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Sample records for cee region network

  1. CEE-ing is believing

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    Bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe are becoming a presence in world healthcare markets despite a perennially short supply of venture funding and other support mechanisms relative to other world economic regions. Here are three up-and-coming CEE stories worth keeping an eye on. PMID:21869613

  2. CEE-ing is believing: bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Katrina

    2011-09-15

    Bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe are becoming a presence in world healthcare markets despite a perennially short supply of venture funding and other support mechanisms relative to other world economic regions. Here are three up-and-coming CEE stories worth keeping an eye on. PMID:21869613

  3. Collaborative engagement experiment (CEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Robert L.; Reames, Joseph M.

    2005-05-01

    Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Ground and air collaborative engagements potentially offer force conservation, perform timely acquisition and dissemination of essential combat information, and can eliminate high value and time critical targets. These engagements can also add considerably to force survivability by reducing soldier and equipment exposure during critical operations. The Office of the Secretary of Defense, Joint Robotics Program (JRP) sponsored Collaborative Engagement Experiment (CEE) is a consolidation of separate Air Force, Army and Navy collaborative efforts to provide a Joint capability. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Material and Manufacturing Directorate, Aerospace Expeditionary Force Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRLMLQF), The Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC)/Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL), and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center-San Diego (SSC San Diego) are conducting technical research and proof of principle for an envisioned operational concept for extended range, three dimensional, collaborative operations between unmanned systems, with enhanced situational awareness for lethal operations in complex terrain. This program will assess information requirements and conduct experiments to identify and resolve technical risks for collaborative engagements using Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). It will research, develop and physically integrate multiple unmanned systems and conduct live collaborative experiments. Modeling and Simulation systems will be upgraded to reflect engineering fidelity levels to greater understand technical challenges to operate as a team. This paper will provide an update of a multi-year program and will concentrate primarily on the JTC

  4. A Regional Medical Library Network *

    PubMed Central

    Pizer, Irwin H.

    1969-01-01

    The raison d'être for cooperative networks is discussed, and the development of the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network is traced briefly; a description of the system and its products is given. The cooperative cataloging program engaged in with the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine and the National Library of Medicine is described, as are the efforts of the Network in the production of regional and state-wide union lists of serials. PMID:5778720

  5. Regional seismic networks upgrade encouraged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A partnership between the U.S. National Seismic Network (USNSN)—planned by the U.S. Geological Survey for implementation in the early 1990s—and a group of modernized, independently run regional seismic networks is recommended by the National Research Council in their recent report, “Assessing the Nation's Earthquakes: The Health and Future of Regional Seismograph Networks.” The panel that prepared the report said that together, the facilities would constitute a National Seismic System, a satellite-based network capable of systematically monitoring and analyzing earthquakes throughout the nation within minutes of their occurrence.Regional seismic networks are arrays of tens to hundreds of seismic stations targeted chiefly on seismically active regions. They provide a broad range of data and information, which can be applied to public safety and emergency management, quantification of hazard and risk assessment associated with natural and human-induced earthquakes, surveillance of underground nuclear explosions, basic research on earthquake mechanics and dynamics, seismic wave propagation, seismotectonic processes, earthquake forecasting and prediction, and properties and composition of the crust and the internal structure of the Earth.

  6. Education & Mobility. CEE DP 100

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; Pelkonen, Panu; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2008-01-01

    Regional labour mobility has long been viewed as a crucial component in the functioning of the labour markets of different countries. Indeed, the study of regional labour mobility has moved towards the top of the research agenda, especially in Europe, where regional unemployment differentials have been persistently larger than in the United…

  7. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  8. Jalisco Regional Seismic Network (RESAJ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Suarez Plascencia, C.; Escudero, C. R.; Gomez, A.

    2011-12-01

    Many societies and their economies endure the disastrous consequences of destructive earthquakes. The Jalisco region is exposing to this natural hazard. Scientific knowledge constitutes the only way to avoid or at least to mitigate the negative effects of such events. Accordingly the study of geological and geophysical causes; structural, kinematics and dynamic characteristics; and destructive effects of such events is indispensable. The main objective of this project is to developed capability to monitor and to analyze the potential destructive earthquakes along the Jalisco region. This network will allows us to study the Rivera plate and the Jalisco block seismicity. Ten earthquakes greater than 7.4 occurred in the last 160 years, including the largest Mexican earthquake (8.2) producing considerable damage in the area. During this project we installed 20 telemetric seismic stations and we plan to deploy up to 30. The stations are component by 24 bit A/D, 6 channels Quanterra Q330-6 DAS, Lennartz Triaxial 1Hz wide band seismometer, a triaxial accelerometer episensor Model FBA ES-T from Kinemetrics and solar power supply. The data is transmitted using freewave Ethernet radios or wireless internet links. All stations will transmit the data in to the central at Puerto Vallarta where all data is processed using Antelope system to localize and make preliminary evaluations of the events in almost real time and stored for future research. This network will produce high quality data enough to evaluate the eight previously identified seismic zones along Jalisco.

  9. Document Delivery Policy. Region 2 [Regional Medical Library Network].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern/Atlantic Regional Medical Library Services, Baltimore, MD.

    Standardized policies and procedures for interlibrary loan and resource sharing in the Southeastern/Atlantic Region of the Regional Medical Library (RML) Network are presented in this policy statement. RML network institutions, which are divided into categories based on their ability and willingness to assume responsibility for interlibrary…

  10. Development of a Regional Laboratory Healthcare Network

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Stanley M.; Evans, R. Scott; Gandhi, Santosh; Jensen, Blake

    1988-01-01

    In order to provide cost effective patient care and to provide better information access and exchange capabilities for healthcare providers, a regional healthcare network has been created. The goals of the network are to provide laboratory computer services to 8 hospitals, to provide the decision support capabilities of the HELP system to a group of affiliated hospitals in the intermountain region, and to allow access and exchange of clinical patient data among the various institutions. The network has nodes separated by over 30 miles and includes Tandem, Prime, Data General, and IBM hardware. Problems encountered in creating the network include the lack of appropriate standards, development of strategies for error handling and system isolation, complexities in data translation, and functional overlap between the systems.

  11. Coactivation of the Default Mode Network regions and Working Memory Network regions during task preparation.

    PubMed

    Koshino, Hideya; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between the DMN and the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution. PMID:25092432

  12. Coactivation of the Default Mode Network regions and Working Memory Network regions during task preparation

    PubMed Central

    Koshino, Hideya; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between the DMN and the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution. PMID:25092432

  13. Creating a Regional Healthcare Network: People First.

    PubMed

    Michel-Verkerke, Margreet B

    2016-01-01

    Care organizations in the Dutch region Apeldoorn want to collaborate more in order to improve the care provision to elderly and psychiatric patients living independently. In order to support the collaboration they intend to create a regional digital healthcare network. The research was focused on the relevance of a regional healthcare network for care providers. Eleven semi-structured interviews based on the USE IT-model, were conducted with care providers and staff members. Results show that care providers need to tune their activities for this target group and create an agreement on integrated care. The relevance of a digital communication and collaboration platform is high. The regional healthcare network should support the collaboration between care providers by: 1. Offering a communication platform to replace the time consuming communication by telephone; 2. Making patient information available for patient and care provider at patients' homes; 3. Giving insight in who is giving what care to whom; and 4. Giving access to knowledge about the target group: elderly and psychiatric patients living independently. PMID:27577356

  14. UNAVCO-PBO Southwest Region Network Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, C. P.; Mann, D.; Basset, A.; Sklar, J.; Jarvis, C.; Pitcher, T.; Lawrence, S.; Greathouse, M.; Feaux, K.

    2012-12-01

    The UNAVCO Southwest region of the Plate Boundary Observatory manages 470 continuously operating GPS stations located principally along the transform system of the San Andreas Fault, Eastern California Shear Zone and the northern Baja peninsula. In the past year, network uptime averaged 98% with greater than 99% data acquisition. Communications range from CDMA modem (314), radio (100), Vsat (30), DSL/T1/other (25) to manual download (1). Thirty-four stations have WXT520 metpacks. Sixty-four stations stream 1 Hz data over the VRS3Net typically with <0.5 second latency. Over 650 maintenance activities were performed during 341 onsite visits out of approximately 346 engineer field days. Within the past year there have been 7 incidences of minor (attempted theft) to moderate vandalism (solar panel stolen) with one total loss of receiver and communications gear. Security was enhanced at these sites through fencing and more secure station configurations. UNAVCO is working with NOAA to stream real-time GPS and met data from PBO stations with WXT520 meteorological sensors and high rate data communications. These streams support watershed and flood analyses for regional early-warning systems related to NOAA's work with California Department of Water Resources. Network-wide NOAA receives a total of 54 streams including stations in Cascadia. In 2008 PBO became the steward of 209 existing network stations ("Nucleus stations") of which 140 are in the SW region that included SCIGN, BARD, BARGEN stations. Due to the mix of incompatible equipment used between PBO and existing network stations a project was undertaken to standardize existing network GPS stations to PBO specifications by upgrading antenna cabling, power systems and enclosures. In 2012 the Nucleus upgrade project was completed.

  15. Regional TEC mapping using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, A.; Akdogan, K. E.; Gurun, M.

    2009-06-01

    Characterization and modeling of ionospheric variability in space and time is very important for communications and navigation. To characterize the variations, the ionosphere should be monitored, and the sparsity of the measurements has to be compensated by interpolation algorithms. The total electron content (TEC) is a major parameter that can be used to obtain regional ionospheric maps. In this study, neural networks (NNs), specifically multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) and radial basis function networks (RBFN), are investigated for the merits of their nonlinear modeling capability. In order to assess the performance of MLP and RBFN structures with respect to mapping and ionospheric parameters, these algorithms are applied to synthetically generated TEC surfaces representing various ionospheric states. Synthetic TEC data are sampled homogenously and randomly for a varying number of data points. The reconstruction errors show that the performance improves significantly when homogenous sampling is preferred to random station distribution. The best MLP and RBFN structures for any possible realistic scenario are determined by examining the performance parameters for all possible cases. It is also observed that RBFN with local receptive fields relies more on the number of training data points. In contrast to RBFN, MLP as a global approximator depends strongly on ionospheric trends. Finally, chosen MLP and RBFN models are applied to a set of real GPS-TEC values obtained from central Europe, and their performances are compared with well known Global Ionospheric Maps produced by the International GNSS Service. The resolution and interpolation quality of the generated maps indicate that NNs offer a powerful and reliable alternative to the conventional TEC mapping algorithms.

  16. Regional Educational Laboratory Electronic Network Phase 2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cradler, John

    1995-01-01

    The Far West Laboratory in collaboration with the other regional educational laboratories is establishing a regionally coordinated telecommunication network to electronically interconnect each of the ten regional laboratories with educators and education stakeholders from the school to the state level. For the national distributed information database, each lab is working with mid-level networks to establish a common interface for networking throughout the country and include topics of importance to education reform as assessment and technology planning.

  17. Basic Problems of Continuing Engineering Education in Developing Countries: Transfer of Technology from Developed to Developing Countries by CEE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Brito, Afonso Henriques

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) continuing engineering education (CEE) in developing countries and particularly the Brazilian experience; (2) financial sources provided by legislation passed by the government of Brazil and their importance for CEE expansion; and (3) CEE in traditional classroom education and limitations due to schedules for working engineers in…

  18. 76 FR 46295 - The Regional Sports Network Marketplace

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ...) by filing paper copies. See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121... COMMISSION The Regional Sports Network Marketplace AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice... regarding regional sports network (RSN) access and carriage issues and committed to examine these...

  19. Energy Use and Related Risk Management Problems in CEE Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, R.; Michna, J.; Ekmanis, J.; Zeltins, N.; Zebergs, V.

    2008-03-01

    Nowadays, the efficiency of energy use in the Central and East-European (CEE) countries is insufficient, being much lower than in the "Old Europe". The problem becomes increasingly pressing due to non-stop increasing prices of energy carriers (especially of crude oil). The authors trace the development of research activities in this sphere, classifying the revealed changes in parameters of energy consumption processes in particular time intervals into deterministic, probabilistic, and fuzzy. The paper presents a thorough analysis of decision-making in the energy management at its different levels - normative, strategic, and operative. Particular attention is given to the management under uncertainty conditions - i.e. to the risk management. The most wanted research directions in this area proposed by the energy and environment policy (EEP) Center specially created for CEE countries concern management under risk connected with innovations, international activities, loss of reputation, etc. The authors consider in detail the risk management with insufficient knowledge (non-knowledge) and under chaos. Much consideration is given to the scenario management and the game theory principles as related to the sphere of energy use.

  20. Climate variability and associated vegetation response throughout Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) between 60 and 8 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feurdean, A.; Perşoiu, A.; Tanţău, I.; Stevens, T.; Magyari, E. K.; Onac, B. P.; Marković, S.; Andrič, M.; Connor, S.; Fărcaş, S.; Gałka, M.; Gaudeny, T.; Hoek, W.; Kolaczek, P.; Kuneš, P.; Lamentowicz, M.; Marinova, E.; Michczyńska, D. J.; Perşoiu, I.; Płóciennik, M.; Słowiński, M.; Stancikaite, M.; Sumegi, P.; Svensson, A.; Tămaş, T.; Timar, A.; Tonkov, S.; Toth, M.; Veski, S.; Willis, K. J.; Zernitskaya, V.

    2014-12-01

    Records of past climate variability and associated vegetation response exist in various regions throughout Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). To date, there has been no coherent synthesis of the existing palaeo-records. During an INTIMATE meeting (Cluj Napoca, Romania) focused on identifying CEE paleo-records, it was decided to address this gap by presenting the palaeo-community with a compilation of high-quality climatic and vegetation records for the past 60-8 ka. The compilation should also serve as a reference point for the use in the modelling community working towards the INTIMATE project goals, and in data-model inter-comparison studies. This paper is therefore a compilation of up to date, best available quantitative and semi-quantitative records of past climate and biotic response from CEE covering this period. It first presents the proxy and archive used. Speleothems and loess mainly provide the evidences available for the 60-20 ka interval, whereas pollen records provide the main source of information for the Lateglacial and Holocene. It then examines the temporal and spatial patterns of climate variability inferred from different proxies, the temporal and spatial magnitude of the vegetation responses inferred from pollen records and highlights differences and similarities between proxies and sub-regions and the possible mechanisms behind this variability. Finally, it identifies weakness in the proxies and archives and their geographical distribution. This exercise also provides an opportunity to reflect on the status of research in the area and to identify future critical areas and subjects of research.

  1. Performance of a Regional Aeronautical Telecommunications Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretmersky, Steven C.; Ripamonti, Claudio; Konangi, Vijay K.; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of the simulation of the ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunications Network) for three typical average-sized U.S. airports and their associated air traffic patterns. The models of the protocols were designed to achieve the same functionality and meet the ATN specifications. The focus of this project is on the subnetwork and routing aspects of the simulation. To maintain continuous communication between the aircrafts and the ground facilities, a model based on mobile IP is used. The results indicate that continuous communication is indeed possible. The network can support two applications of significance in the immediate future FTP and HTTP traffic. Results from this simulation prove the feasibility of development of the ATN concept for AC/ATM (Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management).

  2. Tracking Inter-Regional Carbon Flows: A Hybrid Network Model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The mitigation of anthropogenic carbon emissions has moved beyond the local scale because they diffuse across boundaries, and the consumption that triggers emissions has become regional and global. A precondition of effective mitigation is to explicitly assess inter-regional transfer of emissions. This study presents a hybrid network model to track inter-regional carbon flows by combining network analysis and input-output analysis. The direct, embodied, and controlled emissions associated with regions are quantified for assessing various types of carbon flow. The network-oriented metrics called "controlled emissions" is proposed to cover the amount of carbon emissions that can be mitigated within a region by adjusting its consumption. The case study of the Jing-Jin-Ji Area suggests that CO2 emissions embodied in products are only partially controlled by a region from a network perspective. Controlled carbon accounted for about 70% of the total embodied carbon flows, while household consumption only controlled about 25% of Beijing's emissions, much lower than its proportion of total embodied carbon. In addition to quantifying emissions, the model can pinpoint the dominant processes and sectors of emissions transfer across regions. This technique is promising for searching efficient pathways of coordinated emissions control across various regions connected by trade. PMID:27063784

  3. Broadband seismology and small regional seismic networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrmann, Robert B.

    1995-01-01

    In the winter of 1811-12, three of the largest historic earthquakes in the United States occurred near New Madrid, Missouri. Seismicity continues to the present day throughout a tightly clustered pattern of epicenters centered on the bootheel of Missouri, including parts of northeastern Arkansas, northwestern Tennessee, western Kentucky, and southern Illinois. In 1990, the New Madrid seismic zone/Central United States became the first seismically active region east of the Rocky Mountains to be designated a priority research area within the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). This Professional Paper is a collection of papers, some published separately, presenting results of the newly intensified research program in this area. Major components of this research program include tectonic framework studies, seismicity and deformation monitoring and modeling, improved seismic hazard and risk assessments, and cooperative hazard mitigation studies.

  4. Design of surface-water data networks for regional information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, Marshall E.; Gilroy, E.J.; Tasker, Gary D.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a technique, Network Analysis of Regional Information (NARI), and the existing computer procedures that have been developed for the specification of the regional information-cost relation for several statistical parameters of streamflow. The measure of information used is the true standard error of estimate of a regional logarithmic regression. The cost is a function of the number of stations at which hydrologic data are collected and the number of years for which the data are collected. The technique can be used to obtain either (1) a minimum cost network that will attain a prespecified accuracy and reliability or (2) a network that maximizes information given a set of budgetary and time constraints.

  5. Regional Computation of TEC Using a Neural Network Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leandro, R. F.; Santos, M. C.

    2004-05-01

    One of the main sources of errors of GPS measurements is the ionosphere refraction. As a dispersive medium, the ionosphere allow its influence to be computed by using dual frequency receivers. In the case of single frequency receivers it is necessary to use models that tell us how big the ionospheric refraction is. The GPS broadcast message carries parameters of this model, namely Klobuchar model. Dual frequency receivers allow to estimate the influence of ionosphere in the GPS signal by the computation of TEC (Total Electron Content) values, that have a direct relationship with the magnitude of the delay caused by the ionosphere. One alternative is to create a regional model based on a network of dual frequency receivers. In this case, the regional behaviour of ionosphere is modelled in a way that it is possible to estimate the TEC values into or near this region. This regional model can be based on polynomials, for example. In this work we will present a Neural Network-based model to the regional computation of TEC. The advantage of using a Neural Network is that it is not necessary to have a great knowledge on the behaviour of the modelled surface due to the adaptation capability of neural networks training process, that is an iterative adjust of the synaptic weights in function of residuals, using the training parameters. Therefore, the previous knowledge of the modelled phenomena is important to define what kind of and how many parameters are needed to train the neural network so that reasonable results are obtained from the estimations. We have used data from the GPS tracking network in Brazil, and we have tested the accuracy of the new model to all locations where there is a station, accessing the efficiency of the model everywhere. TEC values were computed for each station of the network. After that the training parameters data set for the test station was formed, with the TEC values of all others (all stations, except the test one). The Neural Network was

  6. 76 FR 38124 - Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional Centers and ADA National Network Collaborative Research Projects AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative... Program--Disability Rehabilitation Research Projects (DRRP)--ADA National Network Regional...

  7. Western regional visibility monitoring: teleradiometer and camera network

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The 1977 Clean Air Act Amendment provides for protection of visual air quality of certain federally managed lands. In support of these provisions the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in cooperation with the National Park Service, has sponsored a number of visibility research programs. One program involves development and operation of a western regional visibility monitoring network. The objectives of this network are to develop visibility monitoring methods, to characterize visibility in this region, and to provide data that can be used to identify sources of visibility impairment. This report describes the western network and methods used to collect and process data, the results for the period of record and quality assurance procedures. A visibility theory section is provided to define terms and concepts. Seasonal and monthly mean standard visual range values with 90 percent confidence intervals and cumulative frequency plots for each monitoring location are reported. This report covers the data collection period from summer of 1978 through fall of 1981.

  8. Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

  9. Creation of a regional medical-nutrition education network.

    PubMed

    Feldman, E B; Borum, P R; DiGirolamo, M; Feldman, D S; Greene, J M; Leonard, S B; Morgan, S L; Moinuddin, J F; Read, M S; Weinsier, R L

    1989-01-01

    The Southeastern Regional Medical-Nutrition Education Network (SER-MEN) was developed to coordinate and improve nutrition education in a consortium of the medical schools in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. SERMEN's central office is at the Medical College of Georgia with the testing office at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Students, faculty, and consultants in nutrition, education, and computer networking work together on projects on each campus that are coordinated and planned through semiannual meetings. A standardized examination was developed with the Nutrition Test-Item Bank to assess nutrition knowledge at various years of medical students from network schools. Each SERMEN school is connected to a microcomputer system at the central office that provides access to a data base of nutrition education and resources on each campus for developing curricula and syllabi. Funding has been provided by societies, foundations, and government agencies. PMID:2911995

  10. Inversion of parameters for semiarid regions by a neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurk, Lisa M.; Davis, Daniel; Njoku, Eni G.; Tsang, Leung; Hwang, Jenq-Neng

    1992-01-01

    Microwave brightness temperatures obtained from a passive radiative transfer model are inverted through use of a neural network. The model is applicable to semiarid regions and produces dual-polarized brightness temperatures for 6.6-, 10.7-, and 37-GHz frequencies. A range of temperatures is generated by varying three geophysical parameters over acceptable ranges: soil moisture, vegetation moisture, and soil temperature. A multilayered perceptron (MLP) neural network is trained with a subset of the generated temperatures, and the remaining temperatures are inverted using a backpropagation method. Several synthetic terrains are devised and inverted by the network under local constraints. All the inversions show good agreement with the original geophysical parameters, falling within 5 percent of the actual value of the parameter range.

  11. WebOnCOLL: medical collaboration in regional healthcare networks.

    PubMed

    Chronaki, C E; Katehakis, D G; Zabulis, X C; Tsiknakis, M; Orphanoudakis, S C

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents WebOnCOLL, a web-based medical collaboration environment, which has been designed in the context of the regional healthcare network of Crete. WebOnCOLL employs the infrastructure of regional healthcare networks to provide integrated services for virtual workspaces, annotations, e-mail, and on-line collaboration. Virtual workspaces support collaborative concepts like personal web pages, bulletin boards, discussion lists, shared workspaces, and medical case folders. Annotations provide a natural way for people to interact with multimedia content, while e-mail is one of the most popular forms of communication today. On-line collaboration satisfies the need for a more direct form of communication. PMID:11020829

  12. Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) operations final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, S.J.

    1989-08-01

    This Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) Operations Final Report is a history of the operations of this project. It is intended for those who were directly involved in the RSTN project, as well as for those who are involved in other similar projects. Included is a history of problems experienced at each station, functions performed by the System Control and Receiving Station (SCARS), and the performance of some crucial equipment. 9 refs.

  13. IA-Regional-Radio - Social Network for Radio Recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziczkowski, Grzegorz; Bougueroua, Lamine; Wegrzyn-Wolska, Katarzyna

    This chapter describes the functions of a system proposed for the music hit recommendation from social network data base. This system carries out the automatic collection, evaluation and rating of music reviewers and the possibility for listeners to rate musical hits and recommendations deduced from auditor's profiles in the form of regional Internet radio. First, the system searches and retrieves probable music reviews from the Internet. Subsequently, the system carries out an evaluation and rating of those reviews. From this list of music hits, the system directly allows notation from our application. Finally, the system automatically creates the record list diffused each day depending on the region, the year season, the day hours and the age of listeners. Our system uses linguistics and statistic methods for classifying music opinions and data mining techniques for recommendation part needed for recorded list creation. The principal task is the creation of popular intelligent radio adaptive on auditor's age and region - IA-Regional-Radio.

  14. Predicting Regional Self-identification from Spatial Network Models

    PubMed Central

    Almquist, Zack W.; Butts, Carter T.

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists characterize social life as a hierarchy of environments, from the micro level of an individual’s knowledge and perceptions to the macro level of large-scale social networks. In accordance with this typology, individuals are typically thought to reside in micro- and macro-level structures, composed of multifaceted relations (e.g., acquaintanceship, friendship, and kinship). This article analyzes the effects of social structure on micro outcomes through the case of regional identification. Self identification occurs in many different domains, one of which is regional; i.e., the identification of oneself with a locationally-associated group (e.g., a “New Yorker” or “Parisian”). Here, regional self-identification is posited to result from an influence process based on the location of an individual’s alters (e.g., friends, kin or coworkers), such that one tends to identify with regions in which many of his or her alters reside. The structure of this paper is laid out as follows: initially, we begin with a discussion of the relevant social science literature for both social networks and identification. This discussion is followed with one about competing mechanisms for regional identification that are motivated first from the social network literature, and second by the social psychological and cognitive literature of decision making and heuristics. Next, the paper covers the data and methods employed to test the proposed mechanisms. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of its findings and further implications for the larger social science literature. PMID:25684791

  15. Child Rights and Quality Education: Child-Friendly Schools in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Nancy; Miske, Shirley; Patel, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Since the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have engaged in education reforms based on international frameworks. One of these, the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) approach, is distinctively grounded in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). CFS standards are comprehensive,…

  16. The CEE Sustainable Development Programme: A Two-Week Course for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article features the Centre for Environment Education (CEE) Sustainable Development Programme, a two-week course designed for university students from a wide variety of disciplines, with an interest in sustainability and cross-cultural studies. The two-week programme provides cross-disciplinary understanding and practical experience of…

  17. A network approach for identifying and delimiting biogeographical regions.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Daril A; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Biogeographical regions (geographically distinct assemblages of species and communities) constitute a cornerstone for ecology, biogeography, evolution and conservation biology. Species turnover measures are often used to quantify spatial biodiversity patterns, but algorithms based on similarity can be sensitive to common sampling biases in species distribution data. Here we apply a community detection approach from network theory that incorporates complex, higher-order presence-absence patterns. We demonstrate the performance of the method by applying it to all amphibian species in the world (c. 6,100 species), all vascular plant species of the USA (c. 17,600) and a hypothetical data set containing a zone of biotic transition. In comparison with current methods, our approach tackles the challenges posed by transition zones and succeeds in retrieving a larger number of commonly recognized biogeographical regions. This method can be applied to generate objective, data-derived identification and delimitation of the world's biogeographical regions. PMID:25907961

  18. Assessment of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks for regional teleradiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerinckx, Andre J.; Hayrapetian, Alek S.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Grant, Edward G.; Rahbar, Darius; Kiszonas, Mike; Franco, Ricky; Shimabuku, Guy H.; Hagan, Girish T.; Melany, Michelle; Narin, Sherelle L.; Ragavendra, Nagesh

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of ATM network capabilities on the clinical practice of regional teleradiology, by providing immediate interactive radiology consultations between subspecialists and general radiologists at affiliated academic institutions. PACS installed at three affiliated hospitals (UCLA Medical Center, West LA VAMC and UCLA Olive-View Medical Centers) were connected via an ATM network. Two commercial PACS (Agfa) systems, one at the VAMC and one in an ultrasound outpatient clinic at UCLA were connected via ATM switches (Newbridge, Inc.) and a Santa Monica GTE central office switch. We evaluated this initial system configuration and measured image transfer performance, including memory-to-memory, disk-to-disk, disk-to-archive with and without DICOM protocols. Although the memory-to-memory data rate was 25 Mbps, the average remote disk-to-disk image transfer performance, using DICOM 3.0 communications protocols on SUN SPARCstation 10 servers, was 3 to 5 Mbps. Using these capabilities, timely interactive subspecialty consultations between radiologists was successfully performed while both were at different physical locations. We present the use of ATM technology in a realistic clinical environment and evaluate its impact on patient care and clinical teaching within the radiology departments of 2 institutions. Image communications over a regional PACS using an ATM network can allow interactive consultations between different subspecialist and general radiologists or other specialized radiologist spread over three different medical centers.

  19. Networking environmental metadata: a pilot project for the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, N.; Benito, M.; Abou El-Magd, I.; Mazzetti, P.; Ndong, C.

    2012-04-01

    To better exploit any environmental dataset it is necessary to provide detailed information (metadata) capable to furnish the best data description. Operating environmental data and information networking requires the long-term investment of financial and human resources. As these resources are scarce, ensuring sustainability can be a struggle. Then, to use more effectively human and economic resources and to avoid duplication, it is essential to test existing models and, where appropriate, replicate strategies and experiences. For the above reasons, it has been programmed to pilot a project to implement and test a metadata catalogue's networking, involving Countries afferent the Mediterranean Region, to demonstrate that the adoption of open source and free software and international interoperability standards can contribute to the alignment of I&TC resources to achieve environmental information sharing. This pilot, planned in the frame of the EGIDA FP7 European Project, aims to support the implementation of a replication methodology for the establishment of national/regional environmental information nodes on the bases of the System of Systems architecture concept, to support the exchange of environmental information in the frame of the Barcelona Convention and to incept a Mediterranean scale joint contribution to GEOSS focusing on partnership, infrastructures and products. To establish the partnership and to conduce interoperability tests, this pilot project build on the Info-RAC (Information and Communication Activity Centre of the United Nation Environmental Programme - Mediterranean Action Plan) and GEO (Group on Earth Observations) networks.

  20. New York/New Jersey regional seismic network

    SciTech Connect

    Seeber, L.; Simpson, D.; Johnson, D.; Armbruster, J. . Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory)

    1991-09-01

    Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (L-DGO) continued operating a 31-station seismic network covering parts of New York and New Jersey. The network is being transformed into sub-networks with stations radio telemetered to smart'' recording stations. The sub-network approach is capable of providing improved data at reduced cost. The major research effort during the period of this report was centered about the Saguenay earthquake sequence in Quebec. L-DGO collaborated with the Canadian Geologic Survey in monitoring aftershocks with temporary local stations. Analysis of data from the 1985 Ardsley earthquake in Westchester county continued with a Green's function deconvolution approach to resolve the dimensions of the rupture of the main shock (Mb=4.0) and of the largest aftershock (Mb=3.0). The results corroborate the 1/2-1 km diameter inferred for the rupture and suggest that the segmentation of the Dobbs Ferry fault and of similar in the Manhattan Prong may be controlling the size of historic earthquakes in the New York City region. Finally, a portable seismograph survey was carried out in Palco, Kansas, which showed clearly that seismicity at Palco was induced. 51 refs,, 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Virginia Regional Seismic Network. Final report (1986--1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, G.A.; Sibol, M.S.; Chapman, M.C.; Snoke, J.A.

    1993-07-01

    In 1986, the Virginia Regional Seismic Network was one of the few fully calibrated digital seismic networks in the United States. Continued operation has resulted in the archival of signals from 2,000+ local, regional and teleseismic sources. Seismotectonic studies of the central Virginia seismic zone showed the activity in the western part to be related to a large antiformal structure while seismicity in the eastern portion is associated spatially with dike swarms. The eastern Tennessee seismic zone extends over a 300x50 km area and is the result of a compressive stress field acting at the intersection between two large crustal blocks. Hydroseismicity, which proposes a significant role for meteoric water in intraplate seismogenesis, found support in the observation of common cyclicities between streamflow and earthquake strain data. Seismic hazard studies have provided the following results: (1) Damage areas in the eastern United States are three to five times larger than those observed in the west. (2) Judged solely on the basis of cataloged earthquake recurrence rates, the next major shock in the southeast region will probably occur outside the Charleston, South Carolina area. (3) Investigations yielded necessary hazard parameters (for example, maximum magnitudes) for several sites in the southeast. Basic to these investigations was the development and maintenance of several seismological data bases.

  2. Regional Localization with the Hawaii Island Infrasound Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perttu, A. B.; Garces, M. A.; Thelen, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Big Island of Hawaii is home to an extensive network of infrasound arrays, with additional arrays in Maui and Kauai. Four of the six Hawaii arrays are focused on Kilauea volcano. This project examines several methods for estimating source location, onset time, duration, and source energetics from regional infrasonic signals, with an emphasis on improving signal characterization. Diverse persistent natural and anthropogenic regional sources provide a data set for addressing localization with the Hawaii network. Explosions at the Pohakuloa Training Area, rock falls within the Halema'uma'u vent, and a repetitive unknown signal off the coast of Maui supply transient signals with known and unknown locations. In addition, Halema'uma'u and Pu'u O'o vents both produce infrasonic tremor with known locations. Well-constrained signal discrimination and characterization is essential for good location results. This paper presents progress in signal processing, feature extraction, and event association with standardized, self-similar, logarithmic time-frequency multiresolution algorithms. The Infrasonic Energy, Nth Octave (INFERNO) energy estimation suite of Garces (2013) is used in conjunction with the PMCC4 array processing algorithm to extract standardized signal features and parameters for improved regional association, localization, and source characterization.

  3. A system's view of metro and regional optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Cedric F.; Way, Winston I.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in fiber optic communications have been rejuvenated after the glut of the overcapacity at the turn of the century. The boom of video-centric network applications finally resulted in another wave of vast build-outs of broadband access networks such as FTTH, DOCSIS 3.0 and WI-FI systems, which in turn also drove up the bandwidth demands in metro and regional WDM networks. These new developments have rekindled research interests on technologies not only to meet the surging demand, but also to upgrade legacy network infrastructures in an evolutionary manner without disrupting existing services and incurring significant capital penalties. Standard bodies such as IEEE, ITU and OIF have formed task forces to ratify 100Gb/s interface standards. Thanks to the seemingly unlimited bandwidth in single-mode fibers, advances in optical networks has traditionally been fueled by more capable physical components such as more powerful laser, cleaner and wider bandwidth optical amplifier, faster modulator and photo-detectors, etc. In the meanwhile, the mainstream modulation technique for fiber optic communication systems has remained the most rudimentary form of on-off keying (OOK) and direct power detection for a very long period of time because spectral efficiency had never been a concern. This scenario, however, is no longer valid as demand for bandwidth is pushing the limit of current of current WDM technologies. In terms of spectral use, all the 100-GHz ITU grids in the C-band have been populated with 10Gb/s wavelengths in most of the WDM transport networks, and we are exhausting the power and bandwidth offered on existing fiber plant EDFAs. Beyond 10Gb/s, increasing the transmission to 40Gb/s by brute force OOK approach incurs significant penalties due to chromatic and polarization mode dispersion. With conventional modulation schemes, transmission impairments at 40Gb/s speed and above already become such difficult challenges that the efforts to manage these

  4. Ground Motion Simulations for Bursa Region (Turkey) Using Input Parameters derived from the Regional Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, B.; Askan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters in Turkey and it is important to assess seismicity in different regions with the use of seismic networks. Bursa is located in Marmara Region, Northwestern Turkey and to the south of the very active North Anatolian Fault Zone. With around three million inhabitants and key industrial facilities of the country, Bursa is the fourth largest city in Turkey. Since most of the focus is on North Anatolian Fault zone, despite its significant seismicity, Bursa area has not been investigated extensively until recently. For reliable seismic hazard estimations and seismic design of structures, assessment of potential ground motions in this region is essential using both recorded and simulated data. In this study, we employ stochastic finite-fault simulation with dynamic corner frequency approach to model previous events as well to assess potential earthquakes in Bursa. To ensure simulations with reliable synthetic ground motion outputs, the input parameters must be carefully derived from regional data. In this study, using strong motion data collected at 33 stations in the region, site-specific parameters such as near-surface high frequency attenuation parameter and amplifications are obtained. Similarly, source and path parameters are adopted from previous studies that as well employ regional data. Initially, major previous events in the region are verified by comparing the records with the corresponding synthetics. Then simulations of scenario events in the region are performed. We present the results in terms of spatial distribution of peak ground motion parameters and time histories at selected locations.

  5. Inferring cultural regions from correlation networks of given baby names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomorski, Mateusz; Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.; Kułakowski, Krzysztof; Kwapień, Jarosław; Ausloos, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    We report investigations on the statistical characteristics of the baby names given between 1910 and 2010 in the United States of America. For each year, the 100 most frequent names in the USA are sorted out. For these names, the correlations between the names profiles are calculated for all pairs of states (minus Hawaii and Alaska). The correlations are used to form a weighted network which is found to vary mildly in time. In fact, the structure of communities in the network remains quite stable till about 1980. The goal is that the calculated structure approximately reproduces the usually accepted geopolitical regions: the Northeast, the South, and the "Midwest + West" as the third one. Furthermore, the dataset reveals that the name distribution satisfies the Zipf law, separately for each state and each year, i.e. the name frequency f ∝r-α, where r is the name rank. Between 1920 and 1980, the exponent α is the largest one for the set of states classified as 'the South', but the smallest one for the set of states classified as "Midwest + West". Our interpretation is that the pool of selected names was quite narrow in the Southern states. The data is compared with some related statistics of names in Belgium, a country also with different regions, but having quite a different scale than the USA. There, the Zipf exponent is low for young people and for the Brussels citizens.

  6. HYGEIAnet: the integrated regional health information network of Crete.

    PubMed

    Orphanoudakis, Stelios

    2004-01-01

    The healthcare environment is currently changing and the health sector is being transformed to meet new challenges and to benefit from new opportunities. Priorities for the 21st century ought to be set based on emerging dominant trends in healthcare, including the shift towards shared or integrated care, in which an individual's healthcare is the responsibility of a team of professionals across all levels of the healthcare system hierarchy. In addition to the requirement for efficient and secure access to the Integrated Electronic Health Record (I-EHR) of a citizen, this necessitates the development and deployment of Regional Health Information Networks (RHINs), synchronous and asynchronous collaboration services, and novel eHealth and mHealth services, facilitated by intelligent sensors, monitoring devices, hand-held or wearable technologies, the Internet and wireless broadband communications. These further require the adoption of an open Reference Architecture and the creation of a scalable Health Information Infrastructure (HII).This paper discusses the challenges encountered in developing and deploying HYGEIAnet, the Regional Health Information Network of Crete, as well as relevant benefits for citizens and health professionals. Furthermore, HYGEIAnet systems and services are presented, with emphasis on the development of the HII and the implementation of the I-EHR service for providing secure, role-based access to validated content by authorized and authenticated users. PMID:15718565

  7. Characterization of image transfer patterns in a regional trauma network.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Philipp; Weber, Thomas; Dugas, Martin; Juhra, Christian; Breil, Bernhard

    2014-11-01

    Trauma Networks are currently founded in Germany to improve patient care of severely injured persons. To assure appropriate patient treatment in a short time, the transfer of radiological image data between the connected hospitals over the internet is an important method. This paper characterizes radiological image transfer patterns in a regional trauma network and analyzes various compression options. Within the "TraumaNetwork NorthWest" in Germany, the web-based platform "MedSix" was developed. MedSix is able to transfer DICOM-data quickly and easily between connected hospitals and can be directly connected to the local PACS. Audit data of the routine system between the 01.01.2012 and the 31.12.2012 were analyzed to identify typical characteristics of radiological image exchanges. Five different compression methods were compared by a simulation. MedSix has been used by 12 hospitals. 87 % of the transfers were uploaded within 15 min. Lossless compression is able to save about 50 % bandwidth. 82 % of the transfers have a data volume of less than 200 MB. Temporary accounts for non-regular users were used regularly. Most transfers were done from small to maximum care hospitals. It is feasible to substitute physical image exchange in a trauma network with electronic exchange of radiological images between the connected hospitals. Even large datasets are transferred within an acceptable time frame. Most transfers occur from small to large hospitals. The possibility of temporary accounts seems to be a key feature for the user acceptance. PMID:25265903

  8. PBO Southwest Region: Baja Earthquake Response and Network Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, C. P.; Basset, A.; Mann, D.; Lawrence, S.; Jarvis, C.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The SW region of the Plate Boundary Observatory consists of 455 continuously operating GPS stations located principally along the transform system of the San Andreas fault and Eastern California Shear Zone. In the past year network uptime exceeded an average of 97% with greater than 99% data acquisition. Communications range from CDMA modem (307), radio (92), Vsat (30), DSL/T1/other (25) to manual downloads (1). Sixty-three stations stream 1 Hz data over the VRS3Net typically with <0.5 second latency. Over 620 maintenance activities were performed during 316 onsite visits out of approximately 368 engineer field days. Within the past year there have been 7 incidences of minor (attempted theft) to moderate vandalism (solar panel stolen) with one total loss of receiver and communications gear. Security was enhanced at these sites through fencing and more secure station configurations. In the past 12 months, 4 new stations were installed to replace removed stations or to augment the network at strategic locations. Following the M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake CGPS station P796, a deep-drilled braced monument, was constructed in San Luis, AZ along the border within 5 weeks of the event. In addition, UNAVCO participated in a successful University of Arizona-led RAPID proposal for the installation of six continuous GPS stations for post-seismic observations. Six stations are installed and telemetered through a UNAM relay at the Sierra San Pedro Martir. Four of these stations have Vaisala WXT520 meteorological sensors. An additional site in the Sierra Cucapah (PTAX) that was built by CICESE, an Associate UNAVCO Member institution in Mexico, and Caltech has been integrated into PBO dataflow. The stations will be maintained as part of the PBO network in coordination with CICESE. UNAVCO is working with NOAA to upgrade PBO stations with WXT520 meteorological sensors and communications systems capable of streaming real-time GPS and met data. The real-time GPS and

  9. Bifurcation behaviors of synchronized regions in logistic map networks with coupling delay

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Longkun E-mail: xqwu@whu.edu.cn; Wu, Xiaoqun E-mail: xqwu@whu.edu.cn; Lu, Jun-an; Lü, Jinhu

    2015-03-15

    Network synchronized regions play an extremely important role in network synchronization according to the master stability function framework. This paper focuses on network synchronous state stability via studying the effects of nodal dynamics, coupling delay, and coupling way on synchronized regions in Logistic map networks. Theoretical and numerical investigations show that (1) network synchronization is closely associated with its nodal dynamics. Particularly, the synchronized region bifurcation points through which the synchronized region switches from one type to another are in good agreement with those of the uncoupled node system, and chaotic nodal dynamics can greatly impede network synchronization. (2) The coupling delay generally impairs the synchronizability of Logistic map networks, which is also dominated by the parity of delay for some nodal parameters. (3) A simple nonlinear coupling facilitates network synchronization more than the linear one does. The results found in this paper will help to intensify our understanding for the synchronous state stability in discrete-time networks with coupling delay.

  10. Reconstructing regional climate networks from irregularly sampled satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Donner, Reik V.; Sykioti, Olga; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    With the increasing availability of remote sensing data Earth System Analysis has taken a great step forward. Satellite data with high resolution in time and space allow for an in-depth analysis of small-scale processes in the climate as well as ecosystems. This data type, however, also harbors crucial conceptual complications. First, depending on whether the satellite is orbiting on an ascending or descending path systematic biases are induced into the dataset and both measurements can not be evaluated simultaneously without an appropriate preprocessing. Second, remote sensing data are usually not produced with equidistant temporal sampling, but might contain huge gaps, due to cloud cover or maintenance work and irregular time steps, due to the orbiting time of the satellite. In this work, we utilize sea surface temperature (SST) data obtained from the SMOS satellite as part of ESA's Earth Explorer Mission to study small-scale regional interactions between different parts of the Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Sea. In a first step, we create homogeneous time series for each grid point by combining data from ascending and descending satellite paths by utilizing principal component and singular spectrum analysis. To address the issue of irregular temporal sampling we utilize a kernel weighted version of the linear cross-correlation function to compute lagged correlations between all pairs of grid points in the dataset. By setting a threshold to the thus obtained correlation matrix we obtain a binary matrix which can be interpreted as the adjacency matrix of a complex network. We then use tools from complex network theory to study regional interdependencies in the study area for different time lags of up to forty days. We find that the obtained networks represent well the observed average wind directions and speeds and display interaction structures between small regions in the Aegean Sea, which are in good agreement with earlier observations. The methods presented

  11. Regional climate network analysis from irregularly sampled satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Sykioti, Olga; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Balasis, George; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V.

