. Learning about Cri du Chat Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chat syndrome - also known as 5p- syndrome and cat cry syndrome - is a rare genetic condition that ... du chat syndrome usually include a high-pitched cat-like cry, mental retardation, delayed development, distinctive facial ...

  7. Diffusion des Metaux et Evolution Stellaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Sylvain

    Nous presentons dans cette these des modeles d'evolution stellaire incorporant la diffusion microscopique de maniere consistante. Pour la premiere fois, on a calcule l'evolution d'etoiles en tenant compte en detail de l'impact des variations d'abondances sur leur structure. Nous utilisons des spectres monochromatiques pour chacun des elements les plus abondants dans un melange solaire pour recalculer l'opacite pour les abondances et les conditions locales dans l'interieur d'une etoile au cours de son evolution. Nos modeles montrent que la diffusion atomique des metaux a un effet important sur les opacites dan les etoiles de plus de 1.3Msolar ou l'abondance du fer et des autres elements du pic du fer varient substantiellement. Ces etoiles, sans rotation ou champ magnetique, sont proches des etoiles de type Fm-Am dans lesquelles on observe une legere surabondance d'elements du pic du fer en plus d'une sous-abondance de calcium, sous-abondance que l'on obtient egalement. Nous obtenons cependant des surabondances depassant un facteur 10 pour les etoiles de plus de 1.4Msolar ce qui suggere qu'il existe un ou plusieurs mecanismes limitant la diffusion microscopique. La surabondance du fer en surface cause une augmentation, qui peut atteindre un facteur sept, de l'opacite a la limite de la zone convective. Ceci cause un accroissement de la temperature effective et de la masse de la zone convective comparativement aux modeles n'incluant que la diffusion de l'helium. Il s'agit la du principal effet de la diffusion sur la structure interne de ces etoiles. La diffusions n'a pas d'influence sur l'evolution de coeur stellaire dans les etoiles significativement plus massives quie le Soleil. Nous avons verife que l'utilisation de modeles consistants avec diffusion n'apporte pas d'amelioration sensible aux modeles solaires. Les forces radiatives calculees a partir des spectres d'OPAL pour les elements du pic du fer representent une fraction importante de la gravite. On obtient des

  8. Nomograms for Predicting the Prognostic Value of Pre-Therapeutic CA15-3 and CEA Serum Levels in TNBC Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Zhao, Zhiping; Xie, Xiaoming; Wei, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15–3 (CA15-3) levels are both independent prognostic factors in breast cancer. However, the utility of CEA and CA15-3 levels as conventional cancer biomarkers in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains controversial. The current study was performed to explore the predictive value of pre-therapeutic serum CEA and CA15-3 levels, and nomograms were developed including these serum cancer biomarkers to improve the prognostic evaluation of TNBC patients. Pre-therapeutic CA15-3 and CEA concentrations were measured in 247 patients with stage I–IV TNBC. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that TNBC patients with high levels of both CEA and CA15-3 had shorter overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates than those in the low-level groups (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis suggested that pre-therapeutic CA15-3 and CEA levels are independent predictive elements for OS (p = 0.022 and p = 0.040, respectively) and DFS (p = 0.023 and p = 0.028, respectively). In addition, novel nomograms were established and validated to provide personal forecasts of OS and DFS for patients with TNBC. These novel nomograms may help physicians to select the optimal treatment plans to ensure the best outcomes for TNBC patients. PMID:27561099

  9. Nomograms for Predicting the Prognostic Value of Pre-Therapeutic CA15-3 and CEA Serum Levels in TNBC Patients.

    PubMed

    Dai, Danian; Chen, Bo; Tang, Hailin; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Zhiping; Xie, Xiaoming; Wei, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels are both independent prognostic factors in breast cancer. However, the utility of CEA and CA15-3 levels as conventional cancer biomarkers in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains controversial. The current study was performed to explore the predictive value of pre-therapeutic serum CEA and CA15-3 levels, and nomograms were developed including these serum cancer biomarkers to improve the prognostic evaluation of TNBC patients. Pre-therapeutic CA15-3 and CEA concentrations were measured in 247 patients with stage I-IV TNBC. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that TNBC patients with high levels of both CEA and CA15-3 had shorter overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates than those in the low-level groups (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis suggested that pre-therapeutic CA15-3 and CEA levels are independent predictive elements for OS (p = 0.022 and p = 0.040, respectively) and DFS (p = 0.023 and p = 0.028, respectively). In addition, novel nomograms were established and validated to provide personal forecasts of OS and DFS for patients with TNBC. These novel nomograms may help physicians to select the optimal treatment plans to ensure the best outcomes for TNBC patients. PMID:27561099

  10. Pru du 2S albumin or Pru du vicilin?

    PubMed

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

    2015-06-01

    A short partial sequence of 28 amino acids is all the information we have so far about the putative allergen 2S albumin from almond. The aim of this work was to analyze this information using mainly bioinformatics tools, in order to verify its rightness. Based on the results reported in the paper describing this allergen from almond, we analyzed the original data of amino acids sequencing through available software. The degree of homology of the almond 12kDa protein with any other known 2S albumin appears to be much lower than the one reported in the paper that firstly described it. In a publicly available cDNA library we discovered an expressed sequence tag which translation generates a protein that perfectly matches both of the sequencing outputs described in the same paper. A further analysis indicated that the latter protein seems to belong to the vicilin superfamily rather than to the prolamin one. The fact that also vicilins are seed storage proteins known to be highly allergenic would explain the IgE reactivity originally observed. Based on our observations we suggest that the IgE reactive 12kDa protein from almond currently known as Pru du 2S albumin is in reality the cleaved N-terminal region of a 7S vicilin like protein. PMID:25854802

  11. Biokinetics and dosimetry of depleted uranium (DU) in rats implanted with DU fragments.

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, Ray A.; Hahn, Fletcher F.; Durbin, P. W.

    2004-01-01

    A number of U. S. veterans of the Persian Gulf War were wounded with depleted uranium (DU) metal fragments as a result of 'friendly fire' incidents, in which Abrams tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles were struck by DU anti-armor munitions. Some of the crew members who survived were left with multiple small fragments of DU in their muscles and soft tissues. The number, size and location of the fragments made them inoperable in general, and therefore subject to long-term retention. Because there was inadequate data to predict the potential carcinogenicity of DU fragments in soft tissues, Hahn et al. (2003) conducted a lifespan cancer study in rats. As part of that study, a number of rats were maintained to study the biokinetics and dosimetry of DU implanted intramuscularly in male Wistar rats. Typically, four metal fragments, either as cylindrical pellets or square wafers were implanted into the biceps femoris muscles of the rats. Urine samples were collected periodically during their lifespans, and DU was analyzed in kidneys and eviscerated carcass (minus the implant sites) at death. The daily DU urinary excretion rate increased steeply during the first 30 d after implantation peaking at about 90 d at 3-10 x 10{sup -3}%/d. During the first 150 d, the average excretion rate was 2.4 x 10{sup -3}%/d, decreasing thereafter to about 1 x 10{sup -3}%/d. Serial radiographs were made of the wound sites to monitor gross morphologic changes in the DU implant and the surrounding tissue. As early as 1 w after implantation, radiographs showed the presence of surface corrosion and small, dense bodies near the original implant, presumably DU. This corrosion from the surface of the implant continued with time, but did not result in an increasing amount of DU reaching the blood and urine after the first 3 mo. During this 3-mo period, connective tissue capsules formed around the implants, and are hypothesized to have reduced the access of DU to tissue fluids by limiting the diffusion

  12. Évolution historique du prisme littoral du lido de l'étang de Thau (Sète, Sud-Est de la France). Mise en évidence par sismique réflexion très haute résolutionHistorical evolution of the littoral prism of the Thau lagoon barrier (Sète, South-East France). Very high-resolution reflection seismic investigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessier, Bernadette; Certain, Raphaël; Barusseau, Jean-Paul; Henriet, Jean-Pierre

    2000-12-01

    Very high-resolution seismic data have been obtained recently, in the framework of the research programme PNEC (French National Programme of Coastal Environment), on the shoreline area of Sète (Mediterranean coast, South East France). These data provide an accurate picture of the internal structure of the shoreline body. Seismic results combined with data about the morphosedimentary evolution of the study area, vibrocore data and results from archaeological investigations yield clues to the historical evolution of the study area. Especially, it is pointed out that the functioning of the present-day shoreline, by comparison with the system built in classical times, is characterized by a severe reduction in sediment supply and in volumes of sand involved in the shoreline dynamics.

  13. Major Upgrade of the Reactor Dosimetry Interpretation Methodology Used at the CEA General Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destouches, C.; Gregoire, G.; Beretz, D.; Bourganel, S.; Chiron, M.

    2009-08-01

    One of the main objectives of reactor dosimetry is the determination of the physical parameters characterizing the neutron field in which test samples are irradiated. These characteristics, from neutron spectrum to reaction rates characterization are used in experimental reactors to carry out the follow-up of the irradiation and to qualify the neutron calculation used to model the experiment. In power reactors these characteristics are used for the follow-up of the predicted damages to vessel and interns. Neutron parameters are derived from the dosimeter's activities which have suitable reactions (response functions and radioactive emissions). Then, the activities are analyzed using nuclear data, neutron computation results and data characterizing the conditions of irradiation (temporal and technological data, changes of location, etc.). The current CEA interpretation process applied for industrial power reactor interpretation process presents limitations coming mainly from the calculational tools and the nuclear data knowledge available at the time this method was developed in the mid 90's. However nowadays due to, first the improvement of the neutron calculational tools, for example, a full 3D Monte Carlo reactor modeling providing reaction in a point wise format is now possible in a reasonable time, and second, recent releases of the updated international nuclear data libraries, JEFF3.1, ENDF/B-VII for transport calculation and IRDF2002 and EAF2007 for dosimetry libraries, we have been engaged in a deep renewal of the reactor dosimetry interpretation process. The mains goals of this works are to improve the modeling of the experiment and the neutron parameters calculation for each phase of interest. In addition, uncertainties associated to the derived metrics are quantified in a rigorous way using simulation methods designed to cope with the high non-linearity of the process. After a detailed presentation of the current interpretation process and its limitations

  14. Phase I Hepatic Immunotherapy for Metastases study of intra-arterial chimeric antigen receptor modified T cell therapy for CEA+ liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Steven C.; Burga, Rachel A.; McCormack, Elise; Wang, Li Juan; Mooring, Wesley; Point, Gary; Khare, Pranay D.; Thorn, Mitchell; Ma, Qiangzhong; Stainken, Brian F.; Assanah, Earle O.; Davies, Robin; Espat, N. Joseph; Junghans, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells (CAR-T) have demonstrated encouraging results in early-phase clinical trials. Successful adaptation of CAR-T technology for CEA-expressing adenocarcinoma liver metastases (LM), a major cause of death in patients with gastrointestinal cancers, has yet to be achieved. We sought to test intrahepatic delivery of anti-CEA CAR-T through percutaneous hepatic artery infusions (HAI). Experimental Design We conducted a phase I trial to test HAI of CAR-T in patients with CEA+ LM. Six patients completed the protocol, and 3 received anti-CEA CAR-T HAIs alone in dose-escalation fashion (108, 109, and 1010 cells). We treated an additional 3 patients with the maximum planned CAR-T HAI dose (1010 cells X 3) along with systemic IL2 support. Results Four patients had more than 10 LM and patients received a mean of 2.5 lines of conventional systemic therapy prior to enrollment. No patient suffered a grade 3 or 4 adverse event related to the CAR-T HAIs. One patient remains alive with stable disease at 23 months following CAR-T HAI and 5 patients died of progressive disease. Among the patients in the cohort that received systemic IL2 support, CEA levels decreased 37% (range 19–48%) from baseline. Biopsies demonstrated an increase in LM necrosis or fibrosis in 4 of 6 patients. Elevated serum IFNγ levels correlated with IL2 administration and CEA decreases. Conclusions We have demonstrated the safety of anti-CEA CAR-T HAIs with encouraging signals of clinical activity in a heavily pre-treated population with large tumor burdens. Further clinical testing of CAR-T HAIs for LM is warranted. PMID:25850950

  15. Evaluation of serum CEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA125 for the early detection of colorectal cancer using longitudinal preclinical samples

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D S; Fourkala, E-O; Apostolidou, S; Gunu, R; Ryan, A; Jacobs, I; Menon, U; Alderton, W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Timms, J F

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blood-borne biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) could markedly increase screening uptake. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CYFRA21-1 and CA125 for the early detection of CRC in an asymptomatic cohort. Methods: This nested case–control study within UKCTOCS used 381 serial serum samples from 40 women subsequently diagnosed with CRC, 20 women subsequently diagnosed with benign disease and 40 matched non-cancer controls with three to four samples per subject taken annually up to 4 years before diagnosis. CEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA125 were measured using validated assays and performance of markers evaluated for different pre-diagnosis time groups. Results: CEA levels increased towards diagnosis in a third of all cases (half of late-stage cases), whereas longitudinal profiles were static in both benign and non-cancer controls. At a threshold of >5 ng ml−1 the sensitivities for detecting CRC up to 1 and 4 years before clinical presentation were 25% and 13%, respectively, at 95% specificity. At a threshold of >2.5 ng ml−1, sensitivities were 57.5% and 38.4%, respectively, with specificities of 81% and 83.5%. CYFRA21-1 and CA125 had no utility as screening markers and did not enhance CEA performance when used in combination. CEA gave average lead times of 17–24 months for test-positive cases. Conclusions: CEA is elevated in a significant proportion of individuals with preclinical CRC, but would not be useful alone as a screening tool. This work sets a baseline from which to develop panels of biomarkers which combine CEA for improved early detection of CRC. PMID:26035703

  16. Résultats du traitement du synovialosarcome des members

    PubMed Central

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Ismail, Farid; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les synovialosarcomes, sarcomes de haut grade, sont de diagnostic tardif et le traitement est complexe et onéreux, nécessitant la mise en œuvre d'une équipe pluridisciplinaire. Le but de ce travail était d'apprécier les résultats de l'association de la chirurgie à la radio chimiothérapie des synovialosarcomes des membres. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective portant sur des patients présentant de synovialosarcomes des membres pris en charge dans le service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologique du CHU Ibn SINA de Rabat allant de Janvier 2006 à Décembre 2011 (6 ans). Nous avons inclus les malades présentant de synovialosarcomes des membres dont la clinique et l'imagerie médicale étaient en faveur, confirmés par l'examen anatomopathologique et la prise en charge effectuée dans le service. Les patients ont été revus avec un recul moyen de 3 ans. Nous n'avons pas retenu les patients dont les dossiers étaient incomplets, perdus de vue. Nous avons apprécié les résultats selon les critères carcinologiques et le score MSTS (Musculoskeletal Tumor Society). La saisie et l'analyse des données ont été faites sur le logiciel SPSS Stastic 17.0 Nous avons colligé 20 cas de synovialosarcome des membres dans le Service de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique au CHU Ibn SINA de Rabat Le sexe masculin a prédominé avec 65% (n = 13) avec un sex ratio 1,85. L’âge moyen a été de 42,6 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 20 ans et 70 ans. Notre délai moyen de consultation était de 14,42 mois. Tous les malades ont consulté pour une tuméfaction dans 100% (localisée au membre inférieur dans 65% (n = 13), membre supérieur dans 35% (n = 7). La douleur était associée à la tuméfaction dans 55% (n = 11), quant à l'altération de l’état général et l'ulcération de la masse, elles ont été notées dans 3 cas chacune. Nous avons réalisé un bilan d'imagerie médicale comprenant: radiographie standard, échographie, écho doppler

  17. Research at the CEA in the field of safety in 2nd and 3rd generation light water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billot, Philippe

    2012-05-01

    The research programs at the CEA in the field of safety in nuclear reactors are carried out in a framework of international partnerships. Their purpose is to develop studies on: The methods allowing for the determination of earthquake hazards and their consequences; The behaviour of fuel in an accident situation; The comprehension of deflagration and detonation phenomena of hydrogen and the search for effective prevention methods involving an explosion risk; The cooling of corium in order to stop its progression in and outside the vessel thereby reducing the risk of perforating the basemat; The behaviour of the different fission product families according to their volatility for the UO2 and MOX fuels.

  18. Nuclear data uncertainty propagation for neutronic key parameters of CEA's SFR V2B and CFV sodium fast reactor designs

    SciTech Connect

    Archier, P.; Buiron, L.; De Saint Jean, C.; Dos Santos, N.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a nuclear data uncertainty propagation analysis for two CEA's Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor designs: the SFR V2B and CFV cores. The nuclear data covariance matrices are provided by the DER/SPRC/LEPh's nuclear data team (see companion paper) for several major isotopes. From the current status of this analysis, improvements on certain nuclear data reactions are highlighted as well as the need for new specific integral experiments in order to meet the technological breakthroughs proposed by the CFV core. (authors)

  19. Sandia National Laboratories results for the 2010 criticality accident dosimetry exercise, at the CALIBAN reactor, CEA Valduc France.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Dann C.

    2011-09-01

    This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and presents PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study held 20-23 September, 2010, at CEA Valduc, France. SNL PNADs were exposed in two separate irradiations from the CALIBAN reactor. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -15% to +0.4% with an average bias of -7.7%. PNADs were also exposed on the back side of phantoms to assess orientation effects.

  20. Effect of eletroacupuncture on DU-14 (Dazhui), DU-2 (Yaoshu), and Liv-13 (Zhangmen) on the survival of Wistar rats' dorsal skin flaps.

    PubMed

    Uema, Deise; Orlandi, Denise; Freitas, Raphael R; Rodgério, Tatiane; Yamamura, Ysao; Tabosa, Angela F

    2008-01-01

    The survival of skin flaps has great interest in many areas of Medicine. In practice, one of the most important complications in the use of skin flaps is the tissue ischemia, which frequently results in widespread necrosis and failure of the proposed treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible benefits of eletroacupuncture stimulation of the points DU-14 (Dazhui), DU-2 (Yaoshu), and Liv-13 (Zhangmen) over the skin flap survival of Wistar rats after 8 days of treatment. Forty male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups with 10 animals each. They were submitted to a surgical procedure in which a dorsal skin flap measuring 10 x 4 cm was elevated and then sutured back with a plastic barrier between the flap and the donor site. During the following 8 days, one group received electro stimulation in two "nonaccupoints" whereas the other one had the accupoints DU-14 (Dazhui), DU-2 (Yaoshu), and Liv-13 (Zhangmen) stimulated. After this period, the rats were killed and flaps were appraised qualitative and quantitatively. Data were evaluated with analysis of variance and to establish significance Fisher's PLSD test was used when analysis of variance showed P < .05. It was observed that electroacupuncture group presented a skin flap survival index remarkably larger than the others. It has also shown a better evolution during the 8 days PO, confirmed by the lowest rate of necrosis and absent area. In this experimental model, eletroacupuncture was an efficient method to preserve vitality and decrease dorsal skin flap necrosis on Wistar rats. PMID:18354293

  1. Neutron Activation and Thermoluminescent Detector Responses to a Bare Pulse of the CEA Valduc SILENE Critical Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Celik, Cihangir; McMahan, Kimberly L.; Lee, Yi-kang; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Authier, Nicolas; Piot, Jerome; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2015-09-01

    This benchmark experiment was conducted as a joint venture between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Staff at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the US and the Centre de Valduc in France planned this experiment. The experiment was conducted on October 11, 2010 in the SILENE critical assembly facility at Valduc. Several other organizations contributed to this experiment and the subsequent evaluation, including CEA Saclay, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC), Babcock International Group in the United Kingdom, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this experiment was to measure neutron activation and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) doses from a source similar to a fissile solution critical excursion. The resulting benchmark can be used for validation of computer codes and nuclear data libraries as required when performing analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). A secondary goal of this experiment was to qualitatively test performance of two CAAS detectors similar to those currently and formerly in use in some US DOE facilities. The detectors tested were the CIDAS MkX and the Rocky Flats NCD-91. These detectors were being evaluated to determine whether they would alarm, so they were not expected to generate benchmark quality data.

  2. Diagnostic value of CYFRA 21-1 and CEA for predicting lymph node metastasis in operable lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Yan, Cui-E; Li, Jia; Han, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Hai; Qi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Tumour markers are used extensively for the management of lung cancer, including diagnosis, evaluating effectiveness of treatments, monitoring recurrence after therapy and for predicting prognosis. However, there exists a knowledge gap regarding potential quantitative correlations between tumour marker levels and the extents of lymph node involvement in primary lung cancer. The current study is comprised of 139 lung cancer patients scheduled to undergo surgical operation. Of the 139 patients, 107 were subsequently diagnosed with lung cancer without lymph node involvement and 32 were diagnosed with malignant disease with lymph node involvement by histological examination. Preoperative tumour marker levels were quantified in each patient. The median tumour marker levels were statistically higher in lung cancer patients with malignant lymph nodes than in those who suffered either benign lung disease or carcinoma in situ (Kruskal-Wallistest; P = 0.001). Tumour marker levels were significantly correlated with clinical stage (ANOVA; P = 0.009). When examined as a dichotomous variable (CYFRA 21-1 ≤ 5.0 and CEA ≤ 5.0 group and CYFRA 21-1 > 5.0 or CEA > 5.0 group), elevated tumour marker levels correlated strongly with the presence of positive lymph nodes (χ(2) test; P = 0.000). This correlation suggests that the tumour marker levels are clinical predictors for the malignant involvement of lymph nodes in operable lung cancer patients. PMID:26309663

  3. Ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on trimetallic nanocomposite signal amplification strategy for the ultrasensitive detection of CEA.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lihui; Liu, Li; Li, Yueyuan; Wei, Qin; Cao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A novel and ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor was designed for the quantitative detection of carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA). This immunosensor was developed by using the trimetallic NiAuPt nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets (NGs) nanosheets (NiAuPt-NGs) as excellent labels and β-cyclodextrin functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (CD-NGs) as the platform. The CD-NGs with high specific surface area good biocompatibility and the ideal dispersibility was used to capture the primary antibodies (Ab1) efficiently. The trimetallic NiAuPt-NGs nanocomposites were used as the labels for signal amplification, showing better electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is much better than that the monometallic Pt-NGs, bimetallic NiPt-NGs and AuPt-NGs due to the synergetic effect presented in NiAuPt-NGs. The NiAuPt-NGs nanocomposites consist of tightly coupled nanostructures of Au, Ni and Pt, which have neither an alloy nor a core-shell structure. Under the optimal conditions, a linear range from 0.001-100 ng/mL and a low detection limit of 0.27 pg/mL were obtained for CEA. The proposed electrochemical sandwich-type immunosensor may have a promising application in bioassay and it enriches the electrochemical immunoassays. PMID:27488806

  4. Ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on trimetallic nanocomposite signal amplification strategy for the ultrasensitive detection of CEA

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lihui; Liu, Li; Li, Yueyuan; Wei, Qin; Cao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A novel and ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor was designed for the quantitative detection of carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA). This immunosensor was developed by using the trimetallic NiAuPt nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets (NGs) nanosheets (NiAuPt-NGs) as excellent labels and β-cyclodextrin functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (CD-NGs) as the platform. The CD-NGs with high specific surface area good biocompatibility and the ideal dispersibility was used to capture the primary antibodies (Ab1) efficiently. The trimetallic NiAuPt-NGs nanocomposites were used as the labels for signal amplification, showing better electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is much better than that the monometallic Pt-NGs, bimetallic NiPt-NGs and AuPt-NGs due to the synergetic effect presented in NiAuPt-NGs. The NiAuPt-NGs nanocomposites consist of tightly coupled nanostructures of Au, Ni and Pt, which have neither an alloy nor a core-shell structure. Under the optimal conditions, a linear range from 0.001–100 ng/mL and a low detection limit of 0.27 pg/mL were obtained for CEA. The proposed electrochemical sandwich-type immunosensor may have a promising application in bioassay and it enriches the electrochemical immunoassays. PMID:27488806

  5. Exposure of Enchytraeus albidus to Cd and Zn - changes in cellular energy allocation (CEA) and linkage to transcriptional, enzymatic and reproductive effects.

    PubMed

    Novais, Sara C; Soares, Amadeu M V M; De Coen, Wim; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2013-01-01

    Cellular energy allocation (CEA) is a measure of the energy status of an organism. The effects of Cd and Zn (reproduction EC(50)s and EC(90)s) on the total energy budget of Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) were assessed through CEA determination, over periods of time from 0 to 8 d. Results showed reduction on the energy reserves for both metals after 2 d exposure. Lipids were the first reserves to be used and carbohydrates were reduced exclusively after Cd exposure. Electron transport system (ETS) activities were enhanced, suggesting increased metabolism and higher energy requirements for metal detoxification. This was supported by previous results at transcription level, where an up-regulation of genes involved in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was verified. Additionally, the reduction of CEA may be related with the decrease on the reproductive output. These results showed the relevance of integrating various endpoints, which enabled an overview of various processes and to unravel mechanisms of action of chemicals. PMID:23062832

  6. Developments and fabrication of laser targets used to prepare inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments on CEA Laser ``M'egajoule'' (LMJ) facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarczyk, Sophie; Durut, Frédéric; Reneaume, Benoît; Théobald, Marc; Casner, Alexis; Tassin, Véronique; Monteil, Marie-Christine; Galmich, Didier

    2008-11-01

    A micro materials and technologies research program has started in France since 10 years to develop a very complex cryogenic target to reach the combustion of a deuterium tritium mixture, by indirect drive on the CEA Laser ``M'egajoule'' (LMJ) facility. This mixture is contained by an amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H or CHx) doped with germanium capsule placed in the center of a hohlraum. This research program involves CEA scientists, engineers and technicians united to realize specific targets for carrying out laser plasma experiments on the CEA LIL ``Ligne d'Int'egration Laser'' or OMEGA-UPGRADE facilities. To achieve the production of such specific targets different technologies are successively used (coating, precision machining, laser machining, characterizations, assembling, etc). This article presents an illustration of these microtechnology realizations through particular complex laser targets for hydrodynamic, or parametric instabilities studies and for symmetry experimental effects studies on fusion burn.

  7. Origine et evolution du bilinguisme judiciaire au Quebec (Origin and Evolution of Judicial Bilingualism in Quebec).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Laurent, Gilles

    The history and conditions of the use of English and French in the exercise of justice in Quebec are outlined in the context of the problems, sociopolitical realities, and procedural impact of language usage. The history is chronicled in six segments: 1760-1764, a period of British military government and political standoff between British and…

  8. Combined detection of preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 improve prognostic prediction of surgically treated colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingtao; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Fudong; Chen, Jian; Zhao, Senlin; Zhang, Dongyuan; Yu, Yang; Liu, Xisheng; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the prognostic significance of preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and carbohydrate antigen 242 (CA242) levels in surgically treated colorectal cancer patients. The relationship of preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 levels with disease characteristics was investigated in 310 patients. Correlation between tumor markers was investigated using Pearson correlation test. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were used to study the relationship between preoperative tumor markers and prognosis [disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS)]. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log rank test was used to assess the impact of tumor marker levels on survival. Positive rate of preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 were 54.84%, 47.42% and 37.10%, respectively. High preoperative CEA level was associated with tumor size (P = 0.038), T stage (P < 0.001) and AJCC stage (P = 0.002). High preoperative CA19-9 level was associated with tumor AJCC stage (P = 0.023). Preoperative CA242 positively correlated with CEA (P < 0.001) and CA19-9 (P < 0.001). Combining the three markers was of independent prognostic value in CRC (HR = 2.532, 95% CI: 1.400-4.579, P = 0.002 for OS; and HR = 2.366, 95% CI: 1.334-4.196, P = 0.003 for DFS). Combined detection of preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 is of independent prognostic value for management of CRC patients treated surgically. PMID:26823815

  9. Liver myeloid-derived suppressor cells expand in response to liver metastases in mice and inhibit the anti-tumor efficacy of anti-CEA CAR-T

    PubMed Central

    Burga, Rachel A.; Thorn, Mitchell; Point, Gary R.; Guha, Prajna; Nguyen, Cang T.; Licata, Lauren A.; DeMatteo, Ronald P.; Ayala, Alfred; Espat, N. Joseph; Junghans, Richard P.; Katz, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor modified T cell (CAR-T) technology, a promising immunotherapeutic tool, has not been applied specifically to treat liver metastases (LM). While CAR-T delivery to LM can be optimized by regional intrahepatic infusion, we propose that liver CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (L-MDSC) will inhibit the efficacy of CAR-T in the intrahepatic space. We studied anti-CEA CAR-T in a murine model of CEA+ LM and identified mechanisms through which L-MDSC expand and inhibit CAR-T function. We established CEA+ LM in mice and studied purified L-MDSC and responses to treatment with intrahepatic anti-CEA CAR-T infusions. L-MDSC expanded three-fold in response to LM and their expansion was dependent on GM-CSF, which was produced by tumor cells. L-MDSC utilized PD-L1 to suppress anti-tumor responses through engagement of PD-1 on CAR-T. GM-CSF, in cooperation with STAT3, promoted L-MDSC PD-L1 expression. CAR-T efficacy was rescued when mice received CAR-T in combination with MDSC depletion, GM-CSF neutralization to prevent MDSC expansion, or PD-L1 blockade. As L-MDSC suppressed anti-CEA CAR-T, infusion of anti-CEA CAR-T in tandem with agents targeting L-MDSC is a rational strategy for future clinical trials. PMID:25850344

  10. Diagnostic performance of CD66c in lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusion: comparison with CEA, CA 19-9, and CYFRA 21-1.

    PubMed

    Son, Seung-Myoung; Han, Hye-Suk; An, Jin Young; Choe, Kang Hyeon; Lee, Ki Man; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Kim, So-Seul; Lee, Yong-Moon; Lee, Ho-Chang; Song, Hyung Geun; Lee, Ok-Jun

    2015-02-01

    Various tumour markers have been evaluated in malignant pleural effusions, but not CD66c. This study evaluated the diagnostic ability of CD66c in lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusions (LA-MPEs) and compared it with other known tumour markers. Forty-seven cases of LA-MPE and 52 cases of benign pleural effusions were collected. The levels of CD66c, CEA, CA 19-9, and CYFRA 21-1 were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The expression of CD66c, CEA, and CA 19-9 in cell blocks was measured by immunocytochemistry. CEA had the best diagnostic values, with a sensitivity of 87.2% and specificity of 92.3%. Both CD66c and CA 19-9 showed the highest specificity of 98.1%, with sensitivities of 63.8% and 55.3%, respectively. CYFRA 21-1 had a sensitivity of 83.0% and specificity of 76.9%. CEA combined with CA 19-9 reached a sensitivity of 91.5% and a specificity of 98.1%. The sensitivities of immunocytochemical staining for CD66c, CEA, and CA 19-9 were 72.5%, 75%, and 40%, respectively. CD66c showed a diagnostic performance comparable to CYFRA 21-1 and CA 19-9 by enzyme immunoassay. Immunocytochemical study showed that CD66c and CEA were more sensitive than CA19-9. Both studies support CD66c as a potential tumour marker to differentiate LA-MPE from benign effusions. PMID:25551300

  11. Association of serum levels of CEA, CA199, CA125, CYFRA21-1 and CA72-4 and disease characteristics in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wa; Yu, Zhong; Zhan, Jun; Yu, Tao; Lin, Ying; Xia, Zhong-Sheng; Yuan, Yu-Hong; Chen, Qi-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Identifying predictive biomarkers for colorectal cancer would facilitate diagnosis and treatment of the disease. This study aimed to investigate the association of the serological biomarkers CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CYFRA21-1 and CA72-4 with patient characteristics and disease outcomes in colorectal cancer. Patients (N = 373) with colorectal cancer were evaluated for the association of CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CYFRA21-1, and CA72-4 pre and post-surgery and at disease recurrence with demographics, disease characteristics including pathological types, degree of differentiation, invasion depth, abdominal lymph node metastasis, TMN stage, Dukes stage, location of cancer and metastasis, and disease outcomes. It was more common for a patient to express these markers prior to surgery and at disease recurrence than following surgery. Overall, the serum levels of CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CYFRA21-1, and CA72-4 were not associated with age, gender, pathological type and location of cancer (all P-values >0.05), but were associated with the poor tumor differentiation, higher tumor invasion, greater degree of abdominal lymph node metastasis, and higher TNM and Duke stage tumors (all P-values < 0.01). CEA expression was associated with older ages (median age 65 years). Multivariate analysis indicated that CEA was correlated with overall survival and none of the markers correlated with disease recurrence. The expression of CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CYFRA21-1, and CA72-4 was associated with specific disease characteristics which tended to indicated more advanced disease and disease recurrence consistent with these biomarkers being useful for detecting colorectal cancer. PMID:24875250

  12. Prejudice: From Allport to DuBois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Stanley O., Jr.; Reed, Edward S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the differences between Gordon Allport's and W. E. B. DuBois's theories on the origins of prejudice and the impact of discrimination on the personality and social development of blacks. The article argues that prejudice is a historically developed process, not a universal feature of human psychology. Implications for U.S. race relations…

  13. Sign Communication in Cri du Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlenkamp, Sonja; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study on the use of sign supported Norwegian (SSN) in two individuals with Cri du chat syndrome (CCS). The study gives a first account of some selected aspects of production and intelligibility of SSN in CCS. Possible deviance in manual parameters, in particular inter- and/or intra-subject variation in the use…

  14. C.-E.A. Winslow and the later years of public health at Yale, 1940-1945.

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is one of a series of papers in which I consider contemporary Yale medical education in general and the Yale Department of Epidemiology and Public Health in particular. It tells of the retirement in 1945 of C.-E.A. Winslow, Professor and Chairman of the Yale Department of Public Health since its inception in 1915; of the committees established by the dean of the School of Medicine and the president of the University, charged with determining the future direction of the department; and of the outcome, which, in 1945, proved favorable to Winslow's public health philosophy in contrast to the medical school's clinical needs and desires. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:3321724

  15. Terahertz Real-Time Imaging Uncooled Arrays Based on Antenna-Coupled Bolometers or FET Developed at CEA-Leti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoens, François; Meilhan, Jérôme; Nicolas, Jean-Alain

    2015-10-01

    Sensitive and large-format terahertz focal plane arrays (FPAs) integrated in compact and hand-held cameras that deliver real-time terahertz (THz) imaging are required for many application fields, such as non-destructive testing (NDT), security, quality control of food, and agricultural products industry. Two technologies of uncooled THz arrays that are being studied at CEA-Leti, i.e., bolometer and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) field effect transistors (FET), are able to meet these requirements. This paper reminds the followed technological approaches and focuses on the latest modeling and performance analysis. The capabilities of application of these arrays to NDT and security are then demonstrated with experimental tests. In particular, high technological maturity of the THz bolometer camera is illustrated with fast scanning of large field of view of opaque scenes achieved in a complete body scanner prototype.

  16. Decontamination of Nuclear Liquid Wastes Status of CEA and AREVA R and D: Application to Fukushima Waste Waters - 12312

    SciTech Connect

    Fournel, B.; Barre, Y.; Lepeytre, C.; Peycelon, H.; Grandjean, A.; Prevost, T.; Valery, J.F.; Shilova, E.; Viel, P.

    2012-07-01

    Liquid wastes decontamination processes are mainly based on two techniques: Bulk processes and the so called Cartridges processes. The first technique has been developed for the French nuclear fuel reprocessing industry since the 60's in Marcoule and La Hague. It is a proven and mature technology which has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The second technique, involving cartridges processes, offers new opportunities for the use of innovative adsorbents. The AREVA process developed for Fukushima and some results obtained on site will be presented as well as laboratory scale results obtained in CEA laboratories. Examples of new adsorbents development for liquid wastes decontamination are also given. A chemical process unit based on co-precipitation technique has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The asset of this technique is its ability to process large volumes in a continuous mode. Several chemical products can be used to address specific radioelements such as: Cs, Sr, Ru. Its drawback is the production of sludge (about 1% in volume of initial liquid volume). CEA developed strategies to model the co-precipitation phenomena in order to firstly minimize the quantity of added chemical reactants and secondly, minimize the size of co-precipitation units. We are on the way to design compact units that could be mobilized very quickly and efficiently in case of an accidental situation. Addressing the problem of sludge conditioning, cementation appears to be a very attractive solution. Fukushima accident has focused attention on optimizations that should be taken into account in future studies: - To better take account for non-typical aqueous matrixes like seawater; - To enlarge the spectrum of radioelements that can be efficiently processed and especially short lives radioelements that are usually less present in

  17. Preclinical evaluation of a novel CEA-targeting near-infrared fluorescent tracer delineating colorectal and pancreatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Martin C; Tolner, Berend; Schaafsma, Boudewijn E; Boogerd, Leonora S F; Prevoo, Hendrica A J M; Bhavsar, Guarav; Kuppen, Peter J K; Sier, Cornelis F M; Bonsing, Bert A; Frangioni, John V; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Chester, Kerry A; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L

    2015-10-15

    Surgery is the cornerstone of oncologic therapy with curative intent. However, identification of tumor cells in the resection margins is difficult, resulting in nonradical resections, increased cancer recurrence and subsequent decreased patient survival. Novel imaging techniques that aid in demarcating tumor margins during surgery are needed. Overexpression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is found in the majority of gastrointestinal carcinomas, including colorectal and pancreas. We developed ssSM3E/800CW, a novel CEA-targeted near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) tracer, based on a disulfide-stabilized single-chain antibody fragment (ssScFv), to visualize colorectal and pancreatic tumors in a clinically translatable setting. The applicability of the tracer was tested for cell and tissue binding characteristics and dosing using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, cell-based plate assays and orthotopic colorectal (HT-29, well differentiated) and pancreatic (BXPC-3, poorly differentiated) xenogeneic human-mouse models. NIRF signals were visualized using the clinically compatible FLARE™ imaging system. Calculated clinically relevant doses of ssSM3E/800CW selectively accumulated in colorectal and pancreatic tumors/cells, with highest tumor-to-background ratios of 5.1 ± 0.6 at 72 hr postinjection, which proved suitable for intraoperative detection and delineation of tumor boarders and small (residual) tumor nodules in mice, between 8 and 96 hr postinjection. Ex vivo fluorescence imaging and pathologic examination confirmed tumor specificity and the distribution of the tracer. Our results indicate that ssSM3E/800CW shows promise as a diagnostic tool to recognize colorectal and pancreatic cancers for fluorescent-guided surgery applications. If successfully translated clinically, this tracer could help improve the completeness of surgery and thus survival. PMID:25895046

  18. Pretargeted immuno-PET of CEA-expressing intraperitoneal human colonic tumor xenografts: a new sensitive detection method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, pretargeted immuno-positron-emission tomography [PET] with a bispecific monoclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA] (CEACAM5) × anti-hapten antibody (bispecific monoclonal antibody [bsmAb]) and a small (1.5 kD) peptide labeled with 68Ga was compared to fludeoxyglucose [18F-FDG]-PET for detecting intraperitoneal [i.p.] CEA-expressing human colonic tumor xenografts in nude mice. Methods Two groups of female BALB/c nude mice were inoculated with LS174T human colonic tumor cells i.p. One group received 5 MBq 18F-FDG, and the other received intravenous injections of the bsmAb, followed 16 h later with 5 MBq of 68Ga-labeled peptide. One hour after the radiolabeled peptide or FDG was given, micro-PET/computed tomography images were acquired. Thereafter, the uptake of the 68Ga or 18F in dissected tissue was determined. Results Within 1 h, high uptake of the 68Ga-labeled peptide in the tumor lesions (23.4 ± 7.2% ID/g) and low background activity levels were observed (e.g., tumor-to-intestine ratio, 58 ± 22). This resulted in a clear visualization of all intra-abdominal tumor lesions ≥ 10 μL and even some tumors as small as 5 μL (2 mm diameter). 18F-FDG efficiently localized in the tumors (8.7 ± 3.1% ID/g) but also showed physiological uptake in various normal tissues (e.g., tumor-to-intestine ratio, 3.9 ± 1.1). Conclusions Pretargeted immuno-PET with bsmAb and a 68Ga-labeled peptide could be a very sensitive imaging method for imaging colonic cancer, disclosing occult lesions. PMID:22284761

  19. Improvements on Low Level Activity Gamma Measurements and X-ray Spectrometry at the CEA-MADERE Measurement Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeyeva, Victoria; Domergue, Christophe; Destouches, Christophe; Girard, Jean Michel; Philibert, Hervé; Bonora, Jonathan; Thiollay, Nicolas; Lyoussi, Abdallah

    2016-02-01

    The CEA MADERE platform (Measurement Applied to DosimEtry in REactors) is a part of the Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory (LDCI). This facility is dedicated to the specific activity measurements of solid and radioactive samples using Gamma and X-ray spectrometry. MADERE is a high-performance facility devoted to neutron dosimetry for experimental programs performed in CEA and for the irradiation surveillance programmes of PWR vessels. The MADERE platform is engaged in a continuous improvement process. Recently, two High Efficiency diodes have been integrated to the MADERE platform in order to manage the accurate low level activity measurements (few Bq per sample). This new equipment provides a good level of efficiency over the energy range from 60 keV to 2 MeV. The background continuum is reduced due to the use of a Ultra Low Background (ULB) lead shielding. Relative and absolute X-ray measurement techniques have been improved in order to facilitate absolute rhodium activity measurement (Rh103m) on solid samples. Additional efforts have been made to increase the accuracy of the relative niobium (Nb93m) activity measurement technique. The way of setting up an absolute measurement method for niobium is under investigation. After a presentation of the MADERE's measurement devices, this paper focuses on the technological options taken into account for the design of high efficiency measurement devices. Then, studies performed on X-ray measurement techniques are presented. Some details about the calculation of uncertainties and correction factors are also mentioned. Finally, future research and development axes are exposed.

