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Plant-Growth Inhibitory Activity of Cedrelanolide from Cedrela salvadorensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of cedrelanolide, the most abundant limonoid isolated from Cedrela salvadorensis (Meliaceae), was assayed as a plant-growth inhibitory compound against monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds. This compound inhibited germination, seed respiration, and seedling dry weights of some plant species (Lolium multiflorum, var. Hercules, Triticum vulgare, var. Salamanca, Physalis ixocarpa, and Trifolium alexandrinum). Our results indicate that cedrelanolide interferes with monocot

Carlos L. Céspedes; José S. Calderón; Juan R. Salazar; Blas Lotina-Hennsen; Rosabel Segura



Conserving the Pines of Guadalupe and Cedros Islands, Mexico: An International Collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monterey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) is an enigmatic species. Native to only Mexico and USA, it is restricted to three populations along the central coast of California and one on each of two Mexican islands off Baja California— Guadalupe and Cedros Islands. Commercially, it is grown in exotic plantations worldwide on over 4 million hectares with high economic value,

Deborah L. Rogers; J. Jesús Vargas Hernández; A. Colin Matheson; Jesús J. Guerra Santos


The tree Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae): A morphologically subdivided species in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Latin America, Cedrela odorata is a wide ranging species that occurs in several environments, where it shows significant morphological variation. A common garden experiment was established with seedlings from 63 families of ten populations from two habitat types (mesic and dry), distributed throughout Costa Rica, to examine the relationships between quantitative variation and site of population origin. Seedlings from

Carlos Navarro; Sheila Ward; Marvin Hernández



Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity.  


A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification. PMID:24027913

Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos



75 FR 47301 - Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Canyon Wind Power LLC; Loraine Windpark Project, LLC; White Oak Energy LLC; Meadow Lake Wind Farm III LLC; Meadow Lake Wind Farm IV LLC; Blackstone Wind Farm II LLC; Otay Acquisition Company, LLC; TX Solar I LLC; CalRENEW-1 LLC; Notice...



Coordination between water-transport efficiency and photosynthetic capacity in canopy tree species at different growth irradiances.  


Plasticity in hydraulic architecture of five dominant Atlantic forest species differing in light requirements and growth rates was evaluated in saplings grown at different irradiances to determine if hydraulic architecture changes in coordination with photosynthetic capacity. Saplings were grown in shade-houses at 10, 30, 45 and 65% of full solar irradiance for 4 months. In four of the five species, maximum relative growth rates were observed at intermediate irradiances (30 and 40% of full sun). Slow-growing species had lower maximum electron transport rates (ETR(max)) than fast-growing species. A positive correlation between ETR(max) and maximum leaf hydraulic conductivity (K(L)) was found across species, suggesting that species-specific stem hydraulic capacity and photosynthetic capacity were linked. Species with relatively high growth rates, such as Cedrela fissilis Vell., Patagonula americana L. and Cordia trichotoma (Vell.) Arrab. Ex Stend, exhibited increased K(L) and specific hydraulic conductivity (K(S)) with increased growth irradiance. In contrast, K(S) and K(L) did not vary with irradiance in the slower-growing and more shade-tolerant species Balfourodendron riedelianum (Engl.) Engl. and Lonchocarpus leucanthus Burkart, despite a relatively large irradiance-induced variation in ETR(max). A correlation between K(S) and ETR(max) was observed in fast-growing species in different light regimes, suggesting that they are capable of plastic changes in hydraulic architecture and increased water-transport efficiency in response to changes in light availability resulting from the creation of canopy gaps, which makes them more competitive in gaps and open habitats. PMID:17938117

Campanello, Paula I; Gatti, M Genoveva; Goldstein, Guillermo



[Psychological counselling and motivational psychotherapy in the treatment of drug dependence: assessment of interventions with the CEDRO Lugar de Escucha Program].  


The objective of the present research is to assess perception of and levels of satisfaction with the Lugar de Escucha program, as well as its brief interventions using counseling and motivational sessions. The study is of a pre-experimental type, with a single-group pretest-posttest measurement design. The sample was made up of 128 participants (9.4% females and 90.6% males), aged 15 to 51 (mean= 23.65; standard deviation = 7.92), users of cannabis, cocaine base paste, cocaine, inhalants and alcohol who attended the program. Data collection was carried out using Attention Forms (FdA); the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale (URICA); the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (CST); and the Cases Follow-up Survey (ESC). In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the Lugar de Escucha Program, we assessed participants' motivational phases during the first interview and at referral, their level of satisfaction with the service received and the percentage of entrance to different treatment programs of the referred participants. The results on perception and satisfaction confirm a predominance of the program's strengths. With regard to the motivational phases, the findings show that the motivational induction interventions help to establish and maintain the patient's motivation for attitude change and for cessation of the abuse. In this sense, according to the findings, such interventions tend to be more effective when applied to patients in the Precontemplational and Contemplational phases. This suggests the need to work with more homogeneous groups, considering type of drugs, age and gender, and to use pre and post instruments. Likewise, the results suggest the need to classify patients in phases of change; such classification could be a useful tool for the improvement of treatment programs for drug users. PMID:18551231

