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Sample records for cea evolutions du

  1. Qualification sous irradiation du crayon cea: de la conception des composants a l'irradiation d'assemblages en reacteur de puissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Jean-François; Pillet, Claude; François, Bernard; Morize, Pierre; Petitgrand, Sylvie; Atabek, Rose-Marie; Houdaille, Brigitte

    1982-04-01

    Cet article résume les principaux résultats obtenus au CEA au cours des dix dernières années dans la conception, la qualification et la fabrication des différents éléments originaux constitutifs d'un assemblage de réacteur à eau pressurisée, notamment: l'oxyde UO 2 obtenu par le procédé du Double Cycle Inverse, la gaine en zircaloy 4 recris talllsée, la grille à ressort papillon, la structure à grilles coulissantes. Les etudes et essais hors-pile de comportement thermomécanique du crayon et thermohydraulique des composants de l'assemblage, les irradiations paramétriques de crayons jusqu'à une combustion massique élevée, la validation à partir d'examens aprés irradiation des principaux modèles introduits dans les calculs de conception, enfin l'introduction en réacteur prototype, puis en réacteur de puissance d'assemblages comportant ces différents éléments, constituent les principales étapes de ce développement.

  2. CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to have a high CEA value. Testing for metastasis: If CEA is present in a body fluid ... fluid , this may indicate a central nervous system metastasis . Since not all cancers produce CEA, it is ...

  3. How Packaging Fleet Renewal Fits French CEA Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dumesnil, J.; Malvache, P.; Hugon, F.C.; Sollacaro, M.

    2006-07-01

    CEA's (French Atomic Energy Agency) packaging fleet is dedicated to transportation of test irradiated fuels, of research reactors fuels, of navy propulsion fuels, and of waste coming from and to nuclear plants or facilities. This fleet encompasses more than 30 types of casks ranging from 5 to 30 tons, with either recent designs or other dating back to the seventies. A study has been launched in order to perform a global analysis of the life expectancy of the existing CEA and COGEMA Logistics cask fleets with respect to a 2015 target, in order to anticipate its renewal, while limiting the number of type of cask. Key elements like periodical evolutions of design and transport regulations, lessons learnt of existing casks (design, approval and extensions, operational feedback, maintenance and dismantling) are taken into account in order to ensure compliance and availability of the fleet. Moreover, from design to cask delivery, including regulatory tests, safety analysis report/ CoC, and manufacturing, 3 to 5 years is needed. Therefore cask development should be taken into account earlier of invest and research's programs. The paper will address the current life expectancy study of CEA and COGEMA Logistics packaging fleet, based on lessons learnt and regulation evolution and on general R and D plans by user facilities. It will show how a comprehensive optimized fleet is made available to CEA and other customers. Such a fleet combines optimized investment and uses, thus entailing synergies for well-mastered costs of transports. (authors)

  4. Evolution des quasiparticules nodales du cuprate supraconducteur YBa2Cu3Oy en conductivite thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rene de Cotret, Samuel

    Ce memoire presente des mesures de conductivite thermique sur les supraconducteurs YBCO et Tl-2201 afin de statuer sur la presence possible d'un point critique quantique (QCP) dans le diagramme de phase de cuprates. Ce point critique quantique serait a l'origine de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi, d'un large cylindre de trous en de petites poches de trous et d'electrons. La conductivite thermique dans le regime T ? 0 permet d'extraire une quantite purement electronique liee aux vitesses de Fermi et du gap, au noeud. Une discontinuite dans cette quantite pourrait signaler la traversee du dopage critique qui reconstruit la surface de Fermi. Plusieurs sondes experimentales distinguent une transition de phase ou un crossover a T* a temperature finie. D'autres sondes mettent en evidence une transition de phase sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique. La presence ou non de cet ordre, a temperature et champ magnetique nul questionne la communaute depuis plusieurs annees. Dans cette etude, nous detectons une variation brusque de kappa0/T a p = 0.18 dans YBCO et a p = 0.20 dans Tl-2201. Ces sauts sont interpretes comme un signe de la transition a temperature nulle et sont en faveur d'un QCP. Le manque de donnees d'un meme materiau a ces dopages ne permet pas de valider hors de tout doute l'existence d'un point critique quantique. Le modele theorique YRZ decrit aussi bien les donnees de conductivite thermique. Des pistes de travaux experimentaux a poursuivre sont proposees pour determiner la presence ou non du QCP de facon franche. Mots-cles : Supraconducteurs, cuprates, conductivite thermique, point critique quantique.

  5. CEA VARIABLE-THROAT VENTURI SCRUBBER EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives detailed results of fractional and overall mass efficiency tests of a Combustion Equipment Associates(CEA) variable-throat venturi scrubber. The tests were performed on a full-scale scrubber used for controlling particles and SOx emissions from a pulverized-coal-...

  6. Short and long term evolution of deep giant submarine dunes in continental shelf environment: the example of the 'Banc du Four' (Western Brittany, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzetti, M.; Le Roy, P.; Garlan, T.; Delacourt, C.; Thibaud, R.; Cancouet, R.; Graindorge, D.; Prunier, C.; Sukhovich, A.; Deschamps, A.

    2013-12-01

    The deep sandwave dynamics is still in debate. Understanding the migration processes and the resulting evolution of their 3D internal architecture are scientifically challenging. To address these questions we realized two swath bathymetry surveys complemented with seismic reflection across the large sandwaves field named 'Banc du Four'. It is located offshore the Western Brittany and is composed of more 500 dunes. Some of the dunes' wavelengths and heights exceed 1000m and 30m respectively placing them among the largest dunes ever described. Equilibrium laws obtained from our morphological analysis are not completely in agreement with those described in previous studies of similar structures in shallow waters. Relatively high migration velocities on deep continental shelves (from 3 to 20m.yr-1) attest of their still present dynamical equilibrium. Internal-external morphological and kinematical analyses show the existence of two different dynamic regimes. Interpretation of the seismic reflection data allowed reconstructing long-term evolution of the sandbank and the establishment of progressive connections between stepped submarine channels and tidal dynamics during the last sea-level rise.

  7. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) assays in obstructive colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Sugarbaker, P H

    1976-01-01

    Four of 40 patients with resectable colon or rectal cancer had tumors causing acute large bowel obstruction with colonic dilatation; all 4 patients had preoperative CEA titers above 10 ng/ml with a mean of 28 ng/ml. Thirty-six cancer patients without acute colon obstruction had a mean CEA titer of 4.5 ng/ml; only 6 of 36 patients had circulating CEA titers 10 ng/ml or greater. This suggested that pre-treatment CEA titers in patients with obstructing cancer are unusually high. Multiple CEA assays were performed on two of the 4 patients with colonic obstruction before and after bowel decompressive procedures and prior to their definitive treatment. Relief of obstruction alone produces marked reduction in circulating CEA; this suggested that not only the extent of disease but also the pathophysiological changes associated with obstruction influenced circulating CEA levels. PMID:999351

  8. Evolution du francais au Quebec au cours des vingt dernieres annees (The Evolution of French in Quebec Over the Past Twenty Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darbelnet, Jean

    1975-01-01

    This is a survey of the evolution of Quebec French over the last twenty years away from anglicizations and toward a modernization which has a tendency to lessen the gap between it and International French. Examples are given of recent "refrancizations"; and reasons for, and obstacles to, this phenomenon are discussed. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  9. Simplifying CEA through Excel, VBA, and Subeq

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    Many people use compound equilibrium programs for very different reasons, varying from refrigerators to light bulbs to rockets. A commonly used equilibrium program is CEA. CEA can take various inputs such as pressure, temperature, and volume along with numerous reactants and run them through equilibrium equations to obtain valuable output information, including products formed and their relative amounts. A little over a year ago, Bonnie McBride created the program subeq with the goal to simplify the calling of CEA. Subeq was also designed to be called by other programs, including Excel, through the use of Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The largest advantage of using Excel is that it allows the user to input the information in a colorful and user-friendly environment while allowing VBA to run subeq, which is in the form of a FORTRAN DLL (Dynamic Link Library). Calling subeq in this form makes it much faster than if it were converted to VBA. Since subeq requires such large lists of reactant and product names, all of which can't be passed in as an array, subeq had to be changed to accept very long strings of reactants and products. To pass this string and adjust the transfer of input and output parameters, the subeq DLL had to be changed. One program that does this is Compaq Visual FORTRAN, which allows DLLs to be edited, debugged, and compiled. Compaq Visual FORTRAN uses FORTRAN 90/95, which has additional features to that of FORTRAN 77. My goals this summer include finishing up the excel spreadsheet of subeq, which I started last summer, and putting it on the Internet so that others can use it without having to download my spreadsheet. To finish up the spreadsheet I will need to work on debugging current options and problems. I will also work on making it as robust as possible, so that all errors that may arise will be clearly communicated to the user. New features will be added old ones will be changed as I receive comments from people using the spreadsheet. To implement this onto the Internet, I will need to develop an XML input/output format and learn how to write HTML.

  10. Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1978-01-01

    Traces the history of evolution theory from Lamarck and Darwin to the present. Discusses natural selection in detail. Suggests that, besides biological evolution, there is also a cultural evolution which is more rapid than the former. (MA)

  11. Update on ignition studies at CEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstein, Pierre

    2004-11-01

    The objective of the ICF program at CEA is to burn cryogenic DT with the Megajoule laser (LMJ). The laser will be completed in the year 2010 and its 240 beams will deliver up to 1.8MJ in 20ns at 0.35?m. There is a strong collaboration of CEA with DOE laboratories about the experiments done with the Omega laser for a few years: we sum up our main results regarding radiation temperature and symmetry with 2 or 3 cones of beams. We obtained also the first results about hydrodynamic instability with side-on radiography. LMJ prototype, LIL is composed of 4 beams will be used for the first plasma experiments in 2005 (in 2003 we obtained, with one beam, 7.5kJ in 5ns at 0.35µm): we will present the predictions of these experiments designed to be representative of LMJ conditions. The goal is to validate the smoothing technique (longitudinal SSD due to the focusing by grating) and to characterize the hohlraum, particularly with long pulses. The LMJ nominal capsule has a doped plastic ablator and is radiatively driven with a peak temperature of 300 eV. As far as the target design is concerned, the recent studies were devoted to 2 subjects: - the effect of anti-convection membranes in the hohlraum. The membranes are necessary for the cryogenic DT uniformity. - the assessment of random 3D laser imbalance and mispointing on the DT final deformation and it is compared to 2D ones.

  12. Thermal evolution of magma reservoirs in the shallow crust and incidence on magma differentiation: the St-Jean-du-Doigt layered intrusion (Brittany, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboni, M.; Bussy, F.; Ovtcharova, M.; Schoene, B.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the emplacement and growth of intrusive bodies in terms of mechanism, duration, thermal evolution and rates are fundamental aspects of crustal evolution. Recent studies show that many plutons grow in several Ma by in situ accretion of discrete magma pulses, which constitute small-scale magmatic reservoirs. The residence time of magmas, and hence their capacities to interact and differentiate, are controlled by the local thermal environment. The latter is highly dependant on 1) the emplacement depth, 2) the magmas and country rock composition, 3) the country rock thermal conductivity, 4) the rate of magma injection and 5) the geometry of the intrusion. In shallow level plutons, where magmas solidify quickly, evidence for magma mixing and/or differentiation processes is considered by many authors to be inherited from deeper levels. We show however that in-situ differentiation and magma interactions occurred within basaltic and felsic sills at shallow depth (0.3 GPa) in the St-Jean-du-Doigt bimodal intrusion, France. Field evidence coupled to high precision zircon U-Pb dating document progressive thermal maturation within the incrementally built laccolith. Early m-thick mafic sills are homogeneous and fine-grained with planar contacts with neighbouring felsic sills; within a minimal 0.5 Ma time span, the system gets warmer, adjacent sills interact and mingle, and mafic sills are differentiating in the top 40 cm of the layer. Rheological and thermal modelling show that observed in-situ differentiation-accumulation processes may be achieved in less than 10 years at shallow depth, provided that (1) the differentiating sills are injected beneath consolidated, yet still warm basalt sills, which act as low conductive insulating screens, (2) the early mafic sills accreted under the roof of the laccolith as a 100m thick top layer within 0.5 My, and (3) subsequent and sustained magmatic activity occurred on a short time scale (years) at an injection rate of ca. 0.5m/y. Extraction of differentiated residual liquids might eventually take place and mix with newly injected magma as documented in active syn-emplacement shear-zones. These low-pressure differentiated liquids can potentially contribute to subaerial volcanic activity along the major shear-zones.

  13. Amorphous silicon technology improvement at CEA-LETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottin, Eric; Bain, Astrid; Castelein, Pierre; Ouvrier-Buffet, Jean-Louis; Tissot, Jean-Luc; Yon, Jean-Jacques; Chatard, Jean-Pierre

    2002-05-01

    The emergence of uncooled infrared detectors has opened new opportunities for IR imaging both for military and civil applications. Infrared imaging sensors that operate without cryogenic cooling have the potential to provide the military or civilian users with infrared vision capabilities packaged in a camera of extremely small size, weight and power. Uncooled infrared sensor technology has advanced rapidly in the past few years. Higher performance sensors, electronics integration at the sensor, and new concepts for signal processing are generating advanced infrared focal plane arrays. This would significantly reduce the cost and accelerate the implementation of sensors for applications such as surveillance or predictive maintenance. We present the uncooled infrared detector operation principle and the development at CEA/LETI from the 256 x 64 with a pitch of 50 micrometers to the 320 x 240 with a pitch of 35 micrometers . LETI has been involved in Amorphous Silicon uncooled microbolometer development since 1992. This silicon IR detection is now well mastered and matured so that industrial transfer of LETI technology was performed in 2000 towards Sofradir. Industrial production of 320 x 240 microbolometer array with 45micrometers pitch is then started. After a description of the technology and the methodology for reliability enhancement, we present the readout circuit architectures designs and its evolution from the 256 x 64 array to the different version of 320 x 240 arrays. Electro-optical results obtained from these IRCMOS are presented. NEDT close to 30 mK is now obtained with our standard microbolometer amorphous silicon technology.

  14. Processus mis en jeu dans l'evolution morpho-dynamique de Roberts Bank (Delta du Fraser): Observation et modelisation hydrodynamiques et sedimentaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meule, Samuel

    Roberts Bank couvre le delta intertidal entre le bras principal du fleuve Fraser et la pointe du Cap Roberts en Colombie Britannique, Canada. Sous la pression du developpement urbain et la modification du regime sedimentaire, cette plage de sable fin est soumise a une erosion significative. L'identification des forces hydrodynamiques, leur importance et leur interaction permettent de determiner les zones de transport, et donc la stabilite de Roberts Bank. Deux periodes de mesures associees a des phases de modelisation de la houle et des courants ont ete effectuees lors de ce travail. La premiere periode de mesure, entre le 29 juin et le 8 juillet 2001, a permis l'identification de processus hydrodynamiques et sedimentaires associes aux forts courants de maree presents le long de Roberts Bank. La seconde phase de mesure, entre le 1er mars et le 26 mars 2002, a permis d'etudier les processus de remise en suspension associes a la houle. Des phases de modelisation ont ete menees a partir des connaissances acquises sur le terrain, afin d'affiner la comprehension des processus sedimentaires et notamment les interactions houle - courant - sediment. Les mecanismes, mis en evidence dans cette etude, participent au faconnage de Roberts Bank, contribuent a son erosion et a la mise en place de nouvelles structures sedimentaires. Les courants de flot de maree vont initier la creation de nuages de resuspension de sediment depuis le fond. En eau peu profonde, la composante " onshore" du courant de maree induit un transport a la cote, tandis qu'en eau plus profonde une faible composante " offshore" du courant peut favoriser un transport au large le long de la pente. Les chenaux, les dunes subaquatiques et les surfaces d'erosion affleurantes fournissent une rugosite de fond suffisante a la generation de turbulence et donc de nuages de sediment en suspension. Lors de la maree de jusant, les sediments resuspendus en eau peu profonde, sont transportes vers le large a partir d'un panache de surface et par les chenaux deltaiques. Une forte turbulence favorisera un processus dit de "sedimentation convective induite par un melange turbulent" ("mixing-induced convective sedimentation "). Le comportement des vagues de tempete qui se propagent sur la partie superieure de la pente du Delta du Fraser depend du marnage, de l'incidence de propagation et de la morphologie sous-marine. Ces facteurs controlent une divergence dans le transport sedimentaire au niveau de la rupture de pente deltaique. A maree haute, le transport sedimentaire sera essentiellement "onshore".

  15. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor marker in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Grunnet, M; Sorensen, J B

    2012-05-01

    The use of CEA as a prognostic and predictive marker in patients with lung cancer is widely debated. The aim of this review was to evaluate the results from studies made on this subject. Using the search words "CEA", "tumor markers in lung cancer", "prognostic significance", "diagnostic significance" and "predictive significance", a search was carried out on PubMed. Exclusion criteria was articles never published in English, articles before 1981 and articles evaluating tumor markers in lung cancer not involving CEA. Initially 217 articles were found, and 34 were left after selecting those relevant for the present study. Four of these included both Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) patients, and 31 dealt solely with NSCLC patients. Regarding SCLC no studies showed that serum level of CEA was a prognostic marker for overall survival (OS). The use of CEA serum level as a prognostic marker in NSCLC was investigated in 23 studies and the use of CEA plasma level in two. In 18 (17 serum, 1 plasma) of these studies CEA was found to be a useful prognostic marker for either OS, recurrence after surgery or/and progression free survival (PFS) in NSCLC patients. Interestingly, an overweight of low stage (stage I-II) disease and adenocarcinoma (AC) patients were observed in this group. The remaining 7 studies (6 serum, 1 plasma) contained an overweight of patients with squamous carcinoma (SQ). One study found evidence for that a tumor marker index (TMI), based on preoperative CEA and CYFRA21-1 serum levels, is useful as a prognostic marker for OS in NSCLC. Six studies evaluated the use of CEA as a predictive marker for risk of recurrence and risk of death in NSCLC patients. Four of these studies found, that CEA was useful as a predictive marker for risk of recurrence and risk of death measured over time. No studies found CEA levels useful as a diagnostic marker for lung cancer. With regard to NSCLC the level of CEA measured in tumor tissue in NSCLC patients, were not of prognostic, diagnostic or predictive significance for OS or recurrence after treatment. In one study CEA level was measured in Pleural Lavage Fluid (PLF) it was here found to be useful as prognostic markers for overall survival (OS) after surgery. In conclusion serum level of CEA carries prognostic and predictive information of risk of recurrence and of death in NSCLC independent of treatment or study design. The observation that TMI index could be a potential prognostic marker for OS in NSCLC is interesting. Future studies may benefit from evaluating more than one marker at a time, which may possibly create a more precise index for prognosis and recurrence in lung cancer, than is possible by the use of single biomarkers. PMID:22153832

  16. Émission X(L) du xénon par interaction laser-agrégats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adoui, L.; Gobert, O.; Indelicato, P.; Lamour, E.; Meynadier, P.; Normand, D.; Perdrix, M.; Prigent, C.; Rozet, J.-P.; Vernhet, D.

    2003-06-01

    Nous avons étudié le rayonnement X provenant d'ions fortement multichargés (ge24+) présentant des lacunes en couche L produits lors de l'irradiation d'agrégats de xénon par des impulsions lumineuses issues d'un laser femtoseconde de puissance. Les résultats obtenus lors de la toute dernière campagne d'expériences réalisée auprès du serveur LUCA du SPAM/DRECAM au CEA/Saclay mettent en cause certains travaux antérieurs [4-6]. Des divergences marquées apparaissent tant au niveau de l'interprétation des spectres X que sur la variation du taux d'émission en fonction de l'éclairement et de la longueur d'onde.

  17. Tumour lysis as a factor affecting blood levels of CEA.

    PubMed

    Quayle, J B

    1982-08-01

    A hypothesis is proposed that tumour lysis may be an important factor affecting blood levels of CEA. This has been explored in an experimental study with a model tumour system, consisting of immune-deprived mice bearing human CEA-producing tumours. Using agents such as irradiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, diphtheria toxin and techniques such as cryosurgery, it has been shown that tumour lysis is important when it is both rapid and extensive. The extent to which this may occur in patients remains uncertain, except in rare instances of dramatic response of malignant disease to treatment. PMID:6817775

  18. Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Ulmschneider

    When we are looking for intelligent life outside the Earth, there is a fundamental question: Assuming that life has formed on an extraterrestrial planet, will it also develop toward intelligence? As this is hotly debated, we will now describe the development of life on Earth in more detail in order to show that there are good reasons why evolution should culminate in intelligent beings.

  19. Complete solid state lighting (SSL) line at CEA LETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, I. C.; Ferret, P.; Dussaigne, A.; Bougerol, C.; Salomon, D.; Chen, X. J.; Charles, M.; Tchoulfian, P.; Gasse, A.; Lagrange, A.; Consonni, M.; Bono, H.; Levy, F.; Desieres, Y.; Aitmani, A.; Makram-Matta, S.; Bialic, E.; Gorrochategui, P.; Mendizabal, L.

    2014-09-01

    With a long experience in optoelectronics, CEA-LETI has focused on Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting since 2006. Today, all the technical challenges in the implementation of GaN LED based solid state lighting (SSL) are addressed at CEA-LETI who is now an RandD player throughout the entire value chain of LED lighting. The SSL Line at CEA-LETI first deals with the simulation of the active structures and LED devices. Then the growth is addressed in particular 2D growth on 200 mm silicon substrates. Then, technological steps are developed for the fabrication of LED dies with innovative architectures. For instance, Versatile LED Array Devices are currently being developed with a dedicated ?LED technology. The objective in this case is to achieve monolithical LED arrays reported and interconnected through a silicon submount. In addition to the required bonding and 3D integration technologies, new solutions for LED chip packaging, thermal management of LED lamps and luminaires are also addressed. LETI is also active in Smart Lighting concepts which offer the possibility of new application fields for SSL technologies. An example is the recent development at CEA LETI of Visible Light Communication Technology also called LiFi. With this technology, we demonstrated a transmission rate up to 10 Mb/s and real time HD-Video transmission.

  20. 15 CFR 950.7 - Center for Environmental Assessment Services (CEAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL.... Such planning depends heavily upon environmental assessments. (3) During the heating season, CEAS... key role in the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) experiments). (7) CEAS provides...

  1. 15 CFR 950.7 - Center for Environmental Assessment Services (CEAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL.... Such planning depends heavily upon environmental assessments. (3) During the heating season, CEAS... key role in the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) experiments). (7) CEAS provides...

  2. 15 CFR 950.7 - Center for Environmental Assessment Services (CEAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL.... Such planning depends heavily upon environmental assessments. (3) During the heating season, CEAS... key role in the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) experiments). (7) CEAS provides...

  3. 15 CFR 950.7 - Center for Environmental Assessment Services (CEAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL.... Such planning depends heavily upon environmental assessments. (3) During the heating season, CEAS... key role in the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) experiments). (7) CEAS provides...

  4. 15 CFR 950.7 - Center for Environmental Assessment Services (CEAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL.... Such planning depends heavily upon environmental assessments. (3) During the heating season, CEAS... key role in the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) experiments). (7) CEAS provides...

  5. Green fluorescent-conjugated anti-CEA single chain antibody for the detection of CEA-positive cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Salavatifar, Maryam; Amin, Shadi; Jahromi, Zahra Moghaddassi; Rasgoo, Nasrin; Rastgoo, Nasrin; Arbabi, Mehdi

    2011-06-01

    According to World Health Organization (WHO), cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 7.4 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2004. Monoclonal/recombinant antibodies, which specifically target clinical biomarkers of disease, have increasingly been applied as powerful tools in cancer imaging and therapy, a fact that is highlighted by some nine FDA-approved monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) or their immunoconjugates (as of December 2008) for use in cancer treatment. In this study, five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were generated and characterized against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which is widely used clinically as both a blood and tissue tumor marker of epithelial malignancy. Variable domains (VH and VL) of one the stable MAbs with highest affinity were PCR-amplified and assembled as single-chain antibody fragment (scFv). Following the cloning and expression of scFv antibody fragments in Escherichia coli, the functional binding and specificity of the recombinant antibody were confirmed by ELISA. To develop a direct in vitro detection of CEA-positive cancer cells, scFv DNA was genetically fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene and expressed in bacteria. The chimeric fluorescent protein is able to specifically detect CEA-positive cell lines; no cross-reactivity was observed with a negative control cell line. This strategy will likely allow the establishment of a rapid, single-step detection assay of CEA, which is considered to be one of the best predictors of malignancy among all other tumor markers. PMID:21707357

  6. Phylogenetic discordance of human and canine carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM) families, but striking identity of the CEA receptors will impact comparative oncology studies.

    PubMed

    Weichselbaumer, Marlene; Willmann, Michael; Reifinger, Martin; Singer, Josef; Bajna, Erika; Sobanov, Yuriy; Mechtcherikova, Diana; Selzer, Edgar; Thalhammer, Johann G; Kammerer, Robert; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Comparative oncology aims at speeding up developments for both, human and companion animal cancer patients. Following this line, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM5) could be a therapeutic target not only for human but also for canine (Canis lupus familiaris; dog) patients. CEACAM5 interacts with CEA-receptor (CEAR) in the cytoplasm of human cancer cells. Our aim was, therefore, to phylogenetically verify the antigenic relationship of CEACAM molecules and CEAR in human and canine cancer.Anti-human CEACAM5 antibody Col-1, previously being applied for cancer diagnosis in dogs, immunohistochemically reacted to 23 out of 30 canine mammary cancer samples. In immunoblot analyses Col-1 specifically detected human CEACAM5 at 180 kDa in human colon cancer cells HT29, and the canine antigen at 60, 120, or 180 kDa in CF33 and CF41 mammary carcinoma cells as well as in spontaneous mammary tumors. While according to phylogenicity canine CEACAM1 molecules should be most closely related to human CEACAM5, Col-1 did not react with canine CEACAM1, -23, -24, -25, -28 or -30 transfected to canine TLM-1 cells. By flow cytometry the Col-1 target molecule was localized intracellularly in canine CF33 and CF41 cells, in contrast to membranous and cytoplasmic expression of human CEACAM5 in HT29. Col-1 incubation had neither effect on canine nor human cancer cell proliferation. Yet, Col-1 treatment decreased AKT-phosphorylation in canine CF33 cells possibly suggestive of anti-apoptotic function, whereas Col-1 increased AKT-phosphorylation in human HT29 cells. We report further a 99% amino acid similarity of human and canine CEA receptor (CEAR) within the phylogenetic tree. CEAR could be detected in four canine cancer cell lines by immunoblot and intracellularly in 10 out of 10 mammary cancer specimens from dog by immunohistochemistry. Whether the specific canine Col-1 target molecule may as functional analogue to human CEACAM5 act as ligand to canine CEAR, remains to be defined. This study demonstrates the limitations of comparative oncology due to the complex functional evolution of the different CEACAM molecules in humans versus dogs. In contrast, CEAR may be a comprehensive interspecies target for novel cancer therapeutics. PMID:21436956

  7. Phylogenetic discordance of human and canine carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM) families, but striking identity of the CEA receptors will impact comparative oncology studies.

    PubMed Central

    Weichselbaumer, Marlene; Willmann, Michael; Reifinger, Martin; Singer, Josef; Bajna, Erika; Sobanov, Yuriy; Mechtcherikova, Diana; Selzer, Edgar; Thalhammer, Johann G.; Kammerer, Robert; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Comparative oncology aims at speeding up developments for both, human and companion animal cancer patients. Following this line, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM5) could be a therapeutic target not only for human but also for canine (Canis lupus familiaris; dog) patients. CEACAM5 interacts with CEA-receptor (CEAR) in the cytoplasm of human cancer cells. Our aim was, therefore, to phylogenetically verify the antigenic relationship of CEACAM molecules and CEAR in human and canine cancer. Anti-human CEACAM5 antibody Col-1, previously being applied for cancer diagnosis in dogs, immunohistochemically reacted to 23 out of 30 canine mammary cancer samples. In immunoblot analyses Col-1 specifically detected human CEACAM5 at 180 kDa in human colon cancer cells HT29, and the canine antigen at 60, 120, or 180 kDa in CF33 and CF41 mammary carcinoma cells as well as in spontaneous mammary tumors. While according to phylogenicity canine CEACAM1 molecules should be most closely related to human CEACAM5, Col-1 did not react with canine CEACAM1, -23, -24, -25, -28 or -30 transfected to canine TLM-1 cells. By flow cytometry the Col-1 target molecule was localized intracellularly in canine CF33 and CF41 cells, in contrast to membranous and cytoplasmic expression of human CEACAM5 in HT29. Col-1 incubation had neither effect on canine nor human cancer cell proliferation. Yet, Col-1 treatment decreased AKT-phosphorylation in canine CF33 cells possibly suggestive of anti-apoptotic function, whereas Col-1 increased AKT-phosphorylation in human HT29 cells. We report further a 99% amino acid similarity of human and canine CEA receptor (CEAR) within the phylogenetic tree. CEAR could be detected in four canine cancer cell lines by immunoblot and intracellularly in 10 out of 10 mammary cancer specimens from dog by immunohistochemistry. Whether the specific canine Col-1 target molecule may as functional analogue to human CEACAM5 act as ligand to canine CEAR, remains to be defined. This study demonstrates the limitations of comparative oncology due to the complex functional evolution of the different CEACAM molecules in humans versus dogs. In contrast, CEAR may be a comprehensive interspecies target for novel cancer therapeutics. PMID:21436956

  8. Evaluation of Chief Executive Officers in Canadian School Boards. CEA Information Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Education Association, Toronto (Ontario).

    The Canadian Education Association (CEA) examined the procedures Canadian School Boards use to evaluate their chief executive officers. In March 1989, CEA sent a questionnaire to superintendents and directors of education of the school boards that subscribe to the CEA Information Service, as well as to others. Of the 123 questionnaires sent, 81…

  9. Le Changement linguistique: Evolution, variation, and heterogeneite. Actes du colloque de Neuchatel Universite (Neuchatel, Suisse, 2-4 Octobre 2000) (Linguistic Change: Evolution, Variation, Heterogeneity. Proceedings of the University of Neuchatel Colloquium [Neuchatel, Switzerland, October 2-4, 2000]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthey, Marinette, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue focus on language evolution, variation, and heterogeneity. The following are English translations of the French article titles appearing in the issue: "Irregular Phonetic Development Due to Frequency; Regional Traits in Proto-Romance"; "Linguistic Evolution and Evolution of Perspective in the Comparative Grammar of…

  10. Serum sialic acid and CEA concentrations in human breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hogan-Ryan, A.; Fennelly, J. J.; Jones, M.; Cantwell, B.; Duffy, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    The concentration of bound sialic acid in the sera of 56 normal subjects and 65 subjects with breast cancer was measured, in order to determine (1) whether serum sialic acid concentrations are raised in breast cancer and (2) whether the concentration of sialic acid in serum reflects tumour stage. The amount of sialic acid in serum was compared to serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) values. Urinary hydroxyproline and serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations were used as indicators of bone and liver involvement. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was also measured. Significantly elevated serum sialic acid concentrations were found in breast cancer, and showed correlation with tumour stage. Serum sialic acid values did not correlate with CEA values. The results suggest that measurement of serum sialic acid concentrations may be of adjunctive value in assessing tumour stage. PMID:7387856

  11. Potent and specific antitumor effect of CEA-targeted photoimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shirasu, Naoto; Yamada, Hiromi; Shibaguchi, Hirotomo; Kuroki, Motomu; Kuroki, Masahide

    2014-12-01

    Conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer is limited by the insufficient efficacy and specificity of photosensitizers. We herein describe a highly effective and selective tumor-targeted PDT using a near-infrared (NIR) photosensitizer, IRDye700DX, conjugated to a human monoclonal antibody (Ab) specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The antitumor effects of this Ab-assisted PDT, called photoimmunotherapy (PIT), were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The Ab-IRDye conjugate induced potent cytotoxicity against CEA-positive tumor cells after NIR-irradiation, whereas CEA-negative cells were not affected at all, even in the presence of excess photoimmunoconjugate. We found an equivalent phototoxicity and a predominant plasma membrane localization of Ab-IRDye after both one and six hours of incubation. Either no or little caspase activation and membrane peroxidation were observed in PIT-treated cells and a panel of scavengers for reactive oxygen species showed only partial inhibition of the phototoxic effect. Strikingly, Ab-IRDye retained significant phototoxicity even under hypoxia. We established a xenograft model, which allowed us to sensitively investigate the therapeutic efficacy of PIT by non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. Luciferase-expressing MKN-45-luc human gastric carcinoma cells were subcutaneously implanted into both flanks of nude mice. NIR-irradiation was performed for only the tumor on one side. In vivo imaging and measurement of the tumor size revealed that a single PIT treatment, with intraperitoneal administration of Ab-IRDye and subsequent NIR-irradiation, caused rapid cell death and significant inhibition of tumor growth, but only on the irradiated side. Together, these data suggest that Ab-IRDye-mediated PIT has great potential as an anticancer therapeutics targeting CEA-positive tumors. PMID:24740257

  12. A Comprehensive Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Scorilas, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and codes for a vast number of glycoproteins that differ greatly both in amino acid composition and function. The CEA family is divided into two groups, the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) and the pregnancy-specific glycoproteins. The CEA family members are implicated in pleiotropic (patho)physiological functions including cell–cell adhesion, pregnancy, immunity, neovascularization, regulation of insulin homeostasis, and carcinogenesis. In general, the CEA-encoded proteins are composed of an extracellular region with Ig variable and constant-like domains and a cytoplasmic region containing signaling motifs. Of particular interest, the well-studied human and mouse CEA genes are arranged in clusters in a single chromosome. Taking into account this characteristic, we made an effort to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the CEA gene family. Toward this end, the publicly available genomes were searched extensively for CEA homologs. The domain organization of the retrieved protein sequences was analyzed, and, subsequently, comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of the entire length CEA homologous proteins were performed. A series of evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues, functionally important, were identified. The relative positioning of these residues on the modeled tertiary structure of novel CEA protein domains revealed that they are, also, spatially conserved. Furthermore, the chromosomal arrangement of CEA genes was examined, and it was found that the CEA genes are preserved in terms of position, transcriptional orientation, and number in all species under investigation. PMID:24858421

  13. The AstroGrid Common Execution Architecture (CEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, P.; Winstanley, N.; Taylor, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    The UK Virtual Observatory (VO) project AstroGrid (see http://www.astrogrid.org and related talks at this meeting) began in 2001 and is nearing the successful completion of its first release in December 2004. This paper describes AstroGrid's Common Execution Architecture (CEA). This is an attempt to create a reasonably small set of interfaces and schema to model how to execute a typical astronomical application within the VO. The CEA has been designed primarily to work within a web services framework, with the parameter passing mechanism layered on top of this so that the web interface for all applications is described by a single constant piece of WSDL - the differences between applications are expressed by the registry entries for each application. Within AstroGrid we have created pluggable components that can wrap legacy command-line applications, HTTP GET/POST applications and databases as CEA compliant web services, which when combined with the Astrogrid Workflow component make distributed processing within the VO a reality. See http://www.astrogrid.org/maven/docs/snapshot/applications/ for current information.

  14. CEA developments of new ferritic ODS alloys for nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carlan, Y.; Bechade, J.-L.; Dubuisson, P.; Seran, J.-L.; Billot, P.; Bougault, A.; Cozzika, T.; Doriot, S.; Hamon, D.; Henry, J.; Ratti, M.; Lochet, N.; Nunes, D.; Olier, P.; Leblond, T.; Mathon, M. H.

    2009-04-01

    During the last fifteen years, CEA has acquired much experience in the control of the microstructure and the mechanical properties of ODS alloys for nuclear applications. Each major step of the production process has been studied to get the best compromise for the fabrication route of ODS materials. From this scientific background, two new Fe-13/18CrWTi ferritic ODS alloys have been designed to meet the needs of the fusion or GEN-IV programs. These new materials have been investigated at a semi- industrial scale with different industrial partners and consolidated as small plates. The aim of this paper is to present the recent CEA developments on ODS materials, and to show the first results obtained on the Fe-18Cr1WTi new ferritic ODS alloy. The fabrication route for these new materials is presented, along with the measured mechanical properties and the preliminary microstructure characterizations. These new materials look promising for nuclear applications and are considered by CEA as reference materials for the development of new ODS alloys.

  15. Anti-CEA antibody fragments labeled with [(18)F]AlF for PET imaging of CEA-expressing tumors.

    PubMed

    Lütje, S; Franssen, G M; Sharkey, R M; Laverman, P; Rossi, E A; Goldenberg, D M; Oyen, W J G; Boerman, O C; McBride, W J

    2014-02-19

    A facile and rapid method to label peptides with (18)F based on chelation of [(18)F]AlF has been developed recently. Since this method requires heating to 100 °C, it cannot be used to label heat-sensitive proteins. Here, we used a two-step procedure to prepare (18)F-labeled heat-labile proteins using the [(18)F]AlF method based on hot maleimide conjugation. 1,4,7-Triazacyclononae-1,4-diacetate (NODA) containing a methyl phenylacetic acid group (MPA) functionalized with N-(2-aminoethyl)maleimide (EM) was used as a ligand which was labeled with [(18)F]AlF and then conjugated to the humanized anti-CEA antibody derivatives hMN-14-Fab', hMN-14-(scFv)2 (diabody), and a Dock-and-Lock engineered dimeric fragment hMN-14 Fab-AD2 at room temperature. The in vivo tumor targeting characteristics of the (18)F-labeled antibody derivatives were determined by PET imaging of mice with s.c. xenografts. NODA-MPAEM was radiolabeled with [(18)F]AlF at a specific activity of 29-39 MBq/nmol and a labeling efficiency of 94 ± 2%. The labeling efficiencies of the maleimide conjugation ranged from 70% to 77%, resulting in [(18)F]AlF-labeled hMN14-Fab', hMN14-Fab-AD2, or hMN14-diabody with a specific activity of 15-17 MBq/nmol. The radiolabeled conjugates were purified by gel filtration. For biodistribution and microPET imaging, antibody fragments were injected intravenously into BALB/c nude mice with s.c. CEA-expressing LS174T xenografts (right flank) and CEA-negative SK-RC-52 xenografts (left flank). All [(18)F]AlF-labeled conjugates showed specific uptake in the LS174T xenografts with a maximal tumor uptake of 4.73% ID/g at 4 h after injection. Uptake in CEA-negative SK-RC-52 xenografts was significantly lower. Tumors were clearly visualized on microPET images. Using a [(18)F]AlF-labeled maleimide functionalized chelator, antibody fragments could be radiofluorinated within 4 h at high specific activity. Here, we translated this method to preclinical PET imaging studies and showed feasibility of [(18)F]AlF-fluorinated hMN-14-Fab', [(18)F]AlF-hMN-14-Fab-AD2, and [(18)F]AlF-hMN-14-diabody for microPET imaging of CEA-expressing colonic cancer. PMID:24382090

  16. Les volcans du système solaire.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, C.

    Contents: 1. Le volcanisme: la Terre comme modèle. 2. Les volcans de la Terre. 3. Un géologue sur la Lune. 4. Bilan du volcanisme lunaire. 5. Les volcans géants de la planète Mars. 6. Bilan du volcanisme martien. 7. A la découverte de Vénus. 8. Opération Magellan: bilan du volcanisme vénusien. 9. Io: le volcanisme du bout du monde. 10. Planètes comparées.

  17. Baseline carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) serum levels predict bevacizumab-based treatment response in metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prager, Gerald W; Braemswig, Kira H; Martel, Alexandra; Unseld, Matthias; Heinze, Georg; Brodowicz, Thomas; Scheithauer, Werner; Kornek, Gabriela; Zielinski, Christoph C

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) affects tumorigenesis by enhancing tumor cell survival and by inducing tumor angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate baseline CEA serum levels to predict bevacizumab-based therapy effect and survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Two hundred and ninety eight mCRC patients receiving chemotherapy plus either bevacizumab or cetuximab were analyzed in a retrospective study. Disease control (DC), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were assessed and related to pretreatment CEA serum levels. Patients with baseline CEA serum levels below the statistical median of 26.8 ng/mL (group I) were compared with patients with higher CEA levels (group II). The cetuximab-based treatment cohort was analyzed for specificity assessment of CEA to predict the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor effect in mCRC. Baseline CEA serum levels inversely correlated with therapeutic response in patients receiving bevacizumab-based treatment (disease control rate, 84% vs 60%), inversely correlated with median PFS leading to a median PFS benefit of 2.1 months for patients in group I when compared with group II, as well as inversely correlated with median overall survival (37.5 months vs 21.4 months). In an independent cohort of 129 patients treated with cetuximab-based therapy, no association of therapeutic response or PFS with CEA serum levels was found. As expected, baseline CEA levels were prognostic for mCRC. These data give first evidence that baseline serum CEA levels might constitute an important predictor for the efficacy of first-line bevacizumab-based therapy in patients with mCRC. Previously, we found that CEA induces angiogenesis independent of VEGF. The data presented here now give first evidence that baseline serum CEA levels in patients might constitute an important predictor for the efficacy of first-line bevacizumab-based therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:24850362

  18. Relationship between serum CA19-9 and CEA levels and prognosis of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; Huang, Peijun; Wang, Fang; Li, Daqian; Xie, Erfu; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background To explore the relationship between preoperative serum CA19-9 and CEA levels and prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC). Methods The clinicopathological data of 128 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who were treated in our center between January 2012 and December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The relationships between serum CA19-9 and CEA levels and survival were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox regression analysis. The cut-off values for serum CA19-9 and CEA levels were 39 U/mL and 4.7 ng/mL, respectively. Results Among these 128 patients, the mean age was 62 years, and median survival was 12.2 days. The positive rate of CA19-9 and CEA was 78.1% and 37.5%, respectively. Patients with increased CA19-9 or CEA level suffered a poorer prognosis than those with normal CA19-9 or CEA level (CA19-9: P=0.027; CEA: P=0.036). Cox logistic analysis revealed that lymphatic metastasis, CA19-9 >39 U/mL, and CEA >4.7 ng/mL were independent prognostic factors in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Conclusions Preoperative serum CA19-9 and CEA level are closely related with survival time in PC patients and therefore may be used for evaluating the prognosis for PC.

  19. CEA in policies and plans: UK case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Lourdes M.

    2011-09-15

    This paper examines how cumulative effects assessment (CEA) has been considered in Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of regional and local plans in a number of case studies in the UK. Initially, the paper presents the legislative and regulatory requirements for assessing cumulative effects in plans and programmes in the UK. The two approaches for assessing plans in the UK, Sustainability Appraisal (SA) and SEA are discussed and in most cases, a combined SA and SEA process is undertaken by Regional and Local Planning Authorities. The strengths and weaknesses of this approach are explored, as well as their usefulness in decision making. There are problems relating to baseline, establishing trends and predicting cumulative effects at the strategic level. The issues in assessing cumulative effects within this SA/SEA framework are discussed and recommendations for improvements are made.

  20. Cryogenic turbulence test facilities at CEA/SBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, B.; Baudet, C.; Bon Mardion, M.; Bourgoin, M.; Braslau, A.; Daviaud, F.; Diribarne, P.; Dubrulle, B.; Gagne, Y.; Gallet, B.; Gibert, M.; Girard, A.; Lehner, T.; Moukharski, I.; Sy, F.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, CEA Grenoble SBT has designed, built and tested three liquid helium facilities dedicated to turbulence studies. All these experiments can operate either in HeI or HeII within the same campaign. The three facilities utilize moving parts inside liquid helium. The SHREK experiment is a von Kármán swirling flow between 0.72 m diameter counterrotating disks equipped with blades. The HeJet facility is used to produce a liquid helium free jet inside a 0.200 m I.D., 0.47 m length stainless steel cylindrical testing chamber. The OGRES experiment consists of an optical cryostat equipped with a particle injection device and an oscillating grid. We detail specific techniques employed to accommodate these stringent specifications. Solutions for operating these facilities without bubbles nor boiling/cavitation are described. Control parameters as well as Reynolds number and temperature ranges are given.

  1. Cri du chat syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Cri du chat syndrome is a group of symptoms that result from missing a piece of chromosome number 5. The syndrome’s ... Cri du chat syndrome is rare. It is caused by a missing piece of chromosome 5. Most cases are believed to ...

  2. "Cirque du Freak."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and child readers. (SG)

  3. The distribution of blood group substance H and CEA in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schoentag, R; Williams, V; Kuhns, W

    1984-02-01

    The distributional patterns of blood group substance H and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in 20 colorectal carcinomas from 17 patients, were investigated. Prognosis in these cases was more obviously related to histologic classification and pathologic stage than to BGS and CEA distributional patterns or preoperative plasma CEA levels. The distribution of H and CEA was similar to that found by other investigators for A and B blood group substances with the exception that areas of identical localization could be shown in at least some areas of each tumor studied that was positive for both antigens. The relationship of CEA and BGS is as yet unknown, but it seems probable that they can occur simultaneously in the same tissue. PMID:6318951

  4. Susceptibility of colorectal-carcinoma cells to natural-killer-mediated lysis: relationship to CEA expression and degree of differentiation.

    PubMed

    Prado, I B; Laudanna, A A; Carneiro, C R

    1995-06-01

    This study addresses the relevance of colorectal-carcinoma-cell (CRC) CEA expression and degree of differentiation in natural-killer(NK)-mediated lysis susceptibility. A 51Cr-release cytotoxicity assay performed with 5 human CRC lines demonstrated that CRC CEA expression was related to resistance to NK lysis. Moreover, the addition of anti-CEA Fab fragments to the assay led to a significant increase of lysability of high-CEA-producing and NK-resistant cells (LS 174-T), whereas purified CEA drastically reduced lysis of low-CEA-producing and NK-susceptible cells (LISP-I) in a dose-dependent manner. These results strongly suggest that CEA plays a causal role in CRC resistance to NK lysis. Nevertheless, our data did not demonstrate CEA binding to effector cell surface, suggesting that CEA expression can protect CRC, possibly by preventing NK-tumor-cell adhesion to occur. Our results also show that CRC susceptibility to NK lysis was related to a less differentiated phenotype. HCT-8, which are poorly differentiated and low-CEA-producing cells, were cultured in vitro in the presence of the differentiation agent sodium butyrate. Treated cells became less susceptible to NK lysis as they progressed towards a more differentiated phenotype. However, CEA production was not altered upon differentiation. Our study thus demonstrates that both features, CEA expression and degree of cellular differentiation, may individually influence CRC susceptibility to NK lysis. PMID:7790122

  5. BDDR, a new CEA technological and operating reactor database

    SciTech Connect

    Soldevilla, M.; Salmons, S.; Espinosa, B.

    2013-07-01

    The new application BDDR (Reactor database) has been developed at CEA in order to manage nuclear reactors technological and operating data. This application is a knowledge management tool which meets several internal needs: -) to facilitate scenario studies for any set of reactors, e.g. non-proliferation assessments; -) to make core physics studies easier, whatever the reactor design (PWR-Pressurized Water Reactor-, BWR-Boiling Water Reactor-, MAGNOX- Magnesium Oxide reactor-, CANDU - CANada Deuterium Uranium-, FBR - Fast Breeder Reactor -, etc.); -) to preserve the technological data of all reactors (past and present, power generating or experimental, naval propulsion,...) in a unique repository. Within the application database are enclosed location data and operating history data as well as a tree-like structure containing numerous technological data. These data address all kinds of reactors features and components. A few neutronics data are also included (neutrons fluxes). The BDDR application is based on open-source technologies and thin client/server architecture. The software architecture has been made flexible enough to allow for any change. (authors)

  6. [The tumor markers CEA, AFP and CA125 in patients with endometrial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gorchev, G; Milkov, V; Popov, I

    1992-01-01

    The plasma concentration of CEA, AFP and CA125 in 54 women with endometrial carcinoma and 12 with atypical hyperplasias, were investigated. In 20 of the patients the tumor markers were studied again 11 months after the surgical treatment. Elevation of CEA, AFP and CA125 levels was found in the third, and especially in the forth phase of the illness. Essential similarities between the histological differentiation and the levels of the tumor markers were not observed. The supposition was that the study of the CEA, AFP and CA125 is not a reliable criterion for the early diagnosis of the endometrial carcinoma. They have a prognostic significance only in patients of the second clinical phase after a surgical treatment. It is recommended two of the markers to be used, mostly CEA and CA125 and the study to be performed several times. PMID:1285257

  7. Network and system diagrams revisited: Satisfying CEA requirements for causality analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Perdicoulis, Anastassios; Piper, Jake

    2008-10-15

    Published guidelines for Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) have called for the identification of cause-and-effect relationships, or causality, challenging researchers to identify methods that can possibly meet CEA's specific requirements. Together with an outline of these requirements from CEA key literature, the various definitions of cumulative effects point to the direction of a method for causality analysis that is visually-oriented and qualitative. This article consequently revisits network and system diagrams, resolves their reported shortcomings, and extends their capabilities with causal loop diagramming methodology. The application of the resulting composite causality analysis method to three Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) case studies appears to satisfy the specific requirements of CEA regarding causality. Three 'moments' are envisaged for the use of the proposed method: during the scoping stage, during the assessment process, and during the stakeholder participation process.

  8. Comparison of Ablation Predictions for Carbonaceous Materials Using CEA and JANAF-Based Species Thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    In most previous work at NASA Ames Research Center, ablation predictions for carbonaceous materials were obtained using a species thermodynamics database developed by Aerotherm Corporation. This database is derived mostly from the JANAF thermochemical tables. However, the CEA thermodynamics database, also used by NASA, is considered more up to date. In this work, the FIAT code was modified to use CEA-based curve fits for species thermodynamics, then analyses using both the JANAF and CEA thermodynamics were performed for carbon and carbon phenolic materials over a range of test conditions. The ablation predictions are comparable at lower heat fluxes where the dominant mechanism is carbon oxidation. However, the predictions begin to diverge in the sublimation regime, with the CEA model predicting lower recession. The disagreement is more significant for carbon phenolic than for carbon, and this difference is attributed to hydrocarbon species that may contribute to the ablation rate.

  9. Decommissioning of the Nuclear Licensed Facilities at the Fontenay aux Roses CEA Center

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanjacques, Michel; Piketty, Laurence; Mandard, Lionel; Pedron, Guy; Boissonneau, Jean Francois; Fouquereau, Alain; Pichereau, Eric; Lethuaire, Nathalie; Estivie, David; Binet, Cedric; Meden, Igor

    2008-01-15

    This is a summary of the program for the decommissioning of all the CEA's facilities in Fontenay aux Roses. The particularity of this center is that it is located in a built-up area. Taking into account the particularities of the various buildings and the levels of radioactivity in them, it was possible to devise a coherent, optimized program for the CEA-FAR licensed nuclear facility decommissioning operations.

  10. Comparison of the CEAS and Williams-type barley yield models for North Dakota and Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leduc, S. (principal investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The CEAS and Williams type models were compared based on specified selection criteria which includes a ten year bootstrap test (1970-1979). Based on this, the models were quite comparable; however, the CEAS model was slightly better overall. The Williams type model seemed better for the 1974 estimates. Because that year spring wheat yield was particularly low, the Williams type model should not be excluded from further consideration.

  11. Rupture sous-cutanée du tendon long extenseur du pouce: à propos de 5 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abdelillah, Rachid; Abbassi, Najib; Erraji, Moncef; Abdeljawad, Najib; Yacoubi, Hicham; Daoudi, Abdelkrim

    2014-01-01

    La rupture spontanée du muscle long extenseur du pouce (EPL) du tendon au niveau du poignet est rare et principalement rapportés après fracture du radius distal à tubercule de Lister, dans la synovite, ténosynovite ou la polyarthrite rhumatoïde. Nous rapportons 5 cas de rupture spontanée du tendon long extenseur du pouce, traités par une greffe ou un transfert tendineux. PMID:25317233

  12. CEA and AFP expression in human hepatoma cells transfected with antisense IGF-I gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Li, Shu-Nong; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether antisense insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene can modulate CEA and AFP expression in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). METHODS: Transfection of HepG2 cells was accomplished using Lipofectin reagent. Northern blot analysis confirmed the antisense IGF-I RNA of the transfected cells. CEA and AFP levels were measured using radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2) were transfected with antisense IGF-I gene. Northern blot analysis confirmed that antisense IGF-I RNA was expressed in the transfected cells. The effect of antisense IGF-I gene on CEA and AFP expression was demonstrated by the fact that the CEA and AFP levels in the supernatant of transfected cell culture were significantly lower as compared with the parent cells, [CEA 7.0 ?g/L ± 0.76 ?g/L and 3.29 ?g/L ± 1.80 ?g/L (P < 0.05) and AFP 53.63 ?g/L ± 6.02 ?g/L and 9.0 ?g/L ± 5.26 ?g/L (P < 0.01), respectively]. CONCLUSION: The malignant potentiality of the transfected cells was partially suppressed.Antisense IGF-I gene can modulate the expression of CEA and AFP in human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2) PMID:11819225

  13. Polyclonal and monoclonal anti-CEA antibodies in immunolocalization of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wahren, B; Hammarström, S; Harmenberg, U; von Krusenstierna, S; Larsson, S A; Lundell, G; Rudén, U; Schnell, P O

    1986-01-01

    Antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) from sheep and monkey were immunoadsorbent purified. Mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) anti-CEA I-38S1 and Fab fragments of this antibody were prepared from mouse ascitic fluid. The IgG preparations were labelled with 123I or 131I, the Fab fragments with 131I. The antibody reactivity was unchanged after labelling. Patients with advanced colorectal carcinomas received an intravenous injection of 50-200 MBq 123I or 30-160 MBq 131I coupled to 250-500 micrograms antibody or antibody fragment. Patient examinations were performed using emission tomography (SPECT) and/or conventional gamma camera scintigraphy. The specific localization of labelled anti-CEA to tumor was compared to known tumor localized by CAT-scan, other x-ray methods or laparotomy, 50% of known tumors were accurately localized with sheep anti-CEA. In contrast, 70-80% of known tumor sites were correctly localized with polyclonal monkey anti-CEA antibodies, with monoclonal anti-CEA antibodies or with Fab fragments of the latter. A few previously unknown tumors were detected. PMID:3495029

  14. Anti-CEA-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for examining colorectal tumors in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kai-Wen; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Lin, In-Tsang; Horng, Herng-Er; Yang, Hong-Chang; Hong, Chin-Yih

    2013-10-01

    Although the biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is expressed in colorectal tumors, the utility of an anti-CEA-functionalized image medium is powerful for in vivo positioning of colorectal tumors. With a risk of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONPs) that is lower for animals than other material carriers, anti-CEA-functionalized SPIONPs were synthesized in this study for labeling colorectal tumors by conducting different preoperatively and intraoperatively in vivo examinations. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the image variation of colorectal tumors reached the maximum at approximately 24 h. However, because MRI requires a nonmetal environment, it was limited to preoperative imaging. With the potentiality of in vivo screening and intraoperative positioning during surgery, the scanning superconducting-quantum-interference-device biosusceptometry (SSB) was adopted, showing the favorable agreement of time-varied intensity with MRI. Furthermore, biological methodologies of different tissue staining methods and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) yielded consistent results, proving that the obtained in vivo results occurred because of targeted anti-CEA SPIONPs. This indicates that developed anti-CEA SPIONPs owe the utilities as an image medium of these in vivo methodologies.

  15. Estrogen staining in breast carcinoma by PAP methods compared to CEA and ferritin staining.

    PubMed

    Osamu, K; Takashi, M; Yohichi, T; Yasuo, U; Tetsuro, Y; Yoshiro, F; Toshio, T

    1987-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to demonstrate the stainability of estrogen, CEA, and ferritin in breast carcinomas, fibroadenomas, and fibrocystic diseases; to examine whether the findings of endogenous estrogen using the immunohistochemical detection method are related to estrogen receptor (ER) assays; and to determine whether the stainability of estrogen, CEA, and ferritin were related to the prognosis of breast carcinomas. In breast cancer, the stainability of estrogen using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method was positively correlated with the dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) assay for ER. In breast cancers, the percentage of positive staining was 46% for estrogen, 48% for CEA, and 47% for ferritin. With all three stains, significant differences were observed between cancer and benign diseases. Cases that were both positive for estrogen staining and negative for CEA showed a good prognosis after the recurrence of disease. Our data suggest that the immunohistochemical staining of estrogen, CEA, and ferritin might predict the biological behavior of breast carcinomas and be a prognostically useful indicator of breast cancer patients. PMID:2436774

  16. An Information Building on Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy for the French CEA Cadarache Research Center - 13492

    SciTech Connect

    Brunel, Guy; Denis, Dominique; Boulet, Alain

    2013-07-01

    The CEA Cadarache research center is one of the 10 research centers of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Distributed throughout various research platforms, it focuses on nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, new energy technologies (hydrogen, solar, biomass) and fundamental research in the field of vegetal biology. It is the most important technological research and development centers for energy in Europe. Considering the sensitive nature of nuclear activities, the questions surrounding the issue of radioactive waste, the nuclear energy and the social, economic and environmental concerns for present and future generations, the French Government asked nuclear actors to open communication and to give all the information asked by the Local Information Commission (CLI) and the public [1]. In this context, the CEA Cadarache has decided to better show and explain its expertise and experience in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear power plant design, and to make it available to stakeholders and to the public. CEA Cadarache receives each year more than 9000 visitors. To complete technical visits of the research facilities and laboratories, a scientific cultural center has been built in 2011 to inform the public on CEA Cadarache research activities and to facilitate the acceptance of nuclear energy in a way suited to the level of knowledge of the visitors. A modern interactive exhibition of 150 m{sup 2} allows visitors to find out more about energy, CEA Cadarache research programs, radioactive waste management and radiological impact on the research center activities. It also offers an auditorium for group discussions and for school groups to discover science through enjoyment. This communication center has received several thousand visitors since its opening on October 2011; the initial results of this experience are now available. It's possible to explain the design of this exhibition, to give some statistics on the number of the visitors, their characteristics and their perception after their center visits. (authors)

  17. La fin du jeûne?

    PubMed Central

    Naugler, Christopher; Sidhu, Davinder

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter une mise à jour sur l’utilité clinique de ne pas être à jeun par rapport à l’être pour l’analyse des lipides dans le but d’améliorer l’observance par les patients, leur sécurité et l’évaluation clinique dans les tests du cholestérol. Qualité des données Les recommandations sont classées comme étant fondées sur des données probantes fortes, acceptables ou faibles (conflictuelles ou insuffisantes), selon les classifications adoptées par le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs. Message principal Le dépistage de la dyslipidémie comme facteur de risque de coronaropathie et la prescription de médicaments hypolipidémiants sont des activités importantes en soins primaires. De récentes données probantes remettent en question la nécessité d’être à jeun pour la mesure des lipides. Dans des études sur la population, le cholestérol total, le cholestérol à lipoprotéines de haute densité et le cholestérol à lipoprotéines autres qu’à haute densité variaient tous d’en moyenne 2 % à jeun. Pour un dépistage de routine, la mesure du cholestérol sans être à jeun est maintenant une option de rechange raisonnable à l’analyse à jeun. Pour les patients diabétiques, l’exigence d’être à jeun peut représenter un important problème de sécurité en raison des possibilités d’hypoglycémie. Pour la surveillance des triglycérides et du cholestérol à lipoprotéines de basse densité chez les patients qui prennent des médicaments hypolipidémiants, le jeûne devient important. Conclusion Être à jeun pour la détermination routinière des niveaux lipidiques est largement inutile et il est improbable que le jeûne influence la stratification du risque clinique chez le patient, tandis que la mesure sans être à jeun pourrait améliorer l’observance par le patient et sa sécurité.

  18. Establishment of a human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-producing cell line in a protein-free chemically defined medium.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, N; Okabe, T; Kawai, K

    1985-01-01

    To examine whether a human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-producing cell can proliferate and sythesize CEA in vitro in culture without protein supplements, long-term cultivation of such cells was carried out in a protein-free chemically defined medium. Using stepwise decreases in fetal bovine serum concentration, continuous growth of the cells was established in a protein-free am's F-12 medium. The cells, designated as HLC-Yl, have been propagated in this medium for 3 years. The population doubling time of the cells is about 52 h. Addition of the serum stimulated the cell growth (population doubling time = 27 h). Saturation density was not increased by the addition of serum. The cells grown in a protein-free F-12 secrete large amounts of CEA (65.4 +/- 2.6 ng/10(6) cells/24 h). Addition of serum did not stimulate the production of CEA. The cells produced tumours when inoculated into athymic nude mice. The mice bearing the tumour showed high serum CEA levels, and CEA was demonstrated in the tumour tissue by the immunoperoxidase method. The present study suggests that cells grown in a protein-free medium do not require serum components for their growth or CEA synthesis and provide an excellent model for better understanding the growth and production of CEA in human lung cancer cells. PMID:4019568

  19. The Prognostic Significance of Pretreatment Serum CEA Levels in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Including 14651 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kai; Yang, Li; Hu, Bing; Wu, Hao; Zhu, Hong; Tang, Chengwei

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is commonly used as a serum tumor marker in clinical practice; however, its prognostic value for gastric cancer patients remains uncertain. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of CEA and investigate CEA as a tumor marker. Methods PubMed, EMBASE and other databases were searched for potentially eligible studies. Forty-one studies reporting the prognostic effect of pretreatment serum CEA expression in gastric cancer patients were selected. Data on 14651 eligible patients were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Based on the data extracted from the available literature, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for an adverse prognosis were estimated for gastric cancer patients with elevated pretreatment serum levels of CEA (CEA+) relative to patients with normal pretreatment CEA levels (CEA-). Results The CEA+ patients had a significantly poorer prognosis than the CEA- patients in terms of overall survival (OS: HR 1.716, 95% CI 1.594 - 1.848, P< 0.001), disease-specific survival (DSS: HR 1.940, 95% CI 1.563 - 2.408, P< 0.001), and disease-free survival (DFS: HR 2.275, 95% CI 1.836 - 2.818, P< 0.001). Publication bias and an influence of different cut-off values were not observed (all P> 0.05). In the pooled analyses of multivariate-adjusted HRs, the results suggested that pretreatment serum CEA may be an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (OS: HR 1.681, 95% CI 1.425 - 1.982; DSS: HR 1.900, 95% CI 1.441 - 2.505; DFS: HR 2.579, 95% CI 1.935 - 3.436). Conclusion/Significance The meta-analysis based on the available literature supported the association of elevated pretreatment serum CEA levels with a poor prognosis for gastric cancer and a nearly doubled risk of mortality in gastric cancer patients. CEA may be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients and may aid in determining appropriate treatment which may preferentially benefit the CEA+ patients. PMID:25879931

  20. Environmental Profiles of Paper vs. Electronic UC-CEAS Annual Reports

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2010, the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering and Applied Sciences (UC-CEAS) created a new electronic format for the Annual Report that could be distributed through the college’s website to replace the prior print version. In order to determine the environmental co...

