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1

Emergência e vigor de plântulas de Cedrela fissilis L. em função de diferentes posições de profundidades de semeadura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergence and vigor of Cedrela fissilis L. seedlings in function of the sowing position and depth. Cedrela fissilis L. are Meliaceae, popularly known as cedro. This species is native to Brazil, and owing to its qualities for the timber industry, it is being exploited progressively at its place of occurrence until the point of exhaustion. It is now listed as

Sueli da Silva Santos; Mácio Farias de Moura; Roberta Sales Guedes; Edilma Pereira Gonçalves; Edna Ursulino; Paulo Alexandre; Fernandes Rodrigues de Melo

2009-01-01

2

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Cedrela fissilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryos were obtained from immature zygotic embryos of Cedrela fissilis Well. (Meliaceae), after a culture period of 12 months, with regular subcultures every 6–8 weeks. Callus was developed on explants in 2 months\\u000a on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or picloram (PIC). When the calli were\\u000a transferred to fresh medium, embryogenic tissue appeared on

S. Vila; A. Gonzalez; H. Rey; L. Mroginski

2009-01-01

3

Host preference of the Meliaceae shootborer Hypsipyla: further information from grafting Cedrela odorata and Cedrela fissilis on Toona ciliata (Australian red cedar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Exotic species of Cedrela (C. odorata C. de Canodolle and C. fissilis Vel.) grown on the New South Wales mid-north coast of Australia are not attacked by the shootborer Hypsipyla robusta whereas Australian red cedar (Toona ciliata) grown in plantation in the same location is heavily attacked. In an extension of our earlier study, further grafts were constructed using

Fyfe L. Bygrave; Patricia L. Bygrave

2001-01-01

4

ATIVIDADE INSETICIDA DE ÓLEOS VEGETAIS SOBRE Sitophilus zeamais MOTS. (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) EM MILHO ARMAZENADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Foram testados os óleos de andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl.), copaíba (Copaifera sp.), eucalipto (Eucaliptus globulus Labill. e Eucaliptus citriodora Hook.), nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), eugenol, pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), alecrim (Lippia gracillis HBK.) e cedro (Cedrela fissilis Vell.), em adultos de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). No teste sem chance de escolha, 20 g de grãos de

Rodrigo Leandro; Braga de Castro Coitinho; José Vargas de Oliveira; Cláudio Augusto; Gomes da Câmara

5

The CEDROS ignimbrite, Faial island (Azores, Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 25 ignimbrites are known on the various islands of the Azorean archipelago. Most of them can be observed on São Miguel and Terceira islands, where they are considered as associated with caldeira-forming eruptions. In the Azores, ignimbrites form generally low volume deposits, although their volumes are largely unknown due to the particular geometry of the islands and the unknown fraction entering the ocean. Except the Povoação (Duncan et al., 1999) and Fogo ignimbrites (Wallenstein, 1999) on São Miguel island, or the ignimbrites of Terceira island (Self, 1976; Guertisser et al., 2009), most ignimbrites have not been extensively studied. The Cedros ignimbrite on Faial island, is the most recent and accessible ignimbrite of the Azores. Its age (1200 B.P.) is well constrained by several C14 datings (Shotton et al., 1970; Chovelon, 1982; Madeira et al., 1995; Pacheco, 2001). It formed during one of the latest and largest explosive events of the holocene activity of the Vulcão da Caldeira (1043 m), an event certainly at the origin of the present morphology of its large caldeira (Pacheco, 2001; Forjaz et al., 2006). The deposit is easily accessible since it outcrops at the surface except when partly covered by only one, more recent, thin deposit. The ignimbrite was produced at the end of a magmatic and hydromagmatic, sub-plinian eruption, with pumice fall deposits and multiple flow / fall ash deposits located on the north-western flank of the volcano (Pacheco, 2001). A detailed mapping of the ignimbrite is proposed, based on more than 300 documented outcrops. The mapping reveals the existence of 9 different units, radially spread on the northern flank of the volcano where it forms lobes some kilometers in length. Lobes never exceed 20 m in thickness. In the upper part of the volcano, the units were largely channeled either in deep valleys carved on the steep slopes of the main cone, either in the two branches of the well marked Pedro Miguel - Ribeira Funda graben. In the lower part of the volcano, the pyroclastic density currents had rather linear trajectories, weakly influenced by the local topography. Most of the units entered the ocean at the end of their terrestrial pathways, some after jumping high sea cliffs. The volume of the ignimbrite on land is small, nearly 0.06 km3 but the fraction deposited in the ocean is not known. The ignimbrite is light grey, non-welded through its thickness, even in maximum section up to 18 m. Several lithofacies have been identified, some depending on the distance to the vent, some clearly related to the local topography. The conspicuous variations of various lithofacies along the same unit can be associated with different mechanisms of transport and emplacement.

Caniaux, Guy

2010-05-01

6

Effect of latitudinal gradient and impact of logging on genetic diversity of Cedrela lilloi along the Argentine Yungas Rainforest  

PubMed Central

Cedrela lilloi C. DC. (cedro coya, Meliaceae), an important south American timber species, has been historically overexploited through selective logging in Argentine Yungas Rainforest. Management and conservation programs of the species require knowledge of its genetic variation patterns; however, no information is available. Molecular genetic variability of the species was characterized to identify high-priority populations for conservation and domestication purposes. Fourteen native populations (160 individuals) along a latitudinal gradient and with different logging's intensities were assessed by 293 polymorphic AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers. Genetic diversity was low (Ht = 0.135), according to marginal location of the species in Argentina. Most of the diversity was distributed within populations (87%). Northern populations showed significant higher genetic diversity (R2= 0.69) that agreed with latitudinal pattern of distribution of taxonomic diversity in the Yungas. Three clusters were identified by Bayesian analysis in correspondence with northern, central, and southern Yungas. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant genetic differences among latitudinal clusters even when logging (?RT = 0.07) and unlogging populations (?PT = 0.10) were separately analyzed. Loss of genetic diversity with increasing logging intensity was observed between neighboring populations with different disturbance (?PT = 0.03–0.10). Bottlenecks in disturbed populations are suggested as the main cause. Our results emphasize both: the necessity of maintaining the genetic diversity in protected areas that appear as possible long-term refuges of the species; and to rescue for the national system of protected areas some high genetic diversity populations that are on private fields. PMID:23170208

Inza, Maria V; Zelener, Noga; Fornes, Luis; Gallo, Leonardo A

2012-01-01

7

75 FR 47301 - Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC; Wessington Wind Energy Center, LLC; Juniper Canyon Wind Power LLC; Loraine Windpark Project, LLC; White Oak Energy LLC; Meadow Lake...