Rojas Valero, Milton; Espinoza Paul, Luis



Population Size and Trends for Nesting Ospreys in Northwestern Mexico: Region-wide Surveys, 1977, 1992/1993 and 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We used a double-sampling technique (air plus ground survey) in 2006, with partial double coverage, to estimate the present size of the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting population in northwestern Mexico. With the exception of Natividad, Cedros, and San ...

A. C. Veraan C. J. Henny D. W. Anderson J. L. E. Cartron



Seed germination and seedling establishment of Neotropical dry forest species in response to temperature and light conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to examine the germination requirements of Cedrela odorata, Guaiacum sanctum and Calycophyllum candidissimum seeds, and the effect of light intensity on survival and growth of C. odorata and G. sanctum seedlings planted on open, partially-open and beneath the canopy of a dry forest in Nicaragua. The results show that germination\\u000a of C. candidissimum seeds was significantly

Benigno González-Rivas; Mulualem Tigabu; Guillermo Castro-Marín; Per Christer Odén



Regulation of xylem sap flow in an evergreen, a semi-deciduous, and a deciduous Meliaceae species from the Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of phenological characteristics, stomatal conductance of the leaves, and stem water storage fluctuations for the regulation of xylem sap flow in an evergreen (Carapa guianensis Aubl.), in a semi-deciduous (Swietenia macrophylla King), and in a deciduous (Cedrela odorata L.) Meliaceae species was studied in a 7-year-old plantation near Manaus, Brazil. The study responds to the increasing demand for

Oliver Dünisch; Ronaldo R. Morais



Occurrence of Ornithodoros brasiliensis Aragão (Acari: Argasidae) in São Francisco de Paula, RS, Southern Brazil.  


There have been no reports of the endemic Ornithodoros brasiliensis (Aragão) in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, since the 1950s. In January 2007, 21 O. brasiliensis ticks were collected in a rural area named "Cruzinha" in the municipality of São Francisco de Paula, RS, and another population was sampled later that year (October) in Vargem do Cedro, another rural area of São Francisco de Paula, following reports of human parasitism by ticks. The reappearance of this tick is a reason for concern in terms of public health. PMID:21437496

Martins, J R; Doyle, R L; Barros-Battesti, D M; Onofrio, V C; Guglielmone, A A



[Chemical and biological evaluation of the effect of plant extracts against Plasmodium berghei].  


Extracts from thirteen species of plants were evaluated by "in vivo" antimalarial test against plasmodium berghei effects. Significant activities were observed in the ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts, elaborated of Cedrela tonduzii leaves, Trichilia havanensis and Trichilia americana barks, Neurolaena lobata and Gliricidia sepium leaves and Duranta repens fruits. Compounds identified include flavanoids, coumarins, mellilotic acid and iridoids which some kind of biodynamic activity has previously been reported. The flavone quercetin 1 purified from C. tonduzii gave strong antimalarial activity, however, its respective glucosides (quercetin 3-glucoside 2 y robinine 7) showed little significant activity. PMID:9246360

Castro, O; Barrios, M; Chinchilla, M; Guerrero, O



Antifungal activity of 10 Guadeloupean plants.  


Screening of the antifungal activities of ten Guadeloupean plants was undertaken to find new extracts and formulations against superficial mycoses such as onychomycosis, athlete's foot, Pityriasis versicolor, as well as the deep fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia. For the first time, the CMI of these plant extracts [cyclohexane, ethanol and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)] was determined against five dermatophytes, five Candida species, Scytalidium dimidiatum, a Malassezia sp. strain and Pneumocystis carinii. Cytotoxicity tests of the most active extracts were also performed on an HaCat keratinocyte cell line. Results suggest that the extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Pluchea carolinensis have interesting activities and could be good candidates for developing antifungal formulations. PMID:23280633