  20. Assessing Clinical Significance of Serum CA15-3 and Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Levels in Breast Cancer Patients: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yijie; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer in women worldwide. The tumor markers Cancer Antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) and Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) are frequently used for screening and monitoring breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a meta-analysis of 13 published case-control studies to assess the associations between serum levels of CA15-3 and CEA with breast cancer susceptibility, including 1179 cases and 493 controls. The analyses were performed on malignant tumor and benign tumor, as well as in different subgroups with respect to the patient ethnicities and clinical tumor stages. RESULTS This systematic review and meta-analysis of association studies shows that serum levels of CA15-3 and CEA are potential biomarkers for breast cancer monitoring. When stratified by clinical stage, we noticed that although malignant tumors in all stages show elevated levels of CA15-3, it is greatly associated with the tumor stage, as it increases as breast tumor stage worsens. CONCLUSIONS This study clarifies the inconsistent conclusions from multiple studies, and provides a precise estimation for clinical utility of 2 important biomarkers, CA15-3 and CEA, in breast cancer monitoring. Thus, our study will shed lights on the prognosis of breast cancer patients. PMID:27596019

  1. Diagnostic values of serum tumor markers Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, CEA, CA19-9, and AFP in oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chuanshu; Yang, Kai; Tang, Hong; Chen, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Background At present, the research on serum tumor markers in the early diagnosis of malignant tumors has aroused widespread concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic values of serum tumor markers cytokeratin 19 fragment (Cyfra21-1), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCAg), ferritin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), and α-fetoprotein (AFP) for patients with oral/oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma (OSCC/OPSCC). Methods One hundred and sixty-nine cases of patients with OSCC/OPSCC as the experimental group, 86 cases of oral benign tumor patients as the control group, and 30 cases of healthy people as the normal control group were studied. The levels of serum Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, CEA, CA19-9, and AFP were measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results The levels of serum Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, and CEA in patients with OSCC/OPSCC were significantly higher than those of benign tumor and healthy control group (P<0.05). The levels of CA19-9 and AFP showed no significant difference between patients with OSCC/OPSCC, benign tumor, and healthy group (P>0.05). The level of serum Cyfra21-1 in patients with early OSCC/OPSCC (stage I + II) was significantly higher than that of benign tumor and healthy control group (P<0.05). However, the levels of serum SCCAg, ferritin, CEA, CA19-9, and AFP showed no significant difference between patients with early OSCC/OPSCC, benign tumor, and healthy control group (P>0.05). The levels of serum Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, and CEA in the middle-late stage of patients with OSCC/OPSCC (stage III + IV) were significantly higher than those of patients with the early OSCC/OPSCC, benign tumor, and healthy control group (P<0.05). The diagnostic cutoff levels of Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, and CEA were 2.17, 0.72, 109.95, and 1.99 ng/mL, respectively. The sensitivities were 60.36%, 73.37%, 81.66%, and 66.27%, respectively. The specificities were 81.03%, 68.10%, 40

  2. [Brief discussion on "Sanli acupoint for du-fu diseases"].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; He, Quan; Xin, Yu; Zhang, Hongxing

    2015-07-01

    The connotations of "du-fu" and "Sanli" in "Sanli acupoint for du-fu diseases" are discussed in this paper, which can provide theoretical foundation for the clinical application of "Sanli acupoint for du-fu diseases". Based on ancient literature combined with related theories in the Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Classic), a deep discussion is performed through the relationship between Zusanli (ST 36) and stomach, indication and mechanism of Zusanli (ST 36) on du-fu diseases and comparison between Zusanli (ST 36) and Shousanli (LI 10). It is believed that "du" should be pronounced as "dŭ", meaning stomach, and it indicates that Zusanli (ST 36) is closely related to stomach and spleen when it is used for du-fu diseases; "fu" means abdomen area, including liver-gallbladder, spleen, stomach-intestine, kidney, uterus, triple energizer; "sanli' means exclusively the acupoint of Zusanli (ST 36). PMID:26521594

  3. FTS evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provost, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on flight telerobotic servicer evolution are presented. Topics covered include: paths for FTS evolution; frequently performed actions; primary task states; EPS radiator panel installation; generic task definitions; path planning; non-contact alignment; contact planning and control; and human operator interface.

  4. Teaching Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryner, Jeanna

    2005-01-01

    Eighty years after the famous 1925 Scopes "monkey trial," which tested a teacher's right to discuss the theory of evolution in the classroom, evolution--and its most recent counterview, called "intelligent design"--are in the headlines again, and just about everyone seems to have an opinion. This past July, President Bush weighed in, telling…

  5. Sustainable growth, the DuPont way.

    PubMed

    Holliday, C

    2001-09-01

    Like many manufacturers, DuPont traditionally has grown by making more and more "stuff." And its business growth has been proportional to the amount of raw materials and energy used--as well as the resulting waste and emissions from operations. Over the years, though, DuPont became aware that cheap supplies of nonrenewable resources wouldn't be endlessly available and that the earth's ecosystems couldn't indefinitely absorb the waste and emissions of production and consumption. Chad Holliday, chairman and CEO of DuPont, believes strongly in the challenge of sustainable growth and makes the business case for it: By using creativity and scientific knowledge effectively, he says, companies can provide strong returns for shareholders and grow their businesses--while also meeting the human needs of societies around the world and reducing the environmental footprint of their operations and products. In fact, a focus on sustainability can help identify new products, markets, partnerships, and intellectual property and lead to substantial business growth. Holliday describes how DuPont developed a three-pronged strategy to translate the concept of sustainability into nuts-and-bolts business practices. Focusing on integrated science, knowledge intensity, and productivity improvement, the strategy was accompanied by a new way to measure progress quantitatively. Sustainable growth should be viewed not as a program for stepped-up environmental performance but as a comprehensive way of doing business, one that delivers tremendous economic value and opens up new opportunities. Ultimately, companies will find that they can generate substantial business value through sustainability while both enhancing the quality of life around the world and protecting the environment. PMID:11550629

  6. Du Pont Classifications of 6 Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, N.; Shappee, Benjamin J.

    2016-06-01

    We report optical spectroscopy (range 370-910 nm) of six supernovae from the Backyard Observatory Supernova Search (BOSS) and the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) using the du Pont 2.5-m telescope (+ WFCCD) at Las Campanas Observatory on June 17 2016 UT. We performed a cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J.

  7. Cloning and sequencing of Duck circovirus (DuCV).

    PubMed

    Hattermann, K; Schmitt, C; Soike, D; Mankertz, A

    2003-12-01

    The genome of Duck circovirus (DuCV) is circular and 1996 nts in size. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase (V1) and the capsid protein (C1). A stem-loop structure comprising the nonamer 5'-TATTATTAC, conserved in all circo-, nano- and geminiviruses, was found. Unique to DuCV, the region between the 3'-ends of the rep and cap gene contains four repeats of a 44-bp sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shows close relation of DuCV with Goose circovirus and suggests classification of DuCV as a new member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae. PMID:14648300

  8. Stellar evolution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, H.-Y. (Editor); Muriel, A.

    1972-01-01

    Aspects of normal stellar evolution are discussed together with evolution near the main sequence, stellar evolution from main sequence to white dwarf or carbon ignition, the structure of massive main-sequence stars, and problems of stellar stability and stellar pulsation. Other subjects considered include variable stars, white dwarfs, close binaries, novae, early supernova luminosity, neutron stars, the photometry of field horizontal-branch stars, and stellar opacity. Transport mechanisms in stars are examined together with thermonuclear reactions and nucleosynthesis, the instability problem in nuclear burning shells, stellar coalescence, and intense magnetic fields in astrophysics. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  9. La reconstruction du sourcil par greffon composite du cuir chevelu: une astuce pour faciliter la technique

    PubMed Central

    El Omari, Mounia; El Mazouz, Samir; Gharib, Noureddine; EL Abbassi, Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Les sourcils jouent un rôle important dans l’équilibre esthétique du visage. Leur reconstruction ou ophriopoïése, après séquelle de brûlure fait partie intégrante du programme de réhabilitation de la face brûlée. Plusieurs techniques ont été décrites. Nous insistons ici sur l'intérêt d'une technique simple, à la portée de tous les chirurgiens, et dont la méthode et les résultats peuvent être améliorés par un dessin bien planifié des zones donneuse et receveuse: la greffe composite prélevée au niveau du cuir chevelu dessinée à l'aide d'un calque du sourcil controlatéral. PMID:26401195

  10. 76 FR 68124 - Television Broadcasting Services; Fond du Lac, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... reconsideration of an August 12, 2009 Report and Order changing the allotted channel for station WWAZ-TV, Fond du... 5 for channel 44 at Fond du Lac ] because it permitted WLS-TV, an ABC network affiliate in Chicago... network service to numerous viewers that had lost service after the transition of WLS-TV to...

  11. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  12. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Stephane

    choisi, nous avons mesure les proprietes intrinseques du meme echantillon de YBa2Cu3O7- delta avec la technique pompe-visible et sonde-terahertz donnant, elle aussi, acces aux temps caracteristiques regissant l'evolution hors-equilibre de ce materiau. Dans le meilleur scenario, ces temps caracteristiques devraient correspondre a ceux evalues grace a la modelisation des antennes. Un bon controle des parametres de croissance des couches minces supraconductrices et de fabrication du dispositif nous a permis de realiser des antennes d'emission terahertz possedant d'excellentes caracteristiques en terme de largeur de bande d'emission (typiquement 3 THz) exploitables pour des applications de spectroscopie resolue dans le domaine temporel. Le modele developpe et retenu pour le lissage du spectre terahertz decrit bien les caracteristiques de l'antenne supraconductrice pour tous les parametres d'operation. Toutefois, le lien avec la technique pompe-sonde lors de la comparaison des proprietes intrinseques n'est pas direct malgre que les deux techniques montrent que le temps de relaxation des porteurs augmente pres de la temperature critique. Les donnees en pompe-sonde indiquent que la mesure du temps de relaxation depend de la frequence de la sonde, ce qui complique la correspondance des proprietes intrinseques entre les deux techniques. De meme, le temps de relaxation extrait a partir du spectre de l'antenne terahertz augmente en s'approchant de la temperature critique (T c) de YBa2Cu 3O7-delta. Le comportement en temperature du temps de relaxation correspond a une loi de puissance qui est fonction de l'inverse du gap supraconducteur avec un exposant 5 soit 1/Delta 5(T). Le travail presente dans cette these permet de mieux decrire les caracteristiques des antennes supraconductrices a haute temperature critique et de les relier aux proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui les compose. De plus, cette these presente les parametres a ajuster comme le courant applique, la puissance de

  13. Oncoplastie avec conservation mammaire dans le traitement du cancer du sein: à propos de 16 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouzoubaa, Wail; Laadioui, Meryam; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatime Zahra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est actuellement le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, et pose un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique. Le dépistage des lésions à un stade de plus en plus précoce, a permis une extension des indications du traitement conservateur radiochirurgical, qui était initialement limitées aux tumeurs de moins de 3 cm, unifocales, non inflammatoires. Par ailleurs, l'utilisation de traitements préopératoires permet d’étendre les indications du traitement conservateur à des tumeurs plus volumineuses. Parallèlement à cette extension des indications de conservation mammaire, on a observé le développement de nouvelles approches thérapeutiques notamment la chirurgie oncoplastique, technique du ganglion sentinelle et chirurgie stéréotaxique, dont les résultats initiaux sont très encouragent. A travers cette étude réalisée dans le service de gynécologie et obstétrique II du CHU HASSAN II de FES au MAROC, après l'analyse rétrospective de 16 patientes traitées par traitement conservateur et oncoplastie, nous avons voulus montrer notre aptitude a réalisé ses techniques chirurgicales et a bien prendre en charge ces patientes, mais aussi évaluer ces techniques en termes de résultat carcinologique et de résultat esthétique, aussi en terme de survie globale, survie sans métastase et en termes de récidive locale entre les plasties mammaires et les traitements usuels: mastectomie et traitement conservateur classique. PMID:26430477

  14. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  15. Continuous improvement journey at Du Pont photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Robert K.

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the history and experiences of Du Pont Photomasks in their efforts to integrate the continuous improvement philosophy and practices embodied in the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria into their way of doing business. A case study of key learnings in this almost four year long process is presented. Specific topics discussed include the process applied to achieve ISO 9000 certification, the quality systems deployed in this effort, and the use of a balanced set of business and quality metrics to assess and improve upon performance.

  16. La fin du jeûne?

    PubMed Central

    Naugler, Christopher; Sidhu, Davinder

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter une mise à jour sur l’utilité clinique de ne pas être à jeun par rapport à l’être pour l’analyse des lipides dans le but d’améliorer l’observance par les patients, leur sécurité et l’évaluation clinique dans les tests du cholestérol. Qualité des données Les recommandations sont classées comme étant fondées sur des données probantes fortes, acceptables ou faibles (conflictuelles ou insuffisantes), selon les classifications adoptées par le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs. Message principal Le dépistage de la dyslipidémie comme facteur de risque de coronaropathie et la prescription de médicaments hypolipidémiants sont des activités importantes en soins primaires. De récentes données probantes remettent en question la nécessité d’être à jeun pour la mesure des lipides. Dans des études sur la population, le cholestérol total, le cholestérol à lipoprotéines de haute densité et le cholestérol à lipoprotéines autres qu’à haute densité variaient tous d’en moyenne 2 % à jeun. Pour un dépistage de routine, la mesure du cholestérol sans être à jeun est maintenant une option de rechange raisonnable à l’analyse à jeun. Pour les patients diabétiques, l’exigence d’être à jeun peut représenter un important problème de sécurité en raison des possibilités d’hypoglycémie. Pour la surveillance des triglycérides et du cholestérol à lipoprotéines de basse densité chez les patients qui prennent des médicaments hypolipidémiants, le jeûne devient important. Conclusion Être à jeun pour la détermination routinière des niveaux lipidiques est largement inutile et il est improbable que le jeûne influence la stratification du risque clinique chez le patient, tandis que la mesure sans être à jeun pourrait améliorer l’observance par le patient et sa sécurité.

  17. Review of nuclear data improvement needs for nuclear radiation measurement techniques used at the CEA experimental reactor facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destouches, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The constant improvement of the neutron and gamma calculation codes used in experimental nuclear reactors goes hand in hand with that of the associated nuclear data libraries. The validation of these calculation schemes always requires the confrontation with integral experiments performed in experimental reactors to be completed. Nuclear data of interest, straight as cross sections, or elaborated ones such as reactivity, are always derived from a reaction rate measurement which is the only measurable parameter in a nuclear sensor. So, in order to derive physical parameters from the electric signal of the sensor, one needs specific nuclear data libraries. This paper presents successively the main features of the measurement techniques used in the CEA experimental reactor facilities for the on-line and offline neutron/gamma flux characterizations: reactor dosimetry, neutron flux measurements with miniature fission chambers and Self Power Neutron Detector (SPND) and gamma flux measurements with chamber ionization and TLD. For each technique, the nuclear data necessary for their interpretation will be presented, the main identified needs for improvement identified and an analysis of their impact on the quality of the measurement. Finally, a synthesis of the study will be done.

  18. Evaluation of the CEAS trend and monthly weather data models for soybean yields in Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The CEAS models evaluated use historic trend and meteorological and agroclimatic variables to forecast soybean yields in Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. Indicators of yield reliability and current measures of modeled yield reliability were obtained from bootstrap tests on the end of season models. Indicators of yield reliability show that the state models are consistently better than the crop reporting district (CRD) models. One CRD model is especially poor. At the state level, the bias of each model is less than one half quintal/hectare. The standard deviation is between one and two quintals/hectare. The models are adequate in terms of coverage and are to a certain extent consistent with scientific knowledge. Timely yield estimates can be made during the growing season using truncated models. The models are easy to understand and use and are not costly to operate. Other than the specification of values used to determine evapotranspiration, the models are objective. Because the method of variable selection used in the model development is adequately documented, no evaluation can be made of the objectivity and cost of redevelopment of the model.

  19. The Role of Cea and Liver Function Tests in the Detection of Hepatic Metastases From Colo-Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bombelli, Luigia; Bozzetti, F.; Doci, R.; Gennari, L.; Koukouras, D.

    1990-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen and some liver function tests (alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase, lactic dehydrogenase and cholinesterase) were evaluated in patients with primary colorectal cancer in order to define their role in the pre-operative detection of liver metastases. The records of 278 consecutive patients admitted to the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan between January 1982 and December 1983 who were suffering from primary invasive colo-rectal cancer and who underwent laparotomy were retrospectively analyzed. At laparotomy, liver metastases were found in 38 pts (13.7%). Considering single tests, CEA was the most sensitive (71%); no single test was found to be reliably predictive, when the result was abnormal. On the contrary, the normal value of each test was associated with a good prediction. When we considered all the five tests together in the single patient their predictive value, when abnormal, proved to be quite good only if four or five results were abnormal. On the other hand, liver metastases in the presence of all normal tests were found only in two patients, so giving a negative predictive value of about 97%. So we conclude that, in the lack of an infallable imaging technique for liver evaluation, in the presence of all normal tests any other investigation on the liver could be avoided. However, when liver tests are pathologic, some other imaging technique should be performed in order to supply the surgeon with information about the extent and the spread of the metastases. PMID:2090187

  20. Diagnostic value of Cyfra21-1, SCC and CEA for differentiation of early-stage NSCLC from benign lung disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Wang, Xiu-Ying; Han, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Hai; Qi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which account for the most of lung carcinoma, is sometimes difficult to differentiate from benign lung diseases presented with nodular shadow in imaging scan. There is a need to find another non-invasive way to diagnosis early-stage NSCLC. To examine the potential diagnostic value of SCC, CFYRA 21-1 and CEA for the differentiation of early-stage NCSCL from benign lung diseases, we analyzed serum levels of tumor markers in 278 patients, including 248 patients with NSCLC and 30 patients with benign lung diseases. These benign lung diseases were presented with evidence of a high likelihood of having lung cancer. After surgical operation, diagnosis of lung cancer and benign lung disease were confirmed by histological examination. Preoperative tumor marker levels were quantified. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare median levels of SCC, CFYRA 21-1 and CEA between the benign group and lung cancer group. Analysis of variance results were used for differences between different clinical stages of NSCLC. ROC was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of tumor markers. The median levels of Cyfra21-1, SCC and CEA were much higher in NSCLC than those in benign lung diseases. And we found that the mean levels of tumor marker were higher in advanced stage of NSCLC. The combination of tumor markers resulted in a higher sensitivity (91.3%) and a lower specificity (86.7%). In conclusion, the combination of positive SCC, positive CEA and positive Cyfra21-1 appear to be helpful in distinguishing early-stage NSCLC from benign lung disease which presented with suspicious pulmonary masses. PMID:26379938

  1. Diagnostic value of Cyfra21-1, SCC and CEA for differentiation of early-stage NSCLC from benign lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Wang, Xiu-Ying; Han, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Hai; Qi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which account for the most of lung carcinoma, is sometimes difficult to differentiate from benign lung diseases presented with nodular shadow in imaging scan. There is a need to find another non-invasive way to diagnosis early-stage NSCLC. To examine the potential diagnostic value of SCC, CFYRA 21-1 and CEA for the differentiation of early-stage NCSCL from benign lung diseases, we analyzed serum levels of tumor markers in 278 patients, including 248 patients with NSCLC and 30 patients with benign lung diseases. These benign lung diseases were presented with evidence of a high likelihood of having lung cancer. After surgical operation, diagnosis of lung cancer and benign lung disease were confirmed by histological examination. Preoperative tumor marker levels were quantified. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare median levels of SCC, CFYRA 21-1 and CEA between the benign group and lung cancer group. Analysis of variance results were used for differences between different clinical stages of NSCLC. ROC was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of tumor markers. The median levels of Cyfra21-1, SCC and CEA were much higher in NSCLC than those in benign lung diseases. And we found that the mean levels of tumor marker were higher in advanced stage of NSCLC. The combination of tumor markers resulted in a higher sensitivity (91.3%) and a lower specificity (86.7%). In conclusion, the combination of positive SCC, positive CEA and positive Cyfra21-1 appear to be helpful in distinguishing early-stage NSCLC from benign lung disease which presented with suspicious pulmonary masses. PMID:26379938

  2. Mesure du taux de la capture radiative du muon par l'hydrogene liquide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkmans, Guy

    À basse énergie, l'interaction faible entre leptons et quarks est décrite par une interaction de la forme courant × courant de type V - A. La présence de l'interaction forte induit des couplages additionnels qui doivent être déterminés expérimentalement. De ceux-ci, le couplage pseudoscalaire induit, gp , est mesuré avec la plus grande incertitude et fait l'objet de la présente recherche. L'hypothèse du Courant Axial Partiellement Conservé (CAPC) et l'usage de la relation de Goldberger-Treiman relie gp au couplage axial ga . Cette relation a été vérifiée traditionnellement par la Capture Ordinaire du Muon (COM) à une valeur fixe du moment de transfert q. La Capture Radiative du Muon (CRM), m- p-->nnmg , est un meilleur outil pour l'étude de gp à cause de sa dépendance variable en q2 qui offre une plus grande sensibilité dans la partie à haute énergie du spectre des photons. Toutefois, le petit rapport d'embranchement (~10-8) de la CRM par rapport à la désintégration du muon a retardé cette mesure jusqu'à ce jour. La théorie et les difficultés expérimentales associées à la détection des photons de CRM sont présentées au deuxième chapitre. On décrit ensuite, au troisième chapitre, les composantes du système de détection. Ce détecteur est un spectromètre à paires de grand angle solide (~3p) et qui permet l'observation des photons par l'analyse des électrons et des positrons de photo-conversion. Ainsi, le bruit de fond important des neutrons de la COM ne constitue pas un problème pour cette mesure. Nous décrivons, au quatrième chapitre, toutes les étapes de l'analyse, nécessaires pour la réduction des multiples bruits de fond. Le cinquième chapitre présente le calcul des efficacités ainsi que l'estimation des erreurs systématiques. Le sixième chapitre démontre comment l'on extrait le rapport d'embranchement pour la CRM ainsi que la valeur ae gp . On insiste sur la dépendance de gp en fonction de la valeur de

  3. Antibody-guided irradiation of hepatic metastases using intrahepatically administered radiolabelled anti-CEA antibodies with simultaneous and reversible hepatic blood flow stasis using biodegradable starch microspheres.

    PubMed

    Epenetos, A A; Courtenay-Luck, N; Dhokia, B; Snook, D; Hooker, G; Lavender, J P; Hemmingway, A; Carr, D; Paraharalambous, M; Bosslet, K

    1987-12-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were radiolabelled with 131I and used for the treatment of hepatic metastases in a patient who had a primary colonic carcinoma. Approximately 100 mCi of 131I-labelled antibody were administered via the hepatic artery on two occasions. On the second occasion, radiolabelled antibody was given concurrently with biodegradable starch microspheres in an attempt to enhance tumour uptake of antibody by achieving temporary stasis or delay of hepatic blood flow. The procedure was carried out uneventfully. There was clinical improvement and a fall in circulating CEA levels after each course of treatment. Furthermore, after the second course of therapy the clinical improvement was sustained for a longer period (more than 3 months) and there was evidence of diminution in the size of some of the liver metastases. Regional administration of 131I-labelled anti-CEA antibody concurrently with biodegradable starch microspheres appears to be a promising new method for the treatment of hepatic metastases from colonic carcinoma. PMID:3449789

  4. Anti-CEA monoclonal antibody: technetium-99m labeling and the validation process of a scintigraphic animal model with a non-cellular antigenic implant.

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Marques, Fabio Luiz Navarro; Okamoto, Miriam Roseli Yoshie; Hironaka, Fausto Haruki; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2002-07-01

    Animal models are currently used to verify the biodistribution of different radiopharmaceuticals before its clinical application in Nuclear Medicine; however, there may be some limitations. The utilization of labelled anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) in experimental models often requires implant of human antigens (usually a cellular implant), which cannot be achieved in immunocompetent animals. Our purpose was to label an anti-CEA MoAb with technetium-99m (99Tc) and to validate a simplified animal model using a noncellular antigenic implant. MoAb was directly labelled with 99mTc, after reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol. Labeling efficiency was checked by ascending chromatography and immunoreactive fraction was measured in plastic wells sensitized with the antigen. Radiopharmaceutical biodistribution was evaluated by dissection and scintigraphy in 5 mice groups; following the subcutaneous administration of Al(OH)3, CEA adsorbed Al(OH)2 and a control group evaluation. Labeling efficiency was 94+/-3%, which showed to be stable for 24 hr, with immunoreactive fraction above 50%. Invasive biodistribution evaluation showed prolonged blood retention, hepatic and renal uptake. A significant increase in uptake was observed in scintigraphic studies of animals with CEA-adsorbed Al(OH)3 implants compared with the other groups (p<0.05). The non-cellular antigenic implant model simplifies the pre-clinical evaluation of labelled MoAb. PMID:12146705

  5. The Pic du Midi solar survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koechlin, L.

    2015-12-01

    We carry a long term survey of the solar activity with our coronagraphic system at Pic du Midi de Bigorre in the French Pyrenees (CLIMSO). It is a set of two solar telescopes and two coronagraphs, taking one frame per minute for each of the four channels : Solar disk in H-α (656.28 nm), prominences in H-α, disk in Ca II (393.3 nm), prominences in He I (1083 nm), all year long, weather permitting. Since 2015 we also take images of the FeXIII corona (1074.7 nm) at the rate of one every 10 minutes. These images cover a large field: 1.25 solar diameter, 2k*2K pixels, and are freely downloadable form a database. The improvements made since 2015 concern an autoguiding system for better centering of the solar disk behind the coronagraphic masks, and a new Fe XIII channel at λ=1074.7 nm. In the near future we plan to provide radial velocity maps of the disc and polarimetry maps of the disk and corona. This survey took its present form in 2007 and we plan to maintain image acquisition in the same or better experimental conditions for a long period: one or several solar cycles if possible. During the partial solar eclipse of March 20, 2015, the CLIMSO instruments and the staff at Pic du Midi operating it have provided several millions internet users with real time images of the Sun and Moon during all the phenomenon.

  6. Géodynamique et évolution thermique de la matière organique: exemple du bassin de Qasbat-Tadla, Maroc centralBasin geodynamics and thermal evolution of organic material: example from the Qasbat-Tadla Basin, central Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er-Raïoui, H.; Bouabdelli, M.; Bélayouni, H.; Chellai, H.

    2001-05-01

    Seismic data analysis of the Qasbat-Tadla Basin allows the deciphering of the main tectonic and sedimentary events that characterised the Hercynian orogen and its role in the basin's structural development. The global tectono-sedimentary framework involves structural evolution of an orogenic foreland basin and was the source of rising geotherms in an epizonal metamorphic environment. The complementary effects of these parameters has led to different source rock maturity levels, ranging from oil producing to graphite domains. Different maturity levels result from three distinct structural domains within the basin, each of which exhibit characteristic geodynamic features (tectonic contraints, rate of subsidence, etc.).

  7. Élimination du bore du silicium par plasma inductif sous champ électrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, R.; Morvan, D.; Picard, G.; Amouroux, J.

    1993-05-01

    We analyzed purification mechanisms of silicon by inductive plasma with a fluoride slag. The aim is to study boron elimination from doped electronic grade silicon in function of the nature of the slag to obtain a photovoltaic grade silicon. The steady began with the calculation and the comparison of the stability diagram of boron compounds in presence of CaF2, BaF2 and MgF2. This study led us to conclude that BaF2 is the better slag for silicon purification. This has been confirmed by experience. In a second time, we made purifications under electric bias to enhance slag efficiency. We noticed that BaF2 is more sensitive to electric bias than other slags. Nous avons analysé le mécanisme de purification du silicium sous plasma inductif en présence d'un laitier fluoré. L'objectif principal est d'étudier l'élimination du bore du silicium électronique dopé en fonction de la nature du fluorure pour obtenir un silicium de qualité photovoltaïque. L'étude a commencé par l'établissement et la comparaison de diagrammes des composés du bore en présence de CaF2, de MgF2 et de BaF2. Nous avons déduit de cette première étude que BaF2 est le meilleur laitier pour la purification du silicium. Ceci a été corroboré par l'expérience. Nous avons ensuite opéré en présence d'un champ électrique dans le but d'améliorer encore l'efficacité des laitiers. Nous avons constaté que BaF2 est plus sensible au champ électrique que les deux autres laitiers utilisés.

  8. Comparison of tumor M2-pyruvate kinase (tumor M2-PK), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigens CA 19-9 and CA 72-4 in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Joachim; Schulze, Guntram

    2003-01-01

    The study presents data comparing the relatively new tumor metabolic marker Tumor-M2-PK with the established markers CEA, CA 19-9 and CA 72-4 in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers. In this prospective study histologically confirmed n = 250 colorectal, n = 122 gastric, n = 86 oesophageal and n = 24 pancreatic cancer patients were investigated and compared with n = 76 control persons without any malignant disease. Tumor M2-PK was measured in plasma by an ELISA. CEA, CA 19-9 and CA 72-4 were determined in sera by an autoanalyser. Significantly elevated tumor marker concentrations were detected in the tumor patients suffering from colorectal, gastric, oesophageal and pancreatic cancers. In patients with colorectal cancer Tumor M2-PK was significantly frequently elevated (47.8%), followed by CEA (33.6%) or CA19-9 (30.4%). In gastric cancers, the sensitivity of Tumor M2-PK (57.0%) and CA 72-4 (60.7%) were comparable and higher than CA19-9 (45.5%) or CEA (23.8%). In oesophageal cancers, Tumor M2-PK was most frequently elevated (55.8%) followed by CA 72-4 (53.5%), CA 19-9 (27.9%) and CEA (14.5%). In pancreatic cancer patients, the sensitivities were CA 19-9 (87.5%), Tumor M2-PK (72.9%) and CEA (33.3%). The discrimination power (demonstrated by the AUC) of Tumor M2-PK was superior in colorectal, gastric and oesophageal cancers without distant metastasis. Also CA 72-4 was superior to CA 19-9 or CEA in detection of gastric or oesophageal cancer patients. CEA bore no relevant information for the detection of localised cancers. The present data indicate that Tumor M2-PK could be a valuable tumor marker for the detection of gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:14981971

  9. Art & Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Mark

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a two-week evolution unit for his biology class. He uses Maria Sybilla Merian (1647-1717) as an example of an Enlightenment mind at work--in this case a woman recognized as one of the great artists and natural scientists of her time. Her representations of butterflies, caterpillars and their pupae, and the…

  10. Security Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  11. Comparative study of CEA and CA19-9 in esophageal, gastric and colon cancers individually and in combination (ROC curve analysis)

    PubMed Central

    Bagaria, Bhawna; Sood, Sadhna; Sharma, Rameshwaram; Lalwani, Soniya

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the clinical serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), individually and in combination, for the diagnosis of 50 healthy subjects and 150 cases of esophageal, gastric, and colon cancers. Methods The sensitivities of the two markers were compared individually and in combination, with specificity set at 100%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. Results Serum CEA levels were significantly higher in cancer patients than in the control group. The sensitivity of CEA was determined: in esophageal cancer, sensitivity=28%, negative predictive value (NPV)=61.72%, and AUC=0.742 
(SE=0.05), with a significance level of P<0.0001; in gastric cancer, sensitivity=30%, NPV=58.82%, and AUC=0.734 (SE=0.05), with a significance level of P<0.0001; in colon cancer, sensitivity=74%, NPV=79.36%, and AUC=0.856 
(SE=0.04), with a significance level of P<0.0001. The sensitivity of CA19-9 was also evaluated: in esophageal cancer, sensitivity=18%, NPV=54.94%, and AUC=0.573 (SE =0.05), with a significance level of P=0.2054. In gastric cancer, sensitivity=42%, NPV=63.29%, and AUC=0.679 (SE =0.05), with a significance level of P<0.0011. In colon cancer, sensitivity=26%, NPV=57.47%, and AUC=0.580 (SE =0.05), with a significance level of P=0.1670. The following were the sensitivities of CEA/CA19-9 combined: in esophageal cancer, sensitivity=42%, NPV=63.29%, SE=0.078 (95% CI: 0.0159-0.322); gastric cancer, sensitivity=58%, NPV=70.42%, SE=0.072 (95% CI: -0.0866-0.198); and colon cancer, sensitivity=72%, NPV=78.12%, SE=0.070 (95% CI: 0.137-0.415). Conclusion CEA exhibited the highest sensitivity for colon cancer, and CA19-9 exhibited the highest sensitivity for gastric cancer. Combined analysis indicated an increase in diagnostic sensitivity in esophageal and gastric cancer compared with that in colon cancer. PMID:24379990

  12. Development of an imaging-guided CEA-pretargeted radionuclide treatment of advanced colorectal cancer: first clinical results

    PubMed Central

    Schoffelen, R; Boerman, O C; Goldenberg, D M; Sharkey, R M; van Herpen, C M L; Franssen, G M; McBride, W J; Chang, C-H; Rossi, E A; van der Graaf, W T A; Oyen, W J G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radiolabelled antibody targeting of cancer is limited by slow blood clearance. Pretargeting with a non-radiolabelled bispecific monoclonal antibody (bsMAb) followed by a rapidly clearing radiolabelled hapten peptide improves tumour localisation. The primary goals of this first pretargeting study in patients with the anti-CEACAM5 × anti-hapten (HSG) bsMAb, TF2, and the radiolabelled hapten-peptide, IMP288, were to assess optimal pretargeting conditions and safety in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Different dose schedules were studied in four cohorts of five patients: (1) shortening the interval between the bsMAb and peptide administration (5 days vs 1 day), (2) escalating the TF2 dose (from 75 to 150 mg), and (3) reducing the peptide dose (from 100 to 25 μg). After confirmation of tumour targeting by 111In-IMP288, patients were treated with a bsMAb/177Lu-IMP288 cycle. Results: Rapid and selective tumour targeting of the radiolabelled peptide was visualised within 1 h, with high tumour-to-tissue ratios (>20 at 24 h). Improved tumour targeting was achieved with a 1-day interval between the administration of the bsMAb and the peptide and with the 25-μg peptide dose. High 177Lu-IMP288 doses (2.5–7.4 GBq) were well tolerated, with some manageable TF2 infusion reactions, and transient grades 3–4 thrombocytopaenia in 10% of the patients who received 177Lu-IMP288. Conclusion: This phase I study demonstrates for the first time that pretargeting with bsMAb TF2 and radiolabelled IMP288 in patients with CEA-expressing CRC is feasible and safe. With this pretargeting method, tumours are specifically and rapidly targeted. PMID:23860529

  13. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier th

  14. Mitochondrial Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Viewed through the lens of the genome it contains, the mitochondrion is of unquestioned bacterial ancestry, originating from within the bacterial phylum α-Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria). Accordingly, the endosymbiont hypothesis—the idea that the mitochondrion evolved from a bacterial progenitor via symbiosis within an essentially eukaryotic host cell—has assumed the status of a theory. Yet mitochondrial genome evolution has taken radically different pathways in diverse eukaryotic lineages, and the organelle itself is increasingly viewed as a genetic and functional mosaic, with the bulk of the mitochondrial proteome having an evolutionary origin outside Alphaproteobacteria. New data continue to reshape our views regarding mitochondrial evolution, particularly raising the question of whether the mitochondrion originated after the eukaryotic cell arose, as assumed in the classical endosymbiont hypothesis, or whether this organelle had its beginning at the same time as the cell containing it. PMID:22952398

  15. Le mouvement du pôle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Les variations de la rotation terrestre. En conditionnant à la fois notre vie quotidienne, notre perception du ciel, et bon nombre de phénomènes géophysiques comme la formation des cyclones, la rotation de la Terre se trouve au croisement de plusieurs disciplines. Si le phenomena se faisait uniformément, le sujet serait vite discuté, mais c'est parce que la rotation terrestre varie, même imperceptiblement pour nos sens, dans sa vitesse angulaire comme dans la direction de son axe, qu'elle suscite un grand intérêt. D'abord pour des raisons pratiques : non seulement les aléas de la rotation terrestre modi_ent à la longue les pointés astrométriques à un instant donné de la journée mais in_uencent aussi les mesures opérées par les techniques spatiales ; en consequence l'exploitation de ces mesures, par exemple pour déterminer les orbites des satellites impliqués ou pratiquer le positionnement au sol, nécessite une connaissance précise de ces variations. Plus fondamentalement, elles traduisent les propriétés globales de la Terre comme les processus physiques qui s'y déroulent, si bien qu'en analysant les causes des fluctuations observées, on dispose d'un moyen de mieux connaître notre globe. La découverte progressive des fluctuations de la rotation de la Terre a une longue histoire. Sous l'angle des techniques d'observation, trois époques se pro-celle du pointé astrométrique à l'oeil nu, à l'aide d'instruments en bois ou métalliques (quart de cercle muraux par exemple). À partir du XVIIe siècle débute l'astrométrie télescopique dont les pointés sont complétés par des datations de plus en plus précises grâce à l'invention d'horloges régulées par balancier. Cette deuxième époque se termine vers 1960, avec l'avènement des techniques spatiales : les pointés astrométriques sont délaissés au profit de la mesure ultra-précise de durées ou de fréquences de signaux électromagnétiques, grâce à l'invention des horloges

  16. Carte du Ciel, San Fernando zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, C.

    2014-06-01

    An updated summary of a future large astrometric catalogue is presented, based on the two most important astrometric projects carried out by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada de San Fernando (ROA). The goal is to make a catalogue of positions and proper motions based on ROA's Cart du Ciel (CdC) and the Astrographic Catalogue (AC) San Fernando zone plates, and the HAMC2 meridian circle catalogue. The CdC and AC plates are being reduced together to provide first-epoch positions while HAMC2 will provide second-epoch ones. New techniques have been applied, that range from using a commercial flatbed scanner to the proper reduction schemes to avoid systematics from it. Only thirty plates (out of 540) remain to be processed, due to scanning problems that are being solved.

  17. Carl Ludwig, Jacob Henle, Hermann Helmholtz, Emil DuBois-Reymond and the scientific development of nephrology in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hierholzer, K

    1994-01-01

    Medical science in the 2nd half of the 19th century proceeded in a stepwise fashion, when the development of new techniques permitted the evaluation of living processes by direct microscopic or endoscopic inspection, as well as by quantitative measurements of the underlying physical and chemical forces. Ludwig, Henle, Helmholtz and DuBois-Reymond all contributed in different ways to the evolution of medicine and physiology into natural sciences, freed from romantic, philosophic speculation. Nephrology benefitted from this development and from the contributions of the non-nephrologists to natural science. PMID:7847467

  18. Classification moléculaire du cancer du sein au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Abbass; Yousra, Akasbi; Kaoutar, Znati; Omar, El Mesbahi; Afaf, Amarti; Sanae, Bennis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La classification moléculaire des cancers du sein basée sur l'expression génique puis sur le profil protéique a permis de distinguer cinq groupes moléculaires: luminal A, luminal B, Her2/neu, basal-like et non-classées. L'objectif de cette étude réalisée au CHU Hassan II de Fès est de classer 335 cancers du sein infiltrant en groupes moléculaires, puis de les corréler avec les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques. Méthodes Etude rétrospective étalée sur 45 mois, comportant 335 patientes colligées au CHU pour le diagnostic et le suivi. Les tumeurs sont analysées histologiquement et classées après une étude immunohistochimique en groupes: luminal A, luminal B, Her2+, basal-like et non-classées. Résultats 54.3% des tumeurs sont du groupe luminal A, 16% luminal B, 11.3% Her2+, 11.3% basal-like et 7% non-classées. Le groupe luminal A renferme le plus faible taux de grade III, d'emboles vasculaires ainsi que de métastases; alors que le groupe des non-classées et basal-like représentent un taux élevé de grade III, une faible proportion d'emboles vasculaires et d'envahissement ganglionnaire. Ces facteurs sont significativement élevés dans les groupes luminal B et Her2+ avec un taux de survie globale de 78% et 76% respectivement. Dans le groupe luminal A, la survie globale des patientes est élevée (87%) alors qu'elle n'est que de 49% dans le groupe des triples négatifs (basal-like et non-classés). Conclusion Le groupe luminal B est différent du luminal A et il est de pronostic péjoratif vis à vis du groupe Her2+. Les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques concordent avec le profil moléculaire donc devraient être pris en considération comme facteurs pronostiques. PMID:23396646

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere (papers in Philadelphia Library) DRAWING OF REDWOOD LIBRARY IN 1768. - Redwood Library, 50 Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Newport County, RI

  20. CEA blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  1. CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... may also be used as a marker for medullary thyroid cancer and cancers of the rectum, lung , ... ulcerative colitis , rectal polyps , emphysema , and benign breast disease. ^ Back to top Proudly sponsored by ... Learn more ...