2010-08-05

8

Dendroecological investigations on Swietenia macrophylla King and Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae) in the central Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The width of the increment zones in the xylem of Swietenia macrophylla King and Cedrela odorata L. was investigated by dendroecological methods in a primary forest near Aripuanã, Mato Grosso, Brazil (10°09'S, 59°26'W). The annual period of cambial cell division and its intra-annual variation were determined by dendrometer measurements of 30 trees of each species. Tree-ring width chronologies for Swietenia

Oliver Dünisch; Valdinez Ribeiro Montóia; Josef Bauch

2003-01-01

9

Four new tetranortriterpenoids from cedrela odorata associated with leaf rejection by exopthalmus jekelianus  

PubMed

Four new tetranortriterpenoids, 3-deoxo-3beta,8beta-epoxy-6, 14alpha-dihydroxy-8,14-dihydromexicanolide (cedrodorin, 1); 3-deoxo-3beta,8beta-epoxy-6-acetoxy-14alpha-hydroxy-8, 14-dihydromexicanolide (6-acetoxycedrodorin, 2); 3-deoxo-3beta, 8beta-epoxy-6-deoxy-9alpha,14alpha-dihydroxy-8, 14-dihydromexicanolide (6-deoxy-9alpha-hydroxycedrodorin, 3); and 3-deoxo-3beta,8beta-epoxy-6,9alpha,14alpha-trihydroxy-8, 14-dihydromexicanolide (9alpha-hydroxycedrodorin, 4), have been isolated from the leaves of Cedrela odorata by HPLC. Their molecular structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR. Three of the compounds are associated with leaf rejection by the polyphagous, folivorous weevil, Exopthalmus jekelianus. The importance of these compounds as insect deterrents in C. odorata, and their potential value in the selection of insect-resistant clones for timber plantations is discussed. PMID:10514309

Veitch; Wright; Stevenson

1999-09-01

10

Induction of somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in the tropical timber tree Spanish red cedar [ Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spanish red cedar (Cedrela\\u000a odorata L.) is a tropical timber tree native to the Americas from southern Mexico to northern Argentina. Commercial plantations are\\u000a scarce and, consequently, natural populations are overexploited. Traditional propagation practices for the establishment of\\u000a large-scale plantations have had limited success in this species due to the relative scarcity of seeds, its broad genetic\\u000a diversity and the

Yuri J. Peña-Ramírez; Israel García-Sheseña; Ángel Hernández-Espinoza; Alfredo Domínguez-Hernández; Felipe A. Barredo-Pool; José A. González-Rodríguez; Manuel L. Robert

2011-01-01

11

Tree infection by Hypsipyla grandella in Swietenia macrophylla and Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae) in Mexico's southern Yucatan Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

In small-scale plantations (0.5–2ha) of Swietenia macrophylla King (big-leaf mahogany) and Cedrela odorata L. (Spanish cedar) in the southern Yucatan Peninsula, we evaluated whether the proportion of Hypsipyla grandella (mahogany shoot borer) was affected by the species used in the plantation (S. macrophylla, C. odorata or both) or by the density and height of individuals planted. We found that the

Diego R. Pérez-Salicrup; Ricardo Esquivel

2008-01-01

12

Geodynamic significance of Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous volcanic sequences of Vizcaino Peninsula and Cedros Island, Baja California, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mesozoic prebatholitic terranes of central Baja California include distinct volcanic sequences associated with sediments, ranging in age from Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous. These volcanic-sedimentary sequences are parts of a large “nappe” lying on top of blueschist-bearing melanges. The magmatic parentages of basic lavas from the allochthonous units have been determined from major- and trace-element analyses of total rocks and microprobe data from their calcic clinopyroxene phenocrysts. The results show two major types of basic volcanism, linked to extensional processes (nonorogenic tholeiites) and to compressional processes (orogenic tholeiites), respectively. This study documents a complex Mesozoic geodynamic evolution for this area before nappe emplacement during the Albian. On the basis of these data, the Late Triassic to Albian geologic history of this area is interpreted in terms of two successive episodes of marginal oceanic basin development, followed, respectively, by subduction and collision processes. Note: A sample locality map and cross sections and tables of geochemical data on Mesozoic rocks of Puerto Escondido, San Andrés-Cedros, and Morro Hermoso, and of microprobe analyses of calcic clinopyroxene phenocrysts, Puerto Escondido and San Andrés-Cedros are available by requesting Supplementary Data 83-16 from Documents Secretary, Geological Society of America, P.O. Box 9140, Boulder, CO 80301.

Rangin, C.; Girard, D.; Maury, R.

1983-09-01

13

Tissue culture methods for the clonal propagation and genetic improvement of Spanish red cedar (Cedrela odorata).  

PubMed

The choice of a method to culture red cedar tissues depends on the final objectives pursued. If homogeneous clonal material is required for experimental purposes, the easiest way is to generate the lines through adventitious shoot induction from seedlings germinated from seeds. If the objective is to generate high yielding material for plantation purposes, the choice will be the same method but starting from mature vegetative tissues from selected elite plants. Most of the process are the same, but the initial steps are less efficient and much more elaborate. If the purpose is to generate lines with new genetic characteristics through somaclonal variation, mutagenesis, or genetic transformation, somatic embryogenesis will be required. No single method in its present form is suitable for all purposes. Eventually, the efficient production of somatic embryos from rejuvenated shoots collected from mature selected plants is the ideal way to culture this species, but for the time being we have to choose one or the other. In this chapter, we present a grafting procedure to rejuvenate and maintain mother plants in the greenhouse and the in vitro culture systems we have developed for the production of Cedrela odorata propagules using explants from both young seedlings and mature tissues from selected old trees. Using a modified TY17 medium and the BioMINT(®) temporary immersion system, we obtained high multiplication and ex vitro transplantation rates for efficient large-scale propagation of this species. PMID:22610624

Peña-Ramírez, Yuri; Juárez-Gómez, Juan; González-Rodríguez, José Antonio; Robert, Manuel L

2012-01-01

14

Threat to Cedar, Cedrela odorata, Plantations in Vietnam by the Weevil, Aclees sp.  

PubMed Central

The recent decline and death of young cedar, Cedrela odorata L. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), plantations in Vietnam is caused by Aclees sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a wood-boring brown weevil. A field study was undertaken in three-year-old plantations in two districts in Thanh Hoa province in August 2008. Trees were heavily impacted by the weevil, Aclees; the infestation level (P) ranged from 80 to 100% and the average damage index (R) ranged from 1.8 to 2.8. Observations over one year enabled the life history to be determined. Eggs were laid (February to March, September to November) inside the bark from the base of the trunk up to 60 cm in height. Larvae formed extensive feeding tunnels in the inner bark and sap wood. Pupation occurred in feeding tunnels or pupal chambers in the sapwood. Adults emerged twice a year, February to March and August to October. It is concluded that Aclees is a threat to C. odorata plantations in tropical regions of the world, and quarantine measures should be implemented to reduce the risk of spread. PMID:21271846

Thu, Pham Quang; Quang, Dao Ngoc; Dell, Bernard

2010-01-01

15

Phytochemical screening and anti-oxidant activity of the two plants Ziziphus oxyphylla Edgew and Cedrela serrata Royle.  

PubMed

Phytochemical studies of medicinal plants are a basic and helping tool for the isolation of active secondary metabolites. The isolation of active compounds is made easy by the help of preliminary phytochemical studies, which shows the presence of a specific class or group of compounds present in these medicinal plants. Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela serrata are medicinal plants with valuable local uses. The present study is for the first Phytochemical investigation of these two medicinal plants which consists of, Quantitative tests showing very good results except Ziziphus oxyphylla plants which does not showed the results for Ester value and Peroxide value. Color reactions are studied for all the crude extracts showing the presence of a number of chemical groups belonging to the class of Alkaloids, Phenol compounds, Phenothiazines, Aromatic compounds, Amino acids, Sulfur compounds etc. Brine shrimp activity was performed which showed a LD50 value of 45.74 and 53.36 in the case of Ziziphus oxyphylla roots and Cedrela serrata bark respectively, which is comparable to the standard drug Cyclophosphamide results of 16.09. Insecticidal activity did not show any promising result indicating the absence of any insect killing potency. Antioxidant activity was very positive for all the extract particularly, the Ziziphus oxyphylla roots, which showed even better results than the standard drug Ascorbic acid used in various dilutions. PMID:25176241

Ahmad, Rizwan; Ahmad, Mansoor; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor

2014-09-01

16

Long-term trends in cellulose delta13 C and water-use efficiency of tropical Cedrela and Swietenia from Brazil.  