    2016-04-01

    With the increasing availability of remote sensing data Earth System Analysis has taken a great step forward. This type of data, however, also harbors a variety of conceptual complications. First, depending on whether the satellite is orbiting on an ascending or descending path systematic biases are induced into the data, and both measurements cannot be evaluated simultaneously without an appropriate preprocessing. Second, remote sensing data are usually not produced with equidistant temporal sampling, but might contain huge gaps and irregular time steps. Third, the time period covered by the data is often too short to perform an appropriate seasonal detrending. Here, we propose a general framework to create homogeneous anomalized time series for a (multivariate) satellite data set by combining time series from ascending and descending satellite paths or even different missions using principal component and singular spectrum analysis. We then exemplarily apply our method to sea surface temperature data obtained from the SMOS satellite mission to study small-scale regional correlative patterns covering different parts of the Aegean Sea. To address the issue of irregular temporal sampling we utilize a kernel weighted version of the linear cross-correlation function to compute lagged correlations between all pairs of grid points in the data set. By binarizing the thus obtained matrices, we obtain a network representation of the system's similarity structure. Ultimately, we use tools from complex network theory to study regional interdependencies in the study area for different time lags of up to forty days. We find that the obtained networks represent well the observed average wind directions and speeds and display interaction structures between small regions in the Aegean Sea, which are in good agreement with earlier observations. In a second step, we extend the study area to the whole Mediterranean and Black Sea and investigate lagged interactions between these two

  12. Automatic classification of seismic events within a regional seismograph network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiira, Timo; Kortström, Jari; Uski, Marja

    2015-04-01

    A fully automatic method for seismic event classification within a sparse regional seismograph network is presented. The tool is based on a supervised pattern recognition technique, Support Vector Machine (SVM), trained here to distinguish weak local earthquakes from a bulk of human-made or spurious seismic events. The classification rules rely on differences in signal energy distribution between natural and artificial seismic sources. Seismic records are divided into four windows, P, P coda, S, and S coda. For each signal window STA is computed in 20 narrow frequency bands between 1 and 41 Hz. The 80 discrimination parameters are used as a training data for the SVM. The SVM models are calculated for 19 on-line seismic stations in Finland. The event data are compiled mainly from fully automatic event solutions that are manually classified after automatic location process. The station-specific SVM training events include 11-302 positive (earthquake) and 227-1048 negative (non-earthquake) examples. The best voting rules for combining results from different stations are determined during an independent testing period. Finally, the network processing rules are applied to an independent evaluation period comprising 4681 fully automatic event determinations, of which 98 % have been manually identified as explosions or noise and 2 % as earthquakes. The SVM method correctly identifies 94 % of the non-earthquakes and all the earthquakes. The results imply that the SVM tool can identify and filter out blasts and spurious events from fully automatic event solutions with a high level of confidence. The tool helps to reduce work-load in manual seismic analysis by leaving only ~5 % of the automatic event determinations, i.e. the probable earthquakes for more detailed seismological analysis. The approach presented is easy to adjust to requirements of a denser or wider high-frequency network, once enough training examples for building a station-specific data set are available.

  13. Station corrections for the Katmai Region Seismic Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Searcy, Cheryl K.

    2003-01-01

    Most procedures for routinely locating earthquake hypocenters within a local network are constrained to using laterally homogeneous velocity models to represent the Earth's crustal velocity structure. As a result, earthquake location errors may arise due to actual lateral variations in the Earth's velocity structure. Station corrections can be used to compensate for heterogeneous velocity structure near individual stations (Douglas, 1967; Pujol, 1988). The HYPOELLIPSE program (Lahr, 1999) used by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) to locate earthquakes in Cook Inlet and the Aleutian Islands is a robust and efficient program that uses one-dimensional velocity models to determine hypocenters of local and regional earthquakes. This program does have the capability of utilizing station corrections within it's earthquake location proceedure. The velocity structures of Cook Inlet and Aleutian volcanoes very likely contain laterally varying heterogeneities. For this reason, the accuracy of earthquake locations in these areas will benefit from the determination and addition of station corrections. In this study, I determine corrections for each station in the Katmai region. The Katmai region is defined to lie between latitudes 57.5 degrees North and 59.00 degrees north and longitudes -154.00 and -156.00 (see Figure 1) and includes Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Mount Martin, Mount Mageik, Snowy Mountain, Mount Trident, and Mount Griggs volcanoes. Station corrections were determined using the computer program VELEST (Kissling, 1994). VELEST inverts arrival time data for one-dimensional velocity models and station corrections using a joint hypocenter determination technique. VELEST can also be used to locate single events.

  14. Validation opportunities of DOAS Network in Moscow Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovski, Alexander; Postylyakov, Oleg; Elokhov, Alexander; Ivanov, Victor; Kanaya, Yugo

    A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) of Russian Academy of Science developed a network of atmosphere composition measurements by DOAS method. Measurements sites of the network are located in the centre of Moscow at IAP (55.74N, 37.62E) south-east part of the city at M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (55.70N 37.53E), and in background region at Zvenigorod Scientific Station of IAP (ZSS, 55.70N, 36.78E). Intensity of the scattered solar radiation is registered in ultra-violet and visible spectrum region. Three devices are mounted at ZSS: based on MDR-23 spectrometer (since 1990), JAMSTEC MAX-DOAS (since 2008), and based on ORIEL MS257 spectrometer (since 2008). ORIEL MS260i imaging spectrometers were mounted at city stations in 2010. Measurements are regular and continuous at all stations. Basing on performed measurements of spectral radiance, the vertical distribution at twilight, the total content and the integral content in the boundary layer (ABL) in daytime of NO2 are obtained. The quantities are obtained in clear sky and cloudy conditions. Besides that, the vertical distribution of aerosol and the total content (mainly contributed by ABL) of HCHO using MAX-DOAS are calculated. The HCHO total content is retrieved with error about 20 %. We analyzed the variability of the HCHO during clear sky conditions in 2010. The HCHO content is larger during east wind directions than during non-east wind directions. It can be associated with Moscow Megacity influence on air quality at Zvenigorod. The estimation of Moscow Megacity influence on HCHO abundance at Zvenigorod is around 2.5E14 mol/cm2 per 1 km length of trajectory path inside Moscow Ring Road. Our data show statistically significant positive temperature effect in HCHO for the background condition for temperatures from -5C to +33C. The temperature trend in HCHO data at ZSS is about (8.9±2.3)E14 mol/cm2/C. The increase of the HCHO VCD during increase of the air temperature can be explained by the

  15. Characteristics of Venture Capital Network and Its Correlation with Regional Economy: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Lifei; Li, Sai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. In this paper, we establish and study the network of venture capital (VC) firms in China. We compute and analyze the statistical properties of the network, including parameters such as degrees, mean lengths of the shortest paths, clustering coefficient and robustness. We further study the topology of the network and find that it has small-world behavior. A multiple linear regression model is introduced to study the relation between network parameters and major regional economic indices in China. From the result of regression, we find that, economic aggregate (including the total GDP, investment, consumption and net export), upgrade of industrial structure, employment and remuneration of a region are all positively correlated with the degree and the clustering coefficient of the VC sub-network of the region, which suggests that the development of the VC industry has substantial effects on regional economy in China. PMID:26340555

  16. Characteristics of Venture Capital Network and Its Correlation with Regional Economy: Evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Lifei; Li, Sai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. In this paper, we establish and study the network of venture capital (VC) firms in China. We compute and analyze the statistical properties of the network, including parameters such as degrees, mean lengths of the shortest paths, clustering coefficient and robustness. We further study the topology of the network and find that it has small-world behavior. A multiple linear regression model is introduced to study the relation between network parameters and major regional economic indices in China. From the result of regression, we find that, economic aggregate (including the total GDP, investment, consumption and net export), upgrade of industrial structure, employment and remuneration of a region are all positively correlated with the degree and the clustering coefficient of the VC sub-network of the region, which suggests that the development of the VC industry has substantial effects on regional economy in China. PMID:26340555

  17. Mapping Individual Brain Networks Using Statistical Similarity in Regional Morphology from MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiang-zhen; Liu, Zhaoguo; Huang, Lijie; Wang, Xu; Yang, Zetian; Zhou, Guangfu; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Representing brain morphology as a network has the advantage that the regional morphology of ‘isolated’ structures can be described statistically based on graph theory. However, very few studies have investigated brain morphology from the holistic perspective of complex networks, particularly in individual brains. We proposed a new network framework for individual brain morphology. Technically, in the new network, nodes are defined as regions based on a brain atlas, and edges are estimated using our newly-developed inter-regional relation measure based on regional morphological distributions. This implementation allows nodes in the brain network to be functionally/anatomically homogeneous but different with respect to shape and size. We first demonstrated the new network framework in a healthy sample. Thereafter, we studied the graph-theoretical properties of the networks obtained and compared the results with previous morphological, anatomical, and functional networks. The robustness of the method was assessed via measurement of the reliability of the network metrics using a test-retest dataset. Finally, to illustrate potential applications, the networks were used to measure age-related changes in commonly used network metrics. Results suggest that the proposed method could provide a concise description of brain organization at a network level and be used to investigate interindividual variability in brain morphology from the perspective of complex networks. Furthermore, the method could open a new window into modeling the complexly distributed brain and facilitate the emerging field of human connectomics. PMID:26536598

  18. Network Sensitivity Solutions for Regional Moment Tensor Inversions

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Dreger, D S; Walter, W R

    2009-06-05

    Well-resolved moment tensor solutions reveal information about the sources of seismic waves. Here we introduce a new way of assessing confidence in the regional full moment tensor inversion via the introduction of the network sensitivity solution (NSS). The NSS takes into account the unique station distribution, frequency band, and signal-to-noise ratio of a given event scenario. The NSS compares both a hypothetical pure source (for example an explosion or an earthquake) and the actual data with several thousand sets of synthetic data from a uniform distribution of all possible sources. The comparison with a hypothetical pure source provides the theoretically best-constrained source-type region for a given set of stations, and with it one can determine whether further analysis with the data is warranted. The NSS that employs the actual data gives a direct comparison of all other source-types with the best-fit source. In this way, one can choose a threshold level of fit where the solution is comfortably constrained. The method is tested for the well-recorded nuclear test, JUNCTION, at the Nevada Test Site. Sources that fit comparably well to a hypothetical pure explosion recorded with no noise at the JUNCTION data stations have a large volumetric component and are not described well by a double-couple (DC) source. The NSS using the real data from JUNCTION is even more tightly constrained to an explosion since the data contains some energy that precludes fitting with any type of deviatoric source. We also calculate the NSS for the October 2006 North Korea test and a nearby earthquake, where the station coverage is poor and the event magnitude is small. The earthquake solution is very well fit by a DC source, and the best-fit solution to the nuclear test (M{sub W}4.1) is dominantly explosion.

  19. Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) - Korea 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W. V.; Choi, M.; Kim, D. S.; Kim, B.; Kim, S.; Ghim, Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, J. H.; Park, R.; Seo, M.; Song, C.; Yum, S.; Woo, J.; Yoon, S.; Lee, K.; Lee, M.; Lim, J.; Chang, I.; Jeong, M. J.; Bae, M.; Sorokin, M.; Giles, D. M.; Schafer, J.; Herman, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the main objectives of Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) campaign in Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) mission is to understand the relationship between the column optical properties of the atmosphere and the surface level air quality in terms of aerosols and gases. Recently, with the cooperative efforts with NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) / GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center), Korean University research groups, and KME (Korea Ministry of Environment) / NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), DRAGON-Korea 2012 campaign was successfully performed from March to May 2012. The campaign sites were divided into two groups, the National scale sites and Seoul metropolitan sites. Thirteen Cimel sunphotometers were distributed at National scale sites including two metropolitan cities and several remote sites. Nine Cimel sunphotometers were distributed at Seoul Metropolitan sites including several residential sites and traffic source areas. The measured datasets are being analyzed in diverse fields of air quality communities including in-situ measurement groups, satellite remote sensing groups, chemical modeling groups, and airplane measurement groups. We will introduce several preliminary results of the analysis and discuss the future planes and corporations in Korea.

  20. Neural networks for regional employment forecasts: are the parameters relevant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patuelli, Roberto; Reggiani, Aura; Nijkamp, Peter; Schanne, Norbert

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present a review of various computational experiments concerning neural network (NN) models developed for regional employment forecasting. NNs are nowadays widely used in several fields because of their flexible specification structure. A series of NN experiments is presented in the paper, using two data sets on German NUTS-3 districts. Individual forecasts are computed by our models for each district in order to answer the following question: How relevant are NN parameters in comparison to NN structure? Comprehensive testing of these parameters is limited in the literature. Building on different specifications of NN models—in terms of explanatory variables and NN structures—we propose a systematic choice of NN learning parameters and internal functions by means of a sensitivity analysis. Our results show that different combinations of NN parameters provide significantly varying statistical performance and forecasting power. Finally, we note that the sets of parameters chosen for a given model specification cannot be light-heartedly applied to different or more complex models.

  1. New Intervention Model of Regional Transfer Network System to Alleviate Crowding of Regional Emergency Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding is a serious problem in most tertiary hospitals in Korea. Although several intervention models have been established to alleviate ED crowding, they are limited to a single hospital-based approach. This study was conducted to determine whether the new regional intervention model could alleviate ED crowding in a regional emergency medical center. This study was designed as a “before and after study” and included patients who visited the tertiary hospital ED from November 2011 to October 2013. One tertiary hospital and 32 secondary hospitals were included in the study. A transfer coordinator conducted inter-hospital transfers from a tertiary hospital to a secondary hospital for suitable patients. A total of 1,607 and 2,591 patients transferred from a tertiary hospital before and after the study, respectively (P < 0.001). We found that the median ED length of stay (LOS) decreased significantly from 3.68 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 1.85 to 9.73) to 3.20 hours (IQR, 1.62 to 8.33) in the patient group after implementation of the Regional Transfer Network System (RTNS) (P < 0.001). The results of multivariate analysis showed a negative association between implementation of the RTNS and ED LOS (beta coefficient -0.743; 95% confidence interval -0.914 to -0.572; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the ED LOS in the tertiary hospital decreased after implementation of the RTNS. PMID:27134506

  2. Regional Monitoring Networks (Rmn) to Detect Changing Baselines in Freshwater Wadeable Streams (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is working with its regional offices, states, tribes, and other entities to establish Regional Monitoring Networks (RMNs) at which biological, thermal, and hydrologic data are collected from freshwater wadeable streams ...

  3. Networking for the Region and beyond--Role of the Southeast Asian Geography Association (SEAGA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooi, Giok Ling; Goh, Kim Chuan

    2008-01-01

    Networking among geographers in the Southeast Asian region is a challenge because of language and other barriers such as the costs of travel as well as keeping up communications and information flows. This networking effort however, is crucial to research and scholarship on issues that are relevant to the region. Many of these concern sustainable…

  4. Library Cooperation at the Grass Roots: A Regional Intertype Library Network in the San Joaquin Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, R. Dean

    1979-01-01

    A small academic library's experience in a regional intertype library network had positive effects on interlibrary loan procedures and improved and promoted cooperation at the local level. The regional network relieves the burden on large research libraries and enables libraries with inadequate resources to provide better service to patrons.…

  5. Comparison of sulfur measurements from a regional fine particle network with concurrent acid modes network results

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.L.; Stockburger, L.; Barnes, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Fine Particle Network (FPN), a system of fine particle (less than 2.5 micrometers) samplers, was operated at 41 sites selected from the Enviromental Protection Agency Acid MODES program during the two year period in 1988-90. The 24-hour sample results included fine particle mass and the most predominant chemical element concentrations determined by wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis. Statistical summaries of the fine mass and sulfur concentrations by site and season were prepared. The availability of simultaneous particulate sulfate measurements from independent collection and analytical procedures provided an opportunity to examine their agreement and provide a more reliable data base for evaluation of regional particulate models and estimation of contribution to urban aerosol concentration.

  6. Analysis of Regional GPS Networks in Eastern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi Alinia, H.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    Although stable, intraplate region of eastern Canada is considered low rate deformation area in the North American plate, the retreat of large ice sheets during deglaciation in the last 20 ka has resulted in horizontal and vertical deformation of the Earth's in eastern Ontario. Present-day glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) uplift rates approach 10 mm/yr or more at Hudson Bay and decrease with distance southeastward. Current GIA models forecast that the hinge line between uplift to the northwest and subsidence to the southeast lies somewhere near the Saint Lawrence valley in eastern Canada [Tushingham and Peltier, 1991; Peltier, 2002]. Employing continuous Global Positioning System (cGPS) observations and high precision tools for processing and then analyzing each component of derived time series are important tools to monitor the associated regional crustal deformation with good accuracies. Here we describe the analysis of coordinate time series of cGPS stations scattered sparsely throughout southeastern Ontario and between Ottawa and the east coast of Hudson Bay. Here, the two most reliable local networks, each including 4 to 6 reference stations, were selected for analysis. Data for period of approximately five years, 2008-2012.9, was processed with Bernese 5.0 over several campaigns. Individual cGPS coordinate time series were generated for each station and basic parameters, such as mean, variance and repeatability, were estimated. The time series are corrected with respect to the rigid plate motion and seasonal variations and advanced time series analysis techniques, including spectral analysis and principal component analysis were implemented. Post-processing of the time series reproduces the general GIA spatial pattern. Results also show that the vertical velocities of all stations in the solution are consistent with the GIA model uplift rate and are consistent with other cGPS sites in eastern Canada and increases from north of lake of Ontario (approximately

  7. Monitoring and modeling Hong Kong ionosphere using regional GPS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan

    The ionosphere is the region from 90 km to 2000 km altitude, where the solar radiation produces partially ionized plasma of different gas components. Knowledge of ionospheric electronic density and its variation is essential for a wide range of applications, such as radio and telecommunications, satellite tracking, earth observation from space, and satellite navigation. This research aims at monitoring detailed low latitude structures of the ionosphere using Hong Kong GPS network. In this study, the distribution characteristics of ionospheric TEC and disturbances are investigated and researched. It is shown that in Hong Kong, there is a two-dimensional peak along local solar time and latitude for the TEC distribution due to the solar radiation and equatorial ionospheric anomaly. The peak values appear around geographic latitude 22° north and the local solar time 2pm. On both sides of the peak, there exist large TEC slopes. Therefore, even with short baselines (i.e. <10 km), ionospheric delays cannot be eliminated by double difference technique. Ionospheric disturbances happen frequently in Hong Kong, with the severe ones mainly concentrating at geographic latitude 22° north and the local solar time 10pm. Both ionospheric TEC values and disturbances reach their seasonal maximum around the equinoxes. With the aids of PPP technique and satellite difference widelane technique, ionospheric modeling equation is reformed with less unknown parameters, which support the stable and precise estimation of ionospheric VTEC along with the constant biases within a short and peace period. On this basis, a new localized ionospheric modeling technique, which models ionospheric VTEC along the satellite track on the assumed ionospheric shell for each satellite with a short piecewise modeling period, is proposed for precise ionospheric TEC modeling, especially in low latitude regions where the ionosphere is active. The numerical results demonstrate that the new model has a several

  8. A novel progressive signal association algorithm for detecting teleseismic/network-outside events using regional seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Ping; Pan, Changzhou; Zhang, Chengliu; Shen, Xufeng; Wang, Hongchun; Lu, Na

    2015-06-01

    Regional seismic networks may and in some cases need to be used to monitor teleseismic or network-outside events. For detecting and localizing teleseismic events automatically and reliably in this case, in this paper we present a novel progressive association algorithm for teleseismic signals recorded by a regional seismic network. The algorithm takes triangle station arrays as the starting point to search for P waves of teleseismic events progressively by that, as detections from different stations actually are from the same teleseismic event, their arrival times should be linearly related to the average slowness vector with which the signal propagates across the network, and the slowness of direct teleseismic P wave basically is different from other major seismic phases. We have tested this algorithm using data recorded by Xinjiang Seismic Network of China (XJSN) for 16 d. The results show that the algorithm can effectively and reliably detect and localize earthquakes outside of the network. For the period of the test data, as all mb 4.0+ events with Δc < 30° and all mb 4.5+ events with Δc < 60° referring to the International Data Center-Reviewed Event Bulletin (IDC REB) were detected, where Δc is the epicentral distance relative to the network's geographical centre, the rate of false events only accounted for 2.4 per cent, suggesting that the new association algorithm has good application prospect for situations when regional seismic networks need to be used to monitor teleseismic events.

  9. Functional Network Architecture of Reading-Related Regions across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Alecia C.; Church, Jessica A.; Power, Jonathan D.; Miezin, Fran M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2013-01-01

    Reading requires coordinated neural processing across a large number of brain regions. Studying relationships between reading-related regions informs the specificity of information processing performed in each region. Here, regions of interest were defined from a meta-analysis of reading studies, including a developmental study. Relationships…

  10. Data Communications and Networking. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter, Diane

    This course curriculum is intended for use by community college instructors and administrators in implementing a data communications networking course. A student course syllabus provides this information: credit hours, catalog description, prerequisites, required text, instructional process, objectives, student evaluation, and class schedule. A…

  11. Technology, Integration, and Learning Environments: CEE Monograph: The NAU Centennial Year of Education. Monograph Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Gary, Ed.; Gunn, Cathy, Ed.; Lapan, Stephen D., Ed.

    This volume of the Center for Excellence in Education (CEE) monograph series describes Northern Arizona University's (NAU) commitment to education and innovation. Contained within this volume are discussions of professional development courses and programs in the area of educational technology. The articles in this monograph feature educational…

  12. Evaluation of the streamflow-gaging network of Alaska in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1906, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began operating a network of streamflow-gaging stations in Alaska. The primary purpose of the streamflow- gaging network has been to provide peak flow, average flow, and low-flow characteristics to a variety of users. In 1993, the USGS began a study to evaluate the current network of 78 stations. The objectives of this study were to determine the adequacy of the existing network in predicting selected regional flow characteristics and to determine if providing additional streamflow-gaging stations could improve the network's ability to predict these characteristics. Alaska was divided into six distinct hydrologic regions: Arctic, Northwest, Southcentral, Southeast, Southwest, and Yukon. For each region, historical and current streamflow data were compiled. In Arctic, Northwest, and Southwest Alaska, insufficient data were available to develop regional regression equations. In these areas, proposed locations of streamflow-gaging stations were selected by using clustering techniques to define similar areas within a region and by spatial visual analysis using the precipitation, physiographic, and hydrologic unit maps of Alaska. Sufficient data existed in Southcentral and Southeast Alaska to use generalized least squares (GLS) procedures to develop regional regression equations to estimate the 50-year peak flow, annual average flow, and a low-flow statistic. GLS procedures were also used for Yukon Alaska but the results should be used with caution because the data do not have an adequate spatial distribution. Network analysis procedures were used for the Southcentral, Southeast, and Yukon regions. Network analysis indicates the reduction in the sampling error of the regional regression equation that can be obtained given different scenarios. For Alaska, a 10-year planning period was used. One scenario showed the results of continuing the current network with no additional gaging stations and another scenario showed the results

  13. Metadata Harvesting in Regional Digital Libraries in the PIONIER Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurek, Cezary; Stroinski, Maciej; Werla, Marcin; Weglarz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to present the concept of the functionality of metadata harvesting for regional digital libraries, based on the OAI-PMH protocol. This functionality is a part of regional digital libraries platform created in Poland. The platform was required to reach one of main objectives of the Polish PIONIER Programme--to enrich the…

  14. Overview of Regional Monitoring Networks to Detect Climate Change in Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    In partnership with states, tribes, and other organizations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has worked to establish regional monitoring networks (RMNs) at which biological, thermal, and hydrologic data are collected from freshwater wadeable streams to quantify and monit...

  15. The structural robustness of geographical networks against regional failure and their pre-optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yixiao; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Chaogeng; Shen, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Failures of real-world infrastructure networks due to natural disasters often originate in a certain region, but this feature has seldom been considered in theoretical models. In this article, we introduce a possible failure pattern of geographical networks-"regional failure"-by which nodes and edges within a region malfunction. Based on a previous spatial network model (Louf et al., 2013), we study the robustness of geographical networks against regional failure, which is measured by the fraction of nodes that remain in the largest connected component, via simulations. A small-area failure results in a large reduction of their robustness measure. Furthermore, we investigate two pre-deployed mechanisms to enhance their robustness: One is to extend the cost-benefit growth mechanism of the original network model by adding more than one link in a growth step, and the other is to strengthen the interconnection of hubs in generated networks. We measure the robustness-enhancing effects of both mechanisms on the basis of their costs, i.e., the amount of excessive links and the induced geographical length. The latter mechanism is better than the former one if a normal level of costs is considered. When costs exceed a certain level, the former has an advantage. Because the costs of excessive links affect the investment decision of real-world infrastructure networks, it is practical to enhance their robustness by adding more links between hubs. These results might help design robust geographical networks economically.

  16. Regional Networks in Education: A Case Study of an Austrian Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This case study presents the development of networks in education, using the Austrian IMST (Innovations Make Schools Top) project as illustration. The regional networks are coordinated in every Austrian federal province by groups made up of teachers, representatives of the educational authorities, and members of academia. In the framework of the…

  17. A Revolution in Regional Networking: Linking the Knowledge. AIR 1995 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosmalen, C. M. van

    Regional networking and knowledge transfer are considered with a focus on partnerships between business and higher education institutions, conditions for successful strategic allegiances, and the consequences of networking for the higher education mission. The experiences of Utrecht University (the Netherlands) are used to illustrate how a higher…

  18. Learning into a Statewide System of Support: New York State's Regional Network Strategy for School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Brett; Seager, Andrew; Frankel, Susan

    2005-01-01

    This report is based on a three-year study of the design of New York's Regional Network Strategy and its subsequent implementation activities, including the development of statewide professional development for members of the network involved in the state's strategy. The study is based on the idea that internal coherence--alignment and shared…

  19. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Community Capacity Building of a Regional Community Cancer Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luque, John; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Meade, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of 25 Community Network Programs funded by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities with the objectives to create a collaborative infrastructure of academic and community based organizations and to develop effective and sustainable interventions to…

  20. Magnetic flux transport of decaying active regions and enhanced magnetic network. [of solar supergranulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Haimin; Zirin, Harold; Ai, Guoxiang

    1991-01-01

    Several series of coordinated observations on decaying active regions and enhanced magnetic network regions on the sun were carried out jointly at Big Bear Solar Observatory and at the Huairou Solar Observing Station of the Bejing Astronomical Observatory in China. The magnetic field evolution in several regions was followed closely for three to seven days. The magnetic flux transport from the remnants of decayed active regions was studied, along with the evolution and lifetime of the magnetic network which defines the boundaries of supergranules. The magnetic flux transport in an enhanced network region was studied in detail and found to be negative. Also briefly described are some properties of moving magnetic features around a sunspot. Results of all of the above studies are presented.

  1. Aberrant Global and Regional Topological Organization of the Fractional Anisotropy-weighted Brain Structural Networks in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian-Huai; Yao, Zhi-Jian; Qin, Jiao-Long; Yan, Rui; Hua, Ling-Ling; Lu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most previous neuroimaging studies have focused on the structural and functional abnormalities of local brain regions in major depressive disorder (MDD). Moreover, the exactly topological organization of networks underlying MDD remains unclear. This study examined the aberrant global and regional topological patterns of the brain white matter networks in MDD patients. Methods: The diffusion tensor imaging data were obtained from 27 patients with MDD and 40 healthy controls. The brain fractional anisotropy-weighted structural networks were constructed, and the global network and regional nodal metrics of the networks were explored by the complex network theory. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, the brain structural network of MDD patients showed an intact small-world topology, but significantly abnormal global network topological organization and regional nodal characteristic of the network in MDD were found. Our findings also indicated that the brain structural networks in MDD patients become a less strongly integrated network with a reduced central role of some key brain regions. Conclusions: All these resulted in a less optimal topological organization of networks underlying MDD patients, including an impaired capability of local information processing, reduced centrality of some brain regions and limited capacity to integrate information across different regions. Thus, these global network and regional node-level aberrations might contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of MDD from the view of the brain network. PMID:26960371

  2. Achievable Region in Slotted ALOHA Throughput for One-Relay Two-Hop Wireless Network Coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehara, Daisuke; Denno, Satoshi; Morikura, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Takatoshi

    This paper presents achievable regions in slotted ALOHA throughput both without and with network coding for one-relay two-hop wireless networks between two end node groups. In this paper, there are no restrictions on the total traffic and the number of end nodes per group. It follows that the relay node will be generally involved with asymmetric bidirectional traffic. This paper derives closed-form expressions of the throughput and packet delay per group both without and with network coding from a theoretical perspective regardless of whether the buffer on the relay node is saturated or not. Furthermore, we show that the maximum throughput per group with network coding can be achieved at the boundary of the relay buffer saturation and unsaturation which is expressed as the solution of a polynomial equation in two group node traffics. As a result, we clarify the enhancement of the achievable region in slotted ALOHA throughput by applying network coding.

  3. Circuit-wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Brain Region-Specific Gene Networks Regulating Depression Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Cates, Hannah M; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Lorsch, Zachary S; Walker, Deena M; Wang, Junshi; Huang, Xiaojie; Schlüter, Oliver M; Maze, Ian; Peña, Catherine J; Heller, Elizabeth A; Issler, Orna; Wang, Minghui; Song, Won-Min; Stein, Jason L; Liu, Xiaochuan; Doyle, Marie A; Scobie, Kimberly N; Sun, Hao Sheng; Neve, Rachael L; Geschwind, Daniel; Dong, Yan; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a complex, heterogeneous disorder and a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Most previous research has focused on individual brain regions and genes contributing to depression. However, emerging evidence in humans and animal models suggests that dysregulated circuit function and gene expression across multiple brain regions drive depressive phenotypes. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on four brain regions from control animals and those susceptible or resilient to chronic social defeat stress at multiple time points. We employed an integrative network biology approach to identify transcriptional networks and key driver genes that regulate susceptibility to depressive-like symptoms. Further, we validated in vivo several key drivers and their associated transcriptional networks that regulate depression susceptibility and confirmed their functional significance at the levels of gene transcription, synaptic regulation, and behavior. Our study reveals novel transcriptional networks that control stress susceptibility and offers fundamentally new leads for antidepressant drug discovery. PMID:27181059

  4. Regional Monitoring Networks to Detect Climate Change Effects in Stream Ecosystems (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is working with its regional offices, states, tribes, and other entities to establish Regional Monitoring Networks (RMNs) at which biological, thermal, and hydrologic data will be collected from freshwater wadeable stre...

  5. The identification and interaction of network, intranetwork, and ephemeral-region magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Sara F.

    1988-01-01

    Network magnetic fields are described as the dynamic product of the merging and cancelling of intranetwork fields, ephemeral regions, and the remnants of active regions. The similarities of these phenomena with solar magnetic features are pointed out. The intranetwork magnetic fields are characterized by the flow of successive fragments in approximately radial patterns away from their apparent source sites.

  6. Optical "Turn off" based selective detection and concomitant degradation of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via Mg-porphyrazine complex immobilized on glass.

    PubMed

    Neelam; Singh, Vikram; Gupta, Tarkeshwar

    2014-02-17

    Covalently assembled monolayers (CAMs) of Mg-porphyrazine complex on glass and silicon substrates were fabricated and employed as "Turn off" sensor for ppm level detection and degradation of a sulfur mustard analogue: 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). The detection process was read-out optically via an off-the-shelf UV/Vis spectrophotometer in transmission mode. Monolayer based sensor system was shown to be quite robust and stable, sufficiently accurate and reversible under given experimental conditions. Notably, the sensor system exhibited marked selectivity for CEES when exposed exclusively or in mix to different potent analytes. Moreover, action of KMnO4 on monolayer-CEES complex lead to CEES degradation and resetting of the sensor to its native state for reuse. PMID:24491785

  7. Development of regional network for nuclear information in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio

    Among the recent INIS activities several interesting items are reported. In particular Latin America area where active movements have been seen recently is described in detail in terms of INIS information services. The author reports Latin America regional nuclear information project which has been implemented as 5-year project since 1985 supported by IAEA, and its progress, and describes information service system in Brazil which plays the core role in promoting this project.

  8. The Study of Development Strategy for Bank Distribution Network through the Analysis of Inter-regional Financial Transaction Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jae Weon; Hong, Won Eui; Kwak, Yoon Sik

    This study attempts to shed light on the factors that influence the locations of bank branches in establishing a bank's distribution network from the angle of the network analysis. Whereas the previous studies analyzed the locations of bank branches on the basis of their geographical characteristics and image, the significance of this study rests upon the fact that it endeavors to explore the location factors from a new perspective of the movement path of financial customers. For this analysis, the network between administrative districts, which form the fundamental unit of a location, was analyzed based on the financial transactional data. The important findings of this study are as follows. First, in conformity with the previous studies, the income level, the spending level, the number of businesses, and the size of workforce in the pertinent region were all found to influence the size of a bank's market. Second, the centrality index extracted from the analysis of the network was found to have a significant effect on the locations of bank branches. In particular, the degree centrality was revealed to have a greater influence on the size of a bank's market than does the closeness centrality. Such results of this study clearly suggest the needs for a new approach from the perspective of network in furtherance of other factors that have been considered important in the previous studies of the distribution network strategies.

  9. Pharmacological modulation of pulvinar resting-state regional oscillations and network dynamics in major depression.

    PubMed

    Tadayonnejad, Reza; Ajilore, Olusola; Mickey, Brian J; Crane, Natania A; Hsu, David T; Kumar, Anand; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Langenecker, Scott A

    2016-06-30

    The pulvinar, the largest thalamus nucleus, has rich anatomical connections with several different cortical and subcortical regions suggesting its important involvement in high-level cognitive and emotional functions. Unfortunately, pulvinar dysfunction in psychiatric disorders particularly major depression disorder has not been thoroughly examined to date. In this study we explored the alterations in the baseline regional and network activities of the pulvinar in MDD by applying spectral analysis of resting-state oscillatory activity, functional connectivity and directed (effective) connectivity on resting-state fMRI data acquired from 20 healthy controls and 19 participants with MDD. Furthermore, we tested how pharmacological treatment with duloxetine can modulate the measured local and network variables in ten participants who completed treatment. Our results revealed a frequency-band dependent modulation of power spectrum characteristics of pulvinar regional oscillatory activity. At the network level, we found MDD is associated with aberrant causal interactions between pulvinar and several systems including default-mode and posterior insular networks. It was also shown that duloxetine treatment can correct or overcompensate the pathologic network behavior of the pulvinar. In conclusion, we suggest that pulvinar regional baseline oscillatory activity and its resting-state network dynamics are compromised in MDD and can be modulated therapeutically by pharmacological treatment. PMID:27148894

  10. Assessing needs and assets for building a regional network infrastructure to reduce cancer related health disparities.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kristen J; Lima, Diana S; Meade, Cathy D; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K; Pledger, W Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W; Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O; Green, B Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y

    2014-06-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nation-wide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. PMID:24486917

  11. Assessing Needs and Assets for Building a Regional Network Infrastructure to Reduce Cancer Related Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Lima, Diana S.; Meade, Cathy D.; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K.; Pledger, W. Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E.; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S.; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W.; Price-Haywood, Eboni G.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O.; Green, B. Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nationwide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. PMID:24486917

  12. COMPARISON OF SULFUR MEASUREMENTS FROM A REGIONAL FINE PARTICLE NETWORK WITH CONCURRENT ACID MODES NETWORK RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fine Particle Network (FPN), a system of fine particle (less than 2.5 um) samplers, was operated at 41 sites selected from the Environmental Protection Agency Acid MODES program during a two year period in 1988-90. he 24-hour sample results included fine particle mass and the...

  13. Regional Differences in the Developmental Trajectory of Lateralization of the Language Network

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Madison M.; Mayo, Jessica; Parks, Erin N.; Rosenberger, Lisa R.; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J.; Gaillard, William Davis

    2012-01-01

    The timing and developmental factors underlying the establishment of language dominance are poorly understood. We investigated the degree of lateralization of traditional fronto-temporal and modulatory prefrontal-cerebellar regions of the distributed language network in children (n=57) ages 4 to 12 – a critical period for language consolidation. We examined the relationship between the strength of language lateralization and neuropsychological measures and task performance. The fundamental language network is established by four with ongoing maturation of language functions as evidenced by strengthening of lateralization in the traditional frontotemporal language regions; temporal regions were strongly and consistently lateralized by seven, while frontal regions had greater variability and were less strongly lateralized through age ten. In contrast, the modulatory prefrontal-cerebellar regions were the least strongly lateralized and degree of lateralization was not associated with age. Stronger core language skills were significantly correlated with greater right lateralization in the cerebellum. PMID:23033058

  14. QIN. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Doot, Robert K.; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E.; Allberg, Keith C.; Linden, Hannah M.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging is a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. PMID:22795929

  15. Unconscious word processing engages a distributed network of brain regions.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Michele T; McCarthy, Gregory

    2007-11-01

    A briefly exposed visual stimulus may not be consciously perceived if it is preceded and followed by a dissimilar visual pattern or mask. Despite the subject's lack of awareness, prior behavioral studies have shown that such masked stimuli, nevertheless, engage domain-specific processes [Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., Cohen, L., Le Bihan, D., Mangin, J.-F., Poline, J.-B., et al. Cerebral mechanisms of word masking and unconscious repetition priming. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 752-758, 2001; Bar, M., & Biederman, I. Subliminal visual priming. Psychological Science, 9, 464-469, 1998; Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., Le Clec'H, G., Koechlin, E., Mueller, M., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., et al. Imaging unconscious semantic priming. Nature, 395, 597-600, 1998; Whalen, P. J., Rauch, S. L., Etcoff, N. L., McInerney, S. C., Lee, M. B., & Jenike, M. A. Masked presentations of emotional facial expressions modulate amygdala activity without explicit knowledge. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 411-418, 1998; Marcel, A. J. Conscious and unconscious perception: Experiments on visual masking and word recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 197-237, 1983]. Masking thus provides a method for identifying language processes that are preattentive and automatic. Functional magnetic resonance imaging used in concert with masking may identify brain regions engaged by these unconscious language processes. In an adaptation design, subjects viewed a continuous stream of masked words and masked nonwords while performing an unrelated detection task, in which they were asked to make a response to a visible colored nonword stimulus (i.e., ampersands in red or blue font). Most trials were masked nonwords and masked words were presented once every 12-15 sec. The task ensured participant engagement, while the masked nonword baseline controlled for perceptual and orthographic processing. Participants were naïve to the purpose of the experiment and testing indicated that they did not consciously perceive either the words

  16. Protection against 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) - induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes by an inducer of the glutathione detoxification pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, Erika L.; Bubel, Jennifer D.; Simper, Melissa S.; Powell, Leslie; McClellan, S. Alex; Andreeff, Michael; MacLeod, Michael C.; DiGiovanni, John

    2011-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM or mustard gas) was first used as a chemical warfare agent almost 100 years ago. Due to its toxic effects on the eyes, lungs, and skin, and the relative ease with which it may be synthesized, mustard gas remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. SM exposed skin develops fluid filled bullae resulting from potent cytotoxicity of cells lining the basement membrane of the epidermis. Currently, there are no antidotes for SM exposure; therefore, chemopreventive measures for first responders following an SM attack are needed. Glutathione (GSH) is known to have a protective effect against SM toxicity, and detoxification of SM is believed to occur, in part, via GSH conjugation. Therefore, we screened 6 potential chemopreventive agents for ability to induce GSH synthesis and protect cultured human keratinocytes against the SM analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Using NCTC2544 human keratinocytes, we found that both sulforaphane and methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) stimulated nuclear localization of Nrf2 and induced expression of the GSH synthesis gene, GCLM. Additionally, we found that treatment with CDDO-Me elevated reduced GSH content of NCTC2544 cells and preserved their viability by {approx} 3-fold following exposure to CEES. Our data also suggested that CDDO-Me may act additively with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a nucleophilic scavenging agent, to increase the viability of keratinocytes exposed to CEES. These results suggest that CDDO-Me is a promising chemopreventive agent for SM toxicity in the skin. - Highlights: > CDDO-Me treatment increased intracellular GSH in human keratinocytes. > CDDO-Me increased cell viability following exposure to the half-mustard, CEES. > The cytoprotective effect of CDDO-Me was likely due to scavenging with endogenous GSH.

  17. Tree-Ring Network and Climate in the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchan, R.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Shishov, V.; Kerchouche, D.; Sivrikaya, F.; Slimani, S.; Ilmen, R.; Attieh, J.; Stephan, J.; Hasnaoui, F.; Mitsopoulos, I.; Christou, A.; Sesbou, A.; Meko, D. M.; Cook, B.

    2013-12-01

    Drought is a focal point in the assessment of hydroclimatic variability in the Mediterranean Basin. Droughts can have drastic social and economic impacts, particularly in North Africa (NA) and Eastern Mediterranean (EM) where population is increasing rapidly and water supplies are extremely limited. Knowledge of drought variability on time scales of decades to centuries is needed to understand and prepare for dry and wet conditions in the region. Drought-sensitive tree-ring records are a valuable resource for extending knowledge of hydroclimatic variability both in space and time. Here we will discuss the first large scale systematic tree-ring sampling in NA and EM. One-hundred-fifty chronologies have been developed or are being developed. We conducted a site-by-site correlation analysis of each residual ring-width chronology from the EM against local gridded climate data to identify the appropriate hydroclimatic season for developing point-to- point precipitation and drought field reconstruction. The warm season May-July emerges as broadly important to tree-ring chronologies in the EM.

  18. Observation and Modelling of Micropore Formation in Active Network Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T. E.; Löfdahl, M. G.; Bercik, D. J.

    2002-06-01

    We present phase-diversity corrected G-band 4305 Å and 4364 Å continuum image time series showing the formation of a micropore in a small active region near disk center. The data were acquired at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope on La Palma in June of 1997 and post-processed using the Phase Diverse Speckle (PDS) algorithm to produce diffraction limited images throughout the majority of both time series. The micropore dataset comprises a 29x29 Mm field of view and spans 5.1 hours with a 38 second cadence. The micropore forms in a strong sink area that can be seen to ``collect" many G-band bright points over the first 2 hours of the observation. During this time there is an occasional darkening at the sink point that may be the first unstable phase of the micropore formation. Once a stable dark pore forms in the flowfield, it grows to a maximum diameter of 1.2 Mm in approximately 1.9 hours. The pore persists for another 35 minutes before apparently being broken up by the intergranular flowfield. The total ``lifetime" of the stable pore phase is 2.5 hours. A separate nearby micropore of 1.5 Mm maximum diameter exists for the entire 5.2 hour data span. We show G-band and continuum movies of the micropore formation, correlation tracking flowfield analyses, G-band bright point tracking results, and area versus time plots for the micropore formation lifetime. The observational data are compared with fully compressible 3D MHD numerical simulations which show the development of a similar micropore structure within the computational domain. This research was supported by NASA SR&T grant NASW-98008, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, NSF and NASA funding at Michigan State University, and Lockheed Martin IRAD funding.