  2. Oxidation states of uranium in DU particles from Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Salbu, B; Janssens, K; Lind, O C; Proost, K; Danesi, P R

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation states of uranium contained in depleted uranium (DU) particles were determined by synchrotron radiation based micro-XANES, applied to individual particles in soil samples collected at Ceja Mountain, Kosovo. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with XRMA prior to micro-XANES, DU particles ranging from submicrons to about 30 microm (average size: 2 microm or less) were identified. Compared to well-defined standards, all investigated DU particles were oxidized. About 50% of the DU particles were characterized as UO2, the remaining DU particles present were U3O8 or a mixture of oxidized forms (ca. 2/3 UO2, 1/3 U3O8). Since the particle weathering rate is expected to be higher for U3O8 than for UO2, the presence of respiratory U3O8 and UO2 particles, their corresponding weathering rates and subsequent remobilisation of U from DU particles should be included in the environmental or health impact assessments. PMID:12500803

  3. Tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique : à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Zizi, Mohamed; Ziouziou, Imad; El Yacoubi, Souhail; Khmou, Mouna; Jahid, Ahmed; Mahassini, Najat; Karmouni, Tariq; El Khader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Iben Attya

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Les tumeurs du sac vitellin du testicule sont rares chez l’adulte. Ces tumeurs se caractérisent par un mauvais pronostic à un stade métastatique avancé. Cependant, nous rapportons, dans le présent article, le cas clinique d’un adulte de 32 ans qui présentait une tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique. Ce patient a subi une orchidectomie haute, accompagnée de quatre cycles de chimiothérapie à base de bléomycine, d’étoposide et de cisplatine. Il a répondu complètement au traitement, moyennant un recul de deux ans. PMID:25295144

  4. CEA Level, Radical Surgery, CD56 and CgA Expression Are Prognostic Factors for Patients With Locoregional Gastrin-Independent GNET

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Bi, Xinyu; Zhao, Jianjun; Huang, Zhen; Zhou, Jianguo; Li, Zhiyu; Zhang, Yefan; Li, Muxing; Chen, Xiao; Hu, Xuhui; Chi, Yihebali; Zhao, Dongbing; Zhao, Hong; Cai, Jianqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastrin-independent gastric neuroendocrine tumors (GNETs) are highly malignant. Radical resections and lymphadenectomy are considered to be the only possible curative treatment for these tumors. However, the prognosis of gastrin-independent GNETs is not well defined. In this study, we identified prognostic factors of locoregional gastrin-independent GNETs. All patients diagnosed with locoregional gastrin-independent GNETs between 2000 and 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical characteristics, blood tests, pathological characteristics, treatments, and follow-up data of the patients were collected and analyzed. Of the 66 patients diagnosed with locoregional gastrin-independent GNETs, 57 (86.4%) received radical resections, 7 (10.6%) with palliative resection, 1 (1.5%) with gastrojejunostomy, and 1 (1.5%) with exploration surgeries. The median survival time for these patients was 19.0 months (interquartile range, 11.0–38.0). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 72%, 34%, and 28%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (P = 0.04), radical resection (P = 0.04), and positive Cluster of Differentiation 56 (CD56) expression (P = 0.016) were significant prognostic factors on overall survival rate. Further univariate and multivariate analysis of 57 patients who received radical resections found that CgA expression (P = 0.35) and CEA level (P = 0.33) are independent prognostic factors. Gastrin-independent GNETs had poor prognosis. Serum CEA level, radical surgery, CD56 and CgA expression are markers to evaluate the survival of patients with locoregional gastrin-independent GNETs. PMID:27149478

  5. Evaluation of the concrete shield compositions from the 2010 criticality accident alarm system benchmark experiments at the CEA Valduc SILENE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Celik, Cihangir; Dunn, Michael E; Wagner, John C; McMahan, Kimberly L; Authier, Nicolas; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Wolff, Herve; Savanier, Laurence; Baclet, Nathalie; Lee, Yi-kang; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Masse, Veronique; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Naury, Sylvie; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Hunter, Richard; Kim, Soon; Dulik, George Michael; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, a series of benchmark experiments were conducted at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems. This series of experiments consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. For the first experiment, the reactor was bare (unshielded), whereas in the second and third experiments, it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. The polyethylene shield of the third experiment had a cadmium liner on its internal and external surfaces, which vertically was located near the fuel region of SILENE. During each experiment, several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor. Nearly half of the foils and TLDs had additional high-density magnetite concrete, high-density barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond shields. CEA Saclay provided all the concrete, and the US Y-12 National Security Complex provided the BoroBond. Measurement data from the experiments were published at the 2011 International Conference on Nuclear Criticality (ICNC 2011) and the 2013 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD 2013) topical meeting. Preliminary computational results for the first experiment were presented in the ICNC 2011 paper, which showed poor agreement between the computational results and the measured values of the foils shielded by concrete. Recently the hydrogen content, boron content, and density of these concrete shields were further investigated within the constraints of the previously available data. New computational results for the first experiment are now available that

  6. Phase 1 studies of the safety and immunogenicity of electroporated HER2/CEA DNA vaccine followed by adenoviral boost immunization in patients with solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background DNA electroporation has been demonstrated in preclinical models to be a promising strategy to improve cancer immunity, especially when combined with other genetic vaccines in heterologous prime-boost protocols. We report the results of 2 multicenter phase 1 trials involving adult cancer patients (n=33) with stage II-IV disease. Methods Patients were vaccinated with V930 alone, a DNA vaccine containing equal amounts of plasmids expressing the extracellular and trans-membrane domains of human HER2, and a plasmid expressing CEA fused to the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (Study 1), or a heterologous prime-boost vaccination approach with V930 followed by V932, a dicistronic adenovirus subtype-6 viral vector vaccine coding for the same antigens (Study 2). Results The use of the V930 vaccination with electroporation alone or in combination with V932 was well-tolerated without any serious adverse events. In both studies, the most common vaccine-related side effects were injection site reactions and arthralgias. No measurable cell-mediated immune response (CMI) to CEA or HER2 was detected in patients by ELISPOT; however, a significant increase of both cell-mediated immunity and antibody titer against the bacterial heat labile toxin were observed upon vaccination. Conclusion V930 vaccination alone or in combination with V932 was well tolerated without any vaccine-related serious adverse effects, and was able to induce measurable immune responses against bacterial antigen. However, the prime-boost strategy did not appear to augment any detectable CMI responses against either CEA or HER2. Trial registration Study 1 – ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00250419; Study 2 – ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00647114. PMID:23497415

  7. Association of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Opa(CEA) with dendritic cells suppresses their ability to elicit an HIV-1-specific T cell memory response.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qigui; Chow, Edith M C; McCaw, Shannon E; Hu, Ningjie; Byrd, Daniel; Amet, Tohti; Hu, Sishun; Ostrowski, Mario A; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) can trigger an intense local inflammatory response at the site of infection, yet there is little specific immune response or development of immune memory. Gonococcal surface epitopes are known to undergo antigenic variation; however, this is unlikely to explain the weak immune response to infection since individuals can be re-infected by the same serotype. Previous studies have demonstrated that the colony opacity-associated (Opa) proteins on the N. gonorrhoeae surface can bind human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) on CD4⁺ T cells to suppress T cell activation and proliferation. Interesting in this regard, N. gonorrhoeae infection is associated with impaired HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1)-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses and with transient increases in plasma viremia in HIV-1-infected patients, suggesting that N. gonorrhoeae may also subvert immune responses to co-pathogens. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) that play a key role in the induction of an adaptive immune response, we investigated the effects of N. gonorrhoeae Opa proteins on human DC activation and function. While morphological changes reminiscent of DC maturation were evident upon N. gonorrhoeae infection, we observed a marked downregulation of DC maturation marker CD83 when the gonococci expressing CEACAM1-specific Opa(CEA), but not other Opa variants. Consistent with a gonococcal-induced defect in maturation, Opa(CEA) binding to CEACAM1 reduced the DCs' capacity to stimulate an allogeneic T cell proliferative response. Moreover, Opa(CEA)-expressing N. gonorrhoeae showed the potential to impair DC-dependent development of specific adaptive immunity, since infection with Opa(CEA)-positive gonococci suppressed the ability of DCs to stimulate HIV-1-specific memory CTL responses. These results reveal a novel mechanism to explain why

  8. The pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) gene cluster on human chromosome 19: Fine structure of the 11 PSG genes and identification of 6 new genes forming a third subgroup within the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family

    SciTech Connect

    Teglund, S.; Fraengsmyr, L.; Hammarstroem, S.

    1994-10-01

    The human pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) genes belong to the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family, which in turn is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. We have analyzed a 700-kb cosmid contig spanning the PSG region on chromosome 19q13.2. The region contains 11 closely related PSG genes organized in tandem with a highly conserved structure and organization. Seven novel genes (CGM12 to CGM18) were found in the PSG region. CGM12 belongs to the CEA subgroup and appears to be a pseudogene. CGM13 to CGM18 forms a third new subgroup within the CEA gene family. The members of this new subgroup show 94-99% identity to each other but only 70-80% to other members of either the CEA or the PSG subgroups. They are composed of exons encoding two IgC-like domains and short hydrophilic carboxyl terminals similar to those of the PSGs. Unlike any of the known CEA family genes, however, they seem to lack the exon for an IgV-like N-terminal domain. 54 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Mise à jour sur le nouveau vaccin 9-valent pour la prévention du virus du papillome humain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, David Yi; Bracken, Keyna

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Informer les médecins de famille quant à l’efficacité, à l’innocuité, aux effets sur la santé publique et à la rentabilité du vaccin 9-valent contre le virus du papillome humain (VPH). Qualité des données Des articles pertinents publiés dans PubMed jusqu’en mai 2015 ont été examinés et analysés. La plupart des données citées sont de niveau I (essais randomisés et contrôlés et méta-analyses) ou de niveau II (études transversales, cas-témoins et épidémiologiques). Des rapports et recommandations du gouvernement sont aussi cités en référence. Message principal Le vaccin 9-valent contre le VPH, qui offre une protection contre les types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 et 58 du VPH, est sûr et efficace et réduira encore plus l’incidence des infections à VPH, de même que les cas de cancer lié au VPH. Il peut également protéger indirectement les personnes non immunisées par l’entremise du phénomène d’immunité collective. Un programme d’immunisation efficace peut prévenir la plupart des cancers du col de l’utérus. Les analyses montrent que la rentabilité du vaccin 9-valent chez les femmes est comparable à celle du vaccin quadrivalent original contre le VPH (qui protège contre les types 6, 11, 16 et 18 du VPH) en usage à l’heure actuelle. Toutefois, il faut investiguer plus en profondeur l’utilité d’immuniser les garçons avec le vaccin 9-valent contre le VPH. Conclusion en plus d’être sûr, le vaccin 9-valent protège mieux contre le VPH que le vaccin quadrivalent. Une analyse coûtefficacité en favorise l’emploi, du moins chez les adolescentes. Ainsi, les médecins devraient recommander le vaccin 9-valent à leurs patients plutôt que le vaccin quadrivalent contre le VPH.

  10. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique: une localisation exceptionnelle

    PubMed Central

    Hamdane, Mohamed Moncef; Bougrine, Fethi; Msakni, Issam; Dhaoui-Ghozzi, Amen; Bouziani, Ammar

    2011-01-01

    L’ hydatidose est une anthropo-zoonose due au développement chez l'homme de la forme larvaire du taenia Echinococcus granulosis. La plupart des kystes hydatiques se localisent dans le foie et les poumons. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique est extrêmement rare avec seulement 4 cas rapportés dans la littérature. Les auteurs rapportent dans cet article un nouveau cas d'hydatidose du cordon spermatique. Il s'agissait d'un homme de 40 ans qui consultait pour des douleurs scrotales évoluant depuis huit mois. L'examen clinique a mis en évidence une tuméfaction mobile, inguino-scrotale, droite. L’échographie testiculaire a objectivé une hernie inguinale droite associée à deux kystes épididymaires bilatéraux. Le patient a été opéré pour cure de son hernie avec découverte en per-opératoire d'un kyste du cordon spermatique qui a été réséqué. L'examen anatomopathologique a conclu à une hydatidose du cordon spermatique. PMID:22384304

  11. Modelisation du Signal Radar EN Milieu Stratifie et Evaluation de Techniques de Mesure de L'humidite du Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Johanne

    La presente etude se penche sur des problemes relies a l'echantillonnage de l'humidite de sol et a l'estimation du signal radar sur sols nus. Le travail se divise en deux volets. Le volet 1 evalue trois techniques de mesure de l'humidite du sol (gravimetrie, reflectometrie temporelle et sonde dielectrique) et deux protocoles d'echantillonnage. Dans le volet 2, un modele de simulation du signal en milieu stratifie est developpe, et les estimes de signal obtenus sont compares aux estimes bases uniquement sur une valeur moyenne d'humidite du sol prise sur une profondeur fixe d'echantillonnage. Les differences entre les deux estimes dependent de la frequence et du choix judicieux de la profondeur d'echantillonnage; elles sont plus importantes aux faibles angles et en polarisation HV, puis VV. Le modele de simulation a aussi ete utilise pour etudier la profondeur de penetration du signal et en deduire la profondeur optimale d'echantillonnage en tenant compte des caracteristiques du signal. Une variation de 25 ^circ de l'angle d'incidence a peu d'effet sur la profondeur de penetration en bande Ku; l'ecart reste inferieur ou egal a 0,5 cm en bande C mais peut atteindre 1,3 cm en bande L. L'impact de la polarisation est nul en bande Ku mais croi t avec l'angle d'incidence en bande C et L. A 50^circ, il est, en moyenne de 1 cm en bande C et de 2 cm en bande L. En polarisation VV, la profondeur croi t avec une augmentation de l'angle alors que l'effet est inverse en polarisation HH. Deux methodes pour estimer la profondeur d'echantillonnage en conditions operationnelles sont presentees. Lorsqu'on inverse un modele pour estimer l'humidite du sol a partir du signal, ces methodes permettent aussi d'estimer l'epaisseur de sol representee par l'humidite ainsi estimee.

  12. 78 FR 37652 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kenosha, Racine, Milwaukee, Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond Du...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ..., Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond Du Lac, Winnebago, Outagamie and Brown Counties, Wisconsin AGENCY... proposed Interstate conversion of U.S. Highway 41 in Milwaukee, Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond du Lac... 41 to an Interstate in Milwaukee, Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond du Lac, Winnebago, Outagamie,...

  13. Viral evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Kyung Mo; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Explaining the origin of viruses remains an important challenge for evolutionary biology. Previous explanatory frameworks described viruses as founders of cellular life, as parasitic reductive products of ancient cellular organisms or as escapees of modern genomes. Each of these frameworks endow viruses with distinct molecular, cellular, dynamic and emergent properties that carry broad and important implications for many disciplines, including biology, ecology and epidemiology. In a recent genome-wide structural phylogenomic analysis, we have shown that large-to-medium-sized viruses coevolved with cellular ancestors and have chosen the evolutionary reductive route. Here we interpret these results and provide a parsimonious hypothesis for the origin of viruses that is supported by molecular data and objective evolutionary bioinformatic approaches. Results suggest two important phases in the evolution of viruses: (1) origin from primordial cells and coexistence with cellular ancestors, and (2) prolonged pressure of genome reduction and relatively late adaptation to the parasitic lifestyle once virions and diversified cellular life took over the planet. Under this evolutionary model, new viral lineages can evolve from existing cellular parasites and enhance the diversity of the world’s virosphere. PMID:23550145

  14. Insect evolution.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    It goes without saying that insects epitomize diversity, and with over a million documented species they stand out as one of the most remarkable lineages in the 3.5-billion-year history of life on earth (Figure 1). This reality is passé to even the layperson and is taken for granted in the same way none of us think much of our breathing as we go about our day, and yet insects are just as vital to our existence. Insects are simultaneously familiar and foreign to us, and while a small fraction are beloved or reviled, most are simply ignored. These inexorable evolutionary overachievers outnumber us all, their segmented body plan is remarkably labile, they combine a capacity for high rates of speciation with low levels of natural extinction, and their history of successes eclipses those of the more familiar ages of dinosaurs and mammals alike. It is their evolution - persisting over vast expanses of geological time and inextricably implicated in the diversification of other lineages - that stands as one of the most expansive subjects in biology. PMID:26439349

  15. La chirurgie du diaphragme sous aortique

    PubMed Central

    Moutakiallah, Younes; Maaroufi, Ilham; Aithoussa, Mahdi; Bamous, Mehdi; Abdou, Abdessamad; Atmani, Noureddine; Hatim, Abdedaïm; Amahzoune, Brahim; Bekkali, Youssef El; Boulahya, Abdelatif

    2016-01-01

    Le diaphragme sous aortique se caractérise par une certaine latence clinique et une faible morbi-mortalité. La chirurgie reste le traitement de choix malgré un réel risque de récurrence à long terme. Nous rapportons 18 patients opérés entre Avril 1994 et Mars 2011 pour diaphragme sous aortique d’âge moyen de 18,1±9,7 ans avec 11 patients de sexe masculin. Le diaphragme était de nature fibreuse chez 13 patients et fibro-musculaire chez 5 patients. Tous les patients ont été opérés par résection de diaphragme associée à une myectomie, une plastie aortique, une fermeture de communication interventriculaire et une ligature de canal artériel perméable respectivement chez 3, 3, 2 et 2 patients. La Mortalité opératoire était nulle et sans aucun cas de trouble de conduction postopératoire. Le suivi a duré en moyenne 44,3±36,8 mois sans aucun décès tardif. Deux patients ont présenté une récidive de diaphragme qui a nécessité une réopération avec bonne évolution. La tendance actuelle dans la chirurgie du diaphragme se fait vers des interventions précoces et des résections plus extensives. Cependant, le risque de récidive impose une surveillance échographique systématique et rapprochée. PMID:27516830

  16. Les rivières et les sources de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac: extrait du rapport sur les eaux souterraines de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    Les principales rivières de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac, la Rivière Grise ou Grande Rivière du Cul-de-Sac et la Rivière Blanche, prennent naissance sur le flanc Nord du Massif de la Selle à des altitudes de 1,300 à 1,800 mètres au dessus du niveau de la mer. Elles coulent à l’amont à travers des gorges profondes et sont éloignées de 9 Kms. dans la partie central de la bordure Sud de la plaine.

  17. Effets du vieillisement de la batterie Li-ion sur les performances d'un vehicule recreatif hybride branchable a trois roues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Jonathan

    La prediction de l'evolution du vieillissement de la batterie lithium-ion est source d'un grand defi, dans les applications liees aux vehicules electriques et hybrides. Sa meconnaissance est un risque considerable compromettant la viabilite d'un tel systeme. Invoquant les couts substantiels de la densite d'energie, liee a la degradation considerable des performances de la batterie au cours de sa duree de vie, il devient important d'en tenir compte des le processus de conception. La dependance de la strategie de controle du vehicule aux parametres de la batterie justifie aussi la necessite d'une telle prediction. Il est connu que le vieillissement, sensible aux facteurs tels que le courant, la temperature et la profondeur de decharge, a un impact considerable sur la perte de capacite de la batterie ainsi que sur l'augmentation de la resistance interne. Le premier est directement lie a l'autonomie electrique du vehicule, alors que le second mene a une surchauffe de la batterie, a une augmentation des pertes en puissance qui se manifeste par une diminution de la tension de bus. A cet egard, implique dans la conception d'un vehicule recreatif hybride branchable a trois roues, le Centre de Technologies Avancees s'interesse a l'etude du vieillissement de la batterie Li-ion pour une telle application. Pour ce faire, au contraire de la plupart des estimations empiriques de la duree de vie, basees sur des profils de decharge a courant constant, un profil de courant plus approprie pour l'application donnee, base sur un cycle de vitesse representatif de la conduite d'une motocyclette, a ete utilise. Par le biais d'un simulateur complet du vehicule, le cycle de courant a ete extrait du cycle de vitesse. Ainsi, les travaux menes impliquent l'analyse experimentale de la decharge cyclique de quatre cellules LiFePO 4. Pendant plus de 1400 cycles, un banc d'essai complet a permis l'acquisition de la capacite, de la resistance interne, du courant, de la tension ainsi que de la

  18. Du pont ''Freon'' helps tap geothermal wells for power

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    Low-grade heat from geothermal wells can now be harnessed to produce electricity by using Du Pont ''Freon'' IF as the power conversion fluid. The new system was developed by Turbonetics Energy Inc. The company's Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system takes advantage of the low boiling point (117F) of Du Pont ''Freon'' TF. Geothermal energy is harnessed by utilizing the heat from 200F to 400F water to vaporize the ''Freon'' power fluid. Then the fluid expands through a turbine and drives a generator. The system can produce from 600 kW of electric power.

  19. EMU evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouen, M.

    1991-01-01

    Evolution of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) technology is necessary to support the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) requirements of the Space Station Freedom Program and those of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Key qualities supporting long-duration missions include technologies that are highly reliable, durable, minimize logistics requirements, and are in-flight maintainable and serviceable. While these qualities are common to SSF and SEI EVA, development paths will differ where specific mission requirements impose different constraints. Development of reusable, regenerative technologies is necessary to minimize the logistics penalties. Increased battery discharge/recharge cycle life and usable wet life, compact high current density fuel cells, reusable CO2 absorbing media, and thermal radiation coupled with venting heat rejection technologies are just some methods of reducing consumables. Development must strive for durable, reliable systems that are in-flight serviceable and maintainable, which are vital for missions where logistics capabilities are extremely constrained. Key areas include suit components (e.g., gloves, boots, and cooling garments), and life support hardware such as fans, pumps, instrumentation, and emergency O2 systems. Higher pressure suits will reduce EVA prebreathe requirements and pre-EVA operations overall. Many challenges of higher pressure suits have been addressed by on-going development. Emphasis on glove development is necessary to provide low fatigue, dexterous glove mobility at higher suit pressures. Minimum impact hooks and scars which support an advanced SSF EMU have been identified. These accommodations permit upgrades that support servicing of low volume, high pressure oxygen systems, and hydrogen technologies such as fuel cell, and venting hydrogen heat rejection systems.

  20. Baisse du HDL-cholestérol indicateur du stress oxydatif dans le diabète de type 2

    PubMed Central

    Kabamba, Arsène Tshikongo; Bakari, Salvius Amuri; Longanga, Albert Otshudi; Lukumwena, Zet Kalala

    2014-01-01

    L'hypercholestérolémie est étroitement liée au stress oxydatif. Lorsqu'il y a trop de cholestérol qui circule dans le sang, il n'est pas utilisé en totalité par les cellules et il risque de s'accumuler dans les vaisseaux sanguins. Cela peut entrainer la formation des plaques d'athérosclérose qui gênent la circulation sanguine et provoquent des accidents cardiovasculaires. Le stress oxydatif apparait très tôt dans l'histoire des complications du diabète de type 2, et est lié à l'oxydation du glucose mais aussi à la peroxydation lipidique. Le cholestérol-HDL est un marqueur important du stress oxydatif par sa capacité à faciliter la métabolisation du cholestérol, sa baisse est souvent considérée comme la source de beaucoup d'inquiétudes. L'objectif est l’évaluation de la variation du taux de cholestérol-HDL, marqueur du stress oxydatif, chez les patients diabétiques de type 2 dans la population congolaise. Nous avons inclus dans cette étude prospective des cas témoins des patients diabétiques de type 2 reconnus et diagnostiqués, et des témoins non diabétiques appariés selon l’âge et le sexe. Parallèlement au bilan biologique classique, une analyse d'un des facteurs de risque du stress oxydatif a été réalisée: baisse de HDL-Cholestérol. L’âge moyen des 30 patients diabétiques (47,77±10,78 ans) était comparable à celui des 30 témoins (48,83±10,73 ans). Une baisse significative du cholestérol-HDL dans le sang était observée chez 100% des diabétiques et 50% des témoins (p=0,0000). L'augmentation du HDL cholestérol permet d’éliminer le mauvais cholestérol en excès en nettoyant les tissus et en ramenant le cholestérol vers le foie. Lors du diabète de type 2 on constate une baisse sanguine sensible du taux de HDL-cholestérol, qui est signe indicateur du stress oxydatif. PMID:25767660

  1. Application of biochemical markers CA 19-9, CEA and C-reactive protein in diagnosis of malicious and benign pancreatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Piskorz, Łukasz; Wawrzycki, Marcin; Dobielski, Przemysław; Pikala, Małgorzata; Jabłoński, Sławomir; Brocki, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We would save many lives and spare a lot of suffering if we could only detect and accurately determine the character and TMN staging of pancreatic tumors (PTs). With improved diagnosis, we could offer specific treatment that would result in better treatment outcome. The aim of study was to determine the significance of neoplastic markers CA 19-9 and CEA for prognosis in inflammatory and carcinomatous PTs. Material and methods We based our research upon a group of 170 patients. The patients were treated in our Oncologic Surgery Department from January 2007 to December 2010 for PTs. The patients were divided into four groups depending on the character of the tumor and underwent the following treatments: group 1 – 34 patients with carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater, group 2 – 64 patients with PTs at different stages (1, 2, 3) according to TMN classification, group 3 – 62 patients with PTs at stage 4 on the TMN scale (unresectable tumors), group 4 – 28 patients with inflammatory PTs. Results The results of Ca 19-9 in group 2 were 736.00 (25–75% 220.40–4285.00) ng/ml before surgery, 53.00 (25–75% 12.60–84.00) ng/ml in the 7 days after surgery, 29.4 (25–75% 7.90–113.00) ng/ml at day 30, and 119.00 (25–75% 96.30–621.00) ng/ml 3 months after the operation. These results were significantly higher than the control group but were significantly lower than the results for group 3 (unresectable tumors). The highest average concentration and median for CA 19-9 and CEA were noted in patients with unresectable PTs (the 3rd group). The average concentration for CEA was lowest in group 4, but much higher than the lab limits. Conclusions The sensitivity of the CA 19-9 marker may be as high as 88%. Values of CA 19-9 above 852 U/ml may indicate TNM stage 4, consistent with an unresectable PT. In the cases where CA 19-9 is within normal limits but C-reactive protein is above normal limits (often thirty times the upper limit), in comparison to the

  2. Consequences experimentales des effets des fluctuations du vide sur la fluorescence parametrique et la generation du second harmonique en milieu confine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, Luc

    Les fluctuations du vide, qui consistent en l'apparition momentanee de particules, ce qui est permit par le principe d'incertitude de Heisenberg, joue un role primordial dans les processus photoniques, en particulier les processus non-lineaires. Par la manipulation de ces fluctuations du vide a l'aide de confinement optique, on retrouve deux phenomenes particuliers : l'intensification de la fluorescence parametrique (Walker, 2008) et l'inhibition de la generation du second harmonique (Collette, 2013). Dans ce travail, on presente les resultats dans le cas classique ; c'est-a-dire sans fluctuations du vide et confinement. Par la suite, on presente les effets des fluctuations du vide et du confinement, ce qui mene aux deux effets mentionnes. Dans le cas de la fluorescence parametrique, le bruit quantique sur le champ interne et externe est calcule, le role du desaccord de phase dans le modele est expose et une generalisation tridimensionnelle est etudiee afin de generaliser la conception du modele d'un cas unidimensionnel a un cas tridimensionnel planaire. Dans le cas de la generation du second harmonique, les difficultes d'un modele purement tridimensionnel sont exposees et ensuite le cas limite planaire est etudie.

  3. Systems assessment of water savings impact of controlled environment agriculture (CEA) utilizing wirelessly networked Sense•Decide•Act•Communicate (SDAC) systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Jonathan T.; Baynes, Edward E., Jr.; Aguirre,Carlos; Jordan, Jon; Giacomelli, Gene; Waggoner, Justin; Loest, Clint; Szumel, Leo; Nakaoka, Tyler; Pate, Ronald C.; Berry, Nina M.; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Aguirre, Francisco Luis; Aguilar, Jose; Gupta, Vipin P.; Ochoa, Juan; Davis, Jesse Zehring; Ramos, Damian

    2005-02-01

    Reducing agricultural water use in arid regions while maintaining or improving economic productivity of the agriculture sector is a major challenge. Controlled environment agriculture (CEA, or, greenhouse agriculture) affords advantages in direct resource use (less land and water required) and productivity (i.e., much higher product yield and quality per unit of resources used) relative to conventional open-field practices. These advantages come at the price of higher operating complexity and costs per acre. The challenge is to implement and apply CEA such that the productivity and resource use advantages will sufficiently outweigh the higher operating costs to provide for overall benefit and viability. This project undertook an investigation of CEA for livestock forage production as a water-saving alternative to open-field forage production in arid regions. Forage production is a large consumer of fresh water in many arid regions of the world, including the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. With increasing competition among uses (agriculture, municipalities, industry, recreation, ecosystems, etc.) for limited fresh water supplies, agricultural practice alternatives that can potentially maintain or enhance productivity while reducing water use warrant consideration. The project established a pilot forage production greenhouse facility in southern New Mexico based on a relatively modest and passive (no active heating or cooling) system design pioneered in Chihuahua, Mexico. Experimental operations were initiated in August 2004 and carried over into early-FY05 to collect data and make initial assessments of operational and technical system performance, assess forage nutrition content and suitability for livestock, identify areas needing improvement, and make initial assessment of overall feasibility. The effort was supported through the joint leveraging of late-start FY04 LDRD funds and bundled CY2004 project funding from the New Mexico Small Business Technical

  4. Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) Demonstration Using a Representative Savannah River Site Sludge Simulant On the Large-Size Pilot Platform at the CEA-Marcoule

    SciTech Connect

    Girold, C.; Delaunay, M.; Dussossoy, J.L.; Lacombe, J.; Iverson, D.; Do Quang, R.; Tchemitcheff, E.; Veyer, C.

    2008-07-01

    The cold-crucible induction melter technology (CCIM) is considered worldwide for industrial implementation to overcome the current limits of high level waste vitrification technologies and to answer future challenges such as: new or difficult sludge compositions, need for improving waste loading, need for high temperatures, and corrosive effluents. More particularly, this technology is being considered for implementation at the US DOE Savannah River site to increase the rate of waste processing while reducing the number of HLW canisters to be produced through increased waste loading and improved waste throughput. A collaborative program involving AREVA, CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission), SRNL (Savannah River National Laboratory) and WSRC (Washington Savannah River Company) has thus been initiated in 2007 to demonstrate vitrification with waste loadings on the order of 50% (versus the current DWPF waste loading of about 35%) with a PUREX-type waste composition (high Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composition), and to perform two pilot-scale runs on the large size platform equipped with a 650 mm diameter CCIM at the CEA Marcoule. The objectives of the demonstrations were 1) to show the feasibility of processing a representative SRS sludge surrogate using continuous slurry feeding, 2) to produce a glass that would meet the acceptance specifications with an increased waste loading when compared to what is presently achieved at the DWPF, and 3) achieve improved waste throughputs. This presentation describes the platform and the very encouraging results obtained from the demonstration performed at temperatures, specific throughputs and waste loadings that overcome current DWPF limits. Results from the initial exploratory run and second demonstration run include 1) production of a glass product that achieved the targeted glass composition that was more durable than the standard Environmental Assessment (EA) glass, 2) successful slurry feeding of the CCIM, and 3) promising waste

  5. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    SciTech Connect

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.

    2003-02-24

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R&D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality.

  6. College of DuPage Student Portrait, Fall Quarter 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL. Office of Research and Planning.

    The report profiles the College of DuPage's (COD) fall quarter 1999 student body. It presents a brief history of the college's enrollment and a comparison of enrollments with other Illinois community colleges. It also provides demographic information on current students. Additionally, enrollment information is included by program, division, and…

  7. W. E. B. Du Bois: Reform, Will, and the Veil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Lynn; Warner, W. Keith

    2013-01-01

    While W. E. B. Du Bois is widely recognized for his contributions to the sociology of race, his contributions to the foundations of sociology are largely ignored. His sociology is based on African American reformism, a version of pragmatism, and a contingent historicism. The basic view of sociology is one that emphasizes the role of chance and…

  8. Pic-du-Midi Observatory (Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees) (OMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    OMP is under the administrative supervision of both the Institute des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU) of the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and the Ministry of Research, Technology and Education. It has laboratories located at the Université Paul Sabatier in Toulouse, Bagnères, Lannemezan and at the summit of Pic du Midi de Bigorre....

  9. Cost-Effective Remediation of Depleted Uranium (DU) at Environmental Restoration Sites

    SciTech Connect

    MILLER,MARK; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B.; VANDERPOEL,GLENN; JOHNSON,ED; COPLAND,JOHN; SALAZAR,MICHAEL

    1999-11-03

    Numerous sites in the United States and around the world are contaminated with depleted uranium (DU) in various forms. A prevalent form is fragmented DU originating from various scientific tests involving high explosives and DU during weapon-development programs, at firing practice ranges, or in war theaters where DU was used in armor-piercing projectiles. The contamination at these sites is typically very heterogeneous, with discrete, visually identifiable DU fragments mixed with native soil. The bulk-averaged DU activity is quite low, whereas DU fragments, which are distinct from the soil matrix, have much higher specific activity. DU is best known as a dark metal that is nearly twice as dense as lead, but DU in the environment readily weathers (oxidizes) to a distinctive bright yellow color that is quite visible. While the specific activity (amount of radioactivity per mass of soil) of DU is relatively low and presents only a minor radiological hazard, the fact that DU is radioactive and visually identifiable makes it desirable to remove the DU ''contamination'' from the environment. The typical approach to conducting this DU remediation is to use radiation-detection instruments to identify the contaminant and then to separate it from the adjacent soil, packaging it for disposal as radioactive waste. This process can be performed manually or by specialized, automated equipment. Alternatively, a more cost-effective approach might be simple mechanical or gravimetric separation of the DU fragments from the host soil matrix. At SNL/NM, both the automated and simple mechanical approaches have recently been employed. This paper discusses the pros/cons of the two approaches.

  10. Expression of the immediate early IE180 protein under the control of the hTERT and CEA tumor-specific promoters in recombinant pseudorabies viruses: Effects of IE180 protein on promoter activity and apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Lerma, L; Alcalá, S; Piñero, C; Torres, M; Martin, B; Lim, F; Sainz, B; Tabarés, E

    2016-01-15

    Since the pseudorabies virus (PRV) genome encodes for a single immediate-early protein, IE180, we reasoned that this strong transactivating protein could represent a key regulatory switch that could be genetically manipulated in order to alter its tropism towards cancer cells. We therefore initiated studies to test whether the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) tumor promoters could functionally replace the IE180 promoter. We show that both promoters can functionally substitute the IE180 promoter in plasmid constructs and recombinant viruses, and observed that IE180 differentially auto-regulated each promoter tested, with PRV IE180 negatively regulating the hTERT promoter but positively hyper-activating the CEA promoter. Interestingly, we also observed that the recombinant PRV-TER and PRV-CEA viruses preferentially replicated in diverse cancer cell lines compared to control non-cancer cells, and the PRV-CEA was capable of additionally inducing a profound apoptotic phenotype which we correlated to the overexpression of IE180. PMID:26590793

  11. Evolution: Help for the Confused.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Bradley T.

    1979-01-01

    Written in response to an earlier article questioning certain aspects of evolution theory. Discusses ontogeny and phylogeny, the basis of evolution, chance or purpose in evolution, micro and macro-evolution, reversibility, and the evolution processes today. (MA)

  12. Paralysie néonatal unilatérale du nerf radial

    PubMed Central

    Benemmane, Halima; Hali, Fouzia; Marnissi, Farida; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2015-01-01

    La paralysie néonatale unilatérale du nerf radial est rare, son diagnostic est essentiellement clinique, elle peut-être diagnostiquée à tort en tant que paralysie du plexus brachial. Nous rapportons un cas clinique. A l'examen clinique du nouveau-né; l'extension du poignet, du pouce et des articulations métacarpo-phalangiennes était impossible, alors qu'il y avait une conservation de la prono-supination et la flexion du poignet et des mouvements de l’épaule et du coude. Le diagnostic de la paralysie du plexus brachial était écarté cliniquement devant la mobilisation active de l’épaule et la flexion du coude. Notre patient a bénéficié de kinésithérapie pour éviter l'apparition d'attitudes vicieuses et d'amyotrophie. L'extension active du poignet était obtenue après deux mois. PMID:26587133

  13. Les inconvénients de perdre du poids

    PubMed Central

    Bosomworth, N. John

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Explorer les raisons pour lesquelles la perte de poids à long terme échoue la plupart du temps et évaluer les conséquences de diverses trajectoires pondérales, y compris la stabilité, la perte et le gain. Source des données Les études qui évaluent les paramètres pondéraux dans la population sont en majorité observationnelles. Des données probantes de niveau I ont été publiées pour évaluer l’influence des interventions relatives au poids sur la mortalité et la qualité de vie. Message principal Seulement un petit pourcentage des personnes qui désirent perdre du poids réussissent à le faire de manière durable. La mortalité est la plus faible chez les personnes se situant dans la catégorie de poids élevé-normal et surpoids. La trajectoire pondérale la plus sécuritaire est la stabilité du poids avec une optimisation de la condition physique et métabolique. Il est démontré que la mortalité est plus faible chez les personnes ayant des comorbidités reliées à l’obésité si elles perdent du poids. Il est aussi établi que la qualité de vie sur le plan de la santé est meilleure chez les personnes obèses qui perdent du poids. Par contre, la perte de poids chez une personne obèse autrement en santé est associée à une mortalité accrue. Conclusion La perte de poids est recommandable seulement chez les personnes qui ont des comorbidités reliées à l’obésité. Les personnes obèses en santé qui veulent perdre du poids devraient être informées qu’il peut y avoir des risques à le faire. Une stratégie qui se traduit par un indice de masse corporelle stable avec une condition physique et métabolique optimisée, peu importe le poids, est l’option d’intervention la plus sécuritaire en ce qui concerne le poids.

  14. Evolution of a tissue-specific splicing network

    PubMed Central

    Taliaferro, J. Matthew; Alvarez, Nehemiah; Green, Richard E.; Blanchette, Marco; Rio, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative splicing of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) is a strategy employed by most eukaryotes to increase transcript and proteomic diversity. Many metazoan splicing factors are members of multigene families, with each member having different functions. How these highly related proteins evolve unique properties has been unclear. Here we characterize the evolution and function of a new Drosophila splicing factor, termed LS2 (Large Subunit 2), that arose from a gene duplication event of dU2AF50, the large subunit of the highly conserved heterodimeric general splicing factor U2AF (U2-associated factor). The quickly evolving LS2 gene has diverged from the splicing-promoting, ubiquitously expressed dU2AF50 such that it binds a markedly different RNA sequence, acts as a splicing repressor, and is preferentially expressed in testes. Target transcripts of LS2 are also enriched for performing testes-related functions. We therefore propose a path for the evolution of a new splicing factor in Drosophila that regulates specific pre-mRNAs and contributes to transcript diversity in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:21406555

  15. Rupture simultanée du ligament croisé antérieur et du ligament patellaire: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Achkoun, Abdessalam; Houjairi, Khalid; Quahtan, Omar; Hassoun, Jalal; Arssi, Mohamed; Rahmi, Mohamed; Garch, Abdelhak

    2016-01-01

    La rupture simultanée du tendon rotulien et du ligament croisé antérieur est une lésion relativement rare. Son diagnostic peut facilement manquer lors de l'examen initial. Les options de traitement incluent la réparation immédiate du tendon rotulien avec soit la reconstruction simultanée ou différée de ligament croisé antérieur. Nous rapportons le cas d'une rupture combinée du tendon rotulien et du ligament croisé antérieur chez un jeune footballeur de 22 ans. Une approche de traitement en deux temps a été effectuée avec un excellent résultat fonctionnel. PMID:27366288

  16. Understanding Evolution: An Evolution Website for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotchmoor, Judy; Janulaw, Al

    2005-01-01

    While many states are facing challenges to the teaching of evolution in their science classrooms, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, working with the National Center for Science Education, has developed a useful web-based resource for science teachers of all grade- and experience-levels. Understanding Evolution (UE) was developed…

  17. Dynamic landscapes in human evolution and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devès, Maud; King, Geoffrey; Bailey, Geoffrey; Inglis, Robyn; Williams, Matthew; Winder, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    Archaeological studies of human settlement in its wider landscape setting usually focus on climate change as the principal environmental driver of change in the physical features of the landscape, even on the long time scales of early human evolution. We emphasize that landscapes evolve dynamically due to an interplay of processes occurring over different timescales. Tectonic deformation, volcanism, sea level changes, by acting on the topography, the lithology and on the patterns of erosion-deposition in a given area, can moderate or amplify the influence of climate at the regional and local scale. These processes impose or alleviate physical barriers to movement, and modify the distribution and accessibility of plant and animal resources in ways critical to human ecological and evolutionary success (King and Bailey, JHE 2006; Bailey and King, Antiquity 2011, Winder et al. Antiquity in press). The DISPERSE project, an ERC-funded collaboration between the University of York and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, aims to develop systematic methods for reconstructing landscapes associated with active tectonics, volcanism and sea level change at a variety of scales in order to study their potential impact on patterns of human evolution and dispersal. Examples are shown to illustrate the ways in which changes of significance to human settlement can occur at a range of geographical scales and on time scales that range from lifetimes to tens of millennia, creating and sustaining attractive conditions for human settlement and exercising powerful selective pressures on human development.

  18. Evolution and Probability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, David H.

    2000-01-01

    Some of the most impressive-sounding criticisms of the conventional theory of biological evolution involve probability. Presents a few examples of how probability should and should not be used in discussing evolution. (ASK)

  19. Oxygen and Biological Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the evolution of aerobic organisms from anaerobic organisms and the accompanying biochemistry that developed to motivate and enable this evolution. Uses of oxygen by aerobic organisms are described. (CW)

  20. Mistakes and Molecular Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevors, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the role mistakes play in the molecular evolution of bacteria. Discusses the interacting physical, chemical, and biological factors that cause changes in DNA and play a role in prokaryotic evolution. (DDR)

  1. The Evolution of Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, G. Ledyard

    1973-01-01

    Describes the basic logic behind the modern view of evolution theory. Despite gaps in fossil records, evidence is indicative of the origin of life from nonliving molecules and evolution of higher forms of life from simpler forms. (PS)

  2. A Conversation with Lee Alvin DuBridge - Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodstein, Judith R.

    Physicist Lee A. DuBridge became president of the California Institute of Technology in 1946. In this interview he recalls the immediate problems he faced, including his dealings with Robert A. Millikan, whom he replaced as chief administrator of the institute; institute financing and inadequate salaries. DuBridge also talks about the advent of federal support for peacetime science and Millikan's distaste for it; his close working relationship with Robert F. Bacher, who came to the institute in 1949 as chairman of the Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy; his recollections of the meteorologist Irving P. Krick, the physicist Alexander Goetz, and the chemist Linus Pauling; and his attempts to build up the Humanities Division.