  1. 77 FR 74283 - Clearing Requirement Determination Under Section 2(h) of the CEA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ...\\ Clearing Requirement Determination Under Section 2(h) of the CEA; Proposed Rule, 77 FR 47170 (Aug. 7, 2012... to Trade Under Section 2(h)(8) of the Commodity Exchange Act, 76 FR 77728 (Dec. 14, 2011). Clearing... FR 44464 (July 26, 2011); 17 CFR 39.5. The determinations and rules adopted in this release...

  2. Spanish Pre-University Students' Use of English: CEA Results from the University Entrance Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diez-Bedmar, Maria Belen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an updated overview of the main errors that Spanish students make when writing the English exam in the University Entrance Examination is provided. To do so, a Computer-aided Error Analysis (CEA) (Dagneaux, Denness & Granger, 1998) was conducted on a representative sample of the students who took the exam in June 2008 in Jaen, and…

  3. 77 FR 47169 - Clearing Requirement Determination Under Section 2(h) of the CEA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Commodity Exchange Act, 76 FR 77728 (Dec. 14, 2011). Clearing is at the heart of the Dodd-Frank financial...; and (4) the staying of a clearing requirement. \\19\\ See 76 FR 44464 (July 26, 2011); 17 CFR 39.5. This... under Section 2(h) of the CEA, 76 FR 58186 (Sept. 20, 2011). This comment letter is available on...

  4. Iodine-131 labeled anti-CEA polyclonal antibody detection of gastrointestinal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nabi, H.A.; Hinkle, G.H.; Olsen, J.O.; Haagensen, D.A.; Thurston, M.O.; Mojzisik, C.; Houchens, D.; Martin, E.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To localize gastrointestinal tumor, 31 patients were injected with 1.7-2.1 mCi I-131 anti-CEA baboon polyclonal antibody. Whole body imaging at 48, 72, and occasionally 96 hrs was performed with a Signa Camera (Technicare) peaked at 364 keV with 20% window. Additional spot views were usually obtained. No subtraction methods were used. All patients had surgical and pathological confirmation of the nuclear medicine studies. Labeled antibody images were positive in 15 (8 recurrent or metastatic colorectal, 2 gastric, 1 pancreatic, 1 primary colon, and 1 breast metastatic to chest wall). In 1, antibody images were positive for metastatic deposits in para-aortic lymph nodes, but negative for primary rectal tumor. True negative images were observed in 6; false negative images in 9 (4 liver metastases, 2 rectal, 1 pancreatic, 1 mesenteric lymph node metastasis, 1 bone metastasis). In all cases, no correlation existed between preoperative CEA serum levels and imaging. I-131 labeled anti-CEA polyclonal antibody imaging proved highly efficient in detecting gastric cancer (2/2) and moderately efficient in detecting recurrent colorectal cancer (8/15). On the other hand, the I-131 labeled polyclonal anti-CEA antibody imaging was of limited value in detecting colon cancer (1/9), pancreatic cancer (1/4) and metastatic liver disease (0/4).

  5. Diagnosis of tumors of the parotid gland with anti-CEA immunoscintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Kairemo, K.J.; Hopsu, E.V. )

    1990-06-01

    Twenty-nine consecutive patients with a palpable unilateral tumor in the parotid gland region had scintigraphy 22-28 hr after they were injected with 111In-labeled monoclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody (F023C5). Two patients were imaged at 48 hr also, and one patient was imaged additionally with single-photon emission CT. Twenty-seven of the patients had surgery within 2-3 weeks. The serum CEA concentrations were normal in 27 of 29 patients. Immunoglobulin G human anti-murine-antibody concentrations were elevated in three of 20 patients. Ten patients had scintigraphic findings suggesting a malignant tumor, six of them had histologically proved malignant tumors. The tumors associated with positive immunoscintigrams were stained immunohistochemically with anti-CEA, and four of the malignant tumors were positive in immunohistochemical staining. The results suggest that nonspecific anti-CEA-antibody imaging is helpful in predicting the presence of a malignant tumor in the parotid area. The radioantibody method could provide useful clinical information that has a high negative predictive value.

  6. Innovative CEA Information Server: Helping K--12 Teachers and Students Navigate the EUVE Mission Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, F.; Hawkins, I.; Levandovsky, N.; Wong, L.; Arellano, V.; Ford, P.; Nguyen, K.; Malina, R. F.

    1995-12-01

    Internet access to the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) mission archive for participants in the Science Online and Science Information Infrastructure programs will be facilitated by an innovative, World Wide Web--based data server being developed at the UC Berkeley Center for EUV Astrophysics (CEA). The Innovative CEA Information Server, being developed for the Science Education Program, will allow the user to easily select and access material from the EUVE mission archive. The entire archive, as part of an overarching CEA project, the EUVE Knowledge Base, will be logically structured into knowledge units. Each knowledge unit is defined as ``all of the information available at CEA about a given subject encapsulated into a self-contained, single, multimedia object.'' The user will be able to specify parameters that indicate the desired levels of complexity, breadth or scope, and format (e.g., text or graphics) of the requested knowledge units. The K--12 education materials for this Server are being developed at CEA via a ``Partners in Science'' teacher internship program funded by Research Corporation. Dr. Nelli Levandovsky, a physics teacher from San Francisco Unified School District's Galileo high school, created the following two tutorial plans this past summer: ``Be an Engineer---Learn How to Operate a Satellite'' and ``Be a Scientist---Learn How to Become a Space Researcher.'' Current development efforts are concentrated in two areas: (1) reviewing types of EUVE archival data and mission information and how these knowledge units can be packaged and presented; and (2) investigating how issues of breadth (e.g., scope or extent) and depth (e.g., complexity) of the knowledge units can be better presented in the construction of the Server. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS5-29298.

  7. Variation of uptake of anti-CEA monoclonal antibody with tumor type and mass

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.E.; Philben, V.J.; Jakowatz, J.G.; Beatty, B.G.; Vlahos, W.G.; Paxton, R.J.; Shively, J.E.; Beatty, J.D.

    1985-05-01

    A nude mouse model xenografted with 3 human tumor (T) was studied with an anti-carcinoembryonic (..cap alpha..-CEA) monoclonal antibody (MoAb). The MoAb was labeled with In-111 using a bi-functional chelation technique. In vitro cross-reactivity with human blood (B) and liver (L) cells was minimal. Human colon tumors were WIDR, SW403 an LS174T. The murine carcinoma EMT6 was used as a control. In all cases only 62.5 ngm of ..cap alpha..-CEA charged at 10 ..mu..Ci/..mu..gm was given to each animal. The corresponding value in humans, 200 ..mu..gm, is probably subimmunogenic. Organ distribution in percent injected dose/gm (% ID/gm) and images were obtained at 48 h post-injection of the MoAb. CEA levels (mgm/gm of T) were measured for each tumor using the same MoAb (T 84.66). Variation of % ID/gm with LS174T mass (m) was also determined. Uptake by EMT6 was 2.4 +- 0.2 % ID/gm. LS174T uptake varied approximately as the inverse of tumor mass. The authors conclude that tumor accumulation of ..cap alpha..-CEA MoAb is not directly correlated with the amount of CEA in the lesion. The best uptake, T/B and T/L values occurred with LS174T; this was also borne out by the 48 h images. Because of the smaller average SW403 mass, this result cannot readily be explained as a tumor size effect.

  8. Evolution du Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni et As dans le Bassin d'Arcachon (France). Impact de la biomasse végétale sur la géochimie d'un environment lagunaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapaquellerie, Yvon; Latouche, Claude; Maillet, Noèle; Dumon, Jean-Claude; Carruesco, Christian

    1992-03-01

    The concentration of metals as Pb, Cu, Ni and As in suspended matters and sediments during 14 years shows for suspended matters and sediments that: Zn and Cu are increasing, Pb and As decreasing and Ni is stabilised. The evolution of the suspended matter can be explained by the quantitative evolution of algae and phanerogams during these last 14 years. The biomass evolution, which resulted in environmental nutrient contribution, intensifies the exchange factors of Pb and As in the lagoon. These remarks, beyond their local interests, provide notions of sedimentary environment model opposed to a polluting environment constituted by nautic tourism and a large area of monoculture (corn).

  9. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sajid, Khan Mohammad; Chaouachi, Kamal; Mahmood, Rubaida

    2008-01-01

    Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.). Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc.), prepared between 1 and 4 times a day with a quantity of up to 120 g of a tobacco-molasses mixture each (i.e. the tobacco weight equivalent of up to 60 cigarettes of 1 g each) and consumed in 1 to 8 sessions. Methods Enhanced chemiluminescent immunometric technique was applied to measure CEA levels in serum samples from 59 exclusive male smokers with age ranging from 20–80 years (mean = 58.8 ± 14.7 years) and 8–65 years of smoking (mean = 37.7 ± 16.8). 36 non-smokers served as controls. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the number of preparations; the number of sessions and the total daily smoking time: Light (1; 1; ≤ 20 minutes); Medium (1–3; 1–3; >20 min to ≤ 2 hrs) and Heavy smokers (2–4; 3–8; >2 hrs to ≤ 6 hrs). Because of the nature of distribution of CEA levels among our individuals, Wilcoxon's rank sum two-sample test was applied to compare the variables. Results The overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers (mean: 3.58 ± 2.61 ng/ml; n = 59) were not significantly different (p ≤ 0.0937) from the levels in non-smokers (2.35 ± 0.71 ng/ml). Mean levels in light, medium and heavy smokers were: 1.06 ± 0.492 ng/ml (n = 5); 2.52 ± 1.15 ng/ml (n = 28) and 5.11 ± 3.08 ng/ml (n = 26) respectively. The levels in medium smokers and non-smokers were also not significantly different (p ≤ 0.9138). In heavy smokers, the CEA levels were significantly higher than in non-smokers (p ≤ 0.0001567). Conclusion Overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers were low compared to cigarette smokers. However, heavy hookah smoking substantially raises CEA levels. Low-nitrosamines smokeless tobacco of the SNUS Swedish type could be envisaged as an alternative to smoking for this category of users and also, in a broad harm reduction perspective, to the prevalent low-quality moist snuff called naswar. PMID:18501010

  10. Utility of serum CA19-9 in diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma: In comparison with CEA

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xing-Lei; Wang, Zuo-Ren; Shi, Jing-Sen; Lu, Min; Wang, Lin; He, Quan-Ru

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma is often difficult, making management approaches problematic. A reliable serum marker for cholangiocarcinoma would be a useful diagnostic test. The aims of our study were to evaluate the usefulness of a serum CA19-9 determination in the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: We prospectively measured serum CA19-9 and CEA concentrations in patients with cholangiocarcinoma (n = 35), benign biliary diseases (n = 92), and healthy individuals (n = 15). Serum CA19-9 and CEA concentrations were measured by an immunoradiometric assay without knowledge of the clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: The sensitivity of a CA19-9 value > 37 KU·L-1 and a CEA value > 22 ?g·L-1 in diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma were 77.14% and 68.57%, respectively. When compared with the benign biliary diseases group, the true negative rates of serum CA19-9 and CEA were 84.78% and 81.52%, respectively. The false positive rates of serum CA19-9 and CEA were 15.22% and 18.48%, whereas the accuracy of serum CA19-9 and CEA were 82.68% and 77.95%, respectively. Serum CA19-9 and CEA concentrations were significantly elevated (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05) in patients with cholangiocarcinoma (290.31 ± 5.34 KU·L-1 and 36.46 ± 18.03 ?g·L-1) compared with patients with benign biliary diseases (13.38 ± 2.59 KU·L-1 and 13.84 ± 3.85 ?g·L-1) and healthy individuals (12.78 ± 3.69 KU·L-1 and 11.48 ± 3.37 ?g·L-1). In 15 patients undergoing curative resection of cholangiocarcinoma, the mean serum CA19-9 concentration was decreased from a preoperative level of 286.41 ± 4.36 KU·L-1 to a postoperative level of 62.01 ± 17.43 KU·L-1 (P < 0.001), and the mean serum CEA concentration from 39.41 ± 24.35 ?g·L-1 to 28.69 ± 11.03 ?g·L-1(P < 0.05). In patients with cholangiocarcinoma, however, no correlation was found between serum CEA and CA19-9 concentrations (r = 0.036). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the serum CA19-9 determination is a useful addition to the available tests for the differential diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Serum CA19-9 is an effective tumor marker in diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma, deciding whether the tumor has been radically resected and monitoring effect of treatment. PMID:14760772

  11. Improving tumor targeting and therapeutic potential of Salmonella VNP20009 by displaying cell surface CEA-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bereta, Michal; Hayhurst, Andrew; Gajda, Mariusz; Chorobik, Paulina; Targosz, Marta; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Kaufman, Howard L

    2007-05-22

    Genetically modified Salmonella typhimurium VNP20009 (VNP) is a useful vehicle for cancer therapy and vaccine development but exhibits limited tumor targeting in vivo. We engineered a novel VNP derivative that expressed carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-specific single chain antibody fragments (scFv) on the cell surface to increase tumor-specific targeting. There was significant scFv cell surface display visualized by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy when cells were probed with fluorescently labeled CEA. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on whole bacteria confirmed binding of unlabeled CEA to the displayed scFv. The modified VNP strain exhibited increased localization in the upper gastrointestinal tract of CEA transgenic mice and accumulated in CEA-expressing tumors. Furthermore, treatment with a single dose of the VNP derivative inhibited growth of MC38CEA tumors and was associated with local accumulation of CD3(+) T cells and CD11b(+) macrophages. The display of antibody fragments on the surface of VNP represents a novel strategy for both targeting CEA-expressing tumors and increasing the immunogenicity of Salmonella-based vaccines for cancer. PMID:17399861

  12. Improving tumor targeting and therapeutic potential of Salmonella VNP20009 by displaying cell surface CEA-specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bereta, Michal; Hayhurst, Andrew; Gajda, Mariusz; Chorobik, Paulina; Targosz, Marta; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Kaufman, Howard L.

    2009-01-01

    Genetically modified Salmonella typhimurium VNP20009 (VNP) is a useful vehicle for cancer therapy and vaccine development but exhibits limited tumor targeting in vivo. We engineered a novel VNP derivative that expressed carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-specific single chain antibody fragments (scFv) on the cell surface to increase tumor-specific targeting. There was significant scFv cell surface display visualized by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy when cells were probed with fluorescently labeled CEA. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on whole bacteria confirmed binding of unlabelled CEA to the displayed scFv. The modified VNP strain exhibited increased localization in the upper gastrointestinal tract of CEA transgenic mice and accumulated in CEA-expressing tumors. Furthermore, treatment with a single dose of the VNP derivative inhibited growth of MC38CEA tumors and was associated with local accumulation of CD3+ T cells and CD11b+ macrophages. The display of antibody fragments on the surface of VNP represents a novel strategy for both targeting CEA-expressing tumors and increasing the immunogenicity of Salmonella-based vaccines for cancer. PMID:17399861

  13. Use of CEA and CA15-3 to Predict Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, San-Gang; He, Zhen-Yu; Ren, Hong-Yue; Yang, Li-Chao; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Guo, Ling; Lin, Huan-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical significance of preoperative serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) in breast cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical value of preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA 15-3 on the risk of axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) in patients with breast cancer. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed 1148 breast cancer patients whose preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were measured. The association of these tumor markers and clinicopathologic parameters with ALNM was determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: A median of 15 lymph nodes were removed. Seven hundred seventy-eight (67.8%) patients had node-negative disease and 370 (32.2%) had ALNM. Univariate analysis showed that tumor location (P = 0.024), stage (P = 0.001), grade (P < 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (P < 0.001), CEA level (P < 0.001), CA15-3 level (P < 0.001), and breast cancer subtype (BCS) (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with ALNM. ALNM was present in 4.5% of patients with normal CEA and 11.6% of patients with elevated CEA. ALNM was present in 8.0% of patients with normal CA15-3 and 17.0% of patients with high CA15-3. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that tumor location, stage, grade, LVI, CEA, CA15-3, and BCS were significantly and independently associated with ALNM (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: The probability of ALNM was greater in patients with elevated preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3. CEA and CA15-3 appear to be independent predictors of ALNM in breast cancer. PMID:26722358

  14. CEA serum level as early predictive marker of outcome during EGFR-TKI therapy in advanced NSCLC patients.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Francesco; Aldigeri, Raffaella; Aloe, Rosalia; Bortesi, Beatrice; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Tiseo, Marcello

    2015-08-01

    Considering the role of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) serum levels as potential useful predictive marker during chemotherapy treatment, we studied its applicability in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Our retrospective cohort consists of 79 patients (33 EGFR mutated and 46 EGFR wild type or unknown) affected by advanced NSCLC, for whom CEA serum values at the beginning of TKI therapy and after the first month of treatment were available, regardless of treatment line. Baseline CEA value, percentage of CEA reduction after 1 month, and percentage of patients with ?20 % CEA decrease after 1 month (CEA response) were correlated with disease control rate (DCR), progression-free (PFS), and overall (OS) survival, according to EGFR mutational status. Median baseline CEA levels were significantly higher in EGFR mutated (40.9 ng/ml; interquartile range (IQR) 8.9-197.6) than in wild-type cases (6.2 ng/ml; IQR 2.8-12.8; p?=?0.003). Both percentage reduction in CEA levels (-10.7 vs. +13.4 %) and percentage of cases with CEA response (42 vs. 20 %) were significantly higher in mutated vs. wild-type/unknown patients (p?=?0.007 and p?=?0.027, respectively). In wild-type/unknown patients, CEA response was significantly correlated with DCR (p?=?0.001) and resulted as a significant predictor of PFS both in univariate (p?=?0.002) and in multivariate analyses (hazard ratio (HR) 0.27; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.11-0.66; p?=?0.004); only a trend was found for OS prediction (p?=?0.082). In EGFR-mutated group, CEA reduction did not show any correlation either with PFS or OS. CEA response after 1 month of EGFR-TKI therapy could be a useful marker, worthy to further studies, as early predictor of treatment outcome in EGFR wild-type/unknown unselected NSCLC cases for which no molecular predictor is yet available. PMID:25731731

  15. Enhanced power generation and energy conversion of sewage sludge by CEA-microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Abourached, Carole; Lesnik, Keaton Larson; Liu, Hong

    2014-08-01

    The production of methane from sewage sludge through the use of anaerobic digestion has been able to effectively offset energy costs for wastewater treatment. However, significant energy reserves are left unrecovered and effluent standards are not met necessitating secondary processes such as aeration. In the current study a novel cloth-electrode assembly microbial fuel cell (CEA-MFC) was used to generate electricity from sewage sludge. Fermentation pretreatment of the sludge effectively increased the COD of the supernatant and improved reactor performance. Using the CEA-MFC design, a maximum power density of 1200 mW m(-2) was reached after a fermentation pre-treatment time of 96 h. This power density represents a 275% increase over those previously observed in MFC systems. Results indicate continued improvements are possible and MFCs may be a viable modification to existing wastewater treatment infrastructure. PMID:24912141

  16. C.-E.A. Winslow Day: Proceedings of the June 3, 1977 Centenary Celebration

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, Arthur J.

    1977-01-01

    Sponsored by Yale University, the City of New Haven, and the John B. Pierce Foundation, the C.-E.A. Winslow Day program consisted of speeches by Mr. Leonard Woodcock, President Emeritus, U.A.W., the Honorable Kenneth Gibson, Mayor of Newark, and Dr. Hector Acuña, Director, Pan American Health Organization; reminiscences of Ira Hiscock, Anna M.R. Lauder Professor Emeritus of Public Health, Mary Elizabeth Tennant, Associate Professor Emeritus of Nursing (Public Health), A. Pharo Gagge, Emeritus Fellow, John B. Pierce Foundation, and Mrs. Harriet Welch, Former President of the VNA of New Haven. The proceedings also included the presentation of gifts and the official C.-E.A. Winslow Day Proclamation. PMID:345631

  17. Thermal hydraulic characteristics study of prototype NET and CEA cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs)

    SciTech Connect

    Maekawa, Ryuji

    1995-10-31

    The thermal hydraulic characteristics of low temperature helium in a Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) significantly affects the overall design and performance of the associated large scale superconducting magnet system. It is essential to understand the transient and steady state behavior of the helium in the conductor. Throughout the development of CICCs, the reduction of flow impedance has been one of the key factors to improving the overall pressure drop. The newly developed CICC for the ITER project has a hybrid cooling scheme: a central channel that is surrounded by bundles, for which the thermal hydraulic characteristics are not well understood. This thesis describes an experimental and analytical investigation of thermal hydraulic characteristics of low temperature helium in conventional and hybrid CICCS. Pressure drop measurements for both NET and CEA conductors have been conducted, using low temperature helium and liquid nitrogen to obtain a range of Reynolds numbers. The results are correlated with classical friction factor and Reynolds number analysis. The flow impedance reduction of the CEA conductor is described by measures of a developed flow model. Thermally induced flow in the CEA conductor has been studied with an inductive heating method. The induced velocity in the central channel is measured by a Pitot tube with steady state Reynolds number up to {approximately}7000. The transient pressure wave propagation has been recorded with pressure transducers placed equally along the conductor. The supercritical helium temperature in the central channel has been measured with the thermometer probe. However, the reduction of the central channel area significantly affects the overall thermal hydraulic characteristics of the conductor. The results suggest the importance of the central channel. A transient heat transfer experiment studied the.transverse heat transfer mechanism in the CEA conductor. The temperatures in the central channel and bundle region were measured with different sized heat pulses. The results are discussed in terms of a heat transfer model which is based upon the communication of the helium in the central channel and bundle.

  18. Decommissioning of the nuclear licensed facilities at the Fontenay aux Roses CEA center

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanjacques, Michel; Piketty, Laurence; Letuhaire, Nathalie; Mandard, Lionel; Meden, Igor; Estivie, David; Boissonneau, Jean Francois; Fouquereau, Alain; Pichereau, Eric; Binet, Cedric

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) center at Fontenay aux Roses (CEN-FAR) is the Commission's oldest center is located in the southern suburbs of Paris. It was opened on 26 March 1946 to host the first French nuclear reactor ZOE that went critical on 12 December 1946. The first laboratories were installed in existing buildings on the site. (authors)

  19. CEA-negative glioblastoma and melanoma cells are sensitive to cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine therapy directed by the carcinoembryonic antigen promoter.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, Anna; Szary, Jaros?aw; Kowalczuk, Ma?gorzata; Szala, Stanis?aw; Ugorski, Maciej

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-promoter sequences are active only in CEA-positive cells, filing in the criteria for tumor specific targeting of suicide genes. However, the present study on gene therapy of colon cancer and cell-specificity of CEA promoter, provide evidence that CEA-positive and CEA-negative cells transfected with E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) gene under the control of CEA promotor sequence are sensitive to enzyme/pro-drug therapy with 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC). Individual clones derived from the CEA-negative cell lines: melanoma Hs294T and glioblastoma T98G after transfection with CD differed profoundly in their sensitivity to 5-FC. The IC50 values for several clones of the CEA-negative cells were almost the same as for CEA-positive colon cancer cells. Such 5-FC-sensitive clones derived from the population of CEA-negative cells, present even in small number, because of the very effective bystender effect of this enzyme/pro-drug system can cause severe problems during therapy by efficiently killing surrounding normal cells. Safety is the major issue in gene therapy. Our data suggest that the safety of gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy (GDEPT) with CEA promoter driven expression of therapeutic genes is not so obvious as it has originally been claimed. PMID:15448734

  20. Aeroacoustics research in Europe: The CEAS-ASC report on 2013 highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, G. J.; Kennedy, J.; Meskell, C.; Carley, M.; Jordan, P.; Rice, H.

    2015-03-01

    The Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS) Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee (ASC) supports and promotes the interests of the scientific and industrial aeroacoustics community on an European scale and European aeronautics activities internationally. In this context, "aeroacoustics" encompasses all aerospace acoustics and related areas. Each year the committee highlights some of the research and development projects in Europe. This paper is a report on highlights of aeroacoustics research in Europe in 2013, compiled from information provided to the ASC of the CEAS. During 2013, a number of research programmes involving aeroacoustics were funded by the European Commission. Some of the highlights from these programmes are summarised in this paper, as well as highlights from other programmes funded by national programmes or by industry. Furthermore, a concise summary of the CEAS-ASC workshop "Atmospheric and Ground Effects on Aircraft Noise" held in Seville, Spain in September 2013 is included in this report. Enquiries concerning all contributions should be addressed to the authors who are given at the end of each subsection. This issue of the "highlights" paper is dedicated to the memory of Prof. John A. Fitzpatrick, Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, and a valued member of the Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee. John passed away in September 2012 and is fondly missed across the globe by the friends he made in the Aeroacoustics Community. This paper is edited by PhD graduates and colleagues of John's who conduct research in aeroacoustics, inspired by his thirst for knowledge.

  1. Sol-gel chemistry in biosensing devices of electrical transduction: application to CEA cancer biomarker.

    PubMed

    Truta, Liliana A A N A; Sales, M Goreti F

    2015-01-01

    Sol-gel chemistry allows the immobilization of organic molecules of biological origin on suibtable solid supports, permitting their integration into biosensing devices widening the possibility of local applications. The present work is an application of this principle, where the link between electrical receptor platform and the antibody acting as biorecognition element is made by sol-gel chemistry. The immunosensor design was targeted for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), an important biomarker for screening the colorectal cancer, by electrochemical techniques, namely electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and square wave voltammetry (SVW). The device displayed linear behavior to CEA in EIS and in SWV assays ranging from 0.50 to 1.5ng/mL, and 0.25 to 1.5ng/mL, respectively. The corresponding detection limits were 0.42 and 0.043 ng/mL. Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the surface modifications on the conductive platform (FTO glass). Overall, simple sol-gel chemistry was effective at the biosensing design and the presented approach can be a potential method for screening CEA in point-of-care, due to the simplicity of fabrication, short response time and low cost. PMID:25547969

  2. Colorectal tumors: scintigraphy with In-111 anti-CEA monoclonal antibody and correlation with surgical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Nabi, H.H.; Schwartz, A.N.; Goldfogel, G.; Ortman-Nabi, J.A.; Matsuoka, D.M.; Unger, M.W.; Wechter, D.G.

    1988-03-01

    A prospective clinical study of 17 patients with a histologic diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma proved at colonoscopy and surgery was performed with indium-111 anticarcinoembryonic-antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody (MoAb), ZCE-025. MoAb scanning depicted nine of 16 primary colorectal carcinomas on planar scintigrams (true-positive findings = 56%) and ten of 16 lesions on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans (true-positive findings = 62%). Liver metastases were detected in three of three patients, and lymph node metastases were detected in one of four patients. Immunohistochemical examination for CEA in resected colorectal cancer tissues demonstrated a positive correlation between MoAb imaging of primary lesions and cytoplasmic-stromal intracellular CEA distribution. There was no correlation between CEA serum levels and lesion detectability with MoAb scanning.

  3. Radioimmunoimaging of Liver Metastases with PET Using a 64Cu-Labeled CEA Antibody in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shively, John E.; Boll, Hanne; Brockmann, Marc A.; Doyon, Fabian; Pichler, Bernd J.; Neumaier, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Colorectal cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer, and the development of novel tools for detection and efficient treatment of metastases is needed. One promising approach is the use of radiolabeled antibodies for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and radioimmunotherapy. Since carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an important target in colorectal cancer, the CEA-specific M5A antibody has been extensively studied in subcutaneous xenograft models; however, the M5A antibody has not yet been tested in advanced models of liver metastases. The aim of this study was to investigate the 64Cu-DOTA-labeled M5A antibody using PET in mice bearing CEA-positive liver metastases. Procedures Mice were injected intrasplenically with CEA-positive C15A.3 or CEA-negative MC38 cells and underwent micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to monitor the development of liver metastases. After metastases were detected, PET/MRI scans were performed with 64Cu-DOTA-labeled M5A antibodies. H&E staining, immunohistology, and autoradiography were performed to confirm the micro-CT and PET/MRI findings. Results PET/MRI showed that M5A uptake was highest in CEA-positive metastases. The %ID/cm3 (16.5%±6.3%) was significantly increased compared to healthy liver tissue (8.6%±0.9%) and to CEA-negative metastases (5.5%±0.6%). The tumor-to-liver ratio of C15A.3 metastases and healthy liver tissue was 1.9±0.7. Autoradiography and immunostaining confirmed the micro-CT and PET/MRI findings. Conclusion We show here that the 64Cu-DOTA-labeled M5A antibody imaged by PET can detect CEA positive liver metastases and is therefore a potential tool for staging cancer, stratifying the patients or radioimmunotherapy. PMID:25226518

  4. L'Aventure du LHC

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  5. Significance of a fall in serum CEA concentration in patients treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy for disseminated colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Mersh, T G; Kemeny, N; Niedzwiecki, D; Shurgot, B; Daly, J M

    1987-01-01

    'Tumour response', defined as clinical or radiological evidence of tumour shrinkage is frequently regarded as an objective of chemotherapy, rather than as a predictor of prolonged survival. This study has assessed whether a fall in the serum CEA concentration after chemotherapy for disseminated colorectal cancer is a predictor of prolonged survival and compared it with tumour response as a predictor of survival. There was a 37% improvement in median survival among patients whose serum CEA concentration fell after chemotherapy (70% of patients treated) compared with patients whose serum CEA did not fall. The use of greater than 25% clinical or radiological tumour shrinkage as a predictor of prolonged survival identified a smaller proportion (36%) of patients in whom there was a 52% prolongation in median survival compared with patients whose tumours shrank less than 25%, or did not shrink. Proportional hazards regression analysis suggested that tumour shrinkage was a stronger predictor of survival. A fall in serum CEA concentration, however, identified a group of patients whose tumours did not shrink, but who had a 27% improvement in median survival compared with those whose tumours did not shrink and whose serum CEA concentration did not fall. Monitoring of the serum CEA during the first two months of treatment appears to provide a sensitive and economical means of identifying those patients whose survival is likely to be prolonged by chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. PMID:3428690

  6. Géodynamique et évolution thermique de la matière organique: exemple du bassin de Qasbat-Tadla, Maroc centralBasin geodynamics and thermal evolution of organic material: example from the Qasbat-Tadla Basin, central Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er-Raïoui, H.; Bouabdelli, M.; Bélayouni, H.; Chellai, H.

    2001-05-01

    Seismic data analysis of the Qasbat-Tadla Basin allows the deciphering of the main tectonic and sedimentary events that characterised the Hercynian orogen and its role in the basin's structural development. The global tectono-sedimentary framework involves structural evolution of an orogenic foreland basin and was the source of rising geotherms in an epizonal metamorphic environment. The complementary effects of these parameters has led to different source rock maturity levels, ranging from oil producing to graphite domains. Different maturity levels result from three distinct structural domains within the basin, each of which exhibit characteristic geodynamic features (tectonic contraints, rate of subsidence, etc.).

  7. Differences and correlation of serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA72-4 in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    YU, JUNXIU; ZHANG, SHUGUANG; ZHAO, BINGBO

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of three biomarkers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 and CA72-4, in combination has been identified to be greater than that of any of the biomarkers considered in isolation in cases of gastric cancer (GC). However, the fundamental cause underlying this phenomenon remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the differences and correlation of these three biomarkers were investigated in patients with GC in order to determine how the three biomarkers in combination work more effectively compared with any of the biomarkers considered alone. The serum levels of CEA, CA19-9 and CA72-4 of 216 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were analyzed on admission to hospital. The differences in positive rates and the serum levels of CEA, CA19-9 and CA72-4 were analyzed using the χ2 test and the non-parametric Wilcoxon two-sample test. Phi (f) correlation analysis was used to study the correlation among the expression (positive or not) levels of CEA, CA19-9 and CA72-4. The correlation among the serum levels of biomarkers was analyzed using Spearman's test. The results demonstrated that the combined positive rate of CEA, CA19-9 and CA72-4 was significantly higher compared with the individual CEA, CA19-9 and CA72-4 positive rates (44.91% vs. 22.69, 18.98 and 22.69%, respectively; all P<0.05). The positive rate of CA19-9 and CA72-4 in the extent of the primary tumor/involvement of regional lymph node/distant metastases (TNM)-III/IV stage subgroup was higher compared with that in the TNM-I/II subgroup (χ2=5.902, P=0.015; χ2=8.009, P=0.005), although not the positive rate of CEA (χ2=0.302, P=0.583). A significant correlation was identified between the expression level of CEA and CA72-4 (f correlation coefficient=0.182; P=0.008) and between that of CA19-9 and CA72-4 (f correlation coefficient=0.189; P=0.006), although not between that of CEA and CA19-9 (f correlation coefficient=0.048; P=0.482) in the total number of patients with GC. A significant correlation was also identified between the serum levels of CEA and CA19-9, of CEA and CA72-4 and of CA19-9 and CA72-4 (Spearman's correlation coefficient=0.231, −0.271 and 0.167; P=0.001, P<0.0001 and P=0.014, respectively). The present study indicated that there was only a weak correlation between the positive rate of CEA and CA72-4 and between that of CA19-9 and CA72-4, and no correlation was identified between the positive rate of CEA and CA19-9, even if a correlation was identified between the serum levels of the biomarkers. The present study suggested that the evidence that the sensitivity of the three biomarkers in combination is greater than that of any of the biomarkers taken in isolation is due to less co-presentation of CEA, CA19-9 and CA72-4 in patients with GC.

  8. AIRIX: an induction accelerator facility developed at CEA for flash radiography in detonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavailler, Claude

    1999-06-01

    AIRIX is an induction linear accelerator which will be used for flash radiography in CEA/DAM. Designed to produce an X-ray dose of more than 500 Rads at 1 meter with an X-ray focal spot size diameter of less than 2 mm (LANL-CEA DAM definition), this facility consists in a 4 MeV/3.5 kA pulsed electron injector and 16 MeV induction accelerator powered by 32 high voltage generators. A prototype of this accelerator, called PIVAIR, has been studied and realized in CEA CESTA near Bordeaux. PIVAIR is a validation step for AIRIX at 8 MeV. It includes an injector (4 MeV, 3.5 kA, 60 ns) and 16 inductor cells supplied by 8 high voltage generators (250 kV, 70 ns). Two different technologies of induction cells have been tested (rexolite insulator or ferrite under vacuum). We have chosen ferrite under vacuum cells technology after comparison of results on beam transport and reliability tests. A focusing experiment at 7.2 MeV of the electron beam as been achieved during summer 1997. We have begun to produce X-rays in October 1997. A dose level of 50 Rad at 1 meter has been achieved with an X-ray spot size diameter of 3.5 to 4 mm (LANL-CEA DAM definition). Static flash radiography of very dense object have been achieved from November 97 until February 98. We have been able to test in situ new kinds of very high sensitive X- ray detectors and to check they had reached our very ambitious goals: (1) quantum efficiency at 5 MeV greater than 50% instead of 1% for luminous screens and film; (2) sensitivity less than 10 (mu) Rad (100 time more sensitive than radiographic luminous screens and films); (3) dynamic range greater than 100; (4) resolution less than 2 mm. We will present in this communication brand new kinds of detection systems, called high stopping power detectors, such as: (1) (gamma) camera with segmented thick crystal of BGO and MCP image intensifier; (2) multistep parallel plate avalanche chamber; (3) pixellized CdTe MeV photoconductor matrix. AIRIX accelerator is being built by THOMSON CSF Company in CEA Moronvilliers near Reims. It is housed in a reinforced concrete bunker and has an overall length of 60 meters. The 20 MeV electron beam will be focused on a 1.5 mm thick Tantalum target to produce an X-ray fluence (flux) of more than 500 Rads one meter from the target. The result is a single radiograph of the device explosion under test with the high stopping power detector located in a blast protection set behind the device. In this communication we will present all these techniques which correspond to a significant effort of CEA begun in 1992. AIRIX facility will be available to run detonics experiments before end of 2000.

  9. Métastases gastro-intestinales du cancer du sein: à propos de 2 cas

    PubMed Central

    Loubna, Mezouar; Mohamed, El Hfid; Tijani, El Harroudi; Fouzia, Ghadouani; Hanane, Haj Kacem; Zouhour, Bourhaleb; Asmae, Ouabdelmoumen

    2013-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, notamment au Maroc, avec un taux de mortalité élevé. Les métastases gastro-intestinales d'un carcinome canalaire du sein sont rares. Leur diagnostic est difficile du fait de la nature non spécifique des symptômes. Nous rapportons deux observations originales de métastases gastroduodénales d'un cancer canalaire infiltrant du sein. Les métastases gastro-intestinales du cancer du sein sont très rares; la présence de symptômes gastro-intestinaux chez une malade ayant un antécédent de cancer du sein doit faire suspecter une atteinte métastatique gastro-intestinale. PMID:24198876

  10. R and D Programs and Policy within the CEA-AREVA Joint Vitrification Lab (LCV) - 13592

    SciTech Connect

    Piroux, Jean Christophe; Paradis, Luc; Ladirat, Christian; Brueziere, Jerome; Chauvin, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Waste management is a key issue for the reprocessing industry; furthermore, vitrification is considered as the reference for nuclear waste management. In order to further improve and strengthen their historical cooperation in high temperature waste management, the CEA, R and D organization, and AREVA, Industrial Operator, decided, in September 2010, to create a Joint Vitrification Laboratory within the framework of a strategic partnership. The main objectives of the CEA-AREVA Joint Vitrification Laboratory (LCV) are (i) support AREVA's activities, notably in its La Hague plants and for new projects, (ii) strengthen the CEA's lead as a reference laboratory in the field of waste conditioning. The LCV is mandated to provide strong, innovative solutions through the performance of R and D on processes and materials for vitrification, fusion and incineration, for high, intermediate and low level waste. The activities carried out in the LCV include academic research on containment matrices (formulation, long-term behaviour), and the improvement of current technologies/development of new ones in lab-scale to full-scale pilot facilities, in non-radioactive and radioactive conditions, including modelling and experimental tools. This paper focuses on the programs and policy managed within the LCV, as well as the means employed by the CEA and AREVA to meet common short-,mid- and long-term challenges, from a scientific and industrial point of view. Among other things, we discuss the technical support provided for the La Hague vitrification facilities on hot melter and CCIM technologies, the start-up of new processes (decommissioning effluents, UMo FP) with CCIM, the preparation of future processes by means of an assessment of new technologies and containment matrices (improved glasses, ceramics, etc.), as well as incineration/vitrification for organic and metallic mixed waste or metallic fusion. The close relationship between the R and D teams and industrial operators enables the LCV to propose attractive waste management solutions, with appropriate schedules and optimized development costs, making allowance for R and D constraints, engineering requirements and the industrial environment. (authors)

  11. Applications attract DuPont

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1996-08-07

    Scientists at DuPont say they have demonstrated the first chemical processing application for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets. DuPont says the work, which uses a HTS magnet to separate mineral contaminants from kaolin, points to the feasibility of a range of HTS applications in industrial processing, including those involving polymerization. DuPont`s success comes after 10 years of work to commercialize high-temperature superconductors. And while superconductors have lost much of their luster since the late 1980s, the company says it is still bullish on their prospects. {open_quotes}At the moment, there`s no real market for superconductors,{close_quotes} says Alan Lauder, general manager/superconductivity. But, he says, several potentially lucrative applications could be commercialized within the next several years.

  12. L'Aventure du LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Cette présentation s?adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l?engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  13. DuPont hikes butanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.D.L.

    1997-05-14

    Butanediol (BDO) and its derivatives continue to be strong, a positive sign for the many companies planning expansions. DuPont - one of only two global producers not planning capacity additions - has announced that it will discontinue all off-schedule pricing for BDO and two important derivatives, tetrahydrofuran (THF) and polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG). DuPont`s list prices are $1.00/lb fob for BDO, about $1.40/lb for THF, and $2.00/lb for PTMEG. The price adjustment is effective this month or as contracts allow.

  14. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yingbo; Sun, Xianfu; He, Yaning; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients. Methods Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed. Results Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9%) and 60(13.9%) patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox’s regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer. Conclusions Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer. PMID:26207909

  15. Aeroacoustics research in Europe: The CEAS-ASC report on 2010 highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs Nagy, Attila

    2011-10-01

    The Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS) Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee (ASC) supports and promotes the interests of the scientific and industrial aeroacoustics community on an European scale and European aeronautics activities internationally. In this context, "aeroacoustics" encompasses all aerospace acoustics and related areas. Each year the committee highlights some of the research and development projects in Europe. This paper is a report on highlights of aeroacoustics research in Europe in 2010, compiled from information provided to the ASC of the CEAS. At the end of 2010, project X-NOISE EV of the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission has been launched as a continuation of the X-Noise series, with objectives of reducing aircraft noise and reaching the goal set by the ACARE 2020 Vision. Some contributions submitted to the editor summarizes selected findings from European projects launched before or concluded in 2010, while other articles cover issues supported by national associations or by industries. Furthermore, a concise summary of the workshop on "Aeroacoustics of High-Speed Aircraft Propellers and Open Rotors" held in Warsaw in October is included in this report. Enquiries concerning all contributions should be addressed to the authors who are given at the end of each subsection.

  16. Plasma studies on electron cyclotron resonance light ion source at CEA/Saclay

    SciTech Connect

    Nyckees, S.; Delferriere, O.; Duperrier, R.; Harrault, F.; Tuske, O.

    2012-02-15

    By the 90s, the CEA has undertaken to develop the production of intense light ion beams from unconfined ECR plasma. Today, three sources for IPHI, SPIRAL2, and IFMIF projects (respectively, 100 mA of H{sup +}, 8 mA of D{sup +}, and 140 mA of D{sup +}) are installed at CEA/Saclay. In order to improve performances and decrease dimensions of these sources, it is necessary to better understand the mechanisms involved in the production and extraction of particles. As a consequence, theoretical and experimental studies are being carried out. We present a theoretical study based on SOLMAXP, a home-made particle-in-cell code. The aim is to investigate the possibility of reducing the plasma chamber size without loss of beam characteristics. This code has been validated by beam intensity measurements on a permanent magnet based source, producing a proton beam of 30 mA at 40 kV on the test bench BETSI. In order to reduce experimentally the dimensions of plasma chamber, a new source, named ALISES with variable plasma chamber volume, is under assembly.

  17. Aeroacoustics research in Europe: The CEAS-ASC report on 2014 highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detandt, Yves

    2015-11-01

    The Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS) Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee (ASC) supports and promotes the interests of the scientific and industrial aeroacoustics community on an European scale and European aeronautics activities internationally. Each year the committee highlights some of the research and development projects in Europe. This paper is the 2014 issue of this collection of Aeroacoustic Highlights, compiled from informations submitted to the CEAS-ASC. The contributions are classified in different topics; the first categories being related to specific aeroacoustic challenges (airframe noise, fan and jet noise, helicopter noise, aircraft interior noise) and two last sections are respectively devoted to recent improvements and emerging techniques and to general advances in aeroacoustics. For each section, the present paper focus on accomplished projects, providing the state of the art in each research category in 2014. A number of research programmes involving aeroacoustics were funded by the European Commission. Some of the highlights from these programmes are summarised in this paper, as well as highlights funded by national programmes or by industry.

  18. Radioimmunoimaging of metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland using an indium-111-labeled monoclonal antibody to CEA

    SciTech Connect

    Edington, H.D.; Watson, C.G.; Levine, G.; Tauxe, W.N.; Yousem, S.A.; Unger, M.; Kowal, C.D.

    1988-12-01

    Elevated levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or calcitonin after surgical therapy for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT) indicate the presence of residual or metastatic disease. CEA elevations appear to be prognostically more reliable in patients with metastatic disease and suggest a more virulent tumor. Attempts to stage the disease with use of conventional imaging techniques are usually inadequate, as is the therapy for disseminated or recurrent MCT. An indium-111-labeled anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (ZCE-025) was used to image metastases in a patient with MCT. Potential applications of monoclonal antibody technology in the management of MCT would include (1) preoperative differentiation of unicentric from multicentric thyroid gland involvement, (2) detection of regional or distant metastases or both, (3) measurement of response to systemic therapy, and (4) the facilitation of radionuclide immunoconjugate therapy.

  19. Improved tumour marker sensitivity in detecting colorectal liver metastases by combined type IV collagen and CEA measurement.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Hanna; Tavelin, Björn; Björklund, Moa; Naredi, Peter; Sund, Malin

    2015-12-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is the best circulating tumour marker for colorectal liver metastasis (CLM) but has suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. Circulating type IV collagen (COLIV) is a new potential CLM marker. Here, COLIV and CEA were measured in patients with resectable CLM. COLIV levels were also related to the type of CLM. The prognostic value of these markers and the type of CLM on survival was evaluated. Preoperative plasma samples (n?=?94) from patients (n?=?85) with CLM undergoing liver resection were used. Seven patients underwent repeated liver resection. Samples from 118 healthy individuals served as control. Samples after liver resection (n?=?27) were analysed and related to recurrence. COLIV and CEA levels were analysed, and the type of CLM was classified using paraffinated tissue. Results were analysed by logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. CLM patients had significantly elevated levels of COLIV compared to controls (p?=?0.001). The sensitivity of COLIV was not better than CEA, but improved sensitivity for detecting CLM was observed with a combination of the two markers compared to using either marker alone (p?=?0.001). Circulating COLIV was elevated in 81 % and CEA in 56 % of CLM patients at diagnosis, and high marker levels were related to poor survival. In follow-up samples (n?=?27), patients with CLM recurrence (n?=?14) had significantly elevated COLIV levels compared to patients without postoperative recurrence (n?=?10) (p?=?0.001). COLIV is a promising tumour marker for CLM and can possibly be used to detect postoperative CLM recurrence. The combination of COLIV and CEA is superior to either marker alone in detecting CLM. PMID:26162539

  20. Clinical significance of joint detection of serum CEA, SCCA, and bFGF in the diagnosis of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Yu, Haixiang; Han, Zhifeng; Gao, Nan; Xue, Jinru; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a type of malignant tumor with highest morbidity and mortality. This study tested three tumor marker levels including CEA, SCCA, and bFGF to explore their value in lung cancer diagnosis and pathological type judgment. Venous blood was extracted from lung cancer patients, lung benign lesion patients and healthy control. Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay was applied to detect serum CEA and SCCA content. ELISA was used to test serum bFGF level. Serum CEA, SCCA, and bFGF levels and positive rates were significantly higher in lung cancer group than that of lung benign disease group and health control (P < 0.05). bFGF showed higher detection sensitivity than CEA in lung cancer (P < 0.05). Three joint detection sensitivity was higher than single test (P < 0.05), while its specificity was lower (P < 0.05), and the accuracy presented no significant difference. Serum CEA and SCCA levels and positive rates were obviously higher in non-small cell lung cancer patients when compared with small cell lung cancer patients (P < 0.05), while bFGF level was similar between small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. bFGF showed higher detection rate than SCCA in small cell lung cancer (P < 0.05). Three joint detection exhibited higher positive rate in small cell lung cancer and non-small lung cancer than single test. Serum CEA, SCCA and bFGF joint detection improved detection sensitivity in lung cancer and had important reference value for pathological type deduction. PMID:26464712

  1. Du Pont Information Flow System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Warren S.

    1972-01-01

    The Information Flow System is a large-scale information retrieval system developed for processing of Du Pont information files. As currently implemented, the system stores and retrieves information on company technical reports. Extensions of the system for handling chemical structure information and on-line processing are also discussed. (3…

  2. Radioimmunodetection of chemodectoma by In-111 labeled anti-CEA antibody. Case report and review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Kairemo, K.J.; Hopsu, E.V. )

    1990-12-01

    The carotid body paraganglioma is a rare tumor that arises from the autonomic nervous chemoreceptor. It can be diagnosed by contrast angiography. A patient in whom a carotid body chemodectoma was imaged with In-111 labeled monoclonal anticarcinoembryonic antigen (anti-CEA) antibodies is described. There was marked accumulation of the antibody into the tumor but little blood pool activity at 25 hours. The removed tumor, which was examined immunohistochemically, was positive for vimentin, GFAP, NF 68, SYP, and S-100; and negative for CEA, desmin, and cytokeratin. The tumor was a paraganglioma that accumulated antibody with nonspecific mechanism of uptake. 29 refs.

  3. Big Data solution for CTBT monitoring: CEA-IDC joint global cross correlation project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Bell, Randy; Brachet, Nicolas; Gaillard, Pierre; Kitov, Ivan; Rozhkov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Waveform cross-correlation when applied to historical datasets of seismic records provides dramatic improvements in detection, location, and magnitude estimation of natural and manmade seismic events. With correlation techniques, the amplitude threshold of signal detection can be reduced globally by a factor of 2 to 3 relative to currently standard beamforming and STA/LTA detector. The gain in sensitivity corresponds to a body wave magnitude reduction by 0.3 to 0.4 units and doubles the number of events meeting high quality requirements (e.g. detected by three and more seismic stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). This gain is crucial for seismic monitoring under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The International Data Centre (IDC) dataset includes more than 450,000 seismic events, tens of millions of raw detections and continuous seismic data from the primary IMS stations since 2000. This high-quality dataset is a natural candidate for an extensive cross correlation study and the basis of further enhancements in monitoring capabilities. Without this historical dataset recorded by the permanent IMS Seismic Network any improvements would not be feasible. However, due to the mismatch between the volume of data and the performance of the standard Information Technology infrastructure, it becomes impossible to process all the data within tolerable elapsed time. To tackle this problem known as "BigData", the CEA/DASE is part of the French project "DataScale". One objective is to reanalyze 10 years of waveform data from the IMS network with the cross-correlation technique thanks to a dedicated High Performance Computer (HPC) infrastructure operated by the Centre de Calcul Recherche et Technologie (CCRT) at the CEA of Bruyères-le-Châtel. Within 2 years we are planning to enhance detection and phase association algorithms (also using machine learning and automatic classification) and process about 30 terabytes of data provided by the IDC to update the world seismicity map. From the new events and those in the IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin, we will automatically create various sets of master event templates that will be used for the event location globally by the CTBTO and CEA.

  4. Automation of Pic du Midi 2-m Telescope Bernard Lyot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie-Cambot, Jean-Marie; Lacassagne, F.; Ambert, P.; Arrotis, J.-M.; Argentin, Y.; Arberet, M.-P.; Chereau, E.; Decha, C.; Delaigue, C.; Guesdon, L.; Laurent-Burguiere, D.; Malbreil, G.

    2011-03-01

    Since 2007, Pic du Midi 2-m Telescope Bernard Lyot is dedicated to spectropolarimetry with a scientific niche in stella magnetism. In parallel, TBL is progressively evolving from an analogic human-controlled telescope, to a fully automated computer controlled digital telescope. This evolution required TBL team to replace all electronics and motors with digital system (parvex, brushless motors, buscan) components, and to integrate the dataflow system from proposal to archiving into a fully coordinates, remote-access software suite. A trained technician can already control remotely the telescope, instrument and science programs from anywhere. Further robotisation will require a high-level expert system to be defined.

  5. Etude de l'affaiblissement du comportement mecanique du pergelisol du au rechauffement climatique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buteau, Sylvie

    Le rechauffement climatique predit pour les prochaines decennies, aura des impacts majeurs sur le pergelisol qui sont tres peu documentes pour l'instant. La presente etude a pour but d'evaluer ces impacts sur les proprietes mecaniques du pergelisol et sa stabilite a long terme. Une nouvelle technique d'essai de penetration au cone a taux de deformation controle, a ete developpee pour caracteriser en place le pergelisol. Ces essais geotechniques et la mesure de differentes proprietes physiques ont ete effectues sur une butte de pergelisol au cours du printemps 2000. Le developpement et l'utilisation d'un modele geothermique 1D tenant compte de la thermodependance du comportement mecanique ont permis d'evaluer que les etendues de pergelisol chaud deviendraient instables a la suite d'un rechauffement de l'ordre de 5°C sur cent ans. En effet, la resistance mecanique du pergelisol diminuera alors rapidement jusqu'a 11,6 MPa, ce qui correspond a une perte relative de 98% de la resistance par rapport a un scenario sans rechauffement.

  6. Detection of CEA in human serum using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy coupled with antibody-modified Au and γ-Fe2O3@Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Xu, Guanhong; Wei, Fangdi; Zhang, Aixia; Yang, Jing; Hu, Qin

    2016-03-20

    In this present work, a rapid and simple method to detect carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was developed by using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) coupled with antibody-modified Au and γ-Fe2O3@Au nanoparticles. First, Au@Raman reporter and γ-Fe2O3@Au were prepared, and then modified with CEA antibody. When CEA was present, the immuno-Au@Raman reporter and immuno-γ-Fe2O3@Au formed a complex through antibody-antigen-antibody interaction. The selective and sensitive detection of CEA could be achieved by SERS after magnetic separation. Under the optimal conditions, a linear relationship was observed between the Raman peak intensity and the concentration of CEA in the range of 1-50ngmL(-1) with an excellent correlation coefficient of 0.9942. The limit of detection based on two times ratio of signal to noise was 0.1ng/mL. The recoveries of CEA standard solution spiked with human serum samples were in the range of 88.5-105.9% with the relative standard deviations less than 17.4%. The method built was applied to the detection of CEA in human serum, and the relative deviations of the analysis results between the present method and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay were all less than 16.6%. The proposed method is practical and has a potential for clinic test of CEA. PMID:26808062

  7. Science and technology research and development in support to ITER and the Broader Approach at CEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bécoulet, A.; Hoang, G. T.; Abiteboul, J.; Achard, J.; Alarcon, T.; Alba-Duran, J.; Allegretti, L.; Allfrey, S.; Amiel, S.; Ané, J. M.; Aniel, T.; Antar, G.; Argouarch, A.; Armitano, A.; Arnaud, J.; Arranger, D.; Artaud, J. F.; Audisio, D.; Aumeunier, M.; Autissier, E.; Azcona, L.; Back, A.; Bahat, A.; Bai, X.; Baiocchi, B.; Balaguer, D.; Balme, S.; Balorin, C.; Barana, O.; Barbier, D.; Barbuti, A.; Basiuk, V.; Baulaigue, O.; Bayetti, P.; Baylard, C.; Beaufils, S.; Beaute, A.; Bécoulet, M.; Bej, Z.; Benkadda, S.; Benoit, F.; Berger-By, G.; Bernard, J. M.; Berne, A.; Bertrand, B.; Bertrand, E.; Beyer, P.; Bigand, A.; Bonhomme, G.; Borel, G.; Boron, A.; Bottereau, C.; Bottollier-Curtet, H.; Bouchand, C.; Bouquey, F.; Bourdelle, C.; Bourg, J.; Bourmaud, S.; Brémond, S.; Bribiesca Argomedo, F.; Brieu, M.; Brun, C.; Bruno, V.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Buravand, Y.; Cai, L.; Cantone, V.; Cantone, B.; Caprin, E.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Castagliolo, A.; Belo, J.; Catherine-Dumont, V.; Caulier, G.; Chaix, J.; Chantant, M.; Chatelier, M.; Chauvin, D.; Chenevois, J.; Chouli, B.; Christin, L.; Ciazynski, D.; Ciraolo, G.; Clairet, F.; Clapier, R.; Cloez, H.; Coatanea-Gouachet, M.; Colas, L.; Colledani, G.; Commin, L.; Coquillat, P.; Corbel, E.; Corre, Y.; Cottet, J.; Cottier, P.; Courtois, X.; Crest, I.; Dachicourt, R.; Dapena Febrer, M.; Daumas, C.; de Esch, H. P. L.; De Gentile, B.; Dechelle, C.; Decker, J.; Decool, P.; Deghaye, V.; Delaplanche, J.; Delchambre-Demoncheaux, E.; Delpech, L.; Desgranges, C.; Devynck, P.; Dias Pereira Bernardo, J.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doceul, L.; Dong, Y.; Douai, D.; Dougnac, H.; Dubuit, N.; Duchateau, J.-L.; Ducobu, L.; Dugue, B.; Dumas, N.; Dumont, R.; Durocher, A.; Durocher, A.; Duthoit, F.; Ekedahl, A.; Elbeze, D.; Escarguel, A.; Escop, J.; Faïsse, F.; Falchetto, G.; Farjon, J.; Faury, M.; Fedorzack, N.; Féjoz, P.; Fenzi, C.; Ferlay, F.; Fiet, P.; Firdaouss, M.; Francisquez, M.; Franel, B.; Frauche, J.; Frauel, Y.; Futtersack, R.; Garbet, X.; Garcia, J.; Gardarein, J.; Gargiulo, L.; Garibaldi, P.; Garin, P.; Garnier, D.; Gauthier, E.; Gaye, O.; Geraud, A.; Gerome, M.; Gervaise, V.; Geynet, M.; Ghendrih, P.; Giacalone, I.; Gibert, S.; Gil, C.; Ginoux, S.; Giovannangelo, L.; Girard, S.; Giruzzi, G.; Goletto, C.; Goncalves, R.; Gonde, R.; Goniche, M.; Goswami, R.; Grand, C.; Grandgirard, V.; Gravil, B.; Grisolia, C.; Gros, G.; Grosman, A.; Guigue, J.; Guilhem, D.; Guillemaut, C.; Guillerminet, B.; Guimaraes Filho, Z.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J. P.; Gurcan, O.; Guzman, F.; Hacquin, S.; Hariri, F.; Hasenbeck, F.; Hatchressian, J. C.; Hennequin, P.; Hernandez, C.; Hertout, P.; Heuraux, S.; Hillairet, J.; Honore, C.; Hornung, G.; Houry, M.; Hunstad, I.; Hutter, T.; Huynh, P.; Icard, V.; Imbeaux, F.; Irishkin, M.; Isoardi, L.; Jacquinot, J.; Jacquot, J.; Jiolat, G.; Joanny, M.; Joffrin, E.; Johner, J.; Joubert, P.; Jourd'Heuil, L.; Jouve, M.; Junique, C.; Keller, D.; Klepper, C.; Kogut, D.; Kubi?, M.; Labassé, F.; Lacroix, B.; Lallier, Y.; Lamaison, V.; Lambert, R.; Larroque, S.; Latu, G.; Lausenaz, Y.; Laviron, C.; Le, R.; Le Luyer, A.; Le Niliot, C.; Le Tonqueze, Y.; Lebourg, P.; Lefevre, T.; Leroux, F.; Letellier, L.; Li, Y.; Lipa, M.; Lister, J.; Litaudon, X.; Liu, F.; Loarer, T.; Lombard, G.; Lotte, P.; Lozano, M.; Lucas, J.; Lütjens, H.; Magaud, P.; Maget, P.; Magne, R.; Mahieu, J.-F.; Maini, P.; Malard, P.; Manenc, L.; Marandet, Y.; Marbach, G.; Marechal, J.-L.; Marfisi, L.; Marle, M.; Martin, C.; Martin, V.; Martin, G.; Martinez, A.; Martino, P.; Masset, R.; Mazon, D.; Mellet, N.; Mercadier, L.; Merle, A.; Meshcheriakov, D.; Messina, P.; Meyer, O.; Millon, L.; Missirlian, M.; Moerel, J.; Molina, D.; Mollard, P.; Moncada, V.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, D.; Moreau, M.; Moreau, P.; Morel, P.; Moriyama, T.; Motassim, Y.; Mougeolle, G.; Moulton, D.; Moureau, G.; Mouyon, D.; Naim Habib, M.; Nardon, E.; Négrier, V.; Nemeth, J.; Nguyen, C.; Nguyen, M.; Nicolas, L.; Nicolas, T.; Nicollet, S.; Nilsson, E.; N'Konga, B.; Noel, F.; Nooman, A.; Norscini, C.; Nouailletas, R.; Oddon, P.; Ohsako, T.; Orain, F.; Ottaviani, M.; Pagano, M.; Palermo, F.; Panayotis, S.; Parrat, H.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Passeron, C.; Pastor, P.; Patterlini, J.; Pavy, K.; Pecquet, A.-L.; Pégourié, B.; Peinturier, C.; Pelletier, T.; Peluso, B.; Petrzilka, V.; Peysson, Y.; Pignoly, E.; Pirola, R.; Pocheau, C.; Poitevin, E.; Poli, V.; Poli, S.; Pompon, F.; Porchy, I.; Portafaix, C.; Preynas, M.; Prochet, P.; Prou, M.; Ratnani, A.; Raulin, D.; Ravenel, N.; Renard, S.; Ricaud, B.; Richou, M.; Ritz, G.; Roche, H.; Roubin, P.; Roux, C.; Ruiz, K.; Sabathier, F.; Sabot, R.; Saille, A.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Sakamoto, R.; Salasca, S.; Salmon, T.; Salmon, T.; Samaille, F.; Sanchez, S.; Santagiustina, A.; Saoutic, B.; Sarazin, Y.; Sardain, P.; Schlosser, J.; Schneider, M.; Schwob, J.; Segui, J.; Seguin, N.; Selig, G.; Serret, D.; Signoret, J.; Signoret, J.; Simonin, A.; Soldaini, M.; Soler, B.; Soltane, C.; Song, S.; Sourbier, F.; Sparagna, J.; Spitz, P.; Spuig, P.; Storelli, A.; Strugarek, A.; Tamain, P.; Tena, M.; Theis, J.; Thomine, O.; Thouvenin, D.; Torre, A.; Toulouse, L.; Travère, J.; Tsitrone, E.; Turck, B.; Urban, J.; Vallet, J.-C.; Vallory, J.; Valognes, A.; Van Helvoirt, J.; Vartanian, S.; Verger, J.-M.; Vermare, L.; Vermare, C.; Vezinet, D.; Vicente, K.; Vidal, J.; Vignal, N.; Vigne, T.; Villecroze, F.; Villedieu, E.; Vincent, B.; Volpe, B.; Volpe, D.; Volpe, R.; Wagrez, J.; Wang, H.; Wauters, T.; Wintersdorff, O.; Wittebol, E.; Zago, B.; Zani, L.; Zarzoso, D.; Zhang, Y.; Zhong, W.; Zou, X. L.