  19. Genetic network properties of the human cortex based on regional thickness and surface area measures

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, Anna R.; Sawyers, Chelsea K.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Neale, Michael C.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Franz, Carol E.; Chen, Chi-Hua; McEvoy, Linda K.; Verhulst, Brad; Tsuang, Ming T.; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    We examined network properties of genetic covariance between average cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) within genetically-identified cortical parcellations that we previously derived from human cortical genetic maps using vertex-wise fuzzy clustering analysis with high spatial resolution. There were 24 hierarchical parcellations based on vertex-wise CT and 24 based on vertex-wise SA expansion/contraction; in both cases the 12 parcellations per hemisphere were largely symmetrical. We utilized three techniques—biometrical genetic modeling, cluster analysis, and graph theory—to examine genetic relationships and network properties within and between the 48 parcellation measures. Biometrical modeling indicated significant shared genetic covariance between size of several of the genetic parcellations. Cluster analysis suggested small distinct groupings of genetic covariance; networks highlighted several significant negative and positive genetic correlations between bilateral parcellations. Graph theoretical analysis suggested that small world, but not rich club, network properties may characterize the genetic relationships between these regional size measures. These findings suggest that cortical genetic parcellations exhibit short characteristic path lengths across a broad network of connections. This property may be protective against network failure. In contrast, previous research with structural data has observed strong rich club properties with tightly interconnected hub networks. Future studies of these genetic networks might provide powerful phenotypes for genetic studies of normal and pathological brain development, aging, and function. PMID:26347632

  20. Multiwavelength lidar node development and simulation for a regional tropospheric aerosol monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawelko, E. E.; Ristori, P. R.; Otero, L. A.; Pallotta, J. V.; Quel, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    This work studies multiwavelength lidar node operation requirements to operate in a regional aerosol monitoring network. Some of the parameters taken into account are simplicity and robustness of the system in continuous and remote operation conditions. Sub-system modularity and accessibility is also contemplated. A numerical simulation is performed on a synthetic atmospheric signal to analyze the behaviour of this system in a) the visible (532 nm) and infrared (1064 nm) spectral regions; b) the main atmospheric compound Raman spectral region (nitrogen, oxygen water vapor). Adding depolarization channels in the 532 nm spectral region is also contemplated.

  1. EDCTP regional networks of excellence: initial merits for planned clinical trials in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and combating hotspots with escalating but preventable communicable diseases remain major challenges in Africa. The European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) intervened to combat poverty-related diseases including malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, and to conduct multi-centre clinical trials and multi-disciplinary health research through an innovative model of regional Networks of Excellence (NoEs). Methods We participated in a quasi-formative evaluation between October and December 2011 on the 4 regional-led research networks. These included the: Central Africa Network on Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and Malaria (CANTAM); East African Consortium for Clinical Research (EACCR); West African Network of Excellence for TB, AIDS and Malaria (WANETAM), and the Trials of Excellence for Southern Africa (TESA) launched between 2009 and 2010. We shared a participatory appraisal of field reports, progress reports and presentations from each network to jointly outline the initial experiences of the merits, outputs and lessons learnt. Results The self-regulating democratic networks, with 64 institutions in 21 African countries, have trained over 1, 000 African scientists, upgraded 36 sites for clinical trials, leveraged additional € 24 million and generated 38 peer-reviewed publications through networking and partnerships. Conclusions The shared initial merits and lessons learnt portray in part the strengthened capacity of these networks for improved research coordination and conduct of planned multi-center clinical trials in Africa. Increased funding by African agencies, governments and international health partners will ensure sustainability of these networks for research capacity development and demonstrate their commitment to achieving the MDGs in Africa. PMID:23517572

  2. Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtezion, S.

    2015-12-01

    Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building Senay Habtezion (shabtezion@start.org) / Hassan Virji (hvirji@start.org)Global Change SySTem for Analysis, Training and Research (START) (www.start.org) 2000 Florida Avenue NW, Suite 200 Washington, DC 20009 USA As part of the Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) project partnership effort to promote use of earth observations in advancing scientific knowledge, START works to bridge capacity needs related to earth observations (EOs) and their applications in the developing world. GOFC-GOLD regional networks, fostered through the support of regional and thematic workshops, have been successful in (1) enabling participation of scientists for developing countries and from the US to collaborate on key GOFC-GOLD and Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC) issues, including NASA Global Data Set validation and (2) training young developing country scientists to gain key skills in EOs data management and analysis. Members of the regional networks are also engaged and reengaged in other EOs programs (e.g. visiting scientists program; data initiative fellowship programs at the USGS EROS Center and Boston University), which has helped strengthen these networks. The presentation draws from these experiences in advocating for integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building through the lens of the GOFC-GOLD partnership effort. Specifically, this presentation describes the role of the GODC-GOLD partnership in nurturing organic networks of scientists and EOs practitioners in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe and Latin America.

  3. Regional Webgis User Access Patterns Based on a Weighted Bipartite Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Shen, Y.; Huang, W.; Wu, H.

    2015-07-01

    With the rapid development of geographic information services, Web Geographic Information Systems (WebGIS) have become an indispensable part of everyday life; correspondingly, map search engines have become extremely popular with users and WebGIS sites receive a massive volume of requests for access. These WebGIS users and the content accessed have regional characteristics; to understand regional patterns, we mined regional WebGIS user access patterns based on a weighted bipartite network. We first established a weighted bipartite network model for regional user access to a WebGIS. Then, based on the massive user WebGIS access logs, we clustered geographic information accessed and thereby identified hot access areas. Finally we quantitatively analyzed the access interests of regional users and the visitation volume characteristics of regional user access to these hot access areas in terms of user access permeability, user usage rate, and user access viscosity. Our research results show that regional user access to WebGIS is spatially aggregated, and the hot access areas that regional users accessed are associated with specific periods of time. Most regional user contact with hot accessed areas is variable and intermittent but for some users, their access to certain areas is continuous as it is associated with ongoing or recurrent objectives. The weighted bipartite network model for regional user WebGIS access provides a valid analysis method for studying user behaviour in WebGIS and the proposed access pattern exhibits access interest of regional user is spatiotemporal aggregated and presents a heavy-tailed distribution. Understanding user access patterns is good for WebGIS providers and supports better operational decision-making, and helpful for developers when optimizing WebGIS system architecture and deployment, so as to improve the user experience and to expand the popularity of WebGIS.

  4. Between-network connectivity occurs in brain regions lacking layer IV input.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Korey P; Kronberg, Eugene; Maharajh, Keeran; Smucny, Jason; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Tregellas, Jason R

    2015-08-01

    To better understand the cortical circuitry underlying connectivity between large-scale neural networks, we develop a novel, data-driven approach to identify potential integration subregions. Between-network connectivity (BNC) associated with any anatomical region is the amount of connectivity between that point and all large-scale networks, as measured using simple and multiple correlations. It is straightforward to calculate and applicable to functional networks identified using independent components analysis. We calculated BNC for all fMRI voxels within the brain and compared the results to known regional cytoarchitectural patterns. Based on previous observations of the relationship between macroscopic connectivity and microscopic cytoarchitecture, we predicted that areas with high BNC will be located in paralimbic subregions with an undifferentiated laminar structure. Results suggest that the anterior insula and dorsal posterior cingulate cortices play prominent roles in information integration. Cytoarchitecturely, these areas show agranular or dysgranular cytologies with absent or disrupted cortical layer IV. Since layer IV is the primary recipient of feed-forward thalamocortical connections, and due to the exclusive nature of driving connections to this layer, we suggest that the absence of cortical layer IV might allow for information to be exchanged across networks, and is an organizational characteristic of brain-subregions serving as inter-network communication hubs. PMID:25979667

  5. Investigating Temperature and Rainfall Patterns over the Amazon Region using Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boers, N.; Bookhagen, B.; Marwan, N.; Kurths, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Amazon rainforest is of distinct climatological interest due to its carbon storage capability. It has been suggested that the region may undergo dramatic shifts in global warming scenarios, thereby possibly loosing its stabilizing effect on the regional and global climate. In the last decade, several extreme droughts have been reported, causing the rainforest to release substantially more carbon dioxide than it could absorb. In combination with ongoing deforestation, this raises concerns that the Amazon rainforest may indeed experience a tipping point in the near future. It has been speculated that the rainforest ecosystem might become unstable and change towards a savanna or desert, with drastic impacts on the global climate system. The physical mechanisms at work, in particular the interplay of temperature, precipitation, and vegetation are complex and not well understood. Relying on both climatological re-analysis and satellite-derived rainfall and temperature data, we investigate temperature and precipitation patterns in the region using complex networks. This new approach has proven very useful in the analysis of spatio-temporal data in general and of global temperature dependencies in particular. We construct precipitation networks by quantifying the degree of synchronization of rainfall events and temperature networks by measuring the degree of correlation between time series at different places. In both network types, we investigate structural differences corresponding to different ENSO-stages. Furthermore, we search for patterns in both precipitation and temperature networks which might possibly explain the reported droughts.

  6. Shared visions: Partnership of Rockwell International and NASA Cost Effectiveness Enhancements (CEE) for the space shuttle system integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejmuk, Bohdan I.; Williams, Larry

    1992-01-01

    As a result of limited resources and tight fiscal constraints over the past several years, the defense and aerospace industries have experienced a downturn in business activity. The impact of fewer contracts being awarded has placed a greater emphasis for effectiveness and efficiency on industry contractors. It is clear that a reallocation of resources is required for America to continue to lead the world in space and technology. The key to technological and economic survival is the transforming of existing programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program, into more cost efficient programs so as to divert the savings to other NASA programs. The partnership between Rockwell International and NASA and their joint improvement efforts that resulted in significant streamlining and cost reduction measures to Rockwell International Space System Division's work on the Space Shuttle System Integration Contract is described. This work was a result of an established Cost Effectiveness Enhancement (CEE) Team formed initially in Fiscal Year 1991, and more recently expanded to a larger scale CEE Initiative in 1992. By working closely with the customer in agreeing to contract content, obtaining management endorsement and commitment, and involving the employees in total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement 'teams,' the initial annual cost reduction target was exceeded significantly. The CEE Initiative helped reduce the cost of the Shuttle Systems Integration contract while establishing a stronger program based upon customer needs, teamwork, quality enhancements, and cost effectiveness. This was accomplished by systematically analyzing, challenging, and changing the established processes, practices, and systems. This examination, in nature, was work intensive due to the depth and breadth of the activity. The CEE Initiative has provided opportunities to make a difference in the way Rockwell and NASA work together - to update the methods and processes of the organizations

  7. Shared visions: Partnership of Rockwell International and NASA Cost Effectiveness Enhancements (CEE) for the space shuttle system integration program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejmuk, Bohdan I.; Williams, Larry

    As a result of limited resources and tight fiscal constraints over the past several years, the defense and aerospace industries have experienced a downturn in business activity. The impact of fewer contracts being awarded has placed a greater emphasis for effectiveness and efficiency on industry contractors. It is clear that a reallocation of resources is required for America to continue to lead the world in space and technology. The key to technological and economic survival is the transforming of existing programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program, into more cost efficient programs so as to divert the savings to other NASA programs. The partnership between Rockwell International and NASA and their joint improvement efforts that resulted in significant streamlining and cost reduction measures to Rockwell International Space System Division's work on the Space Shuttle System Integration Contract is described. This work was a result of an established Cost Effectiveness Enhancement (CEE) Team formed initially in Fiscal Year 1991, and more recently expanded to a larger scale CEE Initiative in 1992. By working closely with the customer in agreeing to contract content, obtaining management endorsement and commitment, and involving the employees in total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement 'teams,' the initial annual cost reduction target was exceeded significantly. The CEE Initiative helped reduce the cost of the Shuttle Systems Integration contract while establishing a stronger program based upon customer needs, teamwork, quality enhancements, and cost effectiveness. This was accomplished by systematically analyzing, challenging, and changing the established processes, practices, and systems. This examination, in nature, was work intensive due to the depth and breadth of the activity. The CEE Initiative has provided opportunities to make a difference in the way Rockwell and NASA work together - to update the methods and processes of the organizations

  8. Effectiveness of the New Hampshire stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    The stream-gaging network in New Hampshire was analyzed for its effectiveness in providing regional information on peak-flood flow, mean-flow, and low-flow frequency. The data available for analysis were from stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and selected stations in adjacent States. The principles of generalized-least-squares regression analysis were applied to develop regional regression equations that relate streamflow-frequency characteristics to watershed characteristics. Regression equations were developed for (1) the instantaneous peak flow with a 100-year recurrence interval, (2) the mean-annual flow, and (3) the 7-day, 10-year low flow. Active and discontinued stream-gaging stations with 10 or more years of flow data were used to develop the regression equations. Each stream-gaging station in the network was evaluated and ranked on the basis of how much the data from that station contributed to the cost-weighted sampling-error component of the regression equation. The potential effect of data from proposed and new stream-gaging stations on the sampling error also was evaluated. The stream-gaging network was evaluated for conditions in water year 2000 and for estimated conditions under various network strategies if an additional 5 years and 20 years of streamflow data were collected. The effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow information could be improved for all three flow characteristics with the collection of additional flow data, both temporally and spatially. With additional years of data collection, the greatest reduction in the average sampling error of the regional regression equations was found for the peak- and low-flow characteristics. In general, additional data collection at stream-gaging stations with unregulated flow, relatively short-term record (less than 20 years), and drainage areas smaller than 45 square miles contributed the largest cost-weighted reduction to the average sampling error of the

  9. Networked Interactive Whiteboards: Rationale, Affordances and New Pedagogies for Regional Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an argument for the use of networked interactive whiteboards (NIWBs) in regional Australian higher education and identifies new pedagogies for this context. Most Australian universities operate multiple campuses, and many use video conference facilities to deliver courses across these sites. For students at remote video…

  10. Regional Centres of Expertise: Innovative Networking for Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadeeva, Zinaida; Mochizuki, Yoko

    2007-01-01

    The concept of Regional Centres of Expertise (RCEs) on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) has been enthusiastically embraced by a diverse array of actors since it was first introduced by the United Nations University (UNU) in 2004. An RCE is conceived of as a "network" of existing organisations of formal, nonformal and informal education,…

  11. Network of European regions using space technologies an update on the NEREUS constitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Marianna; Campostrini, Pierpaolo

    2010-01-01

    The EU and ESA space research and development programmes give a consolidated model for international cooperation. They represent a good framework to develop and enhance different initiatives at global, regional and local level. The impact of space activities covers different areas of interest such as: the development of Earth observation applications for environment monitoring and risk prevention and management, the development of satellite communications and information systems, the exploitation of global satellite positioning and navigation systems, the knowledge of the Universe, the utilisation of ground segment engineering. These activities involve also the regional and local governments. This is particularly evident if we look at the competences of the European regional governments. Several European regions deal with a number of issues in areas linked to space activities. In line with these reflections a number of European regional governments supported by the Committee of the Regions launched the idea to create a Network of European Regions Using Space technologies—NEREUS. This Network is an International non-profit association (AISBL— Association International Sans But Lucratif) under Belgian law. The aim of this paper is to review the course of the initiative since its launch in April 2006, giving an update of the work done for its constitution.

  12. Bayesian WLS/GLS regression for regional skewness analysis for regions with large crest stage gage networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veilleux, Andrea G.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Eash, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes methodological advances in regional log-space skewness analyses that support flood-frequency analysis with the log Pearson Type III (LP3) distribution. A Bayesian Weighted Least Squares/Generalized Least Squares (B-WLS/B-GLS) methodology that relates observed skewness coefficient estimators to basin characteristics in conjunction with diagnostic statistics represents an extension of the previously developed B-GLS methodology. B-WLS/B-GLS has been shown to be effective in two California studies. B-WLS/B-GLS uses B-WLS to generate stable estimators of model parameters and B-GLS to estimate the precision of those B-WLS regression parameters, as well as the precision of the model. The study described here employs this methodology to develop a regional skewness model for the State of Iowa. To provide cost effective peak-flow data for smaller drainage basins in Iowa, the U.S. Geological Survey operates a large network of crest stage gages (CSGs) that only record flow values above an identified recording threshold (thus producing a censored data record). CSGs are different from continuous-record gages, which record almost all flow values and have been used in previous B-GLS and B-WLS/B-GLS regional skewness studies. The complexity of analyzing a large CSG network is addressed by using the B-WLS/B-GLS framework along with the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA). Because EMA allows for the censoring of low outliers, as well as the use of estimated interval discharges for missing, censored, and historic data, it complicates the calculations of effective record length (and effective concurrent record length) used to describe the precision of sample estimators because the peak discharges are no longer solely represented by single values. Thus new record length calculations were developed. The regional skewness analysis for the State of Iowa illustrates the value of the new B-WLS/BGLS methodology with these new extensions.

  13. On the Role of Hyper-arid Regions within the Virtual Water Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggrey, James; Alshamsi, Aamena; Molini, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    Climate change, economic development, and population growth are bound to increasingly impact global water resources, posing a significant threat to the sustainable development of arid regions, where water consumption highly exceeds the natural carrying capacity, population growth rate is high, and climate variability is going to impact both water consumption and availability. Virtual Water Trade (VWT) - i.e. the international trade network of water-intensive products - has been proposed as a possible solution to optimize the allocation of water resources on the global scale. By increasing food availability and lowering food prices it may in fact help the rapid development of water-scarce regions. The structure of the VWT network has been analyzed by a number of authors both in connection with trade policies, socioeconomic constrains and agricultural efficiency. However a systematic analysis of the structure and the dynamics of the VWT network conditional to aridity, climatic forcing and energy availability, is still missing. Our goal is hence to analyze the role of arid and hyper-arid regions within the VWN under diverse climatic, demographic, and energy constraints with an aim to contribute to the ongoing Energy-Water-Food nexus discussion. In particular, we focus on the hyper-arid lands of the Arabian Peninsula, the role they play in the global network and the assessment of their specific criticalities, as reflected in the VWN resilience.

  14. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Doot, Robert K; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E; Allberg, Keith C; Linden, Hannah M; Mankoff, David A; Kinahan, Paul E

    2012-11-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging are a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing the feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed, and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. PMID:22795929

  15. Healthcare Supported by Data Mule Networks in Remote Communities of the Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Mauro Margalho; Efrat, Alon; Richa, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using boats as data mule nodes, carrying medical ultrasound videos from remote and isolated communities in the Amazon region in Brazil, to the main city of that area. The videos will be used by physicians to perform remote analysis and follow-up routine of prenatal examinations of pregnant women. Two open source simulators (the ONE and NS-2) were used to evaluate the results obtained utilizing a CoDPON (continuous displacement plan oriented network). The simulations took into account the connection times between the network nodes (boats) and the number of nodes on each boat route.

  16. Intrinsic brain networks normalize with treatment in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Lino; Sava, Simona; Simons, Laura E.; Drosos, Athena M.; Sethna, Navil; Berde, Charles; Lebel, Alyssa A.; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (P-CRPS) offers a unique model of chronic neuropathic pain as it either resolves spontaneously or through therapeutic interventions in most patients. Here we evaluated brain changes in well-characterized children and adolescents with P-CRPS by measuring resting state networks before and following a brief (median = 3 weeks) but intensive physical and psychological treatment program, and compared them to matched healthy controls. Differences in intrinsic brain networks were observed in P-CRPS compared to controls before treatment (disease state) with the most prominent differences in the fronto-parietal, salience, default mode, central executive, and sensorimotor networks. Following treatment, behavioral measures demonstrated a reduction of symptoms and improvement of physical state (pain levels and motor functioning). Correlation of network connectivities with spontaneous pain measures pre- and post-treatment indicated concomitant reductions in connectivity in salience, central executive, default mode and sensorimotor networks (treatment effects). These results suggest a rapid alteration in global brain networks with treatment and provide a venue to assess brain changes in CRPS pre- and post-treatment, and to evaluate therapeutic effects. PMID:25379449

  17. Prevalence of small-scale jets from the networks of the solar transition region and chromosphere.

    PubMed

    Tian, H; DeLuca, E E; Cranmer, S R; De Pontieu, B; Peter, H; Martínez-Sykora, J; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Miralles, M P; McCauley, P; Saar, S; Testa, P; Weber, M; Murphy, N; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; Kleint, L; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V; McIntosh, S W

    2014-10-17

    As the interface between the Sun's photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80 to 250 kilometers per second from the narrow bright network lanes of this interface region. These jets have lifetimes of 20 to 80 seconds and widths of ≤300 kilometers. They originate from small-scale bright regions, often preceded by footpoint brightenings and accompanied by transverse waves with amplitudes of ~20 kilometers per second. Many jets reach temperatures of at least ~10(5) kelvin and constitute an important element of the transition region structures. They are likely an intermittent but persistent source of mass and energy for the solar wind. PMID:25324395

  18. Delineating Geographical Regions with Networks of Human Interactions in an Extensive Set of Countries

    PubMed Central

    Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Szell, Michael; Campari, Riccardo; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Ratti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale networks of human interaction, in particular country-wide telephone call networks, can be used to redraw geographical maps by applying algorithms of topological community detection. The geographic projections of the emerging areas in a few recent studies on single regions have been suggested to share two distinct properties: first, they are cohesive, and second, they tend to closely follow socio-economic boundaries and are similar to existing political regions in size and number. Here we use an extended set of countries and clustering indices to quantify overlaps, providing ample additional evidence for these observations using phone data from countries of various scales across Europe, Asia, and Africa: France, the UK, Italy, Belgium, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, and Ivory Coast. In our analysis we use the known approach of partitioning country-wide networks, and an additional iterative partitioning of each of the first level communities into sub-communities, revealing that cohesiveness and matching of official regions can also be observed on a second level if spatial resolution of the data is high enough. The method has possible policy implications on the definition of the borderlines and sizes of administrative regions. PMID:24367490

  19. Searchlight Correlation Detectors: Optimal Seismic Monitoring Using Regional and Global Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Kværna, Tormod; Näsholm, Sven Peter

    2015-04-01

    The sensitivity of correlation detectors increases greatly when the outputs from multiple seismic traces are considered. For single-array monitoring, a zero-offset stack of individual correlation traces will provide significant noise suppression and enhanced sensitivity for a source region surrounding the hypocenter of the master event. The extent of this region is limited only by the decrease in waveform similarity with increasing hypocenter separation. When a regional or global network of arrays and/or 3-component stations is employed, the zero-offset approach is only optimal when the master and detected events are co-located exactly. In many monitoring situations, including nuclear test sites and geothermal fields, events may be separated by up to many hundreds of meters while still retaining sufficient waveform similarity for correlation detection on single channels. However, the traveltime differences resulting from the hypocenter separation may result in significant beam loss on the zero-offset stack and a deployment of many beams for different hypothetical source locations in geographical space is required. The beam deployment necessary for optimal performance of the correlation detectors is determined by an empirical network response function which is most easily evaluated using the auto-correlation functions of the waveform templates from the master event. The correlation detector beam deployments for providing optimal network sensitivity for the North Korea nuclear test site are demonstrated for both regional and teleseismic monitoring configurations.

  20. Attentional performance is correlated with the local regional efficiency of intrinsic brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junhai; Yin, Xuntao; Ge, Haitao; Han, Yan; Pang, Zengchang; Tang, Yuchun; Liu, Baolin; Liu, Shuwei

    2015-01-01

    Attention is a crucial brain function for human beings. Using neuropsychological paradigms and task-based functional brain imaging, previous studies have indicated that widely distributed brain regions are engaged in three distinct attention subsystems: alerting, orienting and executive control (EC). Here, we explored the potential contribution of spontaneous brain activity to attention by examining whether resting-state activity could account for individual differences of the attentional performance in normal individuals. The resting-state functional images and behavioral data from attention network test (ANT) task were collected in 59 healthy subjects. Graph analysis was conducted to obtain the characteristics of functional brain networks and linear regression analyses were used to explore their relationships with behavioral performances of the three attentional components. We found that there was no significant relationship between the attentional performance and the global measures, while the attentional performance was associated with specific local regional efficiency. These regions related to the scores of alerting, orienting and EC largely overlapped with the regions activated in previous task-related functional imaging studies, and were consistent with the intrinsic dorsal and ventral attention networks (DAN/VAN). In addition, the strong associations between the attentional performance and specific regional efficiency suggested that there was a possible relationship between the DAN/VAN and task performances in the ANT. We concluded that the intrinsic activity of the human brain could reflect the processing efficiency of the attention system. Our findings revealed a robust evidence for the functional significance of the efficiently organized intrinsic brain network for highly productive cognitions and the hypothesized role of the DAN/VAN at rest. PMID:26283939

  1. NOAA/NCEI/Regional Climate Services: Working with Partners and Stakeholders across a Wide Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecray, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    Federal agencies all require plans to be prepared at the state level that outline the implementation of funding to address wildlife habitat, human health, transportation infrastructure, coastal zone management, environmental management, emergency management, and others. These plans are now requiring the consideration of changing climate conditions. So where does a state turn to discuss lessons learned, obtain tools and information to assess climate conditions, and to work with other states in their region? Regional networks and collaboratives are working to deliver this sector by sector. How do these networks work? Do they fit together in any way? What similarities and differences exist? Is anyone talking across these lines to find common climate information requirements? A sketch is forming that links these efforts, not by blending the sectors, but by finding the areas where coordination is critical, where information needs are common, and where delivery mechanisms can be streamlined. NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Information's Regional Climate Services Directors have been working at the interface of stakeholder-driven information delivery since 2010. This talk will outline the regional climate services delivery framework for the Eastern Region, with examples of regional products and information.

  2. The Evolution and Expansion of Regional Disease Surveillance Networks and Their Role in Mitigating the Threat of Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Katherine C.; Macfarlane, Sarah B.; Burke, Charlanne; Ungchusak, Kumnuan; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2013-01-01

    We examine the emergence, development, and value of regional infectious disease surveillance networks that neighboring countries worldwide are organizing to control cross-border outbreaks at their source. The regional perspective represented in the paper is intended to serve as an instructive framework for others who decide to launch such networks as new technologies and emerging threats bring countries even closer together. Distinct from more formal networks in geographic regions designated by the World Health Organization (WHO), these networks usually involve groupings of fewer countries chosen by national governments to optimize surveillance efforts. Sometimes referred to as sub-regional, these “self-organizing” networks complement national and local government recognition with informal relationships across borders among epidemiologists, scientists, ministry officials, health workers, border officers, and community members. Their development over time reflects both incremental learning and growing connections among network actors; and changing disease patterns, with infectious disease threats shifting over time from local to regional to global levels. Not only has this regional disease surveillance network model expanded across the globe, it has also expanded from a mostly practitioner-based network model to one that covers training, capacity-building, and multidisciplinary research. Today, several of these networks are linked through Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS). We explore how regional disease surveillance networks add value to global disease detection and response by complementing other systems and efforts, by harnessing their power to achieve other goals such as health and human security, and by helping countries adapt to complex challenges via multi-sectoral solutions. We note that governmental commitment and trust among participating individuals are critical to the success of regional infectious disease

  3. The European ALMA Regional Centre Network: A Geographically Distributed User Support Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatziminaoglou, E.; Zwaan, M.; Andreani, P.; Barta, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Brand, J.; Gueth, F.; Hogerheijde, M.; Maercker, M.; Massardi, M.; Muehle, S.; Muxlow, Th.; Richards, A.; Schilke, P.; Tilanus, R.; Vlemmings, W.; Afonso, J.; Messias, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years there has been a paradigm shift from centralised to geographically distributed resources. Individual entities are no longer able to host or afford the necessary expertise in-house, and, as a consequence, society increasingly relies on widespread collaborations. Although such collaborations are now the norm for scientific projects, more technical structures providing support to a distributed scientific community without direct financial or other material benefits are scarce. The network of European ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) nodes is an example of such an internationally distributed user support network. It is an organised effort to provide the European ALMA user community with uniform expert support to enable optimal usage and scientific output of the ALMA facility. The network model for the European ARC nodes is described in terms of its organisation, communication strategies and user support.

  4. Quantification of Road Network Vulnerability and Traffic Impacts to Regional Landslide Hazards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dixon, Neil; Dijkstra, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Slope instability represents a prevalent hazard to transport networks. In the UK regional road networks are frequently disrupted by multiple slope failures triggered during intense precipitation events; primarily due to a degree of regional homogeneity of slope materials, geomorphology and weather conditions. It is of interest to examine how different locations and combinations of slope failure impact road networks, particularly in the context of projected climate change and a 40% increase in UK road demand by 2040. In this study an extensive number (>50 000) of multiple failure event scenarios are simulated within a dynamic micro simulation to assess traffic impacts during peak flow (7 - 10 AM). Possible failure locations are selected within the county of Gloucestershire (3150 km2) using historic failure sites and British Geological Survey GeoSure data. Initial investigations employ a multiple linear regression analyses to consider the severity of traffic impacts, as measured by time, in respect of spatial and topographical network characteristics including connectivity, density and capacity in proximity to failure sites; the network distance between disruptions in multiple failure scenarios is used to consider the effects of spatial clustering. The UK Department of Transport road travel demand and UKCP09 weather projection data to 2080 provide a suitable basis for traffic simulations and probabilistic slope stability assessments. Future work will thus focus on the development of a catastrophe risk model to simulate traffic impacts under various narratives of future travel demand and slope instability under climatic change. The results of this investigation shall contribute to the understanding of road network vulnerabilities and traffic impacts from climate driven slope hazards.

  5. Analysis of surface-water data network in Kansas for effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medina, K.D.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1985-01-01

    The surface water data network in Kansas was analyzed using generalized least squares regression for its effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information. The correlation and time-sampling error of the streamflow characteristic are considered in the generalized least squares method. Unregulated medium-flow, low-flow and high-flow characteristics were selected to be representative of the regional information that can be obtained from streamflow gaging station records for use in evaluating the effectiveness of continuing the present network stations, discontinuing some stations; and/or adding new stations. The analysis used streamflow records for all currently operated stations that were not affected by regulation and discontinued stations for which unregulated flow characteristics , as well as physical and climatic characteristics, were available. The state was divided into three network areas, western, northeastern, and southeastern Kansas, and analysis was made for three streamflow characteristics in each area, using three planning horizons. The analysis showed that the maximum reduction of sampling mean square error for each cost level could be obtained by adding new stations and discontinuing some of the present network stations. Large reductions in sampling mean square error for low-flow information could be accomplished in all three network areas, with western Kansas having the most dramatic reduction. The addition of new stations would be most beneficial for man- flow information in western Kansas, and to lesser degrees in the other two areas. The reduction of sampling mean square error for high-flow information would benefit most from the addition of new stations in western Kansas, and the effect diminishes to lesser degrees in the other two areas. Southeastern Kansas showed the smallest error reduction in high-flow information. A comparison among all three network areas indicated that funding resources could be most effectively used by

  6. Decadal gully development in Northern Ethiopia: Understanding networks, volumes and regional variability from remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankl, Amaury; Poesen, Jean; Scholiers, Nelles; Jacob, Miro; Haile, Mitiku; Deckers, Jozef; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Understanding historical and present-day gully development is essential when addressing the causes and consequences of land degradation. For Northern Ethiopia, several reports exist on the severity of gully erosion, yet few studies quantified gully development. In this paper, gully network and volume development were quantified over the period 1963-2010 for an area of 123 km², representative for the regional variability in environmental characteristics. Gully networks were mapped from small-scale aerial photographs and high-resolution satellite images. As only gully length could be accurately defined from the aerial photographs and satellite images, quantifying gully volume development required to establish relations between gully network volume (V) and length (L) (or catchment area, A). Field observations indicated that the lithology and the presence/or absence of check dams or low-active channels were the most important controls of gully cross-sectional shape and size. From the network and volume development over the period 1963-2010, the occurrence of one cut-and-fill cycle is apparent. From a largely low-dynamic gully system in the 1960s, network expansion and increased erosion rates in the 1980s and 1990s caused the drainage density and volume to peak in 1994. The total gully density (Dtotal) was then 2.52 km km-2, coinciding with soil losses of 17.6 ton ha-1 y-1 over the period 1963/1965-1994. By 2010, improved land management and the region-wide implementation of soil and water conservation measures caused 25% the gully network to stabilize, resulting in a recent net infilling of the gully channels. The study validates previous findings that land degradation by gullying was severe in Northern Ethiopia in the second half of the 20th century, but also shows that when proper land management is applied, gullies can be transformed into a linear oasis, which increases the resistance of gullies to further erosion.

  7. The Armutlu Network: An Investigation on seismotectonic setting of Armutlu-Yalova-Gemlik and Surrounding Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunc, Berna; Woith, Heiko; Ćaka, Deniz; Tunć, Süleyman; Bariş, Å.žErif; Fırat Özer, Mithat; Lühr, Birger; Serkan Irmak, Tahir; Günther, Erwin; Grosser, Helmut; Zschau, Jochen

    2010-05-01

    Yalova-Armutlu-Gemlik region is located on the Marmara Region and western-southwestern part of the 1999 Kocaeli rupture. This region is characterized by strong deformations and is located between two main strands of the North Anatolian Fault system. The Armutlu peninsula is believed to be adjacent to the Intra-Pontid Suture Zone or is even a part of it. This zone and region has a key role to understand neo-tectonic feature of the region and the interaction between high seismicity with high thermal activity and neo-tectonic faults originated by ongoing movement of the two branches of north and south of Armutlu. A horst and graben structure appears in this region whereby the Armutlu Peninsula represents a horst between two branches of the North Anatolian Fault System, resulting in a complex dextral zone. In order to have a better understanding of the relation between micro-earthquake activity, hydrothermal activity and recent stress state of the study region, ARNET (Armutlu Network) was installed by Kocaeli University Earth and Space Science Research Center (ESSRC-YUBAM) at September 2005 with 10 broadband seismic stations. After 6 months, another 10 short period REFTEK stations were added to the network. As a result, we now have 23 seismic stations and 5 hydrothermal stations in and around study area. In June 2009, we replaced REFTEK digitizers with GURALP digitizers at the short period seismic stations. The phase readings obtained from network are performed by zSacWin aigorithm. We also installed ADSL data transmission systems at 12 seismic stations. Currently, we are in the process of installing online communication system to the remaining seismic stations in our network. We also installed SeisComP3 software for data acquisition and automatic location procedure at September 2009. This system is now is in the testing phase. We obtained preliminary micro-earthquake activity of the said region and it shows that the (present) seismic activity increased after the 1999

  8. RADSS: an integration of GIS, spatial statistics, and network service for regional data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haitang; Bao, Shuming; Lin, Hui; Zhu, Qing

    2005-10-01

    Regional data mining, which aims at the discovery of knowledge about spatial patterns, clusters or association between regions, has widely applications nowadays in social science, such as sociology, economics, epidemiology, crime, and so on. Many applications in the regional or other social sciences are more concerned with the spatial relationship, rather than the precise geographical location. Based on the spatial continuity rule derived from Tobler's first law of geography: observations at two sites tend to be more similar to each other if the sites are close together than if far apart, spatial statistics, as an important means for spatial data mining, allow the users to extract the interesting and useful information like spatial pattern, spatial structure, spatial association, spatial outlier and spatial interaction, from the vast amount of spatial data or non-spatial data. Therefore, by integrating with the spatial statistical methods, the geographical information systems will become more powerful in gaining further insights into the nature of spatial structure of regional system, and help the researchers to be more careful when selecting appropriate models. However, the lack of such tools holds back the application of spatial data analysis techniques and development of new methods and models (e.g., spatio-temporal models). Herein, we make an attempt to develop such an integrated software and apply it into the complex system analysis for the Poyang Lake Basin. This paper presents a framework for integrating GIS, spatial statistics and network service in regional data mining, as well as their implementation. After discussing the spatial statistics methods involved in regional complex system analysis, we introduce RADSS (Regional Analysis and Decision Support System), our new regional data mining tool, by integrating GIS, spatial statistics and network service. RADSS includes the functions of spatial data visualization, exploratory spatial data analysis, and

  9. Regional contraction of brain surface area involves three large-scale networks in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Lena; Mallikarjun, Pavan; Joseph, Verghese; White, Thomas P; Liddle, Peter F

    2011-07-01

    In schizophrenia, morphological changes in the cerebral cortex have been primarily investigated using volumetric or cortical thickness measurements. In healthy subjects, as the brain size increases, the surface area expands disproportionately when compared to the scaling of cortical thickness. In this structural MRI study, we investigated the changes in brain surface area in schizophrenia by constructing relative areal contraction/expansion maps showing group differences in surface area using Freesurfer software in 57 patients and 41 controls. We observed relative areal contraction affecting Default Mode Network, Central Executive Network and Salience Network, in addition to other regions in schizophrenia. We confirmed the surface area reduction across these three large-scale brain networks by undertaking further region-of-interest analysis of surface area. We also observed a significant hemispheric asymmetry in the surface area changes, with the left hemisphere showing a greater reduction in the areal contraction maps. Our findings suggest that a fundamental disturbance in cortical expansion is likely in individuals who develop schizophrenia. PMID:21497489

  10. Statistical Study of Network Jets Observed in the Solar Transition Region: a Comparison Between Coronal Holes and Quiet-Sun Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, Nancy; Arbacher, Rebecca T.; Tian, Hui; Banerjee, Dipankar; Cranmer, Steven R.; DeLuca, Ed E.; McKillop, Sean

    2016-04-01

    Recent IRIS observations have revealed a prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with apparent speeds of 80 - 250 km s^{-1}, emanating from small-scale bright regions inside network boundaries of coronal holes. We find that these network jets appear not only in coronal holes but also in quiet-sun regions. Using IRIS 1330 Å (C II) slit-jaw images, we extracted several parameters of these network jets, e.g. apparent speed, length, lifetime, and increase in foot-point brightness. Using several observations, we find that some properties of the jets are very similar, but others are obviously different between the quiet Sun and coronal holes. For example, our study shows that the coronal-hole jets appear to be faster and longer than those in the quiet Sun. This can be directly attributed to a difference in the magnetic configuration of the two regions, with open magnetic field lines rooted in coronal holes and magnetic loops often present in the quiet Sun. We also detected compact bright loops that are most likely transition region loops and are mostly located in quiet-Sun regions. These small loop-like regions are generally devoid of network jets. In spite of different magnetic structures in the coronal hole and quiet Sun in the transition region, there appears to be no substantial difference for the increase in footpoint brightness of the jets, which suggests that the generation mechanism of these network jets is very likely the same in both regions.

  11. An improved regional ionospheric delay model based on the Nanning CORS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lilong; Cai, Chenghui; Chen, Jun; Li, Junyu; Huang, Liangke

    2015-12-01

    Klobuchar model can reflect the spatial and temporal variations of ionospheric feature, but model fixed initial phase and night-time delay will introduce a large number of errors. Aiming at the shortcomings of the models, take least-squares surface fitting model as the background, using CORS network in Nanning region to measure the data correctly, the Klobuchar model's initial phase, amplitude, and night-time delay values are steadily corrected, so as to establish regional ionospheric model in Nanning, the results show that the accuracy of Klobuchar model is improved significantly.

  12. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  13. Network analysis of mesoscale optical recordings to assess regional, functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Diana H.; LeDue, Jeffrey M.; Murphy, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. With modern optical imaging methods, it is possible to map structural and functional connectivity. Optical imaging studies that aim to describe large-scale neural connectivity often need to handle large and complex datasets. In order to interpret these datasets, new methods for analyzing structural and functional connectivity are being developed. Recently, network analysis, based on graph theory, has been used to describe and quantify brain connectivity in both experimental and clinical studies. We outline how to apply regional, functional network analysis to mesoscale optical imaging using voltage-sensitive-dye imaging and channelrhodopsin-2 stimulation in a mouse model. We include links to sample datasets and an analysis script. The analyses we employ can be applied to other types of fluorescence wide-field imaging, including genetically encoded calcium indicators, to assess network properties. We discuss the benefits and limitations of using network analysis for interpreting optical imaging data and define network properties that may be used to compare across preparations or other manipulations such as animal models of disease. PMID:26158019

  14. Improved PPP Ambiguity Resolution Considering the Stochastic Characteristics of Atmospheric Corrections from Regional Networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Yihe; Li, Bofeng; Gao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    With the increased availability of regional reference networks, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can achieve fast ambiguity resolution (AR) and precise positioning by assimilating the satellite fractional cycle biases (FCBs) and atmospheric corrections derived from these networks. In such processing, the atmospheric corrections are usually treated as deterministic quantities. This is however unrealistic since the estimated atmospheric corrections obtained from the network data are random and furthermore the interpolated corrections diverge from the realistic corrections. This paper is dedicated to the stochastic modelling of atmospheric corrections and analyzing their effects on the PPP AR efficiency. The random errors of the interpolated corrections are processed as two components: one is from the random errors of estimated corrections at reference stations, while the other arises from the atmospheric delay discrepancies between reference stations and users. The interpolated atmospheric corrections are then applied by users as pseudo-observations with the estimated stochastic model. Two data sets are processed to assess the performance of interpolated corrections with the estimated stochastic models. The results show that when the stochastic characteristics of interpolated corrections are properly taken into account, the successful fix rate reaches 93.3% within 5 min for a medium inter-station distance network and 80.6% within 10 min for a long inter-station distance network. PMID:26633400

  15. Improved PPP Ambiguity Resolution Considering the Stochastic Characteristics of Atmospheric Corrections from Regional Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yihe; Li, Bofeng; Gao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    With the increased availability of regional reference networks, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can achieve fast ambiguity resolution (AR) and precise positioning by assimilating the satellite fractional cycle biases (FCBs) and atmospheric corrections derived from these networks. In such processing, the atmospheric corrections are usually treated as deterministic quantities. This is however unrealistic since the estimated atmospheric corrections obtained from the network data are random and furthermore the interpolated corrections diverge from the realistic corrections. This paper is dedicated to the stochastic modelling of atmospheric corrections and analyzing their effects on the PPP AR efficiency. The random errors of the interpolated corrections are processed as two components: one is from the random errors of estimated corrections at reference stations, while the other arises from the atmospheric delay discrepancies between reference stations and users. The interpolated atmospheric corrections are then applied by users as pseudo-observations with the estimated stochastic model. Two data sets are processed to assess the performance of interpolated corrections with the estimated stochastic models. The results show that when the stochastic characteristics of interpolated corrections are properly taken into account, the successful fix rate reaches 93.3% within 5 min for a medium inter-station distance network and 80.6% within 10 min for a long inter-station distance network. PMID:26633400

  16. Prevalence of Micro-Jets from the Network Structures of the Solar Transition Region and Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, E. E.; Tian, H.; Cranmer, S. R.; Reeves, K.; Miralles, M. P.; McCauley, P.; McKillop, S.