  3. HIV Evolution and Escape.

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Douglas D.; Little, Susan J.; Smith, Davey M.; Wrin, Terri; Petropoulos, Christos; Wong, Joseph K.

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exemplifies the principles of Darwinian evolution with a telescoped chronology. Because of its high mutation rate and remarkably high rates of replication, evolution can be appreciated over periods of days in contrast to the durations conceived of by Darwin. Certain selective pressures that drive the evolution of HIV include chemotherapy, anatomic compartmentalization and the immune response. Examples of these selective forces on HIV evolution are described. Images Fig. 5 PMID:17060974

  4. Du Pont Classifications of 2 ASAS-SN Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappee, Benjamin J.; Prieto, J. L.; Rich, J.; Madore, B.; Poetrodjojo, Henry; D'Agostino, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    We report optical spectroscopy (range 370-910 nm) of two supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN; Shappee et al. 2014, ApJ, 788, 48) using the du Pont 2.5-m telescope (+ WFCCD) at Las Campanas Observatory on Aug. 30 and Sep. 1 2016 UT. We performed a cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J.

  5. Du Pont Classifications of 4 ASAS-SN Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, N.; Shappee, Benjamin J.

    2016-08-01

    We report optical spectroscopy (range 370-910 nm) of four supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN; Shappee et al. 2014, ApJ, 788, 48) using the du Pont 2.5-m telescope (+ WFCCD) at Las Campanas Observatory on July 31 and Aug. 01 2016 UT. We performed a cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J.

  6. Old Perspectives on Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Blacquiere-Clarkson, John

    1976-01-01

    Presents a perspective on evolution which includes an explanation of the textbook theory of evolution, a review of evolutionary theory before Darwin, and an outline of Darwin's early theories. Describes a rethinking of evolutionary theory to include natural selection, conservative selection, discontinous evolution, catastrophism, and the…

  7. A Shuttle evolution strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teixeira, Charles; Mallini, Charles

    1989-01-01

    An overview of a potential Space Shuttle evolution strategy is presented. A Shuttle development study which reviews past and ongoing studies, implements a Shuttle Enhancement Data Base, and develops a methodology and a strawman evolution strategy is discussed. The long-term goals of a Shuttle evolution strategy, including increased reliability, lower cost, robustness, resiliency, increased capability, and assured access are addressed.

  8. Evolution & Diversity in Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lorentz C.

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

  9. Evolution for Young Victorians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightman, Bernard

    2012-07-01

    Evolution was a difficult topic to tackle when writing books for the young in the wake of the controversies over Darwin's Origin of Species. Authors who wrote about evolution for the young experimented with different ways of making the complex concepts of evolutionary theory accessible and less controversial. Many authors depicted presented evolution in a non-Darwinian form amenable to religious interpretation.

  10. Arguing for Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Kansas State Board of Education's decision to remove references to evolution and cosmology from the state's education standards and assessment. Advocates the need to teach evolution in high schools for a meaningful biology education. Addresses the question whether the teaching of evolution poses a threat to Christianity or other…

  11. Une forme exceptionnelle de la luxation perilunaire du carpe

    PubMed Central

    Elouakili, Issam; Ouchrif, Younes; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Ouakrim, Redouane; Lamrani, Omar; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Ismael, Farid; Lahlou, Abdo; Elouadghiri, Mohammed; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaccoubi, Mouradh

    2014-01-01

    Les luxations périlunaires (LPL) du carpe sont des lésions extrêmement rares, qui peuvent passer inaperçue en raison d'un tableau clinique souvent trompeur, des radiographies en profil non strict ou d'interprétation difficile. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une luxation périlunaire stade III selon la classification de Witvoët et Allieu chez un patient de 32 ans, il s'agit d'une forme encore plus rare voire exceptionnelle et qui peut induire de sérieux problèmes en raison de la sévérité des dommages ligamentaires et du risque de nécrose du semilunaire plus important dans ce type de lésions. Le traitement est toujours chirurgical et doit être réalisé dans les plus brefs délais afin d’éviter les complications. PMID:25404968

  12. Frontiers of stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, David L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference discusses theoretical and observational views of star formation, spectroscopic constraints on the evolution of massive stars, very low mass stars and brown dwarfs, asteroseismology, globular clusters as tests of stellar evolution, observational tests of stellar evolution, and mass loss from cool evolved giant stars. Also discussed are white dwarfs and hot subdwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, supernovae from single stars, close binaries with evolved components, accretion disks in interacting binaries, supernovae in binary systems, stellar evolution and galactic chemical evolution, and interacting binaries containing compact components.

  13. International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility injector acceptance tests at CEA/Saclay: 140 mA/100 keV deuteron beam characterization.

    PubMed

    Gobin, R; Bogard, D; Cara, P; Chauvin, N; Chel, S; Delferrière, O; Harrault, F; Mattei, P; Mosnier, A; Senée, F; Shidara, H; Okumura, Y

    2014-02-01

    In the framework of the ITER broader approach, the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) deuteron accelerator (2 × 125 mA at 40 MeV) is an irradiation tool dedicated to high neutron flux production for future nuclear plant material studies. During the validation phase, the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc) machine will be tested on the Rokkasho site in Japan. This demonstrator aims to produce 125 mA/9 MeV deuteron beam. Involved in the LIPAc project for several years, specialists from CEA/Saclay designed the injector based on a SILHI type ECR source operating at 2.45 GHz and a 2 solenoid low energy beam line to produce such high intensity beam. The whole injector, equipped with its dedicated diagnostics, has been then installed and tested on the Saclay site. Before shipment from Europe to Japan, acceptance tests have been performed in November 2012 with 100 keV deuteron beam and intensity as high as 140 mA in continuous and pulsed mode. In this paper, the emittance measurements done for different duty cycles and different beam intensities will be presented as well as beam species fraction analysis. Then the reinstallation in Japan and commissioning plan on site will be reported. PMID:24593497

  14. Evaluation of the use of decision-support software in carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA)-based follow-up of patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present paper is a first evaluation of the use of "CEAwatch", a clinical support software system for surgeons for the follow-up of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. This system gathers Carcino-Embryonic Antigen (CEA) values and automatically returns a recommendation based on the latest values. Methods Consecutive patients receiving follow-up care for CRC fulfilling our in- and exclusion criteria were identified to participate in this study. From August 2008, when the software was introduced, patients were asked to undergo the software-supported follow-up. Safety of the follow-up, experiences of working with the software, and technical issues were analyzed. Results 245 patients were identified. The software-supported group contained 184 patients; the control group contained 61 patients. The software was safe in finding the same amount of recurrent disease with fewer outpatient visits, and revealed few technical problems. Clinicians experienced a decrease in follow-up workload of up to 50% with high adherence to the follow-up scheme. Conclusion CEAwatch is an efficient software tool helping clinicians working with large numbers of follow-up patients. The number of outpatient visits can safely be reduced, thus significantly decreasing workload for clinicians. PMID:22390356

  15. The bispecific immunoligand ULBP2-aCEA redirects natural killer cells to tumor cells and reveals potent anti-tumor activity against colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Achim; Jachimowicz, Ron D; Borchmann, Sven; Madlener, Marie; Keßler, Jörg; Reiners, Katrin S; Sauer, Maike; Hansen, Hinrich P; Ullrich, Roland T; Chatterjee, Sampurna; Borchmann, Peter; Yazaki, Paul; Koslowsky, Thomas C; Engert, Andreas; Heukamp, Lukas C; Hallek, Michael; von Strandmann, Elke Pogge

    2014-06-15

    NKG2D, an activating receptor expressed on NK cells and T cells, is critically involved in tumor immunosurveillance. In this study, we explored the potential therapeutic utility of the NKG2D ligand ULBP2 for the treatment of colon carcinoma. To this end we designed a fusion protein consisting of human ULBP2 and an antibody-derived single chain targeting the tumor carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The bispecific recombinant fusion protein re-directed NK cells towards malignant cells by binding to both, tumor cells and NK cells, and triggered NK cell-mediated target cell killing in vitro. Moreover, tumor growth was significantly delayed in a syngeneic colon carcinoma mouse model in response to immunoligand treatment. The anti-tumor activity could be attributed to the stimulation of immune cells with an elevated expression of the activation marker CD69 on NK, T and NKT cells and the infiltration of CD45+ immune cells into the solid tumor. In summary, it was demonstrated that immunoligands provide specific tumor targeting by NK cells and exert anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. This technology represents a novel immunotherapeutic strategy for solid tumors with the potential to be further developed for clinical applications. PMID:24242212

  16. Annuaire du bureau des Longitudes : guide de données astronomiques 2011 pour l'observation du ciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Institut de Mécanique Céleste Et de Calcul Des Ephémérides (Imcce); Bureau Des Longitudes (Bdl)

    2010-07-01

    Destiné aux astronomes, professionnels ou amateurs, cet ouvrage se décompose de la façon suivante : Les trois premiers chapitres de cet ouvrage contiennent : les données sur les différents calendriers et leur concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les différentes échelles de temps, les dates de décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine parues au Journal Officiel depuis 1916 ; des notions nécessaires à la compréhension et à l'emploi des éphémérides contenues dans l'ouvrage. Les chapitres suivant fournissent des éphémérides astronomiques : les positions du Soleil et de la Lune ; les positions des planètes et de leurs satellites ; les positions des astéroïdes et des comètes ; les explications et des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel, une liste de constellations et les positions et occultations des étoiles ; des données sur les éclipses de Soleil et de Lune et sur les phénomènes astronomiques ; la liste des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus.

  17. Annuaire du bureau des Longitudes : guide de données astronomiques 2012 pour l'observation du ciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Institut de Mécanique Céleste Et de Calcul Des Ephémérides (Imcce); Bureau Des Longitudes (Bdl)

    2011-07-01

    Destiné aux astronomes, professionnels ou amateurs, cet ouvrage se décompose de la façon suivante : Les trois premiers chapitres de cet ouvrage contiennent : les données sur les différents calendriers et leur concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les différentes échelles de temps, les dates de décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine parues au Journal Officiel depuis 1916 ; des notions nécessaires à la compréhension et à l'emploi des éphémérides contenues dans l'ouvrage. Les chapitres suivant fournissent des éphémérides astronomiques : les positions du Soleil et de la Lune ; les positions des planètes et de leurs satellites ; les positions des astéroïdes et des comètes ; les explications et des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel, une liste de constellations et les positions et occultations des étoiles ; des données sur les éclipses de Soleil et de Lune et sur les phénomènes astronomiques ; la liste des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus.

  18. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences. PMID:23908778

  19. Association between Fatigue and Autistic Symptoms in Children with Cri du Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claro, Anthony; Cornish, Kim; Gruber, Reut

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, the authors examined whether the fatigue level of children diagnosed with cri du chat syndrome was associated with the expression of autistic symptoms. Sixty-nine children with cri du chat syndrome were compared with 47 children with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities who did not differ on intellectual severity.…

  20. Luxation de l’épaule compliquée de paralysie du plexus brachial

    PubMed Central

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; EL Bardouni, Ahmed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent l'observation d'une paralysie totale du plexus brachial survenue trois mois après un épisode de luxation antéro-interne sous coracoïdienne associée à une fracture du trochiter chez une patiente âgée de 88 ans. PMID:25426187

  1. Non-destructive analysis of DU content in the NIF hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Gharibyan, Narek; Moody, Ken J.; Shaughnessy, Dawn A.

    2015-12-16

    The advantage of using depleted uranium (DU) hohlraums in high-yield deuterium-tritium (DT) shots at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is addressed by Döppner, et al., in great detail [1]. This DU based hohlraum incorporates a thin layer of DU, ~7 μm thick, on the inner surface along with a thin layer of a gold coating, ~0.7 μm thick, while the outer layer is ~22 μm thick gold. A thickness measurement of the DU layer can be performed using an optical microscope where the total DU weight can be computed provided a uniform DU layer. However, the uniformity of the thickness is not constant throughout the hohlraum since CAD drawing calculations of the DU weight do not agree with the computed values from optical measurements [2]. Therefore, a non-destructive method for quantifying the DU content in hohlraums has been established by utilizing gamma-ray spectroscopy. The details of this method, along with results from several hohlraums, are presented in this report.

  2. Lambeaux autofermants pour le traitement des brulures electriques du scalp par haut voltage

    PubMed Central

    Hafidi, J.; El Mazouz, S.; El Mejatti, H.; Fejjal, N.; Gharib, N.E.; Abbassi, A.; Belmahi, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures électriques par haut voltage sont responsables de gros dégâts tissulaires en immédiat et dans les jours suivant l’accident du fait de la chaleur importante dégagée par effet joule et de la thrombose microvasculaire évolutive. Les pertes de substances du scalp secondaires à ces brûlures nécessitent une couverture par lambeaux vu la destruction du périoste et du calvarium en regard. De juin 1997 à juin 2008, 15 patients ont été traités pour des pertes de substance du scalp secondaires à des brûlures électriques par haut voltage de diamètre allant de 8 à 11 cm et siégeant dans la région tonsurale. Ces patients ont été opérés dans la première semaine suivant l’accident. Les pertes de substance du scalp de taille moyenne secondaires à ces brûlures peuvent être couvertes per primam de façon fiable par des lambeaux locaux axialisés et multiples. Nous relatons l’expérience du Service de Chirurgie Plastique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn-Sina, Rabat, Maroc, dans la gestion et la prise en charge de ces brûlures. PMID:22262963

  3. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Phenomenology in Cornelia de Lange and Cri du Chat Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Joanna F.; Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Kaur, Gurmeash; Jephcott, Lesley; Cornish, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder characteristics have not been evaluated in Cornelia de Lange and Cri du Chat syndromes using robust assessments. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Social Communication Questionnaire were administered to 34 participants with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and a comparison group of 23 participants with Cri du Chat…

  4. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis

    DOEpatents

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.

    2016-09-06

    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  5. Dysfonctionnements radio-induits du transport colique chez le rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, A.; Lebrun, F.; Ksas, B.; Aigueperse, J.; Gourmelon, P.; MacNaughton, W. K.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptom commonly associated with whole body irradiation is diarrhoea, a still quite obscure phenomenon, which leads to decreased chance of cure of irradiated people. The aim of this study was to provide evidence for dysfunction of intestinal water and electrolyte transport regulation by the enteric nervous system after exposure to ionising radiation. This study shows decreased capacity of enteric nervous system to influence colonic transport 3days after irradiation, correlated to a diminished response to a neurotransmitter: serotonin. Radio-induced diarrhea may result from epithelial structural injury but also from impaired regulatory processes of intestinal transport. L'un des symptômes majeurs d'une irradiation corporelle totale ou abdominale est l'apparition de diarrhées, dont les causes sont encore mal connues, et qui mettent en jeu le pronostique vital de l'individu irradié. Cette étude vise à mettre en évidence l'atteinte de la régulation du transport intestinal d'eau et d'électrolytes par les rayonnements ionisants. On observe une diminution de la capacité du système nerveux entérique à influencer le transport colique 3jours après irradiation, corrélée à une diminution de la réponse épithéliale à un neurotransmetteur : la sérotonine. Les diarrhées radio-induites résulteraient d'une atteinte structurelle de l'épithélium mais également des processus de régulation du transport intestinal.

  6. Museums teach evolution.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Judy; Evans, E Margaret

    2007-06-01

    Natural history museums play a significant role in educating the general public about evolution. This article describes Explore Evolution, one of the largest evolution education projects funded by the National Science Foundation. A group of regional museums from the Midwestern United States worked with leading evolutionary scientists to create multiple permanent exhibit galleries and a curriculum book for youth. This program invites the public to experience current evolutionary research on organisms that range in size from HIV to whales. Learning research is being conducted on museum visitors to understand how they reason about evolution and to determine what influences the process of conceptual change. PMID:17542857

  7. Speeding up evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Wouter

    Proteins and cells offer great opportunities for green chemistry and renewable energy. However, few of these possible applications have been put into practice because of details that turn out to be major barriers to cost-efficient implementation and that prove difficult to solve by genetic engineering. A better understanding of molecular evolution promises a novel approach to addressing these important challenges. While major advances have been made, major gaps remain in understanding the evolution of proteins. Different approaches to accelerating molecular evolution into targeted directions will be discussed, including recent progress on evolution in non-homogeneous environments.

  8. Quantification du champ electromagnetique et description quantique de la generation du second harmonique a l'interieur d'une microcavite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, Marc

    L'existence de particules virtuelles qui surgissent spontanement du vide pour disparaitre tres peu de temps apres leur apparition (les fluctuations du vide) trouve son origine dans le principe d'incertitude de Heisenberg. Par ailleurs, on sait que le phenomene de resonance par confinement explique l'amplification de l'intensite lumineuse a l'interieur d'une cavite ouverte aux frequences de resonances de celle-ci. C'est pourquoi le taux d'apparition des photons virtuels au sein des modes propres d'une cavite est lui aussi amplifie par le resonateur. Mathematiquement, cet effet quantique est decrit par l'existence d'un commutateur " anomal " entre les operateurs d'annihilation et de creation des photons. Nous decrivons les consequences de ce commutateur sur la generation du second harmonique optique (GSH), un processus photonique ou, dans un materiau optiquement non lineaire, deux photons de meme energie fusionnent pour n'en former qu'un seul. On commence ce travail avec un traitement complet et original sur la quantification du champ electromagnetique. On montre ensuite que les fluctuations du vide stimulent le signal de la GSH a l'interieur du milieu confine. Cependant, on constate aussi que les fluctuations du vide jouent le role d'un inhibiteur au declenchement du processus, c'est-a-dire que le seuil de la GSH augmente (il est superieur au seuil minimal de deux photons seulement). En conclusion, les mecanismes intimes de certains processus optiques non lineaires doivent etre reconsideres lorsqu'ils surviennent en presence d'un confinement electromagnetique.

  9. Portage vaginal du streptocoque du groupe B chez la femme enceinte au niveau de la région de Marrakech

    PubMed Central

    Bassir, Ahlam; Dhibou, Hanane; Farah, Majdi; Mohamed, Lharmis; Amal, Addebous; Nabila, Souraa; Abderahim, Aboulfalah; Asmouki, Hamid; Soummani, Abderraouf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le streptocoque du groupe B est le principal agent impliqué dans les infections materno-fœtales, les septicémies et les méningites du nouveau-né à terme. L'objectif est de déterminer le taux de portage maternel du streptocoque du groupe B (SGB) à terme. Méthodes Un prélèvement vaginal a été réalisé de manière prospective chez 275 parturientes lors de l'entrée en salle d'accouchement sur une période de 06 mois. Résultats Le taux de portage était de 20,2%. Le portage était variable en fonction de l’âge gestationnel, il constitue 57.5% entre 37 et 38 semaines d'aménorrhée. Aucun des facteurs de risque n'a était statistiquement prédictif du portage maternel du SGB. Conclusion Le dépistage doit être réalisé à partir de 37 semaines d'aménorrhée, et comme le portage est intermittent, un prélèvement négatif ne garantirait pas que le portage soit négatif à l'accouchement. PMID:27222693

  10. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  11. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  12. Evolution of Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chu Chih; Chen, I Ju

    2010-01-01

    The contrast between social constructivism and cognitive constructivism are depicted in different ways in many studies. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the evolution of constructivism and put a focus on social constructivism from the perception of Vygotsky. This study provides a general idea of the evolution of constructivism for people…

  13. Evolution: Theory or Dogma?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, William V.

    In this paper the author examines the question of whether evolution is a theory or a dogma. He refutes the contention that there is a monolithic scientific conspiracy to present evolution as dogma and suggests that his own presentation might be more appropriately entitled "Creationism: Theory or Dogma." (PEB)

  14. Reconciling Evolution and Creation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tax, Sol

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a way to reconcile evolution with creationism by hypothesizing that the universe was created when the scientific evidence shows, speculating that this was when God began the series of creations described in Genesis, and assuming that God gave humans intelligence to uncover the methods by which he ordained scientific evolution. (Author/MJL)

  15. Evolution - A Theory Evolving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Janet H.

    1975-01-01

    Presented is an explanation of a non-Darwinian theory of evolution based on the premise that functional differences are the result of many small mutations such as the substitution of one amino acid for another in a large protein molecule. A brief overview of Darwinian evolution and other theories are presented. (EB)

  16. State Standards and Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the United States various individuals and groups have tried to subvert science education by removing or weakening the treatment of evolution in state science-education standards. Most states' science-education standards support the teaching of evolution, but many in the general public and some policymakers want science classrooms to…

  17. Evolution for Young Victorians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightman, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Evolution was a difficult topic to tackle when writing books for the young in the wake of the controversies over Darwin's "Origin of Species." Authors who wrote about evolution for the young experimented with different ways of making the complex concepts of evolutionary theory accessible and less controversial. Many authors depicted presented…

  18. Evolution Under Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muench, David; Newell, Norman D.

    1974-01-01

    The article points out the growing attempts by creationists to have special creation presented with evolution in any educational discussion of the origin of life. The evolution theory is shown to be consistent with known scientific facts while the theory of special creation does not adequately account for these facts. (LS)

  19. Entropy and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styer, Daniel F.

    2008-11-01

    Quantitative estimates of the entropy involved in biological evolution demonstrate that there is no conflict between evolution and the second law of thermodynamics. The calculations are elementary and could be used to enliven the thermodynamics portion of a high school or introductory college physics course.

  20. Treatment of Evolution Inconsistent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    State standards for academic content vary enormously in how well they cover the topic of evolution, with many of those documents either ignoring or giving scant treatment to the core principles of that established scientific theory. This article presents the analysis of Education Week on state's standards treatment of evolution. Nearly all the…

  1. Evolution & Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staver, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Advocates of Intelligent Design (ID) theory argue that evolution is a theory in crisis, ID is a legitimate scientific theory, and biology teachers should teach the controversy. Supporters of evolutionary theory testify that ID is a religious, not scientific, concept, and evolution is in no danger of bankruptcy, having survived 140 years of…

  2. Science, Evolution, and Creationism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2008

    2008-01-01

    How did life evolve on Earth? The answer to this question can help us understand our past and prepare for our future. Although evolution provides credible and reliable answers, polls show that many people turn away from science, seeking other explanations with which they are more comfortable. In the book "Science, Evolution, and…

  3. Les astronomes de l'Empire du Milieu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    2007-02-01

    Explosions d'étoiles, comètes, durée du jour, taches solaires, dans tous ces domaines, des observations chinoises datant de plusieurs siècles sont encore utilisées aujourd'hui. Pendant plus de 4000 ans, les astronomes de l'Empire du Milieu, organisés dans les grands observatoires impériaux, ont noté jour après jour, mois après mois, avec la plus grande précision tous les phénomènes célestes. Et ce sont des milliers de textes couvrant des périodes depuis au moins le Ve siècle avant l'ère moderne jusqu'à fin de la dernière dynastie des Qing en 1911, qui ont été conservés et dont une grande partie n'a pu encore être véritablement étudiée. Un véritable trésor, malheureusement très mal connu en Europe et, de façon incompréhensible, largement ignoré par l'histoire moderne des sciences.

  4. Organic chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.

    1981-01-01

    The course of organic chemical evolution preceding the emergence of life on earth is discussed based on evidence of processes occurring in interstellar space, the solar system and the primitive earth. Following a brief review of the equilibrium condensation model for the origin and evolution of the solar system, consideration is given to the nature and organic chemistry of interstellar clouds, comets, Jupiter, meteorites, Venus and Mars, and the prebiotic earth. Major issues to be resolved in the study of organic chemical evolution on earth are identified regarding condensation and accretion in the solar nebula, early geological evolution, the origin and evolution of the atmosphere, organic production rates, organic-inorganic interactions, environmental fluctuations, phase separation and molecular selectivity.

  5. How Can Evolution Learn?

    PubMed

    Watson, Richard A; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2016-02-01

    The theory of evolution links random variation and selection to incremental adaptation. In a different intellectual domain, learning theory links incremental adaptation (e.g., from positive and/or negative reinforcement) to intelligent behaviour. Specifically, learning theory explains how incremental adaptation can acquire knowledge from past experience and use it to direct future behaviours toward favourable outcomes. Until recently such cognitive learning seemed irrelevant to the 'uninformed' process of evolution. In our opinion, however, new results formally linking evolutionary processes to the principles of learning might provide solutions to several evolutionary puzzles - the evolution of evolvability, the evolution of ecological organisation, and evolutionary transitions in individuality. If so, the ability for evolution to learn might explain how it produces such apparently intelligent designs. PMID:26705684

  6. Modélisation du bruit des jets turbulents libres et subsoniques à température ambiante

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béchara, W.; Lafon, P.; Candel, S. M.

    1993-03-01

    Based on the theoretical model of Goldstein for a round free jet, we establish analytical expressions (G_a model) for the noise radiation from a turbulent jet, depending on the local statistical properties of the flow. These characteristics are calculated by solving the Reynolds average Navier-Stokes equations with a numerical code based on a K - \\varepsilon turbulence closure model. A comparison between the numerical results and the experimental data for a simple jet and two coaxial jets shows that this model correctly predicts the evolution of the acoustic radiation. The G_a model developed in the case of axisymmetric turbulence superimposed over a mean flow is found to be more suitable than the Ribner model associated to an isotropic turbulence. A comparison between differents models issued from Lighthill theory, shows that the G_a model yields the best directivity of the acoustic intensity at high jet exit velocities. À partir du modèle théorique proposé initialement par Goldstein pour un jet libre turbulent circulaire, on établit des expressions analytiques (modèle G_a) permettant le calcul du bruit émis à partir des grandeurs statistiques locales du jet turbulent. Ces grandeurs sont estimées par résolution des équations de Navier-Stokes moyennées à l'aide d'un code numérique de turbulence utilisant un modèle de fermeture de type K - \\varepsilon. La comparaison entre les résultats numériques obtenus et les données expérimentales, pour un jet simple et deux jets coaxiaux, montre que ce modèle estime correctement l'évolution des grandeurs acoustiques étudiées. Les calculs indiquent que le modèle G_a développé pour une turbulence axisymétrique convectée par un écoulement moyen est mieux adapté que celui de Ribner associé à une turbulence isotrope. De plus, une comparaison entre différents modèles basés sur la théorie de Lighthill indique que le modèle G_a donne la meilleure directivité de l'intensité acoustique aux

  7. A systematic review of the oral and craniofacial manifestations of cri du chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corcuera-Flores, José-Ramón; Casttellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Serrera-Figallo, María Ángeles; Rodríguez-Caballero, Ángela; Machuca-Portillo, Guillermo

    2016-07-01

    Cri du chat syndrome is an autosomal disorder. Because it affects few people in the population it is considered a rare disease, yet it is one of the most common autosomal chromosomal syndromes in humans. It entails pathognomonic alterations that affect the craniofacial and oral anatomy of patients. The aim of this study is to review these craniofacial and oral abnormalities in patients with Cri du chat syndrome. The PubMed Medline database was searched using two different strategies. First, we used "Dentistry" and "Cri du chat" as keywords; second, we used "Cri du chat" and "craniofacial." Seven articles in which the main orofacial and cranio-skeletal characteristics of patients with Cri du chat syndrome were described were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Cri du Chat syndrome entails pathognomonic characteristics in the craniofacial area (epicanthus, short philtrum, and wide nasal bridge), the oral area (mandibular retrognathism and anterior open bite) and the cranial region (alterations at the cranial base angle and a small upper airway). However, more studies on larger samples are needed to specify the orofacial and craniofacial characteristics of patients with Cri du chat syndrome more accurately. Clin. Anat. 29:555-560, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26457586

  8. Carcinome colloïde du sein: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Laabadi, Kamilia; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatimazohra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, My Abdelilah

    2013-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas d'une tumeur colloïde du sein chez un homme. Cette situation rare interpelle par son mode de découverte. Nous avons pris en charge un homme de 60 ans atteint d'une lésion rétro-aréolaire droite classée cliniquement T4b N1 M0 et suspecte radiologiquement. L'analyse histologique (microbiopsie) a conclu à un carcinome colloïde muqueux associé à une petite composante canalaire classique de grade I de SBR du sein. Les traitements complémentaires associent mastectomie, curage, chimiothérapie, radiothérapie et hormonothérapie. Le cancer du sein est rare chez l'homme. Le carcinome colloïde est exceptionnel puisqu'il représente seulement 1 à 6% de l'ensemble des cancers du sein. Il est encore plus rare chez l'homme. Ces tumeurs touchent une population spécifique et ont un meilleur pronostic que les autres types prépondérant dans les cancers du sein chez l'homme. A travers cette observation et une revue de la littérature, nous essaierons de discuter les principales caractéristiques anatomo-cliniques et évolutives de cette forme rare du cancer du sein. PMID:24772222

  9. Anévrysme ventriculaire gauche et communication interventriculaire compliquant un infarctus du myocarde

    PubMed Central

    Belkhadir, Mohammed; MoutakiAllah, Younes; Raissouni, Zainab; Abdou, Abdessamad; Bamous, Mehdi; Nya, Fouad; Atmani, Noureddine; Houssa, Mahdi Ait; El Bekkali, Youssef; Boulahya, Abdellatif

    2014-01-01

    L'association d'une communication interventriculaire post infarctus du myocarde et d'un anévrysme du ventricule gauche chez un même patient est extrêmement rare et survient habituellement durant la première semaine qui suit un infarctus du myocarde. Nous rapportons le cas insolite d'un patient âgé de 63 ans, admis pour choc cardiogénique en rapport avec une communication inter ventriculaire apicale et un anévrysme ventriculaire gauche causés par un infarctus du myocarde antérieur. La correction chirurgicale a consisté en une fermeture du défect septal par un patch en dacron via une ventriculotomie gauche associée à une anévrysectomie et un mono pontage coronaire. Cette observation illustre d'une part la rareté de l'association communication inter ventriculaire-anévrysme ventriculaire gauche post infarctus du myocarde, et d'autre part l'efficacité du traitement chirurgical qui reste la seule option salvatrice pour cette pathologie. PMID:25328617

  10. Cumulative effects analysis (CEA) tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective rangeland management requires careful consideration of the possible cumulative effects of different management options prior to making major management decisions. State-and-transition (S/T) models, based on ecological sites, capture our understanding ecosystem functioning and can be used t...

  11. Le syndrome de Cri du Chat : A propos d’une observation

    PubMed Central

    Ouldim, Karim; Samri, Imane; Bouguenouch, Laila; Hamdaoui, Hasna; Otmani, Ihsan El; Hbibi, Mohamed; Chaouki, Sana; Hida, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    Le syndrome du Cri du Chat (Cri du Chat syndrome, CdCS) est une anomalie chromosomique résultant d’une délétion de taille variable de l’extrémité du bras court du chromosome 5 (5p), incluant une région critique située en p15.2. Il représente une des délétions chromosomiques les plus fréquentes, son incidence dans la population générale est de 1/20 000 à 1/50 000. Les caractéristiques cliniques comprennent un cri monochromatique aigu, une microcéphalie, une dysmorphie cranio-faciale caractéristique évoluant avec l’âge et un retard mental et psychomoteur important. La taille de la délétion est variable, Le traitement est fonction des différents symptômes. Un remaniement chromosomique parental est retrouvé dans 12% des cas et la majorité des délétions responsables de la maladie du cri-du-chat surviennent de novo. Nous présentons une observation d’un syndrome du Cri du Chat, confirmé par caryotype métaphasique (46,XY,del(5)(p13) de novo). A travers cette observation nous mettrons à jour, les actualités scientifiques de ce rare syndrome, ainsi que la place des explorations cytogénétiques dans le diagnostic précis et le conseil génétique des syndromes dysmorphiques. PMID:22368747

  12. The evolution of airplanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, A.; Charles, J. D.; Lorente, S.

    2014-07-01

    The prevailing view is that we cannot witness biological evolution because it occurred on a time scale immensely greater than our lifetime. Here, we show that we can witness evolution in our lifetime by watching the evolution of the flying human-and-machine species: the airplane. We document this evolution, and we also predict it based on a physics principle: the constructal law. We show that the airplanes must obey theoretical allometric rules that unite them with the birds and other animals. For example, the larger airplanes are faster, more efficient as vehicles, and have greater range. The engine mass is proportional to the body size: this scaling is analogous to animal design, where the mass of the motive organs (muscle, heart, lung) is proportional to the body size. Large or small, airplanes exhibit a proportionality between wing span and fuselage length, and between fuel load and body size. The animal-design counterparts of these features are evident. The view that emerges is that the evolution phenomenon is broader than biological evolution. The evolution of technology, river basins, and animal design is one phenomenon, and it belongs in physics.

  13. Cultural Evolution and SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Drake Equation for the number of radio communicative technological civilizations in the Galaxy encompasses three components of cosmic evolution: astronomical, biological and cultural. Of these three, cultural evolution totally dominates in terms of the rapidity of its effects. Yet, SETI scientists do not take cultural evolution into account, perhaps for understandable reasons, since cultural evolution is not well-understood even on Earth and is unpredictable in its outcome. But the one certainty for technical civilizations billions, millions, or even thousands of years older than ours is that they will have undergone cultural evolution. Cultural evolution potentially takes place in many directions, but this paper argues that its central driving force is the maintenance, improvement and perpetuation of knowledge and intelligence, and that to the extent intelligence can be improved, it will be improved. Applying this principle to life in the universe, extraterrestrials will have sought the best way to improve their intelligence. One possibility is that they may have long ago advanced beyond flesh-and-blood to artificial intelligence, constituting a postbiological universe. Although this subject has been broached, it has not been given the attention it is due from its foundation in cultural evolution. Nor has the idea of a postbiological universe been carried to its logical conclusion, including a careful analysis of the implications for SETI. SETI scientists, social scientists, and experts in AI should consider the strengths and weaknesses of this new paradigm.

  14. Le traumatisme du colon: l'expérience du CHU Hassan II de Fès

    PubMed Central

    Benjelloun, El Bachir; Hafid, Hasnai; Karim, Ibnmajdoub; Ousadden, Abdelmalek; Mazaz, Khalid; Taleb, Kahlid Ait

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Les traumatismes du colon sont associés à un risque majeur de complications septiques et de mortalité. Le but de notre étude est d’évaluer les circonstances, la prise en charge, le suivi et les facteurs pronostic de morbidité postopératoire des malades victimes d'un traumatisme colique. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective sur une série de 49 patients opérés pour des plaies coliques aux services de chirurgie viscérale du CHU HASSAN II de Fès sur une période de 8 ans de juillet 2003 à juillet 2011. Résultats L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 25ans (16-70) avec une nette prédominance masculine (93.8%). Les plaies coliques secondaires à un traumatisme par arme blanche représentent 85% des cas (42 patients), suivi par les plaies iatrogènes au cours d'une coloscopie chez 6 patients (13%), puis les contusions abdominales chez 1 patient (2%). Les parties du cadre colique les plus touchées étaient le colon transverse chez 19 patients (38%) et le colon descendant chez 12 patients (24, 5%). Le colon sigmoïde était le segment le plus touché au cours d'une coloscopie4/6. Quarante-deux patients (85%) ont eu une suture primaire des plaies coliques, six patients (13%) une diversion fécale et un patient (2%) une résection-anastomose. Deux patients (4%) sont décédés suite à un choc septique. La morbidité globale était de 38,7% dominé essentiellement par l'infection de la paroi chez 14 patients et une péritonite post opératoire chez 3 patients. L'analyse univarié a montré une différence significatif en terme d'infection de la paroi entre le groupe colostomie versus suture simple (50% vs 20,9% p<0,05). L'atteinte du colon gauche et la réalisation d'une colostomie sont associés à un risque plus élevés de complications postopératoires. Conclusion La suture primaire peut être effectuée avec un faible taux de complications postopératoire chez la majorité des patients suite à un traumatisme du colon. PMID

  15. Is genetic evolution predictable?

    PubMed

    Stern, David L; Orgogozo, Virginie

    2009-02-01

    Ever since the integration of Mendelian genetics into evolutionary biology in the early 20th century, evolutionary geneticists have for the most part treated genes and mutations as generic entities. However, recent observations indicate that all genes are not equal in the eyes of evolution. Evolutionarily relevant mutations tend to accumulate in hotspot genes and at specific positions within genes. Genetic evolution is constrained by gene function, the structure of genetic networks, and population biology. The genetic basis of evolution may be predictable to some extent, and further understanding of this predictability requires incorporation of the specific functions and characteristics of genes into evolutionary theory. PMID:19197055

  16. Evolution in the Bacillaceae.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Maughan, Heather; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2014-10-01

    The family Bacillaceae constitutes a phenotypically diverse and globally ubiquitous assemblage of bacteria. Investigation into how evolution has shaped, and continues to shape, this family has relied on several widely ranging approaches from classical taxonomy, ecological field studies, and evolution in soil microcosms to genomic-scale phylogenetics, laboratory, and directed evolution experiments. One unifying characteristic of the Bacillaceae, the endospore, poses unique challenges to answering questions regarding both the calculation of evolutionary rates and claims of extreme longevity in ancient environmental samples. PMID:26104365

  17. Localisation inhabituelle de la tuberculose: ostéoarthrite tuberculose du pouce

    PubMed Central

    Mortaji, Aziz; Koulali, Khalid; Galuia, Farid

    2014-01-01

    L'ostéoarthrite tuberculose est rare au niveau des doigts. Nous rapportons une observation d'atteinte du pouce chez un patient de 55 ans. Il avait présenté une tuméfaction douloureuse du pouce droit suite à un traumatisme du pouce. L’étude bactériologique et une biopsie avaient permis de confirmer le diagnostic. Un traitement antibacillaire de 12 mois avait donné des résultats satisfaisants. Les particularités de la prise en charge sont discutées par rapport aux données de la littérature. PMID:25932075

  18. DuPont/HFM Forum on carpet in health care facilities. Third in a series.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    DuPont and Health Facilities Management magazine invited 20 national experts to Dalton, GA--the carpet-manufacturing capital of the world--last year to take part in DuPont's first-ever Forum on Carpet in Health Care Facilities. During the two-hour roundtable discussion, moderated by DuPont's C. Jack Murph and HFM's Michael Hemmes, end-users, interior designers and carpet mill representative talked about the aesthetic, economic and performance aspects of using carpet in health care settings. Here's an edited version of what they said. PMID:10184014

  19. DuPont/HFM Forum on carpet in health care facilities. Roundtable discussion.

    PubMed

    Murph, J; Hemmes, M; Blyth, P L; Plappert, K K; Noell, E; VanStavern, V; Cama, R; Lynn, V; Pollitt, B S; Rainey, P M

    1993-11-01

    DuPont and Health Facilities Management magazine invited 20 national experts to Dalton, GA--the carpet-manufacturing capital of the world--on May 13 to take part in DuPont's first-ever Forum on Carpet in Health Care Facilities. During the two-hour roundtable discussion, moderated by DuPont's C. Jack Murph and HFM's Michael Hemmes, end-users, interior designers and mill representatives talked about the aesthetic, economic and performance aspects of using carpet in health care settings. Here's an edited version of what they said. PMID:10183973

  20. Heredity in Evolution & Evolution of Heredity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivoire, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    The inheritance of characteristics induced by the environment has often been opposed to the theory of evolution by natural selection. However, although evolution by natural selection requires new heritable traits to be produced and transmitted, it does not prescribe, per se, the mechanisms by which this is operated. The mechanisms of inheritance are not, however, unconstrained, because they are themselves subject to natural selection. We introduce a schematic, analytically solvable mathematical model to compare the adaptive value of different schemes of inheritance. Our model allows for variations to be inherited, randomly produced, or environmentally induced, and, irrespectively, to be either transmitted or not during reproduction. The adaptation of the different schemes for processing variations is quantified for a range of fluctuating environments, following an approach that links quantitative genetics with stochastic control theory.

  1. Evolution of models for evolution. [of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohlfing, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    The paper discusses models of evolution and their values, and some critiques of these models and the value of these critiques. A model is investigated which involves the formation of prebiotic protein from amino acids. Its formation by four theoretical critiques that suggest alternative environmental conditions is discussed. Experiments are reviewed so as to illustrate the experimental testing of the possible weaknesses of a model for a single molecular evolutionary phase and to suggest some necessary changes in the model.

  2. Etude theorique du jet de plasma supersonique a courant continu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jodoin, Bertrand

    La déposition par plasma supersonique à courant continu permet d'obtenir une qualité de dépôt supérieure au jet subsonique. Un modèle numérique a été développé dans le but de mieux comprendre les mécanismes de transfert à l'intérieur de la tuyère et d'estimer l'influence des paramètres d'opération de la torche sur le jet à la sortie de la tuyère. Les équations d'Euler, auxquelles sont ajoutées l'effet Joule, la conduction et les pertes par rayonnement sont résolues à l'aide de la méthode de Jameson. Un schéma centré est utilisé pour résoudre les champs électriques. La sous-couche cathodique en déséquilibre thermodynamique est modélisée à l'aide du modèle simple de Morrow et Lowke. Quelques détails sur les aspects numériques facilitant la convergence du système sont donnés. Le modèle est validé pour un écoulement compressible classique et pour un jet de plasma supersonique à l'aide de résultats de la littérature. Les champs à l'intérieur de la tuyère sont analysés afin de déterminer l'influence de l'hydrogène, de l'intensité du courant et de la géométrie de la tuyère sur les caractéristiques de l'écoulement.