    2013-10-01

    In parallel to the direct contribution to the procurement phase of ITER and Broader Approach, CEA has initiated research & development programmes, accompanied by experiments together with a significant modelling effort, aimed at ensuring robust operation, plasma performance, as well as mitigating the risks of the procurement phase. This overview reports the latest progress in both fusion science and technology including many areas, namely the mitigation of superconducting magnet quenches, disruption-generated runaway electrons, edge-localized modes (ELMs), the development of imaging surveillance, and heating and current drive systems for steady-state operation. The WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamaks) project, turning Tore Supra into an actively cooled W-divertor platform open to the ITER partners and industries, is presented. Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives.

  8. Recent progress on minor-actinide-bearing oxide fuel fabrication at CEA Marcoule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, Florent; Prieur, Damien; Horlait, Denis; Delahaye, Thibaud; Jankowiak, Aurélien; Léorier, Caroline; Jorion, Frédéric; Gavilan, Elisabeth; Desmoulière, François

    2013-07-01

    Partitioning and transmutation (P&T) of minor actinides (MA: americium, neptunium and curium) in fast neutron reactors or accelerator-driven systems is a route envisaged to reduce nuclear waste inventory. Over the years, several modes of P&T were proposed, each being based on the use of dedicated fuels such as inert-matrix fuels, MA-bearing MOX or MA-bearing blankets. In this context, progress on the manufacturing of such fuels is a key-challenge in order to render P&T viable at the industrial scale. Here, MA-bearing oxide fuel fabrication and characterization conducted in the CEA Marcoule Atalante facility is reviewed. A particular attention is also given to the research conducted on uranium-americium mixed-oxides fuels, which are now considered the reference fuels for MA transmutation in France.

  9. CEAS/AIAA/ICASE/NASA Langley International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics 1999. Pt. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Jr., Woodrow (Editor); Todd, Emily N. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings of a workshop sponsored by the Confederation of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Washington, D.C., and the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE), Hampton, Virginia, and held in Williamsburg, Virginia June 22-25, 1999 represent a collection of the latest advances in aeroelasticity and structural dynamics from the world community. Research in the areas of unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity, structural modeling and optimization, active control and adaptive structures, landing dynamics, certification and qualification, and validation testing are highlighted in the collection of papers. The wide range of results will lead to advances in the prediction and control of the structural response of aircraft and spacecraft.

  10. 2010 CRITICALITY ACCIDENT ALARM SYSTEM BENCHMARK EXPERIMENTS AT THE CEA VALDUC SILENE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Dunn, Michael E; Wagner, John C; McMahan, Kimberly L; Authier, Nicolas; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Wolff, Herve; Piot, Jerome; Savanier, Laurence; Baclet, Nathalie; Lee, Yi-kang; Masse, Veronique; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Naury, Sylvie; Lenain, Richard; Hunter, Richard; Kim, Soon; Dulik, George Michael; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    Several experiments were performed at the CEA Valduc SILENE reactor facility, which are intended to be published as evaluated benchmark experiments in the ICSBEP Handbook. These evaluated benchmarks will be useful for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data, particularly those that are used in the analysis of CAASs. During these experiments SILENE was operated in pulsed mode in order to be representative of a criticality accident, which is rare among shielding benchmarks. Measurements of the neutron flux were made with neutron activation foils and measurements of photon doses were made with TLDs. Also unique to these experiments was the presence of several detectors used in actual CAASs, which allowed for the observation of their behavior during an actual critical pulse. This paper presents the preliminary measurement data currently available from these experiments. Also presented are comparisons of preliminary computational results with Scale and TRIPOLI-4 to the preliminary measurement data.

  11. Science and Technology Research and Development in Support to ITER and the Broader Approach at CEA

    SciTech Connect

    Becoulet, A.; Hoang, G T; Abiteboul, J.; Achard, J.; Alarcon, T.; Klepper, C Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In parallel to the direct contribution to the procurement phase of ITER and Broader Approach, CEA has initiated research & development programmes, accompanied by experiments together with a significant modelling effort, aimed at ensuring robust operation, plasma performance, as well as mitigating the risks of the procurement phase. This overview reports the latest progress in both fusion science and technology including many areas, namely the mitigation of superconducting magnet quenches, disruption-generated runaway electrons, edge-localized modes (ELMs), the development of imaging surveillance, and heating and current drive systems for steady-state operation. The WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamaks) project, turning Tore Supra into an actively cooled W-divertor platform open to the ITER partners and industries, is presented.

  12. Evaluation of tumor markers CA-125 and CEA in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Yalta, Kenan; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Turgut, Okan Onur; Erselcan, Taner; Yilmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Karadas, Filiz; Yontar, Can; Tandogan, Izzet

    2006-01-01

    Serum carbohydrate antigen (CA-125) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) have always been of clinical importance in the diagnosis and follow-up of various tumors. This study was devised to investigate the relationship between these tumor markers and acute myocardial infarction (MI). Seventy consecutive cases (59 male patients with a diagnosis of acute ST segment elevation MI and 11 male patients with a diagnosis of non-ST segment elevation MI; mean age, 57+/-8.2 y) were admitted to the University Medical Center and were included in this study as "the patient group." All patients in the patient group underwent transthoracic echocardiographic examination on the third day of hospitalization. On the basis of echocardiographic findings, these 70 patients were grouped according to left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) values; EF <55% (group 1) (n=40) and EF >or=55% (group 2) (n=30). Other parameters, including systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), were also measured on transthoracic echocardiography. Serial blood samples (for follow-up of myocardial enzymes (eg, creatine kinase MB [CKMB], troponin I [TnI], troponin T, and other routine parameters) were drawn from each patient. Serum concentrations of CEA and CA-125 measured at the 72nd hour of hospitalization and peak serum concentrations of CKMB and TnI in the patient group were collected for comparison between subgroups (groups 1 and 2) and with "the control group," which included 30 subjects (mean age, 54+/-7.6 y) with no history or evidence of overt cardiac disease and with normal echocardiographic findings. The presence of any condition characterized by potential elevations in CA-125, CEA, and myocardial enzymes (CKMB, TnI) was considered an exclusion criterion. Patients included in patient groups 1 and 2 differed significantly in terms of mean EF, mean sPAP, mean mPAP, and mean CA-125 values (P<.001 for CA-125; P<.05 for the other values). EF was found to be negatively correlated with sPAP (r=-0.692, P=.000) and mPAP (r=-0.393, P=.001). EF was also negatively correlated with CA-125 (r=-0.557, P=.000). A positive correlation was noted between CA-125 and sPAP (r=0.396, P=.001) and between CA-125 and mPAP (r=0.754, P=.000). A statistically significant difference was identified between the patient and control groups with regard to values for EF, PAP, CA-125, and myocardial enzymes (CKMB and TnI) (P<.05 for mPAP; P<.001 for the other values). The serum concentration of CA-125, but not of CEA, may be elevated in those with acute MI compared with normal subjects. Regardless of the presence of pulmonary hypertension, elevations in CA-125 during myocardial infarction were significantly correlated with the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction on transthoracic echocardiography. PMID:17276972

  13. Evaluation of the CEAS model for barley yields in North Dakota and Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, T. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The CEAS yield model is based upon multiple regression analysis at the CRD and state levels. For the historical time series, yield is regressed on a set of variables derived from monthly mean temperature and monthly precipitation. Technological trend is represented by piecewise linear and/or quadriatic functions of year. Indicators of yield reliability obtained from a ten-year bootstrap test (1970-79) demonstrated that biases are small and performance as indicated by the root mean square errors are acceptable for intended application, however, model response for individual years particularly unusual years, is not very reliable and shows some large errors. The model is objective, adequate, timely, simple and not costly. It considers scientific knowledge on a broad scale but not in detail, and does not provide a good current measure of modeled yield reliability.

  14. 3-month GPS subsidence analysis in North Sea, ELF/CEA-LDG interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Flouzat, M.; Fourmaintraux, D.; Maury, V.; Halle, G.

    1996-12-31

    The authors process and analyze 3 months of continuous GPS offshore data provided by the operator from 10 single-frequency stations in the Ekofisk field in the north Sea for subsidence monitoring. This analysis is done using the Differential-GPS automatic software and method developed by the EAP/CEA-LDG. The mean subsidence rates obtained by the EAP/CEA method shows, over these three months, a maximum rate at the center of the subsidence of about 30 mm/month bowl in agreement with previous determinations. The accuracy of the results can be improved by smoothing techniques. However, the noise is still directly related to the distance between the monitored point and the reference points. For instance, the daily averages lead to an accuracy (root mean squares = r.m.s) of 1.1, 1.4 and 2.4 mm for the East, North and Vertical components of the movements for a 2 km baseline and 1.8, 3.7 and 3.8 mm for the East, North and Vertical components for a 24 km baseline. The choice of the best reference points in the network is discussed. Horizontal measurements are simultaneously detected and may be due either to platform tilt or to sea-bed horizontal movements. A further analysis (the 2-hours method) indicate that the noise in the results has a periodic daily structure. In addition, results from previous calibration experiments are used in the method to test the result quality, processed data interpretation.

  15. Levels of CEA, CA153, CA199, CA724 and AFP in nipple discharge of breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Song; Mei, Yu; Wang, Yongmei; Zhu, Jiang; Zheng, Guixi; Ma, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between breast cancer and benign breast diseases with nipple discharge remains an important diagnostic challenge. The purpose of this study was to predict the potential usefulness of tumor markers in nipple discharge and to investigate the relationship of tumor markers and clinical characteristics with breast cancer.One hundred and eleven patients with nipple discharge received breast surgery from November 2013 to December 2014 were included in the study. We evaluated levels of five tumor markers (CEA, CA153, CA199, CA724 and AFP) prior to treatment. Patients were divided into two groups according to postoperative pathological results: 30 cases in breast cancer group and 81 cases in benign group. The relationships of clinical characteristics with breast cancer were investigated by multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model.It showed significant differences in levels of nipple discharge CEA (P < 0.001) and CA153 (P = 0.014), but not CA199 (P = 0.856), CA724 (P = 0.171), AFP (P = 0.834) among two groups. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated complaint, age, menopause, abnormal palpable mass, CEA and CA153 were associated with breast cancer. In summary, measurements of CA199, CA724 and AFP in nipple discharge are not of great clinical value. Detecting CEA and CA153 in nipple dischargecould potentially be used for the early detection of breast cancer with in high-risk populations. PMID:26885008

  16. Prognostic value of serum CYFRA21-1 and CEA for non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Han, Yun-Wei; Liang, Hui; Wang, Le-Min

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the clinical prognostic value of serum cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Literatures related to effects of serum CYFRA21-1 and CEA on the prognosis of lung cancer patients were retrieved from databases such as PubMed, Springer Link, Embase, Wanfang, and CNKI. Meta-analysis was carried out using RevMan 5.1 software. Ten literatures involving 1990 NSCLC patients were selected in this study. Total survive estimation merging hazard ratio (HR) in all NSCLC patients with high-level serum CYFRA21-1 was 1.64 (95% CI 1.46-1.84, P < 0.001) and that in all NSCLC patients with high level serum CEA was 1.46 (95% CI 1.28-1.65, P < 0.001). Serum CYFRA21-1 and CEA can be used as prognostic factors of NSCLC patients. Combinative detection of the two indices will be more reliable. PMID:26333429

  17. "C.-E.A. Winslow and the early years of public health at Yale, 1915-1925".

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    C.-E.A. Winslow was the first chairman of the Department of Public Health at the Yale University School of Medicine. This paper considers the development and changing agenda of his department, the structure of Yale University, and the maturation of public health as a discipline. Winslow's successes and failures are discussed as they relate to Yale and external societal influences. PMID:6753362

  18. Prognostic value of serum CYFRA21-1 and CEA for non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Han, Yun-Wei; Liang, Hui; Wang, Le-Min

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the clinical prognostic value of serum cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Literatures related to effects of serum CYFRA21-1 and CEA on the prognosis of lung cancer patients were retrieved from databases such as PubMed, Springer Link, Embase, Wanfang, and CNKI. Meta-analysis was carried out using RevMan 5.1 software. Ten literatures involving 1990 NSCLC patients were selected in this study. Total survive estimation merging hazard ratio (HR) in all NSCLC patients with high-level serum CYFRA21-1 was 1.64 (95% CI 1.46–1.84, P < 0.001) and that in all NSCLC patients with high level serum CEA was 1.46 (95% CI 1.28–1.65, P < 0.001). Serum CYFRA21-1 and CEA can be used as prognostic factors of NSCLC patients. Combinative detection of the two indices will be more reliable. PMID:26333429

  19. Bispecific Adapter-Mediated Retargeting of a Receptor-Restricted HSV-1 Vector to CEA-Bearing Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Hyunjung; Uchida, Hiroaki; Jun, Kyungok; Kim, Jae-Hong; Kuroki, Masahide; Cohen, Justus B; Glorioso, Joseph C; Kwon, Heechung

    2011-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of viral therapies for solid tumors can be enhanced by redirecting the virus infection to tumor-specific cell-surface markers. Successful retargeting of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been achieved using vectors that carry a modified envelope glycoprotein D (gD) engineered to interact directly with novel receptors. In addition, soluble bridging molecules (adapters) have been used to link gD indirectly to cell-specific receptors. Here, we describe the development of an adapter connecting gD to the common tumor antigen carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The adapter consisted of a CEA-specific single-chain antibody fused to the gD-binding region of the gD receptor, herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM). We used this adapter in combination with a vector that is detargeted for recognition of the widely expressed gD receptor nectin-1, but retains an intact binding region for the less common HVEM. We show that the adapter enabled infection of HSV-resistant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing ectopic CEA and nectin-1/CEA-bearing human gastric carcinoma cells that are resistant to the vector alone. We observed cell-to-cell spread following adapter-mediated infection in vitro and reduced tumor growth in vivo, indicating that this method of vector retargeting may provide a novel strategy for tumor-specific delivery of tumoricidal HSV. PMID:20924362

  20. HLA-A*0201-restricted CEA-derived peptide CAP1 is not a suitable target for T-cell-based immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fauquembergue, Emilie; Toutirais, Olivier; Tougeron, David; Drouet, Aurélie; Le Gallo, Matthieu; Desille, Mireille; Cabillic, Florian; de La Pintière, Cécile Thomas; Iero, Manuela; Rivoltini, Licia; Baert-Desurmont, Stéphanie; Leprince, Jérôme; Vaudry, Hubert; Sesboué, Richard; Frébourg, Thierry; Latouche, Jean-Baptiste; Catros, Véronique

    2010-05-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a potential target for antigen-specific immunotherapy, as it is frequently overexpressed in human carcinomas. Moreover, an epitope derived from CEA, designated CAP1 (YLSGANLNL), has been proposed as naturally processed and presented by tumors in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201 context. Our aim was to fully characterize and assess the clinical relevance of the HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against CEA. Stable and potent artificial antigen presenting cells (AAPCs) were used to evaluate T-cell response against CEA. These cells efficiently activate CTLs against tumor-derived epitopes after transduction with the antigenic peptides or full-length proteins. We found that AAPCs genetically modified to express CAP1, the agonist peptide CAP1-6D, or the whole CEA protein were not able to activate CAP1-specific CTLs from HLA-A*0201+ healthy donors or patients with colorectal carcinoma, even after multiple stimulations. In addition, we showed that a CAP1-specific T-cell clone, obtained after multiple stimulations of T cells of a HLA-A*0201+ healthy donor in vitro with autologous antigen presenting cells, recognized CEA(-) HLA-A*0201+ tumors transduced with a minigene encoding CAP1 but failed to react against HLA-A*0201+ tumor cells expressing CEA. Finally, AAPCs expressing the whole CEA protein did not induce any specific CTL response against CEA+ HLA-A*0201+ tumor cells highlighting the potential difficulty of mounting an efficacious T-cell response against this autoantigen. Altogether, our data indicate that CAP1 is not efficiently processed and presented by CEA+ tumor cells, and therefore, is not an appropriate target for T-cell-based immunotherapy. PMID:20386466

  1. Prévalence du portage asymptomatique du plasmodium chez les donneurs bénévoles de sang à Kisangani, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Bassandja, Jacques Ossinga; Agasa, Salomon Batina; Likwela, Joris Losimba

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le paludisme transfusionnel est une réalité en Afrique Sub-saharienne, en raison des transfusions sanguines répétées, peu ou non contrôlées et où les donneurs sont en majorité potentiellement porteurs d'hématozoaires. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la prévalence du portage asymptomatique du plasmodium chez les donneurs bénévoles de sang à Kisangani. Méthodes Une étude transversale a été menée au Centre Provincial de Transfusion Sanguine à Kisangani du 1er Décembre 2012 au 31 Mars 2013 et a concerné 480 donneurs bénévoles de sang. Résultats La prévalence du portage asymptomatique du plasmodium chez les donneurs bénévoles de sang était de 28,3%. Plasmodium falciparum était l'espèce la plus répandue (96,3%). Près de la moitié des donneurs avait une parasitémie supérieure à 2000 parasites/µl. Les facteurs qui étaient significativement associés à la parasitémie étaient le jeune âge, le 1er don, et la non utilisation de la moustiquaire imprégnée d'insecticide à longue durée (MILD). Conclusion Les résultats de cette étude montrent que la prévalence du portage asymptomatique du plasmodium chez les donneurs bénévoles de sang était élevée, constituant ainsi un risque important de transmission du parasite aux receveurs souvent en mauvais état général. Cependant, l'utilisation de la MILD et la fidélisation des donneurs bénévoles semblent constituer des moyens utiles de réduction du risque de portage asymptomatique du Plasmodium. Une sensibilisation et éventuellement des distributions ciblées de MILD aux donneurs, en particuliers les plus jeunes, pourraient réduire considérablement le portage du Plasmodium parmi les donneurs de sang et ainsi réduire le risque de paludisme transfusionnel. PMID:25328616

  2. Étude du comportement électrique du fusible aux fréquences élevées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, S.; Rael, S.; Schaeffer, Ch.; Sarrus, F.

    1997-04-01

    Nowadays, the development of power semiconductors has made that fuses used for their protection have to be improved. The high working frequency of IGBT leads to a modification of fuse characteristics. For high frequencies, it may occur a bad working due to an unequal current distribution between two fuses in parallel, or even between fuse's elements. The result is that fuse operates at below rated current. This unexpected operation can be attributed to proximity effects which are consequences of electromagnetic laws between close conductors. To prevent such a failure, their current rating must be reduced as a function of frequency and distance between the fuselink and other conductors (e.g. the return conductor). L'évolution des interrupteurs semi-conducteurs de puissance est telle que les fusibles assurant leur protection ont dû eux aussi se développer. Ainsi, la fréquence de travail élevée de ces composants peut entraîner des modifications des caractéristiques du fusible. À haute fréquence, il peut apparaître un dysfonctionnement dû à une mauvaise répartition des courants entre des fusibles en parallèle ou même entre les différentes lames en parallèle constituant un fusible. Le résultat est alors une ouverture du fusible pour un courant inférieur à la valeur spécifiée par le constructeur. Ce dysfonctionnement peut être attribué aux phénomènes d'effets de proximité direct et inverse qui s'exercent sur plusieurs conducteurs proches. Pour éviter une ouverture intempestive, il est nécessaire de réduire le calibre du fusible en fonction de la fréquence et de la proximité d'autres conducteurs (par exemple le conducteur de retour).

  3. Binding of insecticidal lectin Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) to midgut receptors of Bemisia tabaci and Lipaphis erysimi provides clues to its insecticidal potential.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amit; Gupta, Sumanti; Hess, Daniel; Das, Kali Pada; Das, Sampa

    2014-07-01

    The insecticidal potential of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin-related lectins against hemipterans has been experimentally proven. However, the basis behind the toxicity of these lectins against hemipterans remains elusive. The present study elucidates the molecular basis behind insecticidal efficacy of Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) against Bemisia tabaci and Lipaphis erysimi. Confocal microscopic analyses highlighted the binding of 25 kDa stable homodimeric lectin to insect midgut. Ligand blots followed by LC MS/MS analyses identified binding partners of CEA as vacuolar ATP synthase and sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum type Ca(2+) ATPase from B. tabaci, and ATP synthase, heat shock protein 70 and clathrin heavy chain assembly protein from L. erysimi. Internalization of CEA into hemolymph was confirmed by Western blotting. Glycoprotein nature of the receptors was identified through glycospecific staining. Deglycosylation assay indicated the interaction of CEA with its receptors to be probably glycan mediated. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed the interaction kinetics between ATP synthase of B. tabaci with CEA. Pathway prediction study based on Drosophila homologs suggested the interaction of CEA with insect receptors that probably led to disruption of cellular processes causing growth retardation and loss of fecundity of target insects. Thus, the present findings strengthen our current understanding of the entomotoxic potentiality of CEA, which will facilitate its future biotechnological applications. PMID:24753494

  4. The Nobel trail of Vincent du Vigneaud.

    PubMed

    Ragnarsson, Ulf

    2007-07-01

    The Nobel Prize for chemistry of 1955 was awarded to Vincent du Vigneaud. After a brief outline of his career and accomplishments, some archive material related to this decision of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is presented. Other archive studies have shown that du Vigneaud was also considered for the corresponding prize in physiology or medicine. PMID:17554806

  5. BETSI, a new test bench for ion sources optimization at CEA SACLAYa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuske, O.; Adroit, G.; Delferrière, O.; De Menezes, D.; Gauthier, Y.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.

    2008-02-01

    In the framework of several International HPPA projects (such as IFMIF, IPHI, and Spiral2) the CEA handles the design and the developments of several electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. For the IFMIF EVEDA demonstrator, a 140mA cw extracted deuteron beam will be required for high yield of neutron production. For radioactive ion production in the Spiral2 project, several milliamperes of deuterons will be delivered with a permanent magnet source. The optimization of the beam quality at the entrance of the radio frequency quadropole (RFQ) accelerator system triggered the need of a new test bench for ion source optimization and beam qualification. The BETSI ion source test bench will operate up to 50kV and ignite cw or pulsed hydrogen plasma with a 2.45GHz magnetron. Great care has already been taken to design electrostatic optics of the extraction system to minimize the emittance growth. Plasma diagnostics will be inserted in the source chamber and several beam diagnostics (emittance and current measurements, beam species analysis) will also be implemented on the low energy beam line transport (LEBT). These diagnostics allow the simultaneous analysis of the beam quality with the plasma parameters of the source. Regional funding request will also be needed to improve the LEBT for space charge compensation measurements. The design of the present and upgraded test bench will be reported as well as the first extracted beam analysis.

  6. Training and Certification Program for Certified Energy Auditors (CEA) and Certified Building Commissioning Professionals (CBCP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Bill

    2012-08-24

    The Association of Energy Engineers (AEE) has offered energy efficiency training and certification programs for over 30 years. During that time AEE has certified more than 22,000 professionals. All of our certification programs are the result of extensive industry research and program development and oversight by certification boards. For this project award, AEE proposed to work with the Department of Energy to utilize and extend existing industry recognized Certified Energy Auditor (CEA) and Certified Building Commissioning Professional (CBCP) programs under this Training Program Development Announcement. These expanded training programs will have significant impact in training professionals for building commissioning and energy auditing to achieve the goal of bringing existing buildings up to their optimal energy performance potential and ensuring that new buildings maintain their expected optimal level of performance. The goals and objectives of the training development project were achieved with the development of new training programs that are now being offered as self-sustaining commercial training and certification programs. These new programs are training and certifying professionals who are accomplishing the goal of increasing building energy performance in both existing and new buildings.

  7. A Review of 25 Years of Corrosion Studies on HLW Container Materials at the CEA

    SciTech Connect

    Helie, Max

    2007-07-01

    The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA, French Atomic Energy Commission) has been involved in researches on nuclear waste management for more than 25 years. One of the key issues is the prediction of the long term behavior and aging of the High Level Waste (HLW) containers in order to develop concepts that will ensure the confinement of the activity over extremely long periods of time. Preliminary studies were carried out on two concepts, one of a thin 'corrosion resistant' container made of titanium or nickel base alloy, and the other on a thick 'corrosion allowance' container made or carbon steel. The results of these experiments showed that the 'corrosion resistant' concept led to a high uncertainty on the development and propagation rate of localized forms of corrosion, and the concept of geological disposal in an argillaceous host formation of thick waste containers made of carbon steel was chosen as the reference for further studies. This eventually led to the voting of a law relative to nuclear waste management on June 28 2006, which endorses the geological disposal of corrosion allowance containers as the reference solution, while stating than an effort must be kept on the research on actinides transmutation to reduce the time during which a geological disposal facility has to be proven capable to ensure the confinement of the radioactive waste. Studies are still in progress to better assess the corrosion mechanisms relevant to this situation in order to provide reliable models for the long term prediction of the containers corrosion behavior. (author)

  8. The 400W at 1.8K Test Facility at CEA-Grenoble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, P.; Girard, A.; Jager, B.; Rousset, B.; Bonnay, P.; Millet, F.; Gully, P.

    2006-04-01

    A new test facility with a cooling capacity respectively of 400W at 1.8K or 800W at 4.5K, is now under nominal operation in SBT (Low Temperature Department) at CEA Grenoble. It has been recently used for thermohydraulic studies of two phase superfluid helium in autumn 2004. In the near future, this test bench will allow: - to test industrial components at 1.8K (magnets, cavities of accelerators) - to continue the present studies on thermohydraulics of two phase superfluid helium - to develop and simulate new cooling loops for ITER Cryogenics, and other applications such as high Reynolds number flows This new facility consists of a cold box connected to a warm compressor station (one subatmospheric oil ring pump in series with two screw compressors). The cold box, designed by AIR LIQUIDE, comprises two centrifugal cold compressors, a cold turbine, a wet piston expander, counter flow heat exchangers and two phase separators at 4.5K and 1.8K. The new facility uses a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) connected to a bus for the measurements. The design is modular and will allow the use of saturated fluid flow (two phase flow at 1.8K or 4.5K) or single phase fluid forced flow. Experimental results and cooling capacity in different operation modes are detailed.

  9. New developments under consideration at the CEA for criticality accident detection

    SciTech Connect

    Barbry, F.; Prigent, R.

    1986-01-01

    In spite of precautions to prevent criticality accidents from occurring in fuel cycle installations, there is nevertheless some very low probability of risk that remains. In this eventuality, and because the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is involved in the vast French electronuclear program which includes reprocessing, a sustained effort by safety authorities has been devoted to accident study problems and particularly to criticality accidents, to be able to give optimum warning time to operators, order evacuation of personnel, and to set up an intervention strategy in the shortest time possible. The CRAC and SILENE experimental facilities in the 1970s defined a new generation of criticality accident detection systems known as EDAC, manufactured and sold by the French Intertechnique Company. Now, in light of the two main conclusions resulting from these test programs, namely, the difficulty of defining a standard accident and the fact that it is impossible to establish a dose/fission number ratio, the detection system in service at present corresponds to the following essential physical criteria: 1. It is capable of covering all accident kinetics. 2. The sensors used give a total dose response in neutrons and gammas.

  10. Light ion source for proton?deuteron production at CEA Saclay for the Spiral2 project.

    PubMed

    Tuske, O; Adroit, G; Delferrière, O; Denis, J-F; Gauthier, Y; Girardot, P; Gobin, R; Harrault, F; Graehling, P; Guiho, P; Hosselet, J; Maazouzi, C; Sauce, Y; Uriot, D; Vacher, T; Van Hille, C

    2012-02-01

    The production of rare radioactive ion beam (RIB) far from the valley of stability is one of the final purposes of the Spiral2 facility in Caen. The RIB will be produced by impinging a deuteron beam onto a carbon sample to produce a high neutron flux, which will interact with a uranium target. The primary deuteron beam is produced by an ion source based on ECR plasma generation. The deuteron source and the low energy beam transport (LEBT) has been assembled and tested at CEA Saclay. Diagnostics from other laboratories were implemented on the LEBT in order to characterize the deuteron beam produced and compare it to the initial simulations. The ion source has been based on a SILHI-type source, which has demonstrated good performances in pulsed and continuous mode, and also a very good reliability on long term operation. The 5 mA of deuteron beam required at the RFQ entrance is extracted from the plasma source at the energy of 40 kV. After a brief description of the experimental set-up, this article reports on the first beam characterization experiments. PMID:22380163

  11. Synthesis of cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads as immunosensing probes for the detection of AFP, CEA and PSA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zifeng; Liu, Na; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang

    2015-08-15

    A double-water-in-oil-emulsion procedure was designed to synthesize cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads less than 200n m diameter under mild conditions. The cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads can be activated to immobilize biomacromolecules and can directly produce distinctive electrochemical signals. Using the novel alginate nanobeads labeled with antibodies as electrochemical probes, a sandwich-type immunosensor was constructed using AFP, CEA and PSA as model analytes. This proposed immunosensor shows wide linear range with detection limits of 0.01, 0.0086 and 0.0075 ng mL(-1) for AFP, CEA and PSA, respectively. Analysis of clinical serum samples using this immunosensor was well consistent with the data determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It suggested that the alginate nanobeads electrochemical probes could be generally extended to other multiple analytes detection. PMID:25797848

  12. Computed tomography of pulmonary changes in rheumatoid arthritis: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a marker of airway disease.

    PubMed

    Koch, Milene Caroline; Pereira, Ivânio Alves; Nobre, Luiz Felipe Souza; Neves, Fabricio Souza

    2016-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) classically affects the joints, but can present extra-articular manifestations, including pulmonary disease. The present study aimed to identify possible risk factors or laboratory markers for lung involvement in RA, particularly the presence of rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA), and tumor markers, by correlating them with changes observed on chest high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT). This cross-sectional study involved RA patients who were examined and questioned by a specialist physician and later subjected to chest HRCT and blood collection for measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), ACPA (anti-vimentin and/or anti-CCP3), and the tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 125, CA 15-3, and CA 19-9. A total of 96 patients underwent chest HRCT. The most frequent findings were bronchial thickening (27/28.1 %) and bronchiectasis (25/26 %). RF was present in 63.2 % of patients (55/87), and ACPA (anti-vimentin or anti-CCP3) was present in 72.7 % of patients (64/88). CEA levels were high in 14 non-smokers (37.8 %) and 23 smokers (62.2 %). CA-19-9 levels were high in 6 of 86 patients (7.0 %), CA 15-3 levels were high in 3 of 85 patients (3.5 %), and CA 125 levels were high in 4 of 75 patients (5.3 %). Multivariate analysis indicated a statistically significant association between high CEA levels and the presence of airway changes in patients with RA (p = 0.048). CEA can serve as a predictor of lung disease in RA and can help identify individuals who require more detailed examination for the presence of respiratory disorders. PMID:26886389

  13. CEA, SCC and NSE levels in exhaled breath condensate--possible markers for early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yingchang; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Cong; Hu, Yanjie; Xu, Shan; Ying, Kejing; Wang, Ping; Chen, Xing

    2013-12-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death. The sensitive and non-invasive diagnostic tools in the early stage are still poor. We present a pilot study on the early diagnosis of LC by detecting markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). EBC samples were collected from 105 patients with LC and 56 healthy controls. We applied chemiluminescence immunoassay to detect CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen), SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) antigen and NSE (neuron specific enolase) in EBC and serum. Concentrations of markers were compared between independent groups and subgroups. A significantly higher concentration level of each marker was found in patients with LC than healthy controls. The areas under curve of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were 0.800, 0.771, 0.659, 0.679, 0.636 and 0.626 for EBC-CEA, serum-CEA, EBC-SCC, serum-SCC, EBC-NSE and serum-NSE, respectively. Markers in EBC had a higher positive rate (PR) and were more specific to histologic types than markers in serum. In addition, multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the association of presenting markers with the stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EBC-CEA showed the best predictive characteristic (p < 0.006) of early-NSCLC. Our study suggested that tumor markers in EBC may have a better diagnostic performance for LC than those in serum. With further investigation on the combination of markers in EBC, detection of EBC could probably be a novel and non-invasive method to detect NSCLC earlier. PMID:24185583

  14. Design of potent, non-toxic anticancer peptides based on the structure of the antimicrobial peptide, temporin-1CEa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing-Zhu; Wang, Che; Lang, Lei; Zhou, Yang; Wang, He; Shang, De-Jing

    2013-11-01

    Recent advances in the search for novel anticancer agents have indicated that the positively charged antimicrobial peptides have emerged as promising agents offering several advantages over the conventional anticancer drugs. As a naturally occurring, cationic, α-helical antimicrobial peptide, temproin-1CEa has been proved to exhibit a potent anticancer effect and a moderate hemolytic activity. In order to reduce the hemolytic activity of temporin-1CEa and improve its anticancer potency towards a range of human breast cancer cells, in the present study, six analogs of temporin-1CEa were rationally designed and synthesized. The amphipathicity levels and α-helical structural patterns of peptides were reserved, while their cationic property and hydrophobicity were changed. The results of MTT and hemolysis assay indicated that the analog peptides displayed an improved anticancer activity and showed an overall optimized therapeutic index. The hydrophobicity of peptides was positively correlated with their hemolytic and antitumor activities. Moreover, the data suggest a strategy of increasing the cationicity while maintaining the moderate hydrophobicity of naturally occurring amphipathic α-helical peptides to generate analogs with improved cytotoxicity against tumor cells but decreased activity against non-neoplastic cells such as human erythrocytes. This work highlights the potential for rational design and synthesis of improved antimicrobial peptides that have the capability to be used therapeutically for treatment of cancers. PMID:23609760

  15. Comparison of CEAS and Williams-type models for spring wheat yields in North Dakota and Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, T. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The CEAS and Williams-type yield models are both based on multiple regression analysis of historical time series data at CRD level. The CEAS model develops a separate relation for each CRD; the Williams-type model pools CRD data to regional level (groups of similar CRDs). Basic variables considered in the analyses are USDA yield, monthly mean temperature, monthly precipitation, and variables derived from these. The Williams-type model also used soil texture and topographic information. Technological trend is represented in both by piecewise linear functions of year. Indicators of yield reliability obtained from a ten-year bootstrap test of each model (1970-1979) demonstrate that the models are very similar in performance in all respects. Both models are about equally objective, adequate, timely, simple, and inexpensive. Both consider scientific knowledge on a broad scale but not in detail. Neither provides a good current measure of modeled yield reliability. The CEAS model is considered very slightly preferable for AgRISTARS applications.

  16. Le troisième coefficient du viriel du gaz de Bose unitaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castin, Yvan; Werner, Félix

    2013-05-01

    By unitary Bose gas we mean a system composed of spinless bosons with s-wave interaction of infinite scattering length and almost negligible (real or effective) range. Experiments are currently trying to realize it with cold atoms. From the analytic solution of the three-body problem in a harmonic potential, and using methods previously developed for fermions, we determine the third cumulant (or cluster integral) b_3 and the third virial coefficient a_3 of this gas, in the spatially homogeneous case, as a function of its temperature and the three-body parameter R_t characterizing the Efimov effect. A key point is that, converting series into integrals (by an inverse residue method), and using an unexpected small parameter (the three-boson mass angle nu=pi/6), one can push the full analytical estimate of b_3 and a_3 up to an error that is in practice negligible. ----- Nous entendons par gaz de Bose unitaire un systeme compose de bosons sans spin interagissant dans l'onde s par un potentiel de longueur de diffusion infinie et de portee (reelle ou effective) presque negligeable, systeme pour l'instant abstrait mais dont la tentative de realisation avec des atomes froids est en cours. A partir de la solution analytique connue du probleme a trois corps dans un piege harmonique, et de methodes precedemment developpees pour des fermions, nous determinons le troisieme cumulant b_3, puis le troisieme coefficient du viriel a_3 de ce gaz, dans le cas spatialement homogene, en fonction de sa temperature et du parametre a trois corps R_t caracterisant l'effet Efimov. Un point marquant est qu'en convertissant des series en des integrales (par une methode des residus inverse), puis en utilisant un petit parametre inattendu, l'angle de masse nu=pi/6 des trois bosons, on peut pousser l'estimation completement analytique de b_3 et de a_3 jusqu'a une erreur en pratique negligeable.

  17. Approche de prise en charge du trouble du spectre de l’autisme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick F.; Thomas, Roger E.; Lee, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Se pencher sur les critères diagnostiques du trouble du spectre de l’autisme (TSA) comme les définit le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, cinquième édition (DSM-V), et concevoir une approche de prise en charge du TSA à l’aide du cadre CanMEDS–Médecine familiale (CanMEDS-MF). Sources d’information Le DSM-V, publié par l’American Psychiatric Association en mai 2013, énonce de nouveaux critères diagnostiques du TSA. Le cadre CanMEDS-MF du Collège des médecins de famille du Canada fournit un plan d’orientation pour la prise en charge complexe du TSA. Nous avons utilisé des données recueillies par le Centers for Disease Control and Prevention afin de déterminer la prévalence du TSA, ainsi que la revue systématique et méta-analyse détaillée effectuée par le National Institute for Health and Care Excellence du R.-U. pour ses lignes directrices sur le TSA dans le but d’évaluer les données probantes issues de plus de 100 interventions. Message principal Selon les données du Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, la prévalence du TSA se chiffrait à 1 sur 88 en 2008 aux États-Unis. La classification du TSA dans la quatrième édition du DSM incluait l’autisme, le syndrome d’Asperger, le trouble envahissant du développement et le trouble désintégratif de l’enfance. La dernière révision du DSM-V réunit tous ces troubles sous la mention TSA, avec différents niveaux de sévérité. La prise en charge du TSA est complexe; elle exige les efforts d’une équipe multidisciplinaire ainsi que des soins continus. Les rôles CanMEDS-MF fournissent un cadre de prise en charge. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont au cœur de l’équipe de soins multidisciplinaire pour le TSA, et le cadre CanMEDS-MF tient lieu de plan détaillé pour guider la prise en charge d’un enfant atteint de TSA et aider la famille de cet enfant.

  18. World heritage site - Bien du Patrimoine Mondial - Kluane/Wrangell-St. Elias/Glacier Bay/Tatshenshini-Alsek

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labay, Keith A.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2004-01-01

    The four parks depicted on this map make up a single World Heritage Site that covers 24.3 million acres. Together, they comprise the largest internationally protected land-based ecosystem on the planet. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) established the World Heritage Program in 1972 for the identification and protection of the world?s irreplaceable natural and cultural resources. World Heritage Sites are important as storehouses of memory and evolution, as anchors for sustainable tourism and community, and as laboratories for the study and understanding of the earth and culture. This World Heritage Site protects the prominent mountain ranges of Kluane, Wrangell, Saint Elias, and Chugach. It includes many of the tallest peaks on the continent, the world's largest non-polar icefield, extensive glaciers, vital watersheds, and expanses of dramatic wilderness. [Les quatre parcs figurant sur cette carte ne constituent qu?un seul site du patrimoine mondial recouvrant plus de 99 millions de km2, ce qui en fait le plus grand ecosysteme terrestre protege par loi internationale. En 1972, L?UNESCO (l?organisation des Nations Unies pour les sciences, l'education et la culture) a etabli le programme du patrimoine mondial afin d?identifier et de proteger les ressources naturelles et culturelles irremplacables de notre plan?te. Si les sites du patrimoine mondial sont si importants c'est parce qu'ils representent a la fois des livres ouverts sur l?histoire de la Terre, le point de depart du tourisme durable et du developpement des collectivites, des laboratoires pour etudier et comprendre la nature et la culture. Ce site du patrimoine mondial assure la protection des chaines de montagnes de Kluane, Wrangell, Saint Elias, et Chugach. On y trouve plusieurs des plus hauts sommets du continent, le plus grand champ de glace non-polaire du monde, d?immenses glaciers, des bassins hydrologiques essentiels, et de la nature sauvage a perte de vue.

  19. Liver myeloid-derived suppressor cells expand in response to liver metastases in mice and inhibit the anti-tumor efficacy of anti-CEA CAR-T.

    PubMed

    Burga, Rachel A; Thorn, Mitchell; Point, Gary R; Guha, Prajna; Nguyen, Cang T; Licata, Lauren A; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Ayala, Alfred; Joseph Espat, N; Junghans, Richard P; Katz, Steven C

    2015-07-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cell (CAR-T) technology, a promising immunotherapeutic tool, has not been applied specifically to treat liver metastases (LM). While CAR-T delivery to LM can be optimized by regional intrahepatic infusion, we propose that liver CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (L-MDSC) will inhibit the efficacy of CAR-T in the intrahepatic space. We studied anti-CEA CAR-T in a murine model of CEA+ LM and identified mechanisms through which L-MDSC expand and inhibit CAR-T function. We established CEA+ LM in mice and studied purified L-MDSC and responses to treatment with intrahepatic anti-CEA CAR-T infusions. L-MDSC expanded threefold in response to LM, and their expansion was dependent on GM-CSF, which was produced by tumor cells. L-MDSC utilized PD-L1 to suppress anti-tumor responses through engagement of PD-1 on CAR-T. GM-CSF, in cooperation with STAT3, promoted L-MDSC PD-L1 expression. CAR-T efficacy was rescued when mice received CAR-T in combination with MDSC depletion, GM-CSF neutralization to prevent MDSC expansion, or PD-L1 blockade. As L-MDSC suppressed anti-CEA CAR-T, infusion of anti-CEA CAR-T in tandem with agents targeting L-MDSC is a rational strategy for future clinical trials. PMID:25850344

  20. Les plaies du tendon patellaire

    PubMed Central

    Mechchat, Atif; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Mardy, Abdelhak; Elayoubi, Abdelghni; Shimi, Mohammed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Les plaies du tendon patellaire sont peu fréquentes et sont peu rapportés dans la littérature, contrairement aux ruptures sous cutanées. Les sections du tendon patellaire nécessitent une réparation immédiate afin de rétablir l'appareil extenseur et de permettre une récupération fonctionnelle précoce. A travers ce travail rétrospectif sur 13 cas, nous analysons les aspects épidémiologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de ce type de pathologie en comparant différents scores. L’âge moyen est de 25 ans avec une prédominance masculine. Les étiologies sont dominées par les accidents de la voie publique (68%) et les agressions par agent tranchant (26%) et contendant (6 %). Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d'un parage chirurgical avec suture tendineuse direct protégée par un laçage au fils d'aciers en légère flexion. La rééducation est débutée après sédation des phénomènes inflammatoires. Au dernier recul les résultats sont excellents et bon à 92%. Nous n'avons pas noté de différence de force musculaire et d'amplitude articulaire entre le genou sain et le genou lésé. Les lésions ouvertes du tendon patellaire est relativement rare. La prise en charge chirurgicale rapide donne des résultats assez satisfaisants. La réparation est généralement renforcée par un semi-tendineux, synthétique ou métallique en forme de cadre de renfort pour faciliter la réadaptation et réduire le risque de récidive après la fin de l'immobilisation. PMID:25170379

  1. Variete Technique du Lambeau Sural dans les Brulures Profondes du Pied

    PubMed Central

    Ezzoubi, M.; Ettalbi, S.; Elmounjid, S.; Fassi, J.; Benchamckha, F.J.; Sakhi, M.; Boukind, E.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Les couvertures des pertes de substance de la jambe, du talon et du pied font souvent appel au lambeau sural, qui reste, de part ses dimensions, une indication limitée. Les Auteurs présentent, à travers deux cas cliniques, une variété technique pour la levée du lambeau sural, permettant d'obtenir des palettes cutanées de grande surface avec une bonne sécurité vasculaire. C'est un lambeau fasciocutané remontant jusqu'à un centimètre du creux poplité et incluant, lors de la levée, l'aponévrose, le nerf sural, la petite veine saphène et le nerf sural latéral. PMID:21990988

  2. Tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique : à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Zizi, Mohamed; Ziouziou, Imad; El Yacoubi, Souhail; Khmou, Mouna; Jahid, Ahmed; Mahassini, Najat; Karmouni, Tariq; El Khader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Iben Attya

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Les tumeurs du sac vitellin du testicule sont rares chez l’adulte. Ces tumeurs se caractérisent par un mauvais pronostic à un stade métastatique avancé. Cependant, nous rapportons, dans le présent article, le cas clinique d’un adulte de 32 ans qui présentait une tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique. Ce patient a subi une orchidectomie haute, accompagnée de quatre cycles de chimiothérapie à base de bléomycine, d’étoposide et de cisplatine. Il a répondu complètement au traitement, moyennant un recul de deux ans. PMID:25295144

  3. La cosmologie de Kant dans l'Histoire générale de la Nature et théorie du ciel (1755).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidengart, J.

    In his scientifical works Newton was not in position to solve the cosmological problems without calling on the help of God's Providence: for instance, the structure of the universe, its stability, the problem of its origin, of its process of formation, of its evolution. For the first time in the history of astronomy, Kant's Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens (1755) conceived correctly the structure of our Galaxy, and then developped the famous theory of "Island Universes". In the second part of this article the author gives a survey of the nebular hypothesis developped by Kant 40 years before Laplace's Exposition du système du Monde.

  4. [About the Baume du commandeur].

    PubMed

    Labrude, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    The Baume du commandeur appears in Franch in 1694 in the Histoire générale des drogues [...] written by Pomet. It's a vulnerary drug with also numerous internal uses. Still present in formularies and sometimes used, its invention is attributed to Gaspard de Pernes, commander of Malta Order in Toul, in France. However, some observations induce us to think that the origin of this drug would be in eastern countries: first one of its other names, baume persique, secondly the name of a comparable other formula baume des Turcs, then the geographical origin of the majority of plants and drugs constituting the initially published formula, finally the appurtenance of G. de Pernes to Malta Order. Unfortunately, the transmissions, modifications and improvements of the formula since its beginning make today very difficult to discover the localization and dating of the creation of this famous drug. PMID:12378713

  5. Kyste épidermoïde du testicule : Étude de cas

    PubMed Central

    Diarra, Alkadri; Elammari, Jalal Eddine; Kassogue, Amadou; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, My Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Le kyste épidermoïde (KE) du testicule est une tumeur bénigne rare. Le diagnostic peut être évoqué par l’échographie et l’IRM. En cas de lésion unique de petite taille, il est possible d’effectuer une chirurgie conservatrice. Ce traitement nécessite une confirmation anatomopathologique. Le présent article fait état de l’observation d’un patient de 34 ans ayant été admis en consultation d’urologie pour désir d’enfant. Le diagnostic de KE associé à une varicocèle gauche a été retenu. L’énucléation du kyste avec cure de varicocèle a été réalisée sans complications postopératoires. Une revue de la littérature nous a permis de mettre en évidence les différents aspects du KE du testicule et les méthodes thérapeutiques envisageables. PMID:24282476

  6. Learning about Cri du Chat Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chat syndrome - also known as 5p- syndrome and cat cry syndrome - is a rare genetic condition that ... du chat syndrome usually include a high-pitched cat-like cry, mental retardation, delayed development, distinctive facial ...

  7. Evaluation of serum CEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA125 for the early detection of colorectal cancer using longitudinal preclinical samples

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D S; Fourkala, E-O; Apostolidou, S; Gunu, R; Ryan, A; Jacobs, I; Menon, U; Alderton, W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Timms, J F

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blood-borne biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) could markedly increase screening uptake. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CYFRA21-1 and CA125 for the early detection of CRC in an asymptomatic cohort. Methods: This nested case–control study within UKCTOCS used 381 serial serum samples from 40 women subsequently diagnosed with CRC, 20 women subsequently diagnosed with benign disease and 40 matched non-cancer controls with three to four samples per subject taken annually up to 4 years before diagnosis. CEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA125 were measured using validated assays and performance of markers evaluated for different pre-diagnosis time groups. Results: CEA levels increased towards diagnosis in a third of all cases (half of late-stage cases), whereas longitudinal profiles were static in both benign and non-cancer controls. At a threshold of >5?ng?ml?1 the sensitivities for detecting CRC up to 1 and 4 years before clinical presentation were 25% and 13%, respectively, at 95% specificity. At a threshold of >2.5?ng?ml?1, sensitivities were 57.5% and 38.4%, respectively, with specificities of 81% and 83.5%. CYFRA21-1 and CA125 had no utility as screening markers and did not enhance CEA performance when used in combination. CEA gave average lead times of 17–24 months for test-positive cases. Conclusions: CEA is elevated in a significant proportion of individuals with preclinical CRC, but would not be useful alone as a screening tool. This work sets a baseline from which to develop panels of biomarkers which combine CEA for improved early detection of CRC. PMID:26035703

  8. Prise en charge du cancer du col utérin durant la grossesse: à propos de 05 cas

    PubMed Central

    El Mazghi, Abderrahman; Bouhafa, Touria; Loukili, Kaoutar; El Kacemi, Hanan; Lalya, Issam; Hassouni, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    L'association d'un cancer du col utérin avec une grossesse est une éventualité rare. Son incidence est assez mal évaluée, elle se situe selon les études entre 1 et 2/10 000. Lorsque la découverte en est faite, il faut conjuguer deux impératifs parfois totalement divergents: le traitement de la mère et la prise en charge du foetus. Cette association pose schématiquement quatre grands problèmes, qui sont: Celui du diagnostic, qui est loin d’être évident, compte tenu des remaniements cervicaux observés en début de gestation, le pronostic de l'affection, la date du traitement chirurgical et du délai entre le diagnostic et la prise en charge thérapeutique, enfin et de manière plus accessoire, le devenir de la grossesse et le mode d'accouchement. Nous rapportons une série de 5 cas de cancer du col utérin découverts au cours de la grossesse colligés dans notre service entre 2010 et 2013. La prise en charge thérapeutique est identique à celle des patientes en dehors de la grossesse même si quelques adaptations sont nécessaires du fait de l’état gravide, le pronostic du cancer ne semble pas être modifié par la grossesse. PMID:25852788

  9. Use of limitations of radiolabeled anti-CEA antibodies and their fragments for photoscanning detection of human colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Mach, J P; Forni, M; Ritschard, J; Buchegger, F; Carrel, S; Widgren, S; Donath, A; Alberto, P

    1980-08-01

    Fifty-three patients with histologically proven carcinoma were injected with highly purified [131I]-labeled goat antibodies or fragments of antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Each patient was tested by external photoscanning 4, 24, 36 and 48 h after injection. In 22 patients (16 of 38 injected with intact antibodies, 5 of 13 with F(ab')2 fragments and 1 of 2 with Fab' fragments), an increased concentration of 131I radioactivity corresponding to the previously known tumor location was detected by photoscanning 36-48 h after injection. Blood pool and secreted radioactivity was determined in all patients by injecting 15 min before scanning, [99mTc]-labeled normal serum albumin and free 99mTc04-. The computerized subtraction of 99mTc from 131I radioactivity enhanced the definition of tumor localization in the 22 positive patients. However, in spite of the computerized subtraction, interpretation of the scans remained doubtful for 12 patients and was entirely negative for 19 additional patients. In order to provide a more objective evaluation for the specificity of the tumor localization of antibodies, 14 patients scheduled for tumor resection were injected simultaneously with [131I]-labeled antibodies or fragments and with [125I]-labeled normal goat IgG or fragments. After surgery, the radioactivity of the two isotopes present either in tumor or adjacent normal tissues was measured in a dual channel scintillation counter. The results showed that the antibodies or their fragments were 2-4 times more concentrated in the tumor than in the normal tissues. In addition, it was shown that the injected antibodies formed immune complexes with circulating CEA and that the amount of immune complexes detectable in serum was roughly proportional to the level of circulating CEA. PMID:7279698

  10. Biokinetics and dosimetry of depleted uranium (DU) in rats implanted with DU fragments.

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, Ray A.; Hahn, Fletcher F.; Durbin, P. W.

    2004-01-01

    A number of U. S. veterans of the Persian Gulf War were wounded with depleted uranium (DU) metal fragments as a result of 'friendly fire' incidents, in which Abrams tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles were struck by DU anti-armor munitions. Some of the crew members who survived were left with multiple small fragments of DU in their muscles and soft tissues. The number, size and location of the fragments made them inoperable in general, and therefore subject to long-term retention. Because there was inadequate data to predict the potential carcinogenicity of DU fragments in soft tissues, Hahn et al. (2003) conducted a lifespan cancer study in rats. As part of that study, a number of rats were maintained to study the biokinetics and dosimetry of DU implanted intramuscularly in male Wistar rats. Typically, four metal fragments, either as cylindrical pellets or square wafers were implanted into the biceps femoris muscles of the rats. Urine samples were collected periodically during their lifespans, and DU was analyzed in kidneys and eviscerated carcass (minus the implant sites) at death. The daily DU urinary excretion rate increased steeply during the first 30 d after implantation peaking at about 90 d at 3-10 x 10{sup -3}%/d. During the first 150 d, the average excretion rate was 2.4 x 10{sup -3}%/d, decreasing thereafter to about 1 x 10{sup -3}%/d. Serial radiographs were made of the wound sites to monitor gross morphologic changes in the DU implant and the surrounding tissue. As early as 1 w after implantation, radiographs showed the presence of surface corrosion and small, dense bodies near the original implant, presumably DU. This corrosion from the surface of the implant continued with time, but did not result in an increasing amount of DU reaching the blood and urine after the first 3 mo. During this 3-mo period, connective tissue capsules formed around the implants, and are hypothesized to have reduced the access of DU to tissue fluids by limiting the diffusion rate of dissolved chemical forms of DU. Using a model of wound-site retention being developed by a committee of the U.S. National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), it was found that the average retention of DU in the wound site could be described by a two-component exponential function in which 0.5% of the DU was retained with a half time of 80 d and the remainder with a half time of about 300 y.

  11. [The value of poly-C-specific serum ribonuclease and CEA in the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hölbling, N; Funovics, J; Euler, J; Karner, J; Zöch, G; Sauermann, G

    1981-11-01

    The possible role of poly(C)RNase serum activity and CEA serum level for early detection and differentiation of pancreatic carcinoma and its specificity and valuability were critically analyzed: Serum RNase (median, min-max) with polycytidin as substrate was determined in 13 "normal" patients (14.6 E/ml, 4.3--29.8 E/ml), 16 patients with pancreatic cancer (T3 or metastases) (17.6 E/ml, 6--49-9 E/ml), 15 patients with chronic pancreatitis (9.5 E/ml, 4.9--26.5 E/ml), 7 patients with acute pancreatitis (14.2 E/ml, 5.5--67.3 ng/ml), and 13 patients with other types of malignomas (15 E/ml, 4.3--42.5 E/ml). Serum CEA level was evaluated in 18 "normal" patients (1.15 ng/ml, 0--4.3 ng/ml), 12 patients with pancreatic carcinoma (T3 or metastases) (6.5 mg/ml, 2--456.5 ng/ml), 13 patients with chronic pancreatitis (2.3 ng/ml, 0--8.5 ng/ml), 8 patients with acute pancreatitis (2.7 ng/ml, 0.1--4.6 ng/ml) and 5 patients without operative verification of suspected pancreatic carcinoma (0.9 ng/ml, 0--1.7 ng/ml). The serum RNase activity in pancreatic cancer patients did not show any significant increase in comparison to the other groups, and these patients could not be distinguished from those with the other diseases when excluding other factors influencing serum RNase level such as: Renal insufficiency, nutrition, age, sex. Their CEA level was significantly higher in comparison to the other groups (p less than 0.05). Using 2.5 ng/ml as the limit, the sensitivity was found to be 80% (10/12 of pancreatic carcinomas positive) and the specificity being 70.5% (31/44 of other groups without malignant diseases negative). The presented study and data in the literature show that poly (C) RNase measurement is not useful in early detection of pancreatic carcinoma, but the CEA test could be helpful in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic diseases due to its specificity (70.5%) and seems to be valuable in detection of residual and in monitoring for recurrent pancreatic carcinoma in view of its sensitivity and correlation with the stage of cancer. PMID:7311390

  12. Sandia National Laboratories results for the 2010 criticality accident dosimetry exercise, at the CALIBAN reactor, CEA Valduc France.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Dann C.

    2011-09-01

    This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and presents PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study held 20-23 September, 2010, at CEA Valduc, France. SNL PNADs were exposed in two separate irradiations from the CALIBAN reactor. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -15% to +0.4% with an average bias of -7.7%. PNADs were also exposed on the back side of phantoms to assess orientation effects.

  13. Research at the CEA in the field of safety in 2nd and 3rd generation light water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billot, Philippe

    2012-05-01

    The research programs at the CEA in the field of safety in nuclear reactors are carried out in a framework of international partnerships. Their purpose is to develop studies on: The methods allowing for the determination of earthquake hazards and their consequences; The behaviour of fuel in an accident situation; The comprehension of deflagration and detonation phenomena of hydrogen and the search for effective prevention methods involving an explosion risk; The cooling of corium in order to stop its progression in and outside the vessel thereby reducing the risk of perforating the basemat; The behaviour of the different fission product families according to their volatility for the UO2 and MOX fuels.

  14. Pru du 2S albumin or Pru du vicilin?

    PubMed

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

    2015-06-01

    A short partial sequence of 28 amino acids is all the information we have so far about the putative allergen 2S albumin from almond. The aim of this work was to analyze this information using mainly bioinformatics tools, in order to verify its rightness. Based on the results reported in the paper describing this allergen from almond, we analyzed the original data of amino acids sequencing through available software. The degree of homology of the almond 12kDa protein with any other known 2S albumin appears to be much lower than the one reported in the paper that firstly described it. In a publicly available cDNA library we discovered an expressed sequence tag which translation generates a protein that perfectly matches both of the sequencing outputs described in the same paper. A further analysis indicated that the latter protein seems to belong to the vicilin superfamily rather than to the prolamin one. The fact that also vicilins are seed storage proteins known to be highly allergenic would explain the IgE reactivity originally observed. Based on our observations we suggest that the IgE reactive 12kDa protein from almond currently known as Pru du 2S albumin is in reality the cleaved N-terminal region of a 7S vicilin like protein. PMID:25854802

  15. Combustible caramel pour reacteurs de recherche: Experience acquise en fabrication, controles et irradiation du coeur d'osiris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Contenson, Ghislain; Foulquier, Henri; Trotabas, Maria; Vignesoult, Nicole; Cerles, Jean-Marie; Delafosse, Jacques

    1982-04-01

    L'un des aboutissements des différentes actions menées en France concernant la conception, la fabrication et le développement des combustibles nucléaires a été la mise au point par le CEA d'un combustible de type plaque (combustible CARAMEL) susceptible d'être adapté a différentes catégories de réacteurs à eau (réacteur de puissance, propulsion navale, chauffage urbain, pile de recherche). Ces travaux ont été couronnés par la réalisation de tout un coeur et des recharges du réacteur de recherche à hautes performances, Osiris, à Saclay. L'ancien combustible en alliage U Al fortement enrichi a eté remplacé par un combustible caramel de faible enrichissement (7%), non proliférant. Ce nouveau coeur fonctionne avec satisfaction, depuis janvier 1980. Après une brève description des caractéristiques du combustible caramel et de ses principaux avantages, on présente sa fabrication ainsi que l'ensemble des contrôles de qualité auxquels il est soumis. Le programme de qualification ainsi que les principaux résultáts qui en ont été tirés sont exposés. On décrit également le programme de suivi du combustible en pile dont le but est de s'assurer du bon comportement du combustible sous irradiation. Le bon fonctionnement d'Osiris, qui a terminé 11 cycles d'irradiation le 21 avril 1981, a permis de montrer le bien fondé des choix effectués et l'excellent comportement de l'élément combustible dans les conditions pourtant sévères d'un réacteur de recherche à hautes performances.

  16. Cirque du Monde as a health intervention

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Cynthia; Drouin, Mélodie-Anne; Marcoux, Jérémie; Garel, Patricia; Bochud, Emmanuel; Théberge, Julie; Aubertin, Patrice; Favreau, Gil; Fleet, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present Cirque du Soleil’s social circus program, Cirque du Monde, to explore its potential as a primary health care tool for family physicians. Data sources A review of the literature in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, LaPresse, Eureka, Google Scholar, and Érudit using the key words circus, social circus, Cirque du Monde, and Cirque du Soleil; a Montreal-based initiative, Espace Transition, modeled on Cirque du Monde; and personal communication with Cirque du Soleil’s Social Circus Training Advisor. Study selection The first 50 articles or websites identified for each key word in each of the databases were examined on the basis of their titles and abstracts in the case of articles, and on the basis of their titles and page content in the case of websites. Articles and websites that explored an aspect of social circuses or that described an intervention that involved circuses were then retained for analysis. Because all literature on social circuses was searched, no criterion for year of publication was used. Synthesis No articles on the social circus as a health intervention were found. One study on the use of the circus as an intervention in schools was identified. It demonstrated an increase in self-esteem in the children who took part. One study on the use of the circus in a First Nations community was found; it contained nonspecific, qualitative findings. The other articles identified were merely descriptions of social circuses. One website was identified on the use of the social circus to help youth who had been treated in a hospital setting for major psychiatric disorders to re-enter the community. The team in the pediatric psychiatry department at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, the children’s hospital in Montreal, Que, was contacted; they were leading this project, called Espace Transition. The unpublished preliminary findings of its pilot project demonstrate substantial improvements in overall patient functioning. According to Cirque du Soleil, there are several projects under way around the world researching the therapeutic value of social circuses. Conclusion Cirque du Monde is able to reach a marginalized population that is otherwise difficult for the health system to reach. This program has therapeutic potential because of its target population, its promotion of healthy habits, and the support that it offers through the group and its workers. Cirque du Soleil is investing heavily in this project. The lack of literature yielding robust data on the social circus is therefore an important issue. PMID:25392449

  17. Neutron Activation and Thermoluminescent Detector Responses to a Bare Pulse of the CEA Valduc SILENE Critical Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Celik, Cihangir; McMahan, Kimberly L.; Lee, Yi-kang; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Authier, Nicolas; Piot, Jerome; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2015-09-01

    This benchmark experiment was conducted as a joint venture between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Staff at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the US and the Centre de Valduc in France planned this experiment. The experiment was conducted on October 11, 2010 in the SILENE critical assembly facility at Valduc. Several other organizations contributed to this experiment and the subsequent evaluation, including CEA Saclay, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC), Babcock International Group in the United Kingdom, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this experiment was to measure neutron activation and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) doses from a source similar to a fissile solution critical excursion. The resulting benchmark can be used for validation of computer codes and nuclear data libraries as required when performing analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). A secondary goal of this experiment was to qualitatively test performance of two CAAS detectors similar to those currently and formerly in use in some US DOE facilities. The detectors tested were the CIDAS MkX and the Rocky Flats NCD-91. These detectors were being evaluated to determine whether they would alarm, so they were not expected to generate benchmark quality data.