PubMed

Elevated CO(2) concentrations ([CO(2)]) affect plant water relations and photosynthesis, and the increase in atmospheric [CO(2)] over the past 100-200 years has been related to changes in stomatal density and the carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C) in tree rings and leaves from herbarium specimens. Because many tropical trees do not produce annual growth rings and their wood is therefore difficult to date, no trends in delta(13)C of tropical trees have been reported. Wood from Cedrela odorata L. (tropical cedar) and Swietenia macrophylla King (bigleaf mahogany), which do produce annual rings, was collected from a primary rain forest in Aripuanã, Brazil (10 degrees 09' S, 59 degrees 26' W). We measured wood cellulose delta(13)C in 10-year growth increments from 37 Cedrela trees (between 11 and 151 years old in 2001) and 16 Swietenia trees (48-126 years old). A comparison of delta(13)C in cellulose of trees from different decades and of trees of different cambial ages showed that the amount of delta(13)C was largely related to the decade the wood was produced in, and not, or only to a minor extent, to tree age. Cellulose delta(13)C decreased from -26.0 to -27.3 per thousand in Cedrela and from -25.7 to -27.1 per thousand in Swietenia, with the largest changes occurring during the past 50 years. Based on these data and the trends in atmospheric [CO(2)] and delta(13)CO(2), we calculated that the internal [CO(2)] increased from about 220 to 260 ppm and that intrinsic water-use efficiency increased by 34% in Cedrela and by 52% in Swietenia. This may have implications for the water cycle and may explain the trend toward increased tree growth and turnover observed in some tropical forests. PMID:15805094

Hietz, Peter; Wanek, Wolfgang; Dünisch, Oliver

2005-06-01

17

Multiple adventitious shoot formation in Spanish Red Cedar ( Cedrela odorata L.) cultured in vitro using juvenile and mature tissues: an improved micropropagation protocol for a highly valuable tropical tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cedrela odorata L. is a valuable tropical tree widely appreciated for its wood. This species confronts serious problems due to both overexploitation\\u000a of its natural populations and its susceptibility to the Meliaceae borer Hypsipyla grandella, which destroys the apical meristems and produces structural deformations. The rapid introduction of new varieties through\\u000a clonal forestry has been demonstrated to be the most

Yuri Jorge Peña-Ramírez; Juan Juárez-Gómez; Lucero Gómez-López; José L. Jerónimo-Pérez; Israel García-Sheseña; José A. González-Rodríguez; Manuel L. Robert

2010-01-01

18

Of Clams and Clovis: Isla Cedros, Baja California, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a What was once a reasonably direct archaeological debate regarding absolute chronology­ has become markedly more complex and\\u000a now encompasses not only ­dating, but human ecology and agency, along with necessarily much broader frames of reference. Recent\\u000a discoveries and new examinations of older finds have opened the door to a surge of reinterpretations, not all of which are\\u000a very well anchored

Matthew R. Des Lauriers

19

Biological Control of Saltcedar (Cedro salado) (Tamarix spp.) in the United States, with Implications for Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ever increasing invasion by exotic organisms from other continents poses one of the greatest threats to the well-being of North American native ecosystems. Among the worst of these is saltcedar (Tamarix spp.). These are shrubs to small trees introduced from Asia and the Mediterranean area into...

20

[Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae) potential for dendrochronological studies in the Selva Central of Perú].  

PubMed

Despite the progress made during the past 20 years, searching dendrochronological potential in tropical and subtropical tree species, tropical dendrochronology, is still in a development stage. The aim of this research was to determine the potential of C. odorata for dendrochronological studies in the Selva Central of Perú. The tree-ring anatomical characteristics were carefully examined and we were able to develop a 215 year (1795-2 009) tree-ring chronology and correlate it with precipitation records. The tree-ring chronology was developed based on 47 series of 27 trees. Tree rings are clearly delimited by large pore diameters in earlywood and small ones in latewood associated with marginal and paratracheal parenchyma. The tree-ring chronology was related to precipitation records from Satipo and significant correlations were found with the previous rainy season and late dry season of the current growth period. Moreover, we found close relationship between tree growth and total precipitations of the hydrological period (December to September) for the interval 1990-2009. These results demonstrate the influence of rainfall at different stages of C. odorata radial growth. The good discrimination of annual rings, strong relationship with precipitation, the wide range and longevity of trees (200 years) make C. odorata a very promising species for dendrochronological studies in tropical and subtropical forest of America. PMID:25102658

Pereyra Espinoza, Manuel Jesús; Inga Guillen, Gaby Janet; Santos Morales, Mariano; Arisméndiz Rodríguez, Rodolfo

2014-06-01

21

Geodynamic significance of Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous volcanic sequences of Vizcaino Peninsula and Cedros Island, Baja California, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mesozoic prebatholitic terranes of central Baja California include distinct volcanic sequences associated with sediments, ranging in age from Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous. These volcanic-sedimentary sequences are parts of a large ``nappe'' lying on top of blueschist-bearing melanges. The magmatic parentages of basic lavas from the allochthonous units have been determined from major- and trace-element analyses of total rocks

C. Rangin; D. Girard; R. Maury

1983-01-01

22

Endosymbiotic copepods may feed on zooxanthellae from their coral host, Pocillopora damicornis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Xarifiidae is one of the most common families of endosymbiotic copepods that live in close association with scleractinian corals. Previous studies on xarifiids primarily focused on their taxonomy and morphology, while their influence on corals is still unknown. In this study, we collected a total of 1,579 individuals belonging to 6 species of xarifiids from 360 colonies of Pocillopora damicornis at Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan from July 2007 to May 2008. Furthermore, using optical and electron microscopic observations, we examined the gut contents of Xarifia fissilis, the most abundant species of the Xarifiidae that we collected. We found that the gut of X. fissilis was characterized by a reddish-brown color due to the presence of numerous unicellular algae with diameters of 5-10 ?m. TEM observations indicated that the unicellular algae possessed typical characteristics of Symbiodinium including a peripheral chloroplast, stalked pyrenoids, starch sheaths, mesokaryotic nuclei, amphiesmas, an accumulation body, and mitochondria. After starving the isolated X. fissilis in the light and dark (light intensity: 140 ?mol photon m-2 s-1; photoperiod: 12 h light/12 h dark) for 2 weeks, fluorescence was clearly visible in its gut and fecal pellets under fluorescent microscopic observations. The cultivation experiment supports the hypothesis that the unicellular algae were beneficial to the survival of X. fissilis under light conditions, possibly through transferring photosynthates to the hosts. These results suggest that X. fissilis may consume and retain unicellular algae for further photosynthesis.

Cheng, Y.-R.; Dai, C.-F.

2010-03-01

23

In vitro screening of leishmanicidal activity in myanmar timber extracts.  