  3. Proceedings of the 1989 CESAR/CEA (Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research/Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) workshop on autonomous mobile robots (May 30--June 1, 1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Harber, K.S.; Pin, F.G. . Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research)

    1990-03-01

    The US DOE Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique's (CEA) Office de Robotique et Productique within the Directorat a la Valorization are working toward a long-term cooperative agreement and relationship in the area of Intelligent Systems Research (ISR). This report presents the proceedings of the first CESAR/CEA Workshop on Autonomous Mobile Robots which took place at ORNL on May 30, 31 and June 1, 1989. The purpose of the workshop was to present and discuss methodologies and algorithms under development at the two facilities in the area of perception and navigation for autonomous mobile robots in unstructured environments. Experimental demonstration of the algorithms and comparison of some of their features were proposed to take place within the framework of a previously mutually agreed-upon demonstration scenario or base-case.'' The base-case scenario described in detail in Appendix A, involved autonomous navigation by the robot in an a priori unknown environment with dynamic obstacles, in order to reach a predetermined goal. From the intermediate goal location, the robot had to search for and locate a control panel, move toward it, and dock in front of the panel face. The CESAR demonstration was successfully accomplished using the HERMIES-IIB robot while subsets of the CEA demonstration performed using the ARES robot simulation and animation system were presented. The first session of the workshop focused on these experimental demonstrations and on the needs and considerations for establishing benchmarks'' for testing autonomous robot control algorithms.

  4. Extended evaluation of a Phase 1/2 trial on dosing, safety, immunogenicity, and overall survival after immunizations with an advanced generation Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA(6D) vaccine in late stage colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Balint, Joseph P.; Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S.; Rice, Adrian; Latchman, Yvette; Xu, Younong; Messerschmidt, Gerald L.; Chaudhry, Arvind; Morse, Michael A.; Jones, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    A phase 1/2 clinical trial evaluating dosing, safety, immunogenicity, and overall survival on metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients after immunotherapy with an advanced generation Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA(6D) vaccine was performed. We report our extended observations on long-term overall survival and further immune analyses on a subset of treated patients including assessment of cytolytic T cell responses, T-regulatory (Treg) to T-effector (Teff) cell ratios, flow cytometry on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and determination of HLA-A2 status. An overall survival of 20% (median survival of 11 months) was observed during long-term follow-up and no long-term adverse effects were reported. Cytolytic T cell responses increased after immunizations and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses were induced whether or not patients were HLA-A2 positive or Ad5 immune. PBMC samples from a small subset of patients were available for follow-up immune analyses. It was observed that the levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) specific CMI activity decreased from their peak values during follow-up in 5 patients analyzed. Preliminary results revealed that activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were detected in a post immunization sample exhibiting high CMI activity. Treg to Teff cell ratios were assessed and samples from 3 of 5 patients exhibited a decrease in Treg to Teff cell ratio during the treatment protocol. Based upon the favorable safety and immunogenicity data obtained, we plan to perform an extensive immunologic and survival analysis on mCRC patients to be enrolled in a randomized/controlled clinical trial that investigates Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA(6D) as a single agent with booster immunizations. PMID:25956394

  5. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    l'agenda politique du pays. Notre projet de recherche, par le truchement de l'approche des reseaux de politique publique, s'attarde a decrire et a expliquer le processus de la formulation d'une politique particuliere, soit la politique energetique a des fins de protection de l'environnement, elaboree en 1993. Il s'agit de mettre en evidence les facteurs affectant le choix des instruments de ces politiques publiques dans leur contexte national. Ainsi, la question generale de cette recherche est: Comment les phases evolutives de la formation d'un reseau de politique, en l'occurrence le Conseil canadien de l'energie (CCE), menent a des caracteristiques particulieres a ce reseau; et comment celles-ci determinent-elles les types des instruments de politique publique choisis, particulierement ceux de la recente orientation des politiques energetiques canadiennes a des fins environnementales elaborees en 1993? Afin d'atteindre l'objectif de notre recherche, deux facteurs primordiaux sont utilises, soit la circulation de l'information et l'exercice du controle sur les ressources des acteurs. L'analyse des caracteristiques du reseau en fonction des liens forts et des liens faibles autant que la presence ou l'absence des trous structuraux nous permettent de bien identifier les positions des differents acteurs, etatiques et non etatiques, sur le plan de l'information et du controle, qui a leur tour, nous semble-t-il, constituent des facteurs affectant les types des instruments des politiques publiques choisis: instruments substantifs, qui indiquent le degre de l'intervention du gouvernement, et instruments proceduraux, qui mettent plutot l'accent sur le degre de l'influence du gouvernement sur les acteurs non etatiques. L'etude soutient que l'approche des reseaux se distingue notamment par son potentiel a expliquer l'interrelation relative entre idees, interets et institutions, ce qui a son tour est susceptible de permettre une meilleure comprehension des processus de l

  6. Polymorphisme de l'apolipoprotéine E dans la population du nord du Maroc: fréquence et influence sur les paramètres lipidiques

    PubMed Central

    Benyahya, Fatiha; Barakat, Amina; Ghailani, Naima; Bennani, Mohcine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer les fréquences alléliques et génotypiques des sites polymorphes situés dans le gène de l'apolipoprotéine E (apo E) ainsi que leur impact sur les paramètres cliniques et lipidiques dans un échantillon de la population du nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqué ADH. Méthodes Le génotype de l'apo E a été analysé par séquençage direct chez 46 patients cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH selon les critères standards. Résultats Les fréquences des allèles epsilon 3, epsilon 2 et epsilon 4 ont été respectivement 78.3%, 2.2% et 19.6%. La fréquence de l'allèle epsilon 4 est très élevée chez la population du nord du Maroc en comparaison avec les populations des autres régions marocaines. Elle est similaire à celle rapportée dans les pays de l'Europe du nord. Les taux du cholestérol total, du cholestérol LDL ainsi que la présence des xanthomes et les maladies cardiovasculaires ne différent pas entre les génotypes de l'apoE. En revanche, les résultats ont montré une influence de l'allèle epsilon4 sur le taux des triglycérides chez les sujets obèses. Conclusion Le génotype de l'apoE ne peut expliquer le phénotype clinique et biochimique présenté par des patients du Nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH. PMID:24396563

  7. Stellar evolution. VI.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iben, I., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Evolution of low mass Population I stars from main sequence to red giant branch in Hertzsprung- Russell diagram, through energy generation phases of p-p chain reactions /dominating over C-N cycle reactions/ and hydrogen burning

  8. Co-Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the role of techniques of DNA analysis in assessing the genetic relationships between various species. Focuses on wolf-dog evolution using DNA evidence and historical data about human/wolf-dog relationships. (DDR)

  9. Experimental evolution gone wild.

    PubMed

    Scheinin, M; Riebesell, U; Rynearson, T A; Lohbeck, K T; Collins, S

    2015-05-01

    Because of their large population sizes and rapid cell division rates, marine microbes have, or can generate, ample variation to fuel evolution over a few weeks or months, and subsequently have the potential to evolve in response to global change. Here we measure evolution in the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi evolved in a natural plankton community in CO2-enriched mesocosms deployed in situ. Mesocosm enclosures are typically used to study how the species composition and biogeochemistry of marine communities respond to environmental shifts, but have not been used for experimental evolution to date. Using this approach, we detect a large evolutionary response to CO2 enrichment in a focal marine diatom, where population growth rate increased by 1.3-fold in high CO2-evolved lineages. This study opens an exciting new possibility of carrying out in situ evolution experiments to understand how marine microbial communities evolve in response to environmental change. PMID:25833241

  10. Evolution: Always New

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2005-01-01

    The changes in the evolution due to changes in science are explored. These changes are frustrating to paleontologists, especially when they are trying to date a singular event, like a cataclysm that precipitated a mass extinction.

  11. Experimental evolution gone wild

    PubMed Central

    Scheinin, M.; Riebesell, U.; Rynearson, T. A.; Lohbeck, K. T.; Collins, S.

    2015-01-01

    Because of their large population sizes and rapid cell division rates, marine microbes have, or can generate, ample variation to fuel evolution over a few weeks or months, and subsequently have the potential to evolve in response to global change. Here we measure evolution in the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi evolved in a natural plankton community in CO2-enriched mesocosms deployed in situ. Mesocosm enclosures are typically used to study how the species composition and biogeochemistry of marine communities respond to environmental shifts, but have not been used for experimental evolution to date. Using this approach, we detect a large evolutionary response to CO2 enrichment in a focal marine diatom, where population growth rate increased by 1.3-fold in high CO2-evolved lineages. This study opens an exciting new possibility of carrying out in situ evolution experiments to understand how marine microbial communities evolve in response to environmental change. PMID:25833241

  12. Cirque du Monde en tant qu’intervention en santé

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Cynthia; Drouin, Mélodie-Anne; Marcoux, Jérémie; Garel, Patricia; Bochud, Emmanuel; Théberge, Julie; Aubertin, Patrice; Favreau, Gil; Fleet, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter le programme Cirque du Monde du Cirque du Soleil et son potentiel en tant qu’intervention en soins de santé de première ligne pour les médecins de famille. Sources des données Une revue de la littérature menée dans les bases de données PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, La Presse, Eureka, Google Scholar et Érudit à l’aide des mots-clés circus, social circus, Cirque du Monde et Cirque du Soleil. Une initiative à Montréal nommée Espace Transition qui s’inspire directement de Cirque du Monde. Communication personnelle avec le conseiller principal en formation en cirque social du Cirque du Soleil. Sélection d’études Les 50 premiers articles ou sites Internet répertoriés pour chaque mot-clé dans chacune des bases de données ciblées ont été révisés sur la base des titres et des résumés, s’il s’agissait d’un article, ou sur la base du titre et du contenu de la page, s’il s’agissait d’une page Internet. Ensuite, les articles et les sites Internet qui étudiaient un aspect du cirque social ou qui présentaient une intervention impliquant le cirque étaient retenus pour une révision. Aucune contrainte d’année de publication n’a été appliquée étant donné qu’on cherchait une littérature générale sur le cirque social. Synthèse Aucun article n’a été trouvé sur le cirque social en tant qu’intervention en santé. Nous avons trouvé une étude sur l’utilisation du cirque en tant qu’intervention en milieu scolaire. Cette étude a démontré une augmentation de l’estime personnelle des enfants grâce à l’intervention. Nous avons trouvé une étude sur l’utilisation du cirque en tant qu’intervention sur une réserve amérindienne. Cette étude présente des résultats qualitatifs non spécifiques au programme du cirque social. Les autres articles répertoriés n’étaient que des descriptions du cirque social. Un site web concernant l’utilisation du cirque social pour

  13. Physical Principles of Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Peter

    Theoretical biology is incomplete without a comprehensive theory of evolution, since evolution is at the core of biological thought. Evolution is visualized as a migration process in genotype or sequence space that is either an adaptive walk driven by some fitness gradient or a random walk in the absence of (sufficiently large) fitness differences. The Darwinian concept of natural selection consisting in the interplay of variation and selection is based on a dichotomy: All variations occur on genotypes whereas selection operates on phenotypes, and relations between genotypes and phenotypes, as encapsulated in a mapping from genotype space into phenotype space, are central to an understanding of evolution. Fitness is conceived as a function of the phenotype, represented by a second mapping from phenotype space into nonnegative real numbers. In the biology of organisms, genotype-phenotype maps are enormously complex and relevant information on them is exceedingly scarce. The situation is better in the case of viruses but so far only one example of a genotype-phenotype map, the mapping of RNA sequences into RNA secondary structures, has been investigated in sufficient detail. It provides direct information on RNA selection in vitro and test-tube evolution, and it is a basis for testing in silico evolution on a realistic fitness landscape. Most of the modeling efforts in theoretical and mathematical biology today are done by means of differential equations but stochastic effects are of undeniably great importance for evolution. Population sizes are much smaller than the numbers of genotypes constituting sequence space. Every mutant, after all, has to begin with a single copy. Evolution can be modeled by a chemical master equation, which (in principle) can be approximated by a stochastic differential equation. In addition, simulation tools are available that compute trajectories for master equations. The accessible population sizes in the range of 10^7le Nle 10

  14. Manipulation of quantum evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabera, David Jose Fernandez; Mielnik, Bogdan

    1994-01-01

    The free evolution of a non-relativistic charged particle is manipulated using time-dependent magnetic fields. It is shown that the application of a programmed sequence of magnetic pulses can invert the free evolution process, forcing an arbitrary wave packet to 'go back in time' to recover its past shape. The possibility of more general operations upon the Schrodinger wave packet is discussed.

  15. Proprietes ionochromes et photochromes de derives du polythiophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Isabelle

    La synthese et la caracterisation de derives regioreguliers du polythiophene ont ete effectuees en solution et sur des films minces. La spectroscopie UV-visible de ces derives a permis de constater qu'ils peuvent posseder des proprietes chromiques particulieres selon le stimulus auquel ils sont soumis. Par exemple, une augmentation de la temperature permet en effet aux polymeres de passer d'une couleur violette a jaune, et ce, a l'etat solide aussi bien qu'en solution. Ces proprietes chromiques semblent regies par une transition conformationnelle (plane a non-plane) de la chaine principale. Ce travail avait pour but de mieux comprendre l'influence de l'organisation des chaines laterales sur les transitions chromiques. Deux derives synthetises possedant des chaines laterales sensibles aux cations alcalins se sont averes etre ionochromes en plus d'etre thermochromes. Il s'agit d'un polymere comportant des chaines laterales de type oligo(oxyethylene) et d'un autre comportant un groupement ether couronne specifique aux ions lithium. Les effets chromiques observes sont expliques par des interactions non-covalentes des cations avec les atomes d'oxygene des chaines laterales dans le cas du premier polymere, et par l'insertion de l'ion Li + dans la cavite de l'ether couronne dans le cas du second polymere. Ces interactions semblent provoquer une diminution de l'organisation induisant ainsi une torsion de la chaine principale. Les deux polymeres semblent specifiques a certains cations et pourraient donc servir comme detecteurs optiques. La specificite aux ions Li+ du second polymere pourrait aussi permettre la conduction ionique, en plus de la conductivite electronique caracteristique des polythiophenes, ce qui pourrait s'averer utile dans le cas de batteries legeres entierement faites de polymeres et de sels de lithium. D'autres derives comportant des chaines laterales de type azobenzene se sont averes etre photochromes en plus d'etre thermochromes. Le groupement lateral a

  16. Evolution in Revolution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Biological evolution represents one of the most successful, but also controversial scientific concepts. Ever since Charles Darwin formulated his version of evolution via natural selection, biological sciences experienced explosive development and progress. First of all, although Darwin could not explain how traits of organisms, selected via natural selection, are inherited and passed down along generations; his theory stimulated research in this respect and resulted in the establishment of genetics and still later in the discovery of DNA and genome sequencing some hundred years after his evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, there are several weaknesses in classical Darwinian as well as Neodarwinian gene-centric views of biological evolution. The most serious drawback is its narrow focus: the modern evolutionary synthesis, as formulated in the 20th Century, is based on the concept of gene and on the mathematical/statistical analysis of populations. While Neodarwinism is still generally considered a valid theory of biological evolution, its narrow focus and incompatibility with several new findings and discoveries calls for its update and/or transformation. Either it will be replaced with an updated version or, if not flexible enough, it will be replaced by a new theory. In his book “Evolution — A New View from the 21st Century,”1 James A. Shapiro discusses these problems as well as newly emerging results which are changing our understanding of biological evolution. This new book joins a row of several other recent books highlighting the same issues.2–13

  17. Restauration fonctionnelle du rachis : effet du niveau initial de douleur sur les performances des sujets lombalgiques chroniques

    PubMed Central

    Caby, Isabelle; Olivier, N; Mendelek, F; Kheir, R Bou; Vanvelcenaher, J; Pelayo, P

    2014-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : La lombalgie chronique est une douleur lombaire persistante d’origine multifactorielle. Le niveau de douleur initial reste faiblement utilisé pour analyser et comparer les réponses des patients lombalgiques au programme de reconditionnement. OBJECTIFS : Apprécier et évaluer les réponses des sujets lombalgiques chroniques très douloureux à une prise en charge dynamique et intensive. MÉTHODOLOGIE : 144 sujets atteints de lombalgie chronique ont été inclus dans un programme de restauration fonctionnelle du rachis de 5 semaines. Les sujets ont été classés en deux groupes de niveau de douleur: un groupe atteint de douleur sévère (n = 28) et un groupe atteint de douleur légère à modérée (n = 106). L’ensemble des sujets ont bénéficié d’une prise en charge identique comprenant principalement de la kinésithérapie, de l’ergothérapie, du reconditionnement musculaire et cardio-vasculaire ainsi qu’un suivi psychologique. Les paramètres physiques (flexibilité, force musculaire) et psychologiques (qualité de vie) ont été mesurés avant (T0) et après le programme (T5sem). RÉSULTATS : L’ensemble des performances physiques et fonctionnelles des sujets très douloureux sont moins bonnes et le retentissement de la lombalgie sur la qualité de vie, pour ces mêmes sujets, est majoré à T0. Toutes les différences significatives constatées à T0 entre les deux groupes s’effacent à T5sem. CONCLUSIONS : Les sujets lombalgiques chroniques très douloureux répondent favorablement au programme dynamique et intensif. L’intensité douloureuse de la lombalgie n’aurait pas d’effet sur les réponses au programme. La restauration fonctionnelle du rachis apporterait aux sujets la possibilité de mieux gérer leur douleur quel que soit son niveau. PMID:25299476

  18. Une angiocholite secondaire à un thrombus tumoral d'une tumeur neuroendocrine primitive du foie

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Hicham; Allaoui, Mohamed; Elfahssi, Mohammed; Bounaim, Ahmed; Ali, Abdelmounaim Ait; Oukabli, Mohamed; Sair, Khalid; Zentar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas exceptionnel d'une patiente de 54 ans prise en charge pour une angiocholite due à un thrombus tumoral, d'une tumeur neuroendocrine primitive (TNE Ive) du foie, dans la voie biliaire principale. PMID:26966504

  19. Lymphome malin non hodgkinien du cavum: protocoles thérapeutiques et facteurs pronostiques

    PubMed Central

    Ouraini, Saloua; Nakkabi, Ismail; Benariba, Fouad

    2015-01-01

    Le lymphome malin non hodgkinien est une entité histologique rare parmi les cancers du cavum, la plupart des tumeurs du nasopharynx étant des carcinomes indifférenciés ou Undifferencied Carcinoma of Nasopharyngeal Type (UCNT); Il pose souvent un problème de diagnostic positif clinique et histologique. La symptomatologie est généralement peu spécifique et la démarche étiologique repose sur la biopsie du cavum faite à l'examen endoscopique avec examen immuno-histochimique. Nous rapportons le cas d'un lymphome non hodgkinien avec atteinte du nasopharynx, l'analyse anatomopathologique est en faveur d'un lymphome malin non hodgkinien de phénotype B. Les aspects cliniques, radiologiques, histologiques et thérapeutiques sont décrits. PMID:26889334

  20. Energy and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, George

    I have called my lecture Energy and Evolution, and that embraces Physics and Biology. I suppose that what I have in mind are the great things that have happened in the last 135 years since Charles Darwin; and the great problems that we have in this field today. In 1859 Charles Darwin wrote history on a grand scale and he gave mankind an intellectual shock which changed our concept of ourselves and our place in the world. Rather suddenly we have come to realize that the process of natural evolution which he described and which has served the world for three billion years may be about to cease or least to change in a profound way. The Darwinian changes of evolution occurred slowly, unnoticed by participants who had very little to say about the forms that their descendants would take. They merely flocked to survive and if they survived they had one privilege only and that was the privilege of handing on their genes. The situation has changed drastically in the last few years. One species, man now so dominates the earth that it is in his part to eliminate most of the other species if he so wishes. Those who do survive do so only because man finds them interesting and useful and he is busy with the natural evolution even of these. It is the end of the evolution, as Darwin knew it. Far greater powers to play God will soon be in our hands. Genetic Engineering will enable us to eliminate conquered genes and other unfavorable genetic information and even to change the nature of mankind. We may not wish to do this but it will become possible. What we see happening is a rapid transfer of responsibility for the future evolution into the hands of ourselves, the hands of one species, homosapiens. We are no longer pawns in the game of evolution. We are not even the kings and queens, we are the players.

  1. Water-quality along selected flowpaths in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer, southeastern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.E. )

    1994-04-01

    The Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer in southeastern Minnesota is comprised of the dolomitic Prairie du Chien Group and the underlying Jordan Sandstone. Differences in water quality between the Prairie du Chien and the Jordan parts of the aquifer were investigated by sampling 139 wells in six study areas within Hennepin, Dakota, and Olmsted Counties. The study areas, which represent paths of groundwater flow through the aquifer, averaged 13 miles long and 3 miles wide. The wells were screened in the Jordan, Prairie du Chien, and overlying aquifers. Concentrations of tritium, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, and chloride were useful indicators of the actual and potential extent of human-related contamination of the aquifer. Differences in water quality were related to land use, aquifer permeability, thickness and lithology of overlying units, presence of confining units, flow path length, and well construction. Water samples from wells completed in the Jordan aquifer have lower tritium, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, and chloride concentrations than samples from wells completed in the overlying Prairie du Chien, St. Peter, and glacial drift aquifers. The distribution of these indicators on vertical sections of the aquifer, geochemical analysis of saturation indices (WATEQF), piper diagrams, and statistical analyses were used to analyze the hydrogeology and sensitivity to contamination of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer.

  2. A yeast artificial chromosome contig of the critical region for cri-du-chat syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Goodart, S.A.; Rojas, K.; Overhauser, J.

    1994-11-01

    Cri-du-chat is a chromosomal deletion syndrome characterized by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The clinical symptoms include growth and mental retardation, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hyptonia, and a high-pitched monochromatic cry that is usually considered diagnostic for the syndrome. Recently, a correlation between clinical features and the extent of the chromosome 5 deletions has identified two regions of the short arm that appear to be critical for the abnormal development manifested in this syndrome. Loss of a small region in 5p15.2 correlates with all of the clinical features of cri-du-chat with the exception of the cat-like cry, which maps to 5p15.3. Here the authors report the construction of a YAC contig that spans the chromosomal region in 5p15.2 that plays a major role in the etiology of the cri-du-chat syndrome. YACs that span the 2-Mb cri-du-chat critical region have been identified and characterized. This YAC contig lays the groundwork for the construction of a transcriptional map of this region and the eventual identification of genes involved in the clinical features associated with the cri-du-chat syndrome. It also provides a new diagnostic tool for cri-du-chat in the shape of a YAC clone that may span the entire critical region. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Creationism, Evolution, and Science Education

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Eugenie C.

    2005-06-22

    Many topics in the curriculum of American schools are controversial, but perhaps the one with the longest tenure is evolution. Three arguments are made against evolution: that it is allegedly weak science ('evolution is a theory in crisis'); that it is incompatible with religion; and that it is only 'fair' to 'balance' evolution with creationism. Regardless of the appropriateness of their application to science education, all three of the arguments are made to try to restrict the teaching of evolution. Variants of the fairness argument such as balancing evolution with 'scientific alternatives to evolution' or balancing evolution with 'arguments against evolution' have in fact become the current predominant antievolutionist strategy. Current events in the creationism/evolution controversy will be reviewed, and suggestions made for how to promote sound science education in the schools.

  4. Evolution of Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nealson, K. H.; Rye, R.

    2003-12-01

    This chapter is devoted to the discussion of the evolution of metabolism, with a particular focus towards redox metabolism and the utilization of redox energy by life. We will deal with various aspects of metabolism that involve direct interaction with, and the extraction of energy from, the environment (catabolic metabolism) and will talk briefly of the reactions that affect mineral formation and dissolution. However, we will de-emphasize the aspects related to the formation of complex molecules and organisms. To some, it will be refreshingly brief; to others, somewhat superficial. This is unavoidable, as our knowledge of the details of the evolution of metabolism is at best slim. However, by piecing together aspects of the properties and history of the Earth and coupling these with what we know of today's metabolism, it is possible to at least frame several different hypotheses that, with time, should be possible to test and modify so that the next writing of this chapter might contain some intellectual entrees and not just the appetizers. Any discussion of metabolic evolution must occur in concert with a consideration of the Earth - the understanding of the forces that drove the co-evolution of life and Earth can be achieved only by considering them together. This theme will pervade this chapter, and any real understanding of the evolution of metabolism must be inexorably coupled to, and consistent with, the geological record of the Earth.The first aspect of evolution concerns the metabolic participants as we know them now (i.e., a definition of metabolic diversity), and the second concerns the sequence of events that have led to this remarkable metabolic diversity. The first part is fairly straightforward: a discussion of the domains of life, and the metabolic achievements that are expressed in the various domains, and relating metabolism to biogeochemical processes whenever possible. The second part is much more problematic. While it is possible to make up

  5. Workshop on Molecular Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular evolution has become the nexus of many areas of biological research. It both brings together and enriches such areas as biochemistry, molecular biology, microbiology, population genetics, systematics, developmental biology, genomics, bioinformatics, in vitro evolution, and molecular ecology. The Workshop provides an important contribution to these fields in that it promotes interdisciplinary research and interaction, and thus provides a glue that sticks together disparate fields. Due to the wide range of fields addressed by the study of molecular evolution, it is difficult to offer a comprehensive course in a university setting. It is rare for a single institution to maintain expertise in all necessary areas. In contrast, the Workshop is uniquely able to provide necessary breadth and depth by utilizing a large number of faculty with appropriate expertise. Furthermore, the flexible nature of the Workshop allows for rapid adaptation to changes in the dynamic field of molecular evolution. For example, the 2003 Workshop included recently emergent research areas of molecular evolution of development and genomics.

  6. Evolution of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Green, Lucie May

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of active regions (AR) from their emergence through their long decay process is of fundamental importance in solar physics. Since large-scale flux is generated by the deep-seated dynamo, the observed characteristics of flux emergence and that of the subsequent decay provide vital clues as well as boundary conditions for dynamo models. Throughout their evolution, ARs are centres of magnetic activity, with the level and type of activity phenomena being dependent on the evolutionary stage of the AR. As new flux emerges into a pre-existing magnetic environment, its evolution leads to re-configuration of small-and large-scale magnetic connectivities. The decay process of ARs spreads the once-concentrated magnetic flux over an ever-increasing area. Though most of the flux disappears through small-scale cancellation processes, it is the remnant of large-scale AR fields that is able to reverse the polarity of the poles and build up new polar fields. In this Living Review the emphasis is put on what we have learned from observations, which is put in the context of modelling and simulation efforts when interpreting them. For another, modelling-focused Living Review on the sub-surface evolution and emergence of magnetic flux see Fan (2009). In this first version we focus on the evolution of dominantly bipolar ARs.

  7. Prise en charge des traumatismes graves du rein

    PubMed Central

    Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Jarir, Redouane; Sadiki, Bader; Zehraoui; Bentani; Wakrim, Bader; Dahami, Zakaria; Moudouni; Sarf, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Les traumatismes graves du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'Amercan Society for Surgery For Trauma (ASST) sont plus rares et se retrouvent dans 5% des cas en moyenne. Leur prise en charge est souvent délicate, nécessitant alors des centres expérimentés dotés de moyen adéquats d'imagerie (scanner spiralé). Cependant, durant ces dernières années, la prise en charge de ces traumatismes a évolué vers une attitude de moins en moins chirurgicale grâce à l’évolution des techniques de la radiologie interventionnelle, de l'endourologie et des moyens de surveillance aux urgences et de réanimation. L'objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer notre expérience dans la prise en charge des traumatismes rénaux de haut grade. Notre étude rétrospective porte sur 25 cas de traumatismes grave du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'ASST, colligés entre Janvier 2002 et Juin 2009 au service d'urologie du centre Hospitalier Universitaire Mohammed VI, Université Cadi Ayyad de Marrakech, Maroc. Nous avons étudié les données épidémiologiques, les signes cliniques et biologiques à l'admission (état de choc hémorragique, taux d'hémoglobine), les données radiologiques (échographie et scanner), les lésions associées, la prise en charge thérapeutique et les complications. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 24,9 ans 15 et 58 ans, avec une prédominance masculine (sex-ratio = 7, 3). Le rein droit était intéressé dans 15 cas (60%). Le traumatisme rénal était fermé dans 15 cas, et ouvert par arme blanche dans 10 cas. Huit patients se sont présentés en état de choc hémorragique (32%). Une anémie inférieur à 10g /100ml a été observée dans 10 cas (40%). L'uroscanner fait systématiquement à l'admission a retrouvé un grade III (10 cas), grade IV (13 cas) et grade V (2 cas). La prise en charge a consisté en une exploration chirurgicale avec néphrectomie chez 2 cas de Grade IV pour une instabilité h

  8. Plant sex chromosome evolution.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    It is now well established that plants have an important place in studies of sex chromosome evolution because of the repeated independent evolution of separate sexes and sex chromosomes. There has been considerable recent progress in studying plant sex chromosomes. In this review, I focus on how these recent studies have helped clarify or answer several important questions about sex chromosome evolution, and I shall also try to clarify some common misconceptions. I also outline future work that will be needed to make further progress, including testing some important ideas by genetic, molecular, and developmental approaches. Systems with different ages can clearly help show the time course of events during changes from an ancestral co-sexual state (hermaphroditism or monoecy), and I will also explain how different questions can be studied in lineages whose dioecy or sex chromosomes evolved at different times in the past. PMID:23125359

  9. Galactic chemical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, C.; Matteucci, F.

    2001-11-01

    In this paper we review the current ideas about the formation of our Galaxy. In particular, the main ingredients necessary to build chemical evolution models (star formation, initial mass function and stellar yields) are described and discussed. A critical discussion about the main observational constraints available is also presented. Finally, our model predictions concerning the evolution of the abundances of several chemical elements (H, D, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, Ca and Fe) are compared with observations relative to the solar neighborhood and the whole disk. We show that from this comparison we can constrain the history of the formation and evolution of the Milky Way as well as the nucleosynthesis theories concerning the Big Bang and the stars. .

  10. B-chromosome evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, J P; Sharbel, T F; Beukeboom, L W

    2000-01-01

    B chromosomes are extra chromosomes to the standard complement that occur in many organisms. They can originate in a number of ways including derivation from autosomes and sex chromosomes in intra- and interspecies crosses. Their subsequent molecular evolution resembles that of univalent sex chromosomes, which involves gene silencing, heterochromatinization and the accumulation of repetitive DNA and transposons. B-chromosome frequencies in populations result from a balance between their transmission rates and their effects on host fitness. Their long-term evolution is considered to be the outcome of selection on the host genome to eliminate B chromosomes or suppress their effects and on the B chromosome's ability to escape through the generation of new variants. Because B chromosomes interact with the standard chromosomes, they can play an important role in genome evolution and may be useful for studying molecular evolutionary processes. PMID:10724453

  11. Evolution and Christian Faith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughgarden, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    My recent book, Evolution and Christian Faith explores how evolutionary biology can be portrayed from the religious perspective of Christianity. The principal metaphors for evolutionary biology---differential success at breeding and random mutation, probably originate with the dawn of agriculture and clearly occur in the Bible. The central narrative of evolutionary biology can be presented using Biblical passages, providing an account of evolution that is inherently friendly to a Christian perspective. Still, evolutionary biology is far from complete, and problematic areas pertain to species in which the concept of an individual is poorly defined, and to species in which the expression of gender and sexuality depart from Darwin's sexual-selection templates. The present- day controversy in the US about teaching evolution in the schools provides an opportunity to engage the public about science education.

  12. Computational evolution: taking liberties.

    PubMed

    Correia, Luís

    2010-09-01

    Evolution has, for a long time, inspired computer scientists to produce computer models mimicking its behavior. Evolutionary algorithm (EA) is one of the areas where this approach has flourished. EAs have been used to model and study evolution, but they have been especially developed for their aptitude as optimization tools for engineering. Developed models are quite simple in comparison with their natural sources of inspiration. However, since EAs run on computers, we have the freedom, especially in optimization models, to test approaches both realistic and outright speculative, from the biological point of view. In this article, we discuss different common evolutionary algorithm models, and then present some alternatives of interest. These include biologically inspired models, such as co-evolution and, in particular, symbiogenetics and outright artificial operators and representations. In each case, the advantages of the modifications to the standard model are identified. The other area of computational evolution, which has allowed us to study basic principles of evolution and ecology dynamics, is the development of artificial life platforms for open-ended evolution of artificial organisms. With these platforms, biologists can test theories by directly manipulating individuals and operators, observing the resulting effects in a realistic way. An overview of the most prominent of such environments is also presented. If instead of artificial platforms we use the real world for evolving artificial life, then we are dealing with evolutionary robotics (ERs). A brief description of this area is presented, analyzing its relations to biology. Finally, we present the conclusions and identify future research avenues in the frontier of computation and biology. Hopefully, this will help to draw the attention of more biologists and computer scientists to the benefits of such interdisciplinary research. PMID:20532997

  13. TMDs: Evolution, modeling, precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alesio, Umberto; Echevarría, Miguel G.; Melis, Stefano; Scimemi, Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    The factorization theorem for qT spectra in Drell-Yan processes, boson production and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering allows for the determination of the non-perturbative parts of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions. Here we discuss the fit of Drell-Yan and Z-production data using the transverse momentum dependent formalism and the resummation of the evolution kernel. We find a good theoretical stability of the results and a final χ2/points ≲ 1. We show how the fixing of the non-perturbative pieces of the evolution can be used to make predictions at present and future colliders.

  14. Evolution of proteins.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayhoff, M. O.

    1971-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of proteins from living organisms are dealt with. The structure of proteins is first discussed; the variation in this structure from one biological group to another is illustrated by the first halves of the sequences of cytochrome c, and a phylogenetic tree is derived from the cytochrome c data. The relative geological times associated with the events of this tree are discussed. Errors which occur in the duplication of cells during the evolutionary process are examined. Particular attention is given to evolution of mutant proteins, globins, ferredoxin, and transfer ribonucleic acids (tRNA's). Finally, a general outline of biological evolution is presented.

  15. Macrothermodynamics of Biological Evolution:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, Georgi P.

    The author sets forth general considerations pertaining to the thermodynamic theory of biological evolution and the aging of living organisms. It becomes much easier to comprehend the phenomenon of life scrutinizing the formation of structural hierarchies of biological matter applying different temporal scales. These scales are 'identified' by nature itself, and this is reflected in the law of temporal hierarchies. The author discusses some misunderstandings in thermodynamics and evolutionary biology. A simple physicochemical model of biological evolution and the development of living beings is proposed. The considered theory makes it possible to use physicochemical evaluations to develop effective anti-aging diets.

  16. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology. PMID:26319950

  17. Overview of TMD Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer, Daniël

    2016-02-01

    Transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs) appear in many scattering processes at high energy, from the semi-inclusive DIS experiments at a few GeV to the Higgs transverse momentum distribution at the LHC. Predictions for TMD observables crucially depend on TMD factorization, which in turn determines the TMD evolution of the observables with energy. In this contribution to SPIN2014 TMD factorization is outlined, including a discussion of the treatment of the nonperturbative region, followed by a summary of results on TMD evolution, mostly applied to azimuthal asymmetries.

  18. Software evolution. What kind of evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Carbonell, J. J.; Parets-Llorca, J.

    2001-06-01

    Most Software Systems capable of adapting to the environment or of performing some kind of adaptive activity (such as pattern learning, behavior simulations and the like) use concepts and models from Biology. Nevertheless, such approaches are based on the Modern Synthesis, i.e., Darwinism plus Mendelism, and this implies preadaptive mutations in, and subsequent selection of the better adapted individuals. These pre-adaptive changes usually do not produce the desired effect, are virtually useless and require some kind of backtracking for the system to obtain profit from adaptation. It is our contention that an evolutionary approach in Software Systems development cannot be based on pre-adaptive mutations, but rather on post-adaptive ones, that is, anticipatory mutations and modifications (Lamarkism). A novel way of understanding evolution in Software Systems based on applied Lamarkism is presented and a framework that allows the incorporation of modifications according to the necessities of the system and the will of the modeller is proposed.

  19. Berberine-induced anticancer activities in FaDu head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yo-Seob; Yim, Min-Ji; Kim, Bok-Hee; Kang, Kyung-Rok; Lee, Sook-Young; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek; Kim, Su-Gwan; Yu, Sang-Joun; Lee, Gyeong-Je; Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Chun Sung; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jae-Sung

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated berberine‑induced apoptosis and the signaling pathways underlying its activity in FaDu head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. Berberine did not affect the viability of primary human normal oral keratinocytes. In contrast, the cytotoxicity of berberine was significantly increased in FaDu cells stimulated with berberine for 24 h. Furthermore, berberine increased nuclear condensation and apoptosis rates in FaDu cells than those in untreated control cells. Berberine also induced the upregulation of apoptotic ligands, such as FasL and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and triggered the activation of caspase-8, -7 and -3, and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase, characteristic of death receptor-dependent extrinsic apoptosis. Moreover, berberine activated the mitochondria‑dependent apoptotic signaling pathway by upregulating pro-apoptotic factors, such as Bax, Bad, Apaf-1, and the active form of caspase-9, and downregulating anti-apoptotic factors, such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. In addition, berberine increased the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 in FaDu cells. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk suppressed the activation of caspase-3 and prevented cytotoxicity in FaDu cells treated with berberine. Interestingly, berberine suppressed cell migration through downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9. Moreover, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and p38, components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway that are associated with the expression of MMP and VEGF, was suppressed in FaDu cells treated with berberine for 24 h. Therefore, these data suggested that berberine exerted anticancer effects in FaDu cells through induction of apoptosis and suppression of migration. Berberine may have potential applications as a chemotherapeutic agent for the management of head and neck squamous carcinoma. PMID:26503508

  20. Tectonic Evolution of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.

    1992-01-01

    The Final Technical Report on tectonic evolution of Mars is presented. Two papers and an abstract are included. Topics addressed include: scientific rationale and requirements for a global seismic network on Mars, permanent uplift in magmatic systems with application to the Tharsis Region of Mars, and the geophysical signal of the Martian global dichotomy.

  1. Evolution Perception with Metaphors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to find out how the teacher candidates who graduated from the Faculty of Theology and study in pedagogical formation program perceive the theory of evolution. Having a descriptive characteristic, this research is conducted with 63 Faculty of Theology graduate teacher candidates of which 36 is women and 27 is…

  2. Evolution Projects Yield Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    When a federal court in 2005 rejected an attempt by the Dover, Pennsylvania, school board to introduce intelligent design as an alternative to evolution to explain the development of life on Earth, it sparked a renaissance in involvement among scientists in K-12 science instruction. Now, some of those teaching programs, studies, and research…

  3. Crustal Evolution Introduced.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoever, Edward C., Jr.; Korporaal, Arie R.

    1979-01-01

    Detailed are the origins, development, and implementation of the Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP). This group has produced, for use in earth science and other classes in grades 8-10, a series of instructional modules based on current scientific research in the composition, history, and processes of the earth's crust. (BT)

  4. On Multiobjective Evolution Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, E.; Elettreby, M. F.

    Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) phenomena could have a significant effect on the dynamics of ecosystems. The Bak-Sneppen (BS) model is a simple and robust model of biological evolution that exhibits punctuated equilibrium behavior. Here, we will introduce random version of BS model. We also generalize the single objective BS model to a multiobjective one.

  5. Evolution and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, William V.

    1973-01-01

    Some court cases and legislative bills have been filed in states to legalize the use of the creationist view (of life forms on earth) in biology textbooks superseding the organic theory of evolution. The law has not yet accepted the religious viewpoint. (PS)

  6. Human Development, Human Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smillie, David

    One of the truly remarkable events in human evolution is the unprecedented increase in the size of the brain of "Homo" over a brief span of 2 million years. It would appear that some significant selective pressure or opportunity presented itself to this branch of the hominid line and caused a rapid increase in the brain, introducing a wholly new…

  7. Evolution in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Mike; Duggan, Adrienne; McGregor, Deb

    2014-01-01

    Evolution and inheritance appear in the new National Science Curriculum for England, which comes into effect from September 2014. In the curriculum documents, it is expected that pupils in year 6 (ages 10-11) should be taught to: (1) recognise that living things have changed over time; (2) recognise that living things produce offspring of the same…

  8. Evolution and Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mena-Werth, Jose

    2005-01-01

    In 1925, Williams Jennings Bryan, a former congressman from Nebraska and a former Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson, spent two agonizing weeks defending his religious faith that cost him his life a month after. Bryan was a prosecutor of high school teacher John Scopes, who had violated Tennessee state law by teaching the theory of evolution.…

  9. Evolution of Osmolyte Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfalvi, Gaspar

    1991-01-01

    Osmotic aspects of aqueous solutions that are usually disregarded in biochemistry textbooks are presented. This article discusses the osmolarity of seawater, evolution of organisms over geological time, ionic adaptation of cells, ionic concentrations in bacteria, osmolytes and blood electrolytes in water-stressed organisms and land vertebrates,…

  10. Evolution of lifespan.

    PubMed

    Neill, David

    2014-10-01

    Present-day evolutionary theory, modern synthesis and evo-devo, appear to explain evolution. There remain however several points of contention. These include: biological time, direction, macroevolution verses microevolution, ageing and the extent of internal as opposed to external mediation. A new theoretical model for the control of biological time in vertebrates/bilaterians is introduced. Rather than biological time being controlled solely by a molecular cascade domino effect, it is suggested there is also an intracellular oscillatory clock. This clock (life's timekeeper) is synchronised across all cells in an organism and runs at a constant frequency throughout life. Slower frequencies extend lifespan, increase body/brain size and advance behaviour. They also create a time void which could aid additional evolutionary change. Faster frequencies shorten lifespan, reduce body/brain size and diminish behaviour. They are therefore less likely to mediate evolution in vertebrates/mammals. It is concluded that in vertebrates, especially mammals, there is a direction in evolution towards longer lifespan/advanced behaviour. Lifespan extension could equate with macroevolution and subsequent modifications with microevolution. As life's timekeeper controls the rate of ageing it constitutes a new genetic theory of ageing. Finally, as lifespan extension is internally mediated, this suggests a major role for internal mediation in evolution. PMID:24992233

  11. Evolution: Skipping School

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Some individual fish like to be close together in ‘schools’, while other individuals like to be alone. A pair of recent papers dissects the genetic basis of schooling behavior, showing that genetic changes in sensory systems are involved when this social behavior is lost during evolution. PMID:24112981

  12. Early cellular evolution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the evolutionary developments that occurred subsequent to the origin of ancestral cells. Microbial physiology and ecology are potential sharp tools for shaping concepts of microbial evolution. Some popular unjustified assumptions are discussed. It is considered that certain principles derived mainly from the advances of molecular biology can be used to order the natural groups (genera) of extant prokaryotes and their patterns phylogenetically.