  18. A sensitive label-free amperometric CEA immunosensor based on graphene-nafion nanocomposite film as an enhanced sensing platform.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yang, Wei-Kang; Fan, Man-Qi; Liu, Ao

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach to fabricate a label-free amperometric immunosensor for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was described. Herein, methylene blue (MB), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carcinoembryonic antibody (anti-CEA) were layer-by-layer assembled on the graphene-Nafion nanocomposite film-modified electrode by means of a self-assembling technique and the opposite-charged adsorption. Subsequently, the stepwise self-assembling procedure of the immunosensor was further characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The factors influencing the performance of the resulting immunosensor were studied in detail. The developed procedure showed improved features, including larger amount and higher immunoactivity of the immobilized antibody and repeatable regeneration of the sensor, as well as direct, rapid and simple determination for the antigen without multiple separation and labeling steps. The immunosensor could detect the target protein in a range of 0.5 to 120 ng/mL with a limit of 0.17 ng/mL (at 3?). Finally, the immunosensing system was evaluated on several clinical samples. Analytical results were found to be in satisfactory agreement with those detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, indicating that this new method was a promising alternative tool for clinical diagnosis. PMID:21747181

  19. Résultats du traitement du synovialosarcome des members

    PubMed Central

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Ismail, Farid; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les synovialosarcomes, sarcomes de haut grade, sont de diagnostic tardif et le traitement est complexe et onéreux, nécessitant la mise en œuvre d'une équipe pluridisciplinaire. Le but de ce travail était d'apprécier les résultats de l'association de la chirurgie à la radio chimiothérapie des synovialosarcomes des membres. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective portant sur des patients présentant de synovialosarcomes des membres pris en charge dans le service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologique du CHU Ibn SINA de Rabat allant de Janvier 2006 à Décembre 2011 (6 ans). Nous avons inclus les malades présentant de synovialosarcomes des membres dont la clinique et l'imagerie médicale étaient en faveur, confirmés par l'examen anatomopathologique et la prise en charge effectuée dans le service. Les patients ont été revus avec un recul moyen de 3 ans. Nous n'avons pas retenu les patients dont les dossiers étaient incomplets, perdus de vue. Nous avons apprécié les résultats selon les critères carcinologiques et le score MSTS (Musculoskeletal Tumor Society). La saisie et l'analyse des données ont été faites sur le logiciel SPSS Stastic 17.0 Nous avons colligé 20 cas de synovialosarcome des membres dans le Service de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique au CHU Ibn SINA de Rabat Le sexe masculin a prédominé avec 65% (n = 13) avec un sex ratio 1,85. L’âge moyen a été de 42,6 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 20 ans et 70 ans. Notre délai moyen de consultation était de 14,42 mois. Tous les malades ont consulté pour une tuméfaction dans 100% (localisée au membre inférieur dans 65% (n = 13), membre supérieur dans 35% (n = 7). La douleur était associée à la tuméfaction dans 55% (n = 11), quant à l'altération de l’état général et l'ulcération de la masse, elles ont été notées dans 3 cas chacune. Nous avons réalisé un bilan d'imagerie médicale comprenant: radiographie standard, échographie, écho doppler (dans certaines situations), radiographie pulmonaire, la TDM pulmonaire et l'IRM. Les dimensions de la masse ont varié de 3 à 30 cm avec une moyenne de 8,25 cm. La TDM thoracique a révélé 5 cas de métastases pulmonaires. La numération formule sanguine réalisée dans le cadre du bilan préopératoire a montré une anémie dans 4 cas. L'examen anatomopathologique a mis en évidence dans 13 cas (67%) de synovialosarcome biphasique et 7 cas de monophasique avec 15 cas de grade III et 5 cas de grade II selon la FNLCC. Nous avons effectué un traitement conservateur dans 12 cas (60%) avec 9 cas de R0 et 3 cas de R1, et radical dans 8 cas (amputation, désarticulation). Cette chirurgie a été associée dans certains cas à la chimiothérapie et ou radiothérapie. Cependant il a été noté quelques complications: 1 cas de collection postopératoire, 1 cas de radionécrose, 5 cas de métastases pulmonaires, 3 cas de récidive tumorale et 3 cas de décès. Les résultats carcinologiques étaient R0 dans 85% (n = 17) et R1 dans 15% (n = 3) et les résultats fonctionnels avec un recul moyen de 3 ans selon MSTS (70%) étaient satisfaisants dans 55% (n = 11). Le synovialosarcome est une tumeur d’évolution imprévisible dont le diagnostic mal aisé. La prise en charge multidisciplinaire doit être précoce afin d'améliorer le pronostic. Le traitement carcinologique est souvent difficile à obtenir au prix de sacrifice d’éléments nobles et la chirurgie réparatrice laborieuse. Le traitement radical permet d'améliorer la qualité de vie du patient associé à la radiothérapie et chimiothérapie adjuvantes. PMID:25574319

  20. Les succédanés du sucre durant la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’ai une patiente enceinte qui consomme souvent des succédanés du sucre et elle m’a demandé si cette pratique continue pouvait nuire à sa grossesse ou à son enfant. Que devrais-je lui répondre et existe-t-il d’autres meilleurs choix durant la grossesse? Réponse Il faudrait faire plus de recherche pour déterminer plus exactement les effets de l’exposition aux succédanés du sucre in utero, mais les données disponibles ne laissent pas présager d’effets indésirables durant la grossesse. Toutefois, il est recommandé de consommer des substituts du sucre en quantités modérées et de se conformer aux doses journalières admissibles établies par les organismes de règlementation.

  1. Brain metastasis development and poor survival associated with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Central nervous system is a common site of metastasis in NSCLC and confers worse prognosis and quality of life. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of clinical-pathological factors (CPF), serum CEA levels, and EGFR and HER2 tissue-expression in brain metastasis (BM) and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced NSCLC. Methods In a prospective manner, we studied 293 patients with NSCLC in IIIB-IV clinical stage. They received standard chemotherapy. CEA was measured prior to treatment; EGFR and HER2 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. BM development was confirmed by MRI in symptomatic patients. Results BM developed in 27, and 32% of patients at 1 and 2 years of diagnosis with adenocarcinoma (RR 5.2; 95% CI, 1.002–29; p = 0.05) and CEA ? 40 ng/mL (RR 11.4; 95% CI, 1.7–74; p < 0.01) as independent associated factors. EGFR and HER2 were not statistically significant. Masculine gender (RR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.002–1.9; p = 0.048), poor performance status (RR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5–2.3; p = 0.002), advanced clinical stage (RR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.02–2; p = 0.04), CEA ? 40 ng/mL (RR 1.5; 95% CI, 1.09–2.2; p = 0.014) and EGFR expression (RR 1.6; 95% CI, 1.4–1.9; p = 0.012) were independent associated factors to worse OS. Conclusion High CEA serum level is a risk factor for BM development and is associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced NSCLC. Surface expression of CEA in tumor cells could be the physiopathological mechanism for invasion to CNS. PMID:19386089

  2. Combined detection of preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 improve prognostic prediction of surgically treated colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingtao; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Fudong; Chen, Jian; Zhao, Senlin; Zhang, Dongyuan; Yu, Yang; Liu, Xisheng; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the prognostic significance of preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and carbohydrate antigen 242 (CA242) levels in surgically treated colorectal cancer patients. The relationship of preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 levels with disease characteristics was investigated in 310 patients. Correlation between tumor markers was investigated using Pearson correlation test. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were used to study the relationship between preoperative tumor markers and prognosis [disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS)]. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log rank test was used to assess the impact of tumor marker levels on survival. Positive rate of preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 were 54.84%, 47.42% and 37.10%, respectively. High preoperative CEA level was associated with tumor size (P = 0.038), T stage (P < 0.001) and AJCC stage (P = 0.002). High preoperative CA19-9 level was associated with tumor AJCC stage (P = 0.023). Preoperative CA242 positively correlated with CEA (P < 0.001) and CA19-9 (P < 0.001). Combining the three markers was of independent prognostic value in CRC (HR = 2.532, 95% CI: 1.400-4.579, P = 0.002 for OS; and HR = 2.366, 95% CI: 1.334-4.196, P = 0.003 for DFS). Combined detection of preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 is of independent prognostic value for management of CRC patients treated surgically. PMID:26823815

  3. Imaging of a parapharyngeal hemangiopericytoma. Radioimmunoscintigraphy (SPECT) with indium-111-labeled anti-CEA antibody, and comparison to digital subtraction angiography, computed tomography, and immunohistochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Kairemo, K.J.; Hopsu, E.V.; Melartin, E.J.; Heikkilae, P.S. )

    1991-01-01

    A 27-year-old male patient with a parapharyngeal hemangiopericytoma was investigated radiologically with orthopantomography, computed tomography, and digital subtraction angiography before the operation. Because a malignancy was suspected, the patient was imaged with gamma camera using radiolabeled monoclonal anticarcinoembryonal antigen antibody including single photon emission computed tomography. The radioantibody accumulated strongly into the neoplasm. Tumor to background ratio was 2.2. Samples of the excised tumor were stained immunohistochemically for desmin, vimentin, muscle actin, cytokeratin, CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen), and factor VIII. They showed that the antibody uptake was of unspecific nature and not due to CEA expression in the tumor.

  4. Origine et evolution du bilinguisme judiciaire au Quebec (Origin and Evolution of Judicial Bilingualism in Quebec).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Laurent, Gilles

    The history and conditions of the use of English and French in the exercise of justice in Quebec are outlined in the context of the problems, sociopolitical realities, and procedural impact of language usage. The history is chronicled in six segments: 1760-1764, a period of British military government and political standoff between British and…

  5. Dysplasie fibreuse polyostotique unilatérale du membre supérieur

    PubMed Central

    Boufettal, Monsef; Azouz, Mohamed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    La dysplasie fibreuse est une maladie osseuse sporadique rare d’étiologie inconnue qui représente environ 2,5% des maladies osseuses et 7% des tumeurs osseuses bénignes. Cette lésion bénigne pseudotumorale se caractérise par la présence dans l'os d'une prolifération de tissu fibreux et de tissu osseux immature dépourvu de couronne ostéoblastique. Elle peut atteindre un ou plusieurs os; l'atteinte du membre supérieur est rarement décrite, nous rapportons ici un cas rare de dysplasie fibreuse polyostotique unilatérale du membre supérieure. PMID:25709739

  6. Terahertz Real-Time Imaging Uncooled Arrays Based on Antenna-Coupled Bolometers or FET Developed at CEA-Leti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoens, François; Meilhan, Jérôme; Nicolas, Jean-Alain

    2015-10-01

    Sensitive and large-format terahertz focal plane arrays (FPAs) integrated in compact and hand-held cameras that deliver real-time terahertz (THz) imaging are required for many application fields, such as non-destructive testing (NDT), security, quality control of food, and agricultural products industry. Two technologies of uncooled THz arrays that are being studied at CEA-Leti, i.e., bolometer and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) field effect transistors (FET), are able to meet these requirements. This paper reminds the followed technological approaches and focuses on the latest modeling and performance analysis. The capabilities of application of these arrays to NDT and security are then demonstrated with experimental tests. In particular, high technological maturity of the THz bolometer camera is illustrated with fast scanning of large field of view of opaque scenes achieved in a complete body scanner prototype.

  7. C.-E.A. Winslow and the later years of public health at Yale, 1940-1945.

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is one of a series of papers in which I consider contemporary Yale medical education in general and the Yale Department of Epidemiology and Public Health in particular. It tells of the retirement in 1945 of C.-E.A. Winslow, Professor and Chairman of the Yale Department of Public Health since its inception in 1915; of the committees established by the dean of the School of Medicine and the president of the University, charged with determining the future direction of the department; and of the outcome, which, in 1945, proved favorable to Winslow's public health philosophy in contrast to the medical school's clinical needs and desires. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:3321724

  8. Monitoring the FLASH Cryomodule Transportation from DESY Hamburg to CEA Saclay: Coupler Contact, Vacuum, Acceleration and Vibration Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barbanotti, S.; Bosotti, A.; Fusetti, M.; Michelato, P.; Bertolini, A.; Berry, S.; Dorlot, M.; Madec, C.; Napoly, O.; Amirikas, R.; Boehnert, M.; /DESY /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    With a view to the series production of one hundred, 12 m long XFEL 1.3 GHz cryomodules and their transportation from the assembly site at CEA Saclay (F) to the installation site at DESY Hamburg (D) a test transportation of a FLASH cryomodule has been performed, in the condition foreseen for the mass transportation. The present study examines the stresses induced on the module and verifies the damping capabilities of the transport frame in order to minimize risk of damage to the most critical components. During the transportation, acceleration and vibration have been monitored as well as coupler antenna contacts and vacuum performances. This paper describes the analysis performed and compares those results to the data of a similar transportation study at Fermilab for the CM1 cryomodule.

  9. Cryogenic Operation on the R3B-Glad Large Acceptance Superconducting Dipole Spectrometer at CEA Saclay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallcorba, R.; Mayri, C.; Gastineau, B.; Maksoud, W. Abdel; Donati, A.; Genini, L.; Gibier, D.; Godon, P.; Lottin, J. P.; Mailleret, C.; Queinec, Y.

    The R3B-Glad magnet cold mass has been tested in the test facility at CEA Saclay previously used for testing W7X coils. This superconducting dipole has been cooled down by indirect cooling, and its 21 tons were maintained at around 4.8 K by means of helium thermosiphon. For this, the facility was adapted and connected to the cold mass to approximate actual conditions in its final configuration at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany). The magnet cooling down as well as the two-slope current ramping up to the nominal current of 3584 A was successfully achieved in December 2013. This paper presents the cryogenic distribution process, and shows the relevant results.

  10. Teaching Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryner, Jeanna

    2005-01-01

    Eighty years after the famous 1925 Scopes "monkey trial," which tested a teacher's right to discuss the theory of evolution in the classroom, evolution--and its most recent counterview, called "intelligent design"--are in the headlines again, and just about everyone seems to have an opinion. This past July, President Bush weighed in, telling…

  11. FTS evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provost, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on flight telerobotic servicer evolution are presented. Topics covered include: paths for FTS evolution; frequently performed actions; primary task states; EPS radiator panel installation; generic task definitions; path planning; non-contact alignment; contact planning and control; and human operator interface.

  12. Prejudice: From Allport to DuBois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Stanley O., Jr.; Reed, Edward S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the differences between Gordon Allport's and W. E. B. DuBois's theories on the origins of prejudice and the impact of discrimination on the personality and social development of blacks. The article argues that prejudice is a historically developed process, not a universal feature of human psychology. Implications for U.S. race relations…

  13. DuSable High School Program Flourishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Pat

    1995-01-01

    Describes the fall and rise of the Panther Press, the scholastic newspaper of the DuSable High School in Chicago. States that despite being located in the midst of public housing projects, the school's newspaper is thriving where others in similar circumstances have failed. Describes how the school's principal and an advisor revitalized and…

  14. La Carte du Ciel vue de Potsdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigg, C.

    2008-06-01

    Ce chapitre s'attache à retracer les aléas de la Carte du Ciel depuis l'Observatoire de Potsdam. Le cas de cet établissement sert de point de comparaison avec les observatoires français, en particulier en ce qui concerne l'organisation du travail au sein de l'Observatoire et le problème de la répartition des ressources humaines et instrumentales dans la poursuite de ce projet de longue haleine. On remarque notamment que si les astronomes allemands, héritiers d'une tradition d'excellence en astrométrie stellaire, se devaient de prendre part à la "Photographische Himmelskarte", ce ne sont pas les observatoires d'astronomie classique mais le nouvel observatoire d'astrophysique de Potsdam qui entreprendra cette tâche. Les études effectuées dans ce cadre sur la photographie stellaire et surtout la photométrie photographique seront ainsi considérées comme des contributions à la jeune science astrophysique - du moins jusqu'à ce que la Carte du Ciel entre en concurrence dans l'Observatoire avec les projets de catalogues de spectres stellaires et de mesure des vitesses radiales.

  15. Sign Communication in Cri du Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlenkamp, Sonja; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study on the use of sign supported Norwegian (SSN) in two individuals with Cri du chat syndrome (CCS). The study gives a first account of some selected aspects of production and intelligibility of SSN in CCS. Possible deviance in manual parameters, in particular inter- and/or intra-subject variation in the use…

  16. The Du Pont OZ Creative Thinking Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, David

    1994-01-01

    The OZ Creative Thinking Network is a volunteer group of Du Pont Corporation employees devoted to educating themselves and others concerning creativity and innovation. This network, organized in 1986, has a current membership of over 600 employees and has produced a book that couples essays expressing concepts in creativity and innovation with…

  17. Rick and Becky DuFour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In 1969, a concern with the deep inequity of students' experiences and opportunities in traditional school systems first drove social studies teacher Rick DuFour to begin advocating for the kind of reforms that would jell into his transformative model, Professional Learning Communities (PLC) at Work, some 16 years later. The core belief of the PLC…

  18. Decontamination of Nuclear Liquid Wastes Status of CEA and AREVA R and D: Application to Fukushima Waste Waters - 12312

    SciTech Connect

    Fournel, B.; Barre, Y.; Lepeytre, C.; Peycelon, H.; Grandjean, A.; Prevost, T.; Valery, J.F.; Shilova, E.; Viel, P.

    2012-07-01

    Liquid wastes decontamination processes are mainly based on two techniques: Bulk processes and the so called Cartridges processes. The first technique has been developed for the French nuclear fuel reprocessing industry since the 60's in Marcoule and La Hague. It is a proven and mature technology which has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The second technique, involving cartridges processes, offers new opportunities for the use of innovative adsorbents. The AREVA process developed for Fukushima and some results obtained on site will be presented as well as laboratory scale results obtained in CEA laboratories. Examples of new adsorbents development for liquid wastes decontamination are also given. A chemical process unit based on co-precipitation technique has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The asset of this technique is its ability to process large volumes in a continuous mode. Several chemical products can be used to address specific radioelements such as: Cs, Sr, Ru. Its drawback is the production of sludge (about 1% in volume of initial liquid volume). CEA developed strategies to model the co-precipitation phenomena in order to firstly minimize the quantity of added chemical reactants and secondly, minimize the size of co-precipitation units. We are on the way to design compact units that could be mobilized very quickly and efficiently in case of an accidental situation. Addressing the problem of sludge conditioning, cementation appears to be a very attractive solution. Fukushima accident has focused attention on optimizations that should be taken into account in future studies: - To better take account for non-typical aqueous matrixes like seawater; - To enlarge the spectrum of radioelements that can be efficiently processed and especially short lives radioelements that are usually less present in standard effluents resulting from nuclear activities; - To develop reversible solid adsorbents for cartridge-type applications in order to minimize wastes. (authors)

  19. Improvements on Low Level Activity Gamma Measurements and X-ray Spectrometry at the CEA-MADERE Measurement Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeyeva, Victoria; Domergue, Christophe; Destouches, Christophe; Girard, Jean Michel; Philibert, Hervé; Bonora, Jonathan; Thiollay, Nicolas; Lyoussi, Abdallah

    2016-02-01

    The CEA MADERE platform (Measurement Applied to DosimEtry in REactors) is a part of the Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory (LDCI). This facility is dedicated to the specific activity measurements of solid and radioactive samples using Gamma and X-ray spectrometry. MADERE is a high-performance facility devoted to neutron dosimetry for experimental programs performed in CEA and for the irradiation surveillance programmes of PWR vessels. The MADERE platform is engaged in a continuous improvement process. Recently, two High Efficiency diodes have been integrated to the MADERE platform in order to manage the accurate low level activity measurements (few Bq per sample). This new equipment provides a good level of efficiency over the energy range from 60 keV to 2 MeV. The background continuum is reduced due to the use of a Ultra Low Background (ULB) lead shielding. Relative and absolute X-ray measurement techniques have been improved in order to facilitate absolute rhodium activity measurement (Rh103m) on solid samples. Additional efforts have been made to increase the accuracy of the relative niobium (Nb93m) activity measurement technique. The way of setting up an absolute measurement method for niobium is under investigation. After a presentation of the MADERE's measurement devices, this paper focuses on the technological options taken into account for the design of high efficiency measurement devices. Then, studies performed on X-ray measurement techniques are presented. Some details about the calculation of uncertainties and correction factors are also mentioned. Finally, future research and development axes are exposed.

  20. Structure crustale et anomalies du champ de gravite dans l'est du Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telmat, Hamid

    Cette these presente les resultats d'etudes gravimetriques menees dans le Bouclier canadien. Les mesures du champ de gravite recoltees le long et a proximite de divers transects Lithoprobe y sont interpretees. Chacun des chapitres de cette these est un article publie ou soumis. Le premier article presente l'interpretation gravimetrique le long de la ligne sismique 52 de Lithoprobe, dans la province de Grenville. A l'echelle regionale, la modelisation de l'anomalie de Bouguer invoque un amincissement crustal au sud du front de Grenville sous le terrane allochtone du reservoir Cabonga. Cet amincissement, localise au niveau de la croute inferieure, peut etre associe a une extension post-orogenique. Le modele gravimetrique a aussi permis de mettre en evidence des caracteristiques majeures non revelees par les donnees sismiques, telle que la zone de contact subverticale entre les terranes du reservoir de Cabonga et du reservoir Dozois. La rampe de Baskatong representerait une discontinuite majeure le long de laquelle, les terranes proterozoiques furent accretes. Par ailleurs, un modele de l'anomalie residuelle, dans la partie nord du profil, met en evidence trois corps gabbroiques peu profonds. Le second article presente des modeles crustaux du nord de la province du Superieur a la lumiere de nouvelles donnees de gravite recoltees le long d'un transect traversant les sous-provinces de Nemiscau et La Grande. L'interpretation de l'anomalie de Bouguer pour le nord de l'Abitibi et l'Opatica, invoque un epaississement crustal. Pour les sous-provinces de Nemiscau et La Grande, l'interpretation gravimetrique invoque une densite de la croute superieure plus elevee qu'en Abitibi et en Opatica. Un leger epaississement crustal est observe dans la sous-province de La Grande. Des sequences supracrustales mafiques sont aussi mises en evidence a l'extremite nord du profil dans la sous-province de La Grande. La signature gravimetrique associee a la variation laterale de densite et les evidences de terrain indiquent un pendage vers le nord des principales frontieres tectoniques. Le troisieme chapitre fait l'objet d'une etude du champ de pesanteur au dessus de la region de la baie d'Ungava a partir de donnees satellite et de nouvelles donnees recoltees le long de la cote sud de la baie. Un leve gravimetrique partant de la baie aux Feuilles, dans la province du Superieur, traversant l'Orogene du Nouveau Quebec (ONQ), et finissant pres de la riviere George dans le craton de Rae, a ete realise. L'interpretation des donnees acquises a permis de fournir des modeles de densite. Ces modeles mettent en evidence un epaississement crustal sous l'ONQ et un amincissement sous le terrane de Kuujjuaq, a l'est de l'orogene. Alors que plus a l'est, dans le craton de Rae, une anomalie negative de quelques dix milligals est correlee avec les extensions vers le nord de la zone de cisaillement de la riviere George (ZCRG) et du batholite de De Pas. L'orientation des structures sur les modeles de gravite suggere un chevauchement du craton de Rae au dessus de l'ONQ. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  1. Stellar evolution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, H.-Y. (Editor); Muriel, A.

    1972-01-01

    Aspects of normal stellar evolution are discussed together with evolution near the main sequence, stellar evolution from main sequence to white dwarf or carbon ignition, the structure of massive main-sequence stars, and problems of stellar stability and stellar pulsation. Other subjects considered include variable stars, white dwarfs, close binaries, novae, early supernova luminosity, neutron stars, the photometry of field horizontal-branch stars, and stellar opacity. Transport mechanisms in stars are examined together with thermonuclear reactions and nucleosynthesis, the instability problem in nuclear burning shells, stellar coalescence, and intense magnetic fields in astrophysics. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  2. Simulating Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Robert C.; Allen, Brockenbrough

    1975-01-01

    Described are simulations that can be used to illustrate evolution by natural selection. Suggestions for simulating phenomena such as adaptive radiation, color match to background and vision of predators are offered. (BR)

  3. Evolution Observed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angseesing, J. P. A.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses various possible ways by which isolated populations might differentiate into species. The interactions between ecological factors and genes with respect to evolution and the role of genetic polymorphisms and other genetics variation are also discussed. (HM)

  4. Les inhibiteurs spécifiques du recaptage de la sérotonine pendant la grossesse et l’issue du nourrisson

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Ann L

    2011-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Il est très important de bien soigner la dépression pendant la grossesse pour la santé de la mère, du fœtus, puis du nouveau-né. Les inhibiteurs sélectifs du recaptage de la sérotonine (ISRS) sont souvent utilisés comme antidépresseurs. D’après une étude américaine, environ 7 % des femmes enceintes se sont fait prescrire des ISRS en 2004–2005. L’utilisation d’ISRS pendant le premier trimestre, dans leur ensemble, risque peu d’accroître le risque de malformations congénitales. La paroxétine peut s’associer à une légère augmentation du risque de malformations cardiaques, mais les données probantes demeurent non concluantes. L’exposition du fœtus aux ISRS plus près du moment de l’accouchement peut entraîner des symptômes respiratoires, moteurs, gastro-intestinaux et du système nerveux central chez environ 10 % à 30 % des nouveau-nés (syndrome du comportement néonatal lié à l’exposition aux ISRS). Ces symptômes sont généralement bénins et transitoires. L’hypertension pulmonaire persistante du nouveau-né est une conséquence extrêmement rare d’exposition du fœtus aux ISRS. Il faudrait tenir compte de ces renseignements pour prendre des décisions risques-avantages individuelles lorsqu’on envisage le traitement de la dépression pendant la grossesse. Les nouveau-nés exposés aux ISRS en fin de grossesse devraient demeurer en observation à l’hôpital pendant au moins 48 heures.

  5. Mesure du taux de la capture radiative du muon par l'hydrogene liquide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkmans, Guy

    À basse énergie, l'interaction faible entre leptons et quarks est décrite par une interaction de la forme courant × courant de type V - A. La présence de l'interaction forte induit des couplages additionnels qui doivent être déterminés expérimentalement. De ceux-ci, le couplage pseudoscalaire induit, gp , est mesuré avec la plus grande incertitude et fait l'objet de la présente recherche. L'hypothèse du Courant Axial Partiellement Conservé (CAPC) et l'usage de la relation de Goldberger-Treiman relie gp au couplage axial ga . Cette relation a été vérifiée traditionnellement par la Capture Ordinaire du Muon (COM) à une valeur fixe du moment de transfert q. La Capture Radiative du Muon (CRM), m- p-->nnmg , est un meilleur outil pour l'étude de gp à cause de sa dépendance variable en q2 qui offre une plus grande sensibilité dans la partie à haute énergie du spectre des photons. Toutefois, le petit rapport d'embranchement (~10-8) de la CRM par rapport à la désintégration du muon a retardé cette mesure jusqu'à ce jour. La théorie et les difficultés expérimentales associées à la détection des photons de CRM sont présentées au deuxième chapitre. On décrit ensuite, au troisième chapitre, les composantes du système de détection. Ce détecteur est un spectromètre à paires de grand angle solide (~3p) et qui permet l'observation des photons par l'analyse des électrons et des positrons de photo-conversion. Ainsi, le bruit de fond important des neutrons de la COM ne constitue pas un problème pour cette mesure. Nous décrivons, au quatrième chapitre, toutes les étapes de l'analyse, nécessaires pour la réduction des multiples bruits de fond. Le cinquième chapitre présente le calcul des efficacités ainsi que l'estimation des erreurs systématiques. Le sixième chapitre démontre comment l'on extrait le rapport d'embranchement pour la CRM ainsi que la valeur ae gp . On insiste sur la dépendance de gp en fonction de la valeur de lop , le taux de transition ortho-à para-moléculaire. Nous avons observé le processus rare de CRM sur le proton pour la première fois à TRIUMF. Le rapport d'embranchement partiel (k > 60 MeV, où k est l'énergie du photon) par rapport à la désintégration du muon est de (2.10 +/- 0.22) × 10-8. Cette valeur correspond à gp = (9.8 +/- 0.7 +/- 0.3) . ga(0) pour la valeur expérimentale de lop .

  6. Intensive post-operative follow-up of breast cancer patients with tumour markers: CEA, TPA or CA15.3 vs MCA and MCA-CA15.3 vs CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel in the early detection of distant metastases

    PubMed Central

    Nicolini, Andrea; Tartarelli, Gianna; Carpi, Angelo; Metelli, Maria Rita; Ferrari, Paola; Anselmi, Loretta; Conte, Massimo; Berti, Piero; Miccoli, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Background In breast cancer current guidelines do not recommend the routine use of serum tumour markers. Differently, we observed that CEA-TPA-CA15.3 (carcinoembryonic (CEA) tissue polypeptide (TPA) and cancer associated 115D8/DF3 (CA15.3) antigens) panel permits early detection and treatment for most relapsing patients. As high sensitivity and specificity and different cut-off values have been reported for mucin-like carcinoma associated antigen (MCA), we compared MCA with the above mentioned tumour markers and MCA-CA15.3 with the CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel. Methods In 289 breast cancer patients submitted to an intensive post-operative follow-up with tumour markers, we compared MCA (cut-off values, ? 11 and ? 15 U/mL) with CEA or CA15.3 or TPA for detection of relapse. In addition, we compared the MCA-CA15.3 and CEA-TPA-CA15.3 tumour marker panels. Results Distant metastases occurred 19 times in 18 (6.7%) of the 268 patients who were disease-free at the beginning of the study. MCA sensitivity with both cut-off values was higher than that of CEA or TPA or CA15.3 (68% vs 10%, 26%, 32% and 53% vs 16%, 42%, 32% respectively). With cut-off ? 11 U/mL, MCA showed the lowest specificity (42%); with cut-off ? 15 U/mL, MCA specificity was similar to TPA (73% vs 72%) and lower than that of CEA and CA15.3 (96% and 97% respectively). With ? 15 U/mL MCA cut-off, MCA sensitivity increased from 53% to 58% after its association with CA15.3. Sensitivity of CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel was 74% (14 of 19 recurrences). Eight of the 14 recurrences early detected with CEA-TPA-CA15.3 presented as a single lesion (oligometastatic disease) (5) or were confined to bony skeleton (3) (26% and 16% respectively of the 19 relapses). With ? 11 U/mL MCA cut-off, MCA-CA15.3 association showed higher sensitivity but lower specificity, accuracy and positive predictive value than the CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel. Conclusion At both the evaluated cut-off values serum MCA sensitivity is higher than that of CEA, TPA or CA15.3 but its specificity is similar to or lower than that of TPA. Overall, CEA-TPA-CA15.3 panel is more accurate than MCA-CA15.3 association and can "early" detect a few relapsed patients with limited metastatic disease and more favourable prognosis. These findings further support the need for prospective randomised clinical trial to assess whether an intensive post-operative follow-up with an appropriate use of serum tumour markers can significantly improve clinical outcome of early detected relapsing patients. PMID:17116247

  7. [Brief discussion on "Sanli acupoint for du-fu diseases"].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; He, Quan; Xin, Yu; Zhang, Hongxing

    2015-07-01

    The connotations of "du-fu" and "Sanli" in "Sanli acupoint for du-fu diseases" are discussed in this paper, which can provide theoretical foundation for the clinical application of "Sanli acupoint for du-fu diseases". Based on ancient literature combined with related theories in the Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Classic), a deep discussion is performed through the relationship between Zusanli (ST 36) and stomach, indication and mechanism of Zusanli (ST 36) on du-fu diseases and comparison between Zusanli (ST 36) and Shousanli (LI 10). It is believed that "du" should be pronounced as "dÅ­", meaning stomach, and it indicates that Zusanli (ST 36) is closely related to stomach and spleen when it is used for du-fu diseases; "fu" means abdomen area, including liver-gallbladder, spleen, stomach-intestine, kidney, uterus, triple energizer; "sanli' means exclusively the acupoint of Zusanli (ST 36). PMID:26521594

  8. DU-AGG pilot plant design study

    SciTech Connect

    Lessing, P.A.; Gillman, H.

    1996-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing new methods to produce high-density aggregate (artificial rock) primarily consisting of depleted uranium oxide. The objective is to develop a low-cost method whereby uranium oxide powder (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub ]8, or UO[sub 3]) can be processed to produce high-density aggregate pieces (DU-AGG) having physical properties suitable for disposal in low-level radioactive disposal facilities or for use as a component of high-density concrete used as shielding for radioactive materials. A commercial company, G-M Systems, conducted a design study for a manufacturing pilot plant to process DU-AGG. The results of that study are included and summarized in this report. Also explained are design considerations, equipment capacities, the equipment list, system operation, layout of equipment in the plant, cost estimates, and the proposed plan and schedule.

  9. Proper Motions from Carte du Ciel Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luyten, W. J.

    The existing data on proper motions from meridian catalogues and proper motion surveys appear to be reasonably complete for motions larger than 0.24 arc seconds per year and down to the 19th magnitude visual but for motions between 0.24 and 0.18 there exists a lacuna for stars between 8.5 and 11.5 visual which could easily be observed by repeating Carte du Ciel plates.

  10. Sustainable growth, the DuPont way.

    PubMed

    Holliday, C

    2001-09-01

    Like many manufacturers, DuPont traditionally has grown by making more and more "stuff." And its business growth has been proportional to the amount of raw materials and energy used--as well as the resulting waste and emissions from operations. Over the years, though, DuPont became aware that cheap supplies of nonrenewable resources wouldn't be endlessly available and that the earth's ecosystems couldn't indefinitely absorb the waste and emissions of production and consumption. Chad Holliday, chairman and CEO of DuPont, believes strongly in the challenge of sustainable growth and makes the business case for it: By using creativity and scientific knowledge effectively, he says, companies can provide strong returns for shareholders and grow their businesses--while also meeting the human needs of societies around the world and reducing the environmental footprint of their operations and products. In fact, a focus on sustainability can help identify new products, markets, partnerships, and intellectual property and lead to substantial business growth. Holliday describes how DuPont developed a three-pronged strategy to translate the concept of sustainability into nuts-and-bolts business practices. Focusing on integrated science, knowledge intensity, and productivity improvement, the strategy was accompanied by a new way to measure progress quantitatively. Sustainable growth should be viewed not as a program for stepped-up environmental performance but as a comprehensive way of doing business, one that delivers tremendous economic value and opens up new opportunities. Ultimately, companies will find that they can generate substantial business value through sustainability while both enhancing the quality of life around the world and protecting the environment. PMID:11550629

  11. Thermoplastic composite parts manufacture at Du Pont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medwin, Steven J.; Coyle, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    Low-cost routes to the manufacture of complex shaped composite parts have been defined using metal forming techniques and Du Pont's long discontinuous fiber (LDF) Technology. These manufacturing techniques include roll forming, stretch forming, and press forming. Near equivalence between the static, dynamic, and damage tolerance properties of LDF and continuous fiber composites have been demonstrated. Several examples are cited which demonstrate the potential for this technology to significantly reduce the cost of aerospace components.

  12. DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    MOORE, T.L.

    2003-10-03

    DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH&Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations.

  13. Liposarcome myxoïde primitif du médiastin moyen

    PubMed Central

    Marouf, Rachid; Alloubi, Ihssan

    2014-01-01

    Les liposarcomes “LPS” myxoïdes sont des tumeurs rares, notamment dans leur localisation médiastinale. Nous rapportons un cas d'un liposarcome myxoïde du médiastin moyen, chez un patient de 69 ans, sans passé pathologique particulier et sans signes d'appels respiratoires. Une radiographie thoracique faite lors d'un bilan préopératoire montre un élargissement médiastinal dont le scanner thoracique le rattache à une tumeur hétéro dense, siège de quelques zones de densité graisseuse au niveau du médiastin moyen. Malgré son volume, cette masse parait de contours nets, sans envahissement ni compression des structures adjacentes. La ponction biopsie transpariétale scanno-guidée est compatible avec un liposarcome myxoïde; Une exérèse chirurgicale complète est réalisée. Après 24 mois de surveillance, le patient ne présente pas de signe de récidive. Le LPS myxoïde du médiastin est une entité rarissime et quelques cas sporadiques ont été reportés dans la littérature. La chirurgie parait être le traitement de choix. La radiothérapie et la chimiothérapie gardent leur place dans des indications bien particulières. PMID:25709724

  14. Le shwannome extrathoracique solitaire du nerf intercostal: une localisation rare

    PubMed Central

    Ankouz, Amal; Louchi, Abdellatif; Taleb, Khalid Ait

    2014-01-01

    Le shwannome thoracique solitaire est une tumeur nerveuse bénigne. La localisation est le plus souvent intra-thoracique au niveau du médiastin postérieur. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un schwannome solitaire du nerf intercostal de développement extra-thoracique imitant une tumeur sous-cutanée du thorax. La biopsie-exérèse nous a permis d’établir le diagnostic histologique. Après un recul de 14 mois aucune récidive n'a été notée. Le diagnostic de schwannome doit être suspecté devant toute tumeur sous cutanée du thorax. La certitude diagnostique est histologique. L'exérèse totale est le seul garant d'une guérison sans récidive. PMID:25419305

  15. Élimination du bore du silicium par plasma inductif sous champ électrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, R.; Morvan, D.; Picard, G.; Amouroux, J.

    1993-05-01

    We analyzed purification mechanisms of silicon by inductive plasma with a fluoride slag. The aim is to study boron elimination from doped electronic grade silicon in function of the nature of the slag to obtain a photovoltaic grade silicon. The steady began with the calculation and the comparison of the stability diagram of boron compounds in presence of CaF2, BaF2 and MgF2. This study led us to conclude that BaF2 is the better slag for silicon purification. This has been confirmed by experience. In a second time, we made purifications under electric bias to enhance slag efficiency. We noticed that BaF2 is more sensitive to electric bias than other slags. Nous avons analysé le mécanisme de purification du silicium sous plasma inductif en présence d'un laitier fluoré. L'objectif principal est d'étudier l'élimination du bore du silicium électronique dopé en fonction de la nature du fluorure pour obtenir un silicium de qualité photovoltaïque. L'étude a commencé par l'établissement et la comparaison de diagrammes des composés du bore en présence de CaF2, de MgF2 et de BaF2. Nous avons déduit de cette première étude que BaF2 est le meilleur laitier pour la purification du silicium. Ceci a été corroboré par l'expérience. Nous avons ensuite opéré en présence d'un champ électrique dans le but d'améliorer encore l'efficacité des laitiers. Nous avons constaté que BaF2 est plus sensible au champ électrique que les deux autres laitiers utilisés.

  16. Prédiction du comportement à long terme des matériaux polymères

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, J.

    1998-06-01

    Most of the world activity on research, development and control of polymer durability is still based on empirical techniques developed in the early ages of polymer uses. Those techniques should be critically analysed considering the state of the art in the fundamental understanding of these complex phenomena. A more rational approach is described, especially to predict the lifetime of polymeric materials in environmental conditions. That approach is based on the recognition of the chemical evolution mechanisms. Les activités de recherche, développement et contrôle de durabilité des matériaux polymères sont encore, pour une part très importante, basées sur l'emploi de techniques empiriques dont les principes ont été énoncés dès le début de l'exploitation de ces matériaux. Une analyse critique de ces méthodes s'impose aujourd'hui en tenant compte de l'avancement des connaissances. Une approche plus rationnelle est décrite, approche basée sur la reconnaissance des mécanismes d'évolution chimique. A titre d'exemple, le mécanisme d'évolution du PVC sous contraintes conjuguées de l'UV, de la chaleur et de l'oxygène, est décrit. Des études récentes de photooxydation de polymères conducteurs au sein de polyéthylène sont également succinctement rapportées.

  17. Quelles seront les dates et heures exactes de la fin du XXe siècle et du IIe millénaire?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitschelm, C.

    1997-01-01

    Au fur et à mesure que la fin du XXe siècle se rapproche, les médias se font l'écho de certaines affirmations péremtoires nous annonçant la fin du siècle pour la fin de l'année 1999. Ces affirmations, sans aucun fondement et totalement erronées, provoquent beaucoup d'étonnement et de stupéfaction, montrant en effect une grande méconnaissance et une incompréhension flagrante des différents calendriers et systèmes de comptage du temps en vigueur en astronomie.

  18. Influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite du laiton monophase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholley, Airy

    La connaissance des proprietes et du comportement d'un materiau en usinage est primordiale pour optimiser son utilisation et obtenir une usinabilite maximale. Dans ce but, l'etude de la modification de la ductilite par traitement thermiques sur plusieurs criteres d'usinabilite tels que les efforts de coupe, la rugosite, les bavures et la formation du copeau a ete menee sur le laiton monophase. A cette fin, l'influence du traitement thermique sur la microstructure du laiton a d'abord ete etudiee. La taille des grains et la durete ont permis de determiner les proprietes mecaniques des etats metallurgiques. Des essais de percage ont ensuite ete effectues sur les etats metallurgiques H01 (99HV), OS100 (88HV) et OS250 (47HV) pour regarder l'influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite. Cette etude experimentale a permis de comprendre l'influence du taux de laminage et de la temperature de recuit sur les proprietes mecaniques. Les essais d'usinabilite ont ensuite permis de prouver que les efforts de coupe sont dependants des conditions de coupe mais pas de la ductilite dans les etats metallurgiques testes. La taille des bavures augmente avec la ductilite et la vitesse de coupe, et diminue avec l'avance. La rugosite de la surface des trous apres l'usinage a egalement ete etudiee. Il a aussi ete prouve par une etude sur les copeaux que la temperature croit avec la vitesse de coupe. L'analyse de la segmentation des copeaux n'a en revanche pas permis de trouver une correlation significative avec les traitements thermiques testes. Enfin, le revetement de l'outil a montre une grande importance sur l'usinabilite du materiau. Il a ete conclu que l'usinabilite du laiton C26000 (CuZn30) est meilleure lorsqu'on travaille dans un etat metallurgique dur. Ces conclusions sont valables pour le laiton monophase etudie, il serait interessant d'examiner aussi le cas des laitons biphases.

  19. Evaluation of the CEAS trend and monthly weather data models for soybean yields in Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The CEAS models evaluated use historic trend and meteorological and agroclimatic variables to forecast soybean yields in Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. Indicators of yield reliability and current measures of modeled yield reliability were obtained from bootstrap tests on the end of season models. Indicators of yield reliability show that the state models are consistently better than the crop reporting district (CRD) models. One CRD model is especially poor. At the state level, the bias of each model is less than one half quintal/hectare. The standard deviation is between one and two quintals/hectare. The models are adequate in terms of coverage and are to a certain extent consistent with scientific knowledge. Timely yield estimates can be made during the growing season using truncated models. The models are easy to understand and use and are not costly to operate. Other than the specification of values used to determine evapotranspiration, the models are objective. Because the method of variable selection used in the model development is adequately documented, no evaluation can be made of the objectivity and cost of redevelopment of the model.

  20. Lewis blood group and CEA related antigens; coexpressed cell-cell adhesion molecules with roles in the biological progression and dissemination of tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, D S; Kerr, M A

    1999-01-01

    The Lewis blood group and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) related antigens have adhesive functions in human tissues, with roles in embryonic sorting and migration of cells (organogenesis), differentiation and protection of normal mucosal tissues, migration of neutrophils, bacterial binding, and tumour differentiation and dissemination. In the key areas of mucosal protection, neutrophil binding, and tumour metastasis, they are often coexpressed on the outer cell membrane, with Lewis blood group antigens forming the terminal carbohydrate chains on a CEA related glycoprotein backbone. The central role of these antigens in the mechanism of neutrophil binding to endothelium in inflammation highlights a fascinating paradigm for tumour cell dissemination and metastasis, and expression is linked to disease prognosis. This review outlines the structure, function, and comparative roles of these antigens in human tissues. PMID:10694936

  1. Art & Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Mark

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a two-week evolution unit for his biology class. He uses Maria Sybilla Merian (1647-1717) as an example of an Enlightenment mind at work--in this case a woman recognized as one of the great artists and natural scientists of her time. Her representations of butterflies, caterpillars and their pupae, and the…

  2. Security Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  3. Accepting evolution.

    PubMed

    Chinsamy, Anusuya; Plagányi, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Poor public perceptions and understanding of evolution are not unique to the developed and more industrialized nations of the world. International resistance to the science of evolutionary biology appears to be driven by both proponents of intelligent design and perceived incompatibilities between evolution and a diversity of religious faiths. We assessed the success of a first-year evolution course at the University of Cape Town and discovered no statistically significant change in the views of students before the evolution course and thereafter, for questions that challenged religious ideologies about creation, biodiversity, and intelligent design. Given that students only appreciably changed their views when presented with "facts," we suggest that teaching approaches that focus on providing examples of experimental evolutionary studies, and a strong emphasis on the scientific method of inquiry, are likely to achieve greater success. This study also reiterates the importance of engaging with students' prior conceptions, and makes suggestions for improving an understanding and appreciation of evolutionary biology in countries such as South Africa with an inadequate secondary science education system, and a dire lack of public engagement with issues in science. PMID:18067569

  4. Art & Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Mark

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a two-week evolution unit for his biology class. He uses Maria Sybilla Merian (1647-1717) as an example of an Enlightenment mind at work--in this case a woman recognized as one of the great artists and natural scientists of her time. Her representations of butterflies, caterpillars and their pupae, and the…

  5. Radioimmunoimaging of non-small cell lung cancer with 111In- and 99mTc-labeled monoclonal anti-CEA-antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kairemo, K J; Aronen, H J; Liewendahl, K; Paavonen, T; Heikkonen, J J; Virkkunen, P; Mäki-Hokkonen, H; Karonen, S L; Brownell, A L; Mäntylä, M J

    1993-01-01

    Radiolabeled monoclonal anti-CEA antibodies were used for radioimmunolocalization (RIL) of non-small cell lung cancer; in 30 patients with 111In labeled anti CEA F(ab')2 fragment (BW 431/31) and in 16 with 99mTc-labeled intact MoAb (BW 431/26). RIL results were compared with those of other imaging modalities. Paraffin sections from some patients were also studied immunohistochemically using anti-CEA antibody. Patients with 111In labeled MoAB were imaged twice 1-4 days after injection and for image enhancement pulmonary and liver/spleen subtraction were performed. Twenty-seven of 28 primary tumors were positive and metastases were detected in all patients. The total number of lesions was 78 of which 61 (78%) could be detected by RIL. For verification CT was applied to the study of 46 lesions detected by RIL. We found 6 unknown lesions subsequently verified histologically. Using subtraction techniques we detected 9 lesions in 4 patients, later verified as pulmonary metastases, not detected in unprocessed images. Pleural, mediastinal and pericardial lesions were also better delineated in subtracted images than in unprocessed images. Imaging of non-small cell lung cancer with 99mTc-labeled MoAB was performed twice 4-24 h after injection. RIL results were compared with other imaging methods; CT US, conventional radiography, and immunohistochemistry. Twelve out of 16 patients with suspected or known lung cancer had positive immunoscintigrams; 19 of 25 lesions could be detected by RIL. There were 5 false positive and 2 true negative findings. Immunoperoxidase (IP) stainings of paraffin sections of the tumours from 7 patients were performed using two different anti-CEA antibodies; BW 431/26 and ZCEA1. None of the seven tumors examined by immunohistochemistry were negative when stained by BW 431/26, which was the antibody used for immunoscintigraphy. PMID:8305225

  6. Diagnostic value of Cyfra21-1, SCC and CEA for differentiation of early-stage NSCLC from benign lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Wang, Xiu-Ying; Han, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Hai; Qi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which account for the most of lung carcinoma, is sometimes difficult to differentiate from benign lung diseases presented with nodular shadow in imaging scan. There is a need to find another non-invasive way to diagnosis early-stage NSCLC. To examine the potential diagnostic value of SCC, CFYRA 21-1 and CEA for the differentiation of early-stage NCSCL from benign lung diseases, we analyzed serum levels of tumor markers in 278 patients, including 248 patients with NSCLC and 30 patients with benign lung diseases. These benign lung diseases were presented with evidence of a high likelihood of having lung cancer. After surgical operation, diagnosis of lung cancer and benign lung disease were confirmed by histological examination. Preoperative tumor marker levels were quantified. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare median levels of SCC, CFYRA 21-1 and CEA between the benign group and lung cancer group. Analysis of variance results were used for differences between different clinical stages of NSCLC. ROC was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of tumor markers. The median levels of Cyfra21-1, SCC and CEA were much higher in NSCLC than those in benign lung diseases. And we found that the mean levels of tumor marker were higher in advanced stage of NSCLC. The combination of tumor markers resulted in a higher sensitivity (91.3%) and a lower specificity (86.7%). In conclusion, the combination of positive SCC, positive CEA and positive Cyfra21-1 appear to be helpful in distinguishing early-stage NSCLC from benign lung disease which presented with suspicious pulmonary masses. PMID:26379938

  7. La reconstruction du sourcil par greffon composite du cuir chevelu: une astuce pour faciliter la technique

    PubMed Central

    El Omari, Mounia; El Mazouz, Samir; Gharib, Noureddine; EL Abbassi, Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Les sourcils jouent un rôle important dans l’équilibre esthétique du visage. Leur reconstruction ou ophriopoïése, après séquelle de brûlure fait partie intégrante du programme de réhabilitation de la face brûlée. Plusieurs techniques ont été décrites. Nous insistons ici sur l'intérêt d'une technique simple, à la portée de tous les chirurgiens, et dont la méthode et les résultats peuvent être améliorés par un dessin bien planifié des zones donneuse et receveuse: la greffe composite prélevée au niveau du cuir chevelu dessinée à l'aide d'un calque du sourcil controlatéral. PMID:26401195

  8. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  9. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  10. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  11. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  12. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  13. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Stephane

    Les premieres etudes d'antennes a base de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique emettant une impulsion electromagnetique dont le contenu en frequence se situe dans le domaine terahertz remontent a 1996. Une antenne supraconductrice est formee d'un micro-pont d'une couche mince supraconductrice sur lequel un courant continu est applique. Un faisceau laser dans le visible est focalise sur le micro-pont et place le supraconducteur dans un etat hors-equilibre ou des paires sont brisees. Grace a la relaxation des quasiparticules en surplus et eventuellement de la reformation des paires supraconductrices, nous pouvons etudier la nature de la supraconductivite. L'analyse de la cinetique temporelle du champ electromagnetique emis par une telle antenne terahertz supraconductrice s'est averee utile pour decrire qualitativement les caracteristiques de celle-ci en fonction des parametres d'operation tels que le courant applique, la temperature et la puissance d'excitation. La comprehension de l'etat hors-equilibre est la cle pour comprendre le fonctionnement des antennes terahertz supraconductrices a haute temperature critique. Dans le but de comprendre ultimement cet etat hors-equilibre, nous avions besoin d'une methode et d'un modele pour extraire de facon plus systematique les proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui compose l'antenne terahertz a partir des caracteristiques d'emission de celle-ci. Nous avons developpe une procedure pour calibrer le spectrometre dans le domaine temporel en utilisant des antennes terahertz de GaAs bombarde aux protons H+ comme emetteur et detecteur. Une fois le montage calibre, nous y avons insere une antenne emettrice dipolaire de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta . Un modele avec des fonctions exponentielles de montee et de descente du signal est utilise pour lisser le spectre du champ electromagnetique de l'antenne de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta, ce qui nous permet d'extraire les proprietes intrinseques de ce dernier. Pour confirmer la validite du modele choisi, nous avons mesure les proprietes intrinseques du meme echantillon de YBa2Cu3O7- delta avec la technique pompe-visible et sonde-terahertz donnant, elle aussi, acces aux temps caracteristiques regissant l'evolution hors-equilibre de ce materiau. Dans le meilleur scenario, ces temps caracteristiques devraient correspondre a ceux evalues grace a la modelisation des antennes. Un bon controle des parametres de croissance des couches minces supraconductrices et de fabrication du dispositif nous a permis de realiser des antennes d'emission terahertz possedant d'excellentes caracteristiques en terme de largeur de bande d'emission (typiquement 3 THz) exploitables pour des applications de spectroscopie resolue dans le domaine temporel. Le modele developpe et retenu pour le lissage du spectre terahertz decrit bien les caracteristiques de l'antenne supraconductrice pour tous les parametres d'operation. Toutefois, le lien avec la technique pompe-sonde lors de la comparaison des proprietes intrinseques n'est pas direct malgre que les deux techniques montrent que le temps de relaxation des porteurs augmente pres de la temperature critique. Les donnees en pompe-sonde indiquent que la mesure du temps de relaxation depend de la frequence de la sonde, ce qui complique la correspondance des proprietes intrinseques entre les deux techniques. De meme, le temps de relaxation extrait a partir du spectre de l'antenne terahertz augmente en s'approchant de la temperature critique (T c) de YBa2Cu 3O7-delta. Le comportement en temperature du temps de relaxation correspond a une loi de puissance qui est fonction de l'inverse du gap supraconducteur avec un exposant 5 soit 1/Delta 5(T). Le travail presente dans cette these permet de mieux decrire les caracteristiques des antennes supraconductrices a haute temperature critique et de les relier aux proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui les compose. De plus, cette these presente les parametres a ajuster comme le courant applique, la puissance de la pompe, la temperature d'operation, etc, afin d'optimiser l'emission et les performances de ces antennes supraconductrices entre autres pour maximiser leur etendue en frequence dans une perspective d'application en spectroscopie terahertz. Cependant, plusieurs des resultats obtenus soulevent la difficulte de decrire l'etat hors-equilibre et la necessite de developper une theorie pour le supraconducteur YBa2 Cu3O7-delta

  14. Oncoplastie avec conservation mammaire dans le traitement du cancer du sein: à propos de 16 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouzoubaa, Wail; Laadioui, Meryam; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatime Zahra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est actuellement le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, et pose un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique. Le dépistage des lésions à un stade de plus en plus précoce, a permis une extension des indications du traitement conservateur radiochirurgical, qui était initialement limitées aux tumeurs de moins de 3 cm, unifocales, non inflammatoires. Par ailleurs, l'utilisation de traitements préopératoires permet d’étendre les indications du traitement conservateur à des tumeurs plus volumineuses. Parallèlement à cette extension des indications de conservation mammaire, on a observé le développement de nouvelles approches thérapeutiques notamment la chirurgie oncoplastique, technique du ganglion sentinelle et chirurgie stéréotaxique, dont les résultats initiaux sont très encouragent. A travers cette étude réalisée dans le service de gynécologie et obstétrique II du CHU HASSAN II de FES au MAROC, après l'analyse rétrospective de 16 patientes traitées par traitement conservateur et oncoplastie, nous avons voulus montrer notre aptitude a réalisé ses techniques chirurgicales et a bien prendre en charge ces patientes, mais aussi évaluer ces techniques en termes de résultat carcinologique et de résultat esthétique, aussi en terme de survie globale, survie sans métastase et en termes de récidive locale entre les plasties mammaires et les traitements usuels: mastectomie et traitement conservateur classique. PMID:26430477

  15. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier thématique sur un sujet d'actulaité, pour cette année : "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après".

  16. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  17. Thrombophlébite cérébrale inhabituelle du post-partum

    PubMed Central

    El Hassani, Moulay Elmehdi; Habib, Abdellah Baba; Kouach, Jaouad; Sekkach, Youssef; Bakkali, Hicham; Jira, Mohamed; Elqatni, Mohamed; Abouzahir, Ali; Ghafir, Dris; Moussaoui, Dris; Dehayni, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    La thrombophlébite cérébrale du post-partum immédiat constitue un événement rare et gravissime pouvant mettre en jeu le pronostic vital à court terme. Celle-ci doit être systématiquement évoquée devant la persistance d'une fièvre dans les suites de couches. La prise en charge associera le plus souvent, des antibiotiques à large spectre et des anticoagulants. Le suivi évolutif est indispensable, afin d'apprécier l'efficacité thérapeutique. A travers une observation singulière et à présentation inhabituelle, nous insistons sur le grand intérêt des moyens d'imagerie dont nous disposons afin de porter le diagnostic et de choisir le traitement le mieux adapté. PMID:25478039

  18. Maladie de Castleman: localisation inhabituelle du thorax

    PubMed Central

    Eloueriachi, Fayçal; Caidi, Mohammed; Zouaidia, Fouad; Ouchen, Fahd; Maidi, Mehdi; Fennane, Hicham; Bouchikh, Mohamed; Achir, Abdellah; Benosman, Abdellatif

    2012-01-01

    La maladie de Castleman est une affection rare qui peut toucher le thorax. La localisation diaphragmatique est exceptionnelle. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente de 47 ans, chez qui une thoracotomie exploratrice a permis l'exérèse d'une masse du sinus médiastinal antérieur droit, en continuité avec le diaphragme et dont l'histologie est en faveur de la maladie de Castleman de type hyalino-vasculaire. Les particularités cliniques, radiologiques et évolutives ont été revues. PMID:23133711

  19. Pyrrole: From Dippel to Du Pont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Hugh J.

    1995-10-01

    The preacher-alchemist Johann Konrad Dippel made an oil by the destructive distillation of bones about 1700. He proclaimed it to be a universal remedy. Much later Ferdinand Runge detected the presence of pyrrole, but not in bone oil. He observed the red color of the pine splint wet with hydrochloric acid in the vapor of coal tar distillate, and called the responsible substance pyrrole. He suggested that it might also occur in bone oil. In the mid-1880's, Thomas Anderson finally isolated pyrrole by repeated distillation of about 250 gallons of ivory oil. About the middle of this century Du Pont began to make it synthetically.

  20. Pleurésie massive après chirurgie du cancer de sein et arrêt précoce du Tamoxifène: à propos d’‘une observation

    PubMed Central

    Ngombe, Léon Kabamba; Kangulu, Ignace Bwana; Nday, Chantal Mwenze; Tshanda, Migrette Ngalula; Ngoy Lumbule, John; Matanga, Pierre Mbayo; Sampatwa, Olivier Ngoy; Nzaji, Michel Kabamba

    2014-01-01

    Nous rapportons un cas de pleurésie massive droite probablement métastasique accompagnée d'un lymphœdème du membre supérieur droit ayant fait suite à une mastectomie et curage ganglionnaire indiqués pour un carcinome lobulaire du sein droit, associée à un arrêt précoce de la prise de Tamoxifène, vécu à Lubumbashi. PMID:25374634

  1. Development of an imaging-guided CEA-pretargeted radionuclide treatment of advanced colorectal cancer: first clinical results

    PubMed Central

    Schoffelen, R; Boerman, O C; Goldenberg, D M; Sharkey, R M; van Herpen, C M L; Franssen, G M; McBride, W J; Chang, C-H; Rossi, E A; van der Graaf, W T A; Oyen, W J G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radiolabelled antibody targeting of cancer is limited by slow blood clearance. Pretargeting with a non-radiolabelled bispecific monoclonal antibody (bsMAb) followed by a rapidly clearing radiolabelled hapten peptide improves tumour localisation. The primary goals of this first pretargeting study in patients with the anti-CEACAM5 × anti-hapten (HSG) bsMAb, TF2, and the radiolabelled hapten-peptide, IMP288, were to assess optimal pretargeting conditions and safety in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Different dose schedules were studied in four cohorts of five patients: (1) shortening the interval between the bsMAb and peptide administration (5 days vs 1 day), (2) escalating the TF2 dose (from 75 to 150?mg), and (3) reducing the peptide dose (from 100 to 25??g). After confirmation of tumour targeting by 111In-IMP288, patients were treated with a bsMAb/177Lu-IMP288 cycle. Results: Rapid and selective tumour targeting of the radiolabelled peptide was visualised within 1?h, with high tumour-to-tissue ratios (>20 at 24?h). Improved tumour targeting was achieved with a 1-day interval between the administration of the bsMAb and the peptide and with the 25-?g peptide dose. High 177Lu-IMP288 doses (2.5–7.4?GBq) were well tolerated, with some manageable TF2 infusion reactions, and transient grades 3–4 thrombocytopaenia in 10% of the patients who received 177Lu-IMP288. Conclusion: This phase I study demonstrates for the first time that pretargeting with bsMAb TF2 and radiolabelled IMP288 in patients with CEA-expressing CRC is feasible and safe. With this pretargeting method, tumours are specifically and rapidly targeted. PMID:23860529

  2. SPECT with I-123 labeled F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments from monoclonal anti-CEA antibodies in colon carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Delaloye, B.; Bischof-Delaloye, A.; Grob, J.; Buchegger, F.; Halpern, S.; Von Fliedner, V.; Mach, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven patients with colorectal carcinoma were studied, 4 with primary, 7 with recurrent (1) or metastatic lesions. After injection of 1,5mg of F(ab')/sub 2/ of monoclonal anti-CEA antibodied No 35 (n=9) or 202 (n=2) labeled with I-123 (p,5n) (3-4mCi) whole body distribution was measured on anterior and posterior views at 1,6,24,48 h. SPECT was performed with a dual head device at 6,24,48 h. F(ab')/sub 2/ No 202 showed relatively high bone marrow uptake and high urinary activity (74% of injected activity in 3 days), but low liver activity (x-bar 14% of whole body activity at 24 h ). With F(ab')/sub 2/ No 35 bone marrow activity was lower, mean relative liver uptake 17% and mean urinary activity 24%. In 2 surgical specimens tumor to normal tissue ratios were measured at day 5 post injection and found to be 6,8,15,9 for one, 3,5,7,2 for the other in comparison with mucosa, serosa, fat and blood respectively. All 5 localized carcinoma were detected by ECT, the best images being obtained at 24 h. On the 6 h scans 4 patients with liver metastases showed cold lesions which became positive on the 24 h ECT in 2 of them whereas the 2 others remained doubtful. 2 patients with liver involvement showed no uptake. In 1 patient under therapy 2 small lung metastases were not detected. 2/2 bone metastases showed tracer uptake 1 of them was previously unknown. High quality images can be obtained with this method already at 24 h but the detection of metastases especially in the liver is sometimes difficult.