PubMed

Seventy-five Myanmar timber extracts belonging to 27 families were examined for their leishmanicidal activities. Some timber extracts had significant leishmanicidal activity, especially extracts of Millettia pendula, which exhibited the most potent activity (MLC 3.1 microg/ml, MIC 1.6 microg/ml). Other timber extracts showing potent activity included those from Cedrela serrata, Cedrela toona, Cordia fragrantissima, Calophyllum kunstleri, Dalbergia cultrate, Grevillea robusta, Haplophragma adenophyllum, Michelia champaca, and Tectona grandis. From a literature search for reports on the chemical constituents of these plants, most constituents were found to be quinone derivatives or other compounds with unsaturated carbonyl groups. PMID:15187448

Takahashi, Marii; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Satake, Motoyoshi; Agatsuma, Yutaka; Sekita, Setsuko

2004-06-01

24

Dendro Provenancing International meeting on historic  

E-print Network

Dendro ­ Provenancing International meeting on historic timber trade and dendrochronology Lithuania: Timber in the East Alar Läänelaid Dendrochronological dating of pieces of art in Estonia made of Baltic Koval Dendrochronology in Ukraine Tomasz Wany Survey of oak chronologies in Poland Anna Cedro

25

Biological activity of two neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae) products on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological activity of two neem products (Azatin and Nim 80) on mahogany shootborer (Hypsipyla grandella) larvae was studied. A randomized complete block design, with four replications, was used. H. grandella third instar larvae were exposed for 24h to Cedrela odorata leaf discs dipped in several treatment dissolutions of each formulated product (0.1, 0.32, 1.0, 3.20, and 10%); afterwards, each larva

Fernando Mancebo; Luko Hilje; Gerardo A Mora; Rodolfo Salazar

2002-01-01

26

The chemical composition of hexane extract from bark of Juniperus brevifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytochemical analysis of the bark of Juniperus brevifolia was undertaken for the first time. The GC–MS analysis of the hexane extract from bark of “cedro-do-mato” (J. brevifolia) allowed to identify three rare compounds for the first time in Juniperus genus: 6,7-dehydroferrugin-12-methyl ether, 11-hydroxy-6,7-dehydroferruginol and 6,7-dehydrohinokiol. The results also showed that the chemical composition of the extract were essentially abietane-type

A. M. L. Seca; A. M. S. Silva

2008-01-01

27

Long-term trends in nitrogen isotope composition and nitrogen concentration in brazilian rainforest trees suggest changes in nitrogen cycle.  

PubMed

Direct or indirect anthropogenic effects on ecosystem nitrogen cycles are important components of global change. Recent research has shown that N isotopes in tree rings reflect changes in ecosystem nitrogen sources or cycles and can be used to study past changes. We analyzed trends in two tree species from a remote and pristine tropical rainforest in Brazil, using trees of different ages to distinguish between the effect of tree age and long-term trends. Because sapwood differed from heartwood in delta(15)N and N concentration and N can be translocated between living sapwood cells, long-term trends are best seen in dead heartwood. Heartwood delta(15)N in Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata) and big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) increased with tree age, and N concentrations increased with age in Cedrela. Controlling for tree age, delta(15)N increased significantly during the past century even when analyzing only heartwood and after removing labile N compounds. In contrast to northern temperate and boreal forests where wood delta(15)N often decreased, the delta(15)N increase in a remote rainforest is unlikely to be a direct signal of changed N deposition. More plausibly, the change in N isotopic composition indicates a more open N cycle, i.e., higher N losses relative to internal N cycling in the forest, which could be the result of changed forest dynamics. PMID:20092248

Hietz, Peter; Dünisch, Oliver; Wanek, Wolfgang

2010-02-15

28

Antifungal activity of 10 Guadeloupean plants.  

PubMed

Screening of the antifungal activities of ten Guadeloupean plants was undertaken to find new extracts and formulations against superficial mycoses such as onychomycosis, athlete's foot, Pityriasis versicolor, as well as the deep fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia. For the first time, the CMI of these plant extracts [cyclohexane, ethanol and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)] was determined against five dermatophytes, five Candida species, Scytalidium dimidiatum, a Malassezia sp. strain and Pneumocystis carinii. Cytotoxicity tests of the most active extracts were also performed on an HaCat keratinocyte cell line. Results suggest that the extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Pluchea carolinensis have interesting activities and could be good candidates for developing antifungal formulations. PMID:23280633

Biabiany, Murielle; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; François, Nadine; Sendid, Boualem; Pottier, Muriel; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Rouaud, Isabelle; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Joseph, Henry; Bourgeois, Paul; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

2013-11-01

29

Modeling Long-term Creep Performance for Welded Nickel-base Superalloy Structures for Power Generation Systems  

SciTech Connect

We report here a constitutive model for predicting long-term creep strain evolution in ?’ strengthened Ni-base superalloys. Dislocation climb-bypassing ?’, typical in intermediate ?’ volume fraction (~20%) alloys, is considered as the primary deformation mechanism. Dislocation shearing ?’ to anti-phase boundary (APB) faults and diffusional creep are also considered for high-stress and high-temperature low-stress conditions, respectively. Additional damage mechanism is taken into account for rapid increase in tertiary creep strain. The model has been applied to Alloy 282, and calibrated in a temperature range of 1375-1450?F, and stress range of 15-45ksi. The model parameters and a MATLAB code are provided. This report is prepared by Monica Soare and Chen Shen at GE Global Research. Technical discussions with Dr. Vito Cedro are greatly appreciated. This work was supported by DOE program DE-FE0005859

Shen, Chen

2015-01-01

30

Detection of conduit-controlled ground-water flow in northwestern Puerto Rico using aerial photograph interpretation and geophysical methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The development potential of ground-water resources in the karst limestone of northwestern Puerto Rico, in an area extending from the Río Camuy to Aguadilla, is uncertain as a result of limited knowledge of the location of areas where a high density of cavities (interconnected fractures, conduits, and other dissolution features) might suggest the occurrence of high water yields. The presence in northwestern Puerto Rico of numerous coastal submarine springs, cavernous porosity in some of the wells, and rivers with entrenched and underground paths, indicate that it is probable that water-bearing, subterranean interconnected cavities occur in the area between the Río Camuy and Aguadilla. The number of exploratory wells needed to determine the location of these conduits or zones of enhanced secondary porosity could be substantially reduced if more information were available about the location of these subterranean features, greatly reducing the drilling costs associated with a trial-and-error exploratory process. A 3-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, to detect the presence of cavities that might suggest the occurrence of conduit-controlled groundwater flow. Aerial photographs, geologic and topographic maps, and field reconnaissance were used to identify such linear terrain features as ridges, entrenched canyons, and fracture traces. Natural potential and gravity geophysical methods were also used. The following sites were selected for the aerial photograph interpretation and geophysical testing: Caimital Bajo uplands and former Ramey Air Force Base in Aguadilla; Quebrada de los Cedros between Aguadilla and Isabela; the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, Otilio dairy farm, and Pozo Brujo in Isabela; the Monte Encantado area in Moca and Isabela; and the Rio Camuy cave system in Hatillo and Camuy. In general, the degree of success varied with site and the geophysical method used. At some sites such as Pozo Brujo, the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, and Monte Encantado area, natural potential anomalies strongly suggest the existence of conduits with flowing water. At most sites, however, the results obtained did not clearly reveal the presence of subsurface cavities that might be associated with the occurrence of conduit-controlled ground-water flow. Sites such as the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, Pozo Brujo, and Quebrada de los Cedros warrant a more detailed analysis, including a test well drilling phase to confirm the presence of suspected high-yield water-bearing zones.

Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Richards, Ronald T.

2000-01-01

31

[Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].  