    2014-12-01

    IRIS observations in the 1330Å, 1400Å and 2796Å passbands have revealed numerous small-scale jet-like features with speeds of ~80-250 km/s from the chromospheric network. These network jets occur in both the quiet Sun and coronal holes. Their widths are often ~300 km or less. Many of these jets show up as elongated features with enhanced line width in maps obtained with transition region (TR) lines, suggesting that these jets reach at least TR temperatures and they constitute an important element of TR structures. The ubiquitous presence of these high-reaching (often >10 Mm) jets also suggests that they may play a crucial role in the mass and energy budgets of the corona and solar wind. The generation of these jets in the network and the accompanying Alfven waves is also consistent with the "magnetic furnace model" of solar wind proposed by Axford & McKenzie (1992). The large speeds (greater than sound speed) suggest that the Lorentz force (perhaps related to reconnection) must play an important role in the generation and propagation of the network jets. We believe that many network jets are the on-disk counterparts and TR manifestation of type-II spicules.

  17. Evaluating Form and Function of Regional Partnerships: Applying Social Network Analysis to the "Network for a Healthy California", 2001-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregson, Jennifer; Sowa, Marcy; Flynn, Heather Kohler

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the partnership structure of the "Network for a Healthy California" ("Network"), a social marketing program, from 2001-2007, to determine if California's program was able to establish and maintain partnerships that (1) provided access to a local audience, (2) facilitated regional collaboration, (3) included new and…

  18. Networking and Development: A Feasibility Study for the Social and Human Sciences Division of UNESCO into the Development of Networking Facilities in the ECA and ECWA Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, John

    This study was performed to discern the feasibility of a Pan-African Network of Social Science Information and Documentation Centres and Services that would serve the regions covered by the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and the Economic Commission for Western Asia (ECWA). This report on the study outlines the various forms networking can…

  19. Chronic Ethanol Exposure Produces Time- and Brain Region-Dependent Changes in Gene Coexpression Networks

    PubMed Central

    Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth A.; Becker, Howard C.; Lopez, Marcelo F.; Farris, Sean P.; Tiwari, Gayatri R.; Nunez, Yury O.; Harris, R. Adron; Mayfield, R. Dayne

    2015-01-01

    Repeated ethanol exposure and withdrawal in mice increases voluntary drinking and represents an animal model of physical dependence. We examined time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks in amygdala (AMY), nucleus accumbens (NAC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and liver after four weekly cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure in C57BL/6J mice. Microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles at 0-, 8-, and 120-hours following the last ethanol exposure. Each brain region exhibited a large number of differentially expressed genes (2,000-3,000) at the 0- and 8-hour time points, but fewer changes were detected at the 120-hour time point (400-600). Within each region, there was little gene overlap across time (~20%). All brain regions were significantly enriched with differentially expressed immune-related genes at the 8-hour time point. Weighted gene correlation network analysis identified modules that were highly enriched with differentially expressed genes at the 0- and 8-hour time points with virtually no enrichment at 120 hours. Modules enriched for both ethanol-responsive and cell-specific genes were identified in each brain region. These results indicate that chronic alcohol exposure causes global ‘rewiring‘ of coexpression systems involving glial and immune signaling as well as neuronal genes. PMID:25803291

  20. KoFlux: Korean Regional Flux Network in AsiaFlux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.

    2002-12-01

    AsiaFlux, the Asian arm of FLUXNET, held the Second International Workshop on Advanced Flux Network and Flux Evaluation in Jeju Island, Korea on 9-11 January 2002. In order to facilitate comprehensive Asia-wide studies of ecosystem fluxes, the meeting launched KoFlux, a new Korean regional network of long-term micrometeorological flux sites. For a successful assessment of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, an accurate measurement of surface fluxes of energy and water is one of the prerequisites. During the 7th Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Asian Monsoon Experiment (GAME) held in Nagoya, Japan on 1-2 October 2001, the Implementation Committee of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) was established. One of the immediate tasks of CEOP was and is to identify the reference sites to monitor energy and water fluxes over the Asian continent. Subsequently, to advance the regional and global network of these reference sites in the context of both FLUXNET and CEOP, the Korean flux community has re-organized the available resources to establish a new regional network, KoFlux. We have built up domestic network sites (equipped with wind profiler and radiosonde measurements) over deciduous and coniferous forests, urban and rural rice paddies and coastal farmland. As an outreach through collaborations with research groups in Japan, China and Thailand, we also proposed international flux sites at ecologically and climatologically important locations such as a prairie on the Tibetan plateau, tropical forest with mixed and rapid land use change in northern Thailand. Several sites in KoFlux already begun to accumulate interesting data and some highlights are presented at the meeting. The sciences generated by flux networks in other continents have proven the worthiness of a global array of micrometeorological flux towers. It is our intent that the launch of KoFlux would encourage other scientists to initiate and

  1. HIV Transmission Networks in the San Diego–Tijuana Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sanjay R.; Wertheim, Joel O.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Wagner, Karla D.; Chaillon, Antoine; Strathdee, Steffanie; Patterson, Thomas L.; Rangel, Maria G.; Vargas, Mlenka; Murrell, Ben; Garfein, Richard; Little, Susan J.; Smith, Davey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV sequence data can be used to reconstruct local transmission networks. Along international borders, like the San Diego–Tijuana region, understanding the dynamics of HIV transmission across reported risks, racial/ethnic groups, and geography can help direct effective prevention efforts on both sides of the border. Methods We gathered sociodemographic, geographic, clinical, and viral sequence data from HIV infected individuals participating in ten studies in the San Diego–Tijuana border region. Phylogenetic and network analysis was performed to infer putative relationships between HIV sequences. Correlates of identified clusters were evaluated and spatiotemporal relationships were explored using Bayesian phylogeographic analysis. Findings After quality filtering, 843 HIV sequences with associated demographic data and 263 background sequences from the region were analyzed, and 138 clusters were inferred (2–23 individuals). Overall, the rate of clustering did not differ by ethnicity, residence, or sex, but bisexuals were less likely to cluster than heterosexuals or men who have sex with men (p = 0.043), and individuals identifying as white (p ≤ 0.01) were more likely to cluster than other races. Clustering individuals were also 3.5 years younger than non-clustering individuals (p < 0.001). Although the sampled San Diego and Tijuana epidemics were phylogenetically compartmentalized, five clusters contained individuals residing on both sides of the border. Interpretation This study sampled ~ 7% of HIV infected individuals in the border region, and although the sampled networks on each side of the border were largely separate, there was evidence of persistent bidirectional cross-border transmissions that linked risk groups, thus highlighting the importance of the border region as a “melting pot” of risk groups. Funding NIH, VA, and Pendleton Foundation. PMID:26629540

  2. Isoscapes of tree-ring carbon-13 perform like meteorological networks in predicting regional precipitation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Castillo, Jorge; Aguilera, Mònica; Voltas, Jordi; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Stable isotopes in tree rings provide climatic information with annual resolution dating back for centuries or even millennia. However, deriving spatially explicit climate models from isotope networks remains challenging. Here we propose a methodology to model regional precipitation from carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) in tree rings by (1) building regional spatial models of Δ13C (isoscapes), and (2) deriving precipitation maps from 13C-isoscapes, taking advantage of the response of Δ13C to precipitation in seasonally-dry climates. As a case study, we modeled the spatial distribution of mean annual precipitation (MAP) in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, a region with complex orography and climate (MAP=303-1086 mm). We compiled wood Δ13C data for two Mediterranean species that exhibit complementary responses to seasonal precipitation (Pinus halepensis Mill., N=38; Quercus ilex L.; N=44; pooling period: 1975-2008). By combining multiple regression and geostatistical interpolation, we generated one 13C-isoscape for each species. A spatial model of MAP was then built as the sum of two complementary maps of seasonal precipitation, each one derived from the corresponding 13C-isoscape (September-November from Q. ilex; December-August from P. halepensis). Our approach showed a predictive power for MAP (RMSE=84 mm) nearly identical to that obtained by interpolating data directly from a similarly dense network of meteorological stations (RMSE=80-83 mm, N=65), being only outperformed when using a much denser meteorological network (RMSE=56-57 mm, N=340). This method offers new avenues for modeling spatial variability of past precipitation, exploiting the large amount of information currently available from tree-ring networks. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by MC-ERG-246725 (FP7, EU) and AGL 2012-40039-C02-02 (MINECO, Spain). JdC and JPF are supported by FPI fellowship (MCINN) and Ramón y Cajal programme (RYC-2008-02050, MINECO), respectively.

  3. Isoscapes of tree-ring carbon-13 perform like meteorological networks in predicting regional precipitation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Jorge; Aguilera, Mònica; Voltas, Jordi; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2013-03-01

    isotopes in tree rings provide climatic information with annual resolution dating back for centuries or even millennia. However, deriving spatially explicit climate models from isotope networks remains challenging. Here we propose a methodology to model regional precipitation from carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) in tree rings by (1) building regional spatial models of Δ13C (isoscapes) and (2) deriving precipitation maps from Δ13C-isoscapes, taking advantage of the response of Δ13C to precipitation in seasonally dry climates. As a case study, we modeled the spatial distribution of mean annual precipitation (MAP) in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, a region with complex topography and climate (MAP = 303-1086 mm). We compiled wood Δ13C data for two Mediterranean species that exhibit complementary responses to seasonal precipitation (Pinus halepensis Mill., N = 38; Quercus ilex L.; N = 44; pooling period: 1975-2008). By combining multiple regression and geostatistical interpolation, we generated one Δ13 C-isoscape for each species. A spatial model of MAP was then built as the sum of two complementary maps of seasonal precipitation, each one derived from the corresponding Δ13C-isoscape (September-November from Q. ilex; December-August from P. halepensis). Our approach showed a predictive power for MAP (RMSE = 84 mm) nearly identical to that obtained by interpolating data directly from a similarly dense network of meteorological stations (RMSE = 80-83 mm, N = 65), being only outperformed when using a much denser meteorological network (RMSE = 56-57 mm, N = 340). This method offers new avenues for modeling spatial variability of past precipitation, exploiting the large amount of information currently available from tree-ring networks.

  4. Strain Rate by Geodetic Observations Associated with Seismic Events in the SIRGAS-CON Network Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotta, G. S.; Franca, G.; Galera Monico, J. F.; Fuck, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    This research investigates surface strains related to seismic events and their relationship with pre- and post-seismic events in South American, Antarctica, Nazca, Cocos, North American and Caribbean plates , by analyzing the variation of estimated earth coordinates, for the period 2000-2014, supplied by a geodetic network called SIRGAS-CON. Based on data provided by the USGS for the same period, and after the Global Congruency test, we selected the events associated with unstable geodetic network points. The resulting strains were estimated based on the finite element method. It was possible to determine the strains along with the resulting guidelines for pre- and post-seismic, considering each region formed for analysis as a homogeneous solid body. Later, a multi-year solution of the network was estimated and used to estimate the strain rates of the earth surface from the changing directions of the velocity vectors of 332 geodetic points located in the South American plate and surround plates. The strain rate was determined and, using Euler vector computed, it was possible to estimate the convergence and accommodation rates to each plate. The results showed that contraction regions coincide with locations with most of the high magnitude seismic events. It suggest that major movements detected on the surface occur in regions with more heterogeneous geological structures and multiple rupture events; significant amounts of elastic strain can be accumulated on geological structures away from the plate boundary faults; and, behavior of contractions and extensions is similar to what has been found in seismological studies. Despite the association between seismic events and the strain of geodetic network, some events of high magnitude were excluded because it does not show the surface strain, which is located at great depths. It was confirmed that events of greater magnitude provide increased surface strain rate when compared with other similar depths.

  5. The collaborative experience of creating the National Capital Region Disease Surveillance Network.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sheri H; Holtry, Rekha S; Loschen, Wayne A; Wojcik, Richard; Hung, Lang; Lombardo, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) implemented state and district surveillance nodes in a central aggregated node in the National Capital Region (NCR). Within this network, de-identified health information is integrated with other indicator data and is made available to local and state health departments for enhanced disease surveillance. Aggregated data made available to the central node enable public health practitioners to observe abnormal behavior of health indicators spanning jurisdictions and view geographical spread of outbreaks across regions.Forming a steering committee, the NCR Enhanced Surveillance Operating Group (ESOG), was key to overcoming several data-sharing issues. The committee was composed of epidemiologists and key public health practitioners from the 3 jurisdictions. The ESOG facilitated early system development and signing of the cross-jurisdictional data-sharing agreement. This agreement was the first of its kind at the time and provided the legal foundation for sharing aggregated health information across state/district boundaries for electronic disease surveillance.Electronic surveillance system for the early notification of community-based epidemics provides NCR users with a comprehensive regional view to ascertain the spread of disease, estimate resource needs, and implement control measures. This article aims to describe the creation of the NCR Disease Surveillance Network as an exceptional example of cooperation and potential that exists for regional surveillance activities. PMID:21464687

  6. La Red Regional Replad: Una Estrategia Innovadora para la Capacitacion de Administradores Educacionales (The Regional Network Replad: An Innovative Strategy for the Training and Preparation of Educational Administrators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Espinoza, Jorge

    This document presents an overview, analysis, and historical assessment of the Major Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Conferences, regional meetings, and outcomes from the inception of the project in 1979 are described. This project stresses the establishment of a regional network for exchange of information, experiences,…

  7. Plate Boundary Observatory Southwest Region Network Operations, Expansion and Communications Hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, D.; Walls, C. P.; Basset, A.; Turner, R.; Lawrence, S.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Southwest Region of the Plate Boundary Observatory manages 480 continuously operating GPS stations located principally along the transform system of the San Andreas fault, Eastern California Shear Zone and the northern Baja peninsula. In the past year, network uptime averaged 98% with greater than 99% data acquisition. In an effort to modernize the network, we have started to replace Trimble NETRS receivers with GNSS capable NETR9 receivers. Currently, we have 431 NetRS receivers deployed in the region, and 48 NetR9 receivers. In addition, 82 stations (17%) stream 1 Hz data over the VRS3Net typically with <0.5 second latency and an average completeness of >92%. Based on their typical data download rates, approximately 252 (53%) of all stations are capable of streaming 1 Hz, but have not yet been added to the real time network because of lack of resources. In the immediate aftermath of the M8.2 Chile earthquake in April 2014, high rate data downloads from the entire SW network had a success rate of 95% and 71% for 1 Hz and 5 Hz data downloads respectively. We have continued to upgrade critical radio networks, including the San Francisco Bay Area, Anza Borrego, and Santa Barbara networks. These efforts are ongoing, but they have already significantly improved data download rates and dependability. We are also converting cell modem to radio communications whenever possible for increased reliability and cost savings. In December 2013 the 13-station Edison network expansion was completed through cost recovery contracts. These stations span coastal southern California in Orange, San Diego and Los Angeles counties including a hybrid site on the Elly oil platform. The primary purpose of the stations is to aid in the seismic source characterization of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station and assess the strain field associated with the Oceanside Blind Thrust and Newport Inglewood fault. The new stations fill a gap between SCIGN and PBO. Three sites have WXT520

  8. Education for Sustainable Development Networks, Potential and Challenge: A Critical Reflection on the Formation of the Caribbean Regional Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Down, Lorna; Nurse, Henderson

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we seek to reflect critically on the process of establishing a Caribbean Network for the reorientation of teacher education to address sustainability. We begin by addressing the origin and purpose/value of the network. As a sub-network of the UNITWIN/UNESCO International Network for the Reorientation of Teacher Education to Address…

  9. A look at the ASEAN-NDI: building a regional health R&D innovation network.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jaime C; Rebulanan, Carina L; Parungao, Nico Angelo C; Ramirez, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    Globally, there are growing efforts to address diseases through the advancement in health research and development (R&D), strengthening of regional cooperation in science and technology (particularly on product discovery and development), and implementation of the World Health Assembly Resolution 61.21 (WHA61.21) on the Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation, and Intellectual Property (GSPA-PHI). As such, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is responding to this through the establishment of the ASEAN-Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines Innovation (ASEAN-NDI). This is important in the ASEAN considering that infectious tropical diseases remain prevalent, emerging, and reemerging in the region. This paper looks into the evolution of the ASEAN-NDI from its inception in 2009, to how it is at present, and its plans to mitigate public health problems regionally and even globally. PMID:24834349

  10. A look at the ASEAN-NDI: building a regional health R&D innovation network

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Globally, there are growing efforts to address diseases through the advancement in health research and development (R&D), strengthening of regional cooperation in science and technology (particularly on product discovery and development), and implementation of the World Health Assembly Resolution 61.21 (WHA61.21) on the Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation, and Intellectual Property (GSPA-PHI). As such, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is responding to this through the establishment of the ASEAN-Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines Innovation (ASEAN-NDI). This is important in the ASEAN considering that infectious tropical diseases remain prevalent, emerging, and reemerging in the region. This paper looks into the evolution of the ASEAN-NDI from its inception in 2009, to how it is at present, and its plans to mitigate public health problems regionally and even globally. PMID:24834349

  11. Evaluating the Uncertainty of Regional Flow by Using Radial Basis Function Network and Bootstrap Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, P.

    2011-12-01

    This study employs radial basis function network (RBFNN) to simulate regional runoff in the future climate condition in Taiwan and bootstrap sampling technique to evaluate uncertainties of RBFNN. The hydrological and meteorological data (such as rainfall, river flow) in northern area of Taiwan during 1981 to 1999 are adopted as the training dataset to RBFNN, in which the parameters of RBFNN are optimized with genetic algorithm (GA). Meanwhile, the bootstrap sampling technique is applied for uncertainty analysis of RBFNN. The simulated results show that RBFNN with GA simulating the regional runoff reveals good performance and corresponding uncertainty can be evaluated by the bootstrap sampling technique. The results also illustrate that selecting training datasets randomly and repeatedly can reduce the possibility of model over-fitting of RBFNN. The regional runoff in the future can be estimated into an interval representing the possibility of the runoff by the proposed approach.

  12. Youth Transitions and Network Consolidation. Regional Workshop, 20-22 May 2014 in Gaborone, Botswana. Meeting Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This workshop was designed based on the following objectives: (1) to place youth employment and related issues on the regional political agenda; to highlight regional success stories; (2) to further strengthen the UNEVOC Network consolidation process in the region; (3) to provide a platform for learning and sharing experiences; and (4) to offer an…

  13. Regional low-flow frequency analysis using single and ensemble artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouarda, T. B. M. J.; Shu, C.

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are introduced to obtain improved regional low-flow estimates at ungauged sites. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) network is used to identify the functional relationship between low-flow quantiles and the physiographic variables. Each ANN is trained using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. To improve the generalization ability of a single ANN, several ANNs trained for the same task are used as an ensemble. The bootstrap aggregation (or bagging) approach is used to generate individual networks in the ensemble. The stacked generalization (or stacking) technique is adopted to combine the member networks of an ANN ensemble. The proposed approaches are applied to selected catchments in the province of Quebec, Canada, to obtain estimates for several representative low-flow quantiles of summer and winter seasons. The jackknife validation procedure is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed models. The ANN-based approaches are compared with the traditional parametric regression models. The results indicate that both the single and ensemble ANN models provide superior estimates than the traditional regression models. The ANN ensemble approaches provide better generalization ability than the single ANN models.

  14. Distributive Computer Networking: Making It Work on a Regional Basis: Effective sharing through a network requires new management and resource distribution techniques.

    PubMed

    Cornew, R W; Morse, P M

    1975-08-15

    After 4 years of operation the NERComP network is now a self-supporting success. Some of the reasons for its success are that (i) the network started small and built up utilization; (ii) the members, through monthly trustee meetings, practiced "participatory management" from the outset; (iii) unlike some networks, NERComP appealed to individual academic and research users who were terminal-oriented and who controlled their own budgets; (iv) the compactness of the New England region made it an ideal laboratory for testing networking concepts; and (v) a dedicated staff was willing to work hard in the face of considerable uncertainty. While the major problems were "political, organizational and economic" (1) we have found that they can be solved if the network meets real needs. We have also found that it is difficult to proceed beyond a certain point without investing responsibility and authority in the networking organization. Conversely, there is a need to distribute some responsibilities such as marketing and user services back to the member institutions. By adopting a modest starting point and achieving limited goals the necessary trust and working relationships between institutions can be built. In our case the necessary planning has been facilitated by recognizing three distinct network functions: governance, user services, and technical operations. Separating out the three essential networing tasks and dealing with each individually through advisory committees, each with its own staff coordinator, has overcome a distracting tendency to address all issues at once. It has also provided an element of feedback between the end user and the supplier not usually present in networking activity. The success of NERComP demonstrates that a distributive-type network can work. Our experiences in New England-which, because of its numerous colleges and universities free from domination by any single institution, is a microcosm for academic computing in the United States

  15. Actors and arenas in hybrid networks: implications for environmental policymaking in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Joas, Marko; Kern, Kristine; Sandberg, Siv

    2007-04-01

    Policymaking within and among states is under pressure for change. One feature of this change is empirically observed as an activation of different network structures in the Baltic Sea Region, especially since the collapse of the Iron Curtain, the initiation of the Rio process, and the enlargement of the European Union. The contemporary theoretical debates about governance highlight the changing conditions for policymaking and implementation on all societal levels. This process of change, especially evident concerning environmental policies, includes new types of networks crossing state borders both at the supranational and the subnational levels. This article illuminates this process of change with empirical data from the project "Governing a Common Sea" (GOVCOM) within the Baltic Sea Research Program (BIREME). PMID:17520939

  16. The magnetic network location of explosive events observed in the solar transition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, J. G.; Dere, K. P.

    1991-01-01

    Compact short-lived explosive events have been observed in solar transition region lines with the High-Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS) flown by the Naval Research Laboratory on a series of rockets and on Spacelab 2. Data from Spacelab 2 are coaligned with a simultaneous magnetogram and near-simultaneous He I 10,380 -A spectroheliogram obtained at the National Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak. The comparison shows that the explosive events occur in the solar magnetic network lanes at the boundaries of supergranular convective cells. However, the events occur away from the larger concentrations of magnetic flux in the network, in contradiction to the observed tendency of the more energetic solar phenomena to be associated with the stronger magnetic fields.

  17. Effectiveness of the streamflow-gaging network in Kentucky in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the results of an analysis of the effectiveness of the strearnflow-gaging network in Kentucky in providing regional streamflow information. The data available for analysis included streamflow-gaging stations in Kentucky and selected stations in adjoining States. One phase of the analysis determined the increased effectiveness of the network if hypothetical new stations were added to it. The analysis was based on the principles of generalized least squares regression. The results indicated that new stations having small drainage areas (less than 100 square miles) produced the greatest reduction in average sampling-error variance from current conditions in the mean-flow analysis. Only stations with drainage areas ranging from 200 to 450 square miles produced a significant effect on the low-flow analysis. Data from new stations having small drainage areas (less than 100 square miles) and fairly steep slopes (25 feet per mile) would make the greatest improvement in peak-flow information.

  18. Region-Based Convolutional Networks for Accurate Object Detection and Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Girshick, Ross; Donahue, Jeff; Darrell, Trevor; Malik, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    Object detection performance, as measured on the canonical PASCAL VOC Challenge datasets, plateaued in the final years of the competition. The best-performing methods were complex ensemble systems that typically combined multiple low-level image features with high-level context. In this paper, we propose a simple and scalable detection algorithm that improves mean average precision (mAP) by more than 50 percent relative to the previous best result on VOC 2012-achieving a mAP of 62.4 percent. Our approach combines two ideas: (1) one can apply high-capacity convolutional networks (CNNs) to bottom-up region proposals in order to localize and segment objects and (2) when labeled training data are scarce, supervised pre-training for an auxiliary task, followed by domain-specific fine-tuning, boosts performance significantly. Since we combine region proposals with CNNs, we call the resulting model an R-CNN or Region-based Convolutional Network. Source code for the complete system is available at http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~rbg/rcnn. PMID:26656583

  19. Semi-supervised Convolutional Neural Networks for Text Categorization via Region Embedding

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rie; Zhang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new semi-supervised framework with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for text categorization. Unlike the previous approaches that rely on word embeddings, our method learns embeddings of small text regions from unlabeled data for integration into a supervised CNN. The proposed scheme for embedding learning is based on the idea of two-view semi-supervised learning, which is intended to be useful for the task of interest even though the training is done on unlabeled data. Our models achieve better results than previous approaches on sentiment classification and topic classification tasks. PMID:27087766

  20. The 2007 Sumatra seismic sequence revealed by a regional seismic network in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, M.; Inoue, H.; Kumagai, H.; Yamashina, T.; Sunarjo; Fauzi; Suhardjono

    2007-12-01

    distributed in a region extending about 300 km along the subduction zone of the Indo-Australian Plate. The depths of aftershocks range from 15 to 60 km. In the off-Bengkulu region, the earthquakes with M8 or above occurred in 1381, 1608 and 1833, approximately every 230 years. Now 174 years have been passed since the last event in 1833. We did not experience M8 class earthquakes during the last 210 years in the off-Padang region, which is to the north of off-Bengkulu. The off-Padang region corresponds to a seismic gap between the source regions of the 2007 Sumatra seismic sequence and M8.7 Nias earthquake on March 2005. The sequence of the M8.4, M8.0, and M6.8 earthquakes moving towards the northwest from off-Bengkulu in the 2007 seismic activity suggests the imminency of a large earthquake off Padang. We have been deploying broadband seismograph networks in Indonesia, including JISNET, by an international cooperation among Indonesia, Germany, China, and Japan, aiming at improving the capabilities to monitor seismic activity and tsunami generation in Indonesia. The seismic networks are now in operation, and totally 150 seismic stations will be installed by the end of 2008. Seismic monitoring based on these regional networks would contribute to early notification of a large earthquake anticipated to occur in the off-Padang region.

  1. Evolution and strengthening of the Calabrian Regional Seismic Network during the Pollino sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; Gervasi, Anna; Guerra, Ignazio

    2013-04-01

    In the last three years the Calabria-Lucania border area is affected by an intense seismic activity generated by the activation of geological structures which be seat of clusters of microearthquakes, with energy release sufficient to be felt and to generate alarm and bother. Besides to the historical memory of the inhabitants of Mormanno (the town most affected of macroseismic effects) there are some historical documents that indicate the occurrence of a similar seismic crisis in 1888. A more recent seismic sequence, the first monitored by seismic instruments, occurred in 1973-1974. In the last case, the activity started in early 2010 and is still ongoing. The two shocks of ML = 4.3 and 5.0 and the the very long time duration differs this crisis from the previous ones. Given this background, in 1981 was installed at Mormanno a seismic station (MMN) belonging to Regional Seismic Network of the University of Calabria (RSRC), now also a station of the Italian National Seismic Network of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica Vulcanolgia (INSN-INGV). This seismic station made it possible to follow the evolution of seismicity in this area and in particular the progressive increase in seismic activity started in 2010. Since 2010, some 3D stand-alone, was installed by the University of Calabria. Further stations of INGV were installed in November 2011 after a sharp increase of the energy release and subsequently by the INGV and the GeoForschungsZentrum (Potsdam) after the main shock of the whole sequence. Seismic networks are powerful tools for understanding active tectonic processes in a monitored seismically active region. However, the optimal monitoring of a seismic region requires the assessment of the seismic network capabilities to identify seismogenic areas that are not adequately covered and to quantify measures that will allow the network improvement. In this paper we examine in detail the evolution and the strengthening of the RSRC in the last years analyzing the

  2. Multilayer perceptron neural network for downscaling rainfall in arid region: A case study of Baluchistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Kamal; Shahid, Shamsuddin; Haroon, Sobri Bin; Xiao-jun, Wang

    2015-08-01

    Downscaling rainfall in an arid region is much challenging compared to wet region due to erratic and infrequent behaviour of rainfall in the arid region. The complexity is further aggregated due to scarcity of data in such regions. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network has been proposed in the present study for the downscaling of rainfall in the data scarce arid region of Baluchistan province of Pakistan, which is considered as one of the most vulnerable areas of Pakistan to climate change. The National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis datasets from 20 grid points surrounding the study area were used to select the predictors using principal component analysis. Monthly rainfall data for the time periods 1961-1990 and 1991-2001 were used for the calibration and validation of the MLP model, respectively. The performance of the model was assessed using various statistics including mean, variance, quartiles, root mean square error (RMSE), mean bias error (MBE), coefficient of determination (R 2) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE). Comparisons of mean monthly time series of observed and downscaled rainfall showed good agreement during both calibration and validation periods, while the downscaling model was found to underpredict rainfall variance in both periods. Other statistical parameters also revealed good agreement between observed and downscaled rainfall during both calibration and validation periods in most of the stations.

  3. Reconstruction of regional mean sea level anomalies from tide gauges using the neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, M.; Schroeter, J.

    2009-04-01

    Regional mean sea level anomalies (SLA) are estimated from tide gauge values directly using the neural network approach. A neural network is an artificial neural system, a computational model inspired by the notion of neurophysical processes. It consists of several processing elements called neurons, which are interconnected with each other exchanging information. In this presentation a backpropagation network (BPN) is used. In this type of network the neurons are ordered into layers: an input layer on the top, one or more hidden layers below and an output layer at the bottom. The connection strength between the neurons are estimated in a training phase, i.e. the BNP learns from given examples. For our purpose 56 tide gauges are selected from the PSMSL data set that comply with the following conditions: 1) there are more than 11 annual mean values given in [1993,2005] 2) more than 50 annual mean values are given in [1900,2007] and 3) the tide gauge is neighboured by at least one ocean point on a 1x1 degree grid. The selected tide gauges are GIA corrected using the Peltier ICE5G_VM4_L90 dataset available on the PSMSL web site. For each ocean region (trop. Indian, ... South Atlantic to Global Ocean) a separate BPN is trained that uses all tide gauges to compute the regional mean SLA's. To avoid possible problems with the local reference frame all computations are done in the space of temporal derivatives. Beyond that, this makes the data more suitable for the BPN because it better limits the possible range of the numerical values. Furthermore, known regional mean target values are needed to train the BPN. These are derived from gridded satellite altimetry data either processed by GFZ Potsdam (TOPEX/Poseidon data only) and/or the dataset available on the CSIRO sea level web side (combined TOPEX and Jason data). Although every tide gauge has more then 50 years of data, many values are missing, especially prior to 1950. To fill these data gaps at the input layer of the

  4. Development of a system for transferring images via a network: supporting a regional liaison.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Naoki; Manabe, Shiro; Takeda, Toshihiro; Shinichirou, Kitamura; Junichi, Murakami; Kouji, Kiso; Matsumura, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    We developed a system that transfers images via network and started using them in our hospital's PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems) in 2006. We are pleased to report that the system has been re-developed and has been running so that there will be a regional liaison in the future. It has become possible to automatically transfer images simply by selecting the destination hospital that is registered in advance at the relay server. The gateway of this system can send images to a multi-center, relay management server, which receives the images and resends them. This system has the potential to be useful for image exchange, and to serve as a regional medical liaison. PMID:23920767

  5. Regional-technical information network system by PC-based communication 'Kougi Net Niigata'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Koichi; Kitagawa, Yoichi; Hoshino, Kimiaki

    'Regional-technical information' database was constructed by Industrial research institute of Niigata prefecture. This is available for industries in our prefecture with our PC-based communication network system. And also, it provides communication measures called BBS and electronic mail service with which they can communicate each other. This system is considered to give three effects. First of all, they can get technical information required in regional industries that is not provided by commercial database at their office or factory speedy and correctly. Secondly, they can easily survey technical background of local industries they want to take into partnership in their extension of work. Thirdly, since it provides a place where they can exchange information each other, it promotes their development of new commercial products and partnership.

  6. Biophysical regions identification using an artificial neuronal network: A case study in the South Western Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraceno, Martin; Provost, Christine; Lebbah, Mustapha

    A classification method based on an artificial neuronal network is used to identify biophysical regions in the South Western Atlantic (SWA). The method comprises a probabilistic version of the Kohonen’s self-organizing map and a Hierarchical Ascending Clustering algorithm. It objectively defines the optimal number of classes and the class boundaries. The method is applied to ocean surface data provided by satellite: chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature and sea surface temperature gradient, first to means and then, in an attempt to examine seasonal variations, to monthly climatologies. Both results reflect the presence of the major circulation patterns and frontal positions in the SWA. The provinces retrieved using mean fields are compared to previous results and show a more accurate description of the SWA. The classification obtained with monthly climatologies offers the flexibility to include the time dimension; the boundaries of biophysical regions established are not fixed, but vary in time. Perspectives and limitations of the methodology are discussed.

  7. Loss of regional accent after damage to the speech production network

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, Marcelo L.; Dávila, Guadalupe; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Beltrán-Corbellini, Álvaro; Santana-Moreno, Daniel; Roé-Vellvé, Núria; Thurnhofer-Hemsi, Karl; Torres-Prioris, María José; Massone, María Ignacia; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Lesion-symptom mapping studies reveal that selective damage to one or more components of the speech production network can be associated with foreign accent syndrome, changes in regional accent (e.g., from Parisian accent to Alsatian accent), stronger regional accent, or re-emergence of a previously learned and dormant regional accent. Here, we report loss of regional accent after rapidly regressive Broca’s aphasia in three Argentinean patients who had suffered unilateral or bilateral focal lesions in components of the speech production network. All patients were monolingual speakers with three different native Spanish accents (Cordobés or central, Guaranítico or northeast, and Bonaerense). Samples of speech production from the patient with native Córdoba accent were compared with previous recordings of his voice, whereas data from the patient with native Guaranítico accent were compared with speech samples from one healthy control matched for age, gender, and native accent. Speech samples from the patient with native Buenos Aires’s accent were compared with data obtained from four healthy control subjects with the same accent. Analysis of speech production revealed discrete slowing in speech rate, inappropriate long pauses, and monotonous intonation. Phonemic production remained similar to those of healthy Spanish speakers, but phonetic variants peculiar to each accent (e.g., intervocalic aspiration of /s/ in Córdoba accent) were absent. While basic normal prosodic features of Spanish prosody were preserved, features intrinsic to melody of certain geographical areas (e.g., rising end F0 excursion in declarative sentences intoned with Córdoba accent) were absent. All patients were also unable to produce sentences with different emotional prosody. Brain imaging disclosed focal left hemisphere lesions involving the middle part of the motor cortex, the post-central cortex, the posterior inferior and/or middle frontal cortices, insula, anterior putamen and

  8. Loss of regional accent after damage to the speech production network.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Marcelo L; Dávila, Guadalupe; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Beltrán-Corbellini, Álvaro; Santana-Moreno, Daniel; Roé-Vellvé, Núria; Thurnhofer-Hemsi, Karl; Torres-Prioris, María José; Massone, María Ignacia; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Lesion-symptom mapping studies reveal that selective damage to one or more components of the speech production network can be associated with foreign accent syndrome, changes in regional accent (e.g., from Parisian accent to Alsatian accent), stronger regional accent, or re-emergence of a previously learned and dormant regional accent. Here, we report loss of regional accent after rapidly regressive Broca's aphasia in three Argentinean patients who had suffered unilateral or bilateral focal lesions in components of the speech production network. All patients were monolingual speakers with three different native Spanish accents (Cordobés or central, Guaranítico or northeast, and Bonaerense). Samples of speech production from the patient with native Córdoba accent were compared with previous recordings of his voice, whereas data from the patient with native Guaranítico accent were compared with speech samples from one healthy control matched for age, gender, and native accent. Speech samples from the patient with native Buenos Aires's accent were compared with data obtained from four healthy control subjects with the same accent. Analysis of speech production revealed discrete slowing in speech rate, inappropriate long pauses, and monotonous intonation. Phonemic production remained similar to those of healthy Spanish speakers, but phonetic variants peculiar to each accent (e.g., intervocalic aspiration of /s/ in Córdoba accent) were absent. While basic normal prosodic features of Spanish prosody were preserved, features intrinsic to melody of certain geographical areas (e.g., rising end F0 excursion in declarative sentences intoned with Córdoba accent) were absent. All patients were also unable to produce sentences with different emotional prosody. Brain imaging disclosed focal left hemisphere lesions involving the middle part of the motor cortex, the post-central cortex, the posterior inferior and/or middle frontal cortices, insula, anterior putamen and

  9. Architecture of a consent management suite and integration into IHE-based regional health information networks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The University Hospital Heidelberg is implementing a Regional Health Information Network (RHIN) in the Rhine-Neckar-Region in order to establish a shared-care environment, which is based on established Health IT standards and in particular Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE). Similar to all other Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Personal Health Record (PHR) approaches the chosen Personal Electronic Health Record (PEHR) architecture relies on the patient's consent in order to share documents and medical data with other care delivery organizations, with the additional requirement that the German legislation explicitly demands a patients' opt-in and does not allow opt-out solutions. This creates two issues: firstly the current IHE consent profile does not address this approach properly and secondly none of the employed intra- and inter-institutional information systems, like almost all systems on the market, offers consent management solutions at all. Hence, the objective of our work is to develop and introduce an extensible architecture for creating, managing and querying patient consents in an IHE-based environment. Methods Based on the features offered by the IHE profile Basic Patient Privacy Consent (BPPC) and literature, the functionalities and components to meet the requirements of a centralized opt-in consent management solution compliant with German legislation have been analyzed. Two services have been developed and integrated into the Heidelberg PEHR. Results The standard-based Consent Management Suite consists of two services. The Consent Management Service is able to receive and store consent documents. It can receive queries concerning a dedicated patient consent, process it and return an answer. It represents a centralized policy enforcement point. The Consent Creator Service allows patients to create their consents electronically. Interfaces to a Master Patient Index (MPI) and a provider index allow to dynamically generate XACML

  10. Uncertainty of rapid earthquake source inversion using the regional seismogeodetic networks around megacity Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Faqi; Wang, Rongjiang; Hedio, Aochi; Walter, Thomas; Zheng, Yong; Xiong, Xiong

    2015-04-01

    During the 20th century, a series of devastating earthquakes occurred along the north Anatolian fault, which generally propagated westward towards Istanbul, leaving the main NAF segment beneath the Marmara Sea as a seismic gap. For the nearby megacity Istanbul, rapid seismic hazard assessment is of most importance. A key issue is how such strong earthquakes can be characterized reliably and rapidly using the regional seismogeodetic monitoring networks. For this purpose, a new source imaging tool has been developed and improved. Several tests are carried out to estimate uncertainties of the kinematic rupture models inverted from synthetic data that were generated based on 3D dynamic modelling of different scenario earthquakes. In the kinematic inversion, a practical 1D earth model is used and uncertainties in the hypocenter location and focal mechanism are considered to investigate their influences on the inversion results. It is found that the rupture processes can be well reconstructed using the current monitoring networks if the same earth structure, hypocenter location, fault geometry and focal mechanism are adopted as used in the forward modelling. In comparison, if some reasonable uncertainties are included in these input parameters, no substantial changes are observed in the key source parameters, such as the moment magnitude, the fault size and centroid location, which are essential for rapid hazard assessment, while the spatial distribution and the peak value of fault slip may have significant bias. Finally, the potential and limitation of the current seismogeodetic networks around the megacity Istanbul for real-time earthquake source imaging are discussed.

  11. Non-linear time series analysis of precipitation events using regional climate networks for Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinwalt, Aljoscha; Boers, Niklas; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Peter; Gerstengarbe, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Werner, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Synchronous occurrences of heavy rainfall events and the study of their relation in time and space are of large socio-economical relevance, for instance for the agricultural and insurance sectors, but also for the general well-being of the population. In this study, the spatial synchronization structure is analyzed as a regional climate network constructed from precipitation event series. The similarity between event series is determined by the number of synchronous occurrences. We propose a novel standardization of this number that results in synchronization scores which are not biased by the number of events in the respective time series. Additionally, we introduce a new version of the network measure directionality that measures the spatial directionality of weighted links by also taking account of the effects of the spatial embedding of the network. This measure provides an estimate of heavy precipitation isochrones by pointing out directions along which rainfall events synchronize. We propose a climatological interpretation of this measure in terms of propagating fronts or event traces and confirm it for Germany by comparing our results to known atmospheric circulation patterns.

  12. Drift in centrality of different brain regions in an anatomical neural network with Parkinson's disease: A view from complex network analysis.

    PubMed

    Lei, X; Huang, B; Li, H; Jiang, H; Hu, X; Zhang, B

    2015-07-23

    Understanding the role of brain regions in anatomical neural networks with Parkinson's disease (PD) is essential for improving the clinical protocol or finding new targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS). Although numerous changes have been reported in local functional studies, few studies have reported on the anatomical network of the entire brain. Here, by developing a series of algorithms, this study provided a whole anatomical neural network of the macaque monkey. Then, the drifts in centrality from normal to PD networks were described in terms of complex network analysis and summarized with principal component analysis. Results revealed that the areas including the striatum, globus pallidus, amygdala, prefrontal lobe, thalamus, hippocampus, visual cortex, insula, etc., showed relatively notable drifts in their own patterns. The present study also demonstrated that the current targets of DBS shared a common feature: their centrality values being relatively low in the normal brain while intensely drifting with PD. PMID:25937399

  13. Estimation of regional recharge in the HOBE catchment using data from a distributed soil moisture network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreasen, M.; Andreasen, L. A.; Bircher, S.; Sonnenborg, T.; Jensen, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    The regional variation of recharge of ground water is dependent on a larger number of variables and conditions and is therefore difficult to quantify. In this study we have estimated regional recharge using data from a distributed network of soil moisture stations within the HOBE catchment. The network has been designed in an arrangement of three clusters along a long-term precipitation gradient and the stations have been distributed according to respective fractions of classes combining the prevailing land use, top- and subsoil conditions. At each of the 30 stations water content has been measured at three depths (0-5cm, 20-25cm and 50-55cm) for the period 2009-2011 at a temporal resolution of 30 minutes. The 1D soil-plant-atmosphere system model DAISY has been applied to each of the field locations to simulate the water balance of the root zone and the associated components of evapotranspiration and recharge. The 30 models have been formulated and parameterized using specific information on local climate, soil texture, land use and management. Each model was calibrated to the measured soil water content from the distributed network using the PEST (Parameter ESTimation) software. The calibrated parameters were saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and van Genuchten parameter n as they were found most sensitive. The 30 sets of results were averaged to represent the mean conditions of the catchment. An effective parameterization was also determined by calibration against mean soil moisture and compared to the results obtained by using effective parameters using various averaging methods. The regional variation in groundwater recharge, actual evapotranspiration and soil water content in the catchment was dependent on land use. The simulated results showed that the largest recharge was found at the agricultural sites (554 mm/yr) and the lowest at the forested sites (257 mm/yr). Correspondingly, the highest actual evapotranspiration was found at the forested sites (614

  14. Roughness Lengths at Four Stations Within the Micrometeorological Network over the Indian Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, N. Narendra; Rao, Kusuma G.