  3. Le spasme du sanglot chez les nourrissons

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Des enfants qui fréquentent ma clinique ont des épisodes semblables à des convulsions pendant lesquels ils pleurent et retiennent leur souffle au point de faire survenir une cyanose et de perdre conscience. Les résultats à l’examen ou aux investigations sont normaux et les pédiatres consultés ne font pas d’autres investigations. Les spasmes du sanglot sont-ils communs et quels genres d’investigations faut-il faire? Réponse Le spasme du sanglot est un trouble non épileptique paroxysmal bénin qui se produit chez les enfants en santé de six à 48 mois. Les épisodes commencent par une provocation, comme un bouleversement émotionnel ou une blessure mineure, et peuvent progresser en une retenue de la respiration, une cyanose et une syncope. Les épisodes sont extrêmement effrayants à regarder mais ont des conséquences bénignes. Une fois le diagnostic clinique posé, on recommande de faire passer un électrocardiogramme et d’exclure la possibilité d’une anémie, mais aucune autre investigation ou demande de consultation n’est nécessaire.

  4. The Pic du Midi solar survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koechlin, L.

    2015-12-01

    We carry a long term survey of the solar activity with our coronagraphic system at Pic du Midi de Bigorre in the French Pyrenees (CLIMSO). It is a set of two solar telescopes and two coronagraphs, taking one frame per minute for each of the four channels : Solar disk in H-α (656.28 nm), prominences in H-α, disk in Ca II (393.3 nm), prominences in He I (1083 nm), all year long, weather permitting. Since 2015 we also take images of the FeXIII corona (1074.7 nm) at the rate of one every 10 minutes. These images cover a large field: 1.25 solar diameter, 2k*2K pixels, and are freely downloadable form a database. The improvements made since 2015 concern an autoguiding system for better centering of the solar disk behind the coronagraphic masks, and a new Fe XIII channel at λ=1074.7 nm. In the near future we plan to provide radial velocity maps of the disc and polarimetry maps of the disk and corona. This survey took its present form in 2007 and we plan to maintain image acquisition in the same or better experimental conditions for a long period: one or several solar cycles if possible. During the partial solar eclipse of March 20, 2015, the CLIMSO instruments and the staff at Pic du Midi operating it have provided several millions internet users with real time images of the Sun and Moon during all the phenomenon.

  5. Carcinome colloïde du sein: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Laabadi, Kamilia; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatimazohra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, My Abdelilah

    2013-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas d'une tumeur colloïde du sein chez un homme. Cette situation rare interpelle par son mode de découverte. Nous avons pris en charge un homme de 60 ans atteint d'une lésion rétro-aréolaire droite classée cliniquement T4b N1 M0 et suspecte radiologiquement. L'analyse histologique (microbiopsie) a conclu à un carcinome colloïde muqueux associé à une petite composante canalaire classique de grade I de SBR du sein. Les traitements complémentaires associent mastectomie, curage, chimiothérapie, radiothérapie et hormonothérapie. Le cancer du sein est rare chez l'homme. Le carcinome colloïde est exceptionnel puisqu'il représente seulement 1 à 6% de l'ensemble des cancers du sein. Il est encore plus rare chez l'homme. Ces tumeurs touchent une population spécifique et ont un meilleur pronostic que les autres types prépondérant dans les cancers du sein chez l'homme. A travers cette observation et une revue de la littérature, nous essaierons de discuter les principales caractéristiques anatomo-cliniques et évolutives de cette forme rare du cancer du sein. PMID:24772222

  6. CEA blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  7. Brain Stem Hypoplasia Associated with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries. PMID:24265573

  8. Brain stem hypoplasia associated with Cri-du-Chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries. PMID:24265573

  9. Near Infra-Red Photoimmunotherapy with Anti-CEA-IR700 Results in Extensive Tumor Lysis and a Significant Decrease in Tumor Burden in Orthotopic Mouse Models of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maawy, Ali A.; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhang, Yong; Heim, Roger; Makings, Lew; Garcia-Guzman, Miguel; Luiken, George A.; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Photoimmunotherapy (PIT) of cancer utilizes tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies conjugated to a photosensitizer phthalocyanine dye IR700 which becomes cytotoxic upon irradiation with near infrared light. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PIT on human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo in an orthotopic nude mouse model. The binding capacity of anti-CEA antibody to BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cells was determined by FACS analysis. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay was used to determine cell death following treatment with PIT. For in vivo determination of PIT efficacy, nude mice were orthotopically implanted with BxPC-3 pancreatic tumors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). After tumor engraftment, the mice were divided into two groups: (1) treatment with anti-CEA-IR700 + 690 nm laser and (2) treatment with 690 nm laser only. Anti-CEA-IR700 (100 μg) was administered to group (1) via tail vein injection 24 hours prior to therapy. Tumors were then surgically exposed and treated with phototherapy at an intensity of 150 mW/cm2 for 30 minutes. Whole body imaging was done subsequently for 5 weeks using an OV-100 small animal imaging system. Anti-CEA-IR700 antibody bound to the BxPC3 cells to a high degree as shown by FACS analysis. Anti-CEA-IR700 caused extensive cancer cell killing after light activation compared to control cells in cytotoxicity assays. In the orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer, the anti-CEA-IR700 group had significantly smaller tumors than the control after 5 weeks (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the body weights of mice in the anti-CEA-IR700 and control groups indicating that PIT was well tolerated by the mice. PMID:25799218

  10. CEA/CD3 bispecific antibody MEDI-565/AMG 211 activation of T cells and subsequent killing of human tumors is independent of mutations commonly found in colorectal adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Oberst, Michael D; Fuhrmann, Stacy; Mulgrew, Kathy; Amann, Maria; Cheng, Lily; Lutterbuese, Petra; Richman, Laura; Coats, Steve; Baeuerle, Patrick A; Hammond, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Individual or combinations of somatic mutations found in genes from colorectal cancers can redirect the effects of chemotherapy and targeted agents on cancer cell survival and, consequently, on clinical outcome. Novel therapeutics with mechanisms of action that are independent of mutational status would therefore fulfill a current unmet clinical need. Here the CEA and CD3 bispecific single-chain antibody MEDI-565 (also known as MT111 and AMG 211) was evaluated for its ability to activate T cells both in vitro and in vivo and to kill human tumor cell lines harboring various somatic mutations commonly found in colorectal cancers. MEDI-565 specifically bound to normal and malignant tissues in a CEA-specific manner, and only killed CEA positive cells. The BiTE® antibody construct mediated T cell-directed killing of CEA positive tumor cells within 6 hours, at low effector-to-target ratios which were independent of high concentrations of soluble CEA. The potency of in vitro lysis was dependent on CEA antigen density but independent of the mutational status in cancer cell lines. Importantly, individual or combinations of mutated KRAS and BRAF oncogenes, activating PI3KCA mutations, loss of PTEN expression, and loss-of-function mutations in TP53 did not reduce the activity in vitro. MEDI-565 also prevented growth of human xenograft tumors which harbored various mutations. These findings suggest that MEDI-565 represents a potential treatment option for patients with CEA positive tumors of diverse origin, including those with individual or combinations of somatic mutations that may be less responsive to chemotherapy and other targeted agents. PMID:25484061

  11. Near infra-red photoimmunotherapy with anti-CEA-IR700 results in extensive tumor lysis and a significant decrease in tumor burden in orthotopic mouse models of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Maawy, Ali A; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhang, Yong; Heim, Roger; Makings, Lew; Garcia-Guzman, Miguel; Luiken, George A; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Photoimmunotherapy (PIT) of cancer utilizes tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies conjugated to a photosensitizer phthalocyanine dye IR700 which becomes cytotoxic upon irradiation with near infrared light. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PIT on human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo in an orthotopic nude mouse model. The binding capacity of anti-CEA antibody to BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cells was determined by FACS analysis. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay was used to determine cell death following treatment with PIT. For in vivo determination of PIT efficacy, nude mice were orthotopically implanted with BxPC-3 pancreatic tumors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). After tumor engraftment, the mice were divided into two groups: (1) treatment with anti-CEA-IR700 + 690 nm laser and (2) treatment with 690 nm laser only. Anti-CEA-IR700 (100 ?g) was administered to group (1) via tail vein injection 24 hours prior to therapy. Tumors were then surgically exposed and treated with phototherapy at an intensity of 150 mW/cm2 for 30 minutes. Whole body imaging was done subsequently for 5 weeks using an OV-100 small animal imaging system. Anti-CEA-IR700 antibody bound to the BxPC3 cells to a high degree as shown by FACS analysis. Anti-CEA-IR700 caused extensive cancer cell killing after light activation compared to control cells in cytotoxicity assays. In the orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer, the anti-CEA-IR700 group had significantly smaller tumors than the control after 5 weeks (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the body weights of mice in the anti-CEA-IR700 and control groups indicating that PIT was well tolerated by the mice. PMID:25799218

  12. Le mouvement du pôle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Les variations de la rotation terrestre. En conditionnant à la fois notre vie quotidienne, notre perception du ciel, et bon nombre de phénomènes géophysiques comme la formation des cyclones, la rotation de la Terre se trouve au croisement de plusieurs disciplines. Si le phenomena se faisait uniformément, le sujet serait vite discuté, mais c'est parce que la rotation terrestre varie, même imperceptiblement pour nos sens, dans sa vitesse angulaire comme dans la direction de son axe, qu'elle suscite un grand intérêt. D'abord pour des raisons pratiques : non seulement les aléas de la rotation terrestre modi_ent à la longue les pointés astrométriques à un instant donné de la journée mais in_uencent aussi les mesures opérées par les techniques spatiales ; en consequence l'exploitation de ces mesures, par exemple pour déterminer les orbites des satellites impliqués ou pratiquer le positionnement au sol, nécessite une connaissance précise de ces variations. Plus fondamentalement, elles traduisent les propriétés globales de la Terre comme les processus physiques qui s'y déroulent, si bien qu'en analysant les causes des fluctuations observées, on dispose d'un moyen de mieux connaître notre globe. La découverte progressive des fluctuations de la rotation de la Terre a une longue histoire. Sous l'angle des techniques d'observation, trois époques se pro-celle du pointé astrométrique à l'oeil nu, à l'aide d'instruments en bois ou métalliques (quart de cercle muraux par exemple). À partir du XVIIe siècle débute l'astrométrie télescopique dont les pointés sont complétés par des datations de plus en plus précises grâce à l'invention d'horloges régulées par balancier. Cette deuxième époque se termine vers 1960, avec l'avènement des techniques spatiales : les pointés astrométriques sont délaissés au profit de la mesure ultra-précise de durées ou de fréquences de signaux électromagnétiques, grâce à l'invention des horloges atomiques. Ces progrès techniques, combinés aux développements de la mécanique newtonienne, vont d'abord révéler la nature astronomique des fluctuations de la rotation terrestre, puis à la fin du XIXe siècle l'immixtion de causes géophysiques.

  13. Classification moléculaire du cancer du sein au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Abbass; Yousra, Akasbi; Kaoutar, Znati; Omar, El Mesbahi; Afaf, Amarti; Sanae, Bennis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La classification moléculaire des cancers du sein basée sur l'expression génique puis sur le profil protéique a permis de distinguer cinq groupes moléculaires: luminal A, luminal B, Her2/neu, basal-like et non-classées. L'objectif de cette étude réalisée au CHU Hassan II de Fès est de classer 335 cancers du sein infiltrant en groupes moléculaires, puis de les corréler avec les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques. Méthodes Etude rétrospective étalée sur 45 mois, comportant 335 patientes colligées au CHU pour le diagnostic et le suivi. Les tumeurs sont analysées histologiquement et classées après une étude immunohistochimique en groupes: luminal A, luminal B, Her2+, basal-like et non-classées. Résultats 54.3% des tumeurs sont du groupe luminal A, 16% luminal B, 11.3% Her2+, 11.3% basal-like et 7% non-classées. Le groupe luminal A renferme le plus faible taux de grade III, d'emboles vasculaires ainsi que de métastases; alors que le groupe des non-classées et basal-like représentent un taux élevé de grade III, une faible proportion d'emboles vasculaires et d'envahissement ganglionnaire. Ces facteurs sont significativement élevés dans les groupes luminal B et Her2+ avec un taux de survie globale de 78% et 76% respectivement. Dans le groupe luminal A, la survie globale des patientes est élevée (87%) alors qu'elle n'est que de 49% dans le groupe des triples négatifs (basal-like et non-classés). Conclusion Le groupe luminal B est différent du luminal A et il est de pronostic péjoratif vis à vis du groupe Her2+. Les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques concordent avec le profil moléculaire donc devraient être pris en considération comme facteurs pronostiques. PMID:23396646

  14. Le traumatisme du colon: l'expérience du CHU Hassan II de Fès

    PubMed Central

    Benjelloun, El Bachir; Hafid, Hasnai; Karim, Ibnmajdoub; Ousadden, Abdelmalek; Mazaz, Khalid; Taleb, Kahlid Ait

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Les traumatismes du colon sont associés à un risque majeur de complications septiques et de mortalité. Le but de notre étude est d’évaluer les circonstances, la prise en charge, le suivi et les facteurs pronostic de morbidité postopératoire des malades victimes d'un traumatisme colique. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective sur une série de 49 patients opérés pour des plaies coliques aux services de chirurgie viscérale du CHU HASSAN II de Fès sur une période de 8 ans de juillet 2003 à juillet 2011. Résultats L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 25ans (16-70) avec une nette prédominance masculine (93.8%). Les plaies coliques secondaires à un traumatisme par arme blanche représentent 85% des cas (42 patients), suivi par les plaies iatrogènes au cours d'une coloscopie chez 6 patients (13%), puis les contusions abdominales chez 1 patient (2%). Les parties du cadre colique les plus touchées étaient le colon transverse chez 19 patients (38%) et le colon descendant chez 12 patients (24, 5%). Le colon sigmoïde était le segment le plus touché au cours d'une coloscopie4/6. Quarante-deux patients (85%) ont eu une suture primaire des plaies coliques, six patients (13%) une diversion fécale et un patient (2%) une résection-anastomose. Deux patients (4%) sont décédés suite à un choc septique. La morbidité globale était de 38,7% dominé essentiellement par l'infection de la paroi chez 14 patients et une péritonite post opératoire chez 3 patients. L'analyse univarié a montré une différence significatif en terme d'infection de la paroi entre le groupe colostomie versus suture simple (50% vs 20,9% p<0,05). L'atteinte du colon gauche et la réalisation d'une colostomie sont associés à un risque plus élevés de complications postopératoires. Conclusion La suture primaire peut être effectuée avec un faible taux de complications postopératoire chez la majorité des patients suite à un traumatisme du colon. PMID:23346275

  15. The Astrographic Catalogue and the Carte du Ciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschek, C.

    1985-11-01

    Answers to a circular letter concerning the Astrographic Catalogue and the Carte du Ciel from Alger (A. Ghezloun), Catania (C. Blanco), Cordoba (G. Carranza), Greenwich (P. J. Andrews), Paris (J. Delhaye), Sydney (A. E. Vaughan), Toulouse (R. Nadal).

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Cri-du-chat syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... people of all ethnic backgrounds. What are the genetic changes related to cri-du-chat syndrome? Cri- ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...

  17. Traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum par plaque vissée

    PubMed Central

    Hammou, Nassreddine; Abid, Hatim; Shimi, Mohammed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures du calcanéum sont peu fréquentes mais le plus souvent graves. Le traitement chirurgical par plaque vissée est ardemment défendu. L'objectif de notre travail rétrospectif est d’évaluer les résultats du traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum à travers une série de 12 patients opérée aux service d'orthopédie du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une durée de 3 ans, et les comparer aux données de la littérature. L’âge moyen dans notre série était de 34 ans, le geste opératoire était réalisé au 7ème jour. Tous nos patient ont bénéficie d'une réduction à foyer ouvert avec une ostéosynthèse par plaques vissées. Le recul moyen était de 12 mois et les résultats fonctionnels ont été évaluer selon le score de Kitaoka. PMID:26161214

  18. 76 FR 68124 - Television Broadcasting Services; Fond du Lac, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Fond du Lac, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission denies a petition...

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere (papers in Philadelphia Library) DRAWING OF REDWOOD LIBRARY IN 1768. - Redwood Library, 50 Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Newport County, RI

  20. Lymphome primitif du sein: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Njoumi, Noureddine; Najih, Mohamed; Haqqi, Laila; Atolou, Gilles; Bougtab, Abdessalm; Hachi, Hafid; Benjelloun, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Le lymphome primitif du sein est une entité histologique très rare du cancer du sein. Les aspects cliniques et radiologiques ne présentent pas de spécificités particulières. Le diagnostic est souvent retardé. Le traitement se base essentiellement sur la chimiothérapie. Le pronostic est globalement péjoratif. Nous rapportons un cas de lymphome malin non Hodgkinien primitif du sein chez une patiente de 38 ans. Parallèlement une revue de la littérature est entreprise évoquant les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques et thérapeutiques de ce néoplasme. PMID:22937198

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Cri-du-chat syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... du-chat syndrome? 5p deletion syndrome 5p- syndrome cat cry syndrome chromosome 5p- syndrome monosomy 5p For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming ...

  2. The Cri-Du-Chat Syndrome: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Stewart C.; Christie, Margarette A.

    1987-01-01

    The developmental history of a 14-year-old girl with Cri-Du-Chat Syndrome (a genetic disorder characterized by a distinctive cry and severe physical and intellectual disabilities) is reported. (Author/DB)

  3. The Career Development Program at Du Pont's Pioneering Research Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusbaum, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the Career Development Program, designed to help professional employees accept responsibility for their own careers, located at Du Pont's Pioneering Research Laboratory. Covers the concepts governing the program, program elements, and working with management to address program goals. (CH)

  4. Strangulation du colon sigmoïdien par un testicule ectopique géant

    PubMed Central

    Sanogo, Zimogo; Koita, Adama; Camara, Moussa; Soumaré, Lamine; Kamaté, Bakarou; Doumbia, Dieneba; Ouattara, Zanafon; Tembely, Ali; Yena, Sadio; Coulibaly, Youssouf; Sangaré, Djibril

    2012-01-01

    Les causes de volvulus du colon sigmoïde sont variées et parmi elles la strangulation est des plus fréquentes dans notre contexte d’exercice. Les lésions vues tard permettent très rarement un traitement sans résection. La survenue d’un volvulus du colon sigmoïde autour d’un pédicule de testicule géant ectopique est une première que nous rapportons dans cette étude de cas. PMID:22593796

  5. Peters anomaly in cri-du-chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hope, William C; Cordovez, Jose A; Capasso, Jenina E; Hammersmith, Kristin M; Eagle, Ralph C; Lall-Trail, Joel; Levin, Alex V

    2015-06-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by deletions in the short arm of chromosome 5. It presents with a distinctive catlike high-pitched cry, psychomotor delays, microcephaly, craniofacial abnormalities, and, in many cases, ocular findings. We report the first child with cri-du-chat and the findings of unilateral corneal staphyloma due to Peters anomaly and retinal dysplasia. PMID:26059676

  6. Determination of periodontopathogens in patients with Cri du chat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ballesta-Mudarra, Sofía; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Rodríguez-Caballero, Ángela; Yáñez-Vico, Rosa M.; Solano-Reina, Enrique; Perea-Pérez, Evelio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Cri du chat syndrome is a genetic alteration associated with some oral pathologies. However, it has not been described previously any clinical relationship between the periodontal disease and the syndrome. The purpose of this comparative study was to compare periodontopathogenic flora in a group with Cri du chat syndrome and another without the síndrome, to assess a potential microbiological predisposition to suffer a periodontitis. Study Design: The study compared nineteen subjects with Cri du chat Syndrome with a control group of nineteen patients without it. All patients were clinically evaluated by periodontal probing, valuing the pocket depth, the clinical attachmente level and bleeding on probing. There were no significant differences between both groups. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola were detected by multiplex-PCR using 16S rDNA (microIDENT). Results: When A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia and T. denticola were compared, no statistically significant differences were found between the two groups (p>0.05). The value of T. forsythia was significantly higher for Cri du chat syndrome (31.6%) than for the control group (5.3%). The odds ratio for T. forsythia was 8.3. Conclusions: In the present study T. forsythia is associated with Cri du chat syndrome subjects and not with healthy subjects. Key words:Cri du Chat syndrome, periodontal health, microbiology, special care dentistry. PMID:24121919

  7. Gene therapy for human colorectal carcinoma using human CEA promoter controled bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxin genes: PEA and DTA gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guang-Wen; Qi, Zhong-Tian; Pan, Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Miao, Xiao-Hui; Feng, Yan; Lu, Xin-Hua; Shigeki, Kuriyama; Ping, Du

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To establish a tissue-specific gene therapy for colorectal carcinoma using bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxin genes. METHODS: Pseudomonas exotoxin A domain II +III (PEA) was cloned from genomic DNA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PEA and diphtheria toxin A chain gene (DTA) were modified to express eukaryotically. After sequencing, the toxin genes under the control of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) promoter were cloned into retroviral vectors to construct CEAPEA and CEADTA respectively. In vitro cotransfection of the constructs with luciferase vectors and in vivo gene transfer in nude mice were subsequently carried out. RESULTS: Both CEAPEA and CEADTA specifically inhibited the reporter gene expression in the CEA positive human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells in vitro. Direct injection of CEAPEA and CEADTA constructs into the established human tumors in BALB/c nude mice led to significant and selective reductions in CRC tumor size as compared with that in control groups. CONCLUSION: The toxin genes, working as therapeutic genes, are suitable for the tissue-specific gene therapy for colorectal carcinoma. PMID:11819328

  8. The effect of high level natural ionizing radiation on expression of PSA, CA19-9 and CEA tumor markers in blood serum of inhabitants of Ramsar, Iran.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Porghasem, Mohsen; Mirzaei, Nazanin; Mohseni, Jafar Hesam; Heidari, Matine; Azargashb, Eznollah; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Heidari, Reihane; Molouki, Aidin; Larijani, Leila

    2014-02-01

    Since several high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) exist on our planet, considerable attention has been drawn to health issues that may develop as the result of visiting or living in such places. City of Ramsar in Iran is an HNLRA, and is a tourist attraction mainly due to its hot spas. However, the growing awareness over its natural radiation sources has prompted widespread scientific investigation at national level. In this study, using an ELISA method, the level of expression of three tumor markers known as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and carcino antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in blood serum of 40 local men of Ramsar (subject group) was investigated and compared to 40 men from the city of Noshahr (control group). Noshahr was previously identified as a normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA) that is some 85 km far from Ramsar. According to statistical analysis, there was a significant difference in the levels of PSA and CA19-9 markers between the two groups (p < 0.001) with those of Ramsar being considerably higher. CEA level did not show any difference. Although some of the volunteers tested positive to the markers, they were in good health as confirmed by the physician. Moreover, the high number of positive markers in Noshahr was considerable. Therefore, future study is needed to further validate this result and to determine the level of positivity to tumor markers in both cities. PMID:24292395

  9. Concordance of Hypermethylated DNA and the Tumor Markers CA 15-3, CEA, and TPA in Serum during Monitoring of Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Lars Mønster; Hansen, Morten Høgh; Nielsen, Dorte; Sölétormos, György

    2015-01-01

    The serological protein tumor markers CA 15-3, CEA, and TPA are frequently used to monitor tumor burden among metastatic breast cancer patients. Breast cancer is associated with global DNA hypomethylation and hypermethylation of some promoter regions. No monitoring study has yet investigated the interrelationship between protein tumor markers, the global DNA hypomethylation, and hypermethylated genes in serum from patients with advanced disease. Twenty-nine patients with histologically proven advanced breast cancer received first-line chemotherapy with epirubicin. Samples were collected prior to each treatment and prospectively analyzed for CA 15-3, CEA, and TPA. The same samples were retrospectively analyzed for the concentration of hypermethylated RASSF1A and for global DNA hypomethylation using LINE-1. Among patients with elevated concentrations of the protein markers, concordance could be observed between serial changes of the hypermethylated RASSF1A gene and the protein markers. Among patients with lower concentrations, RASSF1A could only be detected periodically. There was discordance between changes of the hypomethylated LINE-1 as compared to the protein markers. Circulating hypermethylated RASSF1A and protein markers may have similar kinetics during monitoring of tumor burden. Further investigations are needed to determine whether any of the hypermethylated DNA genes may provide predictive information during monitoring. PMID:26339655

  10. Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay for CEA through host-guest interaction of ?-cyclodextrin functionalized graphene and Cu@Ag core-shell nanoparticles with adamantine-modified antibody.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Guo, Zhankui; Su, Fengjie; Gao, Liang; Pang, Xuehui; Cao, Wei; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2015-01-15

    A novel non-enzymatic immunoassay was designed for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) using ?-cyclodextrin functionalized Cu@Ag (Cu@Ag-CD) core-shell nanoparticles as labels and ?-cyclodextrin functionalized graphene nanosheet (CD-GN) as sensor platform. CD-GN has excellent conductivity which promoted the electric transmission between base solution and electrode surface and enhanced sensitivity of immunosensor. In addition, owing to supramolecular recognition of CD-GN for the guest molecule, quite a few synthesized adamantine-modified primary antibodies (ADA-Ab1) were immobilized on the CD-GN by supramolecular host-guest interaction between CD and ADA. Cu@Ag-CD as a signal tag could be captured by ADA-modified secondary antibody (ADA-Ab2) through a host-guest interaction, leading to a large loading of Cu@Ag nanoparticles with high electrical conductivity and catalytic activity. The fabricated immunosensor exhibits excellent analytical performance for the measurement of CEA with wide range linear (0.0001-20 ng/mL), low detection limit (20 fg/mL), good sensitivity, reproducibility and stability, which provide an enormous application prospect in clinical diagnostics. PMID:25129508

  11. Insect evolution.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    It goes without saying that insects epitomize diversity, and with over a million documented species they stand out as one of the most remarkable lineages in the 3.5-billion-year history of life on earth (Figure 1). This reality is passé to even the layperson and is taken for granted in the same way none of us think much of our breathing as we go about our day, and yet insects are just as vital to our existence. Insects are simultaneously familiar and foreign to us, and while a small fraction are beloved or reviled, most are simply ignored. These inexorable evolutionary overachievers outnumber us all, their segmented body plan is remarkably labile, they combine a capacity for high rates of speciation with low levels of natural extinction, and their history of successes eclipses those of the more familiar ages of dinosaurs and mammals alike. It is their evolution - persisting over vast expanses of geological time and inextricably implicated in the diversification of other lineages - that stands as one of the most expansive subjects in biology. PMID:26439349

  12. Viral evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Kyung Mo; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Explaining the origin of viruses remains an important challenge for evolutionary biology. Previous explanatory frameworks described viruses as founders of cellular life, as parasitic reductive products of ancient cellular organisms or as escapees of modern genomes. Each of these frameworks endow viruses with distinct molecular, cellular, dynamic and emergent properties that carry broad and important implications for many disciplines, including biology, ecology and epidemiology. In a recent genome-wide structural phylogenomic analysis, we have shown that large-to-medium-sized viruses coevolved with cellular ancestors and have chosen the evolutionary reductive route. Here we interpret these results and provide a parsimonious hypothesis for the origin of viruses that is supported by molecular data and objective evolutionary bioinformatic approaches. Results suggest two important phases in the evolution of viruses: (1) origin from primordial cells and coexistence with cellular ancestors, and (2) prolonged pressure of genome reduction and relatively late adaptation to the parasitic lifestyle once virions and diversified cellular life took over the planet. Under this evolutionary model, new viral lineages can evolve from existing cellular parasites and enhance the diversity of the world’s virosphere. PMID:23550145

  13. Analyse du comportement thermique du sol d'une serre agricole par simulation dynamique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteil, C.; Amouroux, M.

    1997-02-01

    The overall energetical behaviour of a greenhouse is significantly affected by diurnal storage and nocturnal release of energy inside the soil, which is the only element with high thermal capacitance. Its specific part is analysed with a pre-existing dynamic simulation model. The first part of this paper studies the effects of 4kinds of heating exchangers along each month of an entire cultivation period: hot air convector, aerial metallic pipes with hot water circulation, radiant mulch or buried pipes with warm water circulation. The second part develops the hourly behaviour of both greenhouse and soil during a cold standard-day with each of the 4exchangers. The third part is a sensibility study to various classes of factors in the case of hot air convector exchanger: climatic environment, control policy, intrinsic properties of the greenhouse (soil characteristics, crop density, cover transparency). Le comportement énergétique global d'une serre agricole est influencé de manière parfois importante par le stockage diurne et la restitution nocturne d'énergie au sein de son sol, seul élément à grande capacité thermique. Le rôle spécifique joué par le sol est analysé en appliquant un modèle de simulation dynamique déjà existant. Une première partie compare les effets de 4types d'échangeurs de chauffage sur chaque mois d'une période de culture : aérotherme, tubes aériens à circulation d'eau chaude, paillage radiant ou tubes enterrés à circulation d'eau tiède. Une seconde partie développe le comportement horaire de la serre et du sol pour une journée-type froide en présence de chacun des échangeurs. Une troisième partie précise la sensibilité du bilan thermique de la serre et du sol à différents types de facteurs dans le cas d'un échangeur par aérotherme: environnement climatique, politique de contrôle de la serre, propriétés intrinsèques de la serre (caractéristiques du sol, densité de culture, transparence de la couverture).

  14. La genèse du concept de champ quantique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrigol, O.

    This is a historical study of the roots of a concept which has proved to be essential in modern particle physics : the concept of quantum field. The first steps were accomplished by two young theoreticians : Pascual Jordan quantized the free electromagnetic field in 1925 by means of the formal rules of the just discovered matrix mechanics, and Paul Dirac quantized the whole system charges + field in 1927. Using Dirac's equation for electrons (1928) and Jordan's idea of quantized matter waves (second quantization), Werner Heisenberg and Wolfgang Pauli provided in 1929-1930 an extension of Dirac's radiation theory and the proof of its relativistic invariance. Meanwhile Enrico Fermi discovered independently a more elegant and pedagogical formulation. To appreciate the degree of historical necessity of the quantization of fields, and the value of contemporaneous critics to this approach, it was necessary to investigate some of the history of the old radiation theory. We present the various arguments however provisional or naïve or wrong they could be in retrospect. So we hope to contribute to a more vivid picture of notions which, once deprived of their historical setting, might seem abstruse to the modern user. Nous présentons une étude historique des origines d'un concept devenu essentiel dans la physique moderne des particules : le concept de champ quantique. Deux jeunes théoriciens franchirent les premières étapes : Pascual Jordan quantifia le champ électromagnétique en 1925 grâce aux règles formelles de la mécanique des matrices naissante, et Paul Dirac quantifia le système complet charges + champ en 1927. Au moyen de l'équation de l'électron de Dirac (1928) et de l'idée de Jordan d'ondes de matière quantifiées (deuxième quantification), Werner Heisenberg et Wolfgang Pauli donnèrent en 1929-1930 une extension de la théorie du rayonnement de Dirac et la preuve de son invariance relativiste. Pendant ce temps Enrico Fermi découvrit indépendamment une formulation plus élégante et plus pédagogique. Pour apprécier le degré de nécessité historique de la quantification des champs et la valeur des critiques contemporaines à cette approche, nous avons dû analyser quelques points de l'histoire de l'ancienne théorie du rayonnement. Nous présentons les divers arguments quelque provisoires, naïfs ou faux qu'ils puissent sembler aujourd'hui. Ainsi nous espérons brosser un tableau plus vivant de notions menacées d'hermétisme si l'on oublie leurs fondements historiques.

  15. Analyse Statistique des Anisotropies du Fond Diffus Cosmologique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douspis, Marian

    2000-12-01

    Les détections de fluctuations de température du fond diffus cosmologique (CMB pour''Cosmic Microwave Background'' ) s'accumulent depuis près de 10 ans.La connaissance du spectre angulaire des fluctuations nous permet d'avoir accès à la physique de l'universlorsqu'il avait environ100 000 ans et donc de déterminerles paramètres cosmologiques.Ce manuscrit présentedifférentes méthodes statistiques qui permettent de passer de l'information disponible sur les observations du CMB aux paramètres cosmologiques. Après unedescription du CMB au sein du modèle du Big-Bang et de l'inflation, je montre que la méthode de vraisemblance permet d'estimer les puissances en bande ou les paramètres cosmologiques à partir d'une carte ou d'un ensemble de pixels (étude des expériences COBE, MAX et Saskatoon).Ensuite, je décris les méthodes qui permettent d'utiliser les puissances en bandedes observations du CMB publiées dans la littérature pour déterminer les paramètres cosmologiques. Ces méthodes sont plus rapides que l'analyse de vraisemblance mais supposent différentes hypothèses sur lesquelles j'insiste. A partir des analyses de vraisemblance que j'ai effectuées, j'ai pu développé d'une part, uneméthode approximative quipermet de mieuxreproduire la forme de la fonction de vraisemblance, et d'autre part une nouvelle technique pour estimer la qualité d'ajustement des modèles préférés. Ces techniques ont été appliquées sur les données actuelles,incluant les plus récentes BOOMERANG et MAXIMA, pour déterminer les paramètres cosmologiques. Les conclusions sont présentées dans ce mémoire.Enfin, une dernière partie est dédiée à l'expérience ARCHEOPS, expérience ballon basée sur la technologie de Planck.

  16. The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS): Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoville, N.; Aussel, H.; Brusa, M.; Capak, P.; Carollo, C. M.; Elvis, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Guzzo, L.; Hasinger, G.; Impey, C.; Kneib, J.-P.; LeFevre, O.; Lilly, S. J.; Mobasher, B.; Renzini, A.; Rich, R. M.; Sanders, D. B.; Schinnerer, E.; Schminovich, D.; Shopbell, P.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tyson, N. D.

    2007-09-01

    The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) is designed to probe the correlated evolution of galaxies, star formation, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and dark matter (DM) with large-scale structure (LSS) over the redshift range z>0.5-6. The survey includes multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopy from X-ray-to-radio wavelengths covering a 2 deg2 area, including HST imaging. Given the very high sensitivity and resolution of these data sets, COSMOS also provides unprecedented samples of objects at high redshift with greatly reduced cosmic variance, compared to earlier surveys. Here we provide a brief overview of the survey strategy, the characteristics of the major COSMOS data sets, and a summary the science goals. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555 also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA; the European Southern Observatory under Large Program 175.A-0839, Chile; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which are operated by the AURA, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.; and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope with MegaPrime/MegaCam operated as a joint project by the CFHT Corporation, CEA/DAPNIA, the NRC and CADC of Canada, the CNRS of France, TERAPIX, and the University of Hawaii.

  17. Cri du chat syndrome: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Angela; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Rodríguez-Pérez, Antonio; Serrera-Figallo, María-Angeles; Hernández-Guisado, José-María; Machuca-Portillo, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    A new syndrome was identified in 1963, when Lejeune et al. reported a genetic disease resulting from a partial or total deletion on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-) and named it the cri du chat syndrome (CdCS). This term makes reference to the main clinical feature of the syndrome, a high-pitched monochromatic cat-like crying, that usually disappears in the first years of life. CdCS is one of the most common chromosomal deletion syndromes in humans, with an incidence of 1:15.000-1:50.000 live-births. Our purpose was to review different aspects of this syndrome (concept, epidemiology, aetiology, clinical features, diagnostic methods and prognosis) emphasizing both: the breakthrough in this field introduced by new cytogenetic and molecular techniques, and the orofacial manifestations most frequently reported. The main orofacial anomalies registered were mandibular microretrognathia, high palate but rarely cleft, variable malocclusion (frequently anterior open-bite), enamel hypoplasia, poor oral hygiene, generalized chronic periodontitis, and retardation of tooth eruption, although there is not enough evidence to support any clear association between these pathologies and the CdCS. PMID:20038906

  18. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique: une localisation exceptionnelle

    PubMed Central

    Hamdane, Mohamed Moncef; Bougrine, Fethi; Msakni, Issam; Dhaoui-Ghozzi, Amen; Bouziani, Ammar

    2011-01-01

    L’ hydatidose est une anthropo-zoonose due au développement chez l'homme de la forme larvaire du taenia Echinococcus granulosis. La plupart des kystes hydatiques se localisent dans le foie et les poumons. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique est extrêmement rare avec seulement 4 cas rapportés dans la littérature. Les auteurs rapportent dans cet article un nouveau cas d'hydatidose du cordon spermatique. Il s'agissait d'un homme de 40 ans qui consultait pour des douleurs scrotales évoluant depuis huit mois. L'examen clinique a mis en évidence une tuméfaction mobile, inguino-scrotale, droite. L’échographie testiculaire a objectivé une hernie inguinale droite associée à deux kystes épididymaires bilatéraux. Le patient a été opéré pour cure de son hernie avec découverte en per-opératoire d'un kyste du cordon spermatique qui a été réséqué. L'examen anatomopathologique a conclu à une hydatidose du cordon spermatique. PMID:22384304

  19. 78 FR 37652 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kenosha, Racine, Milwaukee, Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond Du...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ..., Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond Du Lac, Winnebago, Outagamie and Brown Counties, Wisconsin AGENCY... proposed Interstate conversion of U.S. Highway 41 in Milwaukee, Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond du Lac... 41 to an Interstate in Milwaukee, Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond du Lac, Winnebago, Outagamie,...

  20. Pension benefits for Du Pont employees at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-24

    The purpose of the audit was to evaluate issues concerning the E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (Du Pont) pension benefits settlement upon expiration of its contract with the Department of Energy (Department), at which time the Department is obligated to ensure that Du Pont retirees receive their pensions over the ensuing years. The contract expires on March 31, 1989.

  1. Vissage percutané du scaphoïde carpien par vis de Herbert - à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abbassi, Najib; Abdeljawad, Najib; Erraji, Moncef; Abdelillah, Rachid; Daoudi, Abdelkrim; Yacoubi, Hicham

    2013-01-01

    Les fractures du scaphoïde carpien sont de diagnostic et de traitement difficiles. Les auteurs rapportent les résultats du traitement de ces fractures par le vissage percutané par la vis de Herbert. Les résultats étaient intéressants vu la rapidité de consolidation et la qualité du résultat fonctionnel. PMID:23717726

  2. Franchissement du seuil dans un laser monomode à milieu actif homogène : étude spectrale auto-cohérente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Y. G.

    2006-10-01

    Nous présentons une étude auto-cohérente du franchissement du seuil dans un laser monomode à milieu actif homogène. Nous obtenons pour la puissance, la longueur d'onde et la largeur de raie des expressions universelles en coordonnées normalisées, continûment valables de part et d'autre du seuil.

  3. Modelisation du Signal Radar EN Milieu Stratifie et Evaluation de Techniques de Mesure de L'humidite du Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Johanne

    La presente etude se penche sur des problemes relies a l'echantillonnage de l'humidite de sol et a l'estimation du signal radar sur sols nus. Le travail se divise en deux volets. Le volet 1 evalue trois techniques de mesure de l'humidite du sol (gravimetrie, reflectometrie temporelle et sonde dielectrique) et deux protocoles d'echantillonnage. Dans le volet 2, un modele de simulation du signal en milieu stratifie est developpe, et les estimes de signal obtenus sont compares aux estimes bases uniquement sur une valeur moyenne d'humidite du sol prise sur une profondeur fixe d'echantillonnage. Les differences entre les deux estimes dependent de la frequence et du choix judicieux de la profondeur d'echantillonnage; elles sont plus importantes aux faibles angles et en polarisation HV, puis VV. Le modele de simulation a aussi ete utilise pour etudier la profondeur de penetration du signal et en deduire la profondeur optimale d'echantillonnage en tenant compte des caracteristiques du signal. Une variation de 25 ^circ de l'angle d'incidence a peu d'effet sur la profondeur de penetration en bande Ku; l'ecart reste inferieur ou egal a 0,5 cm en bande C mais peut atteindre 1,3 cm en bande L. L'impact de la polarisation est nul en bande Ku mais croi t avec l'angle d'incidence en bande C et L. A 50^circ, il est, en moyenne de 1 cm en bande C et de 2 cm en bande L. En polarisation VV, la profondeur croi t avec une augmentation de l'angle alors que l'effet est inverse en polarisation HH. Deux methodes pour estimer la profondeur d'echantillonnage en conditions operationnelles sont presentees. Lorsqu'on inverse un modele pour estimer l'humidite du sol a partir du signal, ces methodes permettent aussi d'estimer l'epaisseur de sol representee par l'humidite ainsi estimee.

  4. Systems assessment of water savings impact of controlled environment agriculture (CEA) utilizing wirelessly networked Sense•Decide•Act•Communicate (SDAC) systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Jonathan T.; Baynes, Edward E., Jr.; Aguirre,Carlos; Jordan, Jon; Giacomelli, Gene; Waggoner, Justin; Loest, Clint; Szumel, Leo; Nakaoka, Tyler; Pate, Ronald C.; Berry, Nina M.; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Aguirre, Francisco Luis; Aguilar, Jose; Gupta, Vipin P.; Ochoa, Juan; Davis, Jesse Zehring; Ramos, Damian

    2005-02-01

    Reducing agricultural water use in arid regions while maintaining or improving economic productivity of the agriculture sector is a major challenge. Controlled environment agriculture (CEA, or, greenhouse agriculture) affords advantages in direct resource use (less land and water required) and productivity (i.e., much higher product yield and quality per unit of resources used) relative to conventional open-field practices. These advantages come at the price of higher operating complexity and costs per acre. The challenge is to implement and apply CEA such that the productivity and resource use advantages will sufficiently outweigh the higher operating costs to provide for overall benefit and viability. This project undertook an investigation of CEA for livestock forage production as a water-saving alternative to open-field forage production in arid regions. Forage production is a large consumer of fresh water in many arid regions of the world, including the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. With increasing competition among uses (agriculture, municipalities, industry, recreation, ecosystems, etc.) for limited fresh water supplies, agricultural practice alternatives that can potentially maintain or enhance productivity while reducing water use warrant consideration. The project established a pilot forage production greenhouse facility in southern New Mexico based on a relatively modest and passive (no active heating or cooling) system design pioneered in Chihuahua, Mexico. Experimental operations were initiated in August 2004 and carried over into early-FY05 to collect data and make initial assessments of operational and technical system performance, assess forage nutrition content and suitability for livestock, identify areas needing improvement, and make initial assessment of overall feasibility. The effort was supported through the joint leveraging of late-start FY04 LDRD funds and bundled CY2004 project funding from the New Mexico Small Business Technical Assistance program at Sandia. Despite lack of optimization with the project system, initial results show the dramatic water savings potential of hydroponic forage production compared with traditional irrigated open field practice. This project produced forage using only about 4.5% of the water required for equivalent open field production. Improved operation could bring water use to 2% or less. The hydroponic forage production system and process used in this project are labor intensive and not optimized for minimum water usage. Freshly harvested hydroponic forage has high moisture content that dilutes its nutritional value by requiring that livestock consume more of it to get the same nutritional content as conventional forage. In most other aspects the nutritional content compares well on a dry weight equivalent basis with other conventional forage. More work is needed to further explore and quantify the opportunities, limitations, and viability of this technique for broader use. Collection of greenhouse environmental data in this project was uniquely facilitated through the implementation and use of a self-organizing, wirelessly networked, multi-modal sensor system array with remote cell phone data link capability. Applications of wirelessly networked sensing with improved modeling/simulation and other Sandia technologies (e.g., advanced sensing and control, embedded reasoning, modeling and simulation, materials, robotics, etc.) can potentially contribute to significant improvement across a broad range of CEA applications.

  5. Effets du vieillisement de la batterie Li-ion sur les performances d'un vehicule recreatif hybride branchable a trois roues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Jonathan

    La prediction de l'evolution du vieillissement de la batterie lithium-ion est source d'un grand defi, dans les applications liees aux vehicules electriques et hybrides. Sa meconnaissance est un risque considerable compromettant la viabilite d'un tel systeme. Invoquant les couts substantiels de la densite d'energie, liee a la degradation considerable des performances de la batterie au cours de sa duree de vie, il devient important d'en tenir compte des le processus de conception. La dependance de la strategie de controle du vehicule aux parametres de la batterie justifie aussi la necessite d'une telle prediction. Il est connu que le vieillissement, sensible aux facteurs tels que le courant, la temperature et la profondeur de decharge, a un impact considerable sur la perte de capacite de la batterie ainsi que sur l'augmentation de la resistance interne. Le premier est directement lie a l'autonomie electrique du vehicule, alors que le second mene a une surchauffe de la batterie, a une augmentation des pertes en puissance qui se manifeste par une diminution de la tension de bus. A cet egard, implique dans la conception d'un vehicule recreatif hybride branchable a trois roues, le Centre de Technologies Avancees s'interesse a l'etude du vieillissement de la batterie Li-ion pour une telle application. Pour ce faire, au contraire de la plupart des estimations empiriques de la duree de vie, basees sur des profils de decharge a courant constant, un profil de courant plus approprie pour l'application donnee, base sur un cycle de vitesse representatif de la conduite d'une motocyclette, a ete utilise. Par le biais d'un simulateur complet du vehicule, le cycle de courant a ete extrait du cycle de vitesse. Ainsi, les travaux menes impliquent l'analyse experimentale de la decharge cyclique de quatre cellules LiFePO 4. Pendant plus de 1400 cycles, un banc d'essai complet a permis l'acquisition de la capacite, de la resistance interne, du courant, de la tension ainsi que de la temperature de surface. Mots-cles : vieillissement, batterie, lithium-ion, LiFePO4, capacite, resistance interne, PHEV, vehicule

  6. Les rivie?res et les sources de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac: extrait du rapport sur les eaux souterraines de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    Les principales rivières de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac, la Rivière Grise ou Grande Rivière du Cul-de-Sac et la Rivière Blanche, prennent naissance sur le flanc Nord du Massif de la Selle à des altitudes de 1,300 à 1,800 mètres au dessus du niveau de la mer. Elles coulent à l’amont à travers des gorges profondes et sont éloignées de 9 Kms. dans la partie central de la bordure Sud de la plaine.

  7. Evolution: Help for the Confused.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Bradley T.

    1979-01-01

    Written in response to an earlier article questioning certain aspects of evolution theory. Discusses ontogeny and phylogeny, the basis of evolution, chance or purpose in evolution, micro and macro-evolution, reversibility, and the evolution processes today. (MA)

  8. Le syndrome du canal carpien chez les patients hémodialysés chroniques

    PubMed Central

    Mbarki, Houda; Akrichi, Amine; Lazrak, Amine; Maaroufi, Chakib; Midaoui, Aouatif El; Tachfouti, Nabil; Jellouli, Wafa; Arrayhani, Mohamed; Belahsen, Mohamed Faouzi; Sqalli, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    Le syndrome du canal carpien (SCC) regroupe l'ensemble des signes et symptômes liés à la compression du nerf médian dans le canal carpien. Cette manifestation de l'amylose à béta2-microglobuline est une complication fréquente de l'hémodialyse au long cours. L'objectif de ce travail est d'analyser les caractéristiques du SCC et de déterminer les facteurs liés à sa survenue chez les hémodialysés chroniques. Nous rapportons une étude transversale monocentrique, menée au 3ème trimestre de l'année 2009, portant sur les patients adultes hémodialysés chroniques au service de Néphrologie-Hémodialyse au CHU de Fès. 59 patients ont accepté de participer à l'étude. Leurs âge moyen est de 48 ± 15 ans avec un sex-ratio de 0,9. Ils bénéficient tous de l'hémodialyse intermittente à raison de 10 à 12 heures par semaine, par une membrane de dialyse en polysulfone à basse perméabilité. La durée moyenne en hémodialyse est de 83 ± 6,5 mois. La prévalence du SCC dans notre centre est de 30,5%. L'électromyogramme (EMG) a confirmé la suspicion clinique du SCC chez 11 patients et a diagnostiqué un SCC chez 8 patients asymptomatiques. La comparaison statistique entre les deux groupes de patients avec et sans SCC a démontré que la survenue de ce syndrome est liée à: l'âge actuel, l'âge avancé à la mise en hémodialyse, le sexe féminin, l'excès pondéral, et l'abord vasculaire. Le SCC est une complication fréquente de l'hémodialyse chronique. L'amélioration de la qualité de dialyse permettrait de réduire le risque de survenue du SCC. PMID:23504584

  9. Utility of a CEA, CD15, calretinin, and CK5/6 panel for distinguishing between mesotheliomas and pulmonary adenocarcinomas in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Tareq; Garratt, John; Torlakovic, Emina; Gilks, Blake; Churg, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    Most reports on antibodies that claimed to separate mesothelioma from pulmonary adenocarcinoma originated from academic centers or specialized immunohistochemistry laboratories, but little is known about how such stains perform in general practice laboratories. The Canadian Immunohistochemistry Quality Control program circulates tissue array slides to laboratories across Canada; these are stained and then interpreted by the local laboratory and by a set of experienced reviewers. For Canadian Immunohistochemistry Quality Control run 16, tissue array slides from 16 pulmonary adenocarcinomas and 6 mesotheliomas were stained in 36 different laboratories for CEA, CD15, CK5/6, and calretinin. A total of 736 results (cores) were interpretable. If 3 of 4 staining results concordant with the diagnosis was accepted as definitive, 166/192 (86.4%) mesothelioma cores and 461/544 (84.7%) adenocarcinoma cores were correctly diagnosed. However, if 4 of 4 concordant markers were required, then 93/192 (48.4%) mesothelioma cores and 265/544 (48.7%) adenocarcinoma cores were correctly diagnosed. Only 3/192 (1.6%) mesothelioma cores were incorrectly classified as carcinomas and 8/544 (1.5%) of adenocarcinoma cores incorrectly classified as mesotheliomas on the basis of the immunoprofile (ie, 3 of 4 or 4 of 4 marker results were discordant with the diagnosis). We conclude that, in a study based on results from nonspecialized laboratories, the combination of CEA, CD15, calretinin, and CK5/6, used as a panel, has a very low false-positive rate when separating pulmonary adenocarcinomas from mesotheliomas; however, single negative or incorrect results are common, therefore the panel is only useful diagnostically if 3 of 4 correct results are deemed acceptable for diagnosis. PMID:22982894

  10. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    SciTech Connect

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.

    2003-02-24

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R&D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality.

  11. Hidradénocarcinome du cuir chevelu : à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Sbai, Ali; Ouabdelmoumene, Asmae; Naciri, Farid; Elhfid, Mohammed; Mezouar, Loubna

    2014-01-01

    L'hidradénocarcinome est une tumeur annexielle maligne extrêmement rare. Caractérisée par la fréquence des récidives locorégionales et des métastases à distance. Le diagnostic histopathologique de malignité se fait sur des critères architecturaux et cytologiques particuliers .la chirurgie d'exérèse large représente l'essentiel du traitement. Une radiothérapie adjuvante s'avère obligatoire en cas de facteurs de récidive locale. Le curage ou la radiothérapie prophylactiques des aires ganglionnaires régionales non envahies pourraient jouer un rôle primordial dans la réduction du risque de récidives locorégionales. PMID:25018839

  12. Origine du champ magnétique en cosmologie et formation des galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Mathieu

    2002-12-01

    Ma thèse est le fruit d'un travail théorique centré sur deux questions fondamentales de la cosmologie actuelle: la formation des galaxies d'une part, et l'origine des champs magnétiques à grande échelle d'autre part. Je propose une solution au problème du sur-refroidissement dont souffrent les modèles de formation des galaxies. Pour cela, à l'aide d'un modèle analytique simple, puis au moyen de simulations numériques, j'explore les mécanismes de transfert et de stockage d'énergie par ondes d'Alfvén en œuvre dans le milieu interstellaire (MIS) biphasique. Je montre d'une part que les interférences des ondes internes aux nuages du MIS, négligées dans les études précédentes, renforcent l'efficacité d'injection d'énergie. D'autre part, les mouvements des nuages redistribuent l'énergie à l'échelle du système entier. Ils injectent aussi de l'énergie dans les nuages. Les modes vibratoires internes excités s'opposent à la compression des nuages et prolongent la durée de vie du système. Les nuages magnétisés constituent alors un réservoir d'énergie sur plusieurs temps dynamiques. A l'aide d'un modèle de protogalaxie biphasique, je montre que la dynamique des nuages du MIS et celle d'une protogalaxie sont équivalentes. Pour résoudre le sur-refroidissement, je propose la transposition des résultats du MIS au cas protogalactique. Malgré les diverses tentatives passées, l'origine du champ magnétique en cosmologie n'a pas trouvé d'explication satisfaisante. Or, sa place au sein du MIS et son rôle dans la formation des galaxies sont manifestes. Je propose dans ma thèse un nouveau mécanisme de magnétogenèse efficace à grande échelle, opérant à la réionisation de l'Univers, et reposant sur la pression de radiation anisotrope et inhomogène fournie par les premières structures lumineuses. A l'échelle galactique, le champ magnétique que j'obtiens est huit ordres de grandeur plus intense que dans les modèles habituels. De plus, il est généré avant tout aux grandes échelles, les champs à petite échelle étant largement supprimés. Ces deux propriétés permettent au modèle proposé de rendre compte des champs observés dans les grandes structures.

  13. Jump start: DuPont exports its energy management program

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-23

    In August 1993, DuPont launched its innovative Jump Start program, which called for managers in its 25 largest plants to carry out a 120-day crash effort to find ways to reduce energy use at their facilities. The effort produced ideas that will result in $21.5 million in energy savings over six years, exceeding DuPont`s target. It also kicked off a longer-term program the company hopes will cut as much as $300 million, or 15% from energy bills through 2000.

  14. Le cancer en Mauritanie : résultats sur 10 ans du registre hospitalier de Nouakchott

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Nacer Dine Ould Mohamed; Sauvaget, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Le fardeau du cancer reste mal connu en Mauritanie. Il n'est basé que sur des extrapolations de l'incidence des cancers des pays avoisinants. Les données du registre de l'hôpital national permettent de décrire les cas avec un diagnostic histologique. Tous les cas de cancers enregistrés par le service d'anatomo-pathologie de l'hôpital national de Nouakchott de 2000 à 2009 ont été analysés. En 10 ans, 3305 prélèvements histologiques ont été analysés (hommes:42%, femmes:58%). Chez l'homme, le cancer le plus fréquemment analysé était le cancer de la peau (218 cas au total, 189 cas en excluant mélanome), suivi de la prostate (203), des cancers digestifs (179, colorectal et ‘sophage), et des lymphomes (151). Chez la femme, un quart des biopsies était des cancers du sein (485), suivi du col utérin (344), de la sphère gynécologique (218, ovaire et corps utérin), et de la peau (114). Les cancers du foie, du poumon ou de la vessie étaient peu fréquents. Ces résultats ne reflètent pas l'incidence ni l'actuel fardeau du cancer en Mauritanie puisque de nombreux patients diagnostiqués avec un cancer ne reçoivent pas d'examen anatomopathologique. Si, comme dans les pays avoisinants du Maroc et du Mali, les cancers du col et du sein sont les pathologies les plus fréquentes chez la femme, la distribution des cancers chez l'homme dans ce registre hospitalier diffère des résultats des registres de population du Maroc et du Mali où les cancers du poumon, du foie, de la prostate et de la vessie dominent. PMID:23785554

  15. Expression of the immediate early IE180 protein under the control of the hTERT and CEA tumor-specific promoters in recombinant pseudorabies viruses: Effects of IE180 protein on promoter activity and apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Lerma, L; Alcalá, S; Piñero, C; Torres, M; Martin, B; Lim, F; Sainz, B; Tabarés, E

    2016-01-15

    Since the pseudorabies virus (PRV) genome encodes for a single immediate-early protein, IE180, we reasoned that this strong transactivating protein could represent a key regulatory switch that could be genetically manipulated in order to alter its tropism towards cancer cells. We therefore initiated studies to test whether the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) tumor promoters could functionally replace the IE180 promoter. We show that both promoters can functionally substitute the IE180 promoter in plasmid constructs and recombinant viruses, and observed that IE180 differentially auto-regulated each promoter tested, with PRV IE180 negatively regulating the hTERT promoter but positively hyper-activating the CEA promoter. Interestingly, we also observed that the recombinant PRV-TER and PRV-CEA viruses preferentially replicated in diverse cancer cell lines compared to control non-cancer cells, and the PRV-CEA was capable of additionally inducing a profound apoptotic phenotype which we correlated to the overexpression of IE180. PMID:26590793

  16. Baisse du HDL-cholestérol indicateur du stress oxydatif dans le diabète de type 2

    PubMed Central

    Kabamba, Arsène Tshikongo; Bakari, Salvius Amuri; Longanga, Albert Otshudi; Lukumwena, Zet Kalala

    2014-01-01

    L'hypercholestérolémie est étroitement liée au stress oxydatif. Lorsqu'il y a trop de cholestérol qui circule dans le sang, il n'est pas utilisé en totalité par les cellules et il risque de s'accumuler dans les vaisseaux sanguins. Cela peut entrainer la formation des plaques d'athérosclérose qui gênent la circulation sanguine et provoquent des accidents cardiovasculaires. Le stress oxydatif apparait très tôt dans l'histoire des complications du diabète de type 2, et est lié à l'oxydation du glucose mais aussi à la peroxydation lipidique. Le cholestérol-HDL est un marqueur important du stress oxydatif par sa capacité à faciliter la métabolisation du cholestérol, sa baisse est souvent considérée comme la source de beaucoup d'inquiétudes. L'objectif est l’évaluation de la variation du taux de cholestérol-HDL, marqueur du stress oxydatif, chez les patients diabétiques de type 2 dans la population congolaise. Nous avons inclus dans cette étude prospective des cas témoins des patients diabétiques de type 2 reconnus et diagnostiqués, et des témoins non diabétiques appariés selon l’âge et le sexe. Parallèlement au bilan biologique classique, une analyse d'un des facteurs de risque du stress oxydatif a été réalisée: baisse de HDL-Cholestérol. L’âge moyen des 30 patients diabétiques (47,77±10,78 ans) était comparable à celui des 30 témoins (48,83±10,73 ans). Une baisse significative du cholestérol-HDL dans le sang était observée chez 100% des diabétiques et 50% des témoins (p=0,0000). L'augmentation du HDL cholestérol permet d’éliminer le mauvais cholestérol en excès en nettoyant les tissus et en ramenant le cholestérol vers le foie. Lors du diabète de type 2 on constate une baisse sanguine sensible du taux de HDL-cholestérol, qui est signe indicateur du stress oxydatif. PMID:25767660

  17. Impact of rotation-driven particle repopulation on the thermal evolution of pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negreiros, Rodrigo; Schramm, Stefan; Weber, Fridolin

    2013-01-01

    Driven by the loss of energy, isolated rotating neutron stars (pulsars) are gradually slowing down to lower frequencies, which increases the tremendous compression of the matter inside of them. This increase in compression changes both the global properties of rotating neutron stars as well as their hadronic core compositions. Both effects may register themselves observationally in the thermal evolution of such stars, as demonstrated in this Letter. The rotation-driven particle process which we consider here is the direct Urca (DU) process, which is known to become operative in neutron stars if the number of protons in the stellar core exceeds a critical limit of around 11% to 15%. We find that neutron stars spinning down from moderately high rotation rates of a few hundred Hertz may be creating just the right conditions where the DU process becomes operative, leading to an observable effect (enhanced cooling) in the temperature evolution of such neutron stars. As it turns out, the rotation-driven DU process could explain the unusual temperature evolution observed for the neutron star in Cas A, provided the mass of this neutron star lies in the range of 1.5 to 1.9M? and its rotational frequency at birth was between 40 (400 Hz) and 70% (800 Hz) of the Kepler (mass shedding) frequency, respectively.