PubMed

The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low concentrations for Chacopata and high concentration for La Restinga; the polyunsaturated fatty acids were between 4.66 and 35.55% with lower values for Chacopata and higher values for Chaguaramas samples. P. viridis is recommended for human being consumption, according to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids found for this species. PMID:21516644

Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

2011-03-01

32

Is Thermal Remagnetization Responsible for the Anomalously Shallow Inclinations of the Middle Cretaceous Valle Group, Baja California, Mexico?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of the Cretaceous Valle Group collected from northern coast of the Vizcaino Peninsula, Baja California show anomalously shallow inclinations, which are about 15\\deg shallower than inclinations reported from the Valle Group of nearby Cedros Island. One possibility is that these anomalously shallow inclinations have been caused by a post-tilting thermal remagnetization because (1) they have a relatively strong NRM intensity, (2) the directions fail a slump fold test, and (3) the remanence directions are indistinguishable in sandstones of varying grain sizes. The presence of authigenic zeolite at the lowest part of the Valle Group section, however, can be considered evidence arguing against the possibility of a high temperature thermal remagnetization. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine whether a complete thermal remagnetization could occur at the low temperatures allowed by the presence of zeolite, but for extended period of time. Samples from Cedros Island, where thermal remagnetization was believed to be unlikely because of their higher inclinations, were used in the experiments. These samples were given an ARM with a 0.1mT DC field in the presence of alternating fields between 100 mT and 0 mT before the pTRM experiments. The samples were then given pTRMs at temperatures that increased from room temperature to 600 \\deg C in increments of 50 \\deg C. The pTRMs were applied perpendicular to the initial ARM. Magnetic susceptibility and remanence of the samples were monitored throughout the experiments. Preliminary results indicate that thermal remagnetization cannot occur until temperatures of 600 \\deg C are reached. Assuming that a thermoviscous remagnetization is constrained by the presence of zeolite to have unblocking temperatures no greater than 400 \\deg C due to a heating event with a maximum temperature of 200 \\deg C for 10 to 100 million years, the results do not favor a thermoviscous remagnetization cause of the anomalously shallow inclinations observed in the Valle Group. The cause of anomalously shallow inclinations of the Valle Group, Baja California, remains an enigma. In future work, we will investigate whether paleomagnetic inclinations of the Valle Group were biased by an initial slope or indicate an even larger displacement of the Vizcaino terrane than previously estimated. For the latter case, the Vizcaino terrane may have experienced a tectonic history different from the adjoining mainland Baja California.

Li, Y.; Kodama, K. P.; Smith, D. P.

2002-05-01

33

Root endophyte symbiosis in vitro between the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tricholoma matsutake and the arbuscular mycorrhizal plant Prunus speciosa.  

PubMed

We previously reported that Tricholoma matsutake and Tricholoma fulvocastaneum, ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes that associate with Pinaceae and Fagaceae, respectively, in the Northern Hemisphere, could interact in vitro as a root endophyte of somatic plants of Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae), which naturally harbors arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in South America, to form a characteristic rhizospheric colony or "shiro". We questioned whether this phenomenon could have occurred because of plant-microbe interactions between geographically separated species that never encounter one another in nature. In the present study, we document that these fungi formed root endophyte interactions and shiro within 140 days of inoculation with somatic plants of Prunus speciosa (=Cerasus speciosa, Rosaceae), a wild cherry tree that naturally harbors arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Japan. Compared with C. odorata, infected P. speciosa plants had less mycelial sheath surrounding the exodermis, and the older the roots, especially main roots, the more hyphae penetrated. In addition, a large number of juvenile roots were not associated with hyphae. We concluded that such root endophyte interactions were not events isolated to the interactions between exotic plants and microbes but could occur generally in vitro. Our pure culture system with a somatic plant allowed these fungi to express symbiosis-related phenotypes that varied with the plant host; these traits are innately programmed but suppressed in nature and could be useful in genetic analyses of plant-fungal symbiosis. PMID:24158697

Murata, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Yokota, Satoru; Maruyama, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kohei; Ohira, Tatsuro; Neda, Hitoshi

2014-05-01

34

Oxygen isotopes in tree rings are a good proxy for Amazon precipitation and El Nino-Southern Oscillation variability.  

PubMed

We present a unique proxy for the reconstruction of variation in precipitation over the Amazon: oxygen isotope ratios in annual rings in tropical cedar (Cedrela odorata). A century-long record from northern Bolivia shows that tree rings preserve the signal of oxygen isotopes in precipitation during the wet season, with weaker influences of temperature and vapor pressure. Tree ring ?(18)O correlates strongly with ?(18)O in precipitation from distant stations in the center and west of the basin, and with Andean ice core ?(18)O showing that the signal is coherent over large areas. The signal correlates most strongly with basin-wide precipitation and Amazon river discharge. We attribute the strength of this (negative) correlation mainly to the cumulative rainout processes of oxygen isotopes (Rayleigh distillation) in air parcels during westward transport across the basin. We further find a clear signature of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the record, with strong ENSO influences over recent decades, but weaker influence from 1925 to 1975 indicating decadal scale variation in the controls on the hydrological cycle. The record exhibits a significant increase in ?(18)O over the 20th century consistent with increases in Andean ?(18)O ice core and lake records, which we tentatively attribute to increased water vapor transport into the basin. Taking these data together, our record reveals a fresh path to diagnose and improve our understanding of variation and trends of the hydrological cycle of the world's largest river catchment. PMID:23027960

Brienen, Roel J W; Helle, Gerd; Pons, Thijs L; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Gloor, Manuel

2012-10-16

35

Oxygen isotopes in tree rings are a good proxy for Amazon precipitation and El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability  

PubMed Central

We present a unique proxy for the reconstruction of variation in precipitation over the Amazon: oxygen isotope ratios in annual rings in tropical cedar (Cedrela odorata). A century-long record from northern Bolivia shows that tree rings preserve the signal of oxygen isotopes in precipitation during the wet season, with weaker influences of temperature and vapor pressure. Tree ring ?18O correlates strongly with ?18O in precipitation from distant stations in the center and west of the basin, and with Andean ice core ?18O showing that the signal is coherent over large areas. The signal correlates most strongly with basin-wide precipitation and Amazon river discharge. We attribute the strength of this (negative) correlation mainly to the cumulative rainout processes of oxygen isotopes (Rayleigh distillation) in air parcels during westward transport across the basin. We further find a clear signature of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the record, with strong ENSO influences over recent decades, but weaker influence from 1925 to 1975 indicating decadal scale variation in the controls on the hydrological cycle. The record exhibits a significant increase in ?18O over the 20th century consistent with increases in Andean ?18O ice core and lake records, which we tentatively attribute to increased water vapor transport into the basin. Taking these data together, our record reveals a fresh path to diagnose and improve our understanding of variation and trends of the hydrological cycle of the world’s largest river catchment. PMID:23027960

Brienen, Roel J. W.; Helle, Gerd; Pons, Thijs L.; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Gloor, Manuel

2012-01-01

36

Use of grafting to prevent Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) damage to new world Meliaceae species.  

PubMed

The susceptible species Cedrela odorata and Swietenia macrophylla to attack by Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) larvae were grafted onto the resistant species Khaya senegalensis and Toona ciliata. Six-month-old grafted plants were then compared to their reciprocal grafts and to both intact (non-grafted) and autografted plants for damage due to H. grandella larvae and for their effects on larval performance. Two experiments were conducted: one in which the apical bud of the main plant shoot was inoculated with H. grandella eggs, and the other in which the bud was inoculated with third instars. Damage in each experiment was assessed by the number of frass piles, number and length of tunnels, number of damaged leaves, and damage to the apical bud. Larval performance was evaluated in terms of time to reach pupation and pupal weight and length. In both experiments, plant damage differed significantly among treatments (P < 0.03). Resistant rootstocks conferred resistance to susceptible scions. In both experiments, grafting by itself, regardless of the rootstock and scion combination, also reduced damage caused by H. grandella larvae. Scions of autografted susceptible species had similar resistance to susceptible scions grafted on resistant rootstocks. Few larvae reached pupation, and their pupal weight and length were similar. PMID:20878001

Perez, Julian; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Hilje, Luko; Tripepi, Robert R; Aguilar, Maria E; Mesen, Francisco

2010-01-01

37

Electrophysiological responses of female and male Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) to Swietenia macrophylla essential oils.  