  13. The Evolution of Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John Maynard

    1978-01-01

    The topic of altruistic behavior is an important one in studying the evolution of behavior. It is questioned whether natural selection can actually favor patterns of behavior that apparently do not favor the survival of the individual. Game theory models are presented to help explore the problem. (MA)

  14. Evolution and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickberger, Monroe W.

    1973-01-01

    The relationship between the two concepts (evolution, religion) from an historical and social view is discussed. The concepts are seen to respond differently to the various needs of society, with considerable conflict between them in areas which involve the justification of religious beliefs. (Author/EB)

  15. Software Architecture Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  16. Technologies for ECLSS Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamant, Bryce L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) evolution are presented. Topics covered include: atmosphere revitalization including CO2 removal, CO2 reduction, O2 generation, and trace contaminant control; water recovery and management including urine processing, hygiene water processing, and potable water processing; and waste management. ECLSS technology schematics, process diagrams, and fluid interfaces are included.

  17. Darwinism: Evolution or Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Niles R.

    1989-01-01

    Maintains that Darwin's theory of evolution was more than a science versus religion debate; rather it was a revolutionary concept that influenced numerous social and political ideologies and movements throughout western history. Traces the impact of Darwin's work historically, utilizing a holistic approach. (RW)

  18. Evolution. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bershad, Carol

    This teacher's guide was developed to assist teachers in the use of multimedia resources for the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) program, "Evolution." Each unit uses an inquiry-based approach to meet the National Science Education Standards. Units include: (1) "What is the Nature of Science?"; (2) "Who Was Charles Darwin?"; (3) "What is the…

  19. The Evolution of Darwinism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, G. Ledyard; Ayala, Francisco J.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments in molecular biology and new interpretations of the fossil record are gradually altering and adding to Charles Darwin's theory, which has been the standard view of the process of evolution for 40 years. Several of these developments and interpretations are identified and discussed. (JN)

  20. Evolution of an operation.

    PubMed

    Shumacker, H B

    1981-01-01

    The story of the origin of Matas' endoaneurysmorrhaphy with suggestions for maintaining or restoring arterial continuity and their gradual evolution into the technique of intrasaccular interpolation of grafts in managing aneurysms provides another example of the increased utility of an operative procedure by its modification and expansion. PMID:7217191

  1. Resistivity tomography of Pointe du Hoc cliffs for stability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udphuay, S.; Everett, M. E.; Warden, R.

    2008-12-01

    Pointe du Hoc WWII battlefield overlooking the English Channel in western Normandy, France, is an important cultural resource, being an integral component of the June 6 1944 D-Day invasion. Two major buildings, the forward observation post (OP) and Col. Rudder's command post (RCP), are now perched perilously close to the cliff's edge owing to six decades of cliff retreat. Geophysical surveys were carried out in March 2008 to investigate the risk of cliff failure and to inform possible geotechnical remediation strategies with a final goal toward re-opening the observation post that is now closed to visitors. The geophysical surveying is accomplished by high-resolution resistivity tomography, conducted in extreme topography and in the midst of dense cultural clutter. The results of the OP tomography indicate that the highest mass movement hazard is associated with the marine caverns at the base of the cliff at the point of strongest wave attack. These caverns occupy the future site of a sea arch which will threaten the OP building. There is a high probability of a soil wedge failure on the east facing cliff edge close to the OP building. Such a failure could damage or destroy the building. The possibility of a sudden catastrophic failure along any one of these fractures cannot be ruled out. The greatest risk at the RCP site, which is under less immediate threat, is associated with soil wedge failures at the top of the cliffs.

  2. Identification d'une loi thermo-élasto-viscoplastique en vue de la modélisation du laminage à chaud du cuivre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moureaux, P.; Moto Mpong, S.; Remy, M.; Bouffioux, C.; Lecomte-Beckers, J.; Habraken, A. M.

    2002-12-01

    la mise au point d'un modèle de simulation de la dernière passe du laminage à chaud du cuivre ne présente à priori pas de problème du point de vue numérique pour un code d'éléments finis non linéaire. La collecte d'informations précises tant sur le procédé industriel que sur le comportement du matériau est par contre une opération non triviale. Cet article présente les diverses méthodes expérimentales mises en œuvre pour caractériser le matériau : essais de compression à chaud, mesures d'analyse thermique différentielle, essais de dilatométrie et de diffusivité. Les méthodes permettant d'identifier les paramètres de la loi élasto-visco-plastique de type Norton-Hoff à partir des essais sont présentées et une analyse bibliographique investigue le problème de la détermination du module de Young à haute température. Tant les hypothèses supplémentaires relatives au procédé et nécessaires au modèle que les résultats finaux sont résumés.

  3. Comparison between Internalizing Anti-HER2 mAbs and Non-Internalizing Anti-CEA mAbs in Alpha-Radioimmunotherapy of Small Volume Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Using 212Pb

    PubMed Central

    Busson, Muriel; Garambois, Véronique; Jarlier, Marta; Charalambatou, Paraskevi; Pèlegrin, André; Paillas, Salomé; Chouin, Nicolas; Quenet, François; Maquaire, Patrick; Torgue, Julien; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle; Pouget, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose We assessed the contribution of antibody internalization in the efficacy and toxicity of intraperitoneal α-radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of small volume carcinomatosis using 212Pb-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target HER2 (internalizing) or CEA (non-internalizing) receptors. Materials and Methods Athymic nude mice bearing 2–3 mm intraperitoneal tumor xenografts were intraperitoneally injected with similar activities (370, 740 and 1480 kBq; 37 MBq/mg) of 212Pb-labeled 35A7 (anti-CEA), trastuzumab (anti-HER2) or PX (non-specific) mAbs, or with equivalent amounts of unlabeled mAbs, or with NaCl. Tumor volume was monitored by bioluminescence and survival was reported. Hematologic toxicity and body weight were assessed. Biodistribution of 212Pb-labeled mAbs and absorbed dose-effect relationships using MIRD formalism were established. Results Transient hematological toxicity, as revealed by white blood cells and platelets numbering, was reported in mice treated with the highest activities of 212Pb-labeled mAbs. The median survival (MS) was significantly higher in mice injected with 1.48 MBq of 212Pb-35A7 (non-internalizing mAbs) (MS = 94 days) than in animals treated with the same activity of 212Pb-PX mAbs or with NaCl (MS = 18 days). MS was even not reached after 130 days when follow-up was discontinued in mice treated with 1.48 MBq of 212Pb-trastuzumab. The later efficacy was unexpected since final absorbed dose resulting from injection of 1.48 MBq, was higher for 212Pb-35A7 (35.5 Gy) than for 212Pb-trastuzumab (27.6 Gy). These results also highlight the lack of absorbed dose-effect relationship when mean absorbed dose was calculated using MIRD formalism and the requirement to perform small-scale dosimetry. Conclusions These data indicate that it might be an advantage of using internalizing anti-HER2 compared with non-internalizing anti-CEA 212Pb-labeled mAbs in the therapy of small volume xenograft tumors. They support clinical

  4. Modelisation frequentielle de la permittivite du beton pour le controle non destructif par georadar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdi, Taoufik

    Le georadar (Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) constitue une technique de controle non destructif (CND) interessante pour la mesure des epaisseurs des dalles de beton et la caracterisation des fractures, en raison de ses caracteristiques de resolution et de profondeur de penetration. Les equipements georadar sont de plus en plus faciles a utiliser et les logiciels d'interpretation sont en train de devenir plus aisement accessibles. Cependant, il est ressorti dans plusieurs conferences et ateliers sur l'application du georadar en genie civil qu'il fallait poursuivre les recherches, en particulier sur la modelisation et les techniques de mesure des proprietes electriques du beton. En obtenant de meilleures informations sur les proprietes electriques du beton aux frequences du georadar, l'instrumentation et les techniques d'interpretation pourraient etre perfectionnees plus efficacement. Le modele de Jonscher est un modele qui a montre son efficacite dans le domaine geophysique. Pour la premiere fois, son utilisation dans le domaine genie civil est presentee. Dans un premier temps, nous avons valide l'application du modele de Jonscher pour la caracterisation de la permittivite dielectrique du beton. Les resultats ont montre clairement que ce modele est capable de reproduire fidelement la variation de la permittivite de differents types de beton sur la bande de frequence georadar (100 MHz-2 GHz). Dans un deuxieme temps, nous avons montre l'interet du modele de Jonscher en le comparant a d'autres modeles (Debye et Debye-etendu) deja utilises dans le domaine genie civil. Nous avons montre aussi comment le modele de Jonscher peut presenter une aide a la prediction de l'efficacite de blindage et a l'interpretation des ondes de la technique GPR. Il a ete determine que le modele de Jonscher permet de donner une bonne presentation de la variation de la permittivite du beton dans la gamme de frequence georadar consideree. De plus, cette modelisation est valable pour differents

  5. Animal evolution: trilobites on speed.

    PubMed

    Budd, Graham E

    2013-10-01

    A new study quantifies rates of morphological and molecular evolution for arthropods during the critical Cambrian explosion. Both morphological and molecular evolution are accelerated--but not so much to break any speed limits. PMID:24112983

  6. "New" Persuasive Evidence for Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Edward E.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses some new evidence for evolution that might be useful in persuading students who question the scientific basis for evolution. Draws on findings from the fields of molecular biology and genetics. (DDR)

  7. Evolution as Fact and Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    1981-01-01

    This essay by a Harvard evolutionist presents viewpoints concerning the creationists' arguments against evolutionary biology. Semantics regarding "facts" and "theory" of evolution are examined, examples are cited of creationist argument, and arguments for evolution are presented. (CS)

  8. The physics of evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigen, Manfred

    1988-12-01

    The Darwinian concept of evolution through natural selection has been revised and put on a solid physical basis, in a form which applies to self-replicable macromolecules. Two new concepts are introduced: sequence space and quasi-species. Evolutionary change in the DNA- or RNA-sequence of a gene can be mapped as a trajectory in a sequence space of dimension ν, where ν corresponds to the number of changeable positions in the genomic sequence. Emphasis, however, is shifted from the single surviving wildtype, a single point in the sequence space, to the complex structure of the mutant distribution that constitutes the quasi-species. Selection is equivalent to an establishment of the quasi-species in a localized region of sequence space, subject to threshold conditions for the error rate and sequence length. Arrival of a new mutant may violate the local threshold condition and thereby lead to a displacement of the quasi-species into a different region of sequence space. This transformation is similar to a phase transition; the dynamical equations that describe the quase-species have been shown to be analogous to those of the two-dimensional Ising model of ferromagnetism. The occurrence of a selectively advantageous mutant is biased by the particulars of the quasi-species distribution, whose mutants are populated according to their fitness relative to that of the wild-type. Inasmuch as fitness regions are connected (like mountain ridges) the evolutionary trajectory is guided to regions of optimal fitness. Evolution experiments in test tubes confirm this modification of the simple chance and law nature of the Darwinian concept. The results of the theory can also be applied to the construction of a machine that provides optimal conditions for a rapid evolution of functionally active macromolecules. An introduction to the physics of molecular evolution by the author has appeared recently.1 Detailed studies of the kinetics and mechanisms of replication of RNA, the most

  9. Phenotypic Evolution With and Beyond Genome Evolution.

    PubMed

    Félix, M-A

    2016-01-01

    DNA does not make phenotypes on its own. In this volume entitled "Genes and Phenotypic Evolution," the present review draws the attention on the process of phenotype construction-including development of multicellular organisms-and the multiple interactions and feedbacks between DNA, organism, and environment at various levels and timescales in the evolutionary process. First, during the construction of an individual's phenotype, DNA is recruited as a template for building blocks within the cellular context and may in addition be involved in dynamical feedback loops that depend on the environmental and organismal context. Second, in the production of phenotypic variation among individuals, stochastic, environmental, genetic, and parental sources of variation act jointly. While in controlled laboratory settings, various genetic and environmental factors can be tested one at a time or in various combinations, they cannot be separated in natural populations because the environment is not controlled and the genotype can rarely be replicated. Third, along generations, genotype and environment each have specific properties concerning the origin of their variation, the hereditary transmission of this variation, and the evolutionary feedbacks. Natural selection acts as a feedback from phenotype and environment to genotype. This review integrates recent results and concrete examples that illustrate these three points. Although some themes are shared with recent calls and claims to a new conceptual framework in evolutionary biology, the viewpoint presented here only means to add flesh to the standard evolutionary synthesis. PMID:27282029

  10. Expanding the Understanding of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Originally designed for K-12 teachers, the Understanding Evolution (UE) Web site ("www.understandingevolution.org") is a one-stop shop for all of a teacher's evolution education needs, with lesson plans, teaching tips, lists of common evolution misconceptions, and much more. However, during the past five years, the UE project team learned that…

  11. Fla. Panel's Evolution Vote Hailed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on how the compromise hammered out in Florida recently over the treatment of evolution in the state's science classrooms is winning praise from scientists and educators. The new science standards will refer to evolution as the "scientific theory of evolution." These changes will replace more-general language in the previous…

  12. Evolution of Brain and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenemann, P. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of language and the evolution of the brain are tightly interlinked. Language evolution represents a special kind of adaptation, in part because language is a complex behavior (as opposed to a physical feature) but also because changes are adaptive only to the extent that they increase either one's understanding of others, or one's…

  13. Sandwave Morphologies and Dynamics in a Continental Shelf Environment : Example of the Banc du Four (western Brittany, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzetti, M.; Garlan, T.; Le Roy, P.; Delacourt, C.; Cancouët, R.; Graindorge, D.; Deschamps, A.

    2011-12-01

    Marine sand dunes and sandbanks are mainly observed in continental tidal shelves (North Sea, South China Sea, North Atlantic America) and may be highly dynamic (for example up to 75 m/y in the Marsdiep inlet). So they may pose a potential risk to offshore installations and shipping. Multitemporal mapping of sandwaves, necessary to mitigate this hazard, is complicated by their dynamic character, which is still poorly understood especially in the offshore domain. In consequence, these structures are often defined as moribund at depths greater than 30 meters. The aim of this investigation is to study evolution of deeper (110 meters) complex set of sand bedforms : "Banc du Four" located in the Iroise Sea. The study area is exposed to strong tidal currents and storm waves at the junction of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Western English Channel, conditions favorable to sediment dynamics. The bathymetric data, which form the basis of this study, are two Digital Terrain Modeling's (DTM's) derived from MultiBeam Echosounder (MBES) surveys : "Pourquoi-Pas?" oceanographic research vessel (R/V) in February 2009 (5 meters resolution DTM) and R/V "Albert Lucas" in August 2010 (2 meters resolution DTM). Sandwave parameters (water depth, shape, wavelength, height, symmetry index, ...) have been derived from the 2009 bathymetric data. The Banc du Four is characterized by a large sandbank (45 meters height and 2 km width) flanked by dune fields. The morphological characteristics of the dunes vary greatly (range 30 to 110 meters depth, 40 meters maximal height, 600 meters maximal width, symmetrical to asymmetrical, ...). However, this complexity can be explained by the involved sandwave dynamic (range 0 to 30 meters per year migration velocity). Spatial correlation method, applied on the two DTM's, are used to measure the migration rate. The high migration rates for deeper giant dunes bring to light the dynamic sandwave existence at depths exceeding 30-40 meters, contrary to

  14. The evolution of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, David R J

    2014-11-01

    Although viviparity has evolved many times in the animal kingdom, it remains relatively uncommon-scorpions and therian mammals being rare examples of entirely viviparous major taxa. Viviparity is a specialised form of intra-species parasitism which biases parental investment towards fertilised eggs, temporally spreads that investment, and also temporarily protects offspring from many selection pressures. Importantly, the mammalian viviparity appeared at a relatively late stage in the process of vertebrate evolution. Because of this, viviparity was 'superimposed' on complex pre-existing cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic and immune systems, and has altered them dramatically. Also, pregnancy has exerted pervasive effects on gene expression in mammals, including genetic imprinting, X inactivation, sex determination, and the ectopic expression in the extra-embryonic membranes of many genes previously expressed in the gonads, brain, pituitary and immune system. Finally, although lactation probably pre-dated viviparity in mammalian evolution, the two have co-evolved as alternative strategies of offspring nutrition ever since. PMID:25242206

  15. Evolutions from extremality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    We examine the evolution of extremal spherically symmetric black holes, developing both general theory as well as the specific cases of (charged) null dust and massless scalar field spacetimes. As matter accretes onto extremal marginally trapped tubes, they generically evolve to become nonextremal, with the initial extremal horizon bifurcating into inner and outer nonextremal horizons. At the start of this process arbitrarily slow matter accretion can cause a geometrically invariant measure of horizon growth to jump from zero to infinity. We also consider dynamical horizons that are extremal throughout their evolution and see that such spacetimes contain two extremal black hole horizons: an inner isolated one and an outer dynamical one. We compare these extremal dynamical horizons with the dynamical extreme event horizon spacetimes of Murata, Reall and Tanahashi.

  16. Evolution of mycorrhiza systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairney, J. W. G.

    Most terrestrial plants live in mutualistic symbiosis with root-infecting mycorrhizal fungi. Fossil records and molecular clock dating suggest that all extant land plants have arisen from an ancestral arbuscular mycorrhizal condition. Arbuscular mycorrhizas evolved concurrently with the first colonisation of land by plants some 450-500 million years ago and persist in most extant plant taxa. Ectomycorrhizas (about 200million years ago) and ericoid mycorrhizas (about 100million years ago) evolved subsequently as the organic matter content of some ancient soils increased and sclerophyllous vegetation arose as a response to nutrient-poor soils respectively. Mycorrhizal associations appear to be the result of relatively diffuse coevolutionary processes. While early events in the evolution of mycorrhizal symbioses may have involved reciprocal genetic changes in ancestral plants and free-living fungi, available evidence points largely to ongoing parallel evolution of the partners in response to environmental change.

  17. Evolution of mycorrhiza systems.

    PubMed

    Cairney, J W

    2000-11-01

    Most terrestrial plants live in mutualistic symbiosis with root-infecting mycorrhizal fungi. Fossil records and molecular clock dating suggest that all extant land plants have arisen from an ancestral arbuscular mycorrhizal condition. Arbuscular mycorrhizas evolved concurrently with the first colonisation of land by plants some 450-500 million years ago and persist in most extant plant taxa. Ectomycorrhizas (about 200 million years ago) and ericoid mycorrhizas (about 100 million years ago) evolved subsequently as the organic matter content of some ancient soils increased and sclerophyllous vegetation arose as a response to nutrient-poor soils respectively. Mycorrhizal associations appear to be the result of relatively diffuse coevolutionary processes. While early events in the evolution of mycorrhizal symbioses may have involved reciprocal genetic changes in ancestral plants and free-living fungi, available evidence points largely to ongoing parallel evolution of the partners in response to environmental change. PMID:11151665

  18. Interactive evolution of camouflage.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Craig

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an abstract computation model of the evolution of camouflage in nature. The 2D model uses evolved textures for prey, a background texture representing the environment, and a visual predator. A human observer, acting as the predator, is shown a cohort of 10 evolved textures overlaid on the background texture. The observer clicks on the five most conspicuous prey to remove ("eat") them. These lower-fitness textures are removed from the population and replaced with newly bred textures. Biological morphogenesis is represented in this model by procedural texture synthesis. Nested expressions of generators and operators form a texture description language. Natural evolution is represented by genetic programming (GP), a variant of the genetic algorithm. GP searches the space of texture description programs for those that appear least conspicuous to the predator. PMID:21370960

  19. Emergence and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J.

    2013-01-01

    The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are essential components of the protein synthesis machinery responsible for defining the genetic code by pairing the correct amino acids to their cognate tRNAs. The aaRSs are an ancient enzyme family believed to have origins that may predate the last common ancestor and as such they provide insights into the evolution and development of the extant genetic code. Although the aaRSs have long been viewed as a highly conserved group of enzymes, findings within the last couple of decades have started to demonstrate how diverse and versatile these enzymes really are. Beyond their central role in translation, aaRSs and their numerous homologs have evolved a wide array of alternative functions both inside and outside translation. Current understanding of the emergence of the aaRSs, and their subsequent evolution into a functionally diverse enzyme family, are discussed in this chapter. PMID:23478877

  20. Evolution of intrafamilial interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, M

    1987-01-01

    A theory for the evolution of behavioral interactions among relatives is developed that allows for genetic correlations between the types of behavior that are expressed in different social contexts. Both theoretical and empirical considerations indicate that such genetic constraints will almost certainly be common in natural populations. It is shown that when genetic correlations between elements of social behavior exist, Hamilton's rule inaccurately describes the conditions for evolution by way of kin selection. The direction in which social organization evolves is a delicate function of the genetic covariance structure among behaviors expressed as an offspring, sibling, parent, etc. A change in this covariance structure caused by random genetic drift or by a change in environment for a population exhibiting genotype-environment interaction can cause the population to suddenly cross a threshold into a new selective domain. Consequently, radical changes in social organization may arise between closely related species without any major shift in selective pressures external to the population. Images PMID:3479804

  1. Relative constraints and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Juan G. Diaz

    2014-03-01

    Several mathematical models of evolving systems assume that changes in the micro-states are constrained to the search of an optimal value in a local or global objective function. However, the concept of evolution requires a continuous change in the environment and species, making difficult the definition of absolute optimal values in objective functions. In this paper, we define constraints that are not absolute but relative to local micro-states, introducing a rupture in the invariance of the phase space of the system. This conceptual basis is useful to define alternative mathematical models for biological (or in general complex) evolving systems. We illustrate this concept with a modified Ising model, which can be useful to understand and model problems like the somatic evolution of cancer.

  2. Algorithms, games, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Chastain, Erick; Livnat, Adi; Papadimitriou, Christos; Vazirani, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    Even the most seasoned students of evolution, starting with Darwin himself, have occasionally expressed amazement that the mechanism of natural selection has produced the whole of Life as we see it around us. There is a computational way to articulate the same amazement: “What algorithm could possibly achieve all this in a mere three and a half billion years?” In this paper we propose an answer: We demonstrate that in the regime of weak selection, the standard equations of population genetics describing natural selection in the presence of sex become identical to those of a repeated game between genes played according to multiplicative weight updates (MWUA), an algorithm known in computer science to be surprisingly powerful and versatile. MWUA maximizes a tradeoff between cumulative performance and entropy, which suggests a new view on the maintenance of diversity in evolution. PMID:24979793

  3. Histones in protistan evolution.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, P J

    1985-01-01

    The potential of comparative studies on histones for use in protistan evolution is discussed, using algal histones as specific examples. A basic premise for the importance of histones in protistan evolution is the observation that these proteins are completely absent in prokaryotes (and cytoplasmic organelles), but with few exceptions, the same five major histone types are found in all higher plants and animals. Since the histone content of the algae and other protists is not constant, some of these organisms may represent transition forms between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic modes of packaging the genetic material. Comparative studies of protistan histones may thus be of help in determining evolutionary relationships. However, several problems are encounter with protistan histones, including difficulties in isolating nuclei, proteolytic degradation, anomalous gel migration of histones, and difficulties in histone identification. Because of the above problems, and the observed variability in protistan histones, it is suggested that several criteria be employed for histone identification in protists. PMID:3910133

  4. Thermal evolution of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, J.; Toksoz, M. N.

    1984-09-01

    A modification of the Boussinesq fluid assumption is the basis of the present theory of three-dimensional and finite amplitude convection in a viscous spherical shell with temperature- and pressure-dependent physical parameters. The theory is applied to the definition of thermal evolution models for Venus which emphasize the effects of certain physical parameters on thermal evolution, rather than the specific thermal history of the planet. It is suggested that a significant portion of the present temperature in the mantle and surface heat flux of Venus is due to the decay of a high temperature that was established in the planet at the completion of its core formation, and that Venus has been highly convective over the course of its history, until about 0.5 Ga ago.

  5. The evolution of helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R.; Wen, C. Y.; Lorente, S.; Bejan, A.

    2016-07-01

    Here, we show that during their half-century history, helicopters have been evolving into geometrically similar architectures with surprisingly sharp correlations between dimensions, performance, and body size. For example, proportionalities emerge between body size, engine size, and the fuel load. Furthermore, the engine efficiency increases with the engine size, and the propeller radius is roughly the same as the length scale of the whole body. These trends are in accord with the constructal law, which accounts for the engine efficiency trend and the proportionality between "motor" size and body size in animals and vehicles. These body-size effects are qualitatively the same as those uncovered earlier for the evolution of aircraft. The present study adds to this theoretical body of research the evolutionary design of all technologies [A. Bejan, The Physics of Life: The Evolution of Everything (St. Martin's Press, New York, 2016)].

  6. QCD Evolution 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    These are the proceedings of the QCD Evolution 2015 Workshop which was held 26-30 May, 2015 at Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia, USA. The workshop is a continuation of a series of workshops held during four consecutive years 2011, 2012, 2013 at Jefferson Lab, and in 2014 in Santa Fe, NM. With the rapid developments in our understanding of the evolution of parton distributions including low-x, TMDs, GPDs, higher-twist correlation functions, and the associated progress in perturbative QCD, lattice QCD and effective field theory techniques we look forward with great enthusiasm to the 2015 meeting. A special attention was also paid to participation of experimentalists as the topics discussed are of immediate importance for the JLab 12 experimental program and a future Electron Ion Collider.

  7. Anatomy of Scientific Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals great predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society, and may provide a useful basis for policy-making. PMID:25671617

  8. Evolution of catalytic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, G. F.

    1993-01-01

    An RNA-based evolution system was constructed in the laboratory and used to develop RNA enzymes with novel catalytic function. By controlling the nature of the catalytic task that the molecules must perform in order to survive, it is possible to direct the evolving population toward the expression of some desired catalytic behavior. More recently, this system has been coupled to an in vitro translation procedure, raising the possibility of evolving protein enzymes in the laboratory to produce novel proteins with desired catalytic properties. The aim of this line of research is to reduce darwinian evolution, the fundamental process of biology, to a laboratory procedure that can be made to operate in the service of organic synthesis.

  9. Evolution of stellar entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. A.; de Avellar, M. G. B.; Horvath, J. E.

    2015-11-01

    An appraisal of the behavior of stellar entropy along stellar evolution is made. It is shown that the entropy per baryon of a star of a fixed baryon number decreases monotonically with increasing compactness of the star. The same entropy per baryon increases only whenever an irreversible collapse of the star happens. The recent proposals for a gravitational entropy related to curvature may justify the huge increase of the entropy in the ultimate collapse to a black hole.

  10. Space Station evolution study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David B.

    1993-01-01

    This is the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Evolution Study 1993 Final Report, performed under NASA Contract NAS8-38783, Task Order 5.1. This task examined: (1) the feasibility of launching current National Space Transportation System (NSTS) compatible logistics elements on expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) and the associated modifications, and (2) new, non-NSTS logistics elements for launch on ELV's to augment current SSF logistics capability.

  11. Evolution of Virtual Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Eunyoung; Ahn, Joongho

    As the capabilities of technologies are enhanced and users become diversified, virtual communities have evolved from BBS to a new phenomena—virtual world. This study describes the evolution of VCs in three generations by three dimensions. Facing new challenges in new VC generation, VC platform providers need to adopt new approaches. The authors discuss important factors of future VCs. The field for VCs in the future will become more sophisticated and competitive.

  12. Evolution and ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, S. Moss; Alves, Domingos; Martins, J. S. Sá

    2000-09-01

    The idea of this review is to connect the different models of evolution to those of biological ageing through Darwin's theory. We start with the Eigen model of quasispecies for microevolution, then introduce the Bak-Sneppen model for macroevolution and, finally, present the Penna model for biological ageing and some of its most important results. We also explore the concept of coevolution using this model.

  13. Epistasis in protein evolution.

    PubMed

    Starr, Tyler N; Thornton, Joseph W

    2016-07-01

    The structure, function, and evolution of proteins depend on physical and genetic interactions among amino acids. Recent studies have used new strategies to explore the prevalence, biochemical mechanisms, and evolutionary implications of these interactions-called epistasis-within proteins. Here we describe an emerging picture of pervasive epistasis in which the physical and biological effects of mutations change over the course of evolution in a lineage-specific fashion. Epistasis can restrict the trajectories available to an evolving protein or open new paths to sequences and functions that would otherwise have been inaccessible. We describe two broad classes of epistatic interactions, which arise from different physical mechanisms and have different effects on evolutionary processes. Specific epistasis-in which one mutation influences the phenotypic effect of few other mutations-is caused by direct and indirect physical interactions between mutations, which nonadditively change the protein's physical properties, such as conformation, stability, or affinity for ligands. In contrast, nonspecific epistasis describes mutations that modify the effect of many others; these typically behave additively with respect to the physical properties of a protein but exhibit epistasis because of a nonlinear relationship between the physical properties and their biological effects, such as function or fitness. Both types of interaction are rampant, but specific epistasis has stronger effects on the rate and outcomes of evolution, because it imposes stricter constraints and modulates evolutionary potential more dramatically; it therefore makes evolution more contingent on low-probability historical events and leaves stronger marks on the sequences, structures, and functions of protein families. PMID:26833806

  14. Nonperturbative Quantum Field Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xingbo; Ilderton, Anton; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.

    2014-06-01

    We introduce a nonperturbative, first-principles approach to time-dependent problems in quantum field theory. In this approach, the time-evolution of quantum field configurations is calculated in real time and at the amplitude level. This method is particularly suitable for treating systems interacting with a time-dependent background field. As a test problem, we apply this approach to QED and study electron acceleration and the associated photon emission in a time- and space-dependent electromagnetic background field.

  15. A Description of Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviour in Children and Adolescents with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, M. C. T. V.; Emerich, D. R.; Orsati, F. T.; Rimerio, R. C.; Gatto, K. R.; Chappaz, I. O.; Kim, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psychological tests can be useful to record adaptive and maladaptive behaviours of children with intellectual disability. The objective of this study was to describe the adaptive and maladaptive behaviour of children and adolescents with Cri-du-chat syndrome. Methods: The sample consisted of 10 children and adolescents with Cri-du-chat…

  16. Graphs as a Managerial Tool: A Case Study of Du Pont's Use of Graphs in the Early Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, JoAnne

    1985-01-01

    Sketches the development of business graphs in America. Examines their early use at Du Pont and the origin of the chart room around 1920, an important factor in the executive control systems at Du Pont. Draws lessons from this case study for managers and teachers of business communication. (PD)

  17. Evolution of Metabolic Dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Wenying

    Microbes are often found to have lost their ability to make essential metabolites (auxotrophs) and instead rely on other individuals for these metabolites. How might metabolic dependency evolve to be so common? When microbes live inside a host (endosymbionts), amply host metabolites support auxotrophic endosymbionts. If the host transmits only a small number of endosymbionts to its offspring, then auxotrophic endosymbionts can rise to high frequency simply by chance. On the other hand, auxotrophs have also been observed in abundant free-living bacteria found in ocean water where nutrient supply is low. How might auxotrophs rise to an appreciable frequency in a large population when nutrient supply is low? We have found commonly-encountered conditions that facilitate the evolution of metabolic dependency. Metabolic interactions can in turn shape spatial organization of microbial communities (Momeni et al. (2013) eLife 2, 00230; Momeni et al. (2013) eLife 2, 00960; Estrela and Brown (2013) PLoS Comput Biol 9, e1003398; Muller et al. (2014) PNAS 111, 1037-1042). Rapid evolution of metabolic dependency can contribute to the complexity of microbial communities. Evolution of metabolic dependency.

  18. Darwinian Evolution and Fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Paul H.

    2009-05-01

    Did nature's beauty emerge by chance or was it intelligently designed? Richard Dawkins asserts that evolution is blind aimless chance. Michael Behe believes, on the contrary, that the first cell was intelligently designed. The scientific evidence is that nature's creativity arises from the interplay between chance AND design (laws). Darwin's ``Origin of the Species,'' published 150 years ago in 1859, characterized evolution as the interplay between variations (symbolized by dice) and the natural selection law (design). This is evident in recent discoveries in DNA, Madelbrot's Fractal Geometry of Nature, and the success of the genetic design algorithm. Algorithms for generating fractals have the same interplay between randomness and law as evolution. Fractal statistics, which are not completely random, characterize such phenomena such as fluctuations in the stock market, the Nile River, rainfall, and tree rings. As chaos theorist Joseph Ford put it: God plays dice, but the dice are loaded. Thus Darwin, in discovering the evolutionary interplay between variations and natural selection, was throwing God's dice!

  19. The evolution within us

    PubMed Central

    Cobey, Sarah; Wilson, Patrick; Matsen, Frederick A.

    2015-01-01

    The B-cell immune response is a remarkable evolutionary system found in jawed vertebrates. B-cell receptors, the membrane-bound form of antibodies, are capable of evolving high affinity to almost any foreign protein. High germline diversity and rapid evolution upon encounter with antigen explain the general adaptability of B-cell populations, but the dynamics of repertoires are less well understood. These dynamics are scientifically and clinically important. After highlighting the remarkable characteristics of naive and experienced B-cell repertoires, especially biased usage of genes encoding the B-cell receptors, we contrast methods of sequence analysis and their attempts to explain patterns of B-cell evolution. These phylogenetic approaches are currently unlinked to explicit models of B-cell competition, which analyse repertoire evolution at the level of phenotype, the affinities and specificities to particular antigenic sites. The models, in turn, suggest how chance, infection history and other factors contribute to different patterns of immunodominance and protection between people. Challenges in rational vaccine design, specifically vaccines to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV, underscore critical gaps in our understanding of B cells' evolutionary and ecological dynamics. PMID:26194749

  20. La genèse du concept de champ quantique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrigol, O.

    This is a historical study of the roots of a concept which has proved to be essential in modern particle physics : the concept of quantum field. The first steps were accomplished by two young theoreticians : Pascual Jordan quantized the free electromagnetic field in 1925 by means of the formal rules of the just discovered matrix mechanics, and Paul Dirac quantized the whole system charges + field in 1927. Using Dirac's equation for electrons (1928) and Jordan's idea of quantized matter waves (second quantization), Werner Heisenberg and Wolfgang Pauli provided in 1929-1930 an extension of Dirac's radiation theory and the proof of its relativistic invariance. Meanwhile Enrico Fermi discovered independently a more elegant and pedagogical formulation. To appreciate the degree of historical necessity of the quantization of fields, and the value of contemporaneous critics to this approach, it was necessary to investigate some of the history of the old radiation theory. We present the various arguments however provisional or naïve or wrong they could be in retrospect. So we hope to contribute to a more vivid picture of notions which, once deprived of their historical setting, might seem abstruse to the modern user. Nous présentons une étude historique des origines d'un concept devenu essentiel dans la physique moderne des particules : le concept de champ quantique. Deux jeunes théoriciens franchirent les premières étapes : Pascual Jordan quantifia le champ électromagnétique en 1925 grâce aux règles formelles de la mécanique des matrices naissante, et Paul Dirac quantifia le système complet charges + champ en 1927. Au moyen de l'équation de l'électron de Dirac (1928) et de l'idée de Jordan d'ondes de matière quantifiées (deuxième quantification), Werner Heisenberg et Wolfgang Pauli donnèrent en 1929-1930 une extension de la théorie du rayonnement de Dirac et la preuve de son invariance relativiste. Pendant ce temps Enrico Fermi découvrit ind

  1. Pc2-mediated SUMOylation of WWOX is essential for its suppression of DU145 prostate tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye-Jin; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Jong-Hwan; Lee, Kyung Bok; Oh, Sang-Muk

    2015-12-21

    Tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is depleted in various cancer types. Here we report that WWOX is modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins and represses DU145 prostate cancer tumorigenesis in a SUMOylation-dependent manner. Ectopic WWOX was shown to associate with SUMO2/3 or E2 Ubc9. Furthermore, we revealed that WWOX SUMOylation was promoted by E3 ligase polycomb2 (Pc2), and that WWOX associated with Pc2. Meanwhile, anisomycin-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity was markedly diminished by co-expression of SUMO and WWOX. Also, WWOX wild type (WT), but not WWOX SUMO mutant (K176A) markedly reduced both DU145 prostate cancer cell proliferation and xenograft tumorigenesis. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that SUMO modification of WWOX is essential for its suppressive activity for DU145 prostate cancer tumorigenesis. PMID:26592150

  2. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    SciTech Connect

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2008-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å.

  3. Contribution de l'altimetrie satellitaire a l'etude de la variabilite du niveau d'eau du Delta interieur du fleuve Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telly Diepkile, Adama

    measurements were then corrected to bring them in the same altimetry reference level as Topex/Poseidon, thereby producing time series of 17 years (1992-2009). Following this analysis, we proposed a waveform retracking algorithm that integrates the backscattering coefficient to the time scale of penetration of the radar pulse in a medium with a presence of vegetation. The idea here is to consider the heterogeneity of a medium such as the Delta, which can be covered with vegetation. For this, we introduce into the equation of the waveform, the backscattering coefficient estimated from the so called water cloud model, to create a new algorithm called retracking algorithm of water cloud. This algorithm was applied to the Envisat and OSTM/Jason-2 data. The results of the algorithm were validated with in situ measurements of the Direction Nationale de l'Hydraulique du Mali and also with measurements acquired during a campaign of data collection conducted between August and October 2009. The observed differences are generally small (<+/- 1 m). The retracking algorithm of water cloud was compared to other existing algorithms. It shows a strong correlation with Ice-1 (R 2 = 0,84). Finally, we analyzed the influence of precipitation on the variations of the altimetry-derived water levels. Three sources of precipitations from satellite measurements and reanalysis data were considered in three catchments (basin Fouta Djallon in upstream, Bani basin and the inner basin in Mali). The analysis reveals the importance of precipitations, particularly in the basin of Fouta Djallon. Approximately 70% of sites analyzed in the Delta show a relatively strong correlation (R2 > 0,40) with the cumulative precipitations in the basins considered. Keywords : Remote Sensing, Satellite altimetry, Continental waters, Water level, Long term analysis, Inner Delta of Niger River, Water-cloud model, Envisat, Topex/Poseidon.

  4. Coronagraphy at Pic du Midi: Present state and future projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koechlin, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Pic du Midi coronagraph (CLIMSO) is a group of four instruments in parallel, taking images of the whole solar photosphere and low corona. It provides series of 2048*2048 pixels images taken nominally at 1 minute time intervals, all year long, weather permitting. A team of ≃q 60 persons, by groups of 2 or 3 each week, operate the instruments. Their work is programmed in collaboration with Institut de Recherches en astrophysique et planétologie (IRAP) of Observatoire Midi Pyrénées (OMP), and with Programme National Soleil Terre (PNST). The four instruments of CLIMSO (L1, C1, L2 and C2) collect images of the Sun as following: 1) L1 : photosphere in H-α (656.28 nm) ; 2) L2 : photosphere in Ca-II (393.37 nm) ; 3) C1 : prominences in H-α ; 4) C2 : prominences in He-I (1083.0 nm). The data taken are stored in fits format images and mpeg films. They are available publicly on data bases such as BASS 2000 Meudon ({http://bass2000.obspm.fr/home.php?lang=en} and BASS2000 Tarbes ({http://bass2000.bagn.obs-mip.fr/base/sun/index.php}). Several solar studies are carried in relation with these data. In addition to the raw fits images, new images will soon be sent to the data bases: they will be calibrated in solar surface emittance, expressed in W/m^2/nm/steradian. Series of mpeg films for each day are presented in superposed color layers, so as to visualize the multispectral information better. New instrumental developments are planned for the next years and already financed. They will use spectropolarimetry to measure the magnetic field and radial velocities in the photosphere and corona. The data will cover the entire solar disc and have a sample rate of one map per minute.