Biabiany, Murielle; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; François, Nadine; Sendid, Boualem; Pottier, Muriel; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Rouaud, Isabelle; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Joseph, Henry; Bourgeois, Paul; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François



Detection of conduit-controlled ground-water flow in northwestern Puerto Rico using aerial photograph interpretation and geophysical methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The development potential of ground-water resources in the karst limestone of northwestern Puerto Rico, in an area extending from the Río Camuy to Aguadilla, is uncertain as a result of limited knowledge of the location of areas where a high density of cavities (interconnected fractures, conduits, and other dissolution features) might suggest the occurrence of high water yields. The presence in northwestern Puerto Rico of numerous coastal submarine springs, cavernous porosity in some of the wells, and rivers with entrenched and underground paths, indicate that it is probable that water-bearing, subterranean interconnected cavities occur in the area between the Río Camuy and Aguadilla. The number of exploratory wells needed to determine the location of these conduits or zones of enhanced secondary porosity could be substantially reduced if more information were available about the location of these subterranean features, greatly reducing the drilling costs associated with a trial-and-error exploratory process. A 3-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, to detect the presence of cavities that might suggest the occurrence of conduit-controlled groundwater flow. Aerial photographs, geologic and topographic maps, and field reconnaissance were used to identify such linear terrain features as ridges, entrenched canyons, and fracture traces. Natural potential and gravity geophysical methods were also used. The following sites were selected for the aerial photograph interpretation and geophysical testing: Caimital Bajo uplands and former Ramey Air Force Base in Aguadilla; Quebrada de los Cedros between Aguadilla and Isabela; the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, Otilio dairy farm, and Pozo Brujo in Isabela; the Monte Encantado area in Moca and Isabela; and the Rio Camuy cave system in Hatillo and Camuy. In general, the degree of success varied with site and the geophysical method used. At some sites such as Pozo Brujo, the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, and Monte Encantado area, natural potential anomalies strongly suggest the existence of conduits with flowing water. At most sites, however, the results obtained did not clearly reveal the presence of subsurface cavities that might be associated with the occurrence of conduit-controlled ground-water flow. Sites such as the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, Pozo Brujo, and Quebrada de los Cedros warrant a more detailed analysis, including a test well drilling phase to confirm the presence of suspected high-yield water-bearing zones.

Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Richards, Ronald T.



The influence of mesoscale physical structures in the phytoplankton taxonomic composition of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum off western Baja California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) layer, its taxonomic phytoplankton composition, and the maximum quantum efficiency of charge separation of PSII (Fv/Fm) was investigated in the west coast off Baja California during October 2003. SCM characteristics were described and related to the hydrographic regime and the mesoscale physical structures present during this period. Seven groups of phytoplankton were detected in the SCM based on chemotaxonomic analysis of pigment fingerprints: diatoms, haptophytes, pelagophytes, prasinophytes, cryptophytes, Prochlorococcus and cyanobacteria. The distribution of these groups was heterogeneous and closely related to the circulation patterns characterized by the interaction of subarctic and tropical water. Eddies and meanders were detected in the study area and these structures exerted a direct response in the depth, chlorophyll concentration, and photosynthetic competence of phytoplankton in the SCM. A cyclonic eddy characterized by a high chlorophyll concentration (1.6 mg m-3) and high values of Fv/Fm, (0.52) was detected in the northern zone of the study area. In the central zone, a cyclonic eddy (1.2 mg m-3); and other structure resembling a mode-water eddy was located northwest of Cedros Island. This structure presented the highest chlorophyll concentration (1.8 mg m-3) and high Fv/Fm (˜0.5). Chlorophyll concentration and the photosynthetic performance of the phytoplankton community was lower outside of these eddies. Cyanobacteria dominated the phytoplankton SCM community in these areas.

Almazán-Becerril, Antonio; Rivas, David; García-Mendoza, Ernesto



Root endophyte symbiosis in vitro between the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tricholoma matsutake and the arbuscular mycorrhizal plant Prunus speciosa.  