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic roughness length (z0) is estimated here for four locations, Bangalore, Ranchi, Hyderabad and Tirunelveli of the Indian region, using micrometeorological measurements from the instrumentation network established during the programme, " Prediction of Regional Weather using Observational meso- Network and Atmospheric Modelling (PRWONAM)". The average z0 values estimated are 0.04 ± 0.02 and 0.06 ± 0.03 m for Bangalore for the summer and the winter seasons respectively; and 0.009 ± 0.007 and 0.04 ± 0.02 m for Ranchi. For Hyderabad and Tirunelveli locations, average z0 values for the summer season are 0.8 ± 0.1 and 0.02 ± 0.02 m respectively. This value of z0 for Hyderabad is consistent with the range 0.2-2.1 m quoted for fetches mainly covered with trees. The z0 values for Bangalore, Ranchi and Tirunelveli are consistent with similar terrain pattern in the prevailing wind sectors at the experiment locations and are also in the range 0.006-0.08 m quoted in the literature for homogeneous land surfaces.

  15. Regionalization reigns--but is care being delivered accordingly? An evaluation of perinatal care delivery in a regionalized child health network.

    PubMed

    Alidina, Shehnaz; Ardal, Sten; Lee, Paul; Raskin, Lynn; Shennan, Andrew; Young, Linda Marie

    2006-01-01

    The Child Health Network for the Greater Toronto Area (CHN), a network of 20 hospitals and 9 community care access centres, assessed one component of its early progress in building a regionalized system of perinatal care. Focusing on the relationship between hospital level of care and gestational age, the study showed that most births occurred at appropriately designated facilities. However, a quarter of newborns of gestational age <32 weeks were delivered at a lower level of care than is considered optimal. CHN's ongoing research will offer opportunities to assess the impact of regional models on their foremost goal--quality clinical care. PMID:17017761

  16. The Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory Alaska Region an Overview of Network Operation, Maintenance and Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, M.; Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R.; Walker, K.; Feaux, K.

    2011-12-01

    UNAVCO has now completed its third year of operation of the 138 continuous GPS stations, 12 tiltmeters and 31 communications relays that comprise the Alaska Region of the Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory. Working in Alaska has been challenging due to the extreme environmental conditions encountered and logistics difficulties. Despite these challenges we have been able to complete each summer field season with network operation at 95% or better. Throughout the last three years we have analyzed both our successes and failures to improve the quality of our network and better serve the scientific community. Additionally, we continue to evaluate and deploy new technologies to improve station reliability and add to the data set available from our stations. 2011 was a busy year for the Alaska engineering team and some highlights from last year's maintenance season include the following. This spring we completed testing and deployment of the first Inmarsat BGAN satellite terminal for data telemetry at AC60 Shemya Island. Shemya Island is at the far western end of the Aleutian Islands and is one of the most remote and difficult to access stations in the PBO AK network. Until the installation of the BGAN, this station was offline with no data telemetry for almost one year. Since the installation of the BGAN in early April 2011 dataflow has been uninterrupted. This year we also completed the first deployments of Stardot NetCamSC webcams in the PBO Network. Currently, these are installed and operational at six GPS stations in Alaska, with plans to install several more next season in Alaska. Images from these cameras can be found at the station homepages linked to from the UNAVCO website. In addition to the hard work put in by PBO engineers this year, it is important that we recognize the contributions of our partners. In particular the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center and others who have provided us with valuable engineering assistance

  17. Selective dissociation between core and extended regions of the face processing network in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Galia; Tanzer, Michal; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Liu, Ning; Ungerleider, Leslie G; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-06-01

    There is growing consensus that accurate and efficient face recognition is mediated by a neural circuit composed of a posterior "core" and an anterior "extended" set of regions. Here, we characterize the distributed face network in human individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP)-a lifelong impairment in face processing-relative to that of matched controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we first uncover largely normal activation patterns in the posterior core face patches in CP. We also document normal activity of the amygdala (emotion processing) as well as normal or even enhanced functional connectivity between the amygdala and the core regions. Critically, in the same individuals, activation of the anterior temporal cortex (identity processing) is reduced and connectivity between this region and the posterior core regions is disrupted. The dissociation between the neural profiles of the anterior temporal lobe and amygdala was evident both during a task-related face scan and during a resting state scan, in the absence of visual stimulation. Taken together, these findings elucidate selective disruptions in neural circuitry in CP and offer an explanation for the known differential difficulty in identity versus emotional expression recognition in many individuals with CP. PMID:23377287

  18. Selective Dissociation Between Core and Extended Regions of the Face Processing Network in Congenital Prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Avidan, Galia; Tanzer, Michal; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Liu, Ning; Ungerleider, Leslie G.; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    There is growing consensus that accurate and efficient face recognition is mediated by a neural circuit composed of a posterior “core” and an anterior “extended” set of regions. Here, we characterize the distributed face network in human individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP)—a lifelong impairment in face processing—relative to that of matched controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we first uncover largely normal activation patterns in the posterior core face patches in CP. We also document normal activity of the amygdala (emotion processing) as well as normal or even enhanced functional connectivity between the amygdala and the core regions. Critically, in the same individuals, activation of the anterior temporal cortex (identity processing) is reduced and connectivity between this region and the posterior core regions is disrupted. The dissociation between the neural profiles of the anterior temporal lobe and amygdala was evident both during a task-related face scan and during a resting state scan, in the absence of visual stimulation. Taken together, these findings elucidate selective disruptions in neural circuitry in CP and offer an explanation for the known differential difficulty in identity versus emotional expression recognition in many individuals with CP. PMID:23377287

  19. Core and region-enriched networks of behaviorally regulated genes and the singing genome

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Osceola; Pfenning, Andreas R.; Howard, Jason T.; Blatti, Charles A; Liu, Fang; Ward, James M.; Wang, Rui; Audet, Jean-Nicolas; Kellis, Manolis; Mukherjee, Sayan; Sinha, Saurabh; Hartemink, Alexander J.; West, Anne E.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    Songbirds represent an important model organism for elucidating molecular mechanisms that link genes with complex behaviors, in part because they have discrete vocal learning circuits that have parallels with those that mediate human speech. We found that ~10% of the genes in the avian genome were regulated by singing, and we found a striking regional diversity of both basal and singing-induced programs in the four key song nuclei of the zebra finch, a vocal learning songbird. The region-enriched patterns were a result of distinct combinations of region-enriched transcription factors (TFs), their binding motifs, and presinging acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 27 (H3K27ac) enhancer activity in the regulatory regions of the associated genes. RNA interference manipulations validated the role of the calcium-response transcription factor (CaRF) in regulating genes preferentially expressed in specific song nuclei in response to singing. Thus, differential combinatorial binding of a small group of activity-regulated TFs and predefined epigenetic enhancer activity influences the anatomical diversity of behaviorally regulated gene networks. PMID:25504732

  20. Observations of Global and Regional Ionospheric Irregularities and Scintillation Using GNSS Tracking Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pi, Xiaoqing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Valant-Spaight, Bonnie; Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Romans, Larry J.; Skone, Susan; Sparks, Lawrence; Hall, G. Martin

    2013-01-01

    The rate of TEC index (ROTI) is a measurement that characterizes ionospheric irregularities. It can be obtained from standard GNSS dual-frequency phase data collected using a geodetic type of GNSS receiver. By processing GPS data from ground-based networks of International GNSS Service and Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS), ROTI maps have been produced to observe global and regional scintillation activities. A major mid-latitude scintillation event in the contiguous United States is reported here that was captured in ROTI maps produced using CORS GPS data collected during a space weather storm. The analyses conducted in this work and previously by another group indicate that ROTI is a good occurrence indicator of both amplitude and phase scintillations of GPS L-band signals, even though the magnitudes of ROTI, S4, and sigma(sub phi) can be different. For example, our analysis indicates that prominent ROTI and the L1 phase scintillation (sigma(sub phi)) are well correlated temporally in the polar region while L1 amplitude scintillation rarely occurs. The differences are partially attributed to physics processes in different latitude regions, such as high-speed plasma convection in the polar region that can suppress the amplitude scintillation. An analysis of the impact of ionospheric scintillation on precise positioning, which requires use of dual-frequency phase data, is also conducted. The results indicate that significant (more than an order of magnitude) positioning errors can occur under phase scintillation conditions.

  1. The potential of cellular network infrastructures for sudden rainfall monitoring in dry climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2013-09-01

    Monitoring of precipitation and in particular sudden rain, in rural dry climate regions, is a subject of great significance in several weather related processes such as soil erosion, flash flooding, triggering epidemics and more. The rainfall monitoring facilities in these regions and as a result precipitation data are, however, commonly, severely lacking. As was recently shown, cellular networks infrastructures supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in dry areas, covering large parts of these climatic zones. The potential found in these systems to provide early monitoring and essential precipitation information, directly from arid regions, based on standard measurements of commercial microwave links, is exemplified here over the Negev and the Southern Judean desert, South Israel. We present the results of two different rainfall events occurred in these regions. It is shown that the microwave system measured precipitation between at least 50 min (in case 1) and at least 1 h and 40 min (in case 2) before each of the sparse rain gauges. During each case, the radar system, located relatively far from the arid sites, provided measurements from heights of at least 1500 m and 2000 m above surface, respectively. A third case study demonstrates a relative advantage of microwave links to measure precipitation intensity with respect to the radar system, over an area of complex topography located in northeastern Israel, which is relatively far (~ 150 km) from the radar.

  2. The importance of establishing an international network of tissue banks and regional tissue processing centers.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    During the past four decades, many tissue banks have been established across the world with the aim of supplying sterilized tissues for clinical use and research purposes. Between 1972 and 2005, the International Atomic Energy Agency supported the establishment of more than sixty of these tissue banks in Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific, Africa and Eastern Europe; promoted the use of the ionizing radiation technique for the sterilization of the processed tissues; and encouraged cooperation between the established tissue banks during the implementation of its program on radiation and tissue banking at national, regional and international levels. Taking into account that several of the established tissue banks have gained a rich experience in the procurement, processing, sterilization, storage, and medical use of sterilized tissues, it is time now to strengthen further international and regional cooperation among interested tissue banks located in different countries. The purpose of this cooperation is to share the experience gained by these banks in the procurement, processing, sterilization, storage, and used of different types of tissues in certain medical treatments and research activities. This could be done through the establishment of a network of tissue banks and a limited number of regional tissue processing centers in different regions of the world. PMID:23765095

  3. Energy efficient data representation and aggregation with event region detection in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Torsha

    Unlike conventional networks, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are limited in power, have much smaller memory buffers, and possess relatively slower processing speeds. These characteristics necessitate minimum transfer and storage of information in order to prolong the network lifetime. In this dissertation, we exploit the spatio-temporal nature of sensor data to approximate the current values of the sensors based on readings obtained from neighboring sensors and itself. We propose a Tree based polynomial REGression algorithm, (TREG) that addresses the problem of data compression in wireless sensor networks. Instead of aggregated data, a polynomial function (P) is computed by the regression function, TREG. The coefficients of P are then passed to achieve the following goals: (i) The sink can get attribute values in the regions devoid of sensor nodes, and (ii) Readings over any portion of the region can be obtained at one time by querying the root of the tree. As the size of the data packet from each tree node to its parent remains constant, the proposed scheme scales very well with growing network density or increased coverage area. Since physical attributes exhibit a gradual change over time, we propose an iterative scheme, UPDATE_COEFF, which obviates the need to perform the regression function repeatedly and uses approximations based on previous readings. Extensive simulations are performed on real world data to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed aggregation algorithm, TREG. Results reveal that for a network density of 0.0025 nodes/m2, a complete binary tree of depth 4 could provide the absolute error to be less than 6%. A data compression ratio of about 0.02 is achieved using our proposed algorithm, which is almost independent of the tree depth. In addition, our proposed updating scheme makes the aggregation process faster while maintaining the desired error bounds. We also propose a Polynomial-based scheme that addresses the problem of Event Region

  4. NEREUS- Network of European Regions Using Space - an initiative of regions to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayazi, Roya

    2013-04-01

    NEREUS- Network of European Regions Using Space - an initiative of regions to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe (Roya Ayazi, Secretary General NEREUS nereus.bruxelles@euroinbox.com) NEREUS currently unites 25 European regions and 39 Associate Members with the common objective to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe for the benefit of regions and their citizens. As voice of European Regions, NEREUS serves as an advocate for the regions in matters of space uses and also as a direct channel to the regional users of space technologies (such as local authorities, SMEs, universities and research institutes and citizens). EO/GMES, Global Satellite Navigation and Telecommunication are identified by the NEREUS Political Charta as core areas of cooperation. NEREUS holds the view that broad societal awareness and involvement is vital to fully exploit Euope's space systems. Understanding the potentials of Copernicus and EGNOS/Galileo is in the first place an essential step for the development of the downstream sector. Therefore NEREUS makes special efforts to contribute with numerous network activities to communicate and promote the added value of space uses for public policies but also as valuable new business opportunities. In economic terms space uses are suited to stimulate economic growth and innovation dynamics at regional level. The network community produced several illustrative communication tools (publications, video, web-based tools, mobile NEREUS-exhibition) portraying examples how regions already use space systems and the concrete benefits for the citizens. Most of the NEREUS-publications and video are online: www.nereus-regions.eu. Pooling a considerable wealth of capabilities and expertise, the network offers its members a dynamic platform to collaborate and share experiences and knowledge inter regionally. But these tools were not only the outcome of an intensive regional collaboration but

  5. Connecting for change: networks as a vehicle for regional health reform the early experiences of the Child Health Network for the Greater Toronto Area.

    PubMed

    Alidina, Shehnaz; Jarvis, Sheila; Nickoloff, Beverley; Tolkin, Jonathan; Trypuc, Joann

    2002-01-01

    The Child Health Network (CHN) for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) is a partnership of hospital, rehabilitation and community providers committed to developing a regional system to deliver high quality, accessible, family-centred care for mothers, newborns, children and youth. This article reviews the history and model of the CHN, assesses its achievements, and provides insights into the challenges and lessons learned by the network. Stemming from the CHN's commitment to quality, accessibility and efficiency, regionalization of maternal, newborn and children's services is emerging as a success story. PMID:12078357

  6. Efficiency of a Protected-Area Network in a Mediterranean Region: A Multispecies Assessment with Raptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abellán, María D.; Martínez, José E.; Palazón, José A.; Esteve, Miguel Á.; Calvo, José F.

    2011-05-01

    Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km2), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel ( Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.

  7. Epidemiological Features and Control Progress of Schistosomiasis in Waterway-Network Region in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Li, W; Wu, F; Zhang, J-F; Yang, K; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis was one of the most serious parasitic diseases in The People's Republic of China, and the endemic region was classified into three types according to the epidemiological characteristics and living conditions of the intermediate host. After more than 60years of efforts, schistosomiasis control programme has made great strides in waterway-network regions. We analyse the epidemic changes of schistosomiasis and its control progress through the schistosomiasis regions' documents and investigation data to evaluate the efficacy of the schistosomiasis control strategies in the waterway-network-type endemic region, which provides the basis for refinement of efforts, as well as summary of the Chinese schistosomiasis control experience in the waterway-network areas. PMID:27137444

  8. Utah's Regional/Urban ANSS Seismic Network---Strategies and Tools for Quality Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlacu, R.; Arabasz, W. J.; Pankow, K. L.; Pechmann, J. C.; Drobeck, D. L.; Moeinvaziri, A.; Roberson, P. M.; Rusho, J. A.

    2007-05-01

    The University of Utah's regional/urban seismic network (224 stations recorded: 39 broadband, 87 strong-motion, 98 short-period) has become a model for locally implementing the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) because of successes in integrating weak- and strong-motion recording and in developing an effective real-time earthquake information system. Early achievements included implementing ShakeMap, ShakeCast, point-to- multipoint digital telemetry, and an Earthworm Oracle database, as well as in-situ calibration of all broadband and strong-motion stations and submission of all data and metadata into the IRIS DMC. Regarding quality performance, our experience as a medium-size regional network affirms the fundamental importance of basics such as the following: for data acquisition, deliberate attention to high-quality field installations, signal quality, and computer operations; for operational efficiency, a consistent focus on professional project management and human resources; and for customer service, healthy partnerships---including constant interactions with emergency managers, engineers, public policy-makers, and other stakeholders as part of an effective state earthquake program. (Operational cost efficiencies almost invariably involve trade-offs between personnel costs and the quality of hardware and software.) Software tools that we currently rely on for quality performance include those developed by UUSS (e.g., SAC and shell scripts for estimating local magnitudes) and software developed by other organizations such as: USGS (Earthworm), University of Washington (interactive analysis software), ISTI (SeisNetWatch), and IRIS (PDCC, BUD tools). Although there are many pieces, there is little integration. One of the main challenges we face is the availability of a complete and coherent set of tools for automatic and post-processing to assist in achieving the goals/requirements set forth by ANSS. Taking our own network---and ANSS---to the next level

  9. Analysis of the streamflow-gaging station network in Ohio for effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straub, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The streamflow-gaging station network in Ohio was evaluated for its effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information. The analysis involved application of the principles of generalized least squares regression between streamflow and climatic and basin characteristics. Regression equations were developed for three flow characteristics: (1) the instantaneous peak flow with a 100-year recurrence interval (P100), (2) the mean annual flow (Qa), and (3) the 7-day, 10-year low flow (7Q10). All active and discontinued gaging stations with 5 or more years of unregulated-streamflow data with respect to each flow characteristic were used to develop the regression equations. The gaging-station network was evaluated for the current (1996) condition of the network and estimated conditions of various network strategies if an additional 5 and 20 years of streamflow data were collected. Any active or discontinued gaging station with (1) less than 5 years of unregulated-streamflow record, (2) previously defined basin and climatic characteristics, and (3) the potential for collection of more unregulated-streamflow record were included in the network strategies involving the additional 5 and 20 years of data. The network analysis involved use of the regression equations, in combination with location, period of record, and cost of operation, to determine the contribution of the data for each gaging station to regional streamflow information. The contribution of each gaging station was based on a cost-weighted reduction of the mean square error (average sampling-error variance) associated with each regional estimating equation. All gaging stations included in the network analysis were then ranked according to their contribution to the regional information for each flow characteristic. The predictive ability of the regression equations developed from the gaging station network could be improved for all three flow characteristics with the collection of additional streamflow data

  10. Graph analysis of the anatomical network organization of the hippocampal formation and parahippocampal region in the rat.

    PubMed

    Binicewicz, F Z M; van Strien, N M; Wadman, W J; van den Heuvel, M P; Cappaert, N L M

    2016-04-01

    Graph theory was used to analyze the anatomical network of the rat hippocampal formation and the parahippocampal region (van Strien et al., Nat Rev Neurosci 10(4):272-282, 2009). For this analysis, the full network was decomposed along the three anatomical axes, resulting in three networks that describe the connectivity within the rostrocaudal, dorsoventral and laminar dimensions. The rostrocaudal network had a connection density of 12 % and a path length of 2.4. The dorsoventral network had a high cluster coefficient (0.53), a relatively high path length (1.62) and a rich club was identified. The modularity analysis revealed three modules in the dorsoventral network. The laminar network contained most information. The laminar dimension revealed a network with high clustering coefficient (0.47), a relatively high path length (2.11) and four significantly increased characteristic network building blocks (structural motifs). Thirteen rich club nodes were identified, almost all of them situated in the parahippocampal region. Six connector hubs were detected and all of them were located in the entorhinal cortex. Three large modules were revealed, indicating a close relationship between the perirhinal and postrhinal cortex as well as between the lateral and medial entorhinal cortex. These results confirmed the central position of the entorhinal cortex in the (para)hippocampal network and this possibly explains why pathology in this region has such profound impact on cognitive function, as seen in several brain diseases. The results also have implications for the idea of strict separation of the "spatial" and the "non-spatial" information stream into the hippocampus. This two-stream memory model suggests that the information influx from, respectively, the postrhinal-medial entorhinal cortex and the perirhinal-lateral entorhinal cortex is separate, but the current analysis shows that this apparent separation is not determined by anatomical constraints. PMID:25618022

  11. Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Merrifield, Matthew S.; Hines, Ellen; Liu, Xiaohang; Beck, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic information about the spatial extent of threats to identify commonalities. To do this we classify estuaries into hierarchical networks that share similar threat characteristics using a spatial database (geodatabase) of threats to estuaries from land and sea in the western U.S.Our results show that very few estuaries in this region (16%) have no or minimal stresses from anthropogenic activity. Additionally, one quarter (25%) of all estuaries in this study have moderate levels of all threats. The small number of un-threatened estuaries is likely not representative of the ecological variability in the region and will require working to abate threats at others. We think the identification of these estuary groups can foster sharing best practices and coordination of conservation activities amongst estuaries in any geography. PMID:21387006

  12. The development of a regional geomagnetic daily variation model using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcliffe, P. R.

    2000-01-01

    Global and regional geomagnetic field models give the components of the geomagnetic field as functions of position and epoch; most utilise a polynomial or Fourier series to map the input variables to the geomagnetic field values. The only temporal variation generally catered for in these models is the long term secular variation. However, there is an increasing need amongst certain users for models able to provide shorter term temporal variations, such as the geomagnetic daily variation. In this study, for the first time, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are utilised to develop a geomagnetic daily variation model. The model developed is for the southern African region; however, the method used could be applied to any other region or even globally. Besides local time and latitude, input variables considered in the daily variation model are season, sunspot number, and degree of geomagnetic activity. The ANN modelling of the geomagnetic daily variation is found to give results very similar to those obtained by the synthesis of harmonic coefficients which have been computed by the more traditional harmonic analysis of the daily variation.

  13. A dense Black Carbon network in the region of Paris, France: Implementation, objectives, and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Sarda-Esteve, Roland; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Gros, Valérie; Pernot, Pierre; Ghersi, Véronique; Ampe, Christophe; Songeur, Charlotte; Brugge, Benjamin; Debert, Christophe; Favez, Olivier; Le Priol, Tiphaine; Mocnik, Grisa

    2013-04-01

    Motivations. Road traffic and domestic wood burning emissions are two major contributors of particulate pollution in our cities. These two sources emit ultra-fine, soot containing, particles in the atmosphere, affecting health adversely, increasing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory conditions and casing lung cancer. A better characterization of soot containing aerosol sources in our major cities provides useful information for policy makers for assessment, implementation and monitoring of strategies to tackle air pollution issues affecting human health with additional benefits for climate change. Objectives. This study on local sources of primary Particulate Matter (PM) in the megacity of Paris is a follow-up of several programs (incl. EU-FP7-MEGAPOLI) that have shown that fine PM - in the Paris background atmosphere - is mostly secondary and imported. A network of 14 stations of Black Carbon has been implemented in the larger region of Paris to provide highly spatially resolved long term survey of local combustion aerosols. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that such densely BC network is operating over a large urban area, providing novel information on the spatial/temporal distribution of combustion aerosols within a post-industrialized megacity. Experimental. As part of the PRIMEQUAL "PREQUALIF" project, a dense Black Carbon network (of 14 stations) has been installed over the city of Paris beginning of 2012 in order to produce spatially resolved Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) concentration maps with high time resolution through modeling and data assimilation. This network is composed of various real-time instruments (Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer, MAAP by THERMO; Multi-wavelength Aethalometers by MAGEE Scientific) implemented in contrasted sites (rural background, urban background, traffic) complementing the regulated measurements (PM, NOx) in the local air quality network AIRPARIF (http

  14. Simulated interaction of magnetohydrodynamic shock waves with a complex network-like region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamaria, I. C.; Khomenko, E.; Collados, M.; de Vicente, A.

    2016-05-01

    We provide estimates of the wave energy reaching the solar chromosphere and corona in a network-like magnetic field topology, including a coronal null point. The waves are excited by an instantaneous strong subphotospheric source and propagate through the subphotosphere, photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona with the plasma beta and other atmospheric parameters varying by several orders of magnitude. We compare two regimes of the wave propagation: a linear and nonlinear regime. While the amount of energy reaching the corona is similar in both regimes, this energy is transmitted at different frequencies. In both cases the dominant periods of waves at each height strongly depend on the local magnetic field topology, but this distribution is only in accordance with observations in the nonlinear case. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Regional and international integrated telemedicine network for organ transplant (HC 4028 & IN 4028 European Commission DGXIII).

    PubMed Central

    Vari, S. G.; Brugal, G.; Godo, F.; Bercic, B.; Nagy, G.; Avar, G.; Adelh, D.; Lagouarde, P.

    2000-01-01

    A substantial portion of future medical practice will depend greatly on improved collaboration between the providers throughout the healthcare sector, and effective sharing of data and expertise by different healthcare professionals. In organ transplant it is a rule, donor organs are matched to recipients via national or multinational organ-sharing organizations. Only through close co-operation between transplant surgeons, immunologists, nephrologists, pathologists, radiologists and other physicians could one increase the efficiency of organ transplantation. Information technology (IT) has become an inevitable and inherent part of transplantation medicine. The RETRANSPLANT project interfaces and integrates IT from the European Union Fourth Framework projects to support the development of regional organ transplant information networks in Central Europe. PMID:11080009

  16. Real-time detection, location, and characterization of rockslides using broadband regional seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manconi, Andrea; Picozzi, Matteo; Coviello, Velio; De Santis, Francesca; Elia, Luca

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new real-time approach to detect, locate, and estimate the volume of rockslides by analyzing waveforms acquired from broadband regional seismic networks. The identification of signals generated by rockslides from other sources, such as natural and/or induced earthquakes, is accomplished by exploiting the ratio between local magnitudes (ML) and duration magnitudes (MD). We found that signals associated with rockslides have ML/MD < 0.8, while for earthquakes ML/MD ≅ 1. In addition, we derived an empirical relationship between MD and rockslide volumes, obtaining a preliminary characterization of rockslide volume within seconds after their occurrence. The key points of this study are presented by testing the hypothesis on a recent rockslide event that occurred in northern Italy. We discuss also the potential evolution of the methodology for early warning and/or rapid response purposes.

  17. Memory impairment in aged primates is associated with region-specific network dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Thomé, A; Gray, D T; Erickson, C A; Lipa, P; Barnes, C A

    2016-09-01

    Age-related deficits in episodic memory result, in part, from declines in the integrity of medial temporal lobe structures, such as the hippocampus, but are not thought to be due to widespread loss of principal neurons. Studies in rodents suggest, however, that inhibitory interneurons may be particularly vulnerable in advanced age. Optimal encoding and retrieval of information depend on a balance of excitatory and inhibitory transmission. It is not known whether a disruption of this balance is observed in aging non-human primates, and whether such changes affect network function and behavior. To examine this question, we combine large-scale electrophysiological recordings with cell-type-specific imaging in the medial temporal lobe of cognitively assessed, aged rhesus macaques. We found that neuron excitability in the hippocampal region CA3 is negatively correlated with the density of somatostatin-expressing inhibitory interneurons in the vicinity of the recording electrodes in the stratum oriens. By contrast, no hyperexcitability or interneuron loss was observed in the perirhinal cortex of these aged, memory-impaired monkeys. These data provide a link, for the first time, between selective increases in principal cell excitability and declines in a molecularly defined population of interneurons that regulate network inhibition. PMID:26503764

  18. Genomic and Network Patterns of Schizophrenia Genetic Variation in Human Evolutionary Accelerated Regions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ke; Schadt, Eric E.; Pollard, Katherine S.; Roussos, Panos; Dudley, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    The population persistence of schizophrenia despite associated reductions in fitness and fecundity suggests that the genetic basis of schizophrenia has a complex evolutionary history. A recent meta-analysis of schizophrenia genome-wide association studies offers novel opportunities for assessment of the evolutionary trajectories of schizophrenia-associated loci. In this study, we hypothesize that components of the genetic architecture of schizophrenia are attributable to human lineage-specific evolution. Our results suggest that schizophrenia-associated loci enrich in genes near previously identified human accelerated regions (HARs). Specifically, we find that genes near HARs conserved in nonhuman primates (pHARs) are enriched for schizophrenia-associated loci, and that pHAR-associated schizophrenia genes are under stronger selective pressure than other schizophrenia genes and other pHAR-associated genes. We further evaluate pHAR-associated schizophrenia genes in regulatory network contexts to investigate associated molecular functions and mechanisms. We find that pHAR-associated schizophrenia genes significantly enrich in a GABA-related coexpression module that was previously found to be differentially regulated in schizophrenia affected individuals versus healthy controls. In another two independent networks constructed from gene expression profiles from prefrontal cortex samples, we find that pHAR-associated schizophrenia genes are located in more central positions and their average path lengths to the other nodes are significantly shorter than those of other schizophrenia genes. Together, our results suggest that HARs are associated with potentially important functional roles in the genetic architecture of schizophrenia. PMID:25681384

  19. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: From brain regions to brain networks.

    PubMed

    Nomi, Jason S; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2015-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD to a more holistic approach to understanding face perception as a process supported by distributed cortical and subcortical brain networks. We summarize evidence for atypical activation patterns within brain networks that may contribute to social deficits characteristic of the disorder. We conclude by pointing to gaps in the literature and future directions that will continue to shed light on aspects of face processing in autism that are still under-examined. In particular, we highlight the need for more developmental studies and studies examining ecologically valid and naturalistic social stimuli. PMID:25829246

  20. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: from brain regions to brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Nomi, Jason S.; Uddin, Lucina Q.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD to a more holistic approach to understanding face perception as a process supported by distributed cortical and subcortical brain networks. We summarize evidence for atypical activation patterns within brain networks that may contribute to social deficits characteristic of the disorder. We conclude by pointing to gaps in the literature and future directions that will continue to shed light on aspects of face processing in autism that are still under-examined. In particular, we highlight the need for more developmental studies and studies examining ecologically valid and naturalistic social stimuli. PMID:25829246

  1. The enerMENA meteorological network - Solar radiation measurements in the MENA region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, D.; Wilbert, S.; Geuder, N.; Affolter, R.; Wolfertstetter, F.; Prahl, C.; Röger, M.; Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Abdellatif, G.; Guizani, A. Allah; Balghouthi, M.; Khalil, A.; Mezrhab, A.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Yassaa, N.; Chellali, F.; Draou, D.; Blanc, P.; Dubranna, J.; Sabry, O. M. K.

    2016-05-01

    For solar resource assessment of solar power plants and adjustment of satellite data, high accuracy measurement data of irradiance and ancillary meteorological data is needed. For the MENA region (Middle East and Northern Africa), which is of high importance for concentrating solar power applications, so far merely 2 publicly available ground measurement stations existed (BSRN network). This gap has been filled by ten stations in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt and Jordan. In this publication the data quality is analyzed by evaluating data completeness and the cleanliness of irradiance sensors in comparison for all of the stations. The pyrheliometers have an average cleanliness of 99.2 % for week-daily cleaning. This is a 5 times higher effort than for Rotating Shadowband Irradiometer (RSI) stations which even have a slightly higher average cleanliness of 99.3 % for weekly cleaning. Furthermore, RSI stations show a data completeness of 99.4 % compared to 93.6 % at the stations equipped with thermal sensors. The results of this analysis are used to derive conclusions concerning instrument choice and are hence also applicable to other solar radiation measurements outside the enerMENA network. It turns out that RSIs are the more reliable and robust choice in cases of high soiling, rare station visits for cleaning and maintenance, as usual in desert sites. Furthermore, annual direct normal and global horizontal irradiation as well as average meteorological parameters are calculated for all of the stations.

  2. Memory impairment in aged primates is associated with region-specific network dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Thomé, Alexander; Gray, Daniel T.; Erickson, Cynthia A.; Lipa, Peter; Barnes, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related deficits in episodic memory result, in part, from declines in the integrity of medial temporal lobe structures, such as the hippocampus, but are not thought to be due to widespread loss of principal neurons. Studies in rodents suggest, however, that inhibitory interneurons may be particularly vulnerable in advanced age. Optimal encoding and retrieval of information depend on a balance of excitatory and inhibitory transmission. It is not known whether a disruption of this balance is observed in aging nonhuman primates, and whether such changes affect network function and behavior. To examine this question we combine large scale electrophysiological recordings with cell type-specific imaging in the medial temporal lobe of cognitively-assessed, aged rhesus macaques. We found that neuron excitability in hippocampal region CA3 is negatively correlated with the density of the somatostatin-expressing inhibitory interneurons in the vicinity of the recording electrodes in stratum oriens. By contrast, no hyperexcitability or interneuron loss was observed in the perirhinal cortex of these aged, memory-impaired monkeys. These data provide a link, for the first time, between selective increases in principal cell excitability and declines in a molecularly-defined population of interneurons that regulate network inhibition. PMID:26503764

  3. Monitoring of Regional Land Surface Temperature in city by Wireless Sensing Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Jiang, H.; Jin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important environmental factor. The precise monitoring data of LST can provide crucial support for further ecological researches such as the environment change and urban heat island. The Wireless Sensing Network (WSN) is a kind of modern information technology which integrates sensor technology, automatic control technology with data network transmission, storage, processing and analysis technology. As a new kind of data collection method, WSN is innovatively applied to monitor regional LST in different land cover types of city in this study. The LST data with high temporal resolution is obtained from temperature sensors of WSN. The land cover types of city are extracted from WorldView-II image with high resolution. The Southeast University Wuxi Branch campus and its surroundings which covers 2 km2 is chosen as the study area in Wuxi city, Jiangsu province, China. WSN is established to continuously monitor LST in real-time for one week. Then, the heterogeneous pattern of LST is investigated at a fine spatial and temporal scale based on different land cover types. The result shows LST of streets is higher than LST of campus in the daytime, but lower than LST of campus at night. The spatial heterogeneity of LST in the campus is not significant. This is because the number of vehicle was larger in the daytime than that at night, while the population of campus in day and night almost having little change. Notably, the influence of plant activities (e.g. photosynthesis and respiration) on LST can be detected by WSN. This study is a new attempt to monitor regional environment of city by WSN technology. Moreover, compared to traditional methods, WSN technology can improve the detection of LST with finer temporal and spatial resolution.

  4. Hybrid inversions of CO2 fluxes at regional scale applied to network design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountouris, Panagiotis; Gerbig, Christoph; -Thomas Koch, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Long term observations of atmospheric greenhouse gas measuring stations, located at representative regions over the continent, improve our understanding of greenhouse gas sources and sinks. These mixing ratio measurements can be linked to surface fluxes by atmospheric transport inversions. Within the upcoming years new stations are to be deployed, which requires decision making tools with respect to the location and the density of the network. We are developing a method to assess potential greenhouse gas observing networks in terms of their ability to recover specific target quantities. As target quantities we use CO2 fluxes aggregated to specific spatial and temporal scales. We introduce a high resolution inverse modeling framework, which attempts to combine advantages from pixel based inversions with those of a carbon cycle data assimilation system (CCDAS). The hybrid inversion system consists of the Lagrangian transport model STILT, the diagnostic biosphere model VPRM and a Bayesian inversion scheme. We aim to retrieve the spatiotemporal distribution of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at a high spatial resolution (10 km x 10 km) by inverting for spatially and temporally varying scaling factors for gross ecosystem exchange (GEE) and respiration (R) rather than solving for the fluxes themselves. Thus the state space includes parameters for controlling photosynthesis and respiration, but unlike in a CCDAS it allows for spatial and temporal variations, which can be expressed as NEE(x,y,t) = λG(x,y,t) GEE(x,y,t) + λR(x,y,t) R(x,y,t) . We apply spatially and temporally correlated uncertainties by using error covariance matrices with non-zero off-diagonal elements. Synthetic experiments will test our system and select the optimal a priori error covariance by using different spatial and temporal correlation lengths on the error statistics of the a priori covariance and comparing the optimized fluxes against the 'known truth'. As 'known truth' we use independent fluxes

  5. Novel Instrumentation for Column Measurements and Regional Eulerian Modeling for Network Design in Boston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Samra, J.; Gottlieb, E.; Budney, J.; Wofsy, S. C.; McKain, K.; Hase, F.; Gerbig, C.; Chance, K.; McManus, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Urban areas emit most of the greenhouse gases and therefore represent the largest sources of human influence on climate change. Their emission flux is currently determined by the measured gas concentration near the earth's surface, but this alone is insufficient due to the high variance associated with small-scale atmospheric motions, planetary boundary layer dynamics and heterogeneity of the urban landscape. Path-integrated column measurements that integrate through a mixed layer or across a plume are much more compatible with the scale of atmospheric models. The changes in time and space of the column-averaged concentration directly track anthropogenic emissions because the mass balance itself is sensed. Current column measurement instrumentation is however costly and operationally complex. In this paper we present the development of a compact, simplified solar-tracking spectrometer, measuring the vertical column amount of CO2, CH4, CO, O2, H2O, etc. in the atmosphere. It will add the 3rd dimension (vertical) information to the existing surface network in Boston. Using the sun as a light source, the column-averaged number densities of different gas species are captured in the solar radiation spectrum recorded by a near-infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (0.1 cm-1 resolution) at the ground. The current setup is based on diffuser optics and is able to record the whole solar disk. It therefore is insensitive to the solar variability, has fewer tracking requirements, and is rugged and mobile at the same time. These spectrometers have the potential to be deployed in a multi-dimensional network gathering data from upwind, inside and downwind of Boston. A mobile spectrometer unit can be deployed to transect the urban dome, providing measurements continuously in space. The network strategy is developed using a data-model framework based on the regional Eulerian WRF Greenhouse Gas model WRF-GHG. In this paper we will mainly discuss the development of the novel column

  6. Water quality success stories: Integrated assessments from the IOOS regional associations and national water quality monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, Rob; Vowinkel, Eric; Porter, Dwayne; Hamilton, Pixie; Morrison, Ru; Kohut, Josh; Connell, Bob; Kelsey, Heath; Trowbridge, Phil

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) Regional Associations and Interagency Partners hosted a water quality workshop in January 2010 to discuss issues of nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion (hypoxia), harmful algal blooms (HABs), and beach water quality. In 2007, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council piloted demonstration projects as part of the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (Network) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their Tributaries in three IOOS Regional Associations, and these projects are ongoing. Examples of integrated science-based solutions to water quality issues of major concern from the IOOS regions and Network demonstration projects are explored in this article. These examples illustrate instances where management decisions have benefited from decision-support tools that make use of interoperable data. Gaps, challenges, and outcomes are identified, and a proposal is made for future work toward a multiregional water quality project for beach water quality.

  7. The energy balance and pressure in the solar transition zone for network and active region features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, K. R.; Bartoe, J.-D. F.; Brueckner, G. E.; Vanhoosier, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    The electron pressure and energy balance in the solar transition zone are determined for about 125 network and active region features on the basis of high spectral and spatial resolution extreme ultraviolet spectra. Si III line intensity ratios obtained from the Naval Research Laboratory high-resolution telescope and spectrograph during a rocket flight are used as diagnostics of electron density and pressure for solar features near 3.5 x 10 to the 4th K. Observed ratios are compared with the calculated dependence of the 1301 A/1312 A and 1301 A/1296 A line intensity ratios on electron density, temperature and pressure. Electron densities ranging from 2 x 10 to the 10th/cu cm to 10 to the 12th/cu cm and active region pressures from 3 x 10 to the 15th to 10 to the 16th/cu cm K are obtained. Energy balance calculations reveal the balance of the divergence of the conductive flux and turbulent energy dissipation by radiative energy losses in a plane-parallel homogeneous transition zone (fill factor of 1), and an energy source requirement for a cylindrical zone geometry (fill factor less than 0.04).

  8. Connectomic Profiles for Individualized Resting State Networks and Regions of Interest

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kaiming; Langley, Jason; Li, Zhihao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Functional connectivity analysis of human brain resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data and resultant functional networks, or RSNs, have drawn increasing interest in both research and clinical applications. A fundamental yet challenging problem is to identify distinct functional regions or regions of interest (ROIs) that have accurate functional correspondence across subjects. This article presents an algorithmic framework to identify ROIs of common RSNs at the individual level. It first employed a dual-sparsity dictionary learning algorithm to extract group connectomic profiles of ROIs and RSNs from noisy and high-dimensional fMRI data, with special attention to the well-known inter-subject variability in anatomy and then identified the ROIs of a given individual by employing both anatomic and group connectomic profile constraints using an energy minimization approach. Applications of this framework demonstrated that it can identify individualized ROIs of RSNs with superior performance over commonly used registration methods in terms of functional correspondence, and a test–retest study revealed that the framework is robust and consistent across both short-interval and long-interval repeated sessions of the same population. These results indicate that our framework can provide accurate substrates for individualized rsfMRI analysis. PMID:25090040

  9. A Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network In The Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, B.; de Wekker, S.; Watt, A.; Schimel, D.

    2005-12-01

    We have established a continuous CO2 observing network in the Rocky Mountains, building on technological and modeling advances made during the Carbon in the Mountains Experiment (CME), to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes and to fill key gaps in the North American Carbon Program (NACP). We will present a description of the Rocky RACCOON network and early results from the first three sites. There are strong scientific and societal motivations for determining CO2 exchanges on regional scales. NACP aims to address these concerns through a dramatic expansion in observations and modeling capabilities over North America. Mountain forests in particular represent a significant potential net CO2 sink in the U.S. and are highly sensitive to land-use practices and climate change. However, plans for new continuous CO2 observing sites have omitted the mountain west. This resulted from expensive instrumentation in the face of limited resources, and a perception that current atmospheric transport models are not sophisticated enough to interpret CO2 measurements made in complex terrain. Through our efforts in CME, we have a new autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analysis system and are developing mountain CO2 modeling tools that will help us to overcome these obstacles. Preliminary observational and modeling results give us confidence that continuous CO2 observations from mountain top observatories will provide useful constraints on regional carbon cycling and will be valuable in the continental inverse modeling efforts planned for NACP. We began at three Colorado sites in August 2005 and hope to add three to six sites in other western states in subsequent years, utilizing existing observatories to the maximum extent possible. The first three sites are at Niwot Ridge, allowing us to have an ongoing intercomparison with flask measurements made by NOAA CMDL; at Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, allowing us to investigate comparisons between these

  10. Query and Visualization of extremely large network datasets over the web using Quadtree based KML Regional Network Links

    SciTech Connect

    Dadi, Upendra; Liu, Cheng; Vatsavai, Raju

    2009-01-01

    Geographic data sets are often very large in size. Interactive visualization of such data at all scales is not easy because of the limited resolution of the monitors and inability of visualization applications to handle the volume of data. This is especially true for large vector datasets. The end user s experience is frequently unsatisfactory when exploring such data over the web using a naive application. Network bandwidth is another contributing factor to the low performance. In this paper, a Quadtree based technique to visualize extremely large spatial network datasets over the web is described. It involves using custom developed algorithms leveraging a PostGIS database as the data source and Google Earth as the visualization client. This methodology supports both point and range queries along with non-spatial queries. This methodology is demonstrated using a network dataset consisting of several million links. The methodology is based on using some of the powerful features of KML (Keyhole Markup Language). Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard for displaying geospatial data on Earth browsers. One of the features of KML is the notion of Network Links. Using network links, a wide range of geospatial data sources such as geodatabases, static files and geospatial data services can be simultaneously accessed and visualized seamlessly. Using the network links combined with Level of Detail principle, view based rendering and intelligent server and client-side caching, scalability in visualizing extremely large spatial datasets can be achieved.