  5. L'evolution du contrat social de la researche universitaire: Contraintes et opportunites (The Evolution of the Social Contract of University Research: Constraints and Opportunities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Rejean

    1995-01-01

    The history of university research suggests that it has generated a form of social contract, previously implicit but becoming explicit, due in part to the emerging links between government and university. This contract has changed over time and will become even more compelling. Educators are urged to view this as an opportunity for finding new…

  6. Evaluation du niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion du traitement par les antis vitamines K dans le service de cardiologie de Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Samadoulougou, André; Temoua Naibe, Dangwé; Mandi, Germain; Yameogo, Relwendé Aristide; Kabore, Elisé; Millogo, Georges; Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Kologo, Jonas Koudougou; Thiam/Tall, Anna; Toguyeni, Boubacar Jean Yves; Zabsonre, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les antivitamines K (AVK), traitement anticoagulant oral le plus largement prescrit, posent un réel problème de santé publique du fait de leur risque iatrogène. L'objectif de cette étude était de préciser le niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion de leur traitement par les AVK. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale descriptive réalisée au CHU-Yalgado Ouédraogo, sur une période de 03 mois : du 1er mars au 31 mai 2012. Un questionnaire a été administré aux patients bénéficiant d'un traitement AVK depuis au moins un mois. Résultats Soixante-dix patients ont été inclus dans l'étude dont 30 hommes. L'âge moyen était de 49 ans ± 16 ans. Les cardiopathies et la maladie thromboembolique veineuse justifiant l'institution du traitement AVK étaient retrouvées respectivement dans 58,6% et 41,4% des cas. Le nom de l'AVK et la raison exacte du traitement étaient connus respectivement dans 91,4% et 67,1% des cas. Plus de la moitié des patients (68,6%) savaient que les AVK rendaient le sang plus fluide. Quarante-six patients (65,7%) citaient l'INR comme examen biologique de surveillance du traitement et seulement 28 patients (40%) connaissaient les valeurs cibles. La majorité des patients ne connaissait pas les risques encourus en cas de surdosage (72,8%) et de sous-dosage (71,4%). Une automédication par anti-inflammatoire non stéroïdien était signalée par 18 patients (25,7%). Les choux (74,3%) et la laitue (62,9%), aliments à consommer avec modération, étaient les plus cités. Conclusion Les connaissances des patients sur la gestion des AVK étaient fragmentaires et insuffisantes pour assurer la sécurité et l'efficacité du traitement. La création d'un programme d'éducation thérapeutique sur les AVK s'avère alors nécessaire. PMID:25870741

  7. Structure and evolution of the mouse pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (Psg) gene locus

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, Andrew S; Fischer, Beate; Dveksler, Gabriela; Hori, Tomomi; Wynne, Freda; Ball, Melanie; Okumura, Katsuzumi; Moore, Tom; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Background The pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (Psg) genes encode proteins of unknown function, and are members of the carcinoembryonic antigen (Cea) gene family, which is a member of the immunoglobulin gene (Ig) superfamily. In rodents and primates, but not in artiodactyls (even-toed ungulates / hoofed mammals), there have been independent expansions of the Psg gene family, with all members expressed exclusively in placental trophoblast cells. For the mouse Psg genes, we sought to determine the genomic organisation of the locus, the expression profiles of the various family members, and the evolution of exon structure, to attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this locus, and to determine whether expansion of the gene family has been driven by selection for increased gene dosage, or diversification of function. Results We collated the mouse Psg gene sequences currently in the public genome and expressed-sequence tag (EST) databases and used systematic BLAST searches to generate complete sequences for all known mouse Psg genes. We identified a novel family member, Psg31, which is similar to Psg30 but, uniquely amongst mouse Psg genes, has a duplicated N1 domain. We also identified a novel splice variant of Psg16 (bCEA). We show that Psg24 and Psg30 / Psg31 have independently undergone expansion of N-domain number. By mapping BAC, YAC and cosmid clones we described two clusters of Psg genes, which we linked and oriented using fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). Comparison of our Psg locus map with the public mouse genome database indicates good agreement in overall structure and further elucidates gene order. Expression levels of Psg genes in placentas of different developmental stages revealed dramatic differences in the developmental expression profile of individual family members. Conclusion We have combined existing information, and provide new information concerning the evolution of mouse Psg exon organization, the mouse Psg genomic locus

  8. Long-term corrosion and leaching of depleted uranium (DU) in soil.

    PubMed

    Schimmack, W; Gerstmann, U; Schultz, W; Geipel, G

    2007-08-01

    Corrosion and leaching of depleted uranium (DU) was investigated for 3 years using six DU munitions (145-264 g DU) each buried in a column with a soil core of about 3.3 kg dry soil mass. The columns were installed in an air-conditioned laboratory. Each week they were irrigated and (238)U was determined in the effluents by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In addition, (235)U was measured occasionally to assure that the (238)U was predominantly from the DU munition. On average, 14.5 g corresponding to 7.9% of the initial DU mass was corroded after 3 years, indicating an increased corrosion as compared to the first year of observation. The leaching rates increased much stronger than the corrosion rates by factors of more than 100, resulting in a mean total amount of leached (238)U of 13 mg as compared to 0.03 mg after the first year. Uranium species identified in the seepage water by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy were mainly hydroxo and carbonate compounds, while those in the corroded material were phosphate compounds. It is concluded that the dramatic increase of the leaching and its large temporal variability do not allow any extrapolation for the future. However, the high (238)U concentrations observed in the seepage water highlight the need for further investigations on the transport of (238)U through soil, in particular with regard to the potential future (238)U contamination of groundwater in areas affected by DU weapons. PMID:17549506

  9. In vitro and in vivo antimycobacterial activities of a new quinolone, DU-6859a.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, H; Tomioka, H; Sato, K; Dekio, S

    1994-01-01

    A new fluoroquinolone, DU-6859a, was studied for its in vitro and in vivo antimycobacterial activities. MIC determination by the agar dilution method with 7H11 medium revealed that DU-6859a had MICs at which 90% of M. kansasii (0.78 microgram/ml), M. marinum (1.56 micrograms/ml), M. scrofulaceum (1.56 micrograms/ml), M. fortuitum (0.39 microgram/ml), M. chelonae subsp. abscessus (6.25 micrograms/ml), and M. chelonae subsp. chelonae (1.56 micrograms/ml) were inhibited were 4 to 32 times lower than those of ofloxacin and sparfloxacin. The MICs of DU-6859a at which 90% of M. tuberculosis (0.2 microgram/ml) and M. avium-M. intracellulare complex (12.5 micrograms/ml each) were inhibited were comparable to those of sparfloxacin but were four- to eightfold lower than those of ofloxacin. Thus, DU-6859a possessed more potent in vitro activity than sparfloxacin and ofloxacin against most mycobacterial species. DU-6859a exerted significant efficacy against infections caused by M. intracellulare and M. chelonae subsp. abscessus induced in mice when it was given at a dose of 1 mg per mouse (ca. 50 mg/kg of body weight) in terms of reducing the frequency of occurrence and the degree of gross pulmonary or renal lesions and bacterial loads in the lungs, spleens, or kidneys. The efficacy of DU-6859a was greater than that of ofloxacin and was more pronounced against M. chelonae infections than against M. intracellulare infections. PMID:7695276

  10. Docetaxel induces Bcl-2- and pro-apoptotic caspase-independent death of human prostate cancer DU145 cells

    PubMed Central

    OGURA, TAKEHARU; TANAKA, YOSHIYUKI; TAMAKI, HIROKI; HARADA, MAMORU

    2016-01-01

    Docetaxel is a useful chemotherapeutic agent for the first-line treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Abnormal expression of Bcl-2 is commonly found in cancer cells, which increases their anti-apoptotic potency and chemo-resistance. We investigated the effects of Bcl-2 expression status on the susceptibility of DU145 cells, an androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line, to docetaxel and other anticancer agents. A panel of Bcl-2-expressing DU145 cell lines was established. Bcl-2 expression levels were unrelated to the susceptibility of DU145 cells to docetaxel. The sensitivity of DU145 cells to cisplatin fluctuated, and the sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was decreased by Bcl-2 overexpression. In a xenograft mouse model, overexpression of Bcl-2 drastically decreased the sensitivity of DU145 cells to cisplatin and TNF-α; however, there was no change in the response to docetaxel. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that Bcl-2-overexpression had no effect on the docetaxel-induced death of DU145 cells, but significantly decreased DU145 cell death induced by cisplatin or TNF-α. Interestingly, docetaxel hardly induced caspase-3/7 activation in control or Bcl-2-overexpressing DU145 cells, but did at a low level in LNCaP cells, another prostate cancer cell line. Moreover, in contrast to LNCaP cells, the reduced viabilities of docetaxel-treated control and Bcl-2-overexpressing DU145 cells were not restored by the addition of either a Bid inhibitor or a panel of pro-apoptotic caspase inhibitors. These findings indicate that the antitumor effects of docetaxel on DU145 cells are independent of both Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic caspases. PMID:27082738

  11. Docetaxel induces Bcl-2- and pro-apoptotic caspase-independent death of human prostate cancer DU145 cells.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Takeharu; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Tamaki, Hiroki; Harada, Mamoru

    2016-06-01

    Docetaxel is a useful chemotherapeutic agent for the first-line treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Abnormal expression of Bcl-2 is commonly found in cancer cells, which increases their anti-apoptotic potency and chemoresistance. We investigated the effects of Bcl-2 expression status on the susceptibility of DU145 cells, an androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line, to docetaxel and other anticancer agents. A panel of Bcl-2-expressing DU145 cell lines was established. Bcl-2 expression levels were unrelated to the susceptibility of DU145 cells to docetaxel. The sensitivity of DU145 cells to cisplatin fluctuated, and the sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was decreased by Bcl-2 overexpression. In a xenograft mouse model, overexpression of Bcl-2 drastically decreased the sensitivity of DU145 cells to cisplatin and TNF-α; however, there was no change in the response to docetaxel. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that Bcl-2-overexpression had no effect on the docetaxel-induced death of DU145 cells, but significantly decreased DU145 cell death induced by cisplatin or TNF-α. Interestingly, docetaxel hardly induced caspase-3/7 activation in control or Bcl-2-overexpressing DU145 cells, but did at a low level in LNCaP cells, another prostate cancer cell line. Moreover, in contrast to LNCaP cells, the reduced viabilities of docetaxel-treated control and Bcl-2-overexpressing DU145 cells were not restored by the addition of either a Bid inhibitor or a panel of pro-apoptotic caspase inhibitors. These findings indicate that the antitumor effects of docetaxel on DU145 cells are independent of both Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic caspases. PMID:27082738

  12. Dépistage précoce des retards du développement moteur

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Décrire le test HINT (Harris Infant Neuromotor Test), un test d’évaluation du développement neuromoteur chez les nourrissons publié en 2010, qui s’appuie sur les normes canadiennes et peut être utilisé pour dépister les retards du développement moteur durant la première année de la vie. Qualité des données D’abondantes recherches ont été publiées sur la fiabilité intra-évaluateur, inter-évaluateur et test-retest ainsi que sur la validité convergente, prédictive, du contenu et des groupes connus du test HINT, de même que sur la sensibilité, la spécificité et les valeurs prédictives négatives et positives des inquiétudes des parents, telles qu’évaluées par le test HINT. La plupart des données probantes sont de niveau II. Message principal Il est important de diagnostiquer les retards du développement moteur durant la première année de vie, car ils sont souvent le signe de retards du développement généralisés ou de déficiences précises, telles que la paralysie cérébrale. Les inquiétudes des parents quant au développement moteur de leur enfant sont une valeur prédictive robuste de diagnostics subséquents de retard du développement moteur. Conclusion Seul le dépistage précoce des retards du développement moteur, initialement par l’entremise d’outils de dépistage comme le test HINT, permet de recommander le patient à une intervention précoce qui profiterait tant à l’enfant qu’à sa famille. PMID:27521405

  13. PHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF HS Aqr, EG Cep, VW LMi, AND DU Boo

    SciTech Connect

    Djurasevic, G.; Latkovic, O.; Bastuerk, Oe.; Y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I lmaz, M.; Cal Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I skan, S.; Senavc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , H. V.; K Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I l Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I coglu, T.; Ekmekci, F.; Tanr Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I verdi, T.

    2013-03-15

    We analyze new multicolor light curves for four close late-type binaries: HS Aqr, EG Cep, VW LMi, and DU Boo, in order to determine the orbital and physical parameters of the systems and estimate the distances. The analysis is done using the modeling code of G. Djurasevic, and is based on up-to-date measurements of spectroscopic elements. All four systems have complex, asymmetric light curves that we model by including bright or dark spots on one or both components. Our findings indicate that HS Aqr and EG Cep are in semi-detached, while VW LMi and DU Boo are in overcontact configurations.

  14. DuPont/HFM forum on carpet in health care facilities.

    PubMed

    1994-02-01

    DuPont and Health Facilities Management magazine invited 20 national experts to Dalton, GA--the carpet-manufacturing capital of the world--last year to take part in Dupont's first-ever Forum on Carpet in Health Care Facilities. During the two-hour roundtable discussion, moderated by DuPont's C. Jack Murph and HFM's Michael Hemmes, ender-users, interior designers and carpet mill representatives talked about the aesthetic, economic and performance aspects of using carpet in health care settings. Here's an edited version of what they said. PMID:10131499

  15. Teton Wilderness, Teton Corridor, and Du Noir addition to Washakie Wilderness, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Antweiler, J.C.; Williams, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted during the summers of 1972, 1973, and 1974 by the USGS and the USBM to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Teton Wilderness, the Teton Corridor, and the Du Noir Addition to the Washakie Wilderness. As a result of this study it was determined that there is little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources, but there is probable potential for oil and gas resources in two anticlines in the western part of the Teton Wilderness and in the postulated Younts Basin in the eastern part of the wilderness and the eastern part of the Du Noir Addition. The Whetstone anticline is the largest.

  16. Intubation Difficile Chez le Brule de la Face et du Cou a la Phase de Sequelles

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; El Wali, A.; Ababou, K.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Drissi, N.K.; Ihrai, I.

    2006-01-01

    Summary L'intubation trachéale chez le brûlé de la face et du cou au stade de séquelles peut être difficile voire impossible chez certains patients. La technique de ventilation à l'aide d'un masque laryngé ou d'intubation avec un fibroscope bronchique permet de résoudre la plupart des problèmes d'intubation difficile. Les Auteurs rapportent deux observations chez deux patientes porteuses de séquelles de brûlures de la face et du cou. PMID:21991028

  17. Pretreatment levels of the serum biomarkers CEA, CYFRA 21-1, SCC and the soluble EGFR and its ligands EGF, TGF-alpha, HB-EGF in the prediction of outcome in erlotinib treated non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ventosa, Elena Yaiza; Blanco-Prieto, Sonia; González-Piñeiro, Ana Lourdes; Rodríguez-Berrocal, Francisco Javier; Piñeiro-Corrales, Guadalupe; Páez de la Cadena, María

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to investigate the potential of serum biomarkers used in clinical practice (CEA, CYFRA 21-1, SCC) together with the serum epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its associated ligands (EGF, TGF-α, HB-EGF) as outcome predictors of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with the TKI erlotinib. The pretreatment levels of these markers were evaluated through immunoassays carried out in 58 patients. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and differences between groups were compared by means of the Log-Rank test. Association of risk factors with survival was evaluated using the univariate and multivariate Cox modelling procedures. Higher CEA (>5 ng/mL) and sEGFR (>56.87 ng/mL) concentrations associated significantly with a higher overall survival. The pre-treatment sEGFR serum levels constituted an independent prognostic factor. The EGFR gene mutational status and the sEGFR level combination was the single to associate significantly with longer progression-free survival periods, in circumstances in which the EGFR gene was mutated and increased protein serum levels were detected. The overall survival as assessed through a Cox analysis revealed similar death hazards with respect to low sEGFR levels combined both with non-mutated EGFR genotypes and low CEA serum levels. Our results suggest that the pre-treatment CEA and sEGFR serum levels may provide a comparable source of information to that supplied by the EGFR gene mutational status with respect to the prognosis of erlotinib treated NSCLC patients. A combined sEGFR and CEA level appraisal could be of considerable value to select patients to undergo EGFR-TKI treatments. PMID:25918681

  18. Dynamics of secular evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binney, James

    2013-10-01

    The material in this article was presented in five hours of lectures to the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School. The School’s theme was ‘Secular Evolution of Galaxies’ and my task was to present the underlying stellar-dynamical theory. Other lecturers were speaking on the role of bars and chemical evolution, so these topics are avoided here. The material starts with an account of the connections between isolating integrals, quasiperiodicity and angle-action variables - these variables played a prominent and unifying role throughout the lectures. This leads on to the phenomenon of resonant trap- ping and how this can lead to chaos in cuspy potentials and phase-space mixing in slowly evolving potentials. Surfaces of section and frequency analysis are introduced as diagnostics of phase-space structure. Real galactic potentials include a fluctuating part that drives the system towards unattainable thermal equilibrium. Two-body encounters are only one source of fluctuations, and all fluctuations will drive similar evolution. The orbit-averaged Fokker-Planck equation is derived, as are relations that hold between the second-order diffusion coefficients and both the power spectrum of the fluctuations and the first-order diffusion coefficients. From the observed heating of the solar neighbourhood we show that the second-order diffusion coefficients must scale as ˜ J1/2. We show that periodic spiral structure shifts angular momentum outwards, heating at the Lindblad resonances and mixing at corotation. The equation that would yield the normal modes of a stellar disk is first derived and then used to discuss the propagation of tightly wound spiral waves. The winding up of such waves is described and explains why cool stellar disks are responsive systems that amplify ambient noise. An explanation is offered of why the Lin-Shu-Kalnajs dispersion relation and even global normal-mode calculations provide a very incomplete understanding of the dynamics of stellar disks.

  19. Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veizer, J.; MacKenzie, F. T.

    2003-12-01

    For almost a century, it has been recognized that the present-day thickness and areal extent of Phanerozoic sedimentary strata increase progressively with decreasing geologic age. This pattern has been interpreted either as reflecting an increase in the rate of sedimentation toward the present (Barrell, 1917; Schuchert, 1931; Ronov, 1976) or as resulting from better preservation of the younger part of the geologic record ( Gilluly, 1949; Gregor, 1968; Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971a; Veizer and Jansen, 1979, 1985).Study of the rocks themselves led to similarly opposing conclusions. The observed secular (=age) variations in relative proportions of lithological types and in chemistry of sedimentary rocks (Daly, 1909; Vinogradov et al., 1952; Nanz, 1953; Engel, 1963; Strakhov, 1964, 1969; Ronov, 1964, 1982) were mostly given an evolutionary interpretation. An opposing, uniformitarian, approach was proposed by Garrels and Mackenzie (1971a). For most isotopes, the consensus favors deviations from the present-day steady state as the likely cause of secular trends.This chapter attempts to show that recycling and evolution are not opposing, but complementary, concepts. It will concentrate on the lithological and chemical attributes of sediments, but not deal with the evolution of sedimentary mineral deposits (Veizer et al., 1989) and of life ( Sepkoski, 1989), both well amenable to the outlined conceptual treatment. The chapter relies heavily on Veizer (1988a) for the sections dealing with general recycling concepts, on Veizer (2003) for the discussion of isotopic evolution of seawater, and on Morse and Mackenzie (1990) and Mackenzie and Morse (1992) for discussion of carbonate rock recycling and environmental attributes.

  20. Evolution before genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our current understanding of evolution is so tightly linked to template-dependent replication of DNA and RNA molecules that the old idea from Oparin of a self-reproducing 'garbage bag' ('coacervate') of chemicals that predated fully-fledged cell-like entities seems to be farfetched to most scientists today. However, this is exactly the kind of scheme we propose for how Darwinian evolution could have occurred prior to template replication. Results We cannot confirm previous claims that autocatalytic sets of organic polymer molecules could undergo evolution in any interesting sense by themselves. While we and others have previously imagined inhibition would result in selectability, we found that it produced multiple attractors in an autocatalytic set that cannot be selected for. Instead, we discovered that if general conditions are satisfied, the accumulation of adaptations in chemical reaction networks can occur. These conditions are the existence of rare reactions producing viable cores (analogous to a genotype), that sustains a molecular periphery (analogous to a phenotype). Conclusions We conclude that only when a chemical reaction network consists of many such viable cores, can it be evolvable. When many cores are enclosed in a compartment there is competition between cores within the same compartment, and when there are many compartments, there is between-compartment competition due to the phenotypic effects of cores and their periphery at the compartment level. Acquisition of cores by rare chemical events, and loss of cores at division, allows macromutation, limited heredity and selectability, thus explaining how a poor man's natural selection could have operated prior to genetic templates. This is the only demonstration to date of a mechanism by which pre-template accumulation of adaptation could occur. Reviewers This article was reviewed by William Martin and Eugene Koonin. PMID:22221860

  1. Evolution and human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. PMID:24151100

  2. La nutrition du nourrisson né à terme et en santé

    PubMed Central

    1998-01-01

    La nutrition du nourrisson né à terme et en santé constitue le nouvel énoncé national sur la nutrition du nourrisson, de la naissance à l’âge de 24 mois. Il s’agit d’un projet conjoint de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie, des Diététistes du Canada et de Santé Canada. Cet ouvrage est une synthèse de la documentation scientifique actuelle en matière de nutrition du nourrisson ; il contient des principes et recommandations afin d’aider les professionnels de la santé à promouvoir la prestation des meilleurs soins alimentaires possibles pour les nourrissons du Canada, compte tenu de l’état actuel de la recherche. La collaboration entre les trois principaux organismes qui s’intéressent à cette question a permis d’uniformisé le message que les professionnels transmettront au public. Le document aborde quatre grands sujets relatifs à la première année d’existence : l’allaitement, les laits de remplacement, les autres liquides dans le régime du nourrisson et la transition aux aliments solides. On y examine ensuite la question de la sécurité dans l’alimentation, puis celle de la nutrition durant la deuxième année. La dernière section couvre les autres questions liées à la nutrition du nourrisson ; on y traite de sujets tels que les allergies alimentaires, les coliques, la constipation, les matières grasses dans le régime alimentaire, la carie dentaire, la gastroentérite, le diabète, l’anémie ferriprive et les régimes végétariens. Le document contient également un répertoire complet de plus de 200 citations. Le sommaire des principes et recommandations paraîtra dans les revues officielles de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie (Paediatrics and Child Health, 1998) et des Diététistes du Canada (Revue canadienne de pratique et de recherche en diététique, juin 1998). On peut télécharger le document intégral à partir des sites Web respectifs des trois organismes associés ; on peut aussi obtenir la

  3. The evolution of nucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usher, D. A.; Needels, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Examples of chiral selection in nonenzymatic aminoacylation of internal 2-prime hydroxyl groups of oligo- and polynucleotides are discussed as an evidence for the early evolution of bionucleotides. Some factors that could influence the degree of this chiral selection and its direction are discussed. These include the structure of the aminoacyl component, the structure of the nucleoside component, and the reaction conditions. Investigation of the mechanism of this reaction was aided by the use of 3-prime inosine methyl phosphate (as a simplified model for a dinucleoside monophosphate) and proton NMR spectroscopy of t-butoxycarbonyl-alanyl esters of nucleosides as models for the transition state of the aminoacylation reaction itself.

  4. Orbital Evolution of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermott, S. F.; Kehoe, T. J. J.

    2011-10-01

    The synthetic orbital frequencies and eccentricities of main belt asteroids computed by Knezevic and Milani [2] show evidence that the structure of the asteroid belt has been determined by a dense of web of high-order resonances. By examining the orbital frequency distribution at high resolution, we discover a correlation between asteroid number density, mean orbital eccentricity and Lyapunov Characteristic Exponent. In particular, the orbital eccentricities of asteroids trapped in resonance tend to be higher than those of non-resonant asteroids and we argue that this is observational evidence for orbital evolution due to chaotic diffusion.

  5. Evolution of Atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, B.

    1993-02-12

    An atmosphere is the dynamic gaseous boundary layer between a planet and space. Many complex interactions affect the composition and time evolution of an atmosphere and control the environment - or climate - at a planet's surface. These include both reactions within the atmosphere as well as exchange of energy, gases, and dust with the planet below and the solar system above; for Earth today, interactions with the biosphere and oceans are paramount. In view of the large changes in inputs of energy and gases that have occurred since planets began to form and the complexity of the chemistry, it is not surprising that planetary climates have changed greatly and are continuing to change.

  6. Evolution was chemically constrained.

    PubMed

    Williams, R J P; Fraústo Da Silva, J J R

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a systems view of the major features of biological evolution based upon changes in internal chemistry and uses of cellular space, both of which it will be stated were dependent on the changing chemical environment. The account concerns the major developments from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, to multi-cellular organisms, to animals with nervous systems and a brain, and finally to human beings and their uses of chemical elements in space outside themselves. It will be stated that the changes were in an inevitable progression, and were not just due to blind chance, so that "random searching" by a coded system to give species had a fixed overall route. The chemical sequence is from a reducing to an ever-increasingly oxidizing environment, while organisms retained reduced chemicals. The process was furthered recently by human beings who have also increased the range of reduced products trapped on Earth in novel forms. All the developments are brought about from the nature of the chemicals which organisms accumulate using the environment and its changes. The relationship to the manner in which particular species (gene sequences) were coincidentally changed, the molecular view of evolution, is left for additional examination. There is a further issue in that the changes of the chemistry of the environment developed largely at equilibrium due to the relatively fast reactions there of the available inorganic chemicals. Inside cells, some of these same chemicals also came to equilibrium within compounds. All such equilibria reduced the variance (degrees of freedom) of the total environmental/biological system and its possible development. However, the more sophisticated organic chemistry, almost totally inside cells until humans evolved, is kinetically controlled and limited by the demands of cellular reduction necessary to produce essential chemicals and by the availability of certain elements and energy. Hence the variability of

  7. Is evolution finished?

    PubMed

    Davison, John A

    2004-01-01

    Since speciation seems to be no longer in progress, one is compelled to conclude that sexual reproduction is incompetent as a macroevolutionary device. I propose that the reason some might insist that evolution is still in progress stems primarily from the influence of two authorities, the geologist Charles Lyell, with his doctrine of uniformitarianism and Gregor Mendel, the discoverer of sexually mediated transmission genetics. William Bateson, the father of modern genetics, clearly foresaw the failure of Mendelism to explain macroevolutionary change, a perspective with which I am in full agreement. PMID:15648214

  8. Galaxy evolution. Galactic paleontology.

    PubMed

    Tolstoy, Eline

    2011-07-01

    Individual low-mass stars have very long lives, comparable to the age of the universe, and can thus be used to probe ancient star formation. At present, such stars can be identified and studied only in the Milky Way and in the very closest of our neighboring galaxies, which are predominantly small dwarf galaxies. These nearby ancient stars are a fossil record that can provide detailed information about the physical processes that dominated the epoch of galaxy formation and subsequent evolution. PMID:21737732

  9. Two-generation reproductive toxicity study of implanted depleted uranium (DU) in CD rats.

    PubMed

    Arfsten, D P; Still, K R; Wilfong, E R; Johnson, E W; McInturf, S M; Eggers, J S; Schaeffer, D J; Bekkedal, M Y-V

    2009-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) munitions and armor plating have been used in several conflicts over the last 17 yr, including the Persian Gulf War and the Iraq War. Because of its effectiveness and availability, DU will continue to be used in military applications into the foreseeable future. There is much controversy over the use of DU in weapons and equipment because of its potential radiological and toxic hazards, and there is concern over the chronic adverse health effects of embedded DU shrapnel in war veterans and bystanders. This study evaluated the effects of long-term implantation of DU on the reproductive success of F0 generation adults and development and survival of subsequent F1 and F2 generations in a two-generation reproductive toxicity study. F0 generation Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 wk of age, were surgically implanted with 0, 4, 8, 12, or 20 DU pellets (1 x 2 mm). Inert implant control animals were implanted with 12 or 20 tantallum (Ta) pellets. The F0 generation was then mated at 120 d post DU implantation. In the F0 generation, when measured on postimplantation d 27 and 117, uranium was present in the urine of DU-implanted animals in a dose-dependent manner. F0 reproductive success was similar across treatment groups and the maternal retrieval test revealed no changes in maternal behavior. DU implantation exerted no effect on the survival, health, or well-being of the F0 generation. Necropsy results of F0 animals were negative with the exception of a marked inflammatory response surrounding the implanted DU pellets. For the F1 generation, measures of F1 development through postnatal day (PND) 20 were unremarkable and no gross abnormalities were observed in F1 offspring. No uranium was detected in whole-body homogenates of PND 4 or PND 20 pups. Necropsy findings of F1 PND 20 pups were negative and no instances of ribcage malformation were observed in F1 PND 20 pups. Body weight and body weight gain of F1 rats through PND 120 were similar across treatment

  10. Influence d'une substitution partielle du ciment par du laitier de hauts fourneaux sur la résistance des mortiers en milieu acide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achoura, D.; Lanos, Ch.; Jauberthie, R.; Redjel, B.

    2004-11-01

    Le stockage de produits chimiques dans du béton présente souvent des problèmes de durabilité dus aux attaques chimiques. Inévitablement les concentrations élevées sont les plus dangereuses. Le but de notre étude est de déterminer les changements de phases qui apparaissent dans le béton lorsqu'on substitue une partie du ciment par du laitier de haut fourneaux. Les échantillons sont conservés dans des solutions acides différents anions (HCl, H{2}SO{4}, H{3}PO{4} et CH{3}COOH) et différentes concentrations (0,1; 0,25 et 0,5M). Les formations qui apparaissent sont déterminées par diffraction X et observées au MEB. Les solutions sulfatiques conduisent à une formation de gypse en surface et d'ettringite au contact de la matrice cimentaire. Avec l'acide acétique, il y a formation de calcium acétate hydrate sous forme spongieuse tandis que, avec l'acide phosphatique, la formation de calcium hydrogeno phosphate hydrate est très superficielle. Enfin, avec l'acide chlorhydrique, la surface du mortier est recouverte de chlorure de calcium dihydrate et d'hydroxyde de fer. Les résistances mécaniques sont plus ou moins affectées par la concentration mais aussi et surtout par la nature des acides avec dans l'ordre le plus agressif H{2}SO{4} puis HCl et CH{3}COOH enfin peu de modification pour H{3}PO{4}.

  11. Glossogeny and phylogeny: cultural evolution meets genetic evolution.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2008-08-01

    Evolutionary theorists since Darwin have been interested in the parallels and interactions between biological and cultural evolution. Recent applications of empirical techniques originally developed to analyze molecular genetic data to linguistic data offer new insights into the historical evolution of language, revealing fascinating parallels between language change and biological evolution. This work offers considerable potential toward unified theories of genetic and cultural change. PMID:18585817

  12. Microstructural evolution of a uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloy for nuclear reactor fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, A. J.; Clarke, K. D.; McCabe, R. J.; Necker, C. T.; Papin, P. A.; Field, R. D.; Kelly, A. M.; Tucker, T. J.; Forsyth, R. T.; Dickerson, P. O.; Foley, J. C.; Swenson, H.; Aikin, R. M.; Dombrowski, D. E.

    2015-10-01

    Low-enriched uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum (LEU-10wt.%Mo) is of interest for the fabrication of monolithic fuels to replace highly-enriched uranium (HEU) dispersion fuels in high performance research and test reactors around the world. In this work, depleted uranium-10 wt.%Mo (DU-10wt.%Mo) is used to simulate the solidification and microstructural evolution of LEU-10wt.%Mo. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and complementary electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) reveal significant microsegregation present in the metastable γ-phase after solidification. Homogenization is performed at 800 and 1000 °C for times ranging from 1 to 32 h to explore the time-temperature combinations that will reduce the extent of microsegregation, as regions of higher and lower Mo content may influence local mechanical properties and provide preferred regions for γ-phase decomposition. We show for the first time that EBSD can be used to qualitatively assess microstructural evolution in DU-10wt.%Mo after homogenization treatments. Complementary EPMA is used to quantitatively confirm this finding. Homogenization at 1000 °C for 2-4 h may the regions that contain 8 wt.% Mo or lower, whereas homogenization at 1000 °C for longer than 8 h effectively saturates Mo chemical homogeneity, but results in substantial grain growth. The appropriate homogenization time will depend upon additional microstructural considerations, such as grain growth and intended subsequent processing. Higher carbon LEU-10wt.%Mo generally contains more inclusions within the grains and at grain boundaries after solidification. The effect of these inclusions on microstructural evolution (e.g. grain growth) during homogenization and as potential γ-phase decomposition nucleation sites is unclear, but likely requires additional study.

  13. Aspects épidémiologiques du suicide à Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Soumah, Mohamed Maniboliot; Eboué, Brice Angwé; Ndiaye, Mor; Sow, Mamadou Lamine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Le suicidé est le sujet mort par suicide et le suicidant est la personne ayant fait des tentatives de suicide. L'objectif de cette étude porte sur l'analyse épidémiologique des suicides dans la région de Dakar. Méthodes Par une étude rétrospective portant sur les registres du service d'anatomie pathologique de l'Hôpital Aristide Le Dantec, nous rapportons 143 suicides sur 10 ans. Le traitement et l'analyse des données ont été faits sur Epidata version 2.1 b pour la saisie et Epiinfo version 6.04 fr pour l'analyse. Résultats A Dakar, les morts par suicide restent peu fréquentes au regard de la mortalité générale. Les hommes se suicident deux fois plus que les femmes et le suicide reste l'apanage de l'adulte jeune dont l'âge se situe entre 21 et 30 ans. Les suicidés résident le plus souvent en zone périurbaine et ils commettent cet acte dans la majorité des cas en période de froid (pendant les mois de janvier, février et mars), plus avant midi et en soirée qu'en après-midi. Aussi 97.2% des suicidés ont utilisé un seul moyen pour se suicider et le suicide complexe (utilisation de plusieurs moyens) a concerné seulement un cas dans notre étude. La pendaison reste le mode le plus utilisé. Conclusion Les hommes préfèrent donc des moyens de suicides violents (pendaison, arme à feu et arme blanche) alors que les femmes et les adolescents (tout sexe confondu) utilisent les intoxications. Le recueil des facteurs concourant au suicide permettrait une prévention de ce dernier. PMID:23847707

  14. Evolution of molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevenster, M.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of interstellar molecular hydrogen was studied, with a special interest for the formation and evolution of molecular clouds and star formation within them, by a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation performed on a rectangular grid of physical sizes on the order of 100 pc. It is filled with an initial density of approx. 1 cm(exp -3), except for one cell (approx. 1 pc(exp 2)) at the center of the grid where an accretion core of 1-10(exp 3) solar masses is placed. The grid is co-moving with the gridcenter that is on a circular orbit around the Galactic center and that also is the guiding center of epicyclic approximation of orbits of the matter surrounding it. The initial radial velocity is zero; to account for differential rotation the initial tangential velocity (i.e. the movement around the galactic center) is proportional to the radial distance to the grid center. The rate is comparable to the rotation rate at the Local Standard of Rest. The influence of galactic rotation is noticed by spiral or elliptical forms, but on much longer time scales than self gravitation and cooling processes. Density and temperature are kept constant at the boundaries and no inflow is allowed along the tangential boundaries.

  15. Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Woodward W.; Hemp, James; Johnson, Jena E.

    2016-06-01

    The origin of oxygenic photosynthesis was the most important metabolic innovation in Earth history. It allowed life to generate energy and reducing power directly from sunlight and water, freeing it from the limited resources of geochemically derived reductants. This greatly increased global primary productivity and restructured ecosystems. The release of O2 as an end product of water oxidation led to the rise of oxygen, which dramatically altered the redox state of Earth's atmosphere and oceans and permanently changed all major biogeochemical cycles. Furthermore, the biological availability of O2 allowed for the evolution of aerobic respiration and novel biosynthetic pathways, facilitating much of the richness we associate with modern biology, including complex multicellularity. Here we critically review and synthesize information from the geological and biological records for the origin and evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Data from both of these archives illustrate that this metabolism first appeared in early Paleoproterozoic time and, despite its biogeochemical prominence, is a relatively late invention in the context of our planet's history.

  16. Nucleosynthesis and Stellar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woosley, S. E.

    Preface I. Nuclear Astrophysics Nuclear cross sections Nuclear reaction rates Approximations to reaction rates for heavy nuclei Nuclear reaction networks II. Nuclear Reactions During Advanced Burning Stages of Massive Stars Carbon burning Neon burning Oxygen burning Silicon burning Nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) NSE network calculations Equilibrium at high densities III. Approximate Thermodynamic Conditions for Advanced Burning Stages in Massive Stars Burning in hydrostatic equilibrium Explosive burning conditions IV. Parametrized Network Calculations of Nucleosynthesis Helium Burning Carbon burning Neon burning Oxygen burning Silicon burning Summary V. Classical Novae and X-ray Bursts Classical novae Parametrized nucleosynthesis calculations Numerical calculations of a model nova Type I X-ray bursts VI. The Evolution of Massive Stars; M >= 8 Msun Stars that become type II supernovae Computer results Nucleosynthesis in pre-supernova stars The evolution to instability of more massive stars VII. Type II Supernovae Light curves and spectra of type II supernovae The type II explosion mechanism: core collapse and bounce "Delayed" explosions The role of rotation Nucleosynthesis in type II supernovae Unusual type II supernovae and "type III" supernovae VIII. Type I Supernovae General thermonuclear models The current standard model Nucleosynthesis in the standard model Spectral synthesis in type I supernovae Peculiar Type I's More on the physics of carbon ignition: flame propagation the conductive velocity the "turbulent" flame velocity Carbon detonation: The phase velocity and "spontaneous combustion" Initial conditions References

  17. Archaeology and cognitive evolution.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Thomas

    2002-06-01

    Archaeology can provide two bodies of information relevant to the understanding of the evolution of human cognition--the timing of developments, and the evolutionary context of these developments. The challenge is methodological. Archaeology must document attributes that have direct implications for underlying cognitive mechanisms. One example of such a cognitive archaeology is found in spatial cognition. The archaeological record documents an evolutionary sequence that begins with ape-equivalent spatial abilities 2.5 million years ago and ends with the appearance of modern abilities in the still remote past of 400,000 years ago. The timing of these developments reveals two major episodes in the evolution in spatial ability, one, 1.5 million years ago and the other, one million years later. The two episodes of development in spatial cognition had very different evolutionary contexts. The first was associated with the shift to an open country adaptive niche that occurred early in the time range of Homo erectus. The second was associated with no clear adaptive shift, though it does appear to have coincided with the invasion of more hostile environments and the appearance of systematic hunting of large mammals. Neither, however, occurred in a context of modern hunting and gathering. PMID:12879699

  18. Hox genes and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hrycaj, Steven M.; Wellik, Deneen M.

    2016-01-01

    Hox proteins are a deeply conserved group of transcription factors originally defined for their critical roles in governing segmental identity along the antero-posterior (AP) axis in Drosophila. Over the last 30 years, numerous data generated in evolutionarily diverse taxa have clearly shown that changes in the expression patterns of these genes are closely associated with the regionalization of the AP axis, suggesting that Hox genes have played a critical role in the evolution of novel body plans within Bilateria. Despite this deep functional conservation and the importance of these genes in AP patterning, key questions remain regarding many aspects of Hox biology. In this commentary, we highlight recent reports that have provided novel insight into the origins of the mammalian Hox cluster, the role of Hox genes in the generation of a limbless body plan, and a novel putative mechanism in which Hox genes may encode specificity along the AP axis. Although the data discussed here offer a fresh perspective, it is clear that there is still much to learn about Hox biology and the roles it has played in the evolution of the Bilaterian body plan. PMID:27239281

  19. Geometry Genetics and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siggia, Eric

    2011-03-01

    Darwin argued that highly perfected organs such as the vertebrate eye could evolve by a series of small changes, each of which conferred a selective advantage. In the context of gene networks, this idea can be recast into a predictive algorithm, namely find networks that can be built by incremental adaptation (gradient search) to perform some task. It embodies a ``kinetic'' view of evolution where a solution that is quick to evolve is preferred over a global optimum. Examples of biochemical kinetic networks were evolved for temporal adaptation, temperature compensated entrainable clocks, explore-exploit trade off in signal discrimination, will be presented as well as networks that model the spatially periodic somites (vertebrae) and HOX gene expression in the vertebrate embryo. These models appear complex by the criterion of 19th century applied mathematics since there is no separation of time or spatial scales, yet they are all derivable by gradient optimization of simple functions (several in the Pareto evolution) often based on the Shannon entropy of the time or spatial response. Joint work with P. Francois, Physics Dept. McGill University. With P. Francois, Physics Dept. McGill University

  20. Intron Evolution in Saccharomycetaceae

    PubMed Central

    Hooks, Katarzyna B.; Delneri, Daniela; Griffiths-Jones, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Introns in protein-coding genes are very rare in hemiascomycetous yeast genomes. It has been suggested that these species have experienced extensive intron loss during their evolution from the postulated intron-rich fungal ancestor. However, no intron-devoid yeast species have been identified and some of the introns remaining within the genomes of intron-poor species, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, appear to be beneficial during growth under stress conditions. In order to reveal the pattern of intron retention within intron-poor yeast species and better understand the mechanisms of intron evolution, we generated a comprehensive set of 250 orthologous introns in the 20 species that comprise the Saccharomycetaceae, by analyzing RNA deep-sequencing data and alignments of intron-containing genes. Analysis of these intron sets shows that intron loss is at least two orders of magnitude more frequent than intron gain. Fine mapping of intron positions shows that intron sliding is rare, and that introns are almost always removed without changing the primary sequence of the encoded protein. The latter finding is consistent with the prevailing view that homologous recombination between reverse-transcribed mature mRNAs and the corresponding genomic locus is the primary mechanism of intron loss. However, we also find evidence that loss of a small number of introns is mediated by micro-homology, and that the number of intron losses is diminished in yeast species that have lost the microhomology end joining and nonhomologous end joining machinery. PMID:25364803

  1. Introns in gene evolution.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Larisa; Fedorov, Alexei

    2003-07-01

    Introns are integral elements of eukaryotic genomes that perform various important functions and actively participate in gene evolution. We review six distinct roles of spliceosomal introns: (1) sources of non-coding RNA; (2) carriers of transcription regulatory elements; (3) actors in alternative and trans-splicing; (4) enhancers of meiotic crossing over within coding sequences; (5) substrates for exon shuffling; and (6) signals for mRNA export from the nucleus and nonsense-mediated decay. We consider transposable capacities of introns and the current state of the long-lasting debate on the 'early-or-late' origin of introns. Cumulative data on known types of contemporary exon shuffling and the estimation of the size of the underlying exon universe are also discussed. We argue that the processes central to introns-early (exon shuffling) and introns-late (intron insertion) theories are entirely compatible. Each has provided insight: the latter through elucidating the transposon capabilities of introns, and the former through understanding the importance of introns in genomic recombination leading to gene rearrangements and evolution. PMID:12868603

  2. Concrete Chemical Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    D.H. Tang

    1998-07-31

    The objectives of this analysis are to discuss and evaluate testing results that were performed for the M&O by the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) to evaluate the potential long-term evolution of organic admixtures in cementitious materials at elevated temperatures. The testing was designed to help provide a basis for a determination by the Performance Assessment group (PA) of the long-term acceptability and longevity of cementitious materials for repository use. The main purpose of the testing was to assess the evolution of gases (especially CO{sub 2}) from hydrated cement paste at elevated temperatures and to determine the impact on alkalinity, i.e., the pH value of cement paste pore solution. This information in turn can be used as scoping information to determine if further tests of this nature are needed to support PA. As part of this discussion and evaluation of the PSU results, an assessment of alkalinity in a ''cementitious repository'' and an evaluation of organic materials are presented.