We previously reported that Tricholoma matsutake and Tricholoma fulvocastaneum, ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes that associate with Pinaceae and Fagaceae, respectively, in the Northern Hemisphere, could interact in vitro as a root endophyte of somatic plants of Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae), which naturally harbors arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in South America, to form a characteristic rhizospheric colony or "shiro". We questioned whether this phenomenon could have occurred because of plant-microbe interactions between geographically separated species that never encounter one another in nature. In the present study, we document that these fungi formed root endophyte interactions and shiro within 140 days of inoculation with somatic plants of Prunus speciosa (=Cerasus speciosa, Rosaceae), a wild cherry tree that naturally harbors arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Japan. Compared with C. odorata, infected P. speciosa plants had less mycelial sheath surrounding the exodermis, and the older the roots, especially main roots, the more hyphae penetrated. In addition, a large number of juvenile roots were not associated with hyphae. We concluded that such root endophyte interactions were not events isolated to the interactions between exotic plants and microbes but could occur generally in vitro. Our pure culture system with a somatic plant allowed these fungi to express symbiosis-related phenotypes that varied with the plant host; these traits are innately programmed but suppressed in nature and could be useful in genetic analyses of plant-fungal symbiosis. PMID:24158697

Murata, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Yokota, Satoru; Maruyama, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kohei; Ohira, Tatsuro; Neda, Hitoshi



Oxygen isotopes in tree rings are a good proxy for Amazon precipitation and El Nino-Southern Oscillation variability.  


We present a unique proxy for the reconstruction of variation in precipitation over the Amazon: oxygen isotope ratios in annual rings in tropical cedar (Cedrela odorata). A century-long record from northern Bolivia shows that tree rings preserve the signal of oxygen isotopes in precipitation during the wet season, with weaker influences of temperature and vapor pressure. Tree ring ?(18)O correlates strongly with ?(18)O in precipitation from distant stations in the center and west of the basin, and with Andean ice core ?(18)O showing that the signal is coherent over large areas. The signal correlates most strongly with basin-wide precipitation and Amazon river discharge. We attribute the strength of this (negative) correlation mainly to the cumulative rainout processes of oxygen isotopes (Rayleigh distillation) in air parcels during westward transport across the basin. We further find a clear signature of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the record, with strong ENSO influences over recent decades, but weaker influence from 1925 to 1975 indicating decadal scale variation in the controls on the hydrological cycle. The record exhibits a significant increase in ?(18)O over the 20th century consistent with increases in Andean ?(18)O ice core and lake records, which we tentatively attribute to increased water vapor transport into the basin. Taking these data together, our record reveals a fresh path to diagnose and improve our understanding of variation and trends of the hydrological cycle of the world's largest river catchment. PMID:23027960

Brienen, Roel J W; Helle, Gerd; Pons, Thijs L; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Gloor, Manuel



NoWMex: Continuous GNSS Sites in Northwest Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays GPS has become part of daily life activities. In the near future, with the GPS modernization and the use of Glonass and Galileo as a Global Navigation Satellite System will give relative location precision from decimeters to millimeters in near real time applications. In order to realize this, we need a global array of continuously operating GNSS stations built to meet the standards of the geophysical communities and linked with gravimetric local measurements to discern the vertical component of our active Earth. Trying to follow this revolution, CICESE has been working with GPS since 1985. The GPS site CICE was built as an IGS reference station in 1995. Afterward we built 5 more continuous GPS sites in Northwest Mexico with the support of SCIGN. The CGPS NoWMex network is currently made up of six sites: CIC1, SPMX, CORX, GUAX, USMX and YESX ( Recently, we implemented an experimental GPS processing lab as part of the Geodesy and Geodynamics Laboratory in the Seismology Department at CICESE. 30 stations are now currently processed from the network Red Geodesica Nacional Activa (RGNA-INEGI), NoWMex, and sites in neighbor countries. Fiducials solutions in ITRF2000 are obtained using GAMIT/GLOBK 10.31 with final igs orbits, every month since 2006. In order to make a contribution to densification of ITRF and support NAREF, SIRGAS and SNARF issues related to scientific and geomatics results; we are looking for internal (Mexican) and external colleagues as well as funding for maintenance and increase the number of CGNSS in NoWMeX including southern Basin and Ranger (Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa and Durango), Gulf of California islands, Peninsular Californias, Nayarit, Jalisco, Colima and the Mexican Pacific islands: Guadalupe (2 more sites), Cedros, Socorro (DORIS site), Clarion and Tres Marias. We must to build more and free available CGNSS sites in and around Mexico to contribute to sea level rise and global change studies.

Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Gonzalez-Ortega, J. A.