  18. Facteurs liés au diagnostic tardif du cancer du sein: expérience du CHU Mohammed VI Marrakech

    PubMed Central

    Aloulou, Sofia; El Mahfoudi, Amal; El Omrani, Abdelhamid; Khouchani, Mouna

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est le premier cancer féminin en termes d'incidence et de mortalité. Au Maroc, il vient au premier rang des cancers de la femme avant celui du col utérin Il constitue un problème de santé publique. Son pronostic est étroitement lié au stade auquel le diagnostic est posé. Il s'agit d'une pathologie dont les moyens diagnostiques sont de nos jours développés, allant de la détection précoce à la mise en évidence de lésions infra-cliniques, ce qui a nettement amélioré le pronostic dans les pays développés. Ce travail que nous présentons a pour objectif d'identifier dans notre pratique quotidienne, les facteurs qui amènent les patientes à consulter à des stades tardifs. Une étude rétrospective a été menée de janvier 2012 à janvier 2013 portant sur 130 patientes porteuses d'un cancer du sein au sein du service d'onco-radiotherapie CHU Mohammed VI Marrakech. Un questionnaire a été élaboré et dument renseigné en ayant recours aux dossiers des malades. Ainsi 63,07% des patientes consultaient au-delà de six mois avec un délai moyen de consultation de 8,47 mois avec comme motif de consultation des lésions classées T4 dans 27,69%, et des tumeurs d'emblée métastatiques dans 13,84%. Les facteurs retrouvés à l'interrogatoire étaient le manque de moyens financiers 40%, l’éloignement des structures sanitaires dans 23%, les habitudes socioculturelles avec les traitements traditionnels en première intention 20%, et l'insuffisance de prise en charge thérapeutique 7%. Cependant, pris individuellement, aucune concordance significative n’était retrouvée entre ces facteurs et le long délai diagnostique. Dans notre pratique, c'est la conjonction de la triade ignorance, indigence et habitudes socioculturelles qui constituent le facteur essentiel du diagnostic tardif des cancers du sein. PMID:26327999

  19. Le traitement conservateur du cancer du sein: expérience d'une équipe tunisienne

    PubMed Central

    Dimassi, Kaouther; Gharsa, Anissa; Chanoufi, Mohammed Badis; Sfar, Ezzeddine; Chelli, Dalenda

    2014-01-01

    En Tunisie, le cancer du sein touche des femmes jeunes avec une taille moyenne au moment du diagnostic à 5 cm. Ces particularités font que la chirurgie radicale reste prédominante. Nous présentons dans ce travail l'expérience de notre équipe en matière de chirurgie conservatrice du cancer du sein. Le but de ce travail est d’évaluer les résultats de ce traitement. Etude rétrospective longitudinale, sur une période de 75 mois. Nous avons inclus toutes les patientes ayant bénéficié d'un traitement conservateur pour une tumeur maligne du sein. Ont été analysés: les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, les aspects radiologiques et histologiques. Le suivi des malades s'est basé sur la détection des récidives. Nous avons évalué le résultat esthétique à la fin de la radiothérapie. Le traitement conservateur a été réalisé dans 23.8% des cas. Le taux de récidives locales était de 6.8% avec une corrélation significative pour une taille tumorale > 30 mm (p= 0.009), l'association d'une composante intracanalaire (p= 0.035), le statut triple négatif (p= 0.003) et des marges d'exérèse < 5mm sans recoupes per-opératoires (p = 0.045). Les facteurs suivants étaient significativement liés au risque de survenue de métastases à distance: le statut triple négatif (p= 0.003), taille tumorale > 30mm (p = 0.006) et l'atteinte ganglionnaire (p = 0.001). Le résultat esthétique était satisfaisant dans 90% des cas. L'augmentation du nombre de patientes pouvant bénéficier d'une chirurgie conservatrice, doit passer impérativement par le développement et la promotion du diagnostic précoce et du dépistage par la mammographie. PMID:25810795

  20. Consequences experimentales des effets des fluctuations du vide sur la fluorescence parametrique et la generation du second harmonique en milieu confine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, Luc

    Les fluctuations du vide, qui consistent en l'apparition momentanee de particules, ce qui est permit par le principe d'incertitude de Heisenberg, joue un role primordial dans les processus photoniques, en particulier les processus non-lineaires. Par la manipulation de ces fluctuations du vide a l'aide de confinement optique, on retrouve deux phenomenes particuliers : l'intensification de la fluorescence parametrique (Walker, 2008) et l'inhibition de la generation du second harmonique (Collette, 2013). Dans ce travail, on presente les resultats dans le cas classique ; c'est-a-dire sans fluctuations du vide et confinement. Par la suite, on presente les effets des fluctuations du vide et du confinement, ce qui mene aux deux effets mentionnes. Dans le cas de la fluorescence parametrique, le bruit quantique sur le champ interne et externe est calcule, le role du desaccord de phase dans le modele est expose et une generalisation tridimensionnelle est etudiee afin de generaliser la conception du modele d'un cas unidimensionnel a un cas tridimensionnel planaire. Dans le cas de la generation du second harmonique, les difficultes d'un modele purement tridimensionnel sont exposees et ensuite le cas limite planaire est etudie.

  1. Understanding Evolution: An Evolution Website for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotchmoor, Judy; Janulaw, Al

    2005-01-01

    While many states are facing challenges to the teaching of evolution in their science classrooms, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, working with the National Center for Science Education, has developed a useful web-based resource for science teachers of all grade- and experience-levels. Understanding Evolution (UE) was developed…

  2. Syndrome de blépharophimosis: une forme particulière du ptosis congénital

    PubMed Central

    Handor, Hanan; Hafidi, Zouheir; Laghmari, Mina; Sabrane, Ihsane; Mastanga, Olive Rosine; Daoudi, Rajae

    2015-01-01

    Le syndrome de blépharophimosis est une malformation palpébrale congénitale caractérisée par l'association d'un ptosis majeur bilatéral à d'autres anomalies palpébrales. Il constitue une forme particulière du ptosis congénital qui doit être connue par tout ophtalmologue afin d'optimiser la prise en charge des patients présentant cette affection. PMID:26161205

  3. LA TRANSPLANTATION HÉPATIQUE ORTHOTOPIQUE À L’UNIVERSITÉ DU COLORADO

    PubMed Central

    Corman, J.; Starzl, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    Ce travail a été réalisé grâce aux fonds de recherche de la Veterans Administration, aux fonds RR-00051 et RR-00069 du programme des centres de recherche clinique générale de la Division of Research Resources, National Institutes of Health, et aux fonds AI-10176-01, AI-AM-08898, et AM-07772. PMID:21572894

  4. Fibres Optiques En Therapie Laser Au Contact Du Tissu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, P.; Sabben, G.; Lambert, R.; Berger, F.

    1984-03-01

    Les fibres en quartz, non protegees par un courant de gaz et placees au contact du tissu, peuvent etre utilisees pratiquement indefiniment grace a un "autonettoyage" et une "regenera-tion". Elles provoquent des lesions tissulaires semblables a celles obtenues avec les fibres conventionnelles.

  5. Consonants in Cri du Chat Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal case study of consonant productions in one Norwegian girl with Cri du chat syndrome from age 4;6 to age 9;4. It was shown that she had many articulation errors throughout the period of observation. Furthermore, these errors were shown to fall into three main categories: (1) errors of differentiation and…

  6. Past Tense Morphology in Cri Du Chat Syndrome: Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wium, Kristin; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2008-01-01

    It has been observed that persons with Cri du chat syndrome (CDCS) have poor language production. However, very few studies have addressed the question whether all aspects of language production are equally afflicted, or whether there are differences between for instance phonological and morphological abilities. The present study was aimed at…

  7. College of DuPage Student Portrait, Fall Quarter 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL. Office of Research and Planning.

    The report profiles the College of DuPage's (COD) fall quarter 1999 student body. It presents a brief history of the college's enrollment and a comparison of enrollments with other Illinois community colleges. It also provides demographic information on current students. Additionally, enrollment information is included by program, division, and…

  8. W. E. B. Du Bois: Reform, Will, and the Veil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Lynn; Warner, W. Keith

    2013-01-01

    While W. E. B. Du Bois is widely recognized for his contributions to the sociology of race, his contributions to the foundations of sociology are largely ignored. His sociology is based on African American reformism, a version of pragmatism, and a contingent historicism. The basic view of sociology is one that emphasizes the role of chance and…

  9. W. E. B. Du Bois: Reform, Will, and the Veil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Lynn; Warner, W. Keith

    2013-01-01

    While W. E. B. Du Bois is widely recognized for his contributions to the sociology of race, his contributions to the foundations of sociology are largely ignored. His sociology is based on African American reformism, a version of pragmatism, and a contingent historicism. The basic view of sociology is one that emphasizes the role of chance and…

  10. Du Bois'"The Philadelphia Negro": 100 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Theodore, Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides comments from several black scholars on the importance of W. E. B. Du Bois's "The Philadelphia Negro" for today. They reply to the following questions: why is "The Philadelphia Negro" part of the canon of black literature? and what does it say today of relevance to blacks and the nation as a whole? (GR)

  11. Décompression chirurgicale du syndrome de défilé thoraco-brachial

    PubMed Central

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Ismael, Farid; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome de défilé thoraco-brachial est une pathologie souvent méconnue à cause de diagnostic difficile par manque des signes pathognomoniques conduisant souvent à des errances. Les manifestations cliniques dépendent selon qu'il s'agit d'une compression nerveuse, vasculaire ou vasculo-nerveuse. Le but de cette étude est de décrire certains aspects cliniques particuliers et évaluer le résultat fonctionnel après la décompression chirurgicale du paquet vasculo-nerveux. Notre étude rétrospective a porté sur l'analyse des données cliniques, radiologiques, IRM et EMG sur les patients opérés entre janvier 2010 et juillet 2013 du syndrome de défilé thoraco-brachial dans le service de traumatologie orthopédie de l'hôpital Ibn Sina de Rabat. 15 cas ont été colligés: 12 cas post traumatiques (fracture de la clavicule) et 3 cas d'origines congénitales, dont l’âge moyen était 35 ans (20 à 50 ans) avec 9 femmes et 6 hommes. A la fin du traitement, le score de Dash est passé de 109 (46% Normal=0) à 70 (20%), et le stress test de Roos était de 70/100 à 80/100. Le résultat était excellent dans 12 cas soit (80%) et moins bon dans dans 3 cas (20%). En définitive, la résection de malformations osseuses, l'excision des brides et la neurolyse du plexus brachial suivie de la rééducation a donné une bonne évolution fonctionnelle. PMID:25709735

  12. University of Missouri research reactor DuPont success story

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, C.J. )

    1993-01-01

    The availability of adequate irradiation facilities for the production of radioisotopes essential to the medical and research product communities has become a major issue both domestically and worldwide. Facilities that had been available over the years have been forced to withdraw from routine production or have been permanently shut down for safety or cost considerations. This situation has in some cases resulted in there being a single source available for production of key isotopes critical to the nuclear medicine industry and the research product business, such as [sup 99]Mo and [sup 125]I. In the case of [sup 125]I, that single source did have unexpected production problems creating a worldwide shortage of this isotope for [approximately]6 months of 1991. This paper describes the relationship between DuPont and the University of Missouri Research Reactor initiated in 1978. In this relationship, target materials are sent to the reactor facility and irradiated according to schedules developed at DuPont. Irradiated capsules are sent back to DuPont on a weekly basis, where they are chemically processed, purified, and stocked for sale or sent to other DuPont manufacturing areas for labeled chemical production.

  13. Dynamic landscapes in human evolution and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devès, Maud; King, Geoffrey; Bailey, Geoffrey; Inglis, Robyn; Williams, Matthew; Winder, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    Archaeological studies of human settlement in its wider landscape setting usually focus on climate change as the principal environmental driver of change in the physical features of the landscape, even on the long time scales of early human evolution. We emphasize that landscapes evolve dynamically due to an interplay of processes occurring over different timescales. Tectonic deformation, volcanism, sea level changes, by acting on the topography, the lithology and on the patterns of erosion-deposition in a given area, can moderate or amplify the influence of climate at the regional and local scale. These processes impose or alleviate physical barriers to movement, and modify the distribution and accessibility of plant and animal resources in ways critical to human ecological and evolutionary success (King and Bailey, JHE 2006; Bailey and King, Antiquity 2011, Winder et al. Antiquity in press). The DISPERSE project, an ERC-funded collaboration between the University of York and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, aims to develop systematic methods for reconstructing landscapes associated with active tectonics, volcanism and sea level change at a variety of scales in order to study their potential impact on patterns of human evolution and dispersal. Examples are shown to illustrate the ways in which changes of significance to human settlement can occur at a range of geographical scales and on time scales that range from lifetimes to tens of millennia, creating and sustaining attractive conditions for human settlement and exercising powerful selective pressures on human development.

  14. The Evolution of Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, G. Ledyard

    1973-01-01

    Describes the basic logic behind the modern view of evolution theory. Despite gaps in fossil records, evidence is indicative of the origin of life from nonliving molecules and evolution of higher forms of life from simpler forms. (PS)

  15. Mistakes and Molecular Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevors, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the role mistakes play in the molecular evolution of bacteria. Discusses the interacting physical, chemical, and biological factors that cause changes in DNA and play a role in prokaryotic evolution. (DDR)

  16. Oxygen and Biological Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the evolution of aerobic organisms from anaerobic organisms and the accompanying biochemistry that developed to motivate and enable this evolution. Uses of oxygen by aerobic organisms are described. (CW)

  17. College of DuPage Planning Process: College of DuPage Planning, the Foundation for Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL. Office of Research and Planning.

    At College of DuPage (CD), in Glen Ellyn, Illinois, institutional planning is a multi-level, on-going process involving continuous college-wide input. The nine schematic levels in the CD planning process are interconnected and progress from global and broad-based issues, answering such questions as why the college exists, to concrete levels…

  18. Old Perspectives on Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Blacquiere-Clarkson, John

    1976-01-01

    Presents a perspective on evolution which includes an explanation of the textbook theory of evolution, a review of evolutionary theory before Darwin, and an outline of Darwin's early theories. Describes a rethinking of evolutionary theory to include natural selection, conservative selection, discontinous evolution, catastrophism, and the…

  19. Evolution for Young Victorians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightman, Bernard

    2012-07-01

    Evolution was a difficult topic to tackle when writing books for the young in the wake of the controversies over Darwin's Origin of Species. Authors who wrote about evolution for the young experimented with different ways of making the complex concepts of evolutionary theory accessible and less controversial. Many authors depicted presented evolution in a non-Darwinian form amenable to religious interpretation.

  20. Arguing for Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Kansas State Board of Education's decision to remove references to evolution and cosmology from the state's education standards and assessment. Advocates the need to teach evolution in high schools for a meaningful biology education. Addresses the question whether the teaching of evolution poses a threat to Christianity or other…

  1. Evolution & Diversity in Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lorentz C.

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

  2. Old Perspectives on Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Blacquiere-Clarkson, John

    1976-01-01

    Presents a perspective on evolution which includes an explanation of the textbook theory of evolution, a review of evolutionary theory before Darwin, and an outline of Darwin's early theories. Describes a rethinking of evolutionary theory to include natural selection, conservative selection, discontinous evolution, catastrophism, and the…

  3. Paralysie néonatal unilatérale du nerf radial

    PubMed Central

    Benemmane, Halima; Hali, Fouzia; Marnissi, Farida; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2015-01-01

    La paralysie néonatale unilatérale du nerf radial est rare, son diagnostic est essentiellement clinique, elle peut-être diagnostiquée à tort en tant que paralysie du plexus brachial. Nous rapportons un cas clinique. A l'examen clinique du nouveau-né; l'extension du poignet, du pouce et des articulations métacarpo-phalangiennes était impossible, alors qu'il y avait une conservation de la prono-supination et la flexion du poignet et des mouvements de l’épaule et du coude. Le diagnostic de la paralysie du plexus brachial était écarté cliniquement devant la mobilisation active de l’épaule et la flexion du coude. Notre patient a bénéficié de kinésithérapie pour éviter l'apparition d'attitudes vicieuses et d'amyotrophie. L'extension active du poignet était obtenue après deux mois. PMID:26587133

  4. Factors affecting the relationship between the red marrow dose and myelotoxicity in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy with {sup 131}I-labeled anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Juweid, M.; Behr, T.M.; Sharkey, R.M.

    1996-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between the red marrow dose (RMD) and myelotoxicity in patients with CEA-producing tumors who received radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) with {sup 131}I-NP-4 and MN-14 anti-CEA MAbs. Eligibility criteria included no chemotherapy in the last 4 weeks prior to RAIT, no X-irradiation (XT) to >25% of marrow, WBC >3,000, platelets > 100,000, and Hg > 10.0. The RMD was estimated based on blood by assuming a red marrow-to-blood activity concentration ratio of 1.0. Myelotoxicity was evaluated based on standard RTOG criteria. Leukopenia or thrombocytopenia {ge} grade 3 was considered dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). A total of 109 eligible patients were assessed for myelotoxicity. Overall, reversible DLT occurred in 0/14 (0%), 1/25 (4%), 4/26 (15%), 6/25 (24%), 5/9 (55%), 3/6 (50%), and 3/4 (75%) patients receiving a mean RMD of 75, 150, 250, 350, 450, 550, and 650 cGy, respectively. Patients were further stratified into those who had chemotherapy (CHT) in the last 1-6 months prior to RAIT, and/or had XT or tumor metastases to 11-25% of their marrow (group 1), and those who had no CHT in the last 6 months and/or XT or metastases to {ge} 10% of the marrow (group 2). At 250, 350, 450, and 550 cGy, the incidence of DLT in group 1 was 4/17 (23%), 5/11 (45%), 4/4 (100%), and 3/3 (100%), respectively, compared to 0/9 (0%), 1/14 (7%), 1/5 (20%), and 0/3 (0%) in group 2. In conclusion, these data indicate that recent CHT, XT, and marrow metastases are important factors determining myelotoxicity after RAIT. Further, the relatively low incidence of myelotoxicity in group 2 (1/8, 12/5%) DLT at a RMD of 450-550cGy suggests that these patients may be able to tolerate an almost 2-fold higher dose than those in group 1. Although further refinement in identifying risk-factors for myelotoxicity are necessary, these results provide important insights for future planning of phase II trials.

  5. Frontiers of stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, David L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference discusses theoretical and observational views of star formation, spectroscopic constraints on the evolution of massive stars, very low mass stars and brown dwarfs, asteroseismology, globular clusters as tests of stellar evolution, observational tests of stellar evolution, and mass loss from cool evolved giant stars. Also discussed are white dwarfs and hot subdwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, supernovae from single stars, close binaries with evolved components, accretion disks in interacting binaries, supernovae in binary systems, stellar evolution and galactic chemical evolution, and interacting binaries containing compact components.

  6. Etude du comportement rheologique de suspensions colloidales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yziquel, Florence

    Colloidal suspensions exhibit complex rheological behavior. The particles interact between themselves with forces of which the nature and magnitude depend on the surrounding medium. When the forces are strong enough, this organized structure which can be broken down, distorted or rearranged under shear flow. Hence, the suspension rheology depends greatly on the structure evolution during the flow. The main objective of this work was to propose a rheological model to describe the suspension behavior taking the structure evolution into account. To understand the rheological behavior of these systems, two different suspensions have been studied. The first system is a "model" suspension of fumed silica particles. These colloidal particles interact between themselves through hydrogen bonds with silanol groups on their surface inducing a network formation even at small mass fraction. The rheological properties of particles in suspension in polar and nonpolar media were studied as functions of size, concentration and surface treatment of particles. The rheological behavior, for small strain amplitude oscillatory flow, is strongly nonlinear. These nonlinear viscoelastic properties have been interpreted in terms of dissipated energy and attributed to the network breakdown. The experimental data have been compared with Coussot and Oldroyd modified models predictions. These two models only describe qualitatively the rheological behavior of fumed silica suspensions in nonpolar media. The second system studied here is a coating color. This concentrated suspension is mainly composed by kaolin particles sterically stabilized by water-soluble polymer adsorbed on their surface. The steady shear viscosity and the dynamic properties have been studied as a function of polymer concentration for two different water-soluble polymers. It was shown that the rheological properties are controlled by the structure evolution under shear flow. A structural model has been proposed to describe the rheological behavior of coating colors. The nonlinear viscoelasticity was attributed to the motion of the equilibrium particle position. A model based on the network theory has been proposed to describe the rheological behavior of both suspensions. The proposed model is based on a modified upper convected Jeffreys model coupled with a kinetic equation describing the structure evolution under flow. Three kinetic equations have been examined. The first one depends on the second invariant of the rate-of-strain tensor, the second, on the first invariant of the stress tensor and the last one, on the rate of dissipated energy. These kinetic equations coupled with Jeffreys model describe fairly well the non linear viscoelastic behavior of the fumed silica suspensions and the coating colors. The effect of frequency, in the nonlinear domain, is a critical test to assess the proposed model validity. Contrary to homogeneous polymers, the critical strain decreases with increasing frequency. Therefore, the stress-dependent model is inappropriate for predicting the rheological behavior of suspensions. The energy-dependent model seems to be the best adapted. Nevertheless, this model, as the two others, cannot predict the different dynamic properties measured here with the same parameter values.

  7. Participation des médecins généralistes de la province de Benimellal (Maroc) dans le dépistage du cancer du col

    PubMed Central

    Nani, Samira; Benallal, Mohamed; Hassoune, Samira; Kissi, Dounia; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Au Maroc, chaque année il y aurait environ 2000 nouveaux cas de cancer du col et les 2/3 des cas sont pris en charge à un stade très avancé. Nous avons mené une étude transversale, exhaustive incluant les 71 médecins généralistes exerçant dans les établissements de soins de santé de base du secteur public et privé de la province de Benimellal. Le but était d’évaluer leurs connaissances et leur participation au dépistage du cancer du col. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude transversale, exhaustive incluant les 71 médecins généralistes exerçant dans les établissements de soins de santé de base du secteur public et privé de la province de Benimellal. Le but était d’évaluer leurs connaissances et leur participation au dépistage du cancer du col. Résultats Le niveau de connaissance était relativement modeste, 22 médecins généraliste avaient répondu à la question sur l'incidence du cancer du col au Maroc, Parmi eux (81,8%) avaient donné une réponse incorrecte. L'Herpes Papilloma virus comme facteur de risque du cancer du col a été identifié par seulement 21% des médecins généralistes. La participation au dépistage était également défaillante, 92,8% n'avaient jamais pratiqué le FCV chez leurs patientes à cause principalement du manque de formation (95,5%). Conclusion Les résultats montrent la nécessité d'améliorer les connaissances théoriques et pratique des médecins généralistes concernant le dépistage du cancer du col. PMID:23785557

  8. Les inconvénients de perdre du poids

    PubMed Central

    Bosomworth, N. John

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Explorer les raisons pour lesquelles la perte de poids à long terme échoue la plupart du temps et évaluer les conséquences de diverses trajectoires pondérales, y compris la stabilité, la perte et le gain. Source des données Les études qui évaluent les paramètres pondéraux dans la population sont en majorité observationnelles. Des données probantes de niveau I ont été publiées pour évaluer l’influence des interventions relatives au poids sur la mortalité et la qualité de vie. Message principal Seulement un petit pourcentage des personnes qui désirent perdre du poids réussissent à le faire de manière durable. La mortalité est la plus faible chez les personnes se situant dans la catégorie de poids élevé-normal et surpoids. La trajectoire pondérale la plus sécuritaire est la stabilité du poids avec une optimisation de la condition physique et métabolique. Il est démontré que la mortalité est plus faible chez les personnes ayant des comorbidités reliées à l’obésité si elles perdent du poids. Il est aussi établi que la qualité de vie sur le plan de la santé est meilleure chez les personnes obèses qui perdent du poids. Par contre, la perte de poids chez une personne obèse autrement en santé est associée à une mortalité accrue. Conclusion La perte de poids est recommandable seulement chez les personnes qui ont des comorbidités reliées à l’obésité. Les personnes obèses en santé qui veulent perdre du poids devraient être informées qu’il peut y avoir des risques à le faire. Une stratégie qui se traduit par un indice de masse corporelle stable avec une condition physique et métabolique optimisée, peu importe le poids, est l’option d’intervention la plus sécuritaire en ce qui concerne le poids.

  9. Exemplifying guidelines for preparation of recombinant DNA products in phase I trials in cancer: preparation of a genetically engineered anti-CEA single chain Fv antibody.

    PubMed

    Mayer, A; Chester, K A; Bhatia, J; Pedley, R B; Read, D A; Boxer, G M; Begent, R H

    1998-06-01

    Products of recombinant DNA technology have potential for the diagnosis or treatment of cancer. There is a need to investigate whether they function by the intended mechanism in small phase I clinical trials before their suitability for more extensive studies can be assessed. Quality and safety of these products should be assured prior to their use in humans in a way which is appropriate to the preliminary nature of the trials but not inhibitory to progress. The Cancer Research Campaign control recommendations for products derived from recombinant DNA technology (Begent RHJ and associates. Eur J Cancer 1993, 29A, 13, 1907-1910) provide guidelines for the production of new biotechnology products in academic research units within a relatively short time, while ensuring appropriate quality and safety. The practical application of the guidelines requires that solutions are found for the quality and safety issues during the production of recombinant products. We describe an approach to the relevant quality and safety issues during and after the production and purification of a genetically engineered anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) single chain Fv (scFv) antibody for a phase I trial of radioimmunoguided surgery with the intention of providing a model for other products. PMID:9849442

  10. Enzyme-linked PNA lectin binding assay compared with CA19-9 and CEA radioimmunoassay as a diagnostic blood test for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, C. K.; Rhodes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sera from patients with pancreatic cancer often contain a mucus glycoprotein that expresses the oncofetal antigen galactose 1-3, N-acetyl galactosamine, which is the T blood group antigen and the binding site for the lectin peanut agglutinin (PNA). An enzyme-linked lectin assay has been developed to quantify PNA-binding glycoproteins in serum and has been evaluated as a serological test for pancreatic cancer. Sera were studied from 53 patients with pancreatic cancer and 154 controls, including benign obstructive jaundice, acute and chronic pancreatitis, chronic liver disease and inflammatory bowel disease. The enzyme-linked peanut lectin assay proved highly reproducible and has 77% sensitivity and 83% specificity for pancreatic cancer, results that are very similar to those achieved in the same sera by CA19-9 radioimmunoassay (75% sensitivity, 82% specificity with the upper limit of normal set at 37 u ml-1). CEA assay proved less useful (60% sensitivity, 47% specificity). In this study better results were obtained if an upper limit of normal of 50 u ml-1 was used for CA19-9 (75% sensitivity, 92% specificity). Combination of CA19-9 assay with the upper limit set at 50 u ml-1 and the peanut lectin assay improved the sensitivity to 85% with only a slight fall in specificity (85%). These results compare well with published results for ultrasound and CT scanning. PMID:2736232

  11. International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility injector acceptance tests at CEA/Saclay: 140 mA/100 keV deuteron beam characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gobin, R. Bogard, D.; Chauvin, N.; Chel, S.; Delferrière, O.; Harrault, F.; Mattei, P.; Senée, F.; Mosnier, A.; Shidara, H.

    2014-02-15

    In the framework of the ITER broader approach, the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) deuteron accelerator (2 × 125 mA at 40 MeV) is an irradiation tool dedicated to high neutron flux production for future nuclear plant material studies. During the validation phase, the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc) machine will be tested on the Rokkasho site in Japan. This demonstrator aims to produce 125 mA/9 MeV deuteron beam. Involved in the LIPAc project for several years, specialists from CEA/Saclay designed the injector based on a SILHI type ECR source operating at 2.45 GHz and a 2 solenoid low energy beam line to produce such high intensity beam. The whole injector, equipped with its dedicated diagnostics, has been then installed and tested on the Saclay site. Before shipment from Europe to Japan, acceptance tests have been performed in November 2012 with 100 keV deuteron beam and intensity as high as 140 mA in continuous and pulsed mode. In this paper, the emittance measurements done for different duty cycles and different beam intensities will be presented as well as beam species fraction analysis. Then the reinstallation in Japan and commissioning plan on site will be reported.

  12. International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility injector acceptance tests at CEA/Saclay: 140 mA/100 keV deuteron beam characterization.

    PubMed

    Gobin, R; Bogard, D; Cara, P; Chauvin, N; Chel, S; Delferrière, O; Harrault, F; Mattei, P; Mosnier, A; Senée, F; Shidara, H; Okumura, Y

    2014-02-01

    In the framework of the ITER broader approach, the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) deuteron accelerator (2 × 125 mA at 40 MeV) is an irradiation tool dedicated to high neutron flux production for future nuclear plant material studies. During the validation phase, the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc) machine will be tested on the Rokkasho site in Japan. This demonstrator aims to produce 125 mA/9 MeV deuteron beam. Involved in the LIPAc project for several years, specialists from CEA/Saclay designed the injector based on a SILHI type ECR source operating at 2.45 GHz and a 2 solenoid low energy beam line to produce such high intensity beam. The whole injector, equipped with its dedicated diagnostics, has been then installed and tested on the Saclay site. Before shipment from Europe to Japan, acceptance tests have been performed in November 2012 with 100 keV deuteron beam and intensity as high as 140 mA in continuous and pulsed mode. In this paper, the emittance measurements done for different duty cycles and different beam intensities will be presented as well as beam species fraction analysis. Then the reinstallation in Japan and commissioning plan on site will be reported. PMID:24593497

  13. Rupture diaphragmatique droite avec passage total et isolé du foie en intra-thoracique

    PubMed Central

    Turki, Mohamed; Barhoumi, Mohamed Hafed; Hajji, Hassen; Chemchik, Heithem; M'barek, Bechir

    2011-01-01

    La rupture traumatique de la coupole diaphragmatique droite avec hernie du foie dans le thorax est une lésion rare. Elle est souvent intégrée dans le cadre d'un poly-traumatisme, dont elle est un critère de gravité. Elle expose, précocement ou tardivement, à des complications cardio-pulmonaires par compression. Le diagnostic d'une rupture diaphragmatique droite est difficile à établir. En effet, ses signes cliniques sont peu spécifiques et l'imagerie peut être prise en défaut du faite qu'elle visualise les organes ascensionnés mais plus difficilement la rupture elle-même. La voie d'abord thoracique est souvent préférée du fait des difficultés de l'exposition du diaphragme en présence du foie. Nous rapportons un cas d'une rupture diaphragmatique droite avec passage isolé et total du foie en intra-thoracique diagnostiquée au cinquième jour d'hospitalisation chez un polytraumatisé. PMID:22187610

  14. La place de l'imagerie par résonance magnétique dans le carcinome lobulaire du sein

    PubMed Central

    Bouzoubaa, Wail; Laadioui, Meryem; Alaoui, Fatime Zahra Fdili; Jayi, Sofia; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2014-01-01

    Le carcinome lobulaire reste une entité histologique peu fréquente du cancer du sein, toute fois la place qu'occupe le cancer du sein actuellement dans la cancérologie féminine, justifie la connaissance des particularités de ce type de cancer mammaire. Le diagnostic paraclinique est basée sur le couple écho-mammographie a la recherche de multifocalité, multicentricité ou bilatéralité, d'où l'intérêt de l'IRM qui est la technique la plus sensible pour la mise en évidence de ces lésions et qui est devenue un examen de pratique courante dans le carcinome lobulaire du sein. Par le présent travail, et sous la lumière de la revue de la littérature, nous allons essayer de dégager les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, et paracliniques, du carcinome lobulaire du sein, et insister sur les indications et l'intérêt de l'IRM dans la prise en charge de ce type histologique. PMID:25368710

  15. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences. PMID:23908778

  16. Reconstruction d’une Carbonisation du Pouce par Lambeau Chinois

    PubMed Central

    Khales, A.; Achbouk, J.A.; Moussaoui, A.; Belmir, R.; Tourabi, K.; Oufkir, A.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary La main en tant qu’organe majeur de la préhension peut être le siège de brûlures graves qui compromettent sa fonction. Bien qu’elle ne représente que 2% de la surface corporelle la brûlure de la main est grave et difficile à traiter, vu la vulnérabilité et la complexité de son appareil locomoteur. Nous rapportons dans ce travail le cas d’un patient victime d’une carbonisation de la main. Huit mois après le parage et la couverture par lambeau inguinal, le patient bénéficie d’une reconstruction du pouce par lambeau chinois associé à une greffe osseuse. Le résultat s’est avéré satisfaisant. Le lambeau chinois prouve par son apport vasculaire et par sa facilité technique qu’il est un moyen très intéressant dans la reconstruction du pouce - ou des doigts en général - surtout dans un contexte de brûlure. PMID:21991226

  17. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  18. DuPont cuts energy consumption 8% -- for starters

    SciTech Connect

    Wiseman, K.

    1998-07-01

    DuPont`s Corporate Energy Leadership Team (CELT) faced a difficult challenge at its inception in 1991--reducing the industry giant`s $900 million annual domestic energy bill. Seven years later, DuPont`s annual energy costs are down to $800 million, and energy consumption has shrunk by more than 8%. The team is on track toward future reduction goals. Key to persuading the company was the team`s 1992 Jump Start commitment to reduce out-of-pocket energy expenditures immediately. Over a four-month period, the goal was to save $6 million out-of-pocket on energy costs. The company actually ended up doubling that, saving over $12 million. The greatest savings--26% of the total--came from shutting down spare or unneeded equipment. Equipment tune-ups to improve performance and renegotiation of fuel contracts also lowered energy costs. The paper discusses how it was done.

  19. Une cause rare de plexopathie brachiale: une metastase d'un cancer du sein

    PubMed Central

    Maâroufi, Mustapha; Kamaoui, Imane; Boubbou, Meriem; Sqalli, Nadia; Tizniti, Siham

    2014-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente de 50 ans ayant une histoire de cancer du sein et qui accuse une symptomatologie d'atteinte du plexus brachial. L'IRM montre une masse qui envahie le plexus brachial compatible avec une métastase. L'IRM est très utile pour le diagnostic et l'orientation thérapeutique des plexopathies brachiales chez les femmes présentant un cancer du sein PMID:25360196

  20. Ressources minérales du Tchad: une revue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusnir, Imrich; Moutaye, Hamit A.

    1997-05-01

    Chad has an area of about 1.2 million km 2, is located in the centreof the African continent and is not well explored. Results of importance to the local economic geology have been acquired recently, mainly during mineral exploration: i) all geological formations within Chad territory were reworked/influenced by the Pan-African Orogeny (by the end of the Proterozoic) terminating the crustal evolution of the area with most of the Chad granitoids being formed during this event; ii) The Precambrian formations are of Proterozoic age and contain volcanosedimentary series with considerable mineral potential (Au,…); iii) the vast Chad Basin (extending into neighbouring countries) has a complex structure and includes several sub-basins and troughs, whose development started during the break-up of Gondwana; they have been filled by up to 10, 000 m of sediments and petroleum and gas occur within these structures; iv) well preserved fossil remnants of an Australopithecus have been recently found in Chad; and v) large reserves of oil and vaste resources of a variety of minerals (Au, ornamental stones, marbles, diatomites, etc.) have been found.

  1. Kyste hydatique du rein : Étude monocentrique de 15 cas

    PubMed Central

    Harrech, Youness El; Abakka, Najib; Anzaoui, Jihad El; Ghoundale, Omar; Touiti, Driss

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Étudier le profil épidémiologique ainsi que les caractéristiques cliniques, radiologiques, et thérapeutiques du kyste hydatique du rein (KHR). Méthodologie : Quinze cas de KHR colligés de 2004 à 2010 ont été revus. Les données cliniques, radiologiques (arbre urinaire sans préparation, échographie, tomodensitométrie [TDM]) et biologiques (éosinophilie et sérologie hydatique) ont été analysées, et le traitement instauré. L’évolution et les complications ont fait l’objet d’un suivi attentif. Résultats : L’âge moyen de découverte du KHR est de 56,13 ans, avec une prédominance masculine (12 hommes, 3 femmes). La symptomatologie clinique est dominée par les lombalgies (60 % des cas). Une analyse de la sérologie hydatique a été demandée pour six patients et s’est révélée positive pour trois d’entre eux. L’abstention thérapeutique a été l’attitude adoptée par deux malades ayant un kyste hydatique de type 5. Aucun patient n’a reçu de traitement médical seul. Treize patients (86,66 %) ont subi une intervention chirurgicale, dont une résection du dôme saillant pour 11 patients, une néphrectomie partielle pour 1 patient et une néphrectomie totale pour 1 autre patient dont le rein était totalement détruit. Aucune complication peropératoire ou postopératoire n’a été signalée, qu’il s’agisse de fistule urinaire ou d’infection de la cavité résiduelle. Aucune récidive n’a été constatée sur une période moyenne de deux ans. Conclusion : Le KHR est une pathologie rare sans sémiologie spécifique. Si la chirurgie occupe une place primordiale dans le traitement de ces kystes, de nouvelles perspectives mini-invasives restent à explorer, tout particulièrement les traitements percutané et laparoscopique. PMID:25210557

  2. Tumeur phyllode maligne du sein après maladie de Hodgkin

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, El Hfid; Loubna, Mezouar; Tijani, El Harroudi

    2012-01-01

    Le traitement par radiochimiothérapie de la maladie d'Hodgkin a permis une amélioration spectaculaire de son pronostic. Cependant, les néoplasies secondaires à ce type de traitement sont fréquentes et représentent un sérieux problème. Nous rapportons un cas de tumeur phyllode maligne du sein, diagnostiquée 15 ans après le traitement d'une maladie d'Hodgkin, en discutant ses différentes particularités diagnostiques et thérapeutiques, ainsi que les stratégies de suivi et de surveillance optimales. PMID:23396310

  3. Schwannome cervical du nerf vague: Stratégies diagnostique et thérapeutique

    PubMed Central

    Benmansour, Najib; Elfadl, Yasine; Bennani, Amal; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Chbani, Leila; Amarti, Afaf; Tizniti, Siham; Elalami, Mohamed Noureddine

    2013-01-01

    Les schwannomes cervicaux sont des tumeurs bénignes des nerfs périphériques développées exclusivement à partir des cellules de Schwann. L'atteinte du nerf vague cervical est relativement rare, et les auteurs en rappellent, à partir d'un cas, les signes radiologiques évocateurs ainsi que les caractéristiques histologiques. Le traitement de ces tumeurs est chirurgical. Un patient de 32 ans consultait pour une masse latéro-cervicale supérieure droite isolée, évoluant depuis trois ans. Une imagerie médicale (TDM et IRM) cervicale mettait en évidence une masse vascularisée au temps retardé, refoulant la veine jugulaire interne en dehors et l'axe carotidien en dedans. Un examen cytologique non contributif conduisait à réaliser une exérèse chirurgicale extracapsulaire de la masse par voie de cervicotomie. Il s'agissait d'une tumeur rétro-jugulo-carotidienne développée aux dépens du nerf vague cervical droit. L'analyse histologique concluait à un schwannome. Les suites opératoires étaient simples. Le schwannome du nerf vague est une tumeur bénigne rare, qui doit être évoquée devant toute masse latérocervicale isolée. L'imagerie médicale (TDM et IRM) cervicale préopératoire représente les examens de choix indispensable pour évoquer le diagnostic. Le traitement est chirurgical, afin de confirmer le diagnostic histologique. L'exérèse chirurgical complète extracapsulaire est possible et est le seul garant de la non récidive. PMID:23646212

  4. Une forme exceptionnelle de la luxation perilunaire du carpe

    PubMed Central

    Elouakili, Issam; Ouchrif, Younes; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Ouakrim, Redouane; Lamrani, Omar; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Ismael, Farid; Lahlou, Abdo; Elouadghiri, Mohammed; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaccoubi, Mouradh

    2014-01-01

    Les luxations périlunaires (LPL) du carpe sont des lésions extrêmement rares, qui peuvent passer inaperçue en raison d'un tableau clinique souvent trompeur, des radiographies en profil non strict ou d'interprétation difficile. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une luxation périlunaire stade III selon la classification de Witvoët et Allieu chez un patient de 32 ans, il s'agit d'une forme encore plus rare voire exceptionnelle et qui peut induire de sérieux problèmes en raison de la sévérité des dommages ligamentaires et du risque de nécrose du semilunaire plus important dans ce type de lésions. Le traitement est toujours chirurgical et doit être réalisé dans les plus brefs délais afin d’éviter les complications. PMID:25404968

  5. Dysfonctionnements radio-induits du transport colique chez le rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, A.; Lebrun, F.; Ksas, B.; Aigueperse, J.; Gourmelon, P.; MacNaughton, W. K.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptom commonly associated with whole body irradiation is diarrhoea, a still quite obscure phenomenon, which leads to decreased chance of cure of irradiated people. The aim of this study was to provide evidence for dysfunction of intestinal water and electrolyte transport regulation by the enteric nervous system after exposure to ionising radiation. This study shows decreased capacity of enteric nervous system to influence colonic transport 3days after irradiation, correlated to a diminished response to a neurotransmitter: serotonin. Radio-induced diarrhea may result from epithelial structural injury but also from impaired regulatory processes of intestinal transport. L'un des symptômes majeurs d'une irradiation corporelle totale ou abdominale est l'apparition de diarrhées, dont les causes sont encore mal connues, et qui mettent en jeu le pronostique vital de l'individu irradié. Cette étude vise à mettre en évidence l'atteinte de la régulation du transport intestinal d'eau et d'électrolytes par les rayonnements ionisants. On observe une diminution de la capacité du système nerveux entérique à influencer le transport colique 3jours après irradiation, corrélée à une diminution de la réponse épithéliale à un neurotransmetteur : la sérotonine. Les diarrhées radio-induites résulteraient d'une atteinte structurelle de l'épithélium mais également des processus de régulation du transport intestinal.

  6. La Carte du Ciel, histoire et actualité d'un projet scientifique international

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, J.

    2008-06-01

    Cet ouvrage collectif analyse la genèse, le déploiement, l'abandon et les résurgences récentes de la Carte du Ciel. Au-delà de son échec avéré, la Carte du Ciel fut en effet le premier projet international astronomique de grande envergure, remarquable notamment par son organisation à l'échelle du globe. Bien plus que par son objet ou les techniques mobilisées pour sa réalisation, c'est par cette vision que la Carte du Ciel ouvre une nouvelle ère pour l'astronomie.

  7. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Linked to Near Infrared (NIR) Dyes Conjugated to Chimeric Anti-Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Antibody Enhances Imaging of Liver Metastases in a Nude-Mouse Model of Human Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maawy, Ali A.; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhang, Yong; Luiken, George A.; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We report here that polyethylene glycol (PEG) linked to near infrared dyes conjugated to chimeric mouse-human anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody greatly improves imaging of liver metastases in a nude mouse model of colon-cancer experimental metastases. PEGylated and non-PEGylated DyLight 650 and 750 dyes were conjugated to the chimeric anti-CEA antibody. The dyes were initially injected intravenously into nude mice without tumors. Tissue biodistribution was determined by tissue sonication and analyzing tissue dye concentration profiles over time. PEGylated dyes had significantly lower accumulation in the liver (p = 0.03 for the 650 dyes; p = 0.002 for the 750 dyes) compared to non-PEGylated dyes. In an experimental liver metastasis model of HT-29 colon cancer, PEGylated dyes conjugated to the anti-CEA antibody showed good labeling of metastatic tumors with high contrast between normal and malignant tissue which was not possible with the non-PEGylated dyes since there was so much non-specific accumulation in the liver. PEGylation of the DyLight 650 and 750 NIR dyes significantly altered tissue biodistribution, allowing brighter tissue labeling, decreased accumulation in normal organs, particularly the liver. This enabled high fidelity and high contrast imaging of liver metastases. PMID:24859320

  8. The Evolution of Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmer, Patrick S.

    This article reviews and discusses (1) the discovery and early work on the evolution of quasars and AGNs, (2) the different techniques used to find quasars and their suitability for evolutionary studies, (3) the current status of our knowledge of AGN evolution for 0 evolution, and (6) current research problems and future directions in quasar and AGN evolution.

  9. Case-control study of cancer among Du Pont employees with potential for exposure to dimethylformamide

    SciTech Connect

    Walrath, J.; Fayerweather, W.E.; Gilby, P.G.; Pell, S.

    1989-05-01

    This case-control study was undertaken to determine whether the risk of developing cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx (N = 39), liver (N = 6), prostate (N = 43), testis (N = 11), or malignant melanoma of the skin (N = 39) is related to exposure to dimethylformamide (DMF). Case and control subjects were obtained from four Du Pont plants. DMF is produced at one plant and used at the other three. Cancer cases identified from the company Cancer Registry comprise those reported among active male employees at the study plants during 1956 to 1985. For each case, two control subjects were selected, matched on sex, payroll class (wage or salary), birth year, and plant. To determine whether an employee could have been exposed to DMF during his career at the plant, all jobs with potential for exposure to DMF were identified. Each job was assigned an exposure ranking based on DMF industrial hygiene air monitoring, DMF metabolite (measured as N-methylformamide in urine) monitoring, and knowledge of the evolution of manufacturing processes and workplace exposure controls. Each employee's DMF exposure pattern was then characterized as (a) ever v never having been exposed to DMF and (b) highest DMF exposure experienced. Summary analyses for all plants combined showed no statistically significant association between ever having been exposed to DMF and subsequent development of cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx, liver, malignant melanoma, prostate, and testis. Examined by plant site, prostate cancer at one plant was significantly elevated, based on three case subjects exposed out of four.

  10. AGN Evolution from a Galaxy Evolution Viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplar, Neven; Lilly, Simon J.; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2015-10-01

    We explore the connections between the evolving galaxy and active galactic nucleus (AGN) populations. We present a simple phenomenological model that links the evolving galaxy mass function and the evolving quasar luminosity function, which makes specific and testable predictions for the distribution of host galaxy masses for AGNs of different luminosities. We show that the ?? normalizations of the galaxy mass function and of the AGN luminosity function closely track each other over a wide range of redshifts, implying a constant “duty cycle” of AGN activity. The strong redshift evolution in the AGN L? can be produced by either an evolution in the distribution of Eddington ratios, or in the mbh/m? mass ratio, or both. To try to break this degeneracy we look at the distribution of AGNs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (mbh, L) plane, showing that an evolving ratio {m}{bh}/{m}\\ast \\propto {(1+z)}2 reproduces the observed data and also reproduces the local relations that connect the black hole population with the host galaxies for both quenched and star-forming populations. We stress that observational studies that compare the masses of black holes in active galaxies at high redshift with those in quiescent galaxies locally will always see much weaker evolution. Evolution of this form would produce, or could be produced by, a redshift-independent mbh-? relation and could explain why the local mbh-? relation is tighter than mbh-m* even if ? is not directly linked to black hole growth. Irrespective of the evolution of mbh/m*, the model reproduces both the appearance of “downsizing” and the so-called “sub-Eddington boundary” without any mass-dependence in the evolution of black hole growth rates.

  11. Dosage de la 25 OH vitamine D: expérience du laboratoire central de biochimie clinique du Centre Hospitalier Ibn Sina

    PubMed Central

    Handor, Najat; Elalami, Sanae; Bouabdellah, Mounya; Srifi, Abdelatif; Esselmani, Hicham; Benchekroun, Laila; Chabraoui, Layachi

    2014-01-01

    La connaissance de la physiologie de la vitamine D a considérablement progressé ces dernières années, la faisant passer de simple vitamine à tropisme purement phosphocalcique et osseux à celui d'hormone jouant un rôle crucial dans de nombreux mécanismes physiologiques et dont le déficit est impliqué dans plusieurs pathologies. Nous présentons, dans ce travail, l'expérience du laboratoire central de biochimie dans le dosage de la 25 OH vitamine D. Enquête descriptive exhaustive portant sur les dosages de la 25 OH vitamine D effectués chez 350 patients du Centre Hospitalier Ibn Sina (CHIS). La méthode adoptée est un dosage immunologique par chimiluminescence sur microparticules réalisés sur l'auto-analyseur ARCHITECT 8200 (ABBOTT®) pendant une période de six mois (du 01 Juin 2011 au 31 Decembre 2011). Quatre vingt et onze pourcent des patients présentent une hypovitaminose. En effet 76,6% des patients souffrent d'une insuffisance en vitamine D, 12,3% de carence vitaminique et 2,6% d'ostéomalacie. L'hypovitaminose est associée dans 92,18% des cas à une normocalcémie, dans 76,87% des cas à une Hyperparathormone, dans 92,81% à des troubles thyroïdiens et dans 97,5% à une insuffisance rénale. Par ailleurs aucune relation statistiquement significative n'est établie entre l'hypovitaminose et le diabète. A la lumière des implications des hypovitaminoses dans plusieurs pathologies ou dans leurs complications et au vu du nombre élevé de patients présentant un déficit en vitamine D, il paraît judicieux d'envisager une étude épidémiologique sur le statut en vitamine D dans la population marocaine comme outil préventif avant d'élargir le dosage de ce marqueur biologique en vue d'une éventuelle supplémentation. PMID:25374649

  12. Rapport sur l'état du patrimoine astronomique dans les observatoires français de la fin du XIXè siècle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, E.; Pécontal, E.

    2012-12-01

    Suite au colloque sur la sauvegarde du patrimoine astronomique organisé par le MAEE et la SAF, sous l'égide de l'UNESCO, qui a conduit à l'adoption de la Déclaration de Paris, les directeurs d'observatoires institutionnels qui étaient absents du colloque ont ressenti le besoin de discuter de ces conclusions prises en leur nom. L'initiative d'organiser une réunion des directeurs des Observatoires des Sciences de l'Univers (OSU) à ce sujet le 30 janvier 2012 a été prise par François Vernotte, directeur de l'Observatoire de Besançon. Le présent compte-rendu de visite résulte d'une initiative spontanée d'Emmanuel Pécontal, astronome responsable du Patrimoine à l'observatoire de Lyon, et d'Evelyne Damm, membre de la Commission Nationale de classement des Monuments Historiques (CNMH) et élue à la communauté d'agglomération des Portes de l'Essonne oû est sis l'observatoire de Camille Flammarion.

  13. Multiple bars and secular evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Juntai

    2015-03-01

    Bars are the most important driver of secular evolution. A significant fraction of barred galaxies also harbor small secondary bars. Secondary bars are visible even in near-infrared images, so they are not just dusty and blue, but stellar features (Erwin & Sparke 2002). Since they are quite common, secondary bars are probably long-lived stellar features. The random relative orientation of the two bars indicates that they are dynamically decoupled with different pattern speeds (Buta & Crocker 1993). Corsini et al. (2003) presented conclusive direct kinematic evidence for a decoupled secondary bar in NGC 2950. Dynamically decoupled secondary bars have long been hypothesized to be a mechanism to drive gas past the ILR of primary bars to feed active galactic nuclei (Shlosman et al. 1989). However, the dynamics of secondary bars are still not well understood, and it is still unclear what role secondary bars play in the AGN fueling process. Numerical simulations offer the best approach to understanding double-barred systems. Decoupled secondary bar in the earlier gaseous simulations only last a short time (< 1 Gyr, e.g. Friedli & Martinet 1993). Orbital studies of double-barred systems discovered a family of loop orbits that may be building blocks of long-lived nuclear stellar bars (Maciejewski & Sparke 1997, 2000). To complement orbital studies, which are not fully self-consistent, N-body simulations are preferred to further our understanding of double-barred systems. Debattista & Shen (2007) and Shen & Debattista (2009) managed to form long-lived double-barred systems with purely collisionless simulations, where a pre-existing rotating pseudo-bulge is introduced initially. The shape and size of secondary bars in the models are comparable to observed ones. They found that the rotation of the two bars is not rigid. The amplitude and pattern speed of the secondary bars oscillate as they rotate through their primary counterparts. Although the secondary bar rotates faster than the primary bar in this model, the stellar velocity field in the central region only shows a weakly twisted kinematic minor axis. Recently more simulations of double-barred galaxies with simpler initial conditions are explored (Du, Shen & Debattista 2014). We expect that the new models can be used to cross-check with the kinematic properties of double-barred galaxies from IFU observations such as SAURON and Atlas3D.

  14. Advantages of fluorescence-guided laparoscopic surgery of pancreatic cancer labeled with fluorescent anti-CEA antibodies in an orthotopic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Metildi, Cristina A; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Luiken, George A; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Our laboratory has previously developed fluorescence-guided (FGS) of pancreatic and other cancers in orthotopic mouse models. Laparoscopic surgery is being used more extensively in surgical oncology. The present report describes the efficacy of laparoscopic FGS of pancreatic cancer in an orthotopic mouse model. Study Design Mouse models of human pancreatic cancer were established with fragments of the BxPC-3 RFP human pancreatic cancer using surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI). Mice were randomized to bright light laparoscopic surgery (BLLS) or to fluorescence guided laparoscopic surgery (FGLS). FGLS was performed with an LED light source through a 495-nm emission filter in order to remove the primary tumors and any additional separate sub-millimeter deposits within the pancreas, the latter of which was not possible with BLLS. Tumors were labeled with anti-CEA-Alexa 488 antibodies 24 hours before surgery with intravenous injection. Perioperative fluorescence images were obtained to evaluate tumor size. Mice were followed postoperatively to assess for recurrence and at termination to evaluate tumor burden. Results At termination, the FGLS group had less pancreatic tumor volume than the BLLS group (5.75 mm2 vs 28.43 mm2, respectively; p=0.012) and lower tumor weight (21.1 mg vs 174.4 mg, respectively; p=0.033). FGLS compared to BLLS also decreased local recurrence (50% vs 80%, respectively; p=0.048) and distant recurrence (70% vs 95%, respectively; p=0.046). More mice in the FGLS than the BLLS group were free of tumor at termination (25% vs 5%, respectively). The median disease free survival (DFS) was lengthened from 2 weeks with BLLS (95% CI [1.635, 2.365]) to 7 weeks with FGLS (95% CI [5.955, 8.045]) (p=0.001). Conclusions FGLS is more effective than BLLS, and therefore has important potential for surgical oncology. PMID:24768506

  15. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  16. Evolution of Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chu Chih; Chen, I Ju

    2010-01-01

    The contrast between social constructivism and cognitive constructivism are depicted in different ways in many studies. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the evolution of constructivism and put a focus on social constructivism from the perception of Vygotsky. This study provides a general idea of the evolution of constructivism for people…

  17. Science, Evolution, and Creationism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2008

    2008-01-01

    How did life evolve on Earth? The answer to this question can help us understand our past and prepare for our future. Although evolution provides credible and reliable answers, polls show that many people turn away from science, seeking other explanations with which they are more comfortable. In the book "Science, Evolution, and…

  18. New Insights into Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents insights on the controversial issues regarding evolution. This article partitions into the following sections: (1) Mechanisms explaining how evolution happened; (2) Creationist Confusion; (3) Literal Interpretation of the Bible; (4) Public demand for Creationism; (5) No Basis for Debating; and (6) Scientific Creationism is Bible Study.…

  19. Reconciling Evolution and Creation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tax, Sol

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a way to reconcile evolution with creationism by hypothesizing that the universe was created when the scientific evidence shows, speculating that this was when God began the series of creations described in Genesis, and assuming that God gave humans intelligence to uncover the methods by which he ordained scientific evolution. (Author/MJL)

  20. Evolution & Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staver, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Advocates of Intelligent Design (ID) theory argue that evolution is a theory in crisis, ID is a legitimate scientific theory, and biology teachers should teach the controversy. Supporters of evolutionary theory testify that ID is a religious, not scientific, concept, and evolution is in no danger of bankruptcy, having survived 140 years of…

  1. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  2. Evolution for Young Victorians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightman, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Evolution was a difficult topic to tackle when writing books for the young in the wake of the controversies over Darwin's "Origin of Species." Authors who wrote about evolution for the young experimented with different ways of making the complex concepts of evolutionary theory accessible and less controversial. Many authors depicted presented…

  3. Treatment of Evolution Inconsistent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    State standards for academic content vary enormously in how well they cover the topic of evolution, with many of those documents either ignoring or giving scant treatment to the core principles of that established scientific theory. This article presents the analysis of Education Week on state's standards treatment of evolution. Nearly all the…

  4. State Standards and Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the United States various individuals and groups have tried to subvert science education by removing or weakening the treatment of evolution in state science-education standards. Most states' science-education standards support the teaching of evolution, but many in the general public and some policymakers want science classrooms to…

  5. Evolution & Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staver, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Advocates of Intelligent Design (ID) theory argue that evolution is a theory in crisis, ID is a legitimate scientific theory, and biology teachers should teach the controversy. Supporters of evolutionary theory testify that ID is a religious, not scientific, concept, and evolution is in no danger of bankruptcy, having survived 140 years of…

  6. Evolution's Erratic Pace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    1977-01-01

    Offers an opposing view to Darwin's statement that evolution occurs through gradual change, using fossil species and modes of evolution to lend support to the author's model of "punctuated equilibria," in which... "Lineages change little during most of their history, but events of rapid speciation occasionally punctuate this tranquillity."…

  7. Evolution: Theory or Dogma?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, William V.

    In this paper the author examines the question of whether evolution is a theory or a dogma. He refutes the contention that there is a monolithic scientific conspiracy to present evolution as dogma and suggests that his own presentation might be more appropriately entitled "Creationism: Theory or Dogma." (PEB)

  8. Evolution's Erratic Pace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    1977-01-01

    Offers an opposing view to Darwin's statement that evolution occurs through gradual change, using fossil species and modes of evolution to lend support to the author's model of "punctuated equilibria," in which... "Lineages change little during most of their history, but events of rapid speciation occasionally punctuate this tranquillity."…

  9. Science, Evolution, and Creationism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2008

    2008-01-01

    How did life evolve on Earth? The answer to this question can help us understand our past and prepare for our future. Although evolution provides credible and reliable answers, polls show that many people turn away from science, seeking other explanations with which they are more comfortable. In the book "Science, Evolution, and…

  10. Self and Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    1998-01-01

    Suggests the time has come for humans to direct their own individual evolution and the evolution of the entire species. Argues that ways must be found to encourage individuals, families, and cultures to discover and develop their differentiating characteristics and help these groups integrate with other cultures, customs, and belief systems.…

  11. Evolution Under Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muench, David; Newell, Norman D.

    1974-01-01

    The article points out the growing attempts by creationists to have special creation presented with evolution in any educational discussion of the origin of life. The evolution theory is shown to be consistent with known scientific facts while the theory of special creation does not adequately account for these facts. (LS)

  12. The Nature of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alles, David L.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of evolution, the historical change in the universe, and the change that is caused by the workings of the dynamic processes at the smallest and largest scales are studied. It is viewed that the cumulative change in the historical systems is caused by evolution, which is a type of causal relationship and evolutionary processes could be…

  13. Treatment of Evolution Inconsistent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    State standards for academic content vary enormously in how well they cover the topic of evolution, with many of those documents either ignoring or giving scant treatment to the core principles of that established scientific theory. This article presents the analysis of Education Week on state's standards treatment of evolution. Nearly all the…

  14. Evolution for Young Victorians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightman, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Evolution was a difficult topic to tackle when writing books for the young in the wake of the controversies over Darwin's "Origin of Species." Authors who wrote about evolution for the young experimented with different ways of making the complex concepts of evolutionary theory accessible and less controversial. Many authors depicted presented…

  15. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  16. Complications métaboliques après transplantation rénale à partir du donneur vivant: expérience du CHU Ibn Sina de Rabat

    PubMed Central

    Mouram, Hala; Benamar, Loubna; Ouzeddoune, Naima; Bayahia, Rabia; Ezaitouni, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    La transplantation rénale (TR) constitue le traitement de choix de l'insuffisance rénale chronique terminale. Les complications métaboliques après TR (diabète, dyslipidémie, hyperuricémie, obésité), en grande partie liées au traitement immunosuppresseur, deviennent une préoccupation car elles constituent un facteur de risque de morbimortalité et de perte fonctionnelle du greffon. Le but de notre étude est d’évaluer la fréquence de ces anomalies après TR. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective incluant tous les patients ayant bénéficié d'une première TR par donneur vivant (DV) de Juin 1998 à Décembre 2010. Nous avons recensé les données démographiques propres au receveur, le traitement immunosuppresseur après TR. Les paramètres clinico-biologiques recueillis sont (index de masse corporel (IMC), glycémie à jeun, hémoglobine glyquée, CT, C-HDL, C-LDL, TG, acide urique). Soixante dix patients ont été colligés, l’âge moyen est de 36.3 + /-9.6 ans (21 à 62) avec un sex ratio de 0.5. Quinze patients (21.4%) étaient hypertendus avant la TR et 2.9% avaient une néphropathie diabétiques. L’âge moyen du donneur est de 47.5 + /-10.2 ans (20-65). Le traitement immunosuppresseur pendant la phase d'induction était une trithérapie associant corticostéroïdes, anticalcineurines chez tous les patients et mycophénolate mofétil chez 68.6% et azathioprine dans 31.4% des cas. L'IMC moyen était de 24.1 + /-4.0 (16.9 à 37), 33% des patients étaient considérés en surpoids dont 21.8% en obésité. L'hypercholestérolémie, a été retrouvée chez 25 patients soit 36%. Presque la moitié des patients (48.5%) avaient une hyperuricémie. Quatre patients ont développé un diabète après TR soit 6% des cas. La perte du greffon a été notée chez 12 patients et 2 patients sont décédés dont un avec un greffon fonctionnel. En analyse univariée, l'hyperuricémie et la dyslipidémie ont été considérées comme facteur de risque de perte du greffon et retour en dialyse avec p = 0.024 et 0.021 respectivement. Les complications métaboliques après TR sont fréquentes et méritent une attention particulière car elles représentent un facteur de morbi-mortalité. L’éducation précoce du patient greffé est nécessaire et s'appuie sur une prise en charge multidisciplinaire impliquant les néphrologues, diététiciennes, psychologues et médecins généralistes. PMID:25422684

  17. How Can Evolution Learn?

    PubMed

    Watson, Richard A; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2016-02-01

    The theory of evolution links random variation and selection to incremental adaptation. In a different intellectual domain, learning theory links incremental adaptation (e.g., from positive and/or negative reinforcement) to intelligent behaviour. Specifically, learning theory explains how incremental adaptation can acquire knowledge from past experience and use it to direct future behaviours toward favourable outcomes. Until recently such cognitive learning seemed irrelevant to the 'uninformed' process of evolution. In our opinion, however, new results formally linking evolutionary processes to the principles of learning might provide solutions to several evolutionary puzzles - the evolution of evolvability, the evolution of ecological organisation, and evolutionary transitions in individuality. If so, the ability for evolution to learn might explain how it produces such apparently intelligent designs. PMID:26705684

  18. Organic chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.

    1981-01-01

    The course of organic chemical evolution preceding the emergence of life on earth is discussed based on evidence of processes occurring in interstellar space, the solar system and the primitive earth. Following a brief review of the equilibrium condensation model for the origin and evolution of the solar system, consideration is given to the nature and organic chemistry of interstellar clouds, comets, Jupiter, meteorites, Venus and Mars, and the prebiotic earth. Major issues to be resolved in the study of organic chemical evolution on earth are identified regarding condensation and accretion in the solar nebula, early geological evolution, the origin and evolution of the atmosphere, organic production rates, organic-inorganic interactions, environmental fluctuations, phase separation and molecular selectivity.