  11. Young People in Changing Societies. Regional Monitoring Report, No. 7. The MONEE Project, CEE/CIS/Baltics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Migel; Fajth, Gaspar; Gantcheva, Roumiana; Kolev, Alexandre; Micklewright, John; Marnie, Sheila; Motivans, Albert

    This report covers countries in transition--the 27 nations of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States--that embarked on market and democratic reforms after the collapse of the Iron Curtain. The theme is a generation in transition--65 million young people aged 15-24. Are these youths better off? Are they healthier or…

  12. Bayesian Belief Network to support conflict analysis for groundwater protection: the case of the Apulia region.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Raffaele; D'Agostino, Daniela; Apollonio, Ciro; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Vurro, Michele

    2013-01-30

    Water resource management is often characterized by conflicts, as a result of the heterogeneity of interests associated with a shared resource. Many water conflicts arise on a global scale and, in particular, an increasing level of conflicts can be observed in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by water scarcity. In the present work, in order to assist the conflict analysis process, and thus outline a proper groundwater management, stakeholders were involved in the process and suitable tools were used in a Mediterranean area (the Apulia region, in Italy). In particular, this paper seeks to elicit and structure farmers' mental models influencing their decision over the main water source for irrigation. The more crucial groundwater is for farmers' objectives, the more controversial is the groundwater protection strategy. Bayesian Belief Networks were developed to simulate farmers' behavior with regard to groundwater management and to assess the impacts of protection strategy. These results have been used to calculate the conflict degree in the study area, derived from the introduction of policies for the reduction of groundwater exploitation for irrigation purposes. The less acceptable the policy is, the more likely it is that conflict will develop between farmers and the Regional Authority. The results of conflict analysis were also used to contribute to the debate concerning potential conflict mitigation measures. The approach adopted in this work has been discussed with a number of experts in groundwater management policies and irrigation management, and its main strengths and weaknesses have been identified. Increasing awareness of the existence of potential conflicts and the need to deal with them can be seen as an interesting initial shift in the Apulia region's water management regime, which is still grounded in merely technical approaches. PMID:23246906

  13. A nanoflare model for active region radiance: application of artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazarghan, M.; Safari, H.; Innes, D. E.; Karami, E.; Solanki, S. K.

    2008-12-01

    Context: Nanoflares are small impulsive bursts of energy that blend with and possibly make up much of the solar background emission. Determining their frequency and energy input is central to understanding the heating of the solar corona. One method is to extrapolate the energy frequency distribution of larger individually observed flares to lower energies. Only if the power law exponent is greater than 2 is it considered possible that nanoflares contribute significantly to the energy input. Aims: Time sequences of ultraviolet line radiances observed in the corona of an active region are modelled with the aim of determining the power law exponent of the nanoflare energy distribution. Methods: A simple nanoflare model based on three key parameters (the flare rate, the flare duration, and the power law exponent of the flare energy frequency distribution) is used to simulate emission line radiances from the ions Fe XIX, Ca XIII, and Si III, observed by SUMER in the corona of an active region as it rotates around the east limb of the Sun. Light curve pattern recognition by an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) scheme is used to determine the values. Results: The power law exponents, α≈2.8, 2.8, and 2.6 are obtained for Fe XIX, Ca XIII, and Si III respectively. Conclusions: The light curve simulations imply a power law exponent greater than the critical value of 2 for all ion species. This implies that if the energy of flare-like events is extrapolated to low energies, nanoflares could provide a significant contribution to the heating of active region coronae.

  14. BALTEX—an interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, Marcus; Langner, Joakim; Omstedt, Anders; von Storch, Hans; Keevallik, Sirje; Schneider, Bernd; Arheimer, Berit; Markus Meier, H. E.; Hünicke, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    BALTEX is an environmental research network dealing with the Earth system of the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin. Important elements include the water and energy cycle, climate variability and change, water management and extreme events, and related impacts on biogeochemical cycles. BALTEX was founded in 1993 as a GEWEX continental-scale experiment and is currently in its second 10 yr phase. Phase I (1993-2002) was primarily dedicated to hydrological, meteorological and oceanographic processes in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, hence mostly dealt with the physical aspects of the system. Scientific focus was on the hydrological cycle and the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the Baltic Sea and the surface of its catchment. The BALTEX study area was hydrologically defined as the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The second 10 yr phase of BALTEX (Phase II: 2003-12) has strengthened regional climate research, water management issues, biogeochemical cycles and overarching efforts to reach out to stakeholders and decision makers, as well as to foster communication and education. Achievements of BALTEX Phase II have been the establishment of an assessment report of regional climate change and its impacts on the Baltic Sea basin (from hydrological to biological and socio-economic), the further development of regional physical climate models and the integration of biogeochemical and ecosystem models. BALTEX features a strong infrastructure, with an international secretariat and a publication series, and organizes various workshops and conferences. This article gives an overview of the BALTEX programme, with an emphasis on Phase II, with some examples from BALTEX-related research.

  15. A new regional RADAR network for nowcasting applications: the RESMAR achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, Andrea; Melani, Samantha; Mazza, Alessandro; Ortolani, Alberto; Gozzini, Bernardo; Corongiu, Manuela; Cristofori, Simone

    2013-04-01

    satellite data largely improves the spatial and temporal information on the events, filling up the gaps of uneven data distribution; for this issue LaMMA has multi-year skills in the acquisition and processing of geostationary and polar satellites. The regional raingauge network and meteorological stations will be instead used to obtain useful information both to calibration (as those related to radar reflectivity - rain rate relationships) and validation processes. The radar system and its mosaicking will be presented, as well as some preliminary products.

  16. Network Connectedness, Sense of Community, and Risk Perception of Climate Change Professionals in the Pacific Islands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlew, L. K.; Keener, V. W.; Finucane, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (Pacific RISA) Program conducted social network analysis research of climate change professionals (broadly defined) who are from or work in Hawaii and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) region. This study is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC) to address an identified need for a resource that quantifies the region's collaborative network of climate change professionals, and that supports the further development of cross-regional and inter-sectoral collaborations for future research and adaptation activities. A survey was distributed to nearly 1,200 people who are from and/or work in climate change related fields in the region. The Part One Survey questions (not confidential) created a preferential attachment network by listing major players in Hawaii and the USAPI, with additional open fields to identify important contacts in the greater professional network. Participants (n=340) identified 975 network contacts and frequency of communications (weekly, monthly, seasonally, yearly, at least once ever). Part Two Survey questions (confidential, n=302) explored climate change risk perceptions, Psychological Sense of Community (PSOC), sense of control over climate change impacts, sense of responsibility to act, policy beliefs and preferences regarding climate change actions, concern and optimism scales about specific impacts, and demographic information. Graphical representations of the professional network are being developed for release in September 2013 as a free online tool to promote and assist collaboration building among climate professionals in the region. The graphs are partitioned according to network 'hubs' (high centrality), participant location, and profession to clearly identify network strengths and opportunities for future collaborations across spatial and professional boundaries. For additional

  17. The Default Mode Network and EEG Regional Spectral Power: A Simultaneous fMRI-EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Cornelius J.; Hitz, Konrad; Boers, Frank; Kawohl, Wolfram; Shah, N. Jon

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) frequencies have been linked to specific functions as an “electrophysiological signature” of a function. A combination of oscillatory rhythms has also been described for specific functions, with or without predominance of one specific frequency-band. In a simultaneous fMRI-EEG study at 3 T we studied the relationship between the default mode network (DMN) and the power of EEG frequency bands. As a methodological approach, we applied Multivariate Exploratory Linear Optimized Decomposition into Independent Components (MELODIC) and dual regression analysis for fMRI resting state data. EEG power for the alpha, beta, delta and theta-bands were extracted from the structures forming the DMN in a region-of-interest approach by applying Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). A strong link between the spontaneous BOLD response of the left parahippocampal gyrus and the delta-band extracted from the anterior cingulate cortex was found. A positive correlation between the beta-1 frequency power extracted from the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the spontaneous BOLD response of the right supplementary motor cortex was also established. The beta-2 frequency power extracted from the PCC and the precuneus showed a positive correlation with the BOLD response of the right frontal cortex. Our results support the notion of beta-band activity governing the “status quo” in cognitive and motor setup. The highly significant correlation found between the delta power within the DMN and the parahippocampal gyrus is in line with the association of delta frequencies with memory processes. We assumed “ongoing activity” during “resting state” in bringing events from the past to the mind, in which the parahippocampal gyrus is a relevant structure. Our data demonstrate that spontaneous BOLD fluctuations within the DMN are associated with different EEG-bands and strengthen the conclusion that this network is characterized by a specific

  18. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Brain Network Connectivity Maintains Cognition across the Lifespan Despite Accelerated Decay of Regional Brain Activation

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Richard N.A.; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Razi, Adeel; Geerligs, Linda; Ham, Timothy E.; Rowe, James B.

    2016-01-01

    large population-based cohort (n = 602, 18–88 years), separating neural connectivity from vascular components of fMRI signals. Cognitive ability was influenced by the strength of connection within and between functional brain networks, and this positive relationship increased with age. In older adults, there was more rapid decay of intrinsic neuronal activity in multiple regions of the brain networks, which related to cognitive performance. Our data demonstrate increased reliance on network flexibility to maintain cognitive function, in the presence of more rapid decay of neural activity. These insights will facilitate the development of new strategies to maintain cognitive ability. PMID:26985024

  19. A regional neural network model for predicting mean daily river water temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; DeWeber, Jefferson Tyrell

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is a fundamental property of river habitat and often a key aspect of river resource management, but measurements to characterize thermal regimes are not available for most streams and rivers. As such, we developed an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble model to predict mean daily water temperature in 197,402 individual stream reaches during the warm season (May–October) throughout the native range of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern U.S. We compared four models with different groups of predictors to determine how well water temperature could be predicted by climatic, landform, and land cover attributes, and used the median prediction from an ensemble of 100 ANNs as our final prediction for each model. The final model included air temperature, landform attributes and forested land cover and predicted mean daily water temperatures with moderate accuracy as determined by root mean squared error (RMSE) at 886 training sites with data from 1980 to 2009 (RMSE = 1.91 °C). Based on validation at 96 sites (RMSE = 1.82) and separately for data from 2010 (RMSE = 1.93), a year with relatively warmer conditions, the model was able to generalize to new stream reaches and years. The most important predictors were mean daily air temperature, prior 7 day mean air temperature, and network catchment area according to sensitivity analyses. Forest land cover at both riparian and catchment extents had relatively weak but clear negative effects. Predicted daily water temperature averaged for the month of July matched expected spatial trends with cooler temperatures in headwaters and at higher elevations and latitudes. Our ANN ensemble is unique in predicting daily temperatures throughout a large region, while other regional efforts have predicted at relatively coarse time steps. The model may prove a useful tool for predicting water temperatures in sampled and unsampled rivers under current conditions and future projections of climate

  20. A regional neural network ensemble for predicting mean daily river water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWeber, Jefferson Tyrell; Wagner, Tyler

    2014-09-01

    Water temperature is a fundamental property of river habitat and often a key aspect of river resource management, but measurements to characterize thermal regimes are not available for most streams and rivers. As such, we developed an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble model to predict mean daily water temperature in 197,402 individual stream reaches during the warm season (May-October) throughout the native range of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern U.S. We compared four models with different groups of predictors to determine how well water temperature could be predicted by climatic, landform, and land cover attributes, and used the median prediction from an ensemble of 100 ANNs as our final prediction for each model. The final model included air temperature, landform attributes and forested land cover and predicted mean daily water temperatures with moderate accuracy as determined by root mean squared error (RMSE) at 886 training sites with data from 1980 to 2009 (RMSE = 1.91 °C). Based on validation at 96 sites (RMSE = 1.82) and separately for data from 2010 (RMSE = 1.93), a year with relatively warmer conditions, the model was able to generalize to new stream reaches and years. The most important predictors were mean daily air temperature, prior 7 day mean air temperature, and network catchment area according to sensitivity analyses. Forest land cover at both riparian and catchment extents had relatively weak but clear negative effects. Predicted daily water temperature averaged for the month of July matched expected spatial trends with cooler temperatures in headwaters and at higher elevations and latitudes. Our ANN ensemble is unique in predicting daily temperatures throughout a large region, while other regional efforts have predicted at relatively coarse time steps. The model may prove a useful tool for predicting water temperatures in sampled and unsampled rivers under current conditions and future projections of climate and land use

  1. Results of APL rain gauge network measurements in mid-Atlantic coast region and comparisons of distributions with CCIR models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Gebo, Norman; Rowland, John

    1988-01-01

    In this effort are described cumulative rain rate distributions for a network of nine tipping bucket rain gauge systems located in the mid-Atlantic coast region in the vicinity of the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia. The rain gauges are situated within a gridded region of dimensions of 47 km east-west by 70 km north-south. Distributions are presented for the individual site measurements and the network average for the year period June 1, 1986 through May 31, 1987. A previous six year average distribution derived from measurements at one of the site locations is also presented. Comparisons are given of the network average, the CCIR (International Radio Consultative Committee) climatic zone, and the CCIR functional model distributions, the latter of which approximates a log normal at the lower rain rate and a gamma function at the higher rates.

  2. Colorectal cancer prevention: Perspectives of key players from social networks in a low-income rural US region.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Eddens, Kathryn; Jonas, Adam; Snell-Rood, Claire; Studts, Christina R; Broder-Oldach, Benjamin; Katz, Mira L

    2016-01-01

    Social networks influence health behavior and health status. Within social networks, "key players" often influence those around them, particularly in traditionally underserved areas like the Appalachian region in the USA. From a total sample of 787 Appalachian residents, we identified and interviewed 10 key players in complex networks, asking them what comprises a key player, their role in their network and community, and ideas to overcome and increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Key players emphasized their communication skills, resourcefulness, and special occupational and educational status in the community. Barriers to CRC screening included negative perceptions of the colonoscopy screening procedure, discomfort with the medical system, and misinformed perspectives on screening. Ideas to improve screening focused on increasing awareness of women's susceptibility to CRC, providing information on different screening tests, improving access, and the key role of health-care providers and key players themselves. We provide recommendations to leverage these vital community resources. PMID:26905402

  3. Colorectal cancer prevention: Perspectives of key players from social networks in a low-income rural US region

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Eddens, Kathryn; Jonas, Adam; Snell-Rood, Claire; Studts, Christina R.; Broder-Oldach, Benjamin; Katz, Mira L.

    2016-01-01

    Social networks influence health behavior and health status. Within social networks, “key players” often influence those around them, particularly in traditionally underserved areas like the Appalachian region in the USA. From a total sample of 787 Appalachian residents, we identified and interviewed 10 key players in complex networks, asking them what comprises a key player, their role in their network and community, and ideas to overcome and increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Key players emphasized their communication skills, resourcefulness, and special occupational and educational status in the community. Barriers to CRC screening included negative perceptions of the colonoscopy screening procedure, discomfort with the medical system, and misinformed perspectives on screening. Ideas to improve screening focused on increasing awareness of women's susceptibility to CRC, providing information on different screening tests, improving access, and the key role of health-care providers and key players themselves. We provide recommendations to leverage these vital community resources. PMID:26905402

  4. Installation of a digital, wireless, strong-motion network for monitoring seismic activity in a western Colorado coal mining region

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Swanson; Collin Stewart; Wendell Koontz

    2007-01-15

    A seismic monitoring network has recently been installed in the North Fork Valley coal mining region of western Colorado as part of a NIOSH mine safety technology transfer project with two longwall coal mine operators. Data recorded with this network will be used to characterize mining related and natural seismic activity in the vicinity of the mines and examine potential hazards due to ground shaking near critical structures such as impoundment dams, reservoirs, and steep slopes. Ten triaxial strong-motion accelerometers have been installed on the surface to form the core of a network that covers approximately 250 square kilometers (100 sq. miles) of rugged canyon-mesa terrain. Spread-spectrum radio networks are used to telemeter continuous streams of seismic waveform data to a central location where they are converted to IP data streams and ported to the Internet for processing, archiving, and analysis. 4 refs.

  5. Mature-Aged Job Seekers' Experiences of Centrelink and the Job Network Services in an Australian Regional Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossen, Chris; Hammer, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Unemployment may be considered a normal, if not likely, experience of a person's lifelong career. This paper is based on a primary, qualitative study that focused on the way mature-aged unemployed citizens experience government unemployment and employment agencies: Centrelink and the Job Network in a large regional city. It contributes to existing…

  6. Using W-phase for regional source inversion: An application to the data from the virtual seismic network in the Western Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W.; Zhao, L.; Chen, P.; Yu, Y.; Liu, C.; Huang, B.; Kanamori, H.

    2009-12-01

    The W-phase inversion has been proven to be an efficient way to determine the magnitude and source mechanism of large earthquakes for tsunami warning purposes (Kanamori and Rivera, 2008). The Institute of Earth Sciences has exchanged seismic data in a real-time manner with other agencies in surrounding countries, including Japan, Vietnam, and Malaysia, to form a virtual seismic network in the western Pacific region. Any local organization may issue an earthquake report with its own data acquisition system individually. With the hypocentral information provided, we are able to apply this new technique to invert the data from this virtual regional network for the source mechanisms of large earthquakes which occurred on the major convergent plate boundary zones within 2-30 degrees. In this case, the W-phase will be completely retrieved in 1.5-12.5 minutes. To evaluate the reliability of inversion with this network geometry, we invert waveforms of scenario earthquakes synthesized by normal mode summation method. A series of examples were then studied to compare the difference between our results and the global CMT solutions. We hope this practical application will contribute to the tsunami mitigation and seismic hazard assessment in the Western Pacific and Southern Asia regions.

  7. Grid-Search Location Methods for Ground-Truth Collection from Local and Regional Seismic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C A; Rodi, W; Myers, S C

    2003-07-24

    The objective of this project is to develop improved seismic event location techniques that can be used to generate more and better quality reference events using data from local and regional seismic networks. Their approach is to extend existing methods of multiple-event location with more general models of the errors affecting seismic arrival time data, including picking errors and errors in model-based travel-times (path corrections). Toward this end, they are integrating a grid-search based algorithm for multiple-event location (GMEL) with a new parameterization of travel-time corrections and new kriging method for estimating the correction parameters from observed travel-time residuals. Like several other multiple-event location algorithms, GMEL currently assumes event-independent path corrections and is thus restricted to small event clusters. The new parameterization assumes that travel-time corrections are a function of both the event and station location, and builds in source-receiver reciprocity and correlation between the corrections from proximate paths as constraints. The new kriging method simultaneously interpolates travel-time residuals from multiple stations and events to estimate the correction parameters as functions of position. They are currently developing the algorithmic extensions to GMEL needed to combine the new parameterization and kriging method with the simultaneous location of events. The result will be a multiple-event location method which is applicable to non-clustered, spatially well-distributed events. They are applying the existing components of the new multiple-event location method to a data set of regional and local arrival times from Nevada Test Site (NTS) explosions with known origin parameters. Preliminary results show the feasibility and potential benefits of combining the location and kriging techniques. They also show some preliminary work on generalizing of the error model used in GMEL with the use of mixture

  8. A publicly available simulation of an enhanced network region of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, Mats; Hansteen, Viggo H.; Gudiksen, Boris V.; Leenaarts, Jorrit; De Pontieu, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Context. The solar chromosphere is the interface between the solar surface and the solar corona. Modelling of this region is difficult because it represents the transition from optically thick to thin radiation escape, from gas-pressure domination to magnetic-pressure domination, from a neutral to an ionised state, from MHD to plasma physics, and from near-equilibrium (LTE) to non-equilibrium conditions. Aims: Our aim is to provide the community with realistic simulations of the magnetic solar outer atmosphere. This will enable detailed comparison of existing and upcoming observations with synthetic observables from the simulations, thereby elucidating the complex interactions of magnetic fields and plasma that are crucial for our understanding of the dynamic outer atmosphere. Methods: We used the radiation magnetohydrodynamics code Bifrost to perform simulations of a computational volume with a magnetic field topology similar to an enhanced network area on the Sun. Results: The full simulation cubes are made available from the Hinode Science Data Centre Europe. The general properties of the simulation are discussed, and limitations are discussed. The Hinode Science Data Centre Europe (http://www.sdc.uio.no/search/simulations).

  9. An Optimal Hierarchical Decision Model for a Regional Logistics Network with Environmental Impact Consideration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dezhi; Li, Shuangyan

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model of simultaneous optimization of three-level logistics decisions, for logistics authorities, logistics operators, and logistics users, for regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration. The proposed model addresses the interaction among the three logistics players in a complete competitive logistics service market with CO2 emission charges. We also explicitly incorporate the impacts of the scale economics of the logistics park and the logistics users' demand elasticity into the model. The logistics authorities aim to maximize the total social welfare of the system, considering the demand of green logistics development by two different methods: optimal location of logistics nodes and charging a CO2 emission tax. Logistics operators are assumed to compete with logistics service fare and frequency, while logistics users minimize their own perceived logistics disutility given logistics operators' service fare and frequency. A heuristic algorithm based on the multinomial logit model is presented for the three-level decision model, and a numerical example is given to illustrate the above optimal model and its algorithm. The proposed model provides a useful tool for modeling competitive logistics services and evaluating logistics policies at the strategic level. PMID:24977209

  10. Building a regionally connected reserve network in a changing and uncertain world.

    PubMed

    Spring, Daniel; Baum, Jiri; Nally, Ralph Mac; Mackenzie, Michael; Sanchez-Azofeifa, A; Thomson, James R

    2010-06-01

    Habitat connectivity is required at large spatial scales to facilitate movement of biota in response to climatic changes and to maintain viable populations of wide-ranging species. Nevertheless, it may require decades to acquire habitat linkages at such scales, and areas that could provide linkages are often developed before they can be reserved. Reserve scheduling methods usually consider only current threats, but threats change over time as development spreads and reaches presently secure areas. We investigated the importance of considering future threats when implementing projects to maintain habitat connectivity at a regional scale. To do so, we compared forward-looking scheduling strategies with strategies that consider only current threats. The strategies were applied to a Costa Rican case study, where many reserves face imminent isolation and other reserves will probably become isolated in the more distant future. We evaluated strategies in terms of two landscape-scale connectivity metrics, a pure connectivity metric and a metric of connected habitat diversity. Those strategies that considered only current threats were unreliable because they often failed to complete planned habitat linkage projects. The most reliable and effective strategies considered the future spread of development and its impact on the likelihood of completing planned habitat linkage projects. Our analyses highlight the critical need to consider future threats when building connected reserve networks over time. PMID:20067494

  11. Region-Based Collision Avoidance Beaconless Geographic Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, JeongCheol; Park, HoSung; Kang, SeokYoon; Kim, Ki-Il

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency on beacon messages for location exchange, the beaconless geographic routing protocol has attracted considerable attention from the research community. However, existing beaconless geographic routing protocols are likely to generate duplicated data packets when multiple winners in the greedy area are selected. Furthermore, these protocols are designed for a uniform sensor field, so they cannot be directly applied to practical irregular sensor fields with partial voids. To prevent the failure of finding a forwarding node and to remove unnecessary duplication, in this paper, we propose a region-based collision avoidance beaconless geographic routing protocol to increase forwarding opportunities for randomly-deployed sensor networks. By employing different contention priorities into the mutually-communicable nodes and the rest of the nodes in the greedy area, every neighbor node in the greedy area can be used for data forwarding without any packet duplication. Moreover, simulation results are given to demonstrate the increased packet delivery ratio and shorten end-to-end delay, rather than well-referred comparative protocols. PMID:26057037

  12. Location capability of a sparse regional network (RSTN) using a multi-phase earthquake location algorithm (REGLOC)

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.

    1994-01-01

    The Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) was deployed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether data recorded by a regional network could be used to detect and accurately locate seismic events that might be clandestine nuclear tests. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the location capability of the RSTN. A major part of this project was the development of the location algorithm REGLOC and application of Basian a prior statistics for determining the accuracy of the location estimates. REGLOC utilizes all identifiable phases, including backazimuth, in the location. Ninty-four events, distributed throughout the network area, detected by both the RSTN and located by local networks were used in the study. The location capability of the RSTN was evaluated by estimating the location accuracy, error ellipse accuracy, and the percentage of events that could be located, as a function of magnitude. The location accuracy was verified by comparing the RSTN results for the 94 events with published locations based on data from the local networks. The error ellipse accuracy was evaluated by determining whether the error ellipse includes the actual location. The percentage of events located was assessed by combining detection capability with location capability to determine the percentage of events that could be located within the study area. Events were located with both an average crustal model for the entire region, and with regional velocity models along with station corrections obtained from master events. Most events with a magnitude <3.0 can only be located with arrivals from one station. Their average location errors are 453 and 414 km for the average- and regional-velocity model locations, respectively. Single station locations are very unreliable because they depend on accurate backazimuth estimates, and backazimuth proved to be a very unreliable computation.

  13. Functional neuroimaging with default mode network regions distinguishes PTSD from TBI in a military veteran population.

    PubMed

    Raji, Cyrus A; Willeumier, Kristen; Taylor, Derek; Tarzwell, Robert; Newberg, Andrew; Henderson, Theodore A; Amen, Daniel G

    2015-09-01

    PTSD and TBI are two common conditions in veteran populations that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The default mode network (DMN) is abnormal in a multitude of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We hypothesize that brain perfusion SPECT can be applied to diagnostically separate PTSD from TBI reliably in a veteran cohort using DMN regions. A group of 196 veterans (36 with PTSD, 115 with TBI, 45 with PTSD/TBI) were selected from a large multi-site population cohort of individuals with psychiatric disease. Inclusion criteria were peacetime or wartime veterans regardless of branch of service and included those for whom the traumatic brain injury was not service related. SPECT imaging was performed on this group both at rest and during a concentration task. These measures, as well as the baseline-concentration difference, were then inputted from DMN regions into separate binary logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, race, clinic site, co-morbid psychiatric diseases, TBI severity, whether or not the TBI was service related, and branch of armed service. Predicted probabilities were then inputted into a receiver operating characteristic analysis to compute sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Compared to PSTD, persons with TBI were older, male, and had higher rates of bipolar and major depressive disorder (p < 0.05). Baseline quantitative regions with SPECT separated PTSD from TBI in the veterans with 92 % sensitivity, 85 % specificity, and 94 % accuracy. With concentration scans, there was 85 % sensitivity, 83 % specificity and 89 % accuracy. Baseline-concentration (the difference metric between the two scans) scans were 85 % sensitivity, 80 % specificity, and 87 % accuracy. In separating TBI from PTSD/TBI visual readings of baseline scans had 85 % sensitivity, 81 % specificity, and 83 % accuracy. Concentration scans had 80 % sensitivity, 65 % specificity, and 79 % accuracy. Baseline-concentration scans had 82

  14. Surveillance of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: Tracking Molecular Epidemiology and Outcomes through a Regional Network

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Federico; Rudin, Susan D.; Cober, Eric; Hanrahan, Jennifer; Ziegler, Julie; Webber, Raymond; Fox, Jacqueline; Mason, Pamela; Richter, Sandra S.; Cline, Marianne; Hall, Geraldine S.; Kaye, Keith S.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Kalayjian, Robert C.; Salata, Robert A.; Segre, Julia A.; Conlan, Sean; Evans, Scott; Fowler, Vance G.

    2014-01-01

    Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is on the rise in the United States. A regional network was established to study microbiological and genetic determinants of clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with carbapenem-resistant (CR) Klebsiella pneumoniae in a prospective, multicenter, observational study. To this end, predefined clinical characteristics and outcomes were recorded and K. pneumoniae isolates were analyzed for strain typing and resistance mechanism determination. In a 14-month period, 251 patients were included. While most of the patients were admitted from long-term care settings, 28% of them were admitted from home. Hospitalizations were prolonged and complicated. Nonsusceptibility to colistin and tigecycline occurred in isolates from 7 and 45% of the patients, respectively. Most of the CR K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) types A and B (both sequence type 258) and carried either blaKPC-2 (48%) or blaKPC-3 (51%). One isolate tested positive for blaNDM-1, a sentinel discovery in this region. Important differences between strain types were noted; rep-PCR type B strains were associated with blaKPC-3 (odds ratio [OR], 294; 95% confidence interval [CI], 58 to 2,552; P < 0.001), gentamicin nonsusceptibility (OR, 24; 95% CI, 8.39 to 79.38; P < 0.001), amikacin susceptibility (OR, 11.0; 95% CI, 3.21 to 42.42; P < 0.001), tigecycline nonsusceptibility (OR, 5.34; 95% CI, 1.30 to 36.41; P = 0.018), a shorter length of stay (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.00; P = 0.043), and admission from a skilled-nursing facility (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.26 to 8.08; P = 0.013). Our analysis shows that (i) CR K. pneumoniae is seen primarily in the elderly long-term care population and that (ii) regional monitoring of CR K. pneumoniae reveals insights into molecular characteristics. This work highlights the crucial role of ongoing surveillance of carbapenem resistance determinants. PMID:24798270

  15. Photospheric models of solar active regions and the network based on the Mg II h and k line wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, N. D.; Linsky, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    From a comparison between observed and computed wings of the Mg II resonance lines, distributions of temperature versus mass column density for solar photospheric layers in plages and in the chromospheric network are derived. The theoretical profiles are computed assuming partial coherent scattering. In the active regions, temperatures exceed those in the quiet sun by up to 200 K near the temperature minimum and up to 400 K in deeper layers. In the observed network structure, the temperature is enhanced by 200 K at the temperature minimum but is the same as that in the quiet sun at greater depths. The difference in the slope of the temperature distribution between the network and plages is real, but may refer only to long elements of the network rather than to the brightest portions. Adjacent to the network is a region in which the temperatures are similar to those in the quiet sun, except immediately below the temperature minimum, where the temperatures are depressed by 150 K.

  16. Spatiotemporal Filtering Using Principal Component Analysis and Karhunen-Loeve Expansion Approaches for Regional GPS Network Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, D.; Fang, P.; Bock, F.; Webb, F.; Prawirondirdjo, L.; Kedar, S.; Jamason, P.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial filtering is an effective way to improve the precision of coordinate time series for regional GPS networks by reducing so-called common mode errors, thereby providing better resolution for detecting weak or transient deformation signals. The commonly used approach to regional filtering assumes that the common mode error is spatially uniform, which is a good approximation for networks of hundreds of kilometers extent, but breaks down as the spatial extent increases. A more rigorous approach should remove the assumption of spatially uniform distribution and let the data themselves reveal the spatial distribution of the common mode error. The principal component analysis (PCA) and the Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) both decompose network time series into a set of temporally varying modes and their spatial responses. Therefore they provide a mathematical framework to perform spatiotemporal filtering.We apply the combination of PCA and KLE to daily station coordinate time series of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) for the period 2000 to 2004. We demonstrate that spatially and temporally correlated common mode errors are the dominant error source in daily GPS solutions. The spatial characteristics of the common mode errors are close to uniform for all east, north, and vertical components, which implies a very long wavelength source for the common mode errors, compared to the spatial extent of the GPS network in southern California. Furthermore, the common mode errors exhibit temporally nonrandom patterns.

  17. The Continuously Operating Caribbean Observational Network (COCONet): Supporting Regional Development of Geoscience Research Across the Circum-Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J.; Miller, M. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Wang, G.; Feaux, K.; Rowan, L.; La Femina, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Continuously Operating Caribbean Observational Network (COCONet) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded infrastructure project that stretches across the circum-Caribbean to include Central America and the northern portions of South America. Its objective is to develop a large-scale network of geodetic and atmospheric infrastructure to support a broad range of geoscience and atmospheric investigations and enable research on process-oriented science with direct relevance to geo-hazards. The network includes over 60 new and refurbished continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) and surface meterology stations. It will also include data from at least 60 existing stations that are being operated by one of our more than 40 regional partners. As COCONet approaches the completion of its build-out phase, it is appropriate to evaluate the activities associated with the project that facilitate capacity building. These activities include three workshops to solicit feedback from regional partners regarding science objectives, station location, and long-term network operation. COCONet graduate research fellowships have been used to support nine students, with seven from countries within the COCONet footprint. The establishment of three regional data and archive centers to foster access to data and promote free and open data standards. Lastly, two Pan American Advanced Studies Institute (PASI) workshops on topics that are central to the main goals of COCONet were also organized to engage early career scientists who are interested in working on topics that are directly relevant to the region. Perhaps the most significant effort on expanding capacity in the region is the recent deployment of a station in Camaguey, Cuba with full support from both the U.S. and Cuban governments. This presentation summarizes the activities of the COCONet project to enhance and support both the human resource development and technical capabilities within the region.

  18. Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.; Petitto, Karen R.; McLaughlin, Don

    2001-01-01

    Describes the connectivity features and options of modern campus communication and information system networks, including signal transmission (wire-based and wireless), signal switching, convergence of networks, and network assessment variables, to enable campus leaders to make sound future-oriented decisions. (EV)

  19. Neural network modeling for regional hazard assessment of debris flow in Lake Qionghai Watershed, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Guo, H. C.; Zou, R.; Wang, L. J.

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a neural network (NN) based model to assess the regional hazard degree of debris flows in Lake Qionghai Watershed, China. The NN model was used as an alternative for the more conventional linear model MFCAM (multi-factor composite assessment model) in order to effectively handle the nonlinearity and uncertainty inherent in the debris flow hazard analysis. The NN model was configured using a three layer structure with eight input nodes and one output node, and the number of nodes in the hidden layer was determined through an iterative process of varying the number of nodes in the hidden layer until an optimal performance was achieved. The eight variables used to represent the eight input nodes include density of debris flow gully, degree of weathering of rocks, active fault density, area percentage of slope land greater than 25° of the total land (APL25), frequency of flooding hazards, average covariance of monthly precipitation by 10 years (ACMP10), average days with rainfall >25 mm by 10 years (25D10Y), and percentage of cultivated land with slope land greater than 25° of the total cultivated land (PCL25). The output node represents the hazard-degree ranks (HDR). The model was trained with the 35 sets of data obtained from previous researches reported in literatures, and an explicit uncertainty analysis was undertaken to address the uncertainty in model training and prediction. Before the NN model is extrapolated to Lake Qionghai Watershed, a validation case, different from the above data, is conducted. In addition, the performances of the NN model and the MFCAM were compared. The NN model predicted that the HDRs of the five sub-watersheds in the Lake Qionghai Watershed were IV, IV, III, III, and IV V, indicating that the study area covers normal hazard and severe hazard areas. Based on the NN model results, debris flow management and economic development strategies in the study are proposed for each sub-watershed.

  20. Grid-Search Location Methods for Ground-Truth Collection From Local and Regional Seismic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    William Rodi; Craig A. Schultz; Gardar Johannesson; Stephen C. Myers

    2005-05-13

    This project investigated new techniques for improving seismic event locations derived from regional and local networks. The technqiues include a new approach to empirical travel-time calibration that simultaneously fits data from multiple stations and events, using a generalization of the kriging method, and predicts travel-time corrections for arbitrary event-station paths. We combined this calibration approach with grid-search event location to produce a prototype new multiple-event location method that allows the use of spatially well-distributed events and takes into account correlations between the travel-time corrections from proximate event-station paths. Preliminary tests with a high quality data set from Nevada Test Site explosions indicated that our new calibration/location method offers improvement over the conventional multiple-event location methods now in common use, and is applicable to more general event-station geometries than the conventional methods. The tests were limited, however, and further research is needed to fully evaluate, and improve, the approach. Our project also demonstrated the importance of using a realistic model for observational errors in an event location procedure. We took the initial steps in developing a new error model based on mixture-of-Gaussians probability distributions, which possess the properties necessary to characterize the complex arrival time error processes that can occur when picking low signal-to-noise arrivals. We investigated various inference methods for fitting these distributions to observed travel-time residuals, including a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique for computing Bayesian estimates of the distribution parameters.

  1. Monitoring regional patterns of canopy-scale phenology with a network of digitial webcams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, A. D.; Braswell, B. H.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Jenkins, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    webcams offer an inexpensive means by which phenological changes in canopy state could be quantified using instrument-based "near" remote sensing. We describe a recently-established camera network (13 sites in the northeastern US and Canada, of which 5 sites are instrumented for eddy flux measurements) which will provide a regional perspective on both spatial and temporal variation in patterns of canopy phenology.

  2. Facilitating Phenological Assessments at Local, Regional and National Scales: Year Two Progress of the USA National Phenology Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    Patterns of phenology for plants and animals control ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Although directional climate change has already caused documented shifts in organismal, population, community and ecosystem-level patterns and processes, a national phenological assessment requires a comprehensive suite of standardized methodologies to track phenology across a range of spatial and temporal scales (e.g., organismal to landscapes). The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to establish a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology as a tool to understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climate variation, and as a tool to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. USA-NPN will (1) integrate with other formal and informal science observation networks (e.g., NEON, LTER, Ameriflux, NPS I & M, OBFS, GEO, public gardens, conservation groups) including regional phenology networks; (2) utilize and enhance remote sensing products, emerging technologies and data management capabilities; and (3) capitalize on myriad educational opportunities and a new readiness of the public to participate in investigations of nature on a national scale. In its second year of operation, USA-NPN produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement that will facilitate local, regional or national assessments of phenology. A new web-page contains an advanced on-line user interface to facilitate entry of contemporary data into the National Phenology Database. The new plant phenology monitoring program provides standardized methodologies and monitoring protocols for 215 local, regional, and nationally distributed plant species

  3. Object reconstruction in multilayer neural network based profilometry using grating structure comprising two regions with different spatial periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganotra, Dinesh; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar

    2004-08-01

    Feed-forward backpropagation neural network has been used in fringe projection profilometry for reconstruction of a three-dimensional (3D) object. A grating structure comprising two regions of different spatial periods is projected on the reference surface over which the object is placed. The shorter spatial period part of the grating is projected over the object, whereas the longer spatial period part is projected on the reference surface only. 3D object shape is reconstructed with the help of neural networks using images of the projected grating. During training phase of the network, the shorter spatial period grating along with the longer spatial period grating is used. Experimental results are presented for a diffuse object, showing that the 3D shape of the object is recovered using the above-mentioned method. However, the phases wrapping takes place in Fourier transform profilometry by using only one grating of shorter spatial period.

  4. Designing a low-cost effective network for monitoring large scale regional seismicity in a soft-soil region (Alsace, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bès de Berc, M.; Doubre, C.; Wodling, H.; Jund, H.; Hernandez, A.; Blumentritt, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Seismological Observatory of the North-East of France (ObSNEF) is developing its monitoring network within the framework of several projects. Among these project, RESIF (Réseau sismologique et géodésique français) allows the instrumentation of broad-band seismic stations, separated by 50-100 km. With the recent and future development of geothermal industrial projects in the Alsace region, the ObSNEF is responsible for designing, building and operating a dense regional seismic network in order to detect and localize earthquakes with both a completeness magnitude of 1.5 and no clipping for M6.0. The realization of the project has to be done prior to the summer 2016Several complex technical and financial constraints constitute such a projet. First, most of the Alsace Région (150x150 km2), particularly the whole Upper Rhine Graben, is a soft-soil plain where seismic signals are dominated by a high frequency noise level. Second, all the signals have to be transmitted in near real-time. And finally, the total cost of the project must not exceed $450,000.Regarding the noise level in Alsace, in order to make a reduction of 40 dB for frequencies above 1Hz, we program to instrument into 50m deep well with post-hole sensor for 5 stations out of 8 plane new stations. The 3 remaining would be located on bedrock along the Vosges piedmont. In order to be sensitive to low-magnitude regional events, we plan to install a low-noise short-period post-hole velocimeter. In order to avoid saturation for high potentiel local events (M6.0 at 10km), this velocimeter will be coupled with a surface strong-motion sensor. Regarding the connectivity, these stations will have no wired network, which reduces linking costs and delays. We will therefore use solar panels and a 3G/GPRS network. The infrastructure will be minimal and reduced to an outdoor box on a secured parcel of land. In addition to the data-logger, we will use a 12V ruggedized computer, hosting a seed-link server for near

  5. Neural network technique for identifying prognostic anomalies from low-frequency electromagnetic signals in the Kuril-Kamchatka region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, I.; Rozhnoi, A.; Solovieva, M.; Levin, B.; Chebrov, V.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we suggest a technique for forecasting seismic events based on the very low and low frequency (VLF and LF) signals in the 10 to 50 Hz band using the neural network approach, specifically, the error back-propagation method (EBPM). In this method, the solution of the problem has two main stages: training and recognition (forecasting). The training set is constructed from the combined data, including the amplitudes and phases of the VLF/LF signals measured in the monitoring of the Kuril-Kamchatka region and the corresponding parameters of regional seismicity. Training the neural network establishes the internal relationship between the characteristic changes in the VLF/LF signals a few days before a seismic event and the corresponding level of seismicity. The trained neural network is then applied in a prognostic mode for automated detection of the anomalous changes in the signal which are associated with seismic activity exceeding the assumed threshold level. By the example of several time intervals in 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007, we demonstrate the efficiency of the neural network approach in the short-term forecasting of earthquakes with magnitudes starting from M ≥ 5.5 from the nighttime variations in the amplitudes and phases of the LF signals on one radio path. We also discuss the results of the simultaneous analysis of the VLF/LF data measured on two partially overlapping paths aimed at revealing the correlations between the nighttime variations in the amplitude of the signal and seismic activity.

  6. Network collaboration of organisations for homeless individuals in the Montreal region

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Lesage, Alain; Ma, Nan; Ngui, André Ngamini

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We know little about the intensity and determinants of interorganisational collaboration within the homeless network. This study describes the characteristics and relationships (along with the variables predicting their degree of interorganisational collaboration) of 68 organisations of such a network in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Theory and methods Data were collected primarily through a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were conducted followed by social network and multivariate analyses. Results The Montreal homeless network has a high density (50.5%) and a decentralised structure and maintains a mostly informal collaboration with the public and cross-sectorial sectors. The network density showed more frequent contacts among four types of organisations which could point to the existence of cliques. Four variables predicted interorganisational collaboration: organisation type, number of services offered, volume of referrals and satisfaction with the relationships with public organisations. Conclusions and discussion The Montreal homeless network seems adequate to address non-complex homelessness problems. Considering, however, that most homeless individuals present chronic and complex profiles, it appears necessary to have a more formal and better integrated network of homeless organisations, particularly in the health and social service sectors, in order to improve services. PMID:24520216

  7. Resting-State Coupling between Core Regions within the Central-Executive and Salience Networks Contributes to Working Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yuanchao; Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Luqi; Li, Jin; Wang, Yulin; Friston, Karl J.; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the distinct roles played by different cognitive regions and suggested that the patterns of connectivity of these regions are associated with working memory (WM). However, the specific causal mechanism through which the neuronal circuits that involve these brain regions contribute to WM is still unclear. Here, in a large sample of healthy young adults, we first identified the core WM regions by linking WM accuracy to resting-state functional connectivity with the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC; a principal region in the central-executive network, CEN). Then a spectral dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) analysis was performed to quantify the effective connectivity between these regions. Finally, the effective connectivity was correlated with WM accuracy to characterize the relationship between these connections and WM performance. We found that the functional connections between the bilateral dLPFC and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and between the right dLPFC and the left orbital fronto-insular cortex (FIC) were correlated with WM accuracy. Furthermore, the effective connectivity from the dACC to the bilateral dLPFC and from the right dLPFC to the left FIC could predict individual differences in WM. Because the dACC and FIC are core regions of the salience network (SN), we inferred that the inter- and causal-connectivity between core regions within the CEN and SN is functionally relevant for WM performance. In summary, the current study identified the dLPFC-related resting-state effective connectivity underlying WM and suggests that individual differences in cognitive ability could be characterized by resting-state effective connectivity. PMID:26941629

  8. Resting-State Coupling between Core Regions within the Central-Executive and Salience Networks Contributes to Working Memory Performance.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yuanchao; Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Luqi; Li, Jin; Wang, Yulin; Friston, Karl J; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the distinct roles played by different cognitive regions and suggested that the patterns of connectivity of these regions are associated with working memory (WM). However, the specific causal mechanism through which the neuronal circuits that involve these brain regions contribute to WM is still unclear. Here, in a large sample of healthy young adults, we first identified the core WM regions by linking WM accuracy to resting-state functional connectivity with the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC; a principal region in the central-executive network, CEN). Then a spectral dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) analysis was performed to quantify the effective connectivity between these regions. Finally, the effective connectivity was correlated with WM accuracy to characterize the relationship between these connections and WM performance. We found that the functional connections between the bilateral dLPFC and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and between the right dLPFC and the left orbital fronto-insular cortex (FIC) were correlated with WM accuracy. Furthermore, the effective connectivity from the dACC to the bilateral dLPFC and from the right dLPFC to the left FIC could predict individual differences in WM. Because the dACC and FIC are core regions of the salience network (SN), we inferred that the inter- and causal-connectivity between core regions within the CEN and SN is functionally relevant for WM performance. In summary, the current study identified the dLPFC-related resting-state effective connectivity underlying WM and suggests that individual differences in cognitive ability could be characterized by resting-state effective connectivity. PMID:26941629

  9. Protection against 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES)-induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes by an inducer of the glutathione detoxification pathway.