An efficient immunodetection method for histone modifications in plants  

PubMed Central

Background Epigenetic mechanisms can be highly dynamic, but the cross-talk among them and with the genome is still poorly understood. Many of these mechanisms work at different places in the cell and at different times of organism development. Covalent histone modifications are one of the most complex and studied epigenetic mechanisms involved in cellular reprogramming and development in plants. Therefore, the knowledge of the spatial distribution of histone methylation in different tissues is important to understand their behavior on specific cells. Results Based on the importance of epigenetic marks for biology, we present a simplified, inexpensive and efficient protocol for in situ immunolocalization on different tissues such as flowers, buds, callus, somatic embryo and meristematic tissue from several plants of agronomical and biological importance. Here, we fully describe all the steps to perform the localization of histone modifications. Using this method, we were able to visualize the distribution of H3K4me3 and H3K9me2 without loss of histological integrity of tissues from several plants, including Agave tequilana, Capsicum chinense, Coffea canephora and Cedrela odorata, as well as Arabidopsis thaliana. Conclusions There are many protocols to study chromatin modifications; however, most of them are expensive, difficult and require sophisticated equipment. Here, we provide an efficient protocol for in situ localization of histone methylation that dispenses with the use of expensive and sensitive enzymes. The present method can be used to investigate the cellular distribution and localization of a wide array of proteins, which could help to clarify the biological role that they play at specific times and places in different tissues of various plant species.



Induction of laccases in Trametes versicolor by aqueous wood extracts.  


The induction of laccase isoforms in Trametes versicolor HEMIM-9 by aqueous extracts (AE) from softwood and hardwood was studied. Samples of sawdust of Pinus sp., Cedrela sp., and Quercus sp. were boiled in water to obtain AE. Different volumes of each AE were added to fungal cultures to determine the amount of AE needed for the induction experiments. Laccase activity was assayed every 24 h for 15 days. The addition of each AE (50 to 150 ?l) to the fungal cultures increased laccase production compared to the control (0.42 ± 0.01 U ml(-1)). The highest laccase activities detected were 1.92 ± 0.15 U ml(-1) (pine), 1.87 ± 0.26 U ml(-1) (cedar), and 1.56 ± 0.34 U ml(-1) (oak); laccase productivities were also significantly increased. Larger volumes of any AE inhibited mycelial growth. Electrophoretic analysis revealed two laccase bands (lcc1 and lcc2) for all the treatments. However, when lcc2 was analyzed by isoelectric focusing, inducer-dependent isoform patterns composed of three (pine AE), four (oak AE), and six laccase bands (cedar AE) were observed. Thus, AE from softwood and hardwood had induction effects in T. versicolor HEMIM-9, as indicated by the increase in laccase activity and different isoform patterns. All of the enzymatic extracts were able to decolorize the dye Orange II. Dye decolorization was mainly influenced by pH. The optimum pH for decolorization was pH 5 (85%), followed by pH 7 (50%) and pH 3 (15%). No significant differences in the dye decolorizing capacity were detected between the control and the differentially induced laccase extracts (oak, pine and cedar). This could be due to the catalytic activities of isoforms with pI 5.4 and 5.8, which were detected under all induction conditions. PMID:23861040

Bertrand, Brandt; Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Tinoco, Raunel; Rojas-Trejo, Sonia; Serrano-Carreón, Leobardo; Trejo-Hernández, María R



Attaining the canopy in dry and moist tropical forests: strong differences in tree growth trajectories reflect variation in growing conditions  

PubMed Central

Availability of light and water differs between tropical moist and dry forests, with typically higher understorey light levels and lower water availability in the latter. Therefore, growth trajectories of juvenile trees—those that have not attained the canopy—are likely governed by temporal fluctuations in light availability in moist forests (suppressions and releases), and by spatial heterogeneity in water availability in dry forests. In this study, we compared juvenile growth trajectories of Cedrela odorata in a dry (Mexico) and a moist forest (Bolivia) using tree rings. We tested the following specific hypotheses: (1) moist forest juveniles show more and longer suppressions, and more and stronger releases; (2) moist forest juveniles exhibit wider variation in canopy accession pattern, i.e. the typical growth trajectory to the canopy; (3) growth variation among dry forest juveniles persists over longer time due to spatial heterogeneity in water availability. As expected, the proportion of suppressed juveniles was higher in moist than in dry forest (72 vs. 17%). Moist forest suppressions also lasted longer (9 vs. 5 years). The proportion of juveniles that experienced releases in moist forest (76%) was higher than in dry forest (41%), and releases in moist forests were much stronger. Trees in the moist forest also had a wider variation in canopy accession patterns compared to the dry forest. Our results also showed that growth variation among juvenile trees persisted over substantially longer periods of time in dry forest (>64 years) compared to moist forest (12 years), most probably because of larger persistent spatial variation in water availability. Our results suggest that periodic increases in light availability are more important for attaining the canopy in moist forests, and that spatial heterogeneity in water availability governs long-term tree growth in dry forests. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00442-009-1540-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Zuidema, Pieter A.; Martinez-Ramos, Miguel



Antileishmanial, antitrypanosomal, and cytotoxic screening of ethnopharmacologically selected Peruvian plants.  