PubMed

The mahogany shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella, is one of the most economically important Neotropical forest pest insects because it attacks valuable timber of the Meliaceae. Despite detailed information on the life cycle of H. grandella, factors influencing attack by the shoot borer are not well known. Electroantennogram studies of borer antennae indicate that both female and male moths elicited significant antennal responses to essential oil of the terminal shoots, mature and senescent leaves, in three concentrations. Gamma-himachalene, germacrene D, germacrene A, cadina-1,4-diene, hexadecanoic acid, and ethyl hexadecanoate appeared in all essential oils from Swietenia macrophylla. Germacrene-D and gamma-himachalene were also present in the active essential oil of Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. These findings suggest that these compounds play a role in attracting H. grandella to oviposit on the leaves of these plants. The GC-EAD of essential oil from S. macrophylla mature leaves to female H. grandella antennae led to the identification of beta-caryophyllene as the main constituent responsible for the antennae response. PMID:14584681

Soares, Marisi G; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Fernandes, João B; Corrêa, Arlene G; da Silva, M Fátima G F; Vieira, Paulo C; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ohashi, Orlando S

2003-09-01

38

Reinterpretation of Mesozoic ophiolite arc, and blueschist terranes in southwestern Baja California  

SciTech Connect

The nature and significance of disrupted Mesozoic oceanic rocks on Isla Santa Margarita and Isla Magdalena, western Baja California Sur, have been reinterpreted on the basis of detailed mapping and petrologic studies. Three structural units are recognized. (1) The upper plate consists of ophiolitic, arc, and forearc basin rocks. Ophiolitic rocks, including metamorphosed ultramafic rocks, gabbro, dikes, volcanic rocks, and chert, underwent strong contractional deformation and penetrative greenschist-facies metamorphism. Arc rocks, including gabbro, a dike and sill complex, compositionally diverse volcanic rocks, lahars, and volcaniclastic strata, lack a penetrative fabric and are weakly metamorphosed. Forearc basin rocks consist of unmetamorphosed conglomerated and rhythmically bedded siliciclastic turbidites. (2) The lower plate is a subduction complex consisting of weakly to moderately foliated and metamorphosed pillow and massive lavas, breccia, and tuff( ), interbedded red and green siliceous argillite, and rare radiolarian ribbon chert and limestone. Blueschist-facies metamorphism is indicated by lawsonite, aragonite, sodic amphibole, and sodic clino-pyroxene. (3) Serpentine-matrix melange crops out in shallowly dipping fault zones between the upper and lower plates. The structural and petrologic characteristics of the Mesozoic units, the geometry of contacts between them, and the age of extension are similar to those in the Isla Cedros-Vizcalno Peninsula region, 400 km to the northwest. The author infers that syn-subduction extension was a regional event that affected much of the western Baja forearc during the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene.

Sedlock, R.L. (San Jose State Univ., CA (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-04-01

39

The chemical composition of hexane extract from bark of Juniperus brevifolia.  

PubMed

The phytochemical analysis of the bark of Juniperus brevifolia was undertaken for the first time. The GC-MS analysis of the hexane extract from bark of "cedro-do-mato" (J. brevifolia) allowed to identify three rare compounds for the first time in Juniperus genus: 6,7-dehydroferrugin-12-methyl ether, 11-hydroxy-6,7-dehydroferruginol and 6,7-dehydrohinokiol. The results also showed that the chemical composition of the extract were essentially abietane-type diterpenoids with alcohol function (44.9%) and with carbonyl function (8.6%). Fatty acids such palmitic, oleic, stearic and docosanoic acids were the second most abundant family of identified compounds (9.5%) and its value increased (12.7%) after alkaline hydrolysis, mainly due to docosanoic and tetradocosanoic acids. Sterols like sitosterol and stigmast-4-en-3-one, were also present (6.6%), along with esters of sterols (8.4%). Significant quantities of the long-chain aliphatic alcohols (ca 3.7%) were identified in the hexane extract only after alkaline hydrolysis. PMID:18629713

Seca, A M L; Silva, A M S

2008-01-01

40

The P-T-t history of blocks in serpentinite-matrix melange, west-central Baja California  

SciTech Connect

Thermochronologic, petrologic, and geochemical analyses of epidote-amphibolite-, amphilbolite-, eclogite-, and blueschist-facies blocks in serpentinite-matrix melanges from East San Benito Island and Cedros Island, west-central Baja California, provide constraints on the P-T-t history of this disrupted terrane. Results of {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar step heating experiments on minerals separated from these blocks vary according to metamorphic grade and indicate different P-T-t histories. Mid-Jurassic (160-170 Ma) epidote-amphibolite- and amphibolite-facies blocks were probably derived from oceanic crust and associated sediments that were metamorphosed during limitation of subduction. Coarse-grained blueschist blocks were likely metamorphosed during continued subduction in late Early Cretaceous time (that is, 115-100 Ma). Some epidote-amphibolite blocks are partially overprinted by blueschist-facies mineral assemblages and apparently record both metamorphic events. Fission-track analyses of apatites indicate that the blocks underwent significantly different post-metamorphic cooling histories. Epidote-amphilbolite and amphibolite blocks cooled below {approximately}100 {degrees}C form mid-Jurassic to Paleocene time; blueschist blocks cooled below {approximately}100 {degrees}C in Oligocene-Miocene time. In general, mafic blocks have trace-element concentrations and REE patterns characteristic of ocean-flood basalts. This study demonstrates that samples with very different P-T-t histories can evidently occur over relatively small length scales (<<1 km) in serpentinite-matrix melanges. 67 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

Baldwin, S.L.; Harrison, T.M. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

1992-01-01

41

The status of conservation of urban forests in eastern Amazonia.  

PubMed

This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha), Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha), Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha), Combu Is. reserve (10 ha), Gunma Park reserve (10 ha) and Mocambo reserve (5 ha). Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008) were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae), Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae), Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae), Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae), Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae), Manilkara huberi (Ducke) Chevalier (Sapotaceae), Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae), Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn.) Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae) and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae). Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve), as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém. PMID:22735132

Amaral, D D; Vieira, I C G; Salomão, R P; Almeida, S S; Jardim, M A G

2012-05-01

42

An efficient immunodetection method for histone modifications in plants  

PubMed Central

Background Epigenetic mechanisms can be highly dynamic, but the cross-talk among them and with the genome is still poorly understood. Many of these mechanisms work at different places in the cell and at different times of organism development. Covalent histone modifications are one of the most complex and studied epigenetic mechanisms involved in cellular reprogramming and development in plants. Therefore, the knowledge of the spatial distribution of histone methylation in different tissues is important to understand their behavior on specific cells. Results Based on the importance of epigenetic marks for biology, we present a simplified, inexpensive and efficient protocol for in situ immunolocalization on different tissues such as flowers, buds, callus, somatic embryo and meristematic tissue from several plants of agronomical and biological importance. Here, we fully describe all the steps to perform the localization of histone modifications. Using this method, we were able to visualize the distribution of H3K4me3 and H3K9me2 without loss of histological integrity of tissues from several plants, including Agave tequilana, Capsicum chinense, Coffea canephora and Cedrela odorata, as well as Arabidopsis thaliana. Conclusions There are many protocols to study chromatin modifications; however, most of them are expensive, difficult and require sophisticated equipment. Here, we provide an efficient protocol for in situ localization of histone methylation that dispenses with the use of expensive and sensitive enzymes. The present method can be used to investigate the cellular distribution and localization of a wide array of proteins, which could help to clarify the biological role that they play at specific times and places in different tissues of various plant species. PMID:24341414