    PubMed

    Abel, Erika L; Bubel, Jennifer D; Simper, Melissa S; Powell, Leslie; McClellan, S Alex; Andreeff, Michael; MacLeod, Michael C; DiGiovanni, John

    2011-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM or mustard gas) was first used as a chemical warfare agent almost 100years ago. Due to its toxic effects on the eyes, lungs, and skin, and the relative ease with which it may be synthesized, mustard gas remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. SM exposed skin develops fluid filled bullae resulting from potent cytotoxicity of cells lining the basement membrane of the epidermis. Currently, there are no antidotes for SM exposure; therefore, chemopreventive measures for first responders following an SM attack are needed. Glutathione (GSH) is known to have a protective effect against SM toxicity, and detoxification of SM is believed to occur, in part, via GSH conjugation. Therefore, we screened 6 potential chemopreventive agents for ability to induce GSH synthesis and protect cultured human keratinocytes against the SM analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Using NCTC2544 human keratinocytes, we found that both sulforaphane and methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) stimulated nuclear localization of Nrf2 and induced expression of the GSH synthesis gene, GCLM. Additionally, we found that treatment with CDDO-Me elevated reduced GSH content of NCTC2544 cells and preserved their viability by ~3-fold following exposure to CEES. Our data also suggested that CDDO-Me may act additively with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a nucleophilic scavenging agent, to increase the viability of keratinocytes exposed to CEES. These results suggest that CDDO-Me is a promising chemopreventive agent for SM toxicity in the skin. PMID:21723306

  10. INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION WITH ANALYTICAL NETWORK PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A decision analysis method for integrating environmental indicators was developed. This was a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Analytic Network Process (ANP). Being able to take into account interdependency among variables, the method was capable of ran...

  11. The Armutlu Network - a contribution to seismic hazard assessment in the Marmara region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lühr, B.-G.; Bariş, Ş.; Grosser, H.; Irmak, T. S.; Woith, H.; Donner, S.; Özer, M. F.; Çaka, D.; Zschau, J.

    2009-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) represents one of the most prominent continental transforms and slips at an average rate of 20-30 mm/yr. During the 20th century, the NAFZ has ruptured over about 900 km of its more than 1,500 km length by ten devastating earthquakes with magnitudes above Ms > 6.5. Today, a segment inside the Marmara Sea just south of the megacity of Istanbul represents a seismic gap that is believed being capable of generating a M ≥7 earthquake within the next decades. East of this segment the western end of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake rupture is located next to the northern shoreline of the Armutlu Peninsula depicted by distinct clusters of micro-seismic activity. As a contribution to hazard assessment the local seismic network ARMNET had been set-up in 2005 in co-operation between Kocaeli University, and GFZ, to monitor the chronological evolution of seismicity, and to investigate the deformation of the Armutlu Peninsula, as well as possible interactions between seismic waves and pore-pressure variations in geothermal systems. The installation was strongly supported by local governments, and lead to a strong interest and an increasing knowledge transfer to local authorities. The ARMNET contributes to the implementation of an Anatolian plate boundary observatory (PBO) belonging to a series of GFZ-operated Earth System Observatories to systemically study coupled Earth processes, and is imbedded in the framework of the CEDIM (CEnter for DIsaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology) project "Megacity Istanbul", which involves the analysis of the seismicity of the Greater Istanbul region. At present, ARMNET consist of 12 short period and 10 broadband stations. Additionally, a borehole seismometer has been installed in a 100 m borehole close to Yalova. Most of the detected events occurred in a depth range of 5 to 15 km, and determined duration magnitudes are in a range 0.4 and 5.3 with a magnitude of completeness of 1.3. Besides seismic

  12. Satellite- and Epoch Differenced Precise Point Positioning Based on a Regional Augmentation Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haojun; Chen, Junping; Wang, Jiexian; Wu, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has been demonstrated as a simple and effective approach for user positioning. The key issue in PPP is how to shorten convergence time and improve positioning efficiency. Recent researches mainly focus on the ambiguity resolution by correcting residual phase errors at a single station. The success of this approach (referred to hereafter as NORM-PPP) is subject to how rapidly one can fix wide-lane and narrow-lane ambiguities to achieve the first ambiguity-fixed solution. The convergence time of NORM-PPP is receiver type dependent, and normally takes 15–20 min. Different from the general algorithm and theory by which the float ambiguities are estimated and the integer ambiguities are fixed, we concentrate on a differential PPP approach: the satellite- and epoch differenced (SDED) approach. In general, the SDED approach eliminates receiver clocks and ambiguity parameters and thus avoids the complicated residual phase modeling procedure. As a further development of the SDED approach, we use a regional augmentation network to derive tropospheric delay and remaining un-modeled errors at user sites. By adding these corrections and applying the Robust estimation, the weak mathematic properties due to the ED operation is much improved. Implementing this new approach, we need only two epochs of data to achieve PPP positioning converging to centimeter-positioning accuracy. Using seven days of GPS data at six CORS stations in Shanghai, we demonstrate the success rate, defined as the case when three directions converging to desired positioning accuracy of 10 cm, reaches 100% when the interval between the two epochs is longer than 15 min. Comparing the results of 15 min' interval to that of 10 min', it is observed that the position RMS improves from 2.47, 3.95, 5.78 cm to 2.21, 3.93, 4.90 cm in the North, East and Up directions, respectively. Combining the SDED coordinates at the starting point and the ED relative coordinates thereafter, we

  13. A GPS Network Densification in Saudi Arabia in Support of Geophysical Investigations in the Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuslmani, B.; Al-Motari, E.; Bingley, R. M.; Teferle, F. N.; Moore, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through a collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains in the south-western part of Saudi Arabia, have been established, with the GDMS GPS network now comprising a total of 59 stations. In this presentation we will introduce the new GPS network in Saudi Arabia established by GDMS and will present the initial results from campaigns in March 2003 and March 2005. We show preliminary estimates of absolute and relative Arabian plate motions inferred from the GPS network and a detailed comparison of the results based on the Bernese GPS software versions 4.2 and 5.0.

  14. Decision Support Process for CO2 Monitoring Network Design, as applied to the North American Permafrost Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creelman, C. A.; Risk, D. A.; Nickerson, N. R.; Simpson, K.; Bourlon, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Northern regions of Canada and the United States hold vast reserves of soil organic matter (carbon), once protected from decomposition because of cool wet soils, and/or permafrost. Unfortunately, these Northern areas are changing rapidly because the rate of climate warming in the North has significantly outstripped the global average. As a result of permafrost melting and soil processes stimulated by higher temperatures, soil CO2 emissions in these high latitude areas are expected to accelerate. On an annual basis, it is conceivable that these natural Northern CO2 emissions could match or begin to exceed human industrial emissions. From a risk management perspective, the Northern region represents an important climate risk of international interest that should be monitored in a systematic long-term effort. Currently, there is almost no high latitude monitoring done due to limitation of instrumental techniques, remoteness, and other factors. While technology improvements will make this monitoring physically possible, it is critical that the conceptual framework for monitoring also be planned carefully. The monitoring network will need to make efficient use of funding to target high-risk areas, balance many possible emission predictions that vary spatially and temporally, allow for incremental network growth and take into account transportation costs and accessibility. To address these needs, we use a Simulated Annealing based algorithm that determines optimal sampling densities and distributions according to various risk factors. This network optimization makes use of several different potential CO2 emission estimates generated using the Canadian Regional Climate model forecasts and other spatial datasets. These estimates represent a wide range of potential evolutions of soil emissions based on factors such as expected climate change, the distribution of carbon storage, and carbon sensitivity to temperature and moisture changes. The calculated optimal network

  15. Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Betty

    Networking is an information giving and receiving system, a support system, and a means whereby women can get ahead in careers--either in new jobs or in current positions. Networking information can create many opportunities: women can talk about how other women handle situations and tasks, and previously established contacts can be used in…

  16. [Regional coordination of paediatric oncological care in northwestern Lower Saxony, Germany--network funded by health insurance companies].

    PubMed

    Müller, H L; Blanke, J-G; Bonse, B; Bosse, H; Erkel, J; Gitmans, R; Kolb, R; Krull, F; Langlitz, J; Liebner, T; Löning, L; Mokross, C; Niekrens, C; Schüler, D; Wessel, V; Wosnitza, A P

    2010-11-01

    The cure rates in pediatric oncology have been substantially improved due to standardized treatment strategies and centralization of therapy. Close clinical and hematological monitoring is mandatory for patients between periods of chemotherapy for early detection and treatment of therapy-related complications such as infections. This results in frequent and time-consuming outpatient examinations for the patient and family at the oncological center in order to evaluate clinical condition and hematological findings. In widespread regions such as the Weser-Ems area in northwest Lower Saxony, Germany, the long distances between patients' home and the oncological center lead to higher risks and impairment of quality of life (QoL) for the patients and their families. Accordingly, in 2001 pediatric hospitals and practices, patient care services and patients' support groups in Weser-Ems founded a network (Verbund PädOnko Weser-Ems). The "Verbund PädOnko" aims at coordinated, high-quality regional outpatient patient treatment in order to reduce risks of long-distance transports to reach the oncological center. Since 2005 a newly established mobile care team realized 1 443 home visits covering a total of 150 300 km. Since 2007 the network has been funded by health insurance organisations. Internal and external benchmarking was performed showing that the rate of short term inpatient treatments were reduced. Treatment quality was assured and the QoL of the patients and their families was improved through the work of the network. The "Verbund PädOnko Weser-Ems" network represents a promising prototype model for the regional coordination of outpatient treatment and care of patients with rare diseases in wide spread areas. PMID:21058228

  17. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity

  18. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity.

    PubMed

    Rajtmajer, Sarah M; Roy, Arnab; Albert, Reka; Molenaar, Peter C M; Hillary, Frank G

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs) that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity). Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g., choice of seed-region, anatomical landmarks). These approaches are limiting especially when functional connectivity may evolve over time in areas that are finer than known anatomical landmarks or in areas outside predetermined seeded regions. An ideal method would permit investigators to study network plasticity due to learning, maturation effects, or clinical recovery via multiple time point data that can be compared to one another in the same ROI while also preserving the voxel-level data in those ROIs at each time point. Data-driven approaches (e.g., whole-brain voxelwise approaches) ameliorate concerns regarding investigator bias, but the fundamental problem of comparing the results between distinct data sets remains. In this paper we propose an approach, aggregate-initialized label propagation (AILP), which allows for data at separate time points to be compared for examining developmental processes resulting in network change (plasticity). To do so, we use a whole-brain modularity approach to parcellate the brain into anatomically constrained functional modules at separate time points and then apply the AILP algorithm to form a consensus set of ROIs for examining change over time. To demonstrate its utility, we make use of a known dataset of individuals with traumatic brain injury sampled at two time points during the first year of recovery and show how the AILP procedure can be applied to select regions of interest to be used in a graph theoretical analysis of plasticity. PMID:26283928

  19. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Rajtmajer, Sarah M.; Roy, Arnab; Albert, Reka; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Hillary, Frank G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs) that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity). Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g., choice of seed-region, anatomical landmarks). These approaches are limiting especially when functional connectivity may evolve over time in areas that are finer than known anatomical landmarks or in areas outside predetermined seeded regions. An ideal method would permit investigators to study network plasticity due to learning, maturation effects, or clinical recovery via multiple time point data that can be compared to one another in the same ROI while also preserving the voxel-level data in those ROIs at each time point. Data-driven approaches (e.g., whole-brain voxelwise approaches) ameliorate concerns regarding investigator bias, but the fundamental problem of comparing the results between distinct data sets remains. In this paper we propose an approach, aggregate-initialized label propagation (AILP), which allows for data at separate time points to be compared for examining developmental processes resulting in network change (plasticity). To do so, we use a whole-brain modularity approach to parcellate the brain into anatomically constrained functional modules at separate time points and then apply the AILP algorithm to form a consensus set of ROIs for examining change over time. To demonstrate its utility, we make use of a known dataset of individuals with traumatic brain injury sampled at two time points during the first year of recovery and show how the AILP procedure can be applied to select regions of interest to be used in a graph theoretical analysis of plasticity. PMID:26283928

  20. A regional monitoring network to investigate the occurrence of agricultural chemicals in near-surface aquifers of the midcontinental USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Previous state and national surveys conducted in the mid-continental USA have produced a wide range in results regarding the occurrence of agricultural chemicals in groundwater. At least some of these differences can be attributed to inconsistencies between the surveys, such as different analytical reporting limits. The US Geological Survey has designed a sampling network that is geographically and hydrogeologically representative of near-surface aquifers in the corn- and soybean-producing region of the midcontinental USA. More than 800 water quality samples have been collected from the network since 1991. Six of the seven most frequently detected compounds from this study were herbicide metabolites. A direct relation was determined between tritium content to herbicide and nitrate contamination. The unconsolidated aquifers sampled were found to be more susceptible to herbicide and nitrate contamination than the bedrock aquifers. Knowledge of the regional occurrence and distribution of agricultural chemicals acquired through the study of data collected at network sites will assist policy makers and planners with decisions regarding the protection of drinking-water supplies.

  1. Rain gauge network evaluation and optimal design using spatial correlation approach in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaripour, Hamid; Mansouri Daneshvar, Mohammad Reza

    2016-06-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluation of a rain gauge network in order to optimize a network design. In this regard, point rainfall estimations were assessed using a spatial correlation approach in the Kerman region, Iran. This approach was implemented based on monthly rainfall data for existing 117 rain gauge stations in the study area. The results revealed that the regular arrangement of rain gauges could provide the reliable values for accurate rainfall estimation. Low density of rain gauge combined with the low rainfall values may result in strong increase of the interpolation errors. Based on the existing rain gauge network, the relative mean error of observed rainfalls (E a ) is less than 5 % over the study area. The spatial interpolation errors (E i ) were considered to optimize the design of rain gauge network at the confidence level of 85 %, where the mean errors were exhibited from 8.5 to 14 % in districts A and B, respectively. On this basis, about 46 locations were proposed for allocation of new stations. Therefore, it was suggested to relocate about 20 existing stations in order to achieve an accurate design.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions derived from regional measurement networks and atmospheric inversions: Results from the MCI and INFLUX experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. J.; Andrews, A. E.; Cambaliza, M.; Denning, A.; Gurney, K. R.; Lauvaux, T.; Miles, N. L.; Ogle, S. M.; Possolo, A.; Richardson, S.; Schuh, A. E.; Shepson, P. B.; Sweeney, C.; Turnbull, J. C.; West, T. O.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric evaluation of emissions inventories is increasingly envisioned as a critical element of greenhouse gas emissions regulation. Atmospheric inversions utilizing dense regional networks of greenhouse gas measurements, however, are scarce. Discussions of the measurements and methods required to infer fluxes at spatial and temporal resolutions sufficient to meet the needs of policy makers, therefore, remain largely hypothetical. We present results from one past field experiment, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Midcontinent Intensive (MCI) regional study, and preliminary results from a new experiment, the Indianapolis Flux project (INFLUX), both of which include high density regional greenhouse gas measurement networks. Both studies also include detailed regional inventory assessments of greenhouse gas sources and sinks. The MCI results show large amplitude, spatially coherent synoptic and seasonal patterns in boundary layer CO2 mixing ratios correlated with cropping patterns. Regional atmospheric inversions utilizing these data show corrections that tend towards the inventory estimates regardless of the prior flux estimates utilized in the inversion, and the region appears to have been slightly oversampled by the instrument density deployed. The uncertainty bounds associated with the inverted fluxes, however, remain fairly large despite the high density of atmospheric data, and the true uncertainty is difficult to assess. The INFLUX experiment will utilize a similar number of sensors deployed over a spatial domain two to three orders of magnitude smaller in area than the MCI domain, and will attempt to utilize similar techniques to infer anthropogenic emissions at high spatial resolution. We will present the experimental design for this project including the unique challenges of multi-species inversions and the need to deconvolve biological and fossil fuel fluxes. We anticipate that this experiment will serve as a benchmark regarding the accuracy and

  3. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Atmospheric, Cryospheric, Ecological and Hydrological Change in the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins, Canada (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; DeBeer, C.

    2013-12-01

    The cold interior of Northwestern Canada has one of the world's most extreme and varied climates and, as with other regions across the Arctic, is experiencing rapid environmental change. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a new Canadian research network devoted to addressing key challenges and globally-important issues facing the Arctic by improving the understanding of past and ongoing changes in climate, land, vegetation, and water, and predicting their future integrated responses, with a geographic focus on the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins. The network is funded for 5 years (2013-18) by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and combines the unique expertise of 36 Canadian scientists representing 8 universities and 4 Federal government agencies, as well as 15 international researchers from the United States, China, Australia, the UK, France, and Germany. The network will also involve the World Climate Research Programme, NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. CCRN will integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks, for Northwestern Canada's cold interior. It will use a network of world class observatories to study the detailed connections among changing climate, ecosystems and water in the permafrost regions of the Sub-arctic, the Boreal Forest, the Western Cordillera, and the Prairies. Specifically, the network will: 1. Document and evaluate observed Earth system change, including hydrological, ecological, cryospheric and atmospheric components over a range of scales from local observatories to biome and regional scales; 2. Improve understanding and diagnosis of local-scale change by developing new and integrative knowledge of Earth system processes, incorporating these processes into a suite of process-based integrative

  4. Differential Engagement of Brain Regions within a "Core" Network during Scene Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Jennifer J.; Hassabis, Demis; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2010-01-01

    Reliving past events and imagining potential future events engages a well-established "core" network of brain areas. How the brain constructs, or reconstructs, these experiences or scenes has been debated extensively in the literature, but remains poorly understood. Here we designed a novel task to investigate this (re)constructive process by…

  5. WaterNet: The NASA water cycle solutions network - Danubian regional applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Dave; Brilly, Mitja; Kobold, Mira; Zagar, Mark; Houser, Paul

    2008-11-01

    WaterNet is a new international network of researchers, stakeholders, and end-users of remote sensing tools that will benefit the water resources management community. This paper provides an overview and it discusses the concept of solutions networks focusing on the WaterNet. It invites Danubian research and applications teams to join our WaterNet network. The NASA Water cycle Solutions Network's goal is to improve and optimize the sustained ability of water cycle researchers, stakeholders, organizations and networks to interact, identify, harness, and extend NASA research results to augment decision support tools and meet national needs. Our team will develop WaterNet by engaging relevant NASA water cycle research resources and community-of-practice organizations, to develop what we term an "actionable database" that can be used to communicate and connect NASA Water cycle research Results (NWRs) towards the improvement of water-related Decision Support Tools (DSTs). Recognizing that the European Commission and European Space Agency have also developed many related Water Research products (EWRs), we seek to learn about these and network with the EU teams to include their information in the WaterNet actionable data base and Community of Practice. WaterNet will then develop strategies to connect researchers and decision-makers via innovative communication strategies, improved user access to NASA and EU - Danubian resources, improved water cycle research community appreciation for user requirements, improved policymaker, management and stakeholder knowledge of research and application products, and improved identification of pathways for progress. Finally, WaterNet will develop relevant benchmarking and metrics, to understand the network's characteristics, to optimize its performance, and to establish sustainability. This paper provides examples of several NASA products based on remote sensing and land data assimilation systems that integrate remotely sensed and in

  6. On the development and testing of a database-centric pipeline for the analysis of a regional infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcillo, O. E.; Blom, P. S.; Euler, G. G.; MacCarthy, J.; Park, J.; Stump, B. W.; Hayward, C.; Dannemann, F. K.

    2015-12-01

    We are developing a database-centric pipeline for the analysis of data from a regional network of infrasound arrays. The pipeline includes analysis at station and network levels (using beam-forming and clustering techniques, respectively) for the detection, association and location of events. The pipeline relies on the interaction of the algorithms with a relational database structure to organize and store waveform data, the parameters for the analysis, and results of both levels of analysis. Our implementation can interact seamlessly with traditional (e.g.: Oracle) and serverless (e.g.: SQLite) relational databases. Data from nine infrasonic arrays co-located with University of Utah Seismograph Stations, three additional arrays in Nevada, operated by Southern Methodist University, and IMS arrays at IS56 in Washington State and IS57 in California are used to test the operation of the pipeline, the algorithms, and the sensitivity of the results to the parameters of the analysis

  7. Integrated verification experiment data collected as part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Source Region program. Appendix F: Regional data from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory Seismic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.R.

    1993-06-11

    A dataset of regional seismograms assembled for a series of Integrated Verification Experiments conducted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory Source Region program is described. The seismic data has been assembled from networks operated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory. Examples of the data are shown and basic recording characteristics of the network are described. The seismograms are available on a data tape in SAC format upon request.

  8. Geodetic networks in Al-Hoceima, Fez-Meknes and Ouarzazate regions (Morocco) to monitor local deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, A. J.; Ruiz, A. M.; Lacy, M. C.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Anahnah, F.; Ruano, P.; Álvarez-Lobato, P. Ayarza, F.; Arboleya, A. Teixel, M. L.; Azzouz, O.; Ahmamou, A. Chalouan, M.; Kchikach, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the framework of some interdisciplinary research projects, several geodetic studies have been initiated aiming to quantify ground deformation in some areas of Morocco: the Al-Hoceima region (Rif cordillera), the Fez-Meknes region and the Ouarzazate region (Atlas Mountains). The Al-Hoceima region, located in the central part of the Rif Cordilleras, has undergone an intense seismic activity, in which the most significant events occurred in 1994 and 2004 (M= 6.3). Although seismicity data support the presence of transcurrent faults, and available radar interferometry researches evidence surface deformations, geological data suggest that main seismogentic fault zone has not a surface expression. Anyway, a set of N-S oriented normal faults (Rouadi, Al-Hoceima, Trougout) determines the present-day geomorphology and seems to continue to be active in surface. In this area, a new non-permanent GPS network consisting of 6 sites has been installed and surveyed in June 2007 and September 2008. The repeated measurements of this network may allow to exactly determine the surface expression of deep tectonic deformations in this region, and to quantify the creep and the coseismic motions in the area, that will contribute to better understand the seismic hazard. The Prerif Ridges located in the Fez-Meknes region, constitute the active mountain front of the Rif cordillera that accommodates most of the recent convergence between Eurasia and African plates. South of the ridges, the Saïss foreland basin overlies the foreland rocks corresponding to the Middle Atlas. There are evidences of Quaternary uplift of the Prerif Ridges and deformation of recent sediments as consequence of the southwards propagation of reverse faults along the mountain front. In addition, the foreland basin undergoes a roughly N-S extensional regime. The region undergoes a moderate seismic activity, with catastrophic events like that occurred in 1755 which damaged Fez and Meknes. On September 2007, a non

  9. A neural network based ensemble approach for improving the accuracy of meteorological fields used for regional air quality modeling.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Li; Chen, Dongsheng; Li, Jianbing

    2012-12-15

    A neural network based ensemble methodology was presented in this study to improve the accuracy of meteorological input fields for regional air quality modeling. Through nonlinear integration of simulation results from two meteorological models (MM5 and WRF), the ensemble approach focused on the optimization of meteorological variable values (temperature, surface air pressure, and wind field) in the vertical layer near ground. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study in northern China during two selected air pollution events, in 2006, was conducted. The performances of the MM5, the WRF, and the ensemble approach were assessed using different statistical measures. The results indicated that the ensemble approach had a higher simulation accuracy than the MM5 and the WRF model. Performance was improved by more than 12.9% for temperature, 18.7% for surface air pressure field, and 17.7% for wind field. The atmospheric PM(10) concentrations in the study region were also simulated by coupling the air quality model CMAQ with the MM5 model, the WRF model, and the ensemble model. It was found that the modeling accuracy of the ensemble-CMAQ model was improved by more than 7.0% and 17.8% when compared to the MM5-CMAQ and the WRF-CMAQ models, respectively. The proposed neural network based meteorological modeling approach holds great potential for improving the performance of regional air quality modeling. PMID:23000477

  10. Promoting ICT Entrepreneurship in the Campania Region of Italy: A Network of Academic Incubators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corti, Eugenio; Torello, Rita Ilenia

    2004-01-01

    The government of the Campania region in southern Italy has established a technology transfer centre for the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. The Regional Centre for ICT Competencies (RCICT) promotes the transfer of ICT to local small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and encourages the creation of new knowledge-based…

  11. Understanding the poultry trade network in Kenya: Implications for regional disease prevention and control.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Margaret; Munyua, Peninah; Cheng, Po-Yung; Manga, Thomas; Wanjohi, Cathryn; Moen, Ann; Mounts, Anthony; Katz, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    Infectious diseases in poultry can spread quickly and lead to huge economic losses. In the past decade, on multiple continents, the accelerated spread of highly pathogenic avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus, often through informal trade networks, has led to the death and culling of hundreds of millions of poultry. Endemic poultry diseases like Newcastle disease and fowl typhoid can also be devastating in many parts of the world. Understanding trade networks in unregulated systems can inform policy decisions concerning disease prevention and containment. From June to December 2008 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of backyard farmers, market traders, and middlemen in 5/8 provinces in Kenya. We administered a standardized questionnaire to each type of actor using convenience, random, snowball, and systematic sampling. Questionnaires addressed frequency, volume, and geography of trade, as well as biosecurity practices. We created a network diagram identifying the most important locations for trade. Of 380 respondents, 51% were backyard farmers, 24% were middlemen and 25% were market traders. Half (50%) of backyard farmers said they raised poultry both for household consumption and for sale. Compared to market traders, middlemen bought their poultry from a greater number of villages (median 4.2 villages for middlemen vs. 1.9 for market traders). Traders were most likely to purchase poultry from backyard farmers. Of the backyard farmers who sold poultry, 51% [CI 40-63] reported selling poultry to market traders, and 54% [CI 44-63] sold to middlemen. Middlemen moved the largest volume of poultry on a weekly basis (median purchases: 187 birds/week [IQR 206]; median sales: 188 birds/week [IQR 412.5]). The highest numbers of birds were traded in Nairobi - Kenya's capital city. Nairobi was the most prominent trading node in the network (61 degrees of centrality). Many smaller sub-networks existed as a result of clustered local trade. Market traders were also integral to the

  12. Modeling land use and land cover changes in a vulnerable coastal region using artificial neural networks and cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Yi; Lam, Nina S N

    2015-03-01

    As one of the most vulnerable coasts in the continental USA, the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) region has endured numerous hazards over the past decades. The sustainability of this region has drawn great attention from the international, national, and local communities, wanting to understand how the region as a system develops under intense interplay between the natural and human factors. A major problem in this deltaic region is significant land loss over the years due to a combination of natural and human factors. The main scientific and management questions are what factors contribute to the land use land cover (LULC) changes in this region, can we model the changes, and how would the LULC look like in the future given the current factors? This study analyzed the LULC changes of the region between 1996 and 2006 by utilizing an artificial neural network (ANN) to derive the LULC change rules from 15 human and natural variables. The rules were then used to simulate future scenarios in a cellular automation model. A stochastic element was added in the model to represent factors that were not included in the current model. The analysis was conducted for two sub-regions in the study area for comparison. The results show that the derived ANN models could simulate the LULC changes with a high degree of accuracy (above 92 % on average). A total loss of 263 km(2) in wetlands from 2006 to 2016 was projected, whereas the trend of forest loss will cease. These scenarios provide useful information to decision makers for better planning and management of the region. PMID:25647797

  13. Using Discharge Abstracts to Evaluate a Regional Perinatal Network: Assessment of the Linkage Procedure of Anonymous Data

    PubMed Central

    Quantin, Catherine; Gouyon, Béatrice; Avillach, Paul; Ferdynus, Cyril; Sagot, Paul; Gouyon, Jean-Bernard

    2009-01-01

    To assess the Burgundy perinatal network (18 obstetrical units; 18 500 births per year), discharge abstracts and additional data were collected for all mothers and newborns. In accordance with French law, data were rendered anonymous before statistical analysis, and were linked to patients using a specific procedure. This procedure allowed data concerning each mother to be linked to those for her newborn(s). This study showed that all mothers and newborns were included in the regional database; the data for all mothers were linked to those for their infant(s) in all cases. Additional data (gestational age) were obtained for 99.9% of newborns. PMID:19125196

  14. Regional application of multi-layer artificial neural networks in 3-D ionosphere tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari Razin, Mir Reza; Voosoghi, Behzad

    2016-08-01

    Tomography is a very cost-effective method to study physical properties of the ionosphere. In this paper, residual minimization training neural network (RMTNN) is used in voxel-based tomography to reconstruct of 3-D ionosphere electron density with high spatial resolution. For numerical experiments, observations collected at 37 GPS stations from Iranian permanent GPS network (IPGN) are used. A smoothed TEC approach was used for absolute STEC recovery. To improve the vertical resolution, empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) obtained from international reference ionosphere 2012 (IRI-2012) used as object function in training neural network. Ionosonde observations is used for validate reliability of the proposed method. Minimum relative error for RMTNN is 1.64% and maximum relative error is 15.61%. Also root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.17 × 1011 (electrons/m3) is computed for RMTNN which is less than RMSE of IRI2012. The results show that RMTNN has higher accuracy and compiles speed than other ionosphere reconstruction methods.

  15. Advances in dynamic modeling of colorectal cancer signaling-network regions, a path toward targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N.; Ambrosi, Cristina De; Barla, Annalisa; Biganzoli, Elia M.; Nencioni, Alessio; Patrone, Franco; Ballestrero, Alberto; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Verri, Alessandro; Parodi, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    The interconnected network of pathways downstream of the TGFβ, WNT and EGF-families of receptor ligands play an important role in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. We studied and implemented dynamic simulations of multiple downstream pathways and described the section of the signaling network considered as a Molecular Interaction Map (MIM). Our simulations used Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs), which involved 447 reactants and their interactions. Starting from an initial “physiologic condition”, the model can be adapted to simulate individual pathologic cancer conditions implementing alterations/mutations in relevant onco-proteins. We verified some salient model predictions using the mutated colorectal cancer lines HCT116 and HT29. We measured the amount of MYC and CCND1 mRNAs and AKT and ERK phosphorylated proteins, in response to individual or combination onco-protein inhibitor treatments. Experimental and simulation results were well correlated. Recent independently published results were also predicted by our model. Even in the presence of an approximate and incomplete signaling network information, a predictive dynamic modeling seems already possible. An important long term road seems to be open and can be pursued further, by incremental steps, toward even larger and better parameterized MIMs. Personalized treatment strategies with rational associations of signaling-proteins inhibitors, could become a realistic goal. PMID:25671297

  16. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Schill, Steven R; Raber, George T; Roberts, Jason J; Treml, Eric A; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008-2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ) and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future. PMID:26641083

  17. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Schill, Steven R.; Raber, George T.; Roberts, Jason J.; Treml, Eric A.; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N.

    2015-01-01

    We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008–2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ) and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future. PMID:26641083

  18. Regional Geograhpic Network Partnerships Supporting Sustainable Landscapes - An Example: The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural resource management agencies, conservation organizations and other stakeholders are facing increasingly complex environmental challenges that require coordinated management actions at regional and landscape levels. To address these challenges, integrated multi-disciplina...

  19. CONSULTATION ON WAYS OF CONSIDERING THE RESULTS OF EPA'S NATIONAL SURVEY ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF ASTHMA AND CHILDRENS EXPOSURE TO ETS [NSEMA/CEE] FOR THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS DIVISIONS ASTHMA INITIATIVE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has completed the field phase and is engaged in the analysis phase of its National Survey on Environmental Management of Asthma and Children's Exposure to ETS [NSEMA/CEE]. This is a nation-wide survey on awareness of and existing attitudes toward asthma and its environmental ...

  20. Regional flood inundation nowcast using hybrid SOM and dynamic neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Li-Chiu; Shen, Hung-Yu; Chang, Fi-John

    2014-11-01

    This study proposes a hybrid SOM-R-NARX methodology for nowcasting multi-step-ahead regional flood inundation maps during typhoon events. The core idea is to form a meaningful topology of inundation maps and then real-time update the selected inundation map according to a forecasted total inundated volume. The methodology includes three major schemes: (1) configuring the self-organizing map (SOM) to categorize a large number of regional inundation maps into a meaningful topology; (2) building a recurrent configuration of nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (R-NARX) to forecast the total inundated volume; and (3) adjusting the weights of the selected neuron in the constructed SOM based on the forecasted total inundated volume to obtain a real-time adapted regional inundation map. The proposed models are trained and tested based on a large number of inundation data sets collected in an inundation-prone region (270 km2) in the Yilan County, Taiwan. The results show that (1) the SOM-R-NARX model can suitably forecast multi-step-ahead regional inundation maps; and (2) the SOM-R-NARX model consistently outperforms the comparative model in providing regional inundation maps with smaller forecast errors and higher correlation (RMSE < 0.1 m and R2 > 0.9 in most cases). The proposed modelling approach offers an insightful and promising methodology for real-time forecasting 2-dimensional visible inundation maps during storm events.

  1. Orbit determination and time synchronization for a GEO/IGSO satellite navigation constellation with regional tracking network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, ShanShi; Hu, XiaoGong; Wu, Bin; Liu, Li; Qu, WeiJing; Guo, Rui; He, Feng; Cao, YueLing; Wu, XiaoLi; Zhu, LingFeng; Shi, Xin; Tan, HongLi

    2011-06-01

    Aiming at regional services, the space segment of COMPASS (Phase I) satellite navigation system is a constellation of Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), Inclined Geostationary Earth Orbit (IGSO) and Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Precise orbit determination (POD) for the satellites is limited by the geographic distribution of regional tracking stations. Independent time synchronization (TS) system is developed to supplement the regional tracking network, and satellite clock errors and orbit data may be obtained by simultaneously processing both tracking data and TS data. Consequently, inconsistency between tracking system and TS system caused by remaining instrumental errors not calibrated may decrease navigation accuracy. On the other hand, POD for the mixed constellation of GEO/IGSO/MEO with the regional tracking network leads to parameter estimations that are highly correlated. Notorious example of correlation is found between GEO's orbital elements and its clock errors. We estimate orbital elements and clock errors for a 3GEO+2IGSO constellation in this study using a multi-satellite precise orbit determination (MPOD) strategy, with which clock error elimination algorithm is applied to separate orbital and clock estimates to improve numerical efficiency. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data are used to evaluate User Ranging Error (URE), which is the orbital error projected on a receiver's line-of-sight direction. Two-way radio-wave time transfer measurements are used to evaluate clock errors. Experimenting with data from the regional tracking network, we conclude that the fitting of code data is better than 1 m in terms of Root-Mean-Square (RMS), and fitting of carrier phase is better than 1 cm. For orbital evaluation, difference between computed receiver-satellite ranging based on estimated orbits and SLR measurements is better than 1 m (RMS). For clock estimates evaluation, 2-hour linear-fitting shows that the satellite clock rates are about 1.E-10 s

  2. Spatial Fingerprints of Community Structure in Human Interaction Network for an Extensive Set of Large-Scale Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kallus, Zsófia; Barankai, Norbert; Szüle, János; Vattay, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Human interaction networks inferred from country-wide telephone activity recordings were recently used to redraw political maps by projecting their topological partitions into geographical space. The results showed remarkable spatial cohesiveness of the network communities and a significant overlap between the redrawn and the administrative borders. Here we present a similar analysis based on one of the most popular online social networks represented by the ties between more than 5.8 million of its geo-located users. The worldwide coverage of their measured activity allowed us to analyze the large-scale regional subgraphs of entire continents and an extensive set of examples for single countries. We present results for North and South America, Europe and Asia. In our analysis we used the well-established method of modularity clustering after an aggregation of the individual links into a weighted graph connecting equal-area geographical pixels. Our results show fingerprints of both of the opposing forces of dividing local conflicts and of uniting cross-cultural trends of globalization. PMID:25993329

  3. Spatial fingerprints of community structure in human interaction network for an extensive set of large-scale regions.

    PubMed

    Kallus, Zsófia; Barankai, Norbert; Szüle, János; Vattay, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Human interaction networks inferred from country-wide telephone activity recordings were recently used to redraw political maps by projecting their topological partitions into geographical space. The results showed remarkable spatial cohesiveness of the network communities and a significant overlap between the redrawn and the administrative borders. Here we present a similar analysis based on one of the most popular online social networks represented by the ties between more than 5.8 million of its geo-located users. The worldwide coverage of their measured activity allowed us to analyze the large-scale regional subgraphs of entire continents and an extensive set of examples for single countries. We present results for North and South America, Europe and Asia. In our analysis we used the well-established method of modularity clustering after an aggregation of the individual links into a weighted graph connecting equal-area geographical pixels. Our results show fingerprints of both of the opposing forces of dividing local conflicts and of uniting cross-cultural trends of globalization. PMID:25993329

  4. Comparison of the Kriging and neural network methods for modeling foF2 maps over North China region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Zhou, Chen; Liu, Jing; Lan, Ting; Yang, Guobin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhu, Peng; Sun, Hengqing; Cui, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    The F2 layer critical frequency of the ionosphere (foF2) is one of the most significant parameters for studying the ionosphere. To investigate the large-scale characteristics of the ionosphere over particular regions, modeling foF2 is an effective method. In this paper, we use both the Kriging (KG) and neural network (NN) methods to reconstruct foF2 maps over North China. The neural network is trained by the genetic algorithm (GA) to avoid the 'local minimum' phenomenon in most NN applications. We then carry out a comparison between foF2 provided by both the KG and NN methods with vertical model operation of ionosonde data including Beijing, Qingdao, Suzhou, and Changchun. All of the foF2 data used in the comparison are obtained from the oblique and vertical mode operation of ionosonde from the China Ground-based Seismo-ionospheric Monitoring Network. To allow for a possible seasonal and diurnal variation, data obtained from summer, winter, and equinox months are applied in the present comparison. In addition, we make a comparison during a magnetic storm period. The results of our comparisons demonstrate that both the KG and NN methods are appropriate tools for modeling foF2 maps. However, when the data set is spare, the performance of the NN method is better than the KG method. On the other hand, the KG method is more robust than the NN method during a magnetic storm.

  5. Regional Densification of the ITRF through the Integration of National Active GNSS Network Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyeres, Ambrus; Horvath, Tivadar; Stangl, Gunter; Garayt, Bruno; Hansen, Dionne; Valdes, Marcellino; Caporali, Alessandro; Figurski, Mariusz; Georgiev, Ivan; Droscak, Branislav; Franke, Peter; Jumare, Izolde; Nagl, Jaroslav; Pihlak, Priit; Huisman, Lennard

    2015-04-01

    The actual realization of the ITRS represents the most precise station positions and velocities at selected set of sites. The scientific and practical applications may require the access to the global 3D reference frame in a dense network without loss of consistency and reliability. Relying on the long term homogeneously analyzed data the dense national permanent GNSS networks shall be the ideal tool for such reference frame densification. In the frame of the ongoing EPN densification the national active networks are integrated and a homogeneous, dense position and velocity product is being derived based on the actual ITRS realization and using the EPN as backbone infrastructure. In order to minimize inconsistencies (e.g. site naming, discontinuities, constraint handling) the only way to get a uniform, homogeneous cumulative solution from national to global scales is the integration done relying on the weekly SINEX product level. The integration is being performed using the CATREF software (Altamimi et al, IGN) and based on the Minimum Constraint approach. The derived position and velocity product will be an essential material for various geokinematic studies (PGR, intraplate and plate boundary zone investigations), and also for the better definition and realization of ETRS89. This work is very well inline with the goals of relevant European initiatives in the frame of EPOS, EUREF (WG on Deformation Models), CEGRN, EUPOS, IAG (WG on Unified Dense Velocity Fields). The work is well in progress, up to 15 years of weekly SINEX files are already available and analyzed from 17 countries, and considering the countries in negotiation phase the full continental coverage will be reached within few years. The actual database contains more close to 3000 sites. In this presentation a status report is shown and the first version of the position/velocity product with related interpretation options are introduced as well.

  6. Extracting the regional common-mode component of GPS station position time series from dense continuous network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yunfeng; Shen, Zheng-Kang

    2016-02-01

    We develop a spatial filtering method to remove random noise and extract the spatially correlated transients (i.e., common-mode component (CMC)) that deviate from zero mean over the span of detrended position time series of a continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) network. The technique utilizes a weighting scheme that incorporates two factors—distances between neighboring sites and their correlations of long-term residual position time series. We use a grid search algorithm to find the optimal thresholds for deriving the CMC that minimizes the root-mean-square (RMS) of the filtered residual position time series. Comparing to the principal component analysis technique, our method achieves better (>13% on average) reduction of residual position scatters for the CGPS stations in western North America, eliminating regional transients of all spatial scales. It also has advantages in data manipulation: less intervention and applicable to a dense network of any spatial extent. Our method can also be used to detect CMC irrespective of its origins (i.e., tectonic or nontectonic), if such signals are of particular interests for further study. By varying the filtering distance range, the long-range CMC related to atmospheric disturbance can be filtered out, uncovering CMC associated with transient tectonic deformation. A correlation-based clustering algorithm is adopted to identify stations cluster that share the common regional transient characteristics.

  7. The Artificial Neural Network Estimation for Daily and Hourly Rice Evapotranspiration in the Region of Red Soil, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yuanshu; Ruthaikarn, Buaphean; Jin, Xinyi; Pang, Bo

    The evapotranspiration estimation is a key item for irrigation program. It has the important practical significance for high stable yield and water-saving in the region of red soil, South China. Penman-Monteith equation, recommended by FAO, is verified to be the most effective calculation to actual evaporation in many regions of the world. The only default is it has to use complete meteorological factors. To solve this problem, we are trying to find out a artificial neural network model (ANN) which can easily get its information and easy to calculate as well as guaranteed accuracy. A Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) system and automatic weather station were employed for simultaneous measurement of actual evapotranspiration above the rice field. The frequency of 20-min recording provided the possibility for the estimation of daily and hourly evapotranspiration. The determined coefficient from the artificial neural network model on daily scale R2 is 0.9642, while hourly scale R2 is 0.9880. The reason was that the hourly scale training samples was greater than the daily scale measures. In general, the model gives an effective and feasible way for the evaluation of paddy rice evapotranspiration by the conventional parameters.