Extracts (34) from eight plant species of the Peruvian Amazonia currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine, mostly as antileishmanial remedies and also as painkiller, antiseptic, antipyretic, anti-inflamatory, antiflu, astringent, diuretic, antipoison, anticancerous, antiparasitic, insecticidal, or healing agents, have been tested for their antileishmanial, antitrypanosomal, and cytotoxic activity. Plant species were selected based on interviews conducted with residents of rural areas. The different plant parts were dried, powdered, and extracted by maceration with different solvents (hexane, chloroform, and 70% ethanol-water). These extracts were tested on promastigote forms of Leishmania infantum strain PB75, epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi strain Y, and the mammalian CHO cell line. Parasite viability and nonspecific cytotoxicity were analyzed by a modified MTT colorimetric assay method. The isolation and identification of pure compounds from selected extracts were performed by column chromatography, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS; mixtures), spectroscopic techniques [MS, infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV)], and mono and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR; COSY, HSQC, NOESY) experiments. Chondodendron tomentosum bark and Cedrela odorata were the most active extracts against Leishmania, while C. odorata and Aristoloquia pilosa were the most active against Trypanosoma, followed by Tabebuia serratifolia, Tradescantia zebrina, and Zamia ulei. Six compounds and two mixtures were isolated from Z. ulei [cycasin (1)], T. serratifolia {mixtures 1-2, and naphthoquinones 2-acetyl-4H,9H-naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (2) and 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)-4H,9H-naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (3)}, and C. tomentosum [chondrocurine (4); (S,S')-12-O-methyl(+)-curine (5); and cycleanine (6)]. Four compounds and the two mixtures exhibited significant activity. PMID:21922239

González-Coloma, Azucena; Reina, Matías; Sáenz, Claudia; Lacret, Rodney; Ruiz-Mesia, Lastenia; Arán, Vicente J; Sanz, Jesús; Martínez-Díaz, Rafael A



Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.  


In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their timber and NTFP values. PMID:24061084

Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter



Population Size and Trends for Nesting Ospreys in Northwestern Mexico: Region-wide Surveys, 1977, 1992/1993 and 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used a double-sampling technique (air plus ground survey) in 2006, with partial double coverage, to estimate the present size of the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting population in northwestern Mexico. With the exception of Natividad, Cedros, and San Benito Islands along the Pacific Coast of Baja California, all three excluded from our coverage in 2006 due to fog, this survey was a repeat of previous surveys conducted by us with the same protocol in 1977 and 1992/1993 (Baja California surveyed in 1992, Sonora and Sinaloa 1993), allowing for estimates of regional population trends. Population estimates at the 'time of aerial survey' include those nesting, but missed from the air. The population estimate for our coverage area in 2006 was 1,343 nesting pairs, or an 81% increase since 1977, but only a 3% increase since 1992/1993. The population on the Gulf side of Baja California generally remained stable during the three surveys (255, 236 and 252 pairs, respectively). The overall Midriff Islands population remained similar from 1992/1993 (308 pairs) to 2006 (289 pairs), but with notable population changes on the largest two islands (Isla Angel de la Guarda: 45 to 105 pairs [+ 60 pairs]; Isla Tiburon: 164 to 109 pairs [- 55 pairs, or -34%]). The estimated osprey population on the Sonora mainland decreased in a manner similar to adjacent Isla Tiburon, i.e., by 26%, from 214 pairs in 1993 to 158 pairs in 2006. In contrast, the population in Sinaloa, which had increased by 150% between 1977 and 1993, grew again by 58% between 1993 and 2006, from 180 to 285 pairs. Our survey confirmed previously described patterns of rapid population changes at a local level, coupled with apparent shifts in spatial distribution. The large ground nesting population that until recently nested on two islands in San Ignacio Lagoon was no longer present on the islands in 2006, but an equivalent number of pairs were found to the north and south of the lagoon, nesting in small towns and along adjoining power-lines, with no overall change in population size for that general area (198 pairs in 1992; 199 in 2006). Use of artificial nesting structures was 4.3% in 1977 and 6.2% in 1992/1993, but jumped to 26.4% in 2006. Use of power poles poses a risk of electrocution to ospreys as well as causes power outages and fires; modification of power poles to safely accommodate osprey nests has been successful in many countries.