  3. Heat freezes niche evolution.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Miguel B; Ferri-Yáñez, Francisco; Bozinovic, Francisco; Marquet, Pablo A; Valladares, Fernando; Chown, Steven L

    2013-09-01

    Climate change is altering phenology and distributions of many species and further changes are projected. Can species physiologically adapt to climate warming? We analyse thermal tolerances of a large number of terrestrial ectotherm (n = 697), endotherm (n = 227) and plant (n = 1816) species worldwide, and show that tolerance to heat is largely conserved across lineages, while tolerance to cold varies between and within species. This pattern, previously documented for ectotherms, is apparent for this group and for endotherms and plants, challenging the longstanding view that physiological tolerances of species change continuously across climatic gradients. An alternative view is proposed in which the thermal component of climatic niches would overlap across species more than expected. We argue that hard physiological boundaries exist that constrain evolution of tolerances of terrestrial organisms to high temperatures. In contrast, evolution of tolerances to cold should be more frequent. One consequence of conservatism of upper thermal tolerances is that estimated niches for cold-adapted species will tend to underestimate their upper thermal limits, thereby potentially inflating assessments of risk from climate change. In contrast, species whose climatic preferences are close to their upper thermal limits will unlikely evolve physiological tolerances to increased heat, thereby being predictably more affected by warming. PMID:23869696

  4. Modeling Protein Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Richard; Pollock, David

    The study of biology is fundamentally different from many other scientific pursuits, such as geology or astrophysics. This difference stems from the ubiquitous questions that arise about function and purpose. These are questions concerning why biological objects operate the way they do: what is the function of a polymerase? What is the role of the immune system? No one, aside from the most dedicated anthropist or interventionist theist, would attempt to determine the purpose of the earth's mantle or the function of a binary star. Among the sciences, it is only biology in which the details of what an object does can be said to be part of the reason for its existence. This is because the process of evolution is capable of improving an object to better carry out a function; that is, it adapts an object within the constraints of mechanics and history (i.e., what has come before). Thus, the ultimate basis of these biological questions is the process of evolution; generally, the function of an enzyme, cell type, organ, system, or trait is the thing that it does that contributes to the fitness (i.e., reproductive success) of the organism of which it is a part or characteristic. Our investigations cannot escape the simple fact that all things in biology (including ourselves) are, ultimately, the result of an evolutionary process.

  5. Student Visual Communication of Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin

    2016-05-01

    Despite growing recognition of the importance of visual representations to science education, previous research has given attention mostly to verbal modalities of evolution instruction. Visual aspects of classroom learning of evolution are yet to be systematically examined by science educators. The present study attends to this issue by exploring the types of evolutionary imagery deployed by secondary students. Our visual design analysis revealed that students resorted to two larger categories of images when visually communicating evolution: spatial metaphors (images that provided a spatio-temporal account of human evolution as a metaphorical "walk" across time and space) and symbolic representations ("icons of evolution" such as personal portraits of Charles Darwin that simply evoked evolutionary theory rather than metaphorically conveying its conceptual contents). It is argued that students need opportunities to collaboratively critique evolutionary imagery and to extend their visual perception of evolution beyond dominant images.

  6. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Burmeister, Alita R.; Smith, James J.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27158306

  7. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Alita R; Smith, James J

    2016-05-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education. PMID:27158306

  8. W. E. B. Du Bois: A Dynamic Communicator and Cultural Iconoclast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reppert, James E.

    This paper presents a biographical sketch of the prolific African-American writer and sociologist W.E.B. Du Bois, designed as an instructional unit in an introduction to mass communication course which can help make students aware of the roles played by ethnic minorities in shaping American and world media. The paper provides numerous details of…

  9. College of DuPage District 502 Educational Needs Assessment (Total Sample Summary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Gary

    In spring 1987, the Gallup Organization conducted a telephone survey for the College of DuPage (COD) in Illinois to determine community perceptions of the college's role in the community; community awareness of COD and its competitors; perceptions of current college services; importance of factors in selecting an educational program; interest in…

  10. Student Profile, College of DuPage, Fall 1986-1989. Topical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Gary

    Prepared to provide staff with a more comprehensive profile of the student body of the College of DuPage (COD), Illinois, this report looks at changes in the student body and its increasing diversity over the last 5 years, and raises issues for staff discussion and planning. The report is divided into 18 sections, each consisting of an…

  11. Inflectional Morphology in Cri du Chat Syndrome--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2012-01-01

    This study examined morphological skills in a girl with cri du chat syndrome, addressing three questions: (1) To what extent does the subject inflect words? (2) To what extent are words inflected correctly? (3) To what extent do the inflected words reflect productive morphological rules, and to what extent can they be considered to be…

  12. Traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum par plaque vissée

    PubMed Central

    Hammou, Nassreddine; Abid, Hatim; Shimi, Mohammed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures du calcanéum sont peu fréquentes mais le plus souvent graves. Le traitement chirurgical par plaque vissée est ardemment défendu. L'objectif de notre travail rétrospectif est d’évaluer les résultats du traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum à travers une série de 12 patients opérée aux service d'orthopédie du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une durée de 3 ans, et les comparer aux données de la littérature. L’âge moyen dans notre série était de 34 ans, le geste opératoire était réalisé au 7ème jour. Tous nos patient ont bénéficie d'une réduction à foyer ouvert avec une ostéosynthèse par plaques vissées. Le recul moyen était de 12 mois et les résultats fonctionnels ont été évaluer selon le score de Kitaoka. PMID:26161214

  13. (Fond du Lac archeological resources within the Draft Area Recommendation Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Danz, D.L.

    1986-07-28

    Research into archaeological resources of the Fond du Lac Band within the DOE proposed high-level nuclear waste sites resulted in the discovery of four traditional ancestral sites. A number of ancestral sites that are located within other proposed repository sites were also discovered.

  14. DuPont extends CFC production after EPA warns of scarcity

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, E.

    1994-01-05

    DuPont reversed its voluntary commitment to phase out CFC production at the end of 1994 to prevent a possible shortage for automotive air conditioning repairs. In a December letter, the US EPA asked Dupont to continue producing its full 1995 allowance of 76 million tons of CFC-12 under the Montreal Protocol.

  15. Speech and Language Development in Cri Du Chat Syndrome: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research on speech and language abilities in people with cri du chat syndrome (CCS). CCS is a rare genetic disorder, with an estimated incidence between 1 in 15,000 and 1 in 50,000 births, resulting from a deletion on the short arm of chromosome 5. In general, individuals have delayed speech and language development, and some…

  16. Grammatical Constructions in Cri du Chat Syndrome--Findings from a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2009-01-01

    The literature on grammatical skills in persons with Cri du chat syndrome (CCS) is very limited, and the need for more knowledge in this area is thus evident, in particular for speech and language therapists working with individuals with this syndrome. This case study report describes the syntactic skills of a 14-year-old Norwegian girl with CCS.…

  17. Des proprietes de l'etat normal du modele de Hubbard bidimensionnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemay, Francois

    Depuis leur decouverte, les etudes experimentales ont demontre que les supra-conducteurs a haute temperature ont une phase normale tres etrange. Les proprietes de ces materiaux ne sont pas bien decrites par la theorie du liquide de Fermi. Le modele de Hubbard bidimensionnel, bien qu'il ne soit pas encore resolu, est toujours considere comme un candidat pour expliquer la physique de ces composes. Dans cet ouvrage, nous mettons en evidence plusieurs proprietes electroniques du modele qui sont incompatibles avec l'existence de quasi-particules. Nous montrons notamment que la susceptibilite des electrons libres sur reseau contient des singularites logarithmiques qui influencent de facon determinante les proprietes de la self-energie a basse frequence. Ces singularites sont responsables de la destruction des quasi-particules. En l'absence de fluctuations antiferromagnetiques, elles sont aussi responsables de l'existence d'un petit pseudogap dans le poids spectral au niveau de Fermi. Les proprietes du modele sont egalement etudiees pour une surface de Fermi similaire a celle des supraconducteurs a haute temperature. Un parallele est etabli entre certaines caracteristiques du modele et celles de ces materiaux.

  18. Sleep in Individuals with Cri du Chat Syndrome: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, A. P. H. M.; Didden, R.; Korzilius, H.; Braam, W.; Smits, M. G.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems are common in individuals with intellectual disability. Little is known about sleep in children and adults with Cri du Chat syndrome (CDC). Method: Sleep was investigated in 30 individuals with CDC using a sleep questionnaire. Sleep problems and sleep behaviours in individuals with CDC were compared with individuals with…

  19. Office Automation Pilot: A Paperless Approach at College of DuPage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bart

    The pilot project described in this report was undertaken by the College of DuPage (CD) to increase the clerical efficiency of seven administrative offices through the installation of a computerized word processing and data transmission system. The first section of the report provides background information detailing: the history of computer…

  20. The Double-Consciousness of Du Bois & the "Mestiza Consciousness" of Anzaldua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Theresa A.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that W.E.B. Du Bois' concept of the "double-consciousness" and Gloria Anzaldua's concept of the "mestiza consciousness" are significant forms of oppositional culture and consciousness. Asserts that their two concepts are linked and nuanced ideas that describe interlocking systems of oppression spanning two centuries and arguably binding…

  1. W.E.B. DuBois's Challenge to Scientific Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carol M.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that a direct and authoritative challenge to the scientific racism of the late eighteenth and early twentieth centuries was urgently needed, and was one of the leading rhetorical contributions of W.E.B. DuBois. Specifically examines three issues: social Darwinism, the eugenics movement, and psychologists' measurement of intelligence.…

  2. College of DuPage Information Technology Plan, Fiscal Year 1994-95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    Building upon four previous planning documents for computing at College of DuPage in Illinois, this plan for fiscal year 1995 (FY95) provides a starting point for future plans to address all activities that relate to the use of information technology on campus. The FY95 "Information Technology Plan" is divided into six sections, each providing an…

  3. KHAN DU! II. Final Project Performance Report, November 1, 1978-September 30, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLRN/KLRU-TV, Austin, TX.

    This KHAN DU! project produced four half-hour television programs in the area of career education with emphasis on the handicapped, plus an extra nonbroadcast program designed for teachers. The four-program series was designed for children aged eight to eleven, although older children have responded favorably. The goals of the series were (1) to…

  4. 75 FR 52938 - E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; Notice of Filing August 20, 2010. Take... encourages electronic submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper using the ``eFiling'' link at...., Washington, DC 20426. This filing is accessible on-line at http://www.ferc.gov , using the ``eLibrary''...

  5. 76 FR 78968 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook and DuPage Counties, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Federal Highway Administration Federal Aviation Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook and Du... (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Revised Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The FHWA and FAA are issuing this notice to advise the public that a Tier Two Environmental...

  6. FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT UTILIZING DU PONT'S PACT (TRADE NAME) PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Operating and cost data on startup and the initial 30 months of operation of a 150,000 cu m/day (40-MGD) industrial wastewater treatment plant using Du Pont's PACT process are reported. The process effectively provides secondary/tertiary treatment by adding powdered activated car...

  7. Valeria Fike: College of DuPage Library, Glen Ellyn, IL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author profiles Valeria Fike, supervisor of reference support and College and Career Information Center services at the College of DuPage Library (CODL), Glen Ellyn, Illinois. Valeria Fike, who supervises some 21 paraprofessionals at CODL, modestly attributes her successful career there to her being "simply in the right place…

  8. Deux espèces nouvelles de puces (Siphonaptera : Ctenophthalmidae & Rhopalopsyllidae) du Chili

    PubMed Central

    Beaucournu, J.-C.; Moreno, L.; González-Acuña, D.

    2011-01-01

    Agastopsylla guzmani n. sp. (Ctenophthalmidae) et Delostichus degus n. sp. (Rhopalopsyllidae) sont décrites. Une clé est donnée pour le genre Agastopsylla ; pour le genre Delostichus, une brève comparaison est faite avec D. incisus et D. ojedoi décrites depuis la parution du Catalogue de Smit en 1987. PMID:21894265

  9. Perceptions of the Impacts of the "Arts du Cirque" Program: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deslandes, Rollande; Rivard, Marie-Claude; Joyal, France; Trudeau, Francois

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used focus groups to identify the knowledge about the "Arts du Cirque" Program implemented in a primary school and to explore perceptions of its impacts. Data are based on the discourse of school staff members, parents and other members of the community of an elementary school. The impacts on students are illustrated in…

  10. College of DuPage Institutional Plan for Computing, FY93-FY95. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    The College of DuPage's 5-year plan for meeting its academic, administrative, and central computing needs is presented. An executive summary reviews the planning process and highlights recommendations and financial considerations. As the first section of the report, the introduction presents the college's demographics, mission and vision…

  11. Restructuring dynamics of DU 145 and LNCaP prostate cancer spheroids.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong; Jain, Shamik K; Enmon, Richard M; O'Connor, Kim C

    2004-01-01

    Neoplastic cells acquire multidrug resistance as they assemble into multicellular spheroids. Image analysis and Monte Carlo simulation provided an insight into the adhesion and motility events during spheroid restructuring in liquid-overlay culture of DU 145 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Irregularly shaped, two-dimensional aggregates restructured through incremental cell movements into three-dimensional spheroids. Of the two cultures examined, restructuring was more pronounced for DU 145 aggregates. Motile DU 145 cells formed spheroids with a minimum cell overlay of 30% for 25-mers as estimated by simulation versus 5% for adhesive LNCaP cells in aggregates of the same size. Over 72 h, the texture ratio increased from 0.55 +/- 0.05 for DU 145 aggregates with projected areas exceeding 2000 microm2 to a value approaching 0.75 +/- 0.02 (P < 0.05). For LNCaP aggregates of comparable size, the increase in texture ratio was more modest, less than 15% during the same time period (P < 0.05). Combined, these data suggest that motility events govern the overall rate of spheroid restructuring. This information has application to the chemosensitization of solid tumors and kinetic modeling of spheroid production. PMID:15723561

  12. Of Faith and Fiction: Teaching W. E. B. Du Bois and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinitiere, Phillip Luke

    2012-01-01

    W. E. B. Du Bois (1868-1963) is widely known as a champion for the political rights of African Americans, founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), aggressive advocate of Pan-Africanism, staunch supporter of female suffrage, and one of the creative forces behind the Harlem Renaissance. Further still, Du…

  13. Developing a Computer Literate Faculty at College of DuPage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bart

    Until 1978, academic and administrative departments at College of DuPage, an Illinois community college, bought computer related equipment and software without an overall plan or coordination. The development of a coordination plan focused on finding an internal mechanism to solve two problems: individual departments buying computer-related…

  14. 77 FR 2774 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement: Fond du Lac...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ...The FHWA is issuing this notice to advise the public that a limited scope Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) will be prepared for the proposed capacity improvements to Wisconsin Highway 23 from U.S. Highway 151 to County Highway P in Fond du Lac and Sheboygan Counties,...

  15. Etude des facteurs de risque du retard de croissance intra-utérin à Lubumbashi

    PubMed Central

    Moyambe, Jules Ngwe Thaba; Bernard, Pierre; Khang'Mate, Faustin; Nkoy, Albert Mwembo Tambwe A; Mukalenge, Faustin Chenge; Makanda, Daudet; Twite, Eugene; Ndudula, Arthur Munkana; Lubamba, Cham; Kadingi, Arnauld Kabulu; Kayomb, Mutach; Kayamba, Prosper Kalenga Muenze

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dans notre milieu, il n'existe aucune politique de prévention du Retard de Croissance Intra-Utérin (RCIU) clairement défini. L'objectif de ce travail était d'identifier les facteurs de risque de RCIU afin de proposer une stratégie de lutte contre cette pathologie en agissant surtout sur des facteurs pouvant faire l'objet d'une action préventive. Méthodes Une étude cas-témoins a été menée dans 11 centres hospitaliers de Lubumbashi en République Démocratique du Congo, de Janvier 2010 à Juin 2011, dans le but d'identifier les facteurs de risque du retard de croissance intra-utérin (RCIU). Au total 420 gestantes (cas et témoins) avec grossesse monofoetale d'au moins 24 semaines d'aménorrhée ont été inclues dans l'étude. Les cas correspondaient aux gestantes dont le poids du fœtus était resté inférieur au 10 eme percentile des courbes de référence d'Alexander, après 2 échographies successives réalisées à intervalle de 4 semaines. Les témoins correspondaient aux gestantes dont le poids du fœtus était supérieur ou égal au 10 eme percentile de mêmes courbes. A chaque cas a été apparié un témoin de même parité porteur d'une grossesse de même âge. Résultats L'analyse univariée a identifié comme facteurs de risque: la taille maternelle. Conclusion L'amélioration du niveau socio-économique des populations, la lutte contre le paludisme et les consultations prénatales mieux organisées couplées à une meilleure éducation sanitaire et nutritionnelle peuvent contribuer sensiblement à la réduction de la fréquence du RCIU à Lubumbashi. PMID:23504392

  16. Partial purification and characterization of bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis DU10 and its probiotic attributes.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Venkatesh; Repally, Ayyanna; Dasari, Ankaiah; Venkatesan, Arul

    2016-10-01

    A novel bacteriocin produced by avian duck isolated lactic acid bacterium Enterococcus faecalis DU10 was isolated. This bacteriocin showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against important food-borne pathogens and was purified by size exclusion chromatography followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in a C-18 column. Tricine-SDS PAGE revealed the presence of a band with an estimated molecular mass of 6.3 kDa. The zymogram clearly linked the antimicrobial activity with this band. This result was further confirmed by mass-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, since a sharp peak corresponding to 6.313 kDa was detected and the functional groups were revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Bacteriocin DU10 activity was found sensitive to proteinase-K and pepsin and partially affected by trypsin and α-chymotrypsin. The activity of bacteriocin DU10 was partially resistant to heat treatments ranging from 30 to 90°C for 30 min. It also withstood a treatment at 121°C for 10 min. Cytotoxicity of bacteriocin DU10 by methyl-thiazolyl-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay showed that the viability of HT-29 and HeLa cells decreased 60 ± 0.7% and 43 ± 4.8%, respectively, in the presence of 3,200 AU/mL of bacteriocin. The strain withstood 0.3% w/v of bile oxgall and pH 2 affected the bacterial growth between 2 and 4 hr of incubation. Adhesion properties examined with HT-29 cell line showed 69.85% initial population of strain E. faecalis DU10, which was found to be strongly adhered to this cell line. These results conclude bacteriocin DU10 may be used as a potential biopreservative and E. faecalis DU10 may be used as a potential probiont to control Salmonella infections. PMID:26786752

  17. Mesure de haute resolution de la fonction de distribution radiale du silicium amorphe pur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laaziri, Khalid

    1999-11-01

    Cette these porte sur l'etude de la structure du silicium amorphe prepare par irradiation ionique. Elle presente des mesures de diffraction de rayons X sur de la poudre de silicium cristallin, du silicium amorphe relaxe et non relaxe, ainsi que tous les developpements mathematiques et physiques necessaires pour extraire la fonction de distribution radiale correspondant a chaque echantillon. Au Chapitre I, nous presentons une methode de fabrication de membranes minces de silicium amorphe pur. Il y a deux etapes majeures lors du processus de fabrication: l'implantation ionique, afin de creer une couche amorphe de plusieurs microns et l'attaque chimique, pour enlever le reste du materiau cristallin. Nous avons caracterise premierement les membranes de silicium amorphe par spectroscopie Raman pour verifier qu'il ne reste plus de trace de materiau cristallin dans les films amorphes. Une deuxieme caracterisation par detection de recul elastique (ERD-TOF) sur ces memes membranes a montre qu'il y a moins de 0.1% atomique de contaminants tels que l'oxygene, le carbone, et l'hydrogene. Au Chapitre II, nous proposons une nouvelle methode de correction de la contribution inelastique "Compton" des spectres de diffusion totale afin d'extraire les pics de diffusion elastique, responsable de la diffraction de Bragg. L'article presente tout d'abord une description simplifiee d'une theorie sur la diffusion inelastique dite "Impulse Approximation" (IA) qui permet de calculer des profils de Compton en fonction de l'energie et de l'angle de diffusion 2theta. Ces profils sont utilises comme fonction de lissage de la diffusion Compton experimentale. Pour lisser les pics de diffusion elastique, nous avons utilise une fonction pic de nature asymetrique. Aux Chapitre III, nous exposons de maniere detaillee les resultats des experiences de diffraction de rayons X sur les membranes de silicium amorphe et la poudre de silicium cristallin que nous avons preparees. Nous abordons aussi les

  18. Formation et Evolution des Quasars et Contraintes cosmologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia

    2000-06-01

    Cette thèse porte sur l'étude de l'évolution des quasars. Elle en aborde certains aspects théoriques et observationnels, ainsi que la construction des grands échantillons de quasars dans le but à long terme de combiner le tout dans un test cosmologique géométrique pour déterminer les valeurs des paramètres cosmologiques Omega et Lambda. Les paramètres cosmologiques Omegaspan>et Lambdaspan>décrivent la géométrie globale de l'Univers. En faisant des hypothèses raisonnables sur la distribution spatiale et l'évolution des objets astrophysiques (galaxies, amas des galaxies, quasars), on peut déterminer les valeurs de ces paramètres qui sont cohérentes avec ces hypothèses. Les tests cosmologiques traditionnels ont besoin de ''chandelles standards'', objets dont les propriétés intrinsèques sont indépendantes des distances. De tels objets sont probablement fictifs. Néanmoins, certains de ces tests cosmologiques peuvent être adaptés si l'évolution individuelle, ou au moins l'évolution statistique d'une population d'objets est connue. La question de la nature de l'évolution des quasars a très vite été posée et des réponses ''phénoménologiques'' ont d'abord été données. Ces réponses ne faisaient que donner une forme mathématique à l'évolution mais n'expliquaient rien de la physique duphénomène. Les premières tentatives de construction d'un modèle physique, liées au processus d'accrétion sur un trou noir et à la théorie de la formation de l'Univers ont commencé à la fin des années 80. Depuis, des dizaines de modèles tentent d'expliquer les observations, qui sont les résultats de l'étude d'objets de plus en plus nombreux. Au cours de cette thèse, le test V/Vmax a été appliqué sur l'échantillon du Large Bright Quasar Survey en montrant 1) que l'échantillon était biaisé à cause des critères de sélection et 2) que la (simple) loi de Pure Evolution en Luminosité n'était pas une bonne approximation à tout

  19. Experimental pretargeting studies of cancer with a humanized anti-CEA x murine anti-[In-DTPA] bispecific antibody construct and a (99m)Tc-/(188)Re-labeled peptide.

    PubMed

    Karacay, H; McBride, W J; Griffiths, G L; Sharkey, R M; Barbet, J; Hansen, H J; Goldenberg, D M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to localize (99m)Tc and (188)Re radionuclides to tumors, using a bispecific antibody (bsMAb) in a two-step approach where the radionuclides are attached to novel peptides incorporating moieties recognized by one arm of the bsMAb. A chemically cross-linked human/murine bsMAb, hMN-14 x 734 (Fab' x Fab'), anti-carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA] x anti-indium-DTPA was prepared as a prelude to constructing a fully humanized bsMAb for future clinical application. N,N'-o-Phenylenedimaleimide was used to cross-link the Fab' fragments of the two antibodies at their hinge regions. This construct was shown to be >92% pure and fully reactive with CEA and a divalent (indium)DTPA-peptide. For pretargeting purposes, a peptide, IMP-192 [Ac-Lys(In-DTPA)-Tyr-Lys(In-DTPA)-Lys(TscG-Cys-)-NH(2) ¿TscG = 3-thiosemicarbazonylglyoxyl¿], with two indium-DTPAs and a chelate for selectively binding (99m)Tc or (188)Re, was synthesized. IMP-192 was formulated in a "single dose" kit and later radiolabeled with (99m)Tc (94-99%) at up to 1836 Ci/mmol and with (188)Re (97%) at 459-945 Ci/mmol of peptide. [(99m)Tc]IMP-192 was shown to be stable by extensive in vitro and in vivo testing and had no specific uptake in the tumor with minimal renal uptake. The biodistribution of the hMN-14 x murine 734 bsMAb was compared alone and in a pretargeting setting to a fully murine anti-CEA (F6) x 734 bsMAb that was reported previously [Gautherot, E., Bouhou, J., LeDoussal, J.-M., Manetti, C., Martin, M., Rouvier, E., and Barbet, J. (1997) Therapy for colon carcinoma xenografts with bispecific antibody-targeted, iodine-131-labeled bivalent hapten. Cancer 80 (Suppl.), 2618-2623]. Both bsMAbs maintained their integrity and dual binding specificity in vivo, but the hMN-14 x m734 was cleared more rapidly from the blood. This coincided with an increased uptake of the hMN-14 x m734 bsMAb in the liver and spleen, suggesting an active reticuloendothelial cell recognition mechanism of this mixed

  20. Versatile Photocatalytic Systems for H2 Generation in Water Based on an Efficient DuBois-Type Nickel Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The generation of renewable H2 through an efficient photochemical route requires photoinduced electron transfer (ET) from a light harvester to an efficient electrocatalyst in water. Here, we report on a molecular H2 evolution catalyst (NiP) with a DuBois-type [Ni(P2R′N2R″)2]2+ core (P2R′N2R″ = bis(1,5-R′-diphospha-3,7-R″-diazacyclooctane), which contains an outer coordination sphere with phosphonic acid groups. The latter functionality allows for good solubility in water and immobilization on metal oxide semiconductors. Electrochemical studies confirm that NiP is a highly active electrocatalyst in aqueous electrolyte solution (overpotential of approximately 200 mV at pH 4.5 with a Faradaic yield of 85 ± 4%). Photocatalytic experiments and investigations on the ET kinetics were carried out in combination with a phosphonated Ru(II) tris(bipyridine) dye (RuP) in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. Time-resolved luminescence and transient absorption spectroscopy studies confirmed that directed ET from RuP to NiP occurs efficiently in all systems on the nano- to microsecond time scale, through three distinct routes: reductive quenching of RuP in solution or on the surface of ZrO2 (“on particle” system) or oxidative quenching of RuP when the compounds were immobilized on TiO2 (“through particle” system). Our studies show that NiP can be used in a purely aqueous solution and on a semiconductor surface with a high degree of versatility. A high TOF of 460 ± 60 h–1 with a TON of 723 ± 171 for photocatalytic H2 generation with a molecular Ni catalyst in water and a photon-to-H2 quantum yield of approximately 10% were achieved for the homogeneous system. PMID:24320740

  1. Cancer du sein de l'homme: à propos de 6 cas

    PubMed Central

    Laabadi, Kamilia; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatimazohra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, My Abdelilah; Hassani, Karim Ibn Majdoub; Laalim, Said Ait; Anoun, Hicham; Toughrai, Imane; Mazaz, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Le but de ce travail était d'analyser les caractéristiques cliniques, histologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques du cancer du sein chez l'homme. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective portant sur six patients colligés au service de gynécologie obstétrique II, CHU Hassan II durant la période 2009-2012. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de 65.3 ans. Il s'agit dans 83.3% des cas, d'une tumeur rétroaréolaire dont la taille moyenne est de 44.16 mm. Nous avons retrouvé 4 (66.7%) T4, 1 (16.7%) T3 et dans un cas, une tumeur inclassable. Le type histologique le plus représenté est le carcinome canalaire infiltrant (66.7%). Le taux d'envahissement ganglionnaire axillaire est de 66.7%. L'hormonodépendance de ces tumeurs est prouvée dans 100% des cas. La survie à cinq ans est en cours d’évaluation. L'envahissement ganglionnaire, l'invasion du derme, le stade clinique TNM sont des facteurs qui influencent significativement la survenue de métastases. Aucun de ces facteurs de risque n'est apparu significatif en termes de survie globale. Le cancer du sein chez l'homme est une maladie rare (environ 1% des cancers du sein) au pronostic sombre. Le diagnostic est le plus souvent tardif et les lésions sont traitées à des stades avancés. PMID:24711870

  2. DuPont/HFM Forum on Carpet in Health Care Facilities. Second in a series. Roundtable discussion.

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    DuPont and Health Facilities Management magazine invited 20 national expert to Dalton, GA--the carpet-manufacturing capital of the world--on May 13 to take part in DuPont's first-ever Forum on Carpet in Health Care Facilities. During the two-hour roundtable discussion, moderated by DuPont's Jack Murph and HFM's Michael Hemmes, end-users, interior designers and carpet mill representatives talked about the aesthetic, economic and performance aspects of using carpet in health care settings. Here's an edited version of what they said. PMID:10183994

  3. Evolution of working memory.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Peter

    2013-06-18

    Working memory (WM) is fundamental to many aspects of human life, including learning, speech and text comprehension, prospection and future planning, and explicit "system 2" forms of reasoning, as well as overlapping heavily with fluid general intelligence. WM has been intensively studied for many decades, and there is a growing consensus about its nature, its components, and its signature limits. Remarkably, given its central importance in human life, there has been very little comparative investigation of WM abilities across species. Consequently, much remains unknown about the evolution of this important human capacity. Some questions can be tentatively answered from the existing comparative literature. Even studies that were not intended to do so can nonetheless shed light on the WM capacities of nonhuman animals. However, many questions remain. PMID:23754428

  4. Early stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahler, Steven W.

    1994-01-01

    Research into the formation and early evolution of stars is currently an area of great interest and activity. The theoretical and observational foundations for this development are reviewed in this paper. By now, the basic physics governing cloud collapse is well understood, as is the structure of the resulting protostars. However, the theory predicts protostellar luminosities that are greater than those of most infrared sources. Observationally, it is thought that protostars emit powerful winds that push away remnant cloud gas, but both the origin of these winds and the nature of their interaction with ambient gas are controversial. Finally, the theory of pre-main-sequence stars has been modified to incorporate more realistic initial conditions. This improvement helps to explain the distribution of such stars in the H-R diagram. Many important issues, such as the origin of binary stars and stellar clusters, remain as challenges for future research.

  5. Evolution and public health

    PubMed Central

    Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2009-01-01

    Evolution and its elements of natural selection, population migration, genetic drift, and founder effects have shaped the world in which we practice public health. Human cultures and technologies have modified life on this planet and have coevolved with myriad other species, including microorganisms; plant and animal sources of food; invertebrate vectors of disease; and intermediate hosts among birds, mammals, and nonhuman primates. Molecular mechanisms of differential resistance or susceptibility to infectious agents or diets have evolved and are being discovered with modern methods. Some of these evolutionary relations require a perspective of tens of thousands of years, whereas other changes are observable in real time. The implications and applications of evolutionary understanding are important to our current programs and policies for infectious disease surveillance, gene–environment interactions, and health disparities globally. PMID:19966311

  6. Evolution of Biological Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    It is a general rule of nature that larger organisms are more complex, at least as measured by the number of distinct types of cells present. This reflects the fitness advantage conferred by a division of labor among specialized cells over homogeneous totipotency. Yet, increasing size has both costs and benefits, and the search for understanding the driving forces behind the evolution of multicellularity is becoming a very active area of research. This article presents an overview of recent experimental and theoretical work aimed at understanding this biological problem from the perspective of physics. For a class of model organisms, the Volvocine green algae, an emerging hypothesis connects the transition from organisms with totipotent cells to those with terminal germ-soma differentiation to the competition between diffusion and fluid advection created by beating flagella. A number of challenging problems in fluid dynamics, nonlinear dynamics, and control theory emerge when one probes the workings of the simplest multicellular organisms.

  7. The evolution of dominance.

    PubMed

    Bourguet, D

    1999-07-01

    The evolution of dominance has been subject to intensive debate since Fisher first argued that modifiers would be selected for if they made wild-type alleles more dominant over mutant alleles. An alternative explanation, put forward by Wright, is that the commonly observed dominance of wild-type alleles is simply a physiological consequence of metabolic pathways. Wright's explanation has gained support over the years, largely ending the debate over the general recessivity of deleterious mutations. Nevertheless there is reason to believe that dominance relationships have been moulded by natural selection to some extent. First, the metabolic pathways are themselves products of evolutionary processes that may have led them to be more stable to perturbations, including mutations. Secondly, theoretical models and empirical experiments suggest that substantial selection for dominance modifiers exists during the spread of adaptive alleles or when a polymorphism is maintained either by overdominant selection or by migration-selection balance. PMID:10447697

  8. Evolution of microbial markets

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Strassmann, Joan E.; Ivens, Aniek B. F.; Engelmoer, Daniel J. P.; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C.; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E. Toby

    2014-01-01

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions. PMID:24474743

  9. Evolution and climate variability

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, R.

    1996-08-16

    Variations in organisms are preserved and accrue if there is a consistent bias in selection over many generations. This idea of long-term directional selection has been embraced to explain major adaptive change. It is widely thought that important adaptive shifts in hominids corresponded with directional environmental change. This view, which echoes the savanna scenario of hominid evolution, has strongly been supported by paleontologists and paleoclimatologists over the past decade. The origin of the hominids, bipedality, stone toolmaking, and brain size increase have all been related to cooling, aridification, and savanna expansion. However there appears to be a more prominent signal than the aridity trend: an increase in the range of climatic variation over time. This article discusses the possible reprocussions of this interpertation. 13 refs.

  10. Evolution of Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, J. M.

    1998-05-01

    This review will cover a mystery story. Actually, two mysteries of the Structure and Evolution of the Universe involving the history of the baryons and the chemical elements synthesized in the first stars. When did the gas and metals first form? How did they evolve to their current distribution? The original crime scene is unknown, but evidence has been collected in the diffuse intergalactic medium and in hot intracluster gas. In these scattered locales, large amounts of gas has accumulated, contaminated by heavy elements from the first stars. Unfortunately, some of the evidence has been destroyed by gravity. Also, the earliest quasars, massive stars, and supernovae altered the physical state of the gas and transported the elements far from the original scene. I will briefly review current observations and theories relevant to these processes and suggest ways in which future NASA missions could constrain the many speculative ideas on this subject.

  11. Viral Quasispecies Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Julie; Perales, Celia

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Evolution of RNA viruses occurs through disequilibria of collections of closely related mutant spectra or mutant clouds termed viral quasispecies. Here we review the origin of the quasispecies concept and some biological implications of quasispecies dynamics. Two main aspects are addressed: (i) mutant clouds as reservoirs of phenotypic variants for virus adaptability and (ii) the internal interactions that are established within mutant spectra that render a virus ensemble the unit of selection. The understanding of viruses as quasispecies has led to new antiviral designs, such as lethal mutagenesis, whose aim is to drive viruses toward low fitness values with limited chances of fitness recovery. The impact of quasispecies for three salient human pathogens, human immunodeficiency virus and the hepatitis B and C viruses, is reviewed, with emphasis on antiviral treatment strategies. Finally, extensions of quasispecies to nonviral systems are briefly mentioned to emphasize the broad applicability of quasispecies theory. PMID:22688811

  12. Evolution of biological information.

    PubMed

    Schneider, T D

    2000-07-15

    How do genetic systems gain information by evolutionary processes? Answering this question precisely requires a robust, quantitative measure of information. Fortunately, 50 years ago Claude Shannon defined information as a decrease in the uncertainty of a receiver. For molecular systems, uncertainty is closely related to entropy and hence has clear connections to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. These aspects of information theory have allowed the development of a straightforward and practical method of measuring information in genetic control systems. Here this method is used to observe information gain in the binding sites for an artificial 'protein' in a computer simulation of evolution. The simulation begins with zero information and, as in naturally occurring genetic systems, the information measured in the fully evolved binding sites is close to that needed to locate the sites in the genome. The transition is rapid, demonstrating that information gain can occur by punctuated equilibrium. PMID:10908337

  13. Evolution and Impartiality.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Lazari-Radek and Singer argue that evolutionary considerations can resolve Sidgwick's dualism of practical reason, because such considerations debunk moral views that give weight to self-interested or partial considerations, but cannot threaten the principle Universal Benevolence. I argue that even if we grant these claims, this appeal to evolution is ultimately self-defeating. Lazari-Radek and Singer face a dilemma. Either their evolutionary argument against partial morality succeeds, but then we need to also give up our conviction that suffering is bad; or there is a way to defend this conviction, but then their argument against partiality fails. Utilitarians, I suggest, should resist the temptation to appeal to evolutionary debunking arguments. PMID:24711673

  14. The evolution of inequality.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Siobhán M; Smith, Eric A; Shenk, Mary K; Cochrane, Ethan E

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how systems of political and economic inequality evolved from relatively egalitarian origins has long been a focus of anthropological inquiry. Many hypotheses have been suggested to link socio-ecological features with the rise and spread of inequality, and empirical tests of these hypotheses in prehistoric and extant societies are increasing. In this review, we synthesize several streams of theory relevant to understanding the evolutionary origins, spread, and adaptive significance of inequality. We argue that while inequality may be produced by a variety of localized processes, its evolution is fundamentally dependent on the economic defensibility and transmissibility of wealth. Furthermore, these properties of wealth could become persistent drivers of inequality only following a shift to a more stable climate in the Holocene. We conclude by noting several key areas for future empirical research, emphasizing the need for more analyses of contemporary shifts toward institutionalized inequality as well as prehistoric cases. PMID:27519458

  15. SIM Configuration Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aaron, Kim M.

    2000-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a space-based 10 m baseline Michelson interferometer. Planned for launch in 2005 aboard a Delta III launch vehicle, or equivalent, its primary objective is to measure the positions of stars and other celestial objects with an unprecedented accuracy of 4 micro arc seconds. With such an instrument, tremendous advancement can be expected in our understanding of stellar and galactic dynamics. Using triangulation from opposite sides of the orbit around the sun (i.e. by using parallax) one can measure the distance to any observable object in our galaxy. By directly measuring the orbital wobble of nearby stars, the mass and orbit of planets can be determined over a wide range of parameters. The distribution of velocity within nearby galaxies will be measurable. Observations of these and other objects will improve the calibration of distance estimators by more than an order of magnitude. This will permit a much better determination of the Hubble Constant as well as improving our overall understanding of the evolution of the universe. SIM has undergone several transformations, especially over the past year and a half since the start of Phase A. During this phase of a project, it is desirable to perform system-level trade studies, so the substantial evolution of the design that has occurred is quite appropriate. Part of the trade-off process has addressed two major underlying architectures: SIM Classic; and Son of SIM. The difference between these two architectures is related to the overall arrangement of the optical elements and the associated metrology system. Several different configurations have been developed for each architecture. Each configuration is the result of design choices that are influenced by many competing considerations. Some of the more important aspects will be discussed. The Space Interferometry Mission has some extremely challenging goals: millikelvin thermal stability, nanometer stabilization of optics

  16. Evolution and Impartiality*

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Lazari-Radek and Singer argue that evolutionary considerations can resolve Sidgwick’s dualism of practical reason, because such considerations debunk moral views that give weight to self-interested or partial considerations, but cannot threaten the principle Universal Benevolence. I argue that even if we grant these claims, this appeal to evolution is ultimately self-defeating. Lazari-Radek and Singer face a dilemma. Either their evolutionary argument against partial morality succeeds, but then we need to also give up our conviction that suffering is bad; or there is a way to defend this conviction, but then their argument against partiality fails. Utilitarians, I suggest, should resist the temptation to appeal to evolutionary debunking arguments. PMID:24711673

  17. [Metalworking industry management evolution].

    PubMed

    Mattucci, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the evolution drivers of the management systems in the metalworking industry, mainly characterized as "automotive", starting with the "mass production" model, followed for the development of Italian industry in the '50. Through the socio-economic changes of the '90/10, the metalworking plants were deeply restructured with the introduction of computers in the production systems, and then with the first global benchmarks such as the "lean production", towards the needed operational flexibility to respond to the market dynamics. Plants change radically, company networks become real, ICT services are fundamental elements for the integration. These trends help visualizing a new "Factory of the Future" for the years 2020/30, where the competition will be based on the socio-economical, technological and environmental factors included in the "Competitive Sustainable Manufacturing" paradigm. PMID:22073665

  18. Evolution of working memory

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is fundamental to many aspects of human life, including learning, speech and text comprehension, prospection and future planning, and explicit “system 2” forms of reasoning, as well as overlapping heavily with fluid general intelligence. WM has been intensively studied for many decades, and there is a growing consensus about its nature, its components, and its signature limits. Remarkably, given its central importance in human life, there has been very little comparative investigation of WM abilities across species. Consequently, much remains unknown about the evolution of this important human capacity. Some questions can be tentatively answered from the existing comparative literature. Even studies that were not intended to do so can nonetheless shed light on the WM capacities of nonhuman animals. However, many questions remain. PMID:23754428

  19. Evolution of microbial markets.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Strassmann, Joan E; Ivens, Aniek B F; Engelmoer, Daniel J P; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E Toby

    2014-01-28

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions. PMID:24474743

  20. Chemical evolution in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Most of the complex molecules in interstellar space ar probably contained in small, frozen interstellar dust grains which are about as old as the earth and have been photochemically converted into large organic molecules. These molecules' maximum molecular weight is limited only by the approximately 0.1-micron grain size. Their evolution leads from cool, evolved stellar atmospheres' formation of seedlings to destruction through incorporation into the material of new stars. Organic dust constitutes about 0.1 percent of the total mass of the Milky Way, far outweighing any estimates of total planetary mass in the Galaxy. Because comets may be virtually pure, aggregated interstellar dust, they offer a source of interstellar organic material for detailed study.