2013-01-01

43

Detecting evidence for CO2 fertilization from tree ring studies: The potential role of sampling biases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree ring analysis allows reconstructing historical growth rates over long periods. Several studies have reported an increasing trend in ring widths, often attributed to growth stimulation by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, these trends may also have been caused by sampling biases. Here we describe two biases and evaluate their magnitude. (1) The slow-grower survivorship biasis caused by differences in tree longevity of fast- and slow-growing trees within a population. If fast-growing trees live shorter, they are underrepresented in the ancient portion of the tree ring data set. As a result, reconstructed growth rates in the distant past are biased toward slower growth. (2) Thebig-tree selection biasis caused by sampling only the biggest trees in a population. As a result, slow-growing small trees are underrepresented in recent times as they did not reach the minimum sample diameter. We constructed stochastic models to simulate growth trajectories based on a hypothetical species with lifetime constant growth rates and on observed tree ring data from the tropical treeCedrela odorata. Tree growth rates used as input in our models were kept constant over time. By mimicking a standard tree ring sampling approach and selecting only big living trees, we show that both biases lead to apparent increases in historical growth rates. Increases for the slow-grower survivorship bias were relatively small and depended strongly on assumptions about tree mortality. The big-tree selection bias resulted in strong historical increases, with a doubling in growth rates over recent decades. A literature review suggests that historical growth increases reported in many tree ring studies may have been partially due to the big-tree sampling bias. We call for great caution in the interpretation of historical growth trends from tree ring analyses and recommend that such studies include individuals of all sizes.

Brienen, Roel J. W.; Gloor, Emanuel; Zuidema, Pieter A.

2012-03-01

44

Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.  

PubMed

In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their timber and NTFP values. PMID:24061084

Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

2013-11-30

45

The 27 May 1937 catastrophic flow failure of gold tailings at Tlalpujahua, Michoacán, México  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 27 May 1937, after one week of sustained heavy rainfall, a voluminous flood caused the death of at least 300 people and the destruction of the historic El Carmen church and several neighborhoods in the mining region of Tlalpujahua, Michoacán, central Mexico. This destructive flood was triggered by the breaching of the impoundment of the Los Cedros tailings and the sudden release of 16 Mt of water-saturated waste materials. The muddy silty flood, moving at estimated speeds of 20-25 m s-1, was channelized along the Dos Estrellas and Tlalpujahua drainages and devastated everything along its flow path. After advancing 2.5 km downstream, the flood slammed into El Carmen church and surrounding houses at estimated speeds of ~7 m s-1, destroying many of construction walls and covering the church floor with ~2 m of mud and debris. Eyewitness accounts and newspaper articles, together with analysis of archived photographic materials, indicated that the flood consisted of three muddy pulses. This interpretation is confirmed and extended by the results of our geological investigations during 2013 and 2014. Stratigraphic relations and granulometric data for selected proximal and distal samples show that the flood behaved as a hyperconcentrated flow along most of its trajectory. Even though premonitory signs of possible impoundment failure were reported days before the flood, and people living downstream were alerted, authorities ordered no evacuations or other mitigative actions. The catastrophic flood at Tlalpujahua provides a well-documented, though tragic, example of impoundment breaching of a tailings dam caused by the combined effects of intense rainfall, dam weakness, and inadequate emergency-management protocols - unfortunately an all too common case-scenario for most of the world's mining regions.

Macías, J. L.; Corona-Chávez, P.; Sanchéz-Núñez, J. M.; Martínez-Medina, M.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; García-Tenorio, F.; Cisneros-Máximo, G.

2014-08-01

46

Evolution of subsidence styles in forearc basin: example from Cretaceous of southern Vizcaino Peninsula, Baja California, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous arc magmatism is represented by volcaniclastic rocks of the Eugenia Formation in the northern Vizcaino Peninsula and by the metamorphosed Cedros-San Andres volcanoplutonic complex, with a dismembered ophiolitic basement, in the southern peninsula. The Vizcaino Peninsula became the site of forearc sedimentation by the Aptian-Albian (late Early Cretaceous), when arc magmatism moved abruptly eastward to the present-day Peninsular Range. On the southern Vizcaino Peninsula, a conformable stratigraphic section, complicated by later faulting, records a gradual transition from a ridged forearc, broken by basement uplifts and grabens (the Aptian-Albian Asunction Formation), to a broadly subsiding, deep marine forearc basin (the Cenomanian Valle Formation). The basal contact of the Asunction formation has irregular relief caused by brecciated basement rocks and talus accumulated along fault zones. An upward-fining sequence several hundred meters thick records abrupt uplift and gradual denudation of adjacent metamorphic basement. Contemporaneous andesite arc volcanism to the east supplied ash and fresh volcanic detritus to the grabens. Angular sand to boulder-size detritus of the Asunction Formation was derived locally, and includes basic to intermediate meta-igneous rock fragments, with epidote, actinolite, and chlorite, as well as serpentine. Abundant calcareous fossils are commonly unbroken, suggesting local sources for these as well. Angular to subrounded, sand to cobble-sized, intermediate to mafic volcanic rock fragments were derived from a more distant island arc to the east, which occasionally provided intermediate to felsic tuffs to the basin. This source is probably represented by the Aptian-Albian Alisitos Group, which forms much of the western wall of the Late Cretaceous Peninsular Range batholith.

Busby-Spera, C.J.; Boles, J.R.

1986-04-01

47

NoWMex: Continuous GNSS Sites in Northwest Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays GPS has become part of daily life activities. In the near future, with the GPS modernization and the use of Glonass and Galileo as a Global Navigation Satellite System will give relative location precision from decimeters to millimeters in near real time applications. In order to realize this, we need a global array of continuously operating GNSS stations built to meet the standards of the geophysical communities and linked with gravimetric local measurements to discern the vertical component of our active Earth. Trying to follow this revolution, CICESE has been working with GPS since 1985. The GPS site CICE was built as an IGS reference station in 1995. Afterward we built 5 more continuous GPS sites in Northwest Mexico with the support of SCIGN. The CGPS NoWMex network is currently made up of six sites: CIC1, SPMX, CORX, GUAX, USMX and YESX (sopac.ucsd.edu). Recently, we implemented an experimental GPS processing lab as part of the Geodesy and Geodynamics Laboratory in the Seismology Department at CICESE. 30 stations are now currently processed from the network Red Geodesica Nacional Activa (RGNA-INEGI), NoWMex, and sites in neighbor countries. Fiducials solutions in ITRF2000 are obtained using GAMIT/GLOBK 10.31 with final igs orbits, every month since 2006. In order to make a contribution to densification of ITRF and support NAREF, SIRGAS and SNARF issues related to scientific and geomatics results; we are looking for internal (Mexican) and external colleagues as well as funding for maintenance and increase the number of CGNSS in NoWMeX including southern Basin and Ranger (Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa and Durango), Gulf of California islands, Peninsular Californias, Nayarit, Jalisco, Colima and the Mexican Pacific islands: Guadalupe (2 more sites), Cedros, Socorro (DORIS site), Clarion and Tres Marias. We must to build more and free available CGNSS sites in and around Mexico to contribute to sea level rise and global change studies.

Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Gonzalez-Ortega, J. A.