Henny, Charles J.; Anderson, Daniel W.; Vera, Aradit Castellanos; Carton, Jean-Luc E.



Region-wide trends of nesting ospreys in northwestern Mexico: a three-decade perspective  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used a double-sampling technique (air plus ground survey) in 2006, with partial double coverage, to estimate the present size of the Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting population in northwestern Mexico (coastal Baja California, islands in the Gulf of California, and coastal Sonora and Sinaloa). With the exception of Natividad, Cedros, and San Benitos islands along the Pacific coast of Baja California (all three excluded from our coverage in 2006 due to fog), this survey was a repeat of previous surveys conducted by us with the same protocol in 1977 and 1992/1993, allowing for estimates of regional population trends. The minimum population estimate for the area we surveyed in 2006 was 1343 nesting pairs, an 81% increase since 1977, but only a 3% increase since 1992/1993. The population on the Gulf side of Baja California generally remained stable during the three surveys (255, 236, and 252 pairs, respectively). The population of the Midriff Islands (Gulf of California in the vicinity of 29°N latitude) remained similar from 1992/1993 (308 pairs) to 2006 (289 pairs), but with notable population changes on the largest two islands (Guardian Angel: 45 to 105 pairs [133% increase]; Tiburón: 164 to 109 pairs [34% decrease]). The minimum estimated Osprey population on the Sonora mainland decreased in a manner similar to adjacent Isla Tiburón, i.e., by 26%, from 214 pairs in 1993 to 158 pairs in 2006. In contrast, the population in coastal Sinaloa, which had increased by 150% between 1977 and 1993, grew again by 58% between 1993 and 2006, from 180 to 285 pairs. Our survey confirmed previously described patterns of rapid population changes at a local level, coupled with apparent shifts in spatial distribution. The large ground-nesting population that until recently nested on two islands in San Ignacio Lagoon ( Pacific Ocean side, Baja California) was no longer present on the islands in 2006, but an equivalent number of pairs were found to the north and south of the lagoon, nesting in small towns and along adjoining overhead electric lines, with no overall change in population size for that general area (198 pairs in 1992; 199 in 2006). Use of artificial nesting structures was 4.3% in 1977 and 6.2% in 1992/1993, but jumped to 26.4% in 2006. Use of poles that support overhead electric lines poses a risk of electrocution to Ospreys and also causes power outages and fires. We recommend modification of these poles to safely accommodate Osprey nests, as has been successfully accomplished in many countries.

Henny, Charles J.; Anderson, Daniel W.; Vera, Aradit Castellanos; Cartron, Jean-Luc E.



Complementary soil water use is indicated in mixed native tree plantations, Panama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent approaches to reforestation in the tropics emphasize the establishment of mixed species plantations to provide production but also ecological benefits. However, little is known about the effects of mixed-species stands on soil water utilization und tree water use rates. The objectives of this study were i) to asses seasonal plant water uptake patterns for different species and ii) to examine the effects of species diversity on water uptake and water use rates. The study was conducted in a 7-yr-old plantation in Panama. Five native tree species were planted in mono-, three- and five-species plots. Natural abundance stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen (?2H) and oxygen (?18O) in xylem and soil water samples were used to determine water uptake patterns. The contribution of water from each soil layer to xylem water was calculated using the isotope mixing model SISUS (Stable Isotope Sourcing Using Sampling). Sap flux was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Isotope ratios in soil and xylem water fell below the local meteoric water line (LMWL) suggesting some evaporation. Soil water isotope ratio increased with depth from an average of -18 ‰ and -1 ‰ in the surface soil layer (0-10 cm) to -40 ‰ and -8 ‰ at 50-70 cm depth for ?2H and ?18O, respectively. During the dry season ?2H and ?18O of xylem water were negatively correlated with tree water use rates suggesting that trees taking up water from deeper soil horizons were able to maintain higher water use rates. Species tended to differ in their water uptake pattern, especially during the dry season. Cedrela odorata and Hura crepitans were primarily obtaining water (60 to 80%) from the upper 30 cm. In contrast, Tabebuia rosea took up most of its water (75-90%) from soil depths > 30 cm. Xylem water ?2H and ?18O in Anacardium excelsum and Luehea seemannii suggest that water was taken up to equal proportions from all soil horizons. In mixed stands, overall transpirational water use was higher than in mono-specific stands, which can partly be explained by complementary soil water use among the coexisting tree species.

Schwendenmann, L.; Sánchez Bragado, R.; Kunert, N.; Hölscher, D.