  19. Spectroscopie du Furanne et du Thiophene Par Diffusion Inelastique D'electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfi, Said

    Nous avons etudie les molecules de furanne ( rm C_4H_4O) et de thiophene (rm C_4H_4O) au moyen de la spectroscopie de diffusion inelastique d'electrons. Pour (rm C_4H_4O), les spectres realises dans differentes conditions d'energie d'impact et d'angle de diffusion contiennent des singularites ou des families de pics correspondant a: (1) des vibrations de l'etat fondamental dans le domaine 0-0.5 eV, (2) des etats triplets ^3 B_1 et ^3 A_1 qui dominent la region 3-5.5 eV, (3) des etats de valences, entre 5 et 10 eV, dont certains son accompagnes de progressions vibrationnelles, soit ~ A _1B_2, ~ B ^1A_1 et ~ C ^1A_1, (4) toujours entre 5 et 10 eV, deux series de Ryhdberg (rm 1a_2to nda_2 et rm 1a_2to npb_2) qui convergent vers la premiere limite d'ionisation de la molecule, avec une progression vibrationnelle associee au mdoe nu_4 pour la seconde, et une troisieme serie (rm 2b_1to nsa_1 ) convergent vers la seconde limite d'ionisation accompagnee de la progression de mode nu _1. Pour rm C_4H_4S, nos spectres presentent les memes etats de vibration et les memes etats triplets que pour rm C_4H _4O. Nous avons releve egalement, dans la region de 5 a 10 eV, des etats de valence ~ A ^1A_1 (ou ~ A ^1B_2), ~ B ^1A_1 (ou ~ B ^1B _2) et ~ C ^1A_1 (ou ~ C ^1B_2). Pour la premiere fois, par la spectroscopie de diffusion inelastique d'electrons, de nombreux pics ont ete identifies et attribues, dans le cadre de ce travail. Il s'agit, notamment, des etats de vibration de l'etat electronique fondamental de ces molecules et egalement de certains etats de Rydberg dans le cas du furanne.

  20. Cinematique a grande et moyenne echelles du milieu interstellaire ionise de la galaxie M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbout, Steve

    Des observations Fabry-Perot Halpha, en mode balayage, ont ete faites sur deux champs dans le kiloparsec central de la galaxie Messier 33. Ces donnees ont permis d'investiguer le comportement cinematique a grande et a moyenne echelles des complexes gazeux de cette galaxie, menant a plusieurs resultats interessants. Premierement, les effets de la propagation d'une onde de densite sur la morphologie et la cinematique des complexes gazeux affectes ont ete mis en evidence. Un examen morphologique des structures, et des gradients cinematiques perpendi-culaires au bras, a grande echelle, suggere la presence de l'onde de densite. De plus, la deprojection du champ de vitesses permet de devoiler une variation azimutale moyenne de 15 km s-1 pour la composante rotative dans la region du bras sud. Deuxiemement, une verification est faite sur la relation entre la dispersion de vitesses globale et le diametre geometrique des complexes gazeux de dimensions intermediaires, montrant que cette relation n'est pas exclusive aux regions H II geantes. La relation determinee ici est similaire a celle des petites regions H II galactiques ainsi qu'a celle d'un echantillon de region H II geantes extragalactiques. La pente de cette relation est de 1.5 +/- 0.6, en accord avec ces deux autres etudes. Ensuite, un echantillon de bulles Wolf-Rayet en expansion est etudie et une comparaison est faite entre celui-ci et certaines etudes precedentes portant sur des bulles galactiques ainsi que dans le Grand Nuage de Magellan. Ceci mene a une critique de la determination d'ages cinematiques et de la sequence evolutive proposee en fonction des types spectraux des etoiles responsables. Finalement, les regions H II classiques de M33 sont investiguees pour reveler deux nouvelles relations entre les parametres cinematiques des distributions de vitesses et de dispersions de vitesses. Ces relations sont: si=7.86+/-1.69+1.62+/- 0.43sc et sc=1.22+/-0.49+0.70+/- 0.12ssi , ou si est la moyenne de la distribution de largeurs de raies, ssi en est la dispersion et sc est la dispersion de la distribution des vitesses radiales, pour un complexe gazeux donne. Ces relations mettent a jour la nature bimodale des mouvements a meme ces objets, consistant de gradients a grande echelle et de turbulence. Deux nouvelles methodes sont proposees pour evaluer la moyenne de la composante turbulente et la valeur maximale de cette derniere. Un catalogue cinematique des grands complexes gazeux de notre etude, et des restes de supernova cinematiquement interessants sont donnes en appendice.

  1. Historical evolution of the neurotransmission concept.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Alamo, Cecilio

    2009-05-01

    In this review we analyse the evolution of the neurotransmission phenomenon, whose nature have had three basic historical interpretations; a first, of an humoral nature, formulated by the classical Greeks (Alexandrian School), and which lasted, thanks to the work of Galen, until the sixteenth century (the theory of spiritus animalis); a second, purely mechanical one, developed on the basis of Cartesian conceptions, and which dominated in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; and finally, the electrochemical interpretation, which emerged in the nineteenth century, coinciding with the coming of age of numerous scientific disciplines, such as microscopic anatomy (Cajal), physiology (Sherrington), pharmacology (Bernard, Schmiedeberg) or experimental chemistry (Hensing). This latest interpretation can be broken down into an electrical hypothesis, dominant in the nineteenth century (Galvani, Du Bois-Reymond), and the current chemical hypothesis, which can be dated back to 1904, thanks to the research and the research by Elliott (chemical mediators) and Langley (receptive substances) on sympathetic stimulation. Finally, we describe the process of the discovery of the different neurotransmitters and neuroreceptors, and analyse the new interpretations postulated in relation to the neurotransmission concept at the dawn of the twenty-first century. PMID:19350218

  2. Non-destructive analysis of DU content in the NIF hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Gharibyan, Narek; Moody, Ken J.; Shaughnessy, Dawn A.

    2015-12-16

    The advantage of using depleted uranium (DU) hohlraums in high-yield deuterium-tritium (DT) shots at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is addressed by Döppner, et al., in great detail [1]. This DU based hohlraum incorporates a thin layer of DU, ~7 μm thick, on the inner surface along with a thin layer of a gold coating, ~0.7 μm thick, while the outer layer is ~22 μm thick gold. A thickness measurement of the DU layer can be performed using an optical microscope where the total DU weight can be computed provided a uniform DU layer. However, the uniformity of the thickness is not constant throughout the hohlraum since CAD drawing calculations of the DU weight do not agree with the computed values from optical measurements [2]. Therefore, a non-destructive method for quantifying the DU content in hohlraums has been established by utilizing gamma-ray spectroscopy. The details of this method, along with results from several hohlraums, are presented in this report.

  3. Of Faith and Fiction: Teaching W. E. B. Du Bois and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinitiere, Phillip Luke

    2012-01-01

    W. E. B. Du Bois (1868-1963) is widely known as a champion for the political rights of African Americans, founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), aggressive advocate of Pan-Africanism, staunch supporter of female suffrage, and one of the creative forces behind the Harlem Renaissance. Further still, Du…

  4. Exaltation du signal de génération de second harmonique sur des films chiraux anisotropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascoux, N.; Degert, J.; Freysz, E.; Verbiest, Th.; Katz, T. J.

    2006-10-01

    Nous avons mis en évidence l'exaltation de la rotation optique et du dichroïsme circulaire du signal de génération de second harmonique sur des films chiraux anisotropes. Un modèle simple d'électron se déplaçant sur une hélice permet de bien expliquer ces phénomènes.

  5. Association between Fatigue and Autistic Symptoms in Children with Cri du Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claro, Anthony; Cornish, Kim; Gruber, Reut

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, the authors examined whether the fatigue level of children diagnosed with cri du chat syndrome was associated with the expression of autistic symptoms. Sixty-nine children with cri du chat syndrome were compared with 47 children with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities who did not differ on intellectual severity.…

  6. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Phenomenology in Cornelia de Lange and Cri du Chat Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Joanna F.; Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Kaur, Gurmeash; Jephcott, Lesley; Cornish, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder characteristics have not been evaluated in Cornelia de Lange and Cri du Chat syndromes using robust assessments. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Social Communication Questionnaire were administered to 34 participants with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and a comparison group of 23 participants with Cri du Chat…

  7. 75 FR 52938 - E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; Notice of Filing August 20, 2010. Take notice that on August 20, 2010, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, filed clarification and an... ``eSubscription'' link on the Web site that enables subscribers to receive e-mail notification when...

  8. Luxation de l’épaule compliquée de paralysie du plexus brachial

    PubMed Central

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; EL Bardouni, Ahmed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent l'observation d'une paralysie totale du plexus brachial survenue trois mois après un épisode de luxation antéro-interne sous coracoïdienne associée à une fracture du trochiter chez une patiente âgée de 88 ans. PMID:25426187

  9. Locke and Du Bois: Two Major Black Voices Muzzled by Philanthropic Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchue, M. Anthony

    1997-01-01

    In 1935, the Howard University philosopher Alain Locke asked W. E. B. Du Bois to contribute to an adult education project for African Americans. Censorship by white-controlled foundations forced Locke to reject the Du Bois essay to protect contributions for causes of great importance to blacks. (Author/SLD)

  10. Lambeaux autofermants pour le traitement des brulures electriques du scalp par haut voltage

    PubMed Central

    Hafidi, J.; El Mazouz, S.; El Mejatti, H.; Fejjal, N.; Gharib, N.E.; Abbassi, A.; Belmahi, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures électriques par haut voltage sont responsables de gros dégâts tissulaires en immédiat et dans les jours suivant l’accident du fait de la chaleur importante dégagée par effet joule et de la thrombose microvasculaire évolutive. Les pertes de substances du scalp secondaires à ces brûlures nécessitent une couverture par lambeaux vu la destruction du périoste et du calvarium en regard. De juin 1997 à juin 2008, 15 patients ont été traités pour des pertes de substance du scalp secondaires à des brûlures électriques par haut voltage de diamètre allant de 8 à 11 cm et siégeant dans la région tonsurale. Ces patients ont été opérés dans la première semaine suivant l’accident. Les pertes de substance du scalp de taille moyenne secondaires à ces brûlures peuvent être couvertes per primam de façon fiable par des lambeaux locaux axialisés et multiples. Nous relatons l’expérience du Service de Chirurgie Plastique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn-Sina, Rabat, Maroc, dans la gestion et la prise en charge de ces brûlures. PMID:22262963

  11. Influence des interactions du couple ciment/adjuvant dispersant sur les proprietes des betons: Importance du mode d'introduction des adjuvants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baalbaki, Moussa

    1998-12-01

    Les travaux de recherche de cette these de doctorat ont porte sur les phenomenes d'incompatibilite (ou de compatibilite) ciment/adjuvant dispersant en mettant l'accent sur l'influence du mode d'introduction des adjuvants sur les proprietes des betons frais et durcis. Les aspects physiques et chimiques de l'interaction ciment/adjuvant a ete relies aux proprietes des betons en tenant compte du rapport E/C, de la teneur en C3A du ciment ainsi que du type d'adjuvant dispersant. Le programme experimental propose debute par une etude rheologique et mecanique sur pate et sur beton. Le comportement du superplastifiant a base de polynaphtalene (PNS) depend surtout de son interaction avec les premiers produits d'hydratation du ciment. Cette interaction du superplastifiant PNS avec le ciment est remarquablement differente dans le cas ou l'ajout du PNS est differe de quelques minutes. Lorsque le superplastifiant PNS est introduit directement avec l'eau de gachage, on remarque la formation d'un gel blanc compose d'ettringite, de CaCO 3 et de polynaphtalene et ce compose organo-mineral est presque inexistant lorsque le superplastifiant PNS est ajoute en mode differe. Ce gel organo-mineral se forme a partir de la solution entre les aluminates de calcium hydrates, les sulfates et le PNS, et est responsable de la perte d'affaissement du beton. Les analyses au microscope electronique a balayage montrent que l'introduction du superplastifiant PNS en mode S1 (ajout direct) engendre la precipitation d'une plus grande quantite d'ettringite et de produit organo-mineral. Cette ettringite finement cristallisee, abondante et enchevetree aura pour consequence de diminuer les proprietes rheologiques des betons et des pates. Ce phenomene ne s'observe pas lorsque le superplastifiant PNS est introduit en mode differe. Le mode d'introduction du superplastifiant a base de polyacrylate (PAE) n'affecte nullement le comportement rheologique du beton. Par ailleurs, le gel organo-mineral n'apparait pas avec le superplastifiant PAE. Le superplastifiant PNS et son adsorption n'est pas fonction de la teneur en C3A. Un resultat tres important est la concentration en calcium qui est beaucoup plus elevee avec le superplastifiant PNS, surtout avec le ciment a forte teneur en C3A. Il semble que l'hydratation des phases du ciment soit controlee par la presence du superplastifiant PAE. Les analyses au microscope electronique a balayage avec le superplastifiant a base de polyacrylate apres 60 minutes d'hydratation du ciment montre de facon tres nette que la surface des grains de ciment est denudee de tout produit d'hydratation. En ce qui concerne les reducteurs d'eau, l'ajout en mode differe produit un certain effet benefique sur la rheologie et depend aussi du dosage surtout avec le reducteur d'eau de portee moyenne a base de lignosulfonate modifie (LM). Dans tous les cas, le reducteur d'eau ordinaire CG retarde plus la prise que le reducteur d'eau de portee moyenne LM. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  12. The evolution of airplanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, A.; Charles, J. D.; Lorente, S.

    2014-07-01

    The prevailing view is that we cannot witness biological evolution because it occurred on a time scale immensely greater than our lifetime. Here, we show that we can witness evolution in our lifetime by watching the evolution of the flying human-and-machine species: the airplane. We document this evolution, and we also predict it based on a physics principle: the constructal law. We show that the airplanes must obey theoretical allometric rules that unite them with the birds and other animals. For example, the larger airplanes are faster, more efficient as vehicles, and have greater range. The engine mass is proportional to the body size: this scaling is analogous to animal design, where the mass of the motive organs (muscle, heart, lung) is proportional to the body size. Large or small, airplanes exhibit a proportionality between wing span and fuselage length, and between fuel load and body size. The animal-design counterparts of these features are evident. The view that emerges is that the evolution phenomenon is broader than biological evolution. The evolution of technology, river basins, and animal design is one phenomenon, and it belongs in physics.

  13. Cultural Evolution and SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Drake Equation for the number of radio communicative technological civilizations in the Galaxy encompasses three components of cosmic evolution: astronomical, biological and cultural. Of these three, cultural evolution totally dominates in terms of the rapidity of its effects. Yet, SETI scientists do not take cultural evolution into account, perhaps for understandable reasons, since cultural evolution is not well-understood even on Earth and is unpredictable in its outcome. But the one certainty for technical civilizations billions, millions, or even thousands of years older than ours is that they will have undergone cultural evolution. Cultural evolution potentially takes place in many directions, but this paper argues that its central driving force is the maintenance, improvement and perpetuation of knowledge and intelligence, and that to the extent intelligence can be improved, it will be improved. Applying this principle to life in the universe, extraterrestrials will have sought the best way to improve their intelligence. One possibility is that they may have long ago advanced beyond flesh-and-blood to artificial intelligence, constituting a postbiological universe. Although this subject has been broached, it has not been given the attention it is due from its foundation in cultural evolution. Nor has the idea of a postbiological universe been carried to its logical conclusion, including a careful analysis of the implications for SETI. SETI scientists, social scientists, and experts in AI should consider the strengths and weaknesses of this new paradigm.

  14. The Creation/Evolution Continuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Eugenie C.

    2001-01-01

    Many believe that creation and evolution are two totally different theories. Encourages rejection of the creation/evolution dichotomy and recognition of the creation/evolution continuum. (Contains 19 references.) (ASK)

  15. Physicochemical characterisation of depleted uranium (DU) particles at a UK firing test range.

    PubMed

    Sajih, Mustafa; Livens, Francis R; Alvarez, Rebeca; Morgan, Mathew

    2010-11-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) particles were isolated from soils at Eskmeals, UK, where DU munitions have been tested against hard targets and unfired DU buried in soils for corrosion studies. Using electron microscopy and X-ray analyses, three classes of particles were identified: (1) DU aerosols and fragments, typically 1-20 μm diameter, composed mainly of uranium as UO(2) and U(3)O(8), (2) solidified molten particles, typically 200-500 μm diameter, composed of U, mixed with Fe from target materials and (3) deposits and coatings, often of metaschoepite on sand grains up to 500 μm diameter. The first two particle types are derived from firing impacts, the last from corrosion of buried uranium metal. Alpha and mass spectrometry allowed quantitative elemental and isotopic characterisation of DU-containing particulate environmental samples. PMID:20855109

  16. Le syndrome du canal d’Alcock ou névralgie pudendale : un diagnostic à ne pas méconnaître

    PubMed Central

    Ziouziou, Imad; Bennani, Hassan; Zizi, Mohamed; Karmouni, Tarik; Khader, Khalid El; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Iben Attya

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Le syndrome du canal d’Alcock – ou névralgie pudendale – est lié à la compression chronique du nerf pudendal dans la fossette ischiorectale ou au niveau du ligament sacroépineux. Le diagnostic du syndrome d’Alcock est surtout clinique. Les examens complémentaires sont dominés par les explorations électrophysiologiques et le test de bloc anesthésique. Le diagnostic repose sur des critères bien précis, soit les critères de Nantes. La prise en charge doit être globale, comprenant un traitement médicamenteux, des infiltrations, des techniques de neuromodulation, et dans les cas graves ou résistants, un traitement chirurgical qui consiste à libérer le nerf pudendal. Les névralgies pudendales peuvent être rencontrées après traitement d’une incontinence urinaire d’effort par bande-lettes sous-urétrales (TVT). Ce syndrome motive des consultations en urologie, car la douleur intéresse le territoire du périnée et des organes génitaux. Des signes urinaires peuvent aussi accompagner cette douleur. Il est donc judicieux de connaître cette pathologie. PMID:23914265

  17. Is genetic evolution predictable?

    PubMed

    Stern, David L; Orgogozo, Virginie

    2009-02-01

    Ever since the integration of Mendelian genetics into evolutionary biology in the early 20th century, evolutionary geneticists have for the most part treated genes and mutations as generic entities. However, recent observations indicate that all genes are not equal in the eyes of evolution. Evolutionarily relevant mutations tend to accumulate in hotspot genes and at specific positions within genes. Genetic evolution is constrained by gene function, the structure of genetic networks, and population biology. The genetic basis of evolution may be predictable to some extent, and further understanding of this predictability requires incorporation of the specific functions and characteristics of genes into evolutionary theory. PMID:19197055

  18. Microfluidic Landscapes for Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Paegel, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Evolution at its heart is an iterative algorithm composed of three steps: selection, amplification and mutagenesis. This algorithm can be applied to complex inputs such as populations of whole organisms and viruses, or mixtures of bare nucleic acids and proteins. The output is the same: evolutionary adaptation of new and improved function subject to selection. Recent breakthroughs in microfluidic technology have introduced automation and process monitoring to in vitro evolution, and reproducible preparation of emulsions and other multi-phase reaction landscapes. It is at this intersection of compartmentalization and in vitro evolution where miniaturization is again redefining experimental design in contemporary chemistry and biology. PMID:20800535

  19. The evolution of vision.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Walter J

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the evolution of vision is retraced from its putative origins in cyanobacteria to humans. Circadian oscillatory clocks, phototropism, and phototaxis require the capability to detect light. Photosensory proteins allow us to reconstruct molecular phylogenetic trees. The evolution of animal eyes leading from an ancestral prototype to highly complex image forming eyes can be deciphered on the basis of evolutionary developmental genetic experiments and comparative genomics. As all bilaterian animals share the same master control gene, Pax6, and the same retinal and pigment cell determination genes, we conclude that the different eye-types originated monophyletically and subsequently diversified by divergent, parallel, or convergent evolution. PMID:24902832

  20. Evolution of biological complexity

    PubMed Central

    Adami, Christoph; Ofria, Charles; Collier, Travis C.

    2000-01-01

    To make a case for or against a trend in the evolution of complexity in biological evolution, complexity needs to be both rigorously defined and measurable. A recent information-theoretic (but intuitively evident) definition identifies genomic complexity with the amount of information a sequence stores about its environment. We investigate the evolution of genomic complexity in populations of digital organisms and monitor in detail the evolutionary transitions that increase complexity. We show that, because natural selection forces genomes to behave as a natural “Maxwell Demon,” within a fixed environment, genomic complexity is forced to increase. PMID:10781045

  1. Evolution of biological complexity.

    PubMed

    Adami, C; Ofria, C; Collier, T C

    2000-04-25

    To make a case for or against a trend in the evolution of complexity in biological evolution, complexity needs to be both rigorously defined and measurable. A recent information-theoretic (but intuitively evident) definition identifies genomic complexity with the amount of information a sequence stores about its environment. We investigate the evolution of genomic complexity in populations of digital organisms and monitor in detail the evolutionary transitions that increase complexity. We show that, because natural selection forces genomes to behave as a natural "Maxwell Demon," within a fixed environment, genomic complexity is forced to increase. PMID:10781045

  2. Quantification du champ electromagnetique et description quantique de la generation du second harmonique a l'interieur d'une microcavite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, Marc

    L'existence de particules virtuelles qui surgissent spontanement du vide pour disparaitre tres peu de temps apres leur apparition (les fluctuations du vide) trouve son origine dans le principe d'incertitude de Heisenberg. Par ailleurs, on sait que le phenomene de resonance par confinement explique l'amplification de l'intensite lumineuse a l'interieur d'une cavite ouverte aux frequences de resonances de celle-ci. C'est pourquoi le taux d'apparition des photons virtuels au sein des modes propres d'une cavite est lui aussi amplifie par le resonateur. Mathematiquement, cet effet quantique est decrit par l'existence d'un commutateur " anomal " entre les operateurs d'annihilation et de creation des photons. Nous decrivons les consequences de ce commutateur sur la generation du second harmonique optique (GSH), un processus photonique ou, dans un materiau optiquement non lineaire, deux photons de meme energie fusionnent pour n'en former qu'un seul. On commence ce travail avec un traitement complet et original sur la quantification du champ electromagnetique. On montre ensuite que les fluctuations du vide stimulent le signal de la GSH a l'interieur du milieu confine. Cependant, on constate aussi que les fluctuations du vide jouent le role d'un inhibiteur au declenchement du processus, c'est-a-dire que le seuil de la GSH augmente (il est superieur au seuil minimal de deux photons seulement). En conclusion, les mecanismes intimes de certains processus optiques non lineaires doivent etre reconsideres lorsqu'ils surviennent en presence d'un confinement electromagnetique.

  3. Heredity in Evolution & Evolution of Heredity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivoire, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    The inheritance of characteristics induced by the environment has often been opposed to the theory of evolution by natural selection. However, although evolution by natural selection requires new heritable traits to be produced and transmitted, it does not prescribe, per se, the mechanisms by which this is operated. The mechanisms of inheritance are not, however, unconstrained, because they are themselves subject to natural selection. We introduce a schematic, analytically solvable mathematical model to compare the adaptive value of different schemes of inheritance. Our model allows for variations to be inherited, randomly produced, or environmentally induced, and, irrespectively, to be either transmitted or not during reproduction. The adaptation of the different schemes for processing variations is quantified for a range of fluctuating environments, following an approach that links quantitative genetics with stochastic control theory.

  4. Cumulative effects analysis (CEA) tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective rangeland management requires careful consideration of the possible cumulative effects of different management options prior to making major management decisions. State-and-transition (S/T) models, based on ecological sites, capture our understanding ecosystem functioning and can be used t...

  5. The association between Cri du chat syndrome and dental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charmaine; Hallett, Kerrod; Manton, David

    2014-01-01

    Cri du chat syndrome (CdcS), also known as 5p deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the partial deletion of chromatin from the short arm of chromosome 5. There is a paucity of literature on the dental manifestations in CdcS. The purposes of this report are to present the case of a nine-year-old girl with the syndrome, CdcS and to review its dental and clinical manifestations and their management in children. PMID:25514263

  6. Cause rare du syndrome occlusif: la pneumatose kystique intestinale

    PubMed Central

    Kacem, Hanane Hadj; Kharrasse, Ghiwlane; El Harroudi, Tijani

    2014-01-01

    La pneumatose kystique intestinale est une Affection rare caractérisée par la présence de kystes gazeux dans la paroi intestinale, pouvant atteindre l'ensemble du tube digestif, avec une prédilection pour l'intestin grêle et le côlon. Le diagnostic est évoqué sur le scanner, permettant d’éviter l'intervention chirurgicale en absence de complications. Les auteurs rapportent une observation rare de pneumatose kystique colique, source de manifestations occlusives imposant l'intervention chirurgicale. PMID:25838858

  7. Anti-tumor activity of the TRPM8 inhibitor BCTC in prostate cancer DU145 cells

    PubMed Central

    LIU, TAO; FANG, ZHIHAI; WANG, GANG; SHI, MINGJUN; WANG, XIAO; JIANG, KUN; YANG, ZHONGHUA; CAO, RUI; TAO, HUANGHENG; WANG, XINGHUAN; ZHOU, JIAJIE

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the anti-tumor activity of N-(4-tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)-carbox-amide (BCTC), a potent and specific inhibitor of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8) in prostate cancer (PCa) DU145 cells. TRPM8 expression in DU145 and normal prostate PNT1A cells was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The effect of BCTC on DU145 cells was analyzed by flow cytometry analysis, and MTT, scratch motility and Transwell invasion assays. The molecular mechanism through which BCTC acts was investigated by western blot analysis. TRPM8 expression was increased in DU145 cells compared with PNT1A cells at the mRNA and protein levels. The present study provided evidence that inhibition of TRPM8 by BCTC reduced the viability of DU145 cells, but not PNT1A cells. In addition, BCTC inhibited cell cycle progression, migration and invasion in DU145 cells. Cell cycle-associated proteins, including phosphorylated protein kinase B, cyclin D1, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 2 and CDK6 were downregulated by BCTC, while phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β was upregulated. However, investigations in the present study revealed that BCTC failed to trigger apoptosis in DU145 cells. In addition, in BCTC-treated DU145 cells, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 was downregulated substantially while phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinases (p-JNK) were upregulated. The anti-proliferative activity of BCTC on DU145 cells was attenuated by p38 and JNK-specific inhibitors, suggesting that MAPK pathways are involved. Overall, the TRPM8 specific antagonist BCTC demonstrated excellent anti-tumor activity in PCa DU145 cells, and therefore has the potential to become a targeted therapeutic strategy against PCa. PMID:26870186

  8. Properties, use and health effects of depleted uranium (DU): a general overview.

    PubMed

    Bleise, A; Danesi, P R; Burkart, W

    2003-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU), a waste product of uranium enrichment, has several civilian and military applications. It was used as armor-piercing ammunition in international military conflicts and was claimed to contribute to health problems, known as the Gulf War Syndrome and recently as the Balkan Syndrome. This led to renewed efforts to assess the environmental consequences and the health impact of the use of DU. The radiological and chemical properties of DU can be compared to those of natural uranium, which is ubiquitously present in soil at a typical concentration of 3 mg/kg. Natural uranium has the same chemotoxicity, but its radiotoxicity is 60% higher. Due to the low specific radioactivity and the dominance of alpha-radiation no acute risk is attributed to external exposure to DU. The major risk is DU dust, generated when DU ammunition hits hard targets. Depending on aerosol speciation, inhalation may lead to a protracted exposure of the lung and other organs. After deposition on the ground, resuspension can take place if the DU containing particle size is sufficiently small. However, transfer to drinking water or locally produced food has little potential to lead to significant exposures to DU. Since poor solubility of uranium compounds and lack of information on speciation precludes the use of radioecological models for exposure assessment, biomonitoring has to be used for assessing exposed persons. Urine, feces, hair and nails record recent exposures to DU. With the exception of crews of military vehicles having been hit by DU penetrators, no body burdens above the range of values for natural uranium have been found. Therefore, observable health effects are not expected and residual cancer risk estimates have to be based on theoretical considerations. They appear to be very minor for all post-conflict situations, i.e. a fraction of those expected from natural radiation. PMID:12500797

  9. Diffusion du rayonnement X monochromatique par une structure multicouche périodique La/B{4}C au voisinage du seuil La 4d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, J.-M.; Jonnard, P.; Bonnelle, C.

    2006-12-01

    Nous présentons une étude qui s'inscrit dans le cadre du développement des sources X cohérentes basées sur le principe de la ll rétrodistribution gg par une structure multicouche. L'intensité du rayonnement diffusé par une structure multicouche La/B{4}C irradiée par un rayonnement monochromatique a été enregistrée en fonction de l'énergie du rayonnement incident dans le domaine 90 et 180 eV recouvrant la région 4d du lanthane, pour différents angles d'incidence et de diffusion. De forts maximums d'intensité diffusée sont observés pour des énergies incidentes qui varient fortement avec l'angle de diffusion. Un des 2 principaux pics a été interprété comme dû à une diffusion Raman associée à la configuration finale 5p5 du lanthane, combinée à la diffraction de Bragg du rayonnement diffusé par la structure multicouche. Un modèle cinématique basé sur la conservation de l'énergie et des impulsions a permis de modéliser ce phénomène que nous avons appelé diffusion Raman-Bragg. L'origine des autres structures observées est discutée.

  10. Creationists vs. Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, James

    1981-01-01

    Reviews results of a California trial concerning the teaching of evolution in public school classrooms. Also lists recent legislation in the states of Florida, California, Minnesota, South Dakota, Kansas, Illinois, Iowa, Texas, and Arkansas. (CS)

  11. Stellar evolution. VI.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iben, I., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Evolution of low mass Population I stars from main sequence to red giant branch in Hertzsprung- Russell diagram, through energy generation phases of p-p chain reactions /dominating over C-N cycle reactions/ and hydrogen burning

  12. Generalized DGLAP evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strózik-Kotlorz, D.; Mikhailov, S. V.; Teryaev, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    We present progress in development of the truncated Mellin moments approach (TMMA). We show our recent results on the generalization of DGLAP evolution equations and discuss some their applications in spin physics.

  13. Evolution: Always New

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2005-01-01

    The changes in the evolution due to changes in science are explored. These changes are frustrating to paleontologists, especially when they are trying to date a singular event, like a cataclysm that precipitated a mass extinction.

  14. The evolution of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The recent observational evidence on the evolution of galaxies is reviewed and related to the framework of current ideas for galaxy formation from primordial density fluctuations. Recent strong evidence for the evolution of the stellar population in ellipticals is presented, as well as evidence that not all ellipticals behave as predicted by any simple theory. The status of counts of faint galaxies and the implications for the evolution of spirals is discussed, together with a discussion of recent work on the redshift distribution of galaxies at faint magnitudes and a spectroscopic investigation of the Butcher-Oemler blue cluster galaxies. Finally a new picture for the formation and evolution of disk galaxies which may explain most of the features of the Hubble sequence is outlined.

  15. Co-Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the role of techniques of DNA analysis in assessing the genetic relationships between various species. Focuses on wolf-dog evolution using DNA evidence and historical data about human/wolf-dog relationships. (DDR)

  16. Physical Principles of Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Peter

    Theoretical biology is incomplete without a comprehensive theory of evolution, since evolution is at the core of biological thought. Evolution is visualized as a migration process in genotype or sequence space that is either an adaptive walk driven by some fitness gradient or a random walk in the absence of (sufficiently large) fitness differences. The Darwinian concept of natural selection consisting in the interplay of variation and selection is based on a dichotomy: All variations occur on genotypes whereas selection operates on phenotypes, and relations between genotypes and phenotypes, as encapsulated in a mapping from genotype space into phenotype space, are central to an understanding of evolution. Fitness is conceived as a function of the phenotype, represented by a second mapping from phenotype space into nonnegative real numbers. In the biology of organisms, genotype-phenotype maps are enormously complex and relevant information on them is exceedingly scarce. The situation is better in the case of viruses but so far only one example of a genotype-phenotype map, the mapping of RNA sequences into RNA secondary structures, has been investigated in sufficient detail. It provides direct information on RNA selection in vitro and test-tube evolution, and it is a basis for testing in silico evolution on a realistic fitness landscape. Most of the modeling efforts in theoretical and mathematical biology today are done by means of differential equations but stochastic effects are of undeniably great importance for evolution. Population sizes are much smaller than the numbers of genotypes constituting sequence space. Every mutant, after all, has to begin with a single copy. Evolution can be modeled by a chemical master equation, which (in principle) can be approximated by a stochastic differential equation. In addition, simulation tools are available that compute trajectories for master equations. The accessible population sizes in the range of 10^7le Nle 10^8 molecules are commonly too small for problems in chemistry but sufficient for biology.

  17. Restauration fonctionnelle du rachis : effet du niveau initial de douleur sur les performances des sujets lombalgiques chroniques

    PubMed Central

    Caby, Isabelle; Olivier, N; Mendelek, F; Kheir, R Bou; Vanvelcenaher, J; Pelayo, P

    2014-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : La lombalgie chronique est une douleur lombaire persistante d’origine multifactorielle. Le niveau de douleur initial reste faiblement utilisé pour analyser et comparer les réponses des patients lombalgiques au programme de reconditionnement. OBJECTIFS : Apprécier et évaluer les réponses des sujets lombalgiques chroniques très douloureux à une prise en charge dynamique et intensive. MÉTHODOLOGIE : 144 sujets atteints de lombalgie chronique ont été inclus dans un programme de restauration fonctionnelle du rachis de 5 semaines. Les sujets ont été classés en deux groupes de niveau de douleur: un groupe atteint de douleur sévère (n = 28) et un groupe atteint de douleur légère à modérée (n = 106). L’ensemble des sujets ont bénéficié d’une prise en charge identique comprenant principalement de la kinésithérapie, de l’ergothérapie, du reconditionnement musculaire et cardio-vasculaire ainsi qu’un suivi psychologique. Les paramètres physiques (flexibilité, force musculaire) et psychologiques (qualité de vie) ont été mesurés avant (T0) et après le programme (T5sem). RÉSULTATS : L’ensemble des performances physiques et fonctionnelles des sujets très douloureux sont moins bonnes et le retentissement de la lombalgie sur la qualité de vie, pour ces mêmes sujets, est majoré à T0. Toutes les différences significatives constatées à T0 entre les deux groupes s’effacent à T5sem. CONCLUSIONS : Les sujets lombalgiques chroniques très douloureux répondent favorablement au programme dynamique et intensif. L’intensité douloureuse de la lombalgie n’aurait pas d’effet sur les réponses au programme. La restauration fonctionnelle du rachis apporterait aux sujets la possibilité de mieux gérer leur douleur quel que soit son niveau. PMID:25299476

  18. Etude de l'absorption du rayonnement IR en vue du traitement laser d'alliages ferreux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, C.; Vialle, C.; Merlin, J.

    1992-11-01

    In the laser surface heat treatments of materials, the optical parameters affecting the laser-material interaction are often forgotten which leads in general to an empirical way of dealing with the absorption problems of the infrared radiation. In this work we have shown, from the Fresnel theory of propagation of an electromagnetic wave through a medium, the importance of taking into account some parameters like the incident angle, the beam polarization and the refractive indices of the materials. We have also studied the required characteristics for a coating on a ferrous substrate to obtain an optimal absorption of the IR radiation at 10.6 ?m. We have carried out experimental measurements on spheroidal graphite cast iron samples, directly from polishing or with an absorbing coating and irradiated with a linear polarised beam which led to results in agreement with the theoretical expectations. Dans les traitements superficiels des matériaux par laser, les paramètres optiques intervenant dans l'interaction laser-matériau sont souvent négligés, ce qui entraîne en général une approche très empirique des problèmes liés à l'absorption du rayonnement infrarouge. Dans ce travail nous avons montré, à partir de la théorie de Fresnel décrivant la propagation d'une onde lumineuse dans un milieu, l'importance pour l'étude de l'absorption de la prise en compte de divers paramètres tels que : l'angle d'incidence, la polarisation éventuelle du faisceau laser et les indices de réfraction des matériaux. Nous avons aussi étudié les caractéristiques que devraient présenter la couche à déposer sur un substrat ferreux pour avoir une absorption optimale du rayonnement IR à 10,6 ?m. Nous avons pu effectuer des mesures expérimentales sur des échantillons de fonte à graphite sphéroïdal “brute” de polissage ou revêtus d'une couche absorbante et soumis à l'éclairement d'un faisceau polarisé rectilignement qui ont conduit à des résultats conformes aux prévisions théoriques.

  19. Evolution in Revolution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Biological evolution represents one of the most successful, but also controversial scientific concepts. Ever since Charles Darwin formulated his version of evolution via natural selection, biological sciences experienced explosive development and progress. First of all, although Darwin could not explain how traits of organisms, selected via natural selection, are inherited and passed down along generations; his theory stimulated research in this respect and resulted in the establishment of genetics and still later in the discovery of DNA and genome sequencing some hundred years after his evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, there are several weaknesses in classical Darwinian as well as Neodarwinian gene-centric views of biological evolution. The most serious drawback is its narrow focus: the modern evolutionary synthesis, as formulated in the 20th Century, is based on the concept of gene and on the mathematical/statistical analysis of populations. While Neodarwinism is still generally considered a valid theory of biological evolution, its narrow focus and incompatibility with several new findings and discoveries calls for its update and/or transformation. Either it will be replaced with an updated version or, if not flexible enough, it will be replaced by a new theory. In his book “Evolution — A New View from the 21st Century,”1 James A. Shapiro discusses these problems as well as newly emerging results which are changing our understanding of biological evolution. This new book joins a row of several other recent books highlighting the same issues.2–13

  20. Amélioration des performances d'une implantation parallélovectorielle du gradient conjugué par extension du schéma de stockage matriciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnin, H.; Coulomb, J. L.

    1993-03-01

    Electromagnetic field computation with the Finite Element (FE) method implies solving of large linear systems of equations. Performances and memory capacities of today computers allow to achieve three-dimensional FE discretizations of electromagnetic problems, but the number of unknowns grows high. So, to improve time to the numerical solution of the linear system(s) thus arising, the use of parallel and/or vector computers has to be envisaged. In this paper, the main constitutive steps of the Pre-conditioned Conjugate Gradient algorithm (PCG) are analysed. After a short recall of our previous work concerning their improvement by use of vector and parallel computations, we show some speedup limitations due to the sparse row-wise matrix storage scheme employed. Then, an extension of this matrix representation is proposed, leading to introduce redundant storage of non-zero coefficients. In spite of the “memory waste” thus implied, it is shown how this extension can be successfully employed to increase the speedup due to parallelism and vectorization on the whole algorithm, and in particular to derive a parallel preconditioner. La résolution par la méthode des éléments finis des équations de l'électromagnétisme conduit à résoudre de grands systèmes d'équations linéaires. Les capacités mémoire et les performances actuelles des systèmes informatiques permettent de traiter les problèmes électromagnétiques par discrétisation tridimensionnelle, mais alors le nombre d'inconnues devient très élevé. Ainsi, la résolution en un temps raisonnable des équations linéaires associées à de telles discrétisations conduit à envisager l'emploi d'ordinateurs à architecture parallèle. Dans cet article, les différentes étapes constitutives de l'algorithme du gradient conjugué préconditionné (GCP) sont analysées. Après un court rappel de nos travaux antérieurs concemant leur amélioration par utilisation de traitements parallèles et vectoriels, nous montrons les limitations du gain de temps dues au mode de stockage matriciel utilisé : la représentation creuse dite “Morse”. Nous proposons alors une extension de ce mode de stockage, conduisant à l'introduction de redondance au niveau du rangement des termes matriciels en mémoire. Malgré le “gaspillage” mémoire ainsi occasionné, il apparait que cette extension peut être mise à profit pour augmenter sensiblement les gains par parallélisation et vectorisation de l'ensemble de l'algorithme du gradient conjugué, et notamment pour la réalisation d'un pré-conditionnement parallèle.

  1. Intérêt du traitement chirurgical des fractures du massif trochantérien par clou gamma, à propos de 84 cas

    PubMed Central

    Boukhris, Jalal; Boussouga, Mostapha; Jaafar, Abdelouahab; Chagar, Belkacem

    2014-01-01

    La fracture trochantérienne est une urgence différée qui se voit essentiellement chez le sujet âgé, dont les processus physiologique sont en déclin progressif. Chez le sujet jeune, elle est rare et souvent consécutive à un traumatisme violent. Ces fractures ont bénéficié de l’évolution constante des moyens et des techniques thérapeutiques, visant à améliorer l'ostéosynthèse, assurant ainsi un lever et un appui précoces. Nous rapportons une série de 84 cas de fractures du massif trochantérien traités chirurgicalement par clou gamma. Les résultats fonctionnels sont très encourageants en les comparants à ceux rapportés dans la littérature. PMID:25574335

  2. Proceedings of the 1989 CESAR/CEA (Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research/Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) workshop on autonomous mobile robots (May 30--June 1, 1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Harber, K.S.; Pin, F.G. . Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research)

    1990-03-01

    The US DOE Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique's (CEA) Office de Robotique et Productique within the Directorat a la Valorization are working toward a long-term cooperative agreement and relationship in the area of Intelligent Systems Research (ISR). This report presents the proceedings of the first CESAR/CEA Workshop on Autonomous Mobile Robots which took place at ORNL on May 30, 31 and June 1, 1989. The purpose of the workshop was to present and discuss methodologies and algorithms under development at the two facilities in the area of perception and navigation for autonomous mobile robots in unstructured environments. Experimental demonstration of the algorithms and comparison of some of their features were proposed to take place within the framework of a previously mutually agreed-upon demonstration scenario or base-case.'' The base-case scenario described in detail in Appendix A, involved autonomous navigation by the robot in an a priori unknown environment with dynamic obstacles, in order to reach a predetermined goal. From the intermediate goal location, the robot had to search for and locate a control panel, move toward it, and dock in front of the panel face. The CESAR demonstration was successfully accomplished using the HERMIES-IIB robot while subsets of the CEA demonstration performed using the ARES robot simulation and animation system were presented. The first session of the workshop focused on these experimental demonstrations and on the needs and considerations for establishing benchmarks'' for testing autonomous robot control algorithms.

  3. Etude du Photochromisme et de la Photorefractivite dans le Poly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghailane, Fatima

    1995-11-01

    Nous avons etudie la possibilite d'utiliser un materiau organique, le poly(vinylcarbazole) comme milieu de stockage optique de masse en temps reel. Ce materiau dope aux photochromes presente un potentiel non negligeable pour l'holographie de volume en temps reel. Plusiers cycles, Ecriture-Lecture-Effacement, ont ete enregistres dans cette matrice polymerique avec une resolution assez elevee. Une etude a ete menee afin d'obtenir la valeur des parametres comme l'epaisseur du film et l'intensite d'ecriture pour un angle d'enregistrement theta_{ acute ecriture} donne qui permettent d'obtenir les meilleures efficacites diffractionelles tout en preservant ce milieu de tout effet de fatigue ou de degradation. Ce polymere devient photorefractif une fois melange avec un bon accepteur de charge, le trinitrofluorenone et un bon chromophore non-lineaire, le disperse orange 25. Nous avons etudie experimentalement la conductivite en obscurite et la photoconductivite de ce materiau. Des simulations numeriques ont ete realisees en se basant sur le modele de Poole-Frenkel. Nous avons aussi etudie l'implantation de faisceaux d'ions d'oxygene d'energie 200 keV pour inscrire dans le PVCz un guide d'onde plan a profil d'indice. Une etude ESCA complete cette partie afin de savoir les modifications induites par implementation ionique a l'interieur du film polymerique.

  4. Differents aspects du fer dans l'organisme

    PubMed Central

    Bessis, Marcel; Breton-Gorius, Janine

    1959-01-01

    On voit des molécules de ferritine apparaitre dans le cytoplasme des cellules réticulaires au cours de la digestion des érythrocytes, autour des stromas phagocytés. Cette ferritine s'accumule en amas dans lesquels entrent d'autres substances, en particulier des lipides, provenant aussi des stromas globulaires et qui apparaissent sous forme myélinique. Souvent la ferritine se dispose d'une manière cristalline. Parfois la ferritine et l'apoferritine alternent dans ces cristaux. Parfois l'hémosidérine contient des cristaux qui semblent bien être de l'apoferritine pure. L'injection de sels de fer donne lieu à l'apparition de ferritine dans les cellules réticulaires. Dans les conditions de nos expériences, la plus grande partie du fer injecté était sous forme de ferritine dans un délai de 3 jours. Un aspect intermédiaire entre celui du fer injecté et celui de la ferritine a été trouvé. Dans le cas des injections de saccharate de fer ce sont de fines aiguilles; dans le cas des injections de lactate de fer, il s'agit de masses fibreuses. PMID:13800106

  5. Clinico-pathological correlation of serial measurement of circulating tumor cells in 24 metastatic colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy reveals interpatient heterogeneity correlated with CEA levels but independent of KRAS and BRAF mutation

    PubMed Central

    Das, Avisnata; Kunkel, Miriam; Joudeh, Jamal; Dicker, David T; Scicchitano, Angelique; Allen, Joshua E; Sarwani, Nabeel; Yang, Zhaohai; Kaifi, Jussuf; Zhu, Junjia; Liao, Jason; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Veridex CellSearch is an FDA-approved technology for enumerating circulating tumor cells in blood samples of metastatic colorectal cancer mCRC) patients and has prognostic value. It is important to understand how counts of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which are advocated to be tools for “liquid biopsy” of tumors, correlate with clinical and pathologic variables of significance in these patients. In this study, we have attempted to make such correlations along with evaluating how CTC counts change during the course of chemotherapy. Patients and methods: Following an IRB-approved protocol, blood samples were collected from 24 patients with mCRC along with relevant clinico-pathological data. Blood was collected at defined time-points both prior to as well as during the course of treatment with combination chemotherapy, and CTC counts were enumerated from7.5 ml of blood. Results: Seventeen out of 24 patients with mCRC showed a CTC count of 2 or less cells in 7.5 ml of blood at base-line assessment before chemotherapy while 7 patients showed 3 or more cells in 7.5 ml of blood at that point. A correlation was found between high carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) levels and high CTC counts (P = 0.018) although it was also found that some patients had elevated CTCs without an elevated CEA. No correlation with the time interval between detection of primary tumor and appearance of secondary (metastatic) tumor(s) was found. CTC counts did not correlate with the presence of lung or liver metastases, i.e. a number of mCRC patients with lung or liver metastases had a count of zero CTCs at baseline. We also noted no correlation between CTC number and the status of KRAS or BRAF mutation. CTC counts dropped immediately after the start of chemotherapy in 11 out of 21 patients, and also reduced from the baseline at the end of chemotherapy in 5 out of 10 patients. Six of 7 patients who started with 3 or more CTCs in 7.5 ml at baseline also showed a final CTC reduction at the end of the therapy assessment. Conclusions: Analysis of circulating tumor cells may be of use in monitoring response to therapy in mCRC, either in combination with CEA monitoring or alone when CTCs are elevated but CEA level is not. PMID:25806877

  6. Le role du phytoplancton de petite taille (<20 mum) dans les variations des proprietes optiques des eaux du Saint-Laurent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, Sebastien

    Les mesures satellitaires de couleur des oceans sont largement determinees par les proprietes optiques inherentes (IOPs) des eaux de surface. D'autre part, le phytoplancton de petite taille (<20 mum) est le plus souvent dominant dans les oceans, et peut donc etre une source importante de variation des IOPs dans les oceans. Dans ce contexte, le but principal de ce doctorat etait de definir l'impact du phytoplancton (<20 mum) sur les variations des proprietes optiques de l'Estuaire et du Golfe du Saint-Laurent (Canada). Afin d'atteindre cet objectif, il etait necessaire de determiner en milieu controle les facteurs de variabilite des proprietes optiques cellulaires et des IOPs du phytoplancton (<20 mum) des eaux du Saint-Laurent, et d'evaluer la contribution du phytoplancton (<20 mum) aux proprietes optiques totales des eaux du Saint-Laurent. Des experiences en laboratoire ont montre que les variations des proprietes optiques des cellules phytoplanctoniques soumises a un cycle jour-nuit, ainsi qu'a des changements concomitants d'intensite lumineuse, peuvent contribuer significativement a la variabilite des proprietes optiques observee en milieu naturel. D'autres experiences ont, quant a elles, mis en evidence que les variations des proprietes optiques des cellules phytoplanctoniques dues aux phases de croissance peuvent alterer les IOPs des oceans, particulierement pendant les periodes de floraison. De plus, la presence de bacteries et de particules detritiques peut egalement affecter la variabilite des IOPs totales, notamment la diffusion. Au printemps, dans l'Estuaire et le Golfe du Saint-Laurent, la contribution du phytoplancton <20 mum aux IOPs presentait des differences regionales evidentes pour les proprietes d'absorption et de diffusion. En plus de la variabilite spatiale, les proprietes optiques cellulaires presentaient des variations journalieres, et ce particulierement pour le picophytoplancton. Enfin, la plupart des differences observees dans les proprietes biooptiques, particulierement l'absorption, etaient attribuables a la contribution du phytoplancton <20 mum. Ceci confirme l'importance de la structure de taille des communautes phytoplanctoniques dans les modeles bio-optiques appliques au Saint-Laurent. L'ensemble des resultats a permis de mettre en evidence l'importance des mecanismes de photoacclimatation et de synchronisation du cycle cellulaire du phytoplancton sur les variations journalieres des IOPs, ainsi que de l'etat physiologique relie au stade de croissance sur les variations temporelles a long terme des IOPs. De plus, le phytoplancton <20 mum contribue de maniere importante aux IOPs et a leur variabilite dans l'Estuaire et le Golfe du St-Laurent, et ce particulierement pour l'absorption. Cette etude de doctorat souligne donc l'importance du phytoplancton <20 mum sur la variabilite des IOPs des oceans.

  7. Energy and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, George

    I have called my lecture Energy and Evolution, and that embraces Physics and Biology. I suppose that what I have in mind are the great things that have happened in the last 135 years since Charles Darwin; and the great problems that we have in this field today. In 1859 Charles Darwin wrote history on a grand scale and he gave mankind an intellectual shock which changed our concept of ourselves and our place in the world. Rather suddenly we have come to realize that the process of natural evolution which he described and which has served the world for three billion years may be about to cease or least to change in a profound way. The Darwinian changes of evolution occurred slowly, unnoticed by participants who had very little to say about the forms that their descendants would take. They merely flocked to survive and if they survived they had one privilege only and that was the privilege of handing on their genes. The situation has changed drastically in the last few years. One species, man now so dominates the earth that it is in his part to eliminate most of the other species if he so wishes. Those who do survive do so only because man finds them interesting and useful and he is busy with the natural evolution even of these. It is the end of the evolution, as Darwin knew it. Far greater powers to play God will soon be in our hands. Genetic Engineering will enable us to eliminate conquered genes and other unfavorable genetic information and even to change the nature of mankind. We may not wish to do this but it will become possible. What we see happening is a rapid transfer of responsibility for the future evolution into the hands of ourselves, the hands of one species, homosapiens. We are no longer pawns in the game of evolution. We are not even the kings and queens, we are the players.

  8. Anévrysme ventriculaire gauche et communication interventriculaire compliquant un infarctus du myocarde

    PubMed Central

    Belkhadir, Mohammed; MoutakiAllah, Younes; Raissouni, Zainab; Abdou, Abdessamad; Bamous, Mehdi; Nya, Fouad; Atmani, Noureddine; Houssa, Mahdi Ait; El Bekkali, Youssef; Boulahya, Abdellatif

    2014-01-01

    L'association d'une communication interventriculaire post infarctus du myocarde et d'un anévrysme du ventricule gauche chez un même patient est extrêmement rare et survient habituellement durant la première semaine qui suit un infarctus du myocarde. Nous rapportons le cas insolite d'un patient âgé de 63 ans, admis pour choc cardiogénique en rapport avec une communication inter ventriculaire apicale et un anévrysme ventriculaire gauche causés par un infarctus du myocarde antérieur. La correction chirurgicale a consisté en une fermeture du défect septal par un patch en dacron via une ventriculotomie gauche associée à une anévrysectomie et un mono pontage coronaire. Cette observation illustre d'une part la rareté de l'association communication inter ventriculaire-anévrysme ventriculaire gauche post infarctus du myocarde, et d'autre part l'efficacité du traitement chirurgical qui reste la seule option salvatrice pour cette pathologie. PMID:25328617

  9. Le syndrome de Cri du Chat : A propos d’une observation

    PubMed Central

    Ouldim, Karim; Samri, Imane; Bouguenouch, Laila; Hamdaoui, Hasna; Otmani, Ihsan El; Hbibi, Mohamed; Chaouki, Sana; Hida, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    Le syndrome du Cri du Chat (Cri du Chat syndrome, CdCS) est une anomalie chromosomique résultant d’une délétion de taille variable de l’extrémité du bras court du chromosome 5 (5p), incluant une région critique située en p15.2. Il représente une des délétions chromosomiques les plus fréquentes, son incidence dans la population générale est de 1/20 000 à 1/50 000. Les caractéristiques cliniques comprennent un cri monochromatique aigu, une microcéphalie, une dysmorphie cranio-faciale caractéristique évoluant avec l’âge et un retard mental et psychomoteur important. La taille de la délétion est variable, Le traitement est fonction des différents symptômes. Un remaniement chromosomique parental est retrouvé dans 12% des cas et la majorité des délétions responsables de la maladie du cri-du-chat surviennent de novo. Nous présentons une observation d’un syndrome du Cri du Chat, confirmé par caryotype métaphasique (46,XY,del(5)(p13) de novo). A travers cette observation nous mettrons à jour, les actualités scientifiques de ce rare syndrome, ainsi que la place des explorations cytogénétiques dans le diagnostic précis et le conseil génétique des syndromes dysmorphiques. PMID:22368747

  10. Une tumeur rare et distincte du cancer du sein: le carcinosarcome, à propos de huit cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Samia; Khoyaali, Siham; Naciri, Sara; Glaoui, Meriem; Mesmoudi, Mohamed; Errihani, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Le carcinosarcome du sein souvent appelé carcinome métaplasique du sein, est une tumeur maligne rare composée de deux lignées cellulaires distinctes, il est décrit comme un cancer du sein de type canalaire avec un composant de type sarcome. Il représente 0,08-0.2% de toutes les tumeurs malignes du sein. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective étalée sur un an, huit cas des carcinosarcomes mammaires ont été colligés à l'Institut national d'oncologie au Maroc durant l'année 2007. La médiane d’âge était de 49,5 ans, toutes les tumeurs étaient de haut grade, cliniquement 5 cas ont été classé t2 ou t3, et 3 cas classé sein localement avancé. Le traitement envisagé était basé sur une chirurgie mammaire suivie d'une radiothérapie et d'une chimiothérapie pour les cas adjuvants, l'envahissement ganglionnaire a été noté dans un cas, les récepteurs œstrogèniques sont négatifs, alors que les récepteurs progesteroniques sont positifs dans 4 cas, l'expression d'Her2 est absente dans tous les cas, le traitement des carcinosarcomes mammaires métastatiques était basé sur une chimiothérapie palliative. A 20 mois de médiane follow-up, la survie sans progression(SSP) pour le groupe entier est de 62,5%. Dans la limite de ce suivi, une rechute locorégionale a été détectée dans un cas, les deux patientes métastatiques sont décédées. Le carcinosarcome du sein est un sous-type rare du cancer du sein qui a un profil particulier et agressif, il a souvent un caractère triple négatif. Il est nécessaire de développer d'autres voies de recherche comme cibler le Récepteur HER1/EGFR. PMID:23734272

  11. Creationism, Evolution, and Science Education

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Eugenie C.

    2005-06-22

    Many topics in the curriculum of American schools are controversial, but perhaps the one with the longest tenure is evolution. Three arguments are made against evolution: that it is allegedly weak science ('evolution is a theory in crisis'); that it is incompatible with religion; and that it is only 'fair' to 'balance' evolution with creationism. Regardless of the appropriateness of their application to science education, all three of the arguments are made to try to restrict the teaching of evolution. Variants of the fairness argument such as balancing evolution with 'scientific alternatives to evolution' or balancing evolution with 'arguments against evolution' have in fact become the current predominant antievolutionist strategy. Current events in the creationism/evolution controversy will be reviewed, and suggestions made for how to promote sound science education in the schools.

  12. Evolution of Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nealson, K. H.; Rye, R.

    2003-12-01

    This chapter is devoted to the discussion of the evolution of metabolism, with a particular focus towards redox metabolism and the utilization of redox energy by life. We will deal with various aspects of metabolism that involve direct interaction with, and the extraction of energy from, the environment (catabolic metabolism) and will talk briefly of the reactions that affect mineral formation and dissolution. However, we will de-emphasize the aspects related to the formation of complex molecules and organisms. To some, it will be refreshingly brief; to others, somewhat superficial. This is unavoidable, as our knowledge of the details of the evolution of metabolism is at best slim. However, by piecing together aspects of the properties and history of the Earth and coupling these with what we know of today's metabolism, it is possible to at least frame several different hypotheses that, with time, should be possible to test and modify so that the next writing of this chapter might contain some intellectual entrees and not just the appetizers. Any discussion of metabolic evolution must occur in concert with a consideration of the Earth - the understanding of the forces that drove the co-evolution of life and Earth can be achieved only by considering them together. This theme will pervade this chapter, and any real understanding of the evolution of metabolism must be inexorably coupled to, and consistent with, the geological record of the Earth.The first aspect of evolution concerns the metabolic participants as we know them now (i.e., a definition of metabolic diversity), and the second concerns the sequence of events that have led to this remarkable metabolic diversity. The first part is fairly straightforward: a discussion of the domains of life, and the metabolic achievements that are expressed in the various domains, and relating metabolism to biogeochemical processes whenever possible. The second part is much more problematic. While it is possible to make up nearly any story regarding the evolution of metabolism (and nearly all have been attempted!), the starting point of life is not known (great debates still rage as to the nature and origin of the first living systems), and it is not a trivial matter to specify the sequence and timing of metabolic innovations. As will be discussed below, genetic and genomic data have revealed that genetic exchange between organisms has been so pervasive that it has essentially uncoupled the evolution of taxonomic groups from the evolution of metabolic processes, thus, obscuring the evolutionary trail with blurred signals. Given these challenges, it may be prudent at this time to admit what we do not know, and lay out the challenges for the coming years.

  13. Workshop on Molecular Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular evolution has become the nexus of many areas of biological research. It both brings together and enriches such areas as biochemistry, molecular biology, microbiology, population genetics, systematics, developmental biology, genomics, bioinformatics, in vitro evolution, and molecular ecology. The Workshop provides an important contribution to these fields in that it promotes interdisciplinary research and interaction, and thus provides a glue that sticks together disparate fields. Due to the wide range of fields addressed by the study of molecular evolution, it is difficult to offer a comprehensive course in a university setting. It is rare for a single institution to maintain expertise in all necessary areas. In contrast, the Workshop is uniquely able to provide necessary breadth and depth by utilizing a large number of faculty with appropriate expertise. Furthermore, the flexible nature of the Workshop allows for rapid adaptation to changes in the dynamic field of molecular evolution. For example, the 2003 Workshop included recently emergent research areas of molecular evolution of development and genomics.

  14. Evolution of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Green, Lucie May

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of active regions (AR) from their emergence through their long decay process is of fundamental importance in solar physics. Since large-scale flux is generated by the deep-seated dynamo, the observed characteristics of flux emergence and that of the subsequent decay provide vital clues as well as boundary conditions for dynamo models. Throughout their evolution, ARs are centres of magnetic activity, with the level and type of activity phenomena being dependent on the evolutionary stage of the AR. As new flux emerges into a pre-existing magnetic environment, its evolution leads to re-configuration of small-and large-scale magnetic connectivities. The decay process of ARs spreads the once-concentrated magnetic flux over an ever-increasing area. Though most of the flux disappears through small-scale cancellation processes, it is the remnant of large-scale AR fields that is able to reverse the polarity of the poles and build up new polar fields. In this Living Review the emphasis is put on what we have learned from observations, which is put in the context of modelling and simulation efforts when interpreting them. For another, modelling-focused Living Review on the sub-surface evolution and emergence of magnetic flux see Fan (2009). In this first version we focus on the evolution of dominantly bipolar ARs.

  15. Mesure des inhomogénéités du potentiel gravitationnel galactique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chereul, E.; Crézé, M.; Bienaymé, O.

    Les hypothèses envisagées pour expliquer les modes de chauffage du disque galactique ne permettent pas de rendre compte complètement du phénomène observé. L'objectif de ce travail est de poser des contraintes sur les échelles et amplitudes caractéristiques des inhomogénéités du potentiel gravitationnel galactique dans le voisinage solaire en opérant une analyse en ondelette des distributions dans l'espace des phases d'un échantillon homogène des données d'Hipparcos.

  16. Contribution à l'étude des phénomènes de dégradation du polyindole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbi, H.; Billaud, D.

    1998-06-01

    The reversible redox process of polyindole is followed either by an irreversible one occuring at high potential (overoxidation) or by an electroactivity loss related to prolongated cycling. In this work, several effects of various chemical parameters on the electroactive behaviour of polyindole are presented. Le processus d'oxydo-réduction réversible du polyindole est suivi par un comportement irréversible à potentiel élevé (suroxydation) et par une diminution d'électroactivité au cours du cyclage répétitif. Nous présentons dans ce manuscrit l'influence de quelques variables cimiques sur la perte d'électroactivité ou de capacité de stockage de charges du polyindole.

  17. Localisation inhabituelle de la tuberculose: ostéoarthrite tuberculose du pouce

    PubMed Central

    Mortaji, Aziz; Koulali, Khalid; Galuia, Farid

    2014-01-01

    L'ostéoarthrite tuberculose est rare au niveau des doigts. Nous rapportons une observation d'atteinte du pouce chez un patient de 55 ans. Il avait présenté une tuméfaction douloureuse du pouce droit suite à un traumatisme du pouce. L’étude bactériologique et une biopsie avaient permis de confirmer le diagnostic. Un traitement antibacillaire de 12 mois avait donné des résultats satisfaisants. Les particularités de la prise en charge sont discutées par rapport aux données de la littérature. PMID:25932075

  18. Closing the gap: DuPont`s response to the 1991 industrial power benchmarking study

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.F.

    1996-12-31

    In 1991, DuPont benchmarked its industrial power facilities against other industrial and independent power producers, identified key areas of weakness and developed a blueprint for change to improve its energy competitiveness. Since then, efforts have been undertaken to address the weaknesses identified in the benchmarking study and to capitalize on strengths in DuPont`s various industrial power operations. This paper provides an update to the DuPont Industrial Power Benchmarking Study and describes major focus areas such as competitive electricity sourcing, control technology, performance assessment tools and internal networking efforts.