2008-05-01

48

Region-wide trends of nesting ospreys in northwestern Mexico: a three-decade perspective  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used a double-sampling technique (air plus ground survey) in 2006, with partial double coverage, to estimate the present size of the Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting population in northwestern Mexico (coastal Baja California, islands in the Gulf of California, and coastal Sonora and Sinaloa). With the exception of Natividad, Cedros, and San Benitos islands along the Pacific coast of Baja California (all three excluded from our coverage in 2006 due to fog), this survey was a repeat of previous surveys conducted by us with the same protocol in 1977 and 1992/1993, allowing for estimates of regional population trends. The minimum population estimate for the area we surveyed in 2006 was 1343 nesting pairs, an 81% increase since 1977, but only a 3% increase since 1992/1993. The population on the Gulf side of Baja California generally remained stable during the three surveys (255, 236, and 252 pairs, respectively). The population of the Midriff Islands (Gulf of California in the vicinity of 29°N latitude) remained similar from 1992/1993 (308 pairs) to 2006 (289 pairs), but with notable population changes on the largest two islands (Guardian Angel: 45 to 105 pairs [133% increase]; Tiburón: 164 to 109 pairs [34% decrease]). The minimum estimated Osprey population on the Sonora mainland decreased in a manner similar to adjacent Isla Tiburón, i.e., by 26%, from 214 pairs in 1993 to 158 pairs in 2006. In contrast, the population in coastal Sinaloa, which had increased by 150% between 1977 and 1993, grew again by 58% between 1993 and 2006, from 180 to 285 pairs. Our survey confirmed previously described patterns of rapid population changes at a local level, coupled with apparent shifts in spatial distribution. The large ground-nesting population that until recently nested on two islands in San Ignacio Lagoon ( Pacific Ocean side, Baja California) was no longer present on the islands in 2006, but an equivalent number of pairs were found to the north and south of the lagoon, nesting in small towns and along adjoining overhead electric lines, with no overall change in population size for that general area (198 pairs in 1992; 199 in 2006). Use of artificial nesting structures was 4.3% in 1977 and 6.2% in 1992/1993, but jumped to 26.4% in 2006. Use of poles that support overhead electric lines poses a risk of electrocution to Ospreys and also causes power outages and fires. We recommend modification of these poles to safely accommodate Osprey nests, as has been successfully accomplished in many countries.

Henny, Charles J.; Anderson, Daniel W.; Vera, Aradit Castellanos; Cartron, Jean-Luc E.

2008-01-01

49

Population Size and Trends for Nesting Ospreys in Northwestern Mexico: Region-wide Surveys, 1977, 1992/1993 and 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used a double-sampling technique (air plus ground survey) in 2006, with partial double coverage, to estimate the present size of the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting population in northwestern Mexico. With the exception of Natividad, Cedros, and San Benito Islands along the Pacific Coast of Baja California, all three excluded from our coverage in 2006 due to fog, this survey was a repeat of previous surveys conducted by us with the same protocol in 1977 and 1992/1993 (Baja California surveyed in 1992, Sonora and Sinaloa 1993), allowing for estimates of regional population trends. Population estimates at the 'time of aerial survey' include those nesting, but missed from the air. The population estimate for our coverage area in 2006 was 1,343 nesting pairs, or an 81% increase since 1977, but only a 3% increase since 1992/1993. The population on the Gulf side of Baja California generally remained stable during the three surveys (255, 236 and 252 pairs, respectively). The overall Midriff Islands population remained similar from 1992/1993 (308 pairs) to 2006 (289 pairs), but with notable population changes on the largest two islands (Isla Angel de la Guarda: 45 to 105 pairs [+ 60 pairs]; Isla Tiburon: 164 to 109 pairs [- 55 pairs, or -34%]). The estimated osprey population on the Sonora mainland decreased in a manner similar to adjacent Isla Tiburon, i.e., by 26%, from 214 pairs in 1993 to 158 pairs in 2006. In contrast, the population in Sinaloa, which had increased by 150% between 1977 and 1993, grew again by 58% between 1993 and 2006, from 180 to 285 pairs. Our survey confirmed previously described patterns of rapid population changes at a local level, coupled with apparent shifts in spatial distribution. The large ground nesting population that until recently nested on two islands in San Ignacio Lagoon was no longer present on the islands in 2006, but an equivalent number of pairs were found to the north and south of the lagoon, nesting in small towns and along adjoining power-lines, with no overall change in population size for that general area (198 pairs in 1992; 199 in 2006). Use of artificial nesting structures was 4.3% in 1977 and 6.2% in 1992/1993, but jumped to 26.4% in 2006. Use of power poles poses a risk of electrocution to ospreys as well as causes power outages and fires; modification of power poles to safely accommodate osprey nests has been successful in many countries.

Henny, Charles J.; Anderson, Daniel W.; Vera, Aradit Castellanos; Carton, Jean-Luc E.

2007-01-01

50

Graben calderas of the Sierra Madre Occidental: The case of Guanajuato, central Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) volcanic province is characterized by voluminous silicic ignimbrites that reach an accumulated thickness of 500 to 1500 m. A single ignimbrite can reach up to 350 m thick in its outflow facies. This ignimbrite sequence formed mostly within 38-23 Ma, building up a total estimated volume of ca. 580,000 km3 making the SMO the largest ignimbrite province of the world. We have showed that several and probably most of the SMO ignimbrites were erupted from fissures associated to Basin and Range fault systems or grabens (Geology, 2003), thus naming these volcano-tectonic structures as graben calderas (Caldera Volcanism book, Elsevier, 2008). Generally, the sequence observed in graben calderas include, from oldest to youngest, alluvial fan deposits combined with lacustrine deposits, pyroclastic surge deposits and minor volume ignimbrites, a large-volume ignimbrite that could be massive or made of successive layers, and sometimes silicic lava domes and/or mafic fissural lavas both with vents aligned with the graben trend. Fallout deposits, plinian or non-plinian, are not observed in the sequence. Thus, onset of caldera collapse represented by the major ignimbrite must occur just after deposition of continental sediments within the graben domain. A similar volcano-tectonic development is observed in pull-apart grabens. Therefore, extensional or transtensional tectonics, before and during caldera collapse, and the emplacement of a subgraben shallow silicic magma chamber are the necessary conditions for the development of graben calderas. We describe here the case of the Guanajuato graben caldera, located in the central part of Mexico and in the southeastern portion of the SMO volcanic province. The caldera is part of the economically important mining district of Guanajuato, with 28 silver mines, some active since the 16th century. The caldera structure, a rectangle of 10 x 16 km, was controlled by NW and NE regional fault systems. Most ore deposits occur along this orthogonal faulting network, but mainly along the NW fault of Veta Madre that crosses through the center of the caldera. The mid-Tertiary stratigraphy in Guanajuato follows the general sequence observed in graben calderas; i.e., from oldest to youngest includes 1) at least 1,500 m of alluvial fan deposits within a tectonic basin (Guanajuato Red Conglomerate), 2) pyroclastic flow deposits, consisting of surge deposits (Loseros Formation) that are concordant with a massive, large volume, rhyolitic ignimbrite (Bufa Rhyolite), which is covered by a layered series of pyroclastic flow deposits (Calderones Formation), and 3) effusive volcanism in the form of rhyolitic lava domes (Chichíndaro Rhyolite) and basaltic-andesite dikes and lavas (Cedros Andesite). The Guanajuato graben caldera formed at about 33 Ma, based on our new U-Pb zr age of the main ignimbrite, Bufa Rhyolite.

Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Tristán-González, M.; Labarthe-Hernández, G.; Marti, J.

2013-12-01