Evapotranspiration modelled from stands of three broad-leaved tropical trees in Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To examine the impact of tree species on the water cycle in a wet tropical region, annual evapotranspiration (ET) was estimated in Costa Rican plantations of three native, broad-leaved tree species that contrasted strongly in leaf size, leaf area and phenology. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation for transpiration from the dry canopy, the equilibrium equation for evaporation from the understory and a modified Rutter model of interception for evaporation of water from the canopy when wetted by rainfall. Canopy conductance was estimated from stomatal conductance, leaf area and leaf boundary-layer conductance; canopy storage capacity and filling rate were estimated from throughfall measurements. Micrometeorological instruments were mounted on a scaffolding tower.Mean stomatal conductance, which ranged from 0·1 to 0·7 mol m-2 s-1, was similar to boundary-layer conductance, 0·1 to 0·5 mol m-2 s-1, indicating decoupling of stomata from atmospheric conditions. Mean canopy conductance varied from 0·6 to 0·7 mol m-2 s-1 in the 1994 wet season then dropped to 0·3-0·4 mol m-2 s-1 in stands of the two deciduous species, Cordia and Cedrela, as a result of reduced leaf area during the dry season. Despite increased understory evaporation, dry-season ET from these stands was only 78-81% of ET in stands of the evergreen species, Hyeronima. Maximum canopy water depth varied from 0·2 to 2·2 mm, causing modelled interception to vary from 6% to 25% of annual ET. Higher dry-season transpiration rates along with high rates of evaporation of intercepted rainfall in all seasons led to 14% higher annual ET in Hyeronima stands (1509 mm) than in stands of the species with lowest ET,

Bigelow, Seth



Hydrogeology study of Faial Island, the Azores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Azores Archipelago is a Portuguese territory formed by nine islands divided into three groups (eastern, central and western) located in the North Atlantic Ocean. The islands stretch along a NW-SE direction near the so called Azores triple junction, where the North American Plate, the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate meet. Faial Island is the westernmost island of the central group, located between 38°30'56'' to 38°38'40'' N latitude and 28°35'55'' to 28°50'06'' W longitude. Faial is affected by important tectonic features with a WNW-ESE general trend. These features combined with faults with NNW-SSE to NW-SE and NE-SW directions may have conditioned the emplacement of the central volcano with caldera on the central part of the island. In what concerns the geomorphology, besides the central volcano with caldera, one should refer to the graben on the eastern sector, to the scoria cones alignment on the W and to the flattened sector SE of the central volcano. The drainage network is markedly controlled by tectonics and the drainage density is higher on the northern and southern flanks of the central volcano. The origin of the island started more than 800000 years ago with the emplacement of a composite volcano on the NE of the island (Ribeirinha Complex) consisting of a series of lava flows of basaltic to benmoreitic composition and undifferentiated pyroclasts. The complex (Cedros Complex) which followed is about 580000 years old and corresponds to the central volcano formed by suites of basaltic to trachitic lava flows, pyroclasts and domes. Approximately 50000 ago an important fissural activity took place on the eastern part of the island and originated Almoxarife Formation consisting of basaltic to benmoreitic lava flows, scoria cones and tuff cones. The Caldeira Formation (~16000 years) comprises benmoreitic to trachytic materials emitted from the central volcano, whose explosive phases generated ten members formed mainly by pumice fall deposits and pyroclastic flows. Capelo Complex, which is partially contemporary to the previous formation, comprises the western fissural volcanism and the historical eruptions of Cabeço do Fogo and Capelinhos. Groundwater occurs in two main aquifer systems: (1) the basal aquifer that corresponds to the freshwater lens floating over underlying salt water and (2) perched water bodies. 15 drilled wells and 10 hand dug wells extract water from the basal aquifer and about 80 springs drain the volcanic edifices at different altitudes. In what concerns hydrodynamic characterisation, an estimate of the recession constant of the springs yielded values from 2x10-3 to 14.2x10-3. Calculated transmissivity values for the basal aquifer and a perched aquifer are within the range of 9.5x10-3 to 3x10-2 m2/s. Hydraulic diffusivity estimated from tidal effect measurements has a value of 2634 m2/d. Physical and chemical water analysis shows that they are cold, except for two of them. Four water samples show high CO2 contents. Water from springs and from wells not contaminated by salt water intrusion are bicarbonated and sodium rich in composition while water from contaminated wells has higher chloride and magnesium contents. Geochemical modelling indicates that the major mineralizing processes are silicate dissolution and salt water intrusion.

Coutinho, R. M.; Cruz, J. V.