  19. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans l'agenda politique du pays. Notre projet de recherche, par le truchement de l'approche des reseaux de politique publique, s'attarde a decrire et a expliquer le processus de la formulation d'une politique particuliere, soit la politique energetique a des fins de protection de l'environnement, elaboree en 1993. Il s'agit de mettre en evidence les facteurs affectant le choix des instruments de ces politiques publiques dans leur contexte national. Ainsi, la question generale de cette recherche est: Comment les phases evolutives de la formation d'un reseau de politique, en l'occurrence le Conseil canadien de l'energie (CCE), menent a des caracteristiques particulieres a ce reseau; et comment celles-ci determinent-elles les types des instruments de politique publique choisis, particulierement ceux de la recente orientation des politiques energetiques canadiennes a des fins environnementales elaborees en 1993? Afin d'atteindre l'objectif de notre recherche, deux facteurs primordiaux sont utilises, soit la circulation de l'information et l'exercice du controle sur les ressources des acteurs. L'analyse des caracteristiques du reseau en fonction des liens forts et des liens faibles autant que la presence ou l'absence des trous structuraux nous permettent de bien identifier les positions des differents acteurs, etatiques et non etatiques, sur le plan de l'information et du controle, qui a leur tour, nous semble-t-il, constituent des facteurs affectant les types des instruments des politiques publiques choisis: instruments substantifs, qui indiquent le degre de l'intervention du gouvernement, et instruments proceduraux, qui mettent plutot l'accent sur le degre de l'influence du gouvernement sur les acteurs non etatiques. L'etude soutient que l'approche des reseaux se distingue notamment par son potentiel a expliquer l'interrelation relative entre idees, interets et institutions, ce qui a son tour est susceptible de permettre une meilleure comprehension des processus de l'elaboration des politiques energetiques et environnementales canadiennes. Qui plus est, le fait de recourir a ce cadre d'analyse permet d'approcher autrement le sujet etudie en essayant de comprendre et d'expliquer non seulement les interactions entre les differents acteurs cibles, mais aussi le dynamisme et l'evolution de ces relations dans leur duree, comme etant des determinants primordiaux en matiere de selection des instruments des politiques.

  20. B-chromosome evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, J P; Sharbel, T F; Beukeboom, L W

    2000-01-01

    B chromosomes are extra chromosomes to the standard complement that occur in many organisms. They can originate in a number of ways including derivation from autosomes and sex chromosomes in intra- and interspecies crosses. Their subsequent molecular evolution resembles that of univalent sex chromosomes, which involves gene silencing, heterochromatinization and the accumulation of repetitive DNA and transposons. B-chromosome frequencies in populations result from a balance between their transmission rates and their effects on host fitness. Their long-term evolution is considered to be the outcome of selection on the host genome to eliminate B chromosomes or suppress their effects and on the B chromosome's ability to escape through the generation of new variants. Because B chromosomes interact with the standard chromosomes, they can play an important role in genome evolution and may be useful for studying molecular evolutionary processes. PMID:10724453

  1. Characterizing gene family evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liberles, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Gene families are widely used in comparative genomics, molecular evolution, and in systematics. However, they are constructed in different manners, their data analyzed and interpreted differently, with different underlying assumptions, leading to sometimes divergent conclusions. In systematics, concepts like monophyly and the dichotomy between homoplasy and homology have been central to the analysis of phylogenies. We critique the traditional use of such concepts as applied to gene families and give examples of incorrect inferences they may lead to. Operational definitions that have emerged within functional genomics are contrasted with the common formal definitions derived from systematics. Lastly, we question the utility of layers of homology and the meaning of homology at the character state level in the context of sequence evolution. From this, we move forward to present an idealized strategy for characterizing gene family evolution for both systematic and functional purposes, including recent methodological improvements. PMID:19461954

  2. Evolution and Christian Faith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughgarden, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    My recent book, Evolution and Christian Faith explores how evolutionary biology can be portrayed from the religious perspective of Christianity. The principal metaphors for evolutionary biology---differential success at breeding and random mutation, probably originate with the dawn of agriculture and clearly occur in the Bible. The central narrative of evolutionary biology can be presented using Biblical passages, providing an account of evolution that is inherently friendly to a Christian perspective. Still, evolutionary biology is far from complete, and problematic areas pertain to species in which the concept of an individual is poorly defined, and to species in which the expression of gender and sexuality depart from Darwin's sexual-selection templates. The present- day controversy in the US about teaching evolution in the schools provides an opportunity to engage the public about science education.

  3. Dust evolution from comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1976-01-01

    The studies of the evolution of cometary debris are reviewed. The subject is divided into three major sections: (1) the developments in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus, which is the source of the dust; (2) the formation of the dust tail; and (3) the blending of the debris with the dust component of interplanetary matter. The importance of the physical theory of comets is emphasized for the understanding of the early phase of evolution. A physico-dynamical model designed to analyze the particle-emission mechanism from the distribution of light in the dust tail is described and the results are presented. Increased attention is paid to large particles because of their importance for the evolution of the zodiacal cloud. Finally, implications are discussed for the future in situ investigations of comets.

  4. Dust evolution from comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The studies of the evolution of cometary debris are reviewed. The subject is divided into three major sections: (1) the developments in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus, which is the source of the dust; (2) the formation of the dust tail; and (3) the blending of the debris with the dust component of interplanetary matter. The importance of the physical theory of comets is emphasized for the understanding of the early phase of the evolution of cometary dust. A physico-dynamical model designed to analyze the particle-emission mechanism from the distribution of light in the dust tails is described and the results are presented. Increased attention is paid to large particles because of their importance for the evolution of the zodiacal cloud. Finally, implications are discussed for the future in situ investigations of comets.

  5. Computational evolution: taking liberties.

    PubMed

    Correia, Luís

    2010-09-01

    Evolution has, for a long time, inspired computer scientists to produce computer models mimicking its behavior. Evolutionary algorithm (EA) is one of the areas where this approach has flourished. EAs have been used to model and study evolution, but they have been especially developed for their aptitude as optimization tools for engineering. Developed models are quite simple in comparison with their natural sources of inspiration. However, since EAs run on computers, we have the freedom, especially in optimization models, to test approaches both realistic and outright speculative, from the biological point of view. In this article, we discuss different common evolutionary algorithm models, and then present some alternatives of interest. These include biologically inspired models, such as co-evolution and, in particular, symbiogenetics and outright artificial operators and representations. In each case, the advantages of the modifications to the standard model are identified. The other area of computational evolution, which has allowed us to study basic principles of evolution and ecology dynamics, is the development of artificial life platforms for open-ended evolution of artificial organisms. With these platforms, biologists can test theories by directly manipulating individuals and operators, observing the resulting effects in a realistic way. An overview of the most prominent of such environments is also presented. If instead of artificial platforms we use the real world for evolving artificial life, then we are dealing with evolutionary robotics (ERs). A brief description of this area is presented, analyzing its relations to biology. Finally, we present the conclusions and identify future research avenues in the frontier of computation and biology. Hopefully, this will help to draw the attention of more biologists and computer scientists to the benefits of such interdisciplinary research. PMID:20532997

  6. Polymorphisme de l'apolipoprotéine E dans la population du nord du Maroc: fréquence et influence sur les paramètres lipidiques

    PubMed Central

    Benyahya, Fatiha; Barakat, Amina; Ghailani, Naima; Bennani, Mohcine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer les fréquences alléliques et génotypiques des sites polymorphes situés dans le gène de l'apolipoprotéine E (apo E) ainsi que leur impact sur les paramètres cliniques et lipidiques dans un échantillon de la population du nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqué ADH. Méthodes Le génotype de l'apo E a été analysé par séquençage direct chez 46 patients cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH selon les critères standards. Résultats Les fréquences des allèles epsilon 3, epsilon 2 et epsilon 4 ont été respectivement 78.3%, 2.2% et 19.6%. La fréquence de l'allèle epsilon 4 est très élevée chez la population du nord du Maroc en comparaison avec les populations des autres régions marocaines. Elle est similaire à celle rapportée dans les pays de l'Europe du nord. Les taux du cholestérol total, du cholestérol LDL ainsi que la présence des xanthomes et les maladies cardiovasculaires ne différent pas entre les génotypes de l'apoE. En revanche, les résultats ont montré une influence de l'allèle epsilon4 sur le taux des triglycérides chez les sujets obèses. Conclusion Le génotype de l'apoE ne peut expliquer le phénotype clinique et biochimique présenté par des patients du Nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH. PMID:24396563

  7. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology. PMID:26319950

  8. Macrothermodynamics of Biological Evolution:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, Georgi P.

    The author sets forth general considerations pertaining to the thermodynamic theory of biological evolution and the aging of living organisms. It becomes much easier to comprehend the phenomenon of life scrutinizing the formation of structural hierarchies of biological matter applying different temporal scales. These scales are 'identified' by nature itself, and this is reflected in the law of temporal hierarchies. The author discusses some misunderstandings in thermodynamics and evolutionary biology. A simple physicochemical model of biological evolution and the development of living beings is proposed. The considered theory makes it possible to use physicochemical evaluations to develop effective anti-aging diets.

  9. Cirque du Monde en tant qu’intervention en santé

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Cynthia; Drouin, Mélodie-Anne; Marcoux, Jérémie; Garel, Patricia; Bochud, Emmanuel; Théberge, Julie; Aubertin, Patrice; Favreau, Gil; Fleet, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter le programme Cirque du Monde du Cirque du Soleil et son potentiel en tant qu’intervention en soins de santé de première ligne pour les médecins de famille. Sources des données Une revue de la littérature menée dans les bases de données PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, La Presse, Eureka, Google Scholar et Érudit à l’aide des mots-clés circus, social circus, Cirque du Monde et Cirque du Soleil. Une initiative à Montréal nommée Espace Transition qui s’inspire directement de Cirque du Monde. Communication personnelle avec le conseiller principal en formation en cirque social du Cirque du Soleil. Sélection d’études Les 50 premiers articles ou sites Internet répertoriés pour chaque mot-clé dans chacune des bases de données ciblées ont été révisés sur la base des titres et des résumés, s’il s’agissait d’un article, ou sur la base du titre et du contenu de la page, s’il s’agissait d’une page Internet. Ensuite, les articles et les sites Internet qui étudiaient un aspect du cirque social ou qui présentaient une intervention impliquant le cirque étaient retenus pour une révision. Aucune contrainte d’année de publication n’a été appliquée étant donné qu’on cherchait une littérature générale sur le cirque social. Synthèse Aucun article n’a été trouvé sur le cirque social en tant qu’intervention en santé. Nous avons trouvé une étude sur l’utilisation du cirque en tant qu’intervention en milieu scolaire. Cette étude a démontré une augmentation de l’estime personnelle des enfants grâce à l’intervention. Nous avons trouvé une étude sur l’utilisation du cirque en tant qu’intervention sur une réserve amérindienne. Cette étude présente des résultats qualitatifs non spécifiques au programme du cirque social. Les autres articles répertoriés n’étaient que des descriptions du cirque social. Un site web concernant l’utilisation du cirque social pour faciliter la réintégration sociale de jeunes traités en milieu hospitalier pour un trouble psychiatrique majeur a été répertorié. L’équipe du département de pédopsychiatrie du Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine responsable de ce projet nommé Espace Transition a été contactée. Des résultats préliminaires non publiés du projet pilote montrent des améliorations significatives du fonctionnement général des patients. Selon le Cirque du Soleil, plusieurs projets de recherche portant sur l’impact thérapeutique du cirque social sont en cours à travers le monde. Conclusion Cirque du Monde rejoint une clientèle marginalisée difficilement accessible par le système de santé. Ce programme revêt un potentiel thérapeutique de par sa clientèle cible, sa promotion de saines habitudes de vie et le soutien qu’il offre par l’intermédiaire du groupe et des intervenants. Compte tenu des investissements financiers importants du Cirque du Soleil dans ce projet, le manque de littérature donnant accès à des données probantes constitue un enjeu important.

  10. Résultat de la radio chimiothérapie concomitante du cancer du col utérin au service oncologie-radiothérapie à l'hôpital universitaire Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona de 2007 à 2009

    PubMed Central

    Randriamanovontsoa, Ezra Niaina; Ratsimandresy, Dera Andraina; Rakotonarivo, Jean Marc; Rakototiana, Auberlin Felantsoa; Rantomalala, Harinirina Yoël Honora; Rafaramino, Florine

    2014-01-01

    La radiochimiothérapie devient un standard pour le traitement du cancer du col utérin à partir de IB de mauvais pronostic. L'objectif de ce travail est de rapporter les résultats de cette modalité thérapeutique. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective descriptive des dossiers des patientes atteintes d'un cancer du col utérin du Janvier 2007 au Décembre 2009 traitées par une radiochimiothérapie concomitante. Les patientes ayant reçu une dose inférieure à 45Gy étaient éliminées dans cette étude. Les critères de l'OMS ont été utilisés pour évaluer la réponse tumorale. Au total 46patientes étaient retenues avec un âge moyen de 47ans. Le carcinome épidermoide représentait 89,13%, diagnostiqués au stade localement avancé dans 82,60%. Seulement 26,08% de nos patients ont bénéficié d'une tomodensitométrie abdominale et pelvienne. La dose reçue variait de 45 à 75 Gy. Les résultats thérapeutiques à un mois de la fin du traitement montraient: 45,63% de rémission complète et 30,42% de rémission partielle supérieure à 50%. La toxicité précoce était dominée par la neutropénie chiffrée à 30,55%. A travers de cette étude, la radiochimiothérapie concomitante a amélioré les résultats thérapeutiques à court terme. PMID:25883726

  11. Software evolution. What kind of evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Carbonell, J. J.; Parets-Llorca, J.

    2001-06-01

    Most Software Systems capable of adapting to the environment or of performing some kind of adaptive activity (such as pattern learning, behavior simulations and the like) use concepts and models from Biology. Nevertheless, such approaches are based on the Modern Synthesis, i.e., Darwinism plus Mendelism, and this implies preadaptive mutations in, and subsequent selection of the better adapted individuals. These pre-adaptive changes usually do not produce the desired effect, are virtually useless and require some kind of backtracking for the system to obtain profit from adaptation. It is our contention that an evolutionary approach in Software Systems development cannot be based on pre-adaptive mutations, but rather on post-adaptive ones, that is, anticipatory mutations and modifications (Lamarkism). A novel way of understanding evolution in Software Systems based on applied Lamarkism is presented and a framework that allows the incorporation of modifications according to the necessities of the system and the will of the modeller is proposed.

  12. Etude numerique du sillage tourbillonnaire d'une eolienne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibuet Watters, Christophe

    Cette these formalise le concept de la surface actuatrice (SA) et en presente l'implantation dans deux methodes de mecanique des fluides assistee par ordinateur (CFD) bidimensionnelle (2D) et tridimensionnelle (3D), la validation et l'application au probleme de modelisation du sillage tourbillonnaire d'une eolienne. En termes cinetiques, une SA est une nappe tourbillonnaire qui resulte en une discontinuite de vitesse tandis qu'en termes dynamiques, elle est associee a un systeme de forces dont la composante dans la direction normale a la SA resulte en une discontinuite de pression. Les methodes CFD utilisees sont des methodes aux volumes finis, adaptees pour prendre en compte l'action de la SA sur l'ecoulement. L'approche de la SA est validee pour des problemes 2D: aile infinie et disque actuateur, ainsi que pour le probleme 3D de l'aile en translation (aile effilee), avant d'etre appliquee a plusieurs eoliennes.

  13. Cri du chat syndrome: a series of five cases.

    PubMed

    Dangare, Harsha M; Oommen, Samuel P; Sheth, Amisha N; Koshy, Beena; Roshan, Reeba; Thomas, Maya M; Danda, Sumita; Srivastava, Vivi M

    2012-01-01

    The cri du chat syndrome (CdCS) is a chromosomal deletion syndrome associated with a partial deletion of the short (p) arm of chromosome 5. We describe five children who were diagnosed to have CdCS by conventional cytogenetic analysis. The deletion was at 5p15 in four patients, whereas the fifth had a larger, more proximal deletion at 5p14. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed the deletion of the CdCS critical region at 5p15.2. All five children had global developmental delay and dysmorphism with microcephaly. The other clinical features were variable. Since the clinical diagnosis of CdCS may not always be evident because of the phenotypic heterogeneity, cytogenetic analysis is necessary to establish the diagnosis and confirm that the deletion involves the CdCS critical region. This will enable early intervention which plays an important role in improving the outcome. PMID:23455788

  14. Consonant production and intelligibility in cri du chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Kristian E; Garmann, Nina Gram; Simonsen, Hanne Gram

    2014-10-01

    This article focuses on consonant productions by a group of children with cri du chat syndrome (CdCS) and examines how various aspects of these productions contribute to these children's overall intelligibility. Eight children and adolescents with CdCS participated in the study, and the following four questions were addressed: (1) What are the characteristic features of the consonant inventories of the subjects in terms of size and types of consonants; (2) how do the subjects render the consonant phonemes of the target language; (3) to what degree do the subjects produce target-like words; and (4) what is the relationship between consonant production and intelligibility? For the majority of our subjects, we found low proportions of correctly produced consonants, small consonant inventories with several recurrent types of deviant consonants, inaccuracy in realization of target phonemes and variable similarity to target words, all of which may contribute to reduced intelligibility. PMID:24689530

  15. Étude à basse température de la magnétorésistance du polyparaphénylène implanté

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellati, A.; Moliton, A.; Lucas, B.; Guille, B.; François, B.

    1998-06-01

    The magnetoresistance of implanted polyparaphenylene films (E = 30 keV, 1015 ions/cm2 < D < 5× 1016 ions/cm^2) is negative in the low temperature range, whereas its sign is positive for higher temperature when the fluence is sufficiently low; the negative component is attributed to localized states which appear during implantation with high fluence. La magnétorésistance MR de films de polyparaphénylène implantés avec des ions césium de 30 keV à différentes fluences D (1015 ions/cm2 < D < 5×1016ions/cm^2) présente un signe négatif à basse température alors qu'un signe positif apparaît du côté des températures plus élevées lorsque la fluence est suffisamment petite ; la composante négative de MR est attribuée à des états fortement localisés qui sont favorisés par une fluence élevée.

  16. Nondestructive Testing Qualification of Main Circulatory Tube Pipes DU 500

    SciTech Connect

    Tabakova, Bojana M.; Tzokov, Petio

    2004-07-01

    The criteria for safe operation of nuclear energetic installations is given a higher priority in the policy of Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant. An efficient non-destructive inspection is the key point for the safe service. Kozloduy NPP keeps on making investments in equipment and qualification of specialists in this field. The processes of qualification of the NDT components, important for the nuclear and radiation safety, make considerable improvement in Kozloduy NPP, thanks to the accumulated in the years experience in the activities of NDT inspection qualification, and to the help of our partners Serco Assurance and the Institute of Rzes. The results obtained by ultrasonic non-destructive inspection of circulation tube mains DU 500 WWER 440 type are under discussion in this report. (authors)

  17. Digitalización de placas Carte du Ciel con MAMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderón, J. H.

    Fifteen Carte du Ciel plates and four Astrographic Catalog plates from Córdoba Zone were scanned with MAMA (Machine Automatique á Mesurer pour l'Astronomie) on July 1999. Those plates were taken between 1912 and 1924, therefore they are a good source of first epoch positions for the determination of proper motions. The fields correspond to some of the open clusters in CdC Córdoba zone -NGC 2527, NGC 2587, VdBergh 83, Coll 132 and Blanco 1- and two low-extinction windows in the galactic bulge. MAMA fulfils the requirements of accuracy and repetitivity at 1 micron level as needed for obtaining the highest profit from the astrometric information given by this photographic material. The catalogues of `objects' detected on every plate were automatically built by software SExtractor. Those catalogues must be filtered in order to reject spurious objects and retain only stellar images that will be used in the astrometric reduction.

  18. Lymphome malin non hodgkinien du cavum: protocoles thérapeutiques et facteurs pronostiques

    PubMed Central

    Ouraini, Saloua; Nakkabi, Ismail; Benariba, Fouad

    2015-01-01

    Le lymphome malin non hodgkinien est une entité histologique rare parmi les cancers du cavum, la plupart des tumeurs du nasopharynx étant des carcinomes indifférenciés ou Undifferencied Carcinoma of Nasopharyngeal Type (UCNT); Il pose souvent un problème de diagnostic positif clinique et histologique. La symptomatologie est généralement peu spécifique et la démarche étiologique repose sur la biopsie du cavum faite à l'examen endoscopique avec examen immuno-histochimique. Nous rapportons le cas d'un lymphome non hodgkinien avec atteinte du nasopharynx, l'analyse anatomopathologique est en faveur d'un lymphome malin non hodgkinien de phénotype B. Les aspects cliniques, radiologiques, histologiques et thérapeutiques sont décrits. PMID:26889334

  19. ON NONLINEAR EQUATIONS OF THE FORM F(x,\\, u,\\, Du,\\, \\Delta u) = 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanov, K. N.

    1995-02-01

    The Dirichlet problem for equations of the form F(x,\\, u,\\, Du,\\, \\Delta u) = 0 and also the initial boundary value problem for a parabolic equation with a nonlinearity are studied.Bibliography: 11 titles.

  20. Appel pour une allocation intelligente dans le financement du système de santé au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Sieleunou, Isidore

    2011-01-01

    Le Cameroun utilise un système de budgétisation historique et une approche «top-down» pour allouer ses ressources de santé publique. Cependant, le pays compte 175 districts de santé dont les fortes disparités de nature épidémiologique, économique, géographique et culturelle, devraient être prises en compte pour réduire les iniquités en matière de sante publique. Comment comprendre alors que dans ces conditions, le budget des administrations publiques alloué aux différents districts de santé au Cameroun soit quasi identique alors que les défis sont si différents? L'inefficience allocative (mauvaise attribution du budget) générée par un tel système conduit vraisemblablement à une inefficience technique (mauvaise utilisation du budget). Pour la marche vers l'atteinte des objectifs du millénaire en matière de sante, il est impératif et urgent que les décideurs du secteur de la santé allouent de manière intelligente les ressources dans le système de santé. PMID:22355420

  1. Une angiocholite secondaire à un thrombus tumoral d'une tumeur neuroendocrine primitive du foie

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Hicham; Allaoui, Mohamed; Elfahssi, Mohammed; Bounaim, Ahmed; Ali, Abdelmounaim Ait; Oukabli, Mohamed; Sair, Khalid; Zentar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas exceptionnel d'une patiente de 54 ans prise en charge pour une angiocholite due à un thrombus tumoral, d'une tumeur neuroendocrine primitive (TNE Ive) du foie, dans la voie biliaire principale. PMID:26966504

  2. The Idea of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathison, Jane

    1976-01-01

    The idea of evolution is examined in a historical perspective in this article. Considerable discussion is given to the works of Lamarck and Darwin. The evolutionary process is also examined with respect to philosophy, art and music history, and man's place in nature. References are included. (MA)

  3. Evolution in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Mike; Duggan, Adrienne; McGregor, Deb

    2014-01-01

    Evolution and inheritance appear in the new National Science Curriculum for England, which comes into effect from September 2014. In the curriculum documents, it is expected that pupils in year 6 (ages 10-11) should be taught to: (1) recognise that living things have changed over time; (2) recognise that living things produce offspring of the same…

  4. Darwinism: Evolution or Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Niles R.

    1989-01-01

    Maintains that Darwin's theory of evolution was more than a science versus religion debate; rather it was a revolutionary concept that influenced numerous social and political ideologies and movements throughout western history. Traces the impact of Darwin's work historically, utilizing a holistic approach. (RW)

  5. Evolution and Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mena-Werth, Jose

    2005-01-01

    In 1925, Williams Jennings Bryan, a former congressman from Nebraska and a former Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson, spent two agonizing weeks defending his religious faith that cost him his life a month after. Bryan was a prosecutor of high school teacher John Scopes, who had violated Tennessee state law by teaching the theory of evolution.…

  6. Evolution Projects Yield Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    When a federal court in 2005 rejected an attempt by the Dover, Pennsylvania, school board to introduce intelligent design as an alternative to evolution to explain the development of life on Earth, it sparked a renaissance in involvement among scientists in K-12 science instruction. Now, some of those teaching programs, studies, and research…

  7. Technologies for ECLSS Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamant, Bryce L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) evolution are presented. Topics covered include: atmosphere revitalization including CO2 removal, CO2 reduction, O2 generation, and trace contaminant control; water recovery and management including urine processing, hygiene water processing, and potable water processing; and waste management. ECLSS technology schematics, process diagrams, and fluid interfaces are included.

  8. Software Architecture Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  9. Evolution of Osmolyte Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfalvi, Gaspar

    1991-01-01

    Osmotic aspects of aqueous solutions that are usually disregarded in biochemistry textbooks are presented. This article discusses the osmolarity of seawater, evolution of organisms over geological time, ionic adaptation of cells, ionic concentrations in bacteria, osmolytes and blood electrolytes in water-stressed organisms and land vertebrates,…

  10. Creation, Evolution, and Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ted; Kilbourn, Brent

    1983-01-01

    Presents a philosophical analysis of the creation/evolution conflict in which a deliberate attempt is made to highlight its wider curricular dimension. Argues that literature on the conflict focuses primarily on questions concerning nature of science and avoids discussing of equally pressing curricular/instructional issues, particularly…

  11. The Evolution of Darwinism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, G. Ledyard; Ayala, Francisco J.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments in molecular biology and new interpretations of the fossil record are gradually altering and adding to Charles Darwin's theory, which has been the standard view of the process of evolution for 40 years. Several of these developments and interpretations are identified and discussed. (JN)

  12. Software Architecture Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  13. Human Development, Human Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smillie, David

    One of the truly remarkable events in human evolution is the unprecedented increase in the size of the brain of "Homo" over a brief span of 2 million years. It would appear that some significant selective pressure or opportunity presented itself to this branch of the hominid line and caused a rapid increase in the brain, introducing a wholly new…

  14. Evolution and Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mena-Werth, Jose

    2005-01-01

    In 1925, Williams Jennings Bryan, a former congressman from Nebraska and a former Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson, spent two agonizing weeks defending his religious faith that cost him his life a month after. Bryan was a prosecutor of high school teacher John Scopes, who had violated Tennessee state law by teaching the theory of evolution

  15. Early cellular evolution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the evolutionary developments that occurred subsequent to the origin of ancestral cells. Microbial physiology and ecology are potential sharp tools for shaping concepts of microbial evolution. Some popular unjustified assumptions are discussed. It is considered that certain principles derived mainly from the advances of molecular biology can be used to order the natural groups (genera) of extant prokaryotes and their patterns phylogenetically.

  16. Evolution in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Mike; Duggan, Adrienne; McGregor, Deb

    2014-01-01

    Evolution and inheritance appear in the new National Science Curriculum for England, which comes into effect from September 2014. In the curriculum documents, it is expected that pupils in year 6 (ages 10-11) should be taught to: (1) recognise that living things have changed over time; (2) recognise that living things produce offspring of the same…

  17. Crustal Evolution Introduced.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoever, Edward C., Jr.; Korporaal, Arie R.

    1979-01-01

    Detailed are the origins, development, and implementation of the Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP). This group has produced, for use in earth science and other classes in grades 8-10, a series of instructional modules based on current scientific research in the composition, history, and processes of the earth's crust. (BT)

  18. Voices for Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollister, Betty, Ed.

    The creation/evolution controversy can be best thought of as a contest over control of a portion of educational policy. Scientists do not dispute the right of fundamentalist Christians to believe that Genesis is a history and a science textbook. The difficulty arises when fundamentalists seek to bring their sectarian religious faith into biology…

  19. Tectonic Evolution of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.

    1992-01-01

    The Final Technical Report on tectonic evolution of Mars is presented. Two papers and an abstract are included. Topics addressed include: scientific rationale and requirements for a global seismic network on Mars, permanent uplift in magmatic systems with application to the Tharsis Region of Mars, and the geophysical signal of the Martian global dichotomy.

  20. The Evolution of Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Harold

    1978-01-01

    Therapeutic empathy has been an often-used construct by counseling professionals. Through that usage, the term has evolved in meaning and significance from its original presentation by Carl Rogers. This article traces that evolution by identifying its users and contributors over the past 20 years. (Author)

  1. Handwriting: Evolution and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Joanne; Stempel, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Writing readiness theories and the evolution of writing styles are reviewed, noting the strengths and weaknesses related to the special needs of dyslexic or learning-disabled students. Also discussed are the Children's Handwriting Evaluation Scale and its counterpart for college students, which provide objective measures of rate and quality of…

  2. Stochastic morphological evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloeden, Peter E.; Lorenz, Thomas

    The inadequacy of locally defined set-valued differential equations to describe the evolution of shapes and morphological forms in biology, which are usually neither convex or nondecreasing, was recognised by J.-P. Aubin, who introduced morphological evolution equations, which are essentially nonlocally defined set-valued differential equations with the inclusion vector field also depending on the entire reachable set. This concept is extended here to the stochastic setting of set-valued Itô evolution equations in Hilbert spaces. Due to the nonanticipative nature of Itô calculus, the evolving reachable sets are nonanticipative nonempty closed random sets. The existence of solutions and their dependence on initial data are established. The latter requires the introduction of a time-oriented semi-metric in time-space variables. As a consequence the stochastic morphological evolution equations generate a deterministic nonautonomous dynamical system formulated as a two-parameter semigroup with the complication that the random subsets take values in different spaces at different time instances due to the nonanticipativity requirement. It is also shown how nucleation processes can be handled in this conceptual framework.

  3. Evolution Projects Yield Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    When a federal court in 2005 rejected an attempt by the Dover, Pennsylvania, school board to introduce intelligent design as an alternative to evolution to explain the development of life on Earth, it sparked a renaissance in involvement among scientists in K-12 science instruction. Now, some of those teaching programs, studies, and research…

  4. Evolution of lifespan.

    PubMed

    Neill, David

    2014-10-01

    Present-day evolutionary theory, modern synthesis and evo-devo, appear to explain evolution. There remain however several points of contention. These include: biological time, direction, macroevolution verses microevolution, ageing and the extent of internal as opposed to external mediation. A new theoretical model for the control of biological time in vertebrates/bilaterians is introduced. Rather than biological time being controlled solely by a molecular cascade domino effect, it is suggested there is also an intracellular oscillatory clock. This clock (life's timekeeper) is synchronised across all cells in an organism and runs at a constant frequency throughout life. Slower frequencies extend lifespan, increase body/brain size and advance behaviour. They also create a time void which could aid additional evolutionary change. Faster frequencies shorten lifespan, reduce body/brain size and diminish behaviour. They are therefore less likely to mediate evolution in vertebrates/mammals. It is concluded that in vertebrates, especially mammals, there is a direction in evolution towards longer lifespan/advanced behaviour. Lifespan extension could equate with macroevolution and subsequent modifications with microevolution. As life's timekeeper controls the rate of ageing it constitutes a new genetic theory of ageing. Finally, as lifespan extension is internally mediated, this suggests a major role for internal mediation in evolution. PMID:24992233

  5. Evolution. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bershad, Carol

    This teacher's guide was developed to assist teachers in the use of multimedia resources for the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) program, "Evolution." Each unit uses an inquiry-based approach to meet the National Science Education Standards. Units include: (1) "What is the Nature of Science?"; (2) "Who Was Charles Darwin?"; (3) "What is the…

  6. Cancer du sein au Cameroun, profil histo-épidémiologique: à propos de 3044 cas

    PubMed Central

    Engbang, Jean Paul Ndamba; Essome, Henri; Koh, Valère Mve; Simo, Godefroy; Essam, Jean Daniel Sime; Mouelle, Albert Sone; Essame, Jean Louis Oyono

    2015-01-01

    Décrire les caractéristiques épidémiologiques et histo-pathologiques des tumeurs malignes du sein au Cameroun. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective descriptive portant sur les tumeurs malignes du sein, colligées, dans les registres des différents laboratoires d'Anatomie Pathologique publiques et privés repartis dans cinq régions (centre, littoral, Ouest, Nord-ouest, Sud-ouest), pendant une période de 10 ans (2004-2013). Les paramètres étudiés étaient la fréquence, l’âge, le sexe, la localisation, le type et le grade histologique, et les récepteurs hormonaux. Un total de 3044 cas de cancers du sein a été recensé, soit une fréquence annuelle de 304,4 cas en moyenne. Le sexe féminin était le plus représenté avec 2971 cas (97,60%) et les hommes avec 73 cas (2,40%), soit un sexe ratio (H/F) de 0,02. L’âge moyen des patients était de 46±15,87 ans, avec des extrêmes de 13 et 95 ans. Selon la localisation, le sein gauche était atteint dans 1244 cas (52%) et le sein droit dans 1115 cas (47%). Au plan histologique, on retrouvait essentiellement des carcinomes avec 96,50% des cas, des sarcomes 1,39%, des lymphomes 1,07% et la maladie de Paget du mamelon, 1,03%. Les tumeurs épithéliales étaient infiltrantes dans 2049 cas (84,46%), avec une prédominance du carcinome canalaire infiltrant (1870 cas) et non infiltrantes dans 377 cas (15,54%). Le grade histo-pronostic de SBR avait révélé une prédominance du grade II dans 66% des cas. Les cancers du sein restent une pathologie fréquente au Cameroun et atteignent principalement la population féminine en âge de procréer. Ils sont caractérisés par la prédominance du carcinome canalaire infiltrant. PMID:26523182

  7. Intubation Difficile Chez le Brule de la Face et du Cou a la Phase de Sequelles

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; El Wali, A.; Ababou, K.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Drissi, N.K.; Ihrai, I.

    2006-01-01

    Summary L'intubation trachéale chez le brûlé de la face et du cou au stade de séquelles peut être difficile voire impossible chez certains patients. La technique de ventilation à l'aide d'un masque laryngé ou d'intubation avec un fibroscope bronchique permet de résoudre la plupart des problèmes d'intubation difficile. Les Auteurs rapportent deux observations chez deux patientes porteuses de séquelles de brûlures de la face et du cou. PMID:21991028

  8. Sur la reponse en frequence du tissu nerveux dans le cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedard, Claude

    Dans cette These de Physique, nous avons etudie la dependance en frequence du champ electrique du tissu nerveux dans le cortex. Ce champ est aussi designe par "Local field Potential" LFP dans la litterature scientifique. Cette etude est fondee sur la theorie du champ electromagnetisme de Maxwell et sur de l'information tiree de la donne experimentale. Le resultat essentiel de cette These est que la grandeur enorme du temps de relaxation de Maxwell des membranes cellulaires semble etre la cause principale de la dependance en frequence des LFPs. Cette dependance en frequence causee par chaque membrane cellulaire est l'analogue d'un circuit RC ou la resistance R est la resistivite parallele d'une membrane cellulaire, et ou la capacite C est la permittivite electrique de la membrane. L'effet resultant d'un tres grand nombre de cellules donne un spectre de Fourier dont l'enveloppe est tres pres d'un signal en 1/f. Le modele physique propose dans cette These permet de lier les mesures prises a l'interieur d'une dendrite des variations de potentiel electrique a celles prises dans le liquide extracellulaire. De plus, cette These semble ouvrir la possibilite de mesurer le temps de relaxation de Maxwell des membranes cellulaires a l'aide de la mesure de la reponse en frequence du potentiel electrique extracellulaire (LFP). Enfin, cette These permet de lever le voile sur un sujet peu etudie, principalement en raison de la difficulte que represente l'etude des phenomenes electriques dans des milieux complexes comme les tissus vivants. En particulier, le probleme du filtrage frequentiel du potentiel electrique extracellulaire est une propriete fondamentale du tissu nerveux et son origine n'est pas connue.

  9. Luxation latente isolée du scaphoïde carpien chez l'enfant: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Youssef; Koulali, Khalid Idrissi

    2015-01-01

    La luxation isolé du scaphoïde carpien est une lésion rare en particulier chez l'enfant, passant d'autant plus facilement inaperçue que le squelette du carpe est moins ossifié, dans cette observation ici rapportée, ou le diagnostic fut tardif, L'I.R.M. permet de reconnaitre la lésion, traitée par réduction chirurgicale que les auteurs considèrent essentielle même distance de la lésion. PMID:26113918

  10. La Carte du Ciel : genèse, déroulement et issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnici, I.

    2008-06-01

    Ce chapitre propose une vue panoramique de la Carte du Ciel en détaillant sa genèse, son déroulement et son issue en insistant sur les objectifs scientifiques initiaux et leur évolution au cours du temps. Les aspects politiques de l'entreprise sont également analysés ; ils permettent de souligner les enjeux nationaux et internationaux qui sous-tendent le projet.

  11. Rupture sous-cutanée traumatique du ligament quadricipital chez un sujet jeune

    PubMed Central

    Bouhelo-Pam, Kevin Parfait Bienvenu; Shimi, Mohamed; El Idrissi, Mohamed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    La rupture sous-cutanée traumatique du tendon quadricipital est exceptionnelle. Nous présentons un patient de 19 ans victime d'un accident de sport occasionnant cette blessure. La réparation chirurgicale puis la rééducation fonctionnelle ont permis une récupération complète des fonctions du genou et de la marche. PMID:26405476

  12. Autre cause de mort subite du nourrisson: à propos d'un cas clinique de syndrome du QT long congenital

    PubMed Central

    Seka, Zena; Mols, Pierre; Gobin, Eric; Ngatchou, William

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome du QT long congénital est une maladie rythmique liée à une mutation génétique et caractérisée par un espace QT allongé sur l’électrocardiogramme, des arythmies malignes type torsade de pointe et fibrillation ventriculaire entraînant une mort subite. Les gènes impliqués dans ces mutations codent pour des sous unités des canaux ioniques responsables de l'activité électrique cardiaque. Le diagnostic est basé sur l’électrocardiogramme, une enquête familiale et l’étude génétique. Le traitement repose sur les bêtabloquants, la sympathectomie et le stimulateur cardiaque. Nous rapportons le cas d'un nourrisson de 2 ans retrouvé en état de mort apparente. Nous discutons de sa prise en charge initiale, de l'enquête familiale et de son suivi ultérieur. PMID:25667708

  13. Prédiction des vibrations du stator d'une machine à réluctance variable en fonction du courant absorbé

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camus, F.; Gabsi, M.; Multon, B.

    1997-02-01

    In order to predict the radial vibration of the stator core of a Doubly Salient Switched Reluctance Motor (D.S.S.R.M.), different causes of vibrations are considered. In this kind of machine, electromagnetic stress is found to be the most significant cause of vibrations. The local magnetic stress distribution, depending on magnetic field and finally on the phase current, is calculated in the case of an unsatured operation. This magnetic stress acts in two ways: a tangential force (torque) and a radial attractive force. This radial force excites the vibration modes of the stator, this vibration behaviour is measured in the aligned position and is identified as a transfert function. Finally several experiments show the good accuracy of this simple model. This model will be later used to study the effect of phase current and of static converter on vibration and acoustic noise emitted by the D.S.S.R.M. L'étude du bruit et des vibrations dans le matériel électrique fait intervenir plusieurs systèmes physiques couplés. Le modèle complet est complexe et ne permet pas d'études paramétriques simples de la structure de la machine, de son alimentation et cela pour différents points de fonctionnement. Dans cet article est présenté un modèle simple permettant de prédire l'accélération radiale d'un Moteur à Réluctance Variable à Double Saillance (M.R.V.D.S.) en fonction du courant d'alimentation. Ce modèle permettra d'étudier ultérieurement l'influence de l'alimentation sur le comportement vibratoire de la machine. En premier lieu, les différentes sources de vibrations d'une machine tournante sont évoquées, pour finalement ne s'intéresser qu'aux efforts d'origine magnétique qui sont prépondérants dans les M.R.V.D.S. Le calcul de ces efforts en fonction du courant est présenté dans le cas d'une machine fonctionnant en régime linéaire (sans saturation magnétique). Ces efforts sont décomposés en une force tangentielle créant le couple de rotation et une force radiale ne créant aucun couple. Les formulations sont appliquées à une M.R.V.D.S. de type 6/4 d'une puissance de 30 W. Une identification expérimentale du comportement vibratoire de la machine à rotor bloqué et en monophasé permet de connaître la réponse de la structure à ces efforts magnétiques. Cette réponse mécanique est identifiée à une fonction de transfert. Le modèle complet prend en compte l'alimentation de la machine, la relation entre le courant d'ajimentation et les efforts ainsi que la réponse vibratoire de la machine à ces efforts. Enfin des résultats expérimentaux originaux permettent de valider le modèle dans le cadre des hypothèses définies.

  14. Evaluation du niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion du traitement par les antis vitamines K dans le service de cardiologie de Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Samadoulougou, André; Temoua Naibe, Dangwé; Mandi, Germain; Yameogo, Relwendé Aristide; Kabore, Elisé; Millogo, Georges; Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Kologo, Jonas Koudougou; Thiam/Tall, Anna; Toguyeni, Boubacar Jean Yves; Zabsonre, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les antivitamines K (AVK), traitement anticoagulant oral le plus largement prescrit, posent un réel problème de santé publique du fait de leur risque iatrogène. L'objectif de cette étude était de préciser le niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion de leur traitement par les AVK. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale descriptive réalisée au CHU-Yalgado Ouédraogo, sur une période de 03 mois : du 1er mars au 31 mai 2012. Un questionnaire a été administré aux patients bénéficiant d'un traitement AVK depuis au moins un mois. Résultats Soixante-dix patients ont été inclus dans l'étude dont 30 hommes. L'âge moyen était de 49 ans ± 16 ans. Les cardiopathies et la maladie thromboembolique veineuse justifiant l'institution du traitement AVK étaient retrouvées respectivement dans 58,6% et 41,4% des cas. Le nom de l'AVK et la raison exacte du traitement étaient connus respectivement dans 91,4% et 67,1% des cas. Plus de la moitié des patients (68,6%) savaient que les AVK rendaient le sang plus fluide. Quarante-six patients (65,7%) citaient l'INR comme examen biologique de surveillance du traitement et seulement 28 patients (40%) connaissaient les valeurs cibles. La majorité des patients ne connaissait pas les risques encourus en cas de surdosage (72,8%) et de sous-dosage (71,4%). Une automédication par anti-inflammatoire non stéroïdien était signalée par 18 patients (25,7%). Les choux (74,3%) et la laitue (62,9%), aliments à consommer avec modération, étaient les plus cités. Conclusion Les connaissances des patients sur la gestion des AVK étaient fragmentaires et insuffisantes pour assurer la sécurité et l'efficacité du traitement. La création d'un programme d'éducation thérapeutique sur les AVK s'avère alors nécessaire. PMID:25870741

  15. Aplasie cutanée circonscrite du cuir chevelu chez un enfant rwandais: a propos d'une observation

    PubMed Central

    Ntumba-Tshitenge, Olga; Kaputu-Kalala-Malu, Célestin; Mukampunga, Caritas; Mukendi, Kavulu Mayamba

    2014-01-01

    L'aplasie cutanée circonscrite du cuir chevelu ou aplasia cutis congenita, en nomenclature latine, est une malformation rare du cuir chevelu caractérisée par une absence de ce dernier. Elle peut intéresser l’épiderme ou toute la peau. La prise en charge d'une telle malformation est assez délicate. Elle est généralement chirurgicale et le pronostic dépend en grande partie de malformations vasculaires associées. Le risque infectieux et/ou hémorragique est élevé. Cette malformation peut être isolée, ne se limitant qu’à la peau du cuir chevelu; tout comme elle peut faire partie d'un syndrome polymalformatif associant l'atteinte d'autres tissus ou organes tel qu'on peut l'observer dans le syndrome d'Adams-Oliver. Nous rapportons le cas d'un nouveau-né rwandais chez qui on a constaté, à la naissance, une absence du cuir chevelu, parcellaire, intéressant une grande partie du vertex fronto-pariétal et la région pariétale gauche. Une IRM avec séquences angiograpiques réalisée plusieurs jours plus tard, montre une agénésie de la partie frontale du sinus longitudinal supérieur. A notre connaissance, aucune observation faisant état de cette malformation n'a jamais été publiée en Afrique Centrale. PMID:25838854

  16. A yeast artificial chromosome contig of the critical region for cri-du-chat syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Goodart, S.A.; Rojas, K.; Overhauser, J.

    1994-11-01

    Cri-du-chat is a chromosomal deletion syndrome characterized by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The clinical symptoms include growth and mental retardation, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hyptonia, and a high-pitched monochromatic cry that is usually considered diagnostic for the syndrome. Recently, a correlation between clinical features and the extent of the chromosome 5 deletions has identified two regions of the short arm that appear to be critical for the abnormal development manifested in this syndrome. Loss of a small region in 5p15.2 correlates with all of the clinical features of cri-du-chat with the exception of the cat-like cry, which maps to 5p15.3. Here the authors report the construction of a YAC contig that spans the chromosomal region in 5p15.2 that plays a major role in the etiology of the cri-du-chat syndrome. YACs that span the 2-Mb cri-du-chat critical region have been identified and characterized. This YAC contig lays the groundwork for the construction of a transcriptional map of this region and the eventual identification of genes involved in the clinical features associated with the cri-du-chat syndrome. It also provides a new diagnostic tool for cri-du-chat in the shape of a YAC clone that may span the entire critical region. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Evolution as Fact and Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    1981-01-01

    This essay by a Harvard evolutionist presents viewpoints concerning the creationists' arguments against evolutionary biology. Semantics regarding "facts" and "theory" of evolution are examined, examples are cited of creationist argument, and arguments for evolution are presented. (CS)

  18. Animal evolution: trilobites on speed.

    PubMed

    Budd, Graham E

    2013-10-01

    A new study quantifies rates of morphological and molecular evolution for arthropods during the critical Cambrian explosion. Both morphological and molecular evolution are accelerated--but not so much to break any speed limits. PMID:24112983

  19. DuP 753, a nonpeptide angiotensin II-1 receptor antagonist, alters dopaminergic function in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Dwoskin, L P; Jewell, A L; Cassis, L A

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the nonpeptide angiotensin II-1 receptor antagonist DuP 753 after, acute or chronic administration in vivo or after in vitro exposure, altered indices of dopaminergic function in rat striatum. In vivo studies examined the effect of acute and chronic 21-day administration of DuP 753 (10 mg/kg, s.c.) on levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolite, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). To determine if chronic treatment with DuP 753 was able to inhibit the pressor response to angiotensin II, a single i.v. dose of angiotensin II (0.1 microgram/kg) was administered 18 hours after the last dose of DuP 753. Acute DuP 753 resulted in significantly decreased (14%) levels of DA. Chronic DuP 753 resulted in increased (1.64 fold) levels of DOPAC, although DA levels were not altered. The single i.v. administration of angiotensin II resulted in increased (88%) DOPAC levels regardless of chronic DuP 753. The in vitro effect of DuP 753 (0.1 nM-1.0 microM) on basal and field stimulation-evoked release of DA and DOPAC was determined in superfused striatal slices from drug naive rats. DA was not detected in these experiments. DuP 753 did not alter basal outflow of DOPAC. At low concentrations (1.0-10 nM), DuP 753 decreased (53%) stimulation-evoked DOPAC overflow; however, at concentrations greater than 10 nM, the inhibitory effect was diminished. Nomifensine (10 microM; a DA uptake inhibitor) was included in the superfusion buffer in order to measure the effect of DuP 753 on the concentration of DA in superfusate. DuP 753 had no effect on basal DA and DOPAC outflow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1314959

  20. Prise en charge des traumatismes graves du rein

    PubMed Central

    Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Jarir, Redouane; Sadiki, Bader; Zehraoui; Bentani; Wakrim, Bader; Dahami, Zakaria; Moudouni; Sarf, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Les traumatismes graves du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'Amercan Society for Surgery For Trauma (ASST) sont plus rares et se retrouvent dans 5% des cas en moyenne. Leur prise en charge est souvent délicate, nécessitant alors des centres expérimentés dotés de moyen adéquats d'imagerie (scanner spiralé). Cependant, durant ces dernières années, la prise en charge de ces traumatismes a évolué vers une attitude de moins en moins chirurgicale grâce à l’évolution des techniques de la radiologie interventionnelle, de l'endourologie et des moyens de surveillance aux urgences et de réanimation. L'objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer notre expérience dans la prise en charge des traumatismes rénaux de haut grade. Notre étude rétrospective porte sur 25 cas de traumatismes grave du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'ASST, colligés entre Janvier 2002 et Juin 2009 au service d'urologie du centre Hospitalier Universitaire Mohammed VI, Université Cadi Ayyad de Marrakech, Maroc. Nous avons étudié les données épidémiologiques, les signes cliniques et biologiques à l'admission (état de choc hémorragique, taux d'hémoglobine), les données radiologiques (échographie et scanner), les lésions associées, la prise en charge thérapeutique et les complications. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 24,9 ans 15 et 58 ans, avec une prédominance masculine (sex-ratio = 7, 3). Le rein droit était intéressé dans 15 cas (60%). Le traumatisme rénal était fermé dans 15 cas, et ouvert par arme blanche dans 10 cas. Huit patients se sont présentés en état de choc hémorragique (32%). Une anémie inférieur à 10g /100ml a été observée dans 10 cas (40%). L'uroscanner fait systématiquement à l'admission a retrouvé un grade III (10 cas), grade IV (13 cas) et grade V (2 cas). La prise en charge a consisté en une exploration chirurgicale avec néphrectomie chez 2 cas de Grade IV pour une instabilité hémodynamique. Une surveillance active clinique, biologique, et radiologique a été préconisée dans 23 cas (92%). Le scanner de contrôle fait à J7, a objectivé une stabilisation des lésions dans 17 cas et la constitution d'un urinome dans 2 cas drainé par sonde double J. Une néphrectomie d'hémostase était nécessaire dans 4 cas de grade IV (3 cas) et de grade V (1 cas). Un patient est décédé à J2 d'un traumatisme ouvert grade IV suite à une hémorragie foudroyante. La durée moyenne d'hospitalisation était de 17 jours (6-75 jours). A travers notre étude, on conforte l'attitude conservatrice recommandée actuellement dans la prise en charge de la plupart des traumatismes graves du rein en l'absence d'une instabilité hémodynamique, grâce aux mesures de réanimation correcte, une surveillance rapprochée du patient et le recours aux moyens endoscopiques de drainage des voies excrétrices. Grace à cette attitude la plupart de nos patients (76%) on conservé leur unités rénales, extrêmement précieuses en particulier pour les patients sujets à la dégradation ultérieure de leur fonction rénale, leur permettant ainsi d’éviter de tomber dans l'hémodialyse ou de rentrer dans des programmes de greffe rénale. PMID:26090064

  1. Evolution of Brain and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenemann, P. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of language and the evolution of the brain are tightly interlinked. Language evolution represents a special kind of adaptation, in part because language is a complex behavior (as opposed to a physical feature) but also because changes are adaptive only to the extent that they increase either one's understanding of others, or one's…

  2. Expanding the Understanding of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Originally designed for K-12 teachers, the Understanding Evolution (UE) Web site ("www.understandingevolution.org") is a one-stop shop for all of a teacher's evolution education needs, with lesson plans, teaching tips, lists of common evolution misconceptions, and much more. However, during the past five years, the UE project team learned that…

  3. Evolution of Brain and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenemann, P. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of language and the evolution of the brain are tightly interlinked. Language evolution represents a special kind of adaptation, in part because language is a complex behavior (as opposed to a physical feature) but also because changes are adaptive only to the extent that they increase either one's understanding of others, or one's…

  4. Fla. Panel's Evolution Vote Hailed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on how the compromise hammered out in Florida recently over the treatment of evolution in the state's science classrooms is winning praise from scientists and educators. The new science standards will refer to evolution as the "scientific theory of evolution." These changes will replace more-general language in the previous…

  5. Expanding the Understanding of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Originally designed for K-12 teachers, the Understanding Evolution (UE) Web site ("www.understandingevolution.org") is a one-stop shop for all of a teacher's evolution education needs, with lesson plans, teaching tips, lists of common evolution misconceptions, and much more. However, during the past five years, the UE project team learned that…

  6. Fla. Panel's Evolution Vote Hailed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on how the compromise hammered out in Florida recently over the treatment of evolution in the state's science classrooms is winning praise from scientists and educators. The new science standards will refer to evolution as the "scientific theory of evolution." These changes will replace more-general language in the previous…

  7. QCD Evolution 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    These are the proceedings of the QCD Evolution 2015 Workshop which was held 26-30 May, 2015 at Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia, USA. The workshop is a continuation of a series of workshops held during four consecutive years 2011, 2012, 2013 at Jefferson Lab, and in 2014 in Santa Fe, NM. With the rapid developments in our understanding of the evolution of parton distributions including low-x, TMDs, GPDs, higher-twist correlation functions, and the associated progress in perturbative QCD, lattice QCD and effective field theory techniques we look forward with great enthusiasm to the 2015 meeting. A special attention was also paid to participation of experimentalists as the topics discussed are of immediate importance for the JLab 12 experimental program and a future Electron Ion Collider.

  8. Anatomy of scientific evolution.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals great predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society, and may provide a useful basis for policy-making. PMID:25671617

  9. Emergence and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J.

    2013-01-01

    The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are essential components of the protein synthesis machinery responsible for defining the genetic code by pairing the correct amino acids to their cognate tRNAs. The aaRSs are an ancient enzyme family believed to have origins that may predate the last common ancestor and as such they provide insights into the evolution and development of the extant genetic code. Although the aaRSs have long been viewed as a highly conserved group of enzymes, findings within the last couple of decades have started to demonstrate how diverse and versatile these enzymes really are. Beyond their central role in translation, aaRSs and their numerous homologs have evolved a wide array of alternative functions both inside and outside translation. Current understanding of the emergence of the aaRSs, and their subsequent evolution into a functionally diverse enzyme family, are discussed in this chapter. PMID:23478877

  10. Relative constraints and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Juan G. Diaz

    2014-03-01

    Several mathematical models of evolving systems assume that changes in the micro-states are constrained to the search of an optimal value in a local or global objective function. However, the concept of evolution requires a continuous change in the environment and species, making difficult the definition of absolute optimal values in objective functions. In this paper, we define constraints that are not absolute but relative to local micro-states, introducing a rupture in the invariance of the phase space of the system. This conceptual basis is useful to define alternative mathematical models for biological (or in general complex) evolving systems. We illustrate this concept with a modified Ising model, which can be useful to understand and model problems like the somatic evolution of cancer.

  11. The evolution of neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of neurodegenerative diseases that principally affect humans as they age, characterized by the loss of specific groups of neurons in different brain regions. Although these are in general sporadic disorders, it is know clear that many of these diseases have a substantial genetic component. As genes are the raw material with which evolution works, we might benefit from understanding these genes in an evolutionary framework. Here, I will discuss how we can understand whether evolution has shaped genes involved in neurodegeneration and the implications for practical issues such as our choice of model systems for these diseases and more theoretical concerns such as the level of selection against these phenotypes. PMID:22975006

  12. Evolution of catalytic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, G. F.

    1993-01-01

    An RNA-based evolution system was constructed in the laboratory and used to develop RNA enzymes with novel catalytic function. By controlling the nature of the catalytic task that the molecules must perform in order to survive, it is possible to direct the evolving population toward the expression of some desired catalytic behavior. More recently, this system has been coupled to an in vitro translation procedure, raising the possibility of evolving protein enzymes in the laboratory to produce novel proteins with desired catalytic properties. The aim of this line of research is to reduce darwinian evolution, the fundamental process of biology, to a laboratory procedure that can be made to operate in the service of organic synthesis.

  13. Evolution of mycorrhiza systems.

    PubMed

    Cairney, J W

    2000-11-01

    Most terrestrial plants live in mutualistic symbiosis with root-infecting mycorrhizal fungi. Fossil records and molecular clock dating suggest that all extant land plants have arisen from an ancestral arbuscular mycorrhizal condition. Arbuscular mycorrhizas evolved concurrently with the first colonisation of land by plants some 450-500 million years ago and persist in most extant plant taxa. Ectomycorrhizas (about 200 million years ago) and ericoid mycorrhizas (about 100 million years ago) evolved subsequently as the organic matter content of some ancient soils increased and sclerophyllous vegetation arose as a response to nutrient-poor soils respectively. Mycorrhizal associations appear to be the result of relatively diffuse coevolutionary processes. While early events in the evolution of mycorrhizal symbioses may have involved reciprocal genetic changes in ancestral plants and free-living fungi, available evidence points largely to ongoing parallel evolution of the partners in response to environmental change. PMID:11151665

  14. Evolution of mycorrhiza systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairney, J. W. G.

    Most terrestrial plants live in mutualistic symbiosis with root-infecting mycorrhizal fungi. Fossil records and molecular clock dating suggest that all extant land plants have arisen from an ancestral arbuscular mycorrhizal condition. Arbuscular mycorrhizas evolved concurrently with the first colonisation of land by plants some 450-500 million years ago and persist in most extant plant taxa. Ectomycorrhizas (about 200million years ago) and ericoid mycorrhizas (about 100million years ago) evolved subsequently as the organic matter content of some ancient soils increased and sclerophyllous vegetation arose as a response to nutrient-poor soils respectively. Mycorrhizal associations appear to be the result of relatively diffuse coevolutionary processes. While early events in the evolution of mycorrhizal symbioses may have involved reciprocal genetic changes in ancestral plants and free-living fungi, available evidence points largely to ongoing parallel evolution of the partners in response to environmental change.

  15. Anatomy of Scientific Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals great predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society, and may provide a useful basis for policy-making. PMID:25671617

  16. Comparison between Internalizing Anti-HER2 mAbs and Non-Internalizing Anti-CEA mAbs in Alpha-Radioimmunotherapy of Small Volume Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Using 212Pb

    PubMed Central

    Busson, Muriel; Garambois, Véronique; Jarlier, Marta; Charalambatou, Paraskevi; Pèlegrin, André; Paillas, Salomé; Chouin, Nicolas; Quenet, François; Maquaire, Patrick; Torgue, Julien; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle; Pouget, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose We assessed the contribution of antibody internalization in the efficacy and toxicity of intraperitoneal ?-radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of small volume carcinomatosis using 212Pb-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target HER2 (internalizing) or CEA (non-internalizing) receptors. Materials and Methods Athymic nude mice bearing 2–3 mm intraperitoneal tumor xenografts were intraperitoneally injected with similar activities (370, 740 and 1480 kBq; 37 MBq/mg) of 212Pb-labeled 35A7 (anti-CEA), trastuzumab (anti-HER2) or PX (non-specific) mAbs, or with equivalent amounts of unlabeled mAbs, or with NaCl. Tumor volume was monitored by bioluminescence and survival was reported. Hematologic toxicity and body weight were assessed. Biodistribution of 212Pb-labeled mAbs and absorbed dose-effect relationships using MIRD formalism were established. Results Transient hematological toxicity, as revealed by white blood cells and platelets numbering, was reported in mice treated with the highest activities of 212Pb-labeled mAbs. The median survival (MS) was significantly higher in mice injected with 1.48 MBq of 212Pb-35A7 (non-internalizing mAbs) (MS?=?94 days) than in animals treated with the same activity of 212Pb-PX mAbs or with NaCl (MS?=?18 days). MS was even not reached after 130 days when follow-up was discontinued in mice treated with 1.48 MBq of 212Pb-trastuzumab. The later efficacy was unexpected since final absorbed dose resulting from injection of 1.48 MBq, was higher for 212Pb-35A7 (35.5 Gy) than for 212Pb-trastuzumab (27.6 Gy). These results also highlight the lack of absorbed dose-effect relationship when mean absorbed dose was calculated using MIRD formalism and the requirement to perform small-scale dosimetry. Conclusions These data indicate that it might be an advantage of using internalizing anti-HER2 compared with non-internalizing anti-CEA 212Pb-labeled mAbs in the therapy of small volume xenograft tumors. They support clinical investigations of 212Pb-mAbs RIT as an adjuvant treatment after cytoreductive surgery in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. PMID:23922757

  17. Landscape evolution of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamieson, S.S.R.; Sugden, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    shelf before retreating to its present dimensions at ~13.5 Ma. Subsequent changes in ice extent have been forced mainly by sea-level change. Weathering rates of exposed bedrock have been remarkably slow at high elevations around the margin of East Antarctica under the hyperarid polar climate of the last ~13.5 Ma, offering potential for a long quantitative record of ice-sheet evolution with techniques such as cosmogenic isotope analysis

  18. Evolution of stellar entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. A.; de Avellar, M. G. B.; Horvath, J. E.

    2015-11-01

    An appraisal of the behavior of stellar entropy along stellar evolution is made. It is shown that the entropy per baryon of a star of a fixed baryon number decreases monotonically with increasing compactness of the star. The same entropy per baryon increases only whenever an irreversible collapse of the star happens. The recent proposals for a gravitational entropy related to curvature may justify the huge increase of the entropy in the ultimate collapse to a black hole.

  19. Evolution and ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, S. Moss; Alves, Domingos; Martins, J. S. Sá

    2000-09-01

    The idea of this review is to connect the different models of evolution to those of biological ageing through Darwin's theory. We start with the Eigen model of quasispecies for microevolution, then introduce the Bak-Sneppen model for macroevolution and, finally, present the Penna model for biological ageing and some of its most important results. We also explore the concept of coevolution using this model.

  20. The evolution within us

    PubMed Central

    Cobey, Sarah; Wilson, Patrick; Matsen, Frederick A.

    2015-01-01

    The B-cell immune response is a remarkable evolutionary system found in jawed vertebrates. B-cell receptors, the membrane-bound form of antibodies, are capable of evolving high affinity to almost any foreign protein. High germline diversity and rapid evolution upon encounter with antigen explain the general adaptability of B-cell populations, but the dynamics of repertoires are less well understood. These dynamics are scientifically and clinically important. After highlighting the remarkable characteristics of naive and experienced B-cell repertoires, especially biased usage of genes encoding the B-cell receptors, we contrast methods of sequence analysis and their attempts to explain patterns of B-cell evolution. These phylogenetic approaches are currently unlinked to explicit models of B-cell competition, which analyse repertoire evolution at the level of phenotype, the affinities and specificities to particular antigenic sites. The models, in turn, suggest how chance, infection history and other factors contribute to different patterns of immunodominance and protection between people. Challenges in rational vaccine design, specifically vaccines to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV, underscore critical gaps in our understanding of B cells' evolutionary and ecological dynamics. PMID:26194749