  8. Use of SOM networks for delineating hydrologically homogeneous regions in ungauged conditions: application to the Italian watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Elena

    2010-05-01

    For many hydrological applications, and in particular for regionalisation procedures, it is needed to identify catchments that are sufficiently similar to the target catchment to provide a basis for information transfer. The choice of the similar catchments is based on some similarity measure, which may be based on geographical proximity but also on other attributes representing the variables that dominate the main hydrological processes. This work presents the results of the implementation of unsupervised neural networks of the Self Organising Maps (SOM) type (or Kohonen networks) for the identification of hydrologically similar watersheds, on the basis of the homogeneity of some attributes characterising the streamflow generation processes. An extended data base of information on the principal Italian watersheds, from Sicily and Sardinia up to the Alps, is available for the analysis. The data base is formed by attributes describing the watersheds from the geographical, physiographic, climatic and soil use/type points of view: such attributes are independent from the availability of hydrometric measures in the closure section of the catchments and may therefore be used for characterising also ungauged catchments. In addition, the data base includes also hydrometric measures, that may be used to verify if the ungauged characterisation of the watersheds is well-founded also when considering the actual measures of streamflow. A SOM network is implemented with the objective to get a set of disjoint clusters containing all the case study watersheds: each cluster is formed by similar catchments, according to the available descriptors, but the topology of the SOM output layer allows also the identification of the similarity among the classes, so that larger regions may be obtained by merging the most similar classes. The possibility to identify such larger regions may be extremely useful especially in the cases in which the small dimension of the original classes does

  9. Improvements of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy in the framework of ALCoTra program activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    Arpa Piemonte (Regional Agency for Environmental Protection), in partnership with University of Genoa, manages the regional seismic network, which is part of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy (RSNI). The network operates since the 80s and, over the years, it has developed in technological features, analysis procedures and geographical coverage. In particular in recent years the network has been further enhanced through the integration of Swiss and French stations installed in the cross-border area. The environmental context enables the installation of sensors in sites with good conditions as regards ambient noise and limited local amplification effects (as proved by PSD analysis, signal quality monitoring via PQLX, H/V analysis). The instrumental equipment consists of Broadband and Very Broadband sensors (Nanometrics Trillium 40" and 240") and different technological solutions for signals real-time transmission (cable, satellite, GPRS), according to the different local environment, with redundant connections and with experimental innovative systems. Digital transmission and acquisition systems operate through standard protocols (Nanometrics, SeedLink), with redundancy in data centers (Genoa, Turin, Rome). Both real-time automatic and manual operational procedures are in use for signals analysis (events detection, picking, focal parameters and ground shaking determination). In the framework of cross-border cooperation program ALCoTra (http://www.interreg-alcotra.org), approved by the European Commission, several projects have been developed to improve the performances of seismic monitoring systems used by partners (Arpa Piemonte, Aosta Valley Region, CNRS, Joseph Fourier University). The cross-border context points out first of all the importance of signals sharing (from 14 to 23 stations in narrow French-Italian border area, with an increase of over 50%) and of coordination during new stations planning and installation in the area. In the ongoing

  10. Mutations in RNA Polymerase Bridge Helix and Switch Regions Affect Active-Site Networks and Transcript-Assisted Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Schäfer, Jorrit; Sharma, Amit; Rayner, Lucy; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tuma, Roman; Stockley, Peter; Buck, Martin

    2015-11-01

    In bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP), the bridge helix and switch regions form an intricate network with the catalytic active centre and the main channel. These interactions are important for catalysis, hydrolysis and clamp domain movement. By targeting conserved residues in Escherichia coli RNAP, we are able to show that functions of these regions are differentially required during σ(70)-dependent and the contrasting σ(54)-dependent transcription activations and thus potentially underlie the key mechanistic differences between the two transcription paradigms. We further demonstrate that the transcription factor DksA directly regulates σ(54)-dependent activation both positively and negatively. This finding is consistent with the observed impacts of DksA on σ(70)-dependent promoters. DksA does not seem to significantly affect RNAP binding to a pre-melted promoter DNA but affects extensively activity at the stage of initial RNA synthesis on σ(54)-regulated promoters. Strikingly, removal of the σ(54) Region I is sufficient to invert the action of DksA (from stimulation to inhibition or vice versa) at two test promoters. The RNAP mutants we generated also show a strong propensity to backtrack. These mutants increase the rate of transcript-hydrolysis cleavage to a level comparable to that seen in the Thermus aquaticus RNAP even in the absence of a non-complementary nucleotide. These novel phenotypes imply an important function of the bridge helix and switch regions as an anti-backtracking ratchet and an RNA hydrolysis regulator. PMID:26365052

  11. Mutations in RNA Polymerase Bridge Helix and Switch Regions Affect Active-Site Networks and Transcript-Assisted Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Schäfer, Jorrit; Sharma, Amit; Rayner, Lucy; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tuma, Roman; Stockley, Peter; Buck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP), the bridge helix and switch regions form an intricate network with the catalytic active centre and the main channel. These interactions are important for catalysis, hydrolysis and clamp domain movement. By targeting conserved residues in Escherichia coli RNAP, we are able to show that functions of these regions are differentially required during σ70-dependent and the contrasting σ54-dependent transcription activations and thus potentially underlie the key mechanistic differences between the two transcription paradigms. We further demonstrate that the transcription factor DksA directly regulates σ54-dependent activation both positively and negatively. This finding is consistent with the observed impacts of DksA on σ70-dependent promoters. DksA does not seem to significantly affect RNAP binding to a pre-melted promoter DNA but affects extensively activity at the stage of initial RNA synthesis on σ54-regulated promoters. Strikingly, removal of the σ54 Region I is sufficient to invert the action of DksA (from stimulation to inhibition or vice versa) at two test promoters. The RNAP mutants we generated also show a strong propensity to backtrack. These mutants increase the rate of transcript-hydrolysis cleavage to a level comparable to that seen in the Thermus aquaticus RNAP even in the absence of a non-complementary nucleotide. These novel phenotypes imply an important function of the bridge helix and switch regions as an anti-backtracking ratchet and an RNA hydrolysis regulator. PMID:26365052

  12. Social Networks, Social Media and Absorptive Capacity in Regional Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES) in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosua, Rachelle; Evans, Nina; Sawyer, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are major sources of prosperity and employment and are viewed as critical to regional development in Australia. A key factor to foster productivity and growth in SMEs is their ability to identify, acquire, transform and exploit external knowledge. This ability, referred to as the "absorptive capacity…

  13. REGIONAL OXIDANT MODEL (ROM) USER'S GUIDE, PART 2: THE ROM PREPROCESSOR NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) determines hourly concentrations and fates of zone and 34 other chemical species over a scale of 1000 km x 1000 km for ozone "episodes" of up to one month's duration. he model structure, based on phenomenological concepts, consists of 3 1/2 layers...

  14. Report of the Regional Literacy Network Annual Meeting (1st, Chicago, Illinois, April 24, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Righeimer, Jennie M.

    Housed within the Center for Curriculum and Technology at the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL) is the Literature Signature Area, with the primary purpose of improving the reading achievement of all students by providing assistance to state education agencies, intermediate state educational units, and local school districts in…

  15. Developing of a network of nature reserves in the Lublin Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanicka, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    The nature reserves are one of the oldest forms of nature conservation. Legal basis for their establishment in Poland gave the Nature Conservation Act of 1934, but much earlier, it originated on private land or in state forests. The natural environment of the Lublin Region was poorly understood. Only after the emergence of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin in 1944, there started intensive research, mainly in Roztocze and Polesie Lubelskie. The development of the natural science enhanced learning activities for the protection of natural objects. The author presents the history of the creation of nature reserves in the Lublin Region from 1933 to 2008. The first reserves - Jata and Topór were approved in 1933 in the Łuków Forests. In 1934 the famous reserve Bukowa Góra in Roztocze, in Zamoyski Ordination, was approved. In the period 1933-2008, 103 nature reserves were established in the Lublin Region, of which 11 were included in the Roztoczański and 5 in the Poleski National Park. The area of 87 existing nature reserves in the Lublin Region is 6.8% of the reserves in Poland. The reserves represent 8 from 9 types distinguished in Poland - 35 forest reserves, 16 peat, 12 faunal, 8 steppe, 6 landscape, 6 floral, 3 inanimate nature, and 1 water reserve. Against the background of Poland, the Lublin province takes the first place (!) in terms of reserves in the steppe area (30.3% of steppe reserves in the country) and peat (19% of the peat reserves in the country), and the third in terms of the area of forest reserves (9.7% of forest reserves in the country). A large area of forest reserves in the region of low forest cover (22.5% and 14th place in the country) shows the value of natural forests and note that is attached to their protection in the Lublin Region. The annex contains a list of 103 reserves established in the Lublin Region after World War II.

  16. Present-Day Rates of Deformation Across the Southern Walker Lane From a Densified Regional GPS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, Z. M.; Frankel, K. L.; Newman, A. V.; Foy, T. A.; Feng, L.; Johnson, C.; Dixon, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Walker Lane is a diffuse region of right-lateral shear in western Nevada and eastern California that accommodates ~25% (9.3 ± 0.2 mm/yr) of the relative motion between the Pacific and North American plates. The region is characterized by discontinuous NNW-trending right-lateral strike-slip faults, and NE-trending, down-to-the-NW normal faults. The late Quaternary cumulative slip across the southern Walker Lane is only 1/3 the observed regional geodetic rate of right-lateral shear. We address this discrepancy between geologic and modern geodetic rates by installing and surveying a denser network of GPS monuments than previously existed. The higher spatial resolution will allow us to better define deformation rates in this complex tectonic setting. Our GPS data will be combined with accompanying fault kinematic and geochronologic data to determine deformation rates across multiple time scales, from late Quaternary to the present. We conducted a campaign GPS survey covering approximately 10,000 square kilometers encompassing the White Mountains, Fish Lake Valley, Clayton Valley, and the Silver Peak Range. We occupied 23 sites, including 10 newly installed monuments, which are spaced approximately 15-20 km apart. The existing sites used in this survey include the UNR-NEARNET sites, as well as a number of other campaign networks archived at UNAVCO. Stations with the longest history (including sites first surveyed as early as 1992) are expected to yield the most accurate results, while newer sites will help identify spatial patterns of strain partitioning. Monuments will be reoccupied annually and combined with past campaign survey data to determine modern crustal velocities. Initial results from this survey will be presented, which have important implications for understanding strain distribution along this important segment of the Pacific-North America boundary.

  17. The Irpinia Seismic Network (ISN): a new Monitoring Infrastructure for Seismic Alert Management in Campania Region, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, G.; Satriano, C.; Weber, E.; Cantore, L.; Corciulo, M.; Romano, L.; Martino, C.; Dicrosta, M.; Zollo, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Irpinia Seismic Network is an high dynamics, high density seismographic network under development in the Southern Apenninic chain. It is deployed in the area stroken by several destructive earthquakes during last centuries. In its final configuration the network will consist of more than fourty high dynamic seismic stations subdivided in physical subnetworks inter-connected by a robust data transmission system. The system is being designed with two primary targets: -Monitoring and analysis of background seismic activity produced by the active fault system which is the cause for large earthquakes in the past, included the 1980, Irpinia earthquake (Ms=6.9) - Development and experimentation of a prototype system for seismic early and post-event warning to be used for protecting public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance of the Regione Campania The seismic network will be completed in two stages: 1 - Deployment of 30 seismic stations along the Campania-Lucania Apenninic chain (to date almost completed) 2 - Setting up radio communication system for data transmission. Installation of 12 additional seismic stations (end of year 2006) To ensure an high dynamic recording range each site is equipped with two type of sensors: 30 force-balance accelerometer (model Guralp CMG5-T) and a velocimeter. In particular, 25 sites with short period three components instrument (model Geotech S13-J) and 5 with broad-band sensor (Nanometrics Trillium, with frequency response in the 0.033-50 Hz band). The used data logger is the Osiris-6 model produced by Agecodagis whose main features are: six channels, O/N 24 bit A/D converter, ARM processor with embedded Linux and open source software, two PCMCIA slots (used for two 5GB microdrive or one disk and wi-fi card), Ethernet, wi-fi and serial communication, low power cosumption (~1 W). Power is ensured by two 120 W solar panels and two 130 Ah gel batteries. Each recording site is equipped with a control/alarm system through

  18. Uniting and networking the magnetic community in the northern Indian Ocean region - MAGNIO - a new initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Kusumita

    2015-04-01

    The North Indian Ocean (NIO) - a region of sparse data coverage - is a prime location for the measurement and study of variations of the geomagnetic field, where the effects of the Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ) and Solar quiet (Sq) currents as well as lithospheric configuration, are yet to be delineated. Ground based measurements of magnetic variations with a time resolution of one minute or better in the NIO region would provide an ideal window of opportunity to augment satellite measurements (SWARM). As the dip equator passes through the NIO, the magnetic field here can be subject to rapid change. Therefore it is felt that forging collaborative scientific links between the scientists and stakeholder communities of these nations is vital. In recognition of the significance of a regional initiative, the International Council of Science (ICSU) has awarded the MAGNIO project to the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), to undertake activities necessary to put further medium and long term endeavors in place. The MAGNIO proposal aims to bring all NIO magnetic observatories and organisations using magnetic data together, along with relevant stakeholders. The line of action to be adopted for the fulfillment of MAGNIO objectives is presented. Critical issues of trust development, communication establishment, internet usage, role of mentors and policymankers, which could construct the requisite links to bring about such a collaborration and take it forward are discussed.

  19. Model-based evaluation of subsurface monitoring networks for improved efficiency and predictive certainty of regional groundwater models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosses, M. J.; Wöhling, Th.; Moore, C. R.; Dann, R.; Scott, D. M.; Close, M.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater resources worldwide are increasingly under pressure. Demands from different local stakeholders add to the challenge of managing this resource. In response, groundwater models have become popular to make predictions about the impact of different management strategies and to estimate possible impacts of changes in climatic conditions. These models can assist to find optimal management strategies that comply with the various stakeholder needs. Observations of the states of the groundwater system are essential for the calibration and evaluation of groundwater flow models, particularly when they are used to guide the decision making process. On the other hand, installation and maintenance of observation networks are costly. Therefore it is important to design monitoring networks carefully and cost-efficiently. In this study, we analyse the Central Plains groundwater aquifer (~ 4000 km2) between the Rakaia and Waimakariri rivers on the Eastern side of the Southern Alps in New Zealand. The large sedimentary groundwater aquifer is fed by the two alpine rivers and by recharge from the land surface. The area is mainly under agricultural land use and large areas of the land are irrigated. The other major water use is the drinking water supply for the city of Christchurch. The local authority in the region, Environment Canterbury, maintains an extensive groundwater quantity and quality monitoring programme to monitor the effects of land use and discharges on groundwater quality, and the suitability of the groundwater for various uses, especially drinking-water supply. Current and projected irrigation water demand has raised concerns about possible impacts on groundwater-dependent lowland streams. We use predictive uncertainty analysis and the Central Plains steady-state groundwater flow model to evaluate the worth of pressure head observations in the existing groundwater well monitoring network. The data worth of particular observations is dependent on the problem

  20. Estimation of regional resistivity structure beneath the Kyushu, southwestern Japan, as inferred from the Network-MT survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, M.; Oshiman, N.; Yoshimura, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Uyeshima, M.; Ichiki, M.

    2008-12-01

    Network-MT observations, which use telephone line networks as long baseline telluric measurements (Uyeshima, 1990), were carried out in the Kyushu district, southwestern Japan, from 1993 to 1998. The Kyushu district is the typical high angle subduction zone in Japan, which the Philippine sea plate subducts beneath the Eurasian plate, and some active volcanoes (for example, the Aso volcano, the Kirishima volcano group and Sakurajima volcano) are located along the volcanic front. We reanalyzed these data sets to determine regional scale deep electrical conductivity structure. In this reanalysis, we tried to choose triangular elements of the Network-MT again in order to obtain independency of each triangular element, and calculated magnetotelluric responses for each triangular element showing more suitable spatial distribution in survey area. Furthermore, comparing the geology and tectonics, we estimated electrical tendency to by the phase tensors analysis (Caldwell et al., 2004). As a preparatory step for imaging three-dimensional modeling, we carried out several tow dimensional inversion analyses to the Network-MT impedance responses across the characteristic geology, tectonics and volcanoes. In these two-dimensional inversions, we used the REBOCC code (Siripunvaraporn and Egbert, 1999), and reconsidered the horizontal and vertical smoothing factors while considering the intervals of the observation sites along each model profile. Then we obtained the final resistivity model of each profile which was judged expressing well the information of the MT responses. As a preliminary result, one of the resistivity models, whose profile goes along around the Kirishima volcano group, we obtained a remarkable conductor beneath the Kirishima volcano which shows a good agreement with the previous result of ULF MT survey (Ichiki et al., 2000). Further, we found that the bottom of this conductor extends to the subducting Philippine Sea Plate. However, at the present stage, we

  1. Intercomparison of tropospheric NO2 concentration by GOME and the air-quality monitoring network in the Tokyo region, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, K.; Itoh, H.; Shibasaki, T.; Hayashida, S.; Uno, I.; Ohara, T.; Morino, Y.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    The monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) abundance forms a key part of air-quality control as NO2 plays an important role of producing tropospheric ozone, which is a main component of photochemical smog and an active greenhouse gas. Currently, a huge network of air-quality monitoring stations measuring NO2 throughout Japan is maintained by both the Ministry of the Environment and local governments. Satellite observations are also useful for obtaining the global distribution of compounds. However, the observation of tropospheric species from space remains a challenging problem, and the field is still developing. In order to confirm whether satellite observations could successfully detect the behavior of tropospheric NO2, we compared satellite and ground-based observations of tropospheric NO2. The satellite data were tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) derived from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) spectrometer measurements (hereafter GOME-NO2), and the ground-based data were surface NO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) observed by the network of air-quality monitoring stations in Japan. The analysis was performed over the Tokyo region during 1996-2003. For the comparison, we scaled the surface NO2 VMR to the tropospheric VCD by using vertical NO2 VMR profiles, which were calculated by the chemical transport model CMAQ/REAS. The comparison indicated that the GOME observations represent the behavior of NO2 more closely at the relatively unpolluted stations than at the highly polluted stations in the network of air-quality monitoring. This tendency was thought to result from the horizontal heterogeneity within a GOME footprint. Comparison with a previous study in the northern Italy showed that the GOME-NO2 measurements over Tokyo tended to be smaller than those over northern Italy. Because Tokyo is located in a coastal land region with a gulf, areas of ocean intruding into the GOME pixels could lower the observed GOME-NO2. The pollution in Tokyo is so

  2. Locating protein-coding regions in human DNA sequences by a multiple sensor-neural network approach

    SciTech Connect

    Uberbacher, E.C.; Mural, R.J. Univ. of Tennessee, Oak Ridge )

    1991-12-15

    Genes in higher eukaryotes may span tens or hundreds of kilobases with the protein-coding regions accounting for only a few percent of the total sequence. Identifying genes within large regions of uncharacterized DNA is a difficult undertaking and is currently the focus of many research efforts. The authors describe a reliable computational approach for locating protein-coding portions of genes in anonymous DNA sequence. Using a concept suggested by robotic environmental sensing, the authors method combines a set of sensor algorithms and a neural network to localize the coding regions. Several algorithms that report local characteristics of the DNA sequence, and therefore act as sensors, are also described. In its current configuration the coding recognition module identifies 90% of coding exons of length 100 bases or greater with less than one false positive coding exon indicated per five coding exons indicated. This is a significantly lower false positive rate than any method of which the authors are aware. This module demonstrates a method with general applicability to sequence-pattern recognition problems and is available for current research efforts.

  3. Locating protein-coding regions in human DNA sequences by a multiple sensor-neural network approach.

    PubMed Central

    Uberbacher, E C; Mural, R J

    1991-01-01

    Genes in higher eukaryotes may span tens or hundreds of kilobases with the protein-coding regions accounting for only a few percent of the total sequence. Identifying genes within large regions of uncharacterized DNA is a difficult undertaking and is currently the focus of many research efforts. We describe a reliable computational approach for locating protein-coding portions of genes in anonymous DNA sequence. Using a concept suggested by robotic environmental sensing, our method combines a set of sensor algorithms and a neural network to localize the coding regions. Several algorithms that report local characteristics of the DNA sequence, and therefore act as sensors, are also described. In its current configuration the "coding recognition module" identifies 90% of coding exons of length 100 bases or greater with less than one false positive coding exon indicated per five coding exons indicated. This is a significantly lower false positive rate than any method of which we are aware. This module demonstrates a method with general applicability to sequence-pattern recognition problems and is available for current research efforts. PMID:1763041

  4. Training Working Memory in Childhood Enhances Coupling between Frontoparietal Control Network and Task-Related Regions

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Nobre, Anna Christina; Woolrich, Mark W.; Baker, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is a capacity upon which many everyday tasks depend and which constrains a child's educational progress. We show that a child's working memory can be significantly enhanced by intensive computer-based training, relative to a placebo control intervention, in terms of both standardized assessments of working memory and performance on a working memory task performed in a magnetoencephalography scanner. Neurophysiologically, we identified significantly increased cross-frequency phase amplitude coupling in children who completed training. Following training, the coupling between the upper alpha rhythm (at 16 Hz), recorded in superior frontal and parietal cortex, became significantly coupled with high gamma activity (at ∼90 Hz) in inferior temporal cortex. This altered neural network activity associated with cognitive skill enhancement is consistent with a framework in which slower cortical rhythms enable the dynamic regulation of higher-frequency oscillatory activity related to task-related cognitive processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Whether we can enhance cognitive abilities through intensive training is one of the most controversial topics of cognitive psychology in recent years. This is particularly controversial in childhood, where aspects of cognition, such as working memory, are closely related to school success and are implicated in numerous developmental disorders. We provide the first neurophysiological account of how working memory training may enhance ability in childhood, using a brain recording technique called magnetoencephalography. We borrowed an analysis approach previously used with intracranial recordings in adults, or more typically in other animal models, called “phase amplitude coupling.” PMID:27559180

  5. Vertical and horizontal structure of atmospheric waves observed with the Indonesian regional CPEA radar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Sridharan, S.; Tsuda, T.; Vincent, R.; Kozu, T.

    Although the global structure of tides and planetary waves in the middle atmosphere including MLT Mesosphere Lower Thermosphere has extensively been studied with ground-based and satellite observations structures of atmospheric waves within thousands of km are rarely reported by observations Such structures of a regional scale should reflect locality and are expected to include information of wave sources as well as interactions with smaller scale waves We have carried out meteor MF radar observations in the MLT region at three locations Kototabang 100E 0S West Sumatra Pontianak 109E 0N West Kalimantan and Pameungpeuk 107 5E 7 5S West Jawa in Indonesia as an activity of CPEA Coupling Processes of Equatorial Atmosphere project The diurnal variaiton of wind velocities over the equator at Pontianak and Kototabang with an average amplitude of 10 - 20 m s at 86 - 90 km showed significant difference indicating strong effect of non-migrating diurnal tides The significant phase difference between the two site 9 deg distance suggesting existence of high zonal wave number 4 waves Enhancement of diurnal variation of MLT wind seems to correlate with the enhancement of diurnal oscillation in the OLR outgoing longwave radiation of the Asia-Pacific area Vertical propagation of tides and other atmospheric waves are also addressed by comparing OLR data radiosonde observations during CPEA campaigns and other observational data

  6. Effect of staff migration on kidney transplant activity in United Network for Organ Sharing region 1 transplant centers.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Reza F; Khaksari, Sahriar; Ko, Dicken S C

    2014-09-01

    Organ shortage is unquestionably the greatest challenge facing the field of transplantation today. Transplant centers are constantly competing with one another for limited numbers of organs for their recipients. Recruitment of specialized transplant surgical expertise and leadership is thought to enable a center to grow in volume and thus profitability in the increasingly difficult world of health care reimbursement. In this study, the pattern of kidney transplants at 13 different centers in the United Network for Organ Sharing's region 1 is examined: the comparison is between transplant volume before and after changes in the centers' leadership between 2000 and 2011. Each center's kidney transplant volume showed a significant increase after a leadership change that ultimately regressed to the center's baseline. This study is the first to show that behavioral changes in transplant center competition cause transient increases in transplant volume that quickly regress back to mean levels. PMID:25193733

  7. Regional networks underlying interhemispheric connectivity: an EEG and DTI study in healthy ageing and amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Teipel, Stefan J; Pogarell, Oliver; Meindl, Thomas; Dietrich, Olaf; Sydykova, Djyldyz; Hunklinger, Ulrike; Georgii, Bea; Mulert, Christoph; Reiser, Maximilian F; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hampel, Harald

    2009-07-01

    Interhemispheric coherence derived from electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings is a measure of functional interhemispheric connectivity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) determines the integrity of subcortical fiber tracts. We studied the pattern of subcortical fiber tracts underlying interhemispheric coherence and its alteration in 16 subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an at risk syndrome for Alzheimer's disease, and 20 cognitively healthy elderly control subjects using resting state EEG and high resolution DTI at 3 T. We used a multivariate network approach based on principal component analysis to determine effects of coherence on the regional pattern of diffusivity. Temporo-parietal coherence in the alpha band was significantly correlated with diffusivity in predominantly posterior white matter tracts including posterior corpus callosum, parietal, temporal and occipital lobe white matter, thalamus, midbrain, pons, and cerebellum, both in MCI subjects and controls (P < 0.05). In MCI subjects, frontal coherence in the alpha band was significantly correlated with a predominately frontal pattern of diffusivity including fiber tracts of the anterior corpus callosum, frontal lobe white matter, thalamus, pons, and cerebellum (P < 0.05). The study provides a methodology to access specific networks of subcortical fiber tracts subserving the maintenance of interhemispheric resting state coherence in the human brain. PMID:18781594

  8. Investigation of aerosol optical properties for remote sensing through DRAGON (distributed regional aerosol gridded observation networks) campaign in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jae-Hyun; Ahn, Joon Young; Park, Jin-Soo; Hong, You-Deok; Han, Jin-Seok; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2014-11-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere, including dust and pollutants, scatters/absorbs solar radiation and change the microphysics of clouds, thus influencing the Earth's energy budget, climate, air quality, visibility, agriculture and water circulation. Pollutants have also been reported to threaten the human health. The present research collaborated with the U.S. NASA and the U.S. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is to study the aerosol characteristics in East Asia and improve the long-distance transportation monitoring technology by analyzing the observations of aerosol characteristics in East Asia during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) Campaign (March 2012-May 2012). The sun photometers that measure the aerosol optical characteristics were placed evenly throughout the Korean Peninsula and concentrated in Seoul and the metropolitan area. Observation data are obtained from the DRAGON campaign and the first year (2012) observation data (aerosol optical depth and aerosol spatial distribution) are analyzed. Sun photometer observations, including aerosol optical depth (AOD), are utilized to validate satellite observations from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Additional analysis is performed associated with the Northeast Asia, the Korean Peninsula in particular, to determine the spatial distribution of the aerosol.

  9. Demand-driven energy requirement of world economy 2007: A multi-region input-output network simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhan-Ming; Chen, G. Q.

    2013-07-01

    This study presents a network simulation of the global embodied energy flows in 2007 based on a multi-region input-output model. The world economy is portrayed as a 6384-node network and the energy interactions between any two nodes are calculated and analyzed. According to the results, about 70% of the world's direct energy input is invested in resource, heavy manufacture, and transportation sectors which provide only 30% of the embodied energy to satisfy final demand. By contrast, non-transportation services sectors contribute to 24% of the world's demand-driven energy requirement with only 6% of the direct energy input. Commodity trade is shown to be an important alternative to fuel trade in redistributing energy, as international commodity flows embody 1.74E + 20 J of energy in magnitude up to 89% of the traded fuels. China is the largest embodied energy exporter with a net export of 3.26E + 19 J, in contrast to the United States as the largest importer with a net import of 2.50E + 19 J. The recent economic fluctuations following the financial crisis accelerate the relative expansions of energy requirement by developing countries, as a consequence China will take over the place of the United States as the world's top demand-driven energy consumer in 2022 and India will become the third largest in 2015.

  10. Regional Characterization of Tokyo Metropolitan area using a highly-dense seismic network (MeSO-net)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Naoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Panayotopoulos, Yannis; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Ishibe, Takeo; Kimura, Hisanori; Honda, Ryou

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a dense seismic network, MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network), which consists of about 300 seismic stations, since 2007 in the greater Tokyo urban region(Hirata et al., 2009). Using MeSO-net data, we obtain P- and S- wave velocity tomograms (Nakagawa et al., 2010) and Qp, Qs tomograms (Panayotopoulos et al., 2014) which show a clear image of Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) and PAcific Plate (PAP). A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 km beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the hypocenter distribution (Ishida, 1992). Based on elastic wave velocities of rocks and minerals, we constructed a petrologic model. The Vp steps in subducting Izu forearc crust occurs at a depth of 30km (blueschist or greenschist to garnet amphibolite transformation) and a depth of 50km (garnet amphibolite to eclogite transformation). Both temperatures are estimated to be 500 and 600 degree C, respectively. The high Vp/Vs anomaly (>1.9) implies large amounts of fluid H2O released by garnet amphibolite to eclogite dehydration reactions. This study is supported by MEXT Japan under the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters.

  11. Investigation and Quantification of Water Track Networks in Boreal Regions Using Remote Sensing and Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendbayar, U.; Misra, D.; Gupta, T.; Ghosh, T.

    2015-12-01

    Water tracks are the most prominent drainage pathways that route water through the soil over permafrost in the polar environment and thus play a major role in hydrology, geomorphology, and geochemistry of the polar ecosystem. Existing literature on water tracks is limited and is largely confined to tundra areas devoid of vegetation. The objective of this study is to initiate the investigation of water tracks in thickly vegetated boreal regions, many of which contain predominant engineered infrastructures. The ancillary objectives include the development of methods for mapping the distribution of water tracks in boreal regions and a preliminary analysis of the geotechnical impacts of water track interception on infrastructures. The study area is Goldstream Road in Fairbanks, Alaska. This road experiences high amounts of damage, possibly due to interception of prominent water tracks. To investigate the road damage, the Alaska Department of Transportation has collected geophysical data in 2012. We plan to create a water track distribution map around the Goldstream Road using high-spatial-and-spectral-resolution remote sensing imagery and correlate it with the geophysical data from 2012. We have collected ground data from two water tracks: one in a residence in Fairbanks and the other besides the Goldstream Road. The two tracks vary greatly in size and features. Both water tracks revealed different yet quite promising characteristics. These findings will be used to extract other water tracks from remotely sensed images of the Goldstream Road area. So far, a 2010 SPOT 5 image (2.5m x 2.5 m), an aerial orthophoto (14 cm x 14 cm) and a DEM (57 cm x 57 cm) from September 2014 have been acquired. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) processing was performed on the 2010 SPOT 5 image. A detailed water track database was created and water tracks are being manually digitized from the available imagery and Web Mapping Services (WMS). As a test, using FLIR, handheld

  12. Regional and Local Carbon Flux Information from a Continuous Atmospheric CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, S.; Stephens, B.; Watt, A.; Schimel, D.; Aulenbach, S.

    2006-12-01

    We have established a Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON) to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes and to fill key gaps in the North American Carbon Program (NACP). There are strong scientific and societal motivations for determining CO2 exchanges on regional scales. Mountain forests in particular represent a significant potential net CO2 sink in the U.S. and are highly sensitive to land-use practices and climate change. We have developed a new autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analysis system (AIRCOA) and have deployed these systems at 4 sites: Niwot Ridge (NWR), near Ward, Colorado (August, 2005); Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) near Steamboat Springs, Colorado (September, 2005); Fraser Experimental Forest (FEF), near Fraser Colorado (August, 2005); and Hidden Peak (HDP), near Snowbird, Utah (April, 2006). We will deploy a fifth site in Northeastern Arizona in September 2006. Measurements of surveillance gas cylinders, and an ongoing intercomparison with flask measurements made by NOAA GMD at Niwot Ridge, show measurement biases of 0.2 ppm or better. Preliminary analysis of CO2 variability at our sites provides valuable information on the usefulness of mountaintop observations in data-assimilation and inverse modeling. Comparisons between our sites and to background sites can give direct regional-scale flux estimates, and analysis of the nocturnal CO2 build-ups at FEF provides unique insights into valley-scale respiration rates. We will present results of these preliminary analyses and plans for future integration with the NACP effort.

  13. Hydraulic fracturing and the Crooked Lake Sequences: Insights gleaned from regional seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Ryan; Stern, Virginia; Novakovic, Mark; Atkinson, Gail; Gu, Yu Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Within central Alberta, Canada, a new sequence of earthquakes has been recognized as of 1 December 2013 in a region of previous seismic quiescence near Crooked Lake, ~30 km west of the town of Fox Creek. We utilize a cross-correlation detection algorithm to detect more than 160 events to the end of 2014, which is temporally distinguished into five subsequences. This observation is corroborated by the uniqueness of waveforms clustered by subsequence. The Crooked Lake Sequences have come under scrutiny due to its strong temporal correlation (>99.99%) to the timing of hydraulic fracturing operations in the Duvernay Formation. We assert that individual subsequences are related to fracturing stimulation and, despite adverse initial station geometry, double-difference techniques allow us to spatially relate each cluster back to a unique horizontal well. Overall, we find that seismicity in the Crooked Lake Sequences is consistent with first-order observations of hydraulic fracturing induced seismicity.

  14. Region-wide search and pursuit system using networked intelligent cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, Kazumi; Irisawa, Kouji

    2001-11-01

    This paper reports a study on new, region-wide search and pursuit system for missing objects such as stolen cars, wandering people, etc. By using image matching processes on the basis of the object properties such as color and shape, the intelligent camera can search the object. Then the camera transmits the properties to the next camera to pursue the object successively. The experimental results show that the system can judge 2 cars as search object among 40 cars under conditions of changing environment. Based on these data the proposed system can accomplish a fundamental step. Finally, research subjects have been picked up for advancement such as accurate shape extraction processing, camera structure for high speed processing and multimedia attributes such as sound.

  15. Metacommunity structuring in stream networks: roles of dispersal mode, distance type, and regional environmental context

    PubMed Central

    Grönroos, Mira; Heino, Jani; Siqueira, Tadeu; Landeiro, Victor L; Kotanen, Juho; Bini, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    Within a metacommunity, both environmental and spatial processes regulate variation in local community structure. The strength of these processes may vary depending on species traits (e.g., dispersal mode) or the characteristics of the regions studied (e.g., spatial extent, environmental heterogeneity). We studied the metacommunity structuring of three groups of stream macroinvertebrates differing in their overland dispersal mode (passive dispersers with aquatic adults; passive dispersers with terrestrial adults; active dispersers with terrestrial adults). We predicted that environmental structuring should be more important for active dispersers, because of their better ability to track environmental variability, and that spatial structuring should be more important for species with aquatic adults, because of stronger dispersal limitation. We sampled a total of 70 stream riffle sites in three drainage basins. Environmental heterogeneity was unrelated to spatial extent among our study regions, allowing us to examine the effects of these two factors on metacommunity structuring. We used partial redundancy analysis and Moran's eigenvector maps based on overland and watercourse distances to study the relative importance of environmental control and spatial structuring. We found that, compared with environmental control, spatial structuring was generally negligible, and it did not vary according to our predictions. In general, active dispersers with terrestrial adults showed stronger environmental control than the two passively dispersing groups, suggesting that the species dispersing actively are better able to track environmental variability. There were no clear differences in the results based on watercourse and overland distances. The variability in metacommunity structuring among basins was not related to the differences in the environmental heterogeneity and spatial extent. Our study emphasized that (1) environmental control is prevailing in stream metacommunities

  16. A GIS analysis of suitability for construction aggregate recycling sites using regional transportation network and population density features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R., Jr.; Kapo, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Aggregate is used in road and building construction to provide bulk, strength, support, and wear resistance. Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and reclaimed Portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available sources of recycled aggregate. In this paper, current aggregate production operations in Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia are used to develop spatial association models for the recycled aggregate industry with regional transportation network and population density features. The cost of construction aggregate to the end user is strongly influenced by the cost of transporting processed aggregate from the production site to the construction site. More than 60% of operations recycling aggregate in the mid-Atlantic study area are located within 4.8 km (3 miles) of an interstate highway. Transportation corridors provide both sites of likely road construction where aggregate is used and an efficient means to move both materials and on-site processing equipment back and forth from various work sites to the recycling operations. Urban and developing areas provide a high market demand for aggregate and a ready source of construction debris that may be processed into recycled aggregate. Most aggregate recycling operators in the study area are sited in counties with population densities exceeding 77 people/km2 (200 people/mile 2). No aggregate recycling operations are sited in counties with less than 19 people/km2 (50 people/mile2), reflecting the lack of sufficient long-term sources of construction debris to be used as an aggregate source, as well as the lack of a sufficient market demand for aggregate in most rural areas to locate a recycling operation there or justify the required investment in the equipment to process and produce recycled aggregate. Weights of evidence analyses (WofE), measuring correlation on an area-normalized basis, and weighted logistic regression (WLR), are used to model the distribution of RAP and RPCC operations relative

  17. Successful integration efforts in water quality from the integrated Ocean Observing System Regional Associations and the National Water Quality Monitoring Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, R.; Vowinkel, E.; Porter, D.; Hamilton, P.; Morrison, R.; Kohut, J.; Connell, B.; Kelsey, H.; Trowbridge, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS??) Regional Associations and Interagency Partners hosted a water quality workshop in January 2010 to discuss issues of nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion (hypoxia), harmful algal blooms (HABs), and beach water quality. In 2007, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council piloted demonstration projects as part of the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (Network) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their Tributaries in three IOOS Regional Associations, and these projects are ongoing. Examples of integrated science-based solutions to water quality issues of major concern from the IOOS regions and Network demonstration projects are explored in this article. These examples illustrate instances where management decisions have benefited from decision-support tools that make use of interoperable data. Gaps, challenges, and outcomes are identified, and a proposal is made for future work toward a multiregional water quality project for beach water quality.

  18. Pole-equator difference and the variability of the brightness of the chromospheric CaII-K-network elements in quiet regions over the solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kariyappa, R.

    1995-01-01

    The dependence of the brightness of chromospheric network elements on latitude was investigated for quiet solar regions. Calibrated photographic CaII K-spectroheliograms were used to compare the variation in brightness at the center of the disk with higher latitude of chromospheric network elements in a quiet region as a function of solar activity. It was found that there was no significant difference in brightness between the center of the solar disk and higher latitude. It is concluded that the brightness of the chromospheric network elements in a quiet region does not depend on the latitude, but that the variation in the intensity enhancement is related to the level of solar activity.

  19. Why might regional vaccinology networks fail? The case of the Dutch-Nordic Consortium.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Jan; Blume, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed an attempt to develop and clinically test a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for the developing world, undertaken by public health institutions from the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland: the Dutch Nordic Consortium (DNC), between 1990 and 2000. Our review shows that the premature termination of the project was due less to technological and scientific challenges and more to managerial challenges and institutional policies. Various impeding events, financial and managerial challenges gradually soured the initially enthusiastic collaborative spirit until near the end the consortium struggled to complete the minimum objectives of the project. By the end of 1998, a tetravalent prototype vaccine had been made that proved safe and immunogenic in Phase 1 trials in adults and toddlers in Finland. The planned next step, to test the vaccine in Asia in infants, did not meet approval by the local authorities in Vietnam nor later in the Philippines and the project eventually stopped.The Dutch DNC member, the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) learned important lessons, which subsequently were applied in a following vaccine technology transfer project, resulting in the availability at affordable prices for the developing world of a conjugate vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b. We conclude that vaccine development in the public domain with technology transfer as its ultimate aim requires major front-end funding, committed leadership at the highest institutional level sustained for many years and a competent recipient-manufacturer, which needs to be involved at a very early stage of the development.At the national level, RIVM's policy to consolidate its national manufacturing task through securing a key global health position in support of a network of public vaccine manufacturers proved insufficiently supported by the relevant ministries of the Dutch government. Difficulties to keep up with high costs, high

  20. Dose-dependent effects of isoflurane on regional activity and neural network function: A resting-state fMRI study of 14 rhesus monkeys: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Lv, Peilin; Xiao, Yuan; Liu, Bin; Wang, Yuqing; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Huaiqiang; Li, Fei; Yao, Li; Zhang, Wenjing; Liu, Lu; Gao, Xin; Wu, Min; Tang, Yingying; Chen, Qin; Gong, Qiyong; Lui, Su

    2016-01-12

    The dose-dependent effect of isoflurane on cerebral regional activity and functional connectivity (FC) in 14 rhesus monkeys was investigated using resting-state functional MRI. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) decreased in the cerebellum, visual cortex, and cortico-subcortical network when the isoflurane dose changed from 1.0 to 1.3 MAC. ALFF decreased in the arousal system, cerebellum, sensory, visual areas, cortico-subcortical network and default mode network and increased in the bilateral dorsal prefrontal cortices, frontal eye fields and motor-related areas from 1.0 to 1.6 MAC. FC of the default mode network, frontal-parietal, cortico-subcortical, motor, sensory, auditory and visual areas was reduced when isoflurane increased from 1.0 to 1.3 MAC. FC decreased in more widespread areas, especially in regions of cortico-subcortical networks and limbic systems, when isoflurane further increased from 1.0 to 1.6 MAC. Both dose-dependent decreased and increased ALFF were separately observed, while FC deteriorated as the anesthesia deepened. These results suggest that changes continue to occur past the loss of consciousness, and the dose-dependent effects of isoflurane are different with regard to regional function and neural network integration. PMID:26633103

  1. Regional and Local Carbon Flux Information from a Continuous Atmospheric CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, S. L.; Stephens, B.; Watt, A.

    2007-12-01

    We will present preliminary carbon flux estimates from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON). In order to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes in the Rocky Mountain West, we have developed and deployed autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analyzers (AIRCOA) at five sites throughout Colorado and Utah, and plan additional deployments on the Navajo Reservation, Arizona in September 2007 and atop Mount Kenya, Africa in November 2007. We have used a one- dimensional CO2 budget equation, following Bakwin et al. (2004), to estimate regional monthly-mean fluxes from our continuous CO2 concentrations. These comparisons between our measurements and estimates of free- tropospheric background concentrations reveal regional-scale CO2 flux signals that are generally consistent with one another across the Rocky RACCOON sites. We will compare the timing and magnitude of these estimates with expectations from local-scale eddy-correlation flux measurements and bottom-up ecosystem models. We will also interpret the differences in monthly-mean flux signals between our sites in terms of their varying upwind areas of influence and inferred regional variations in CO2 fluxes. Our measurements will be included in future CarbonTracker assimilation runs and other planned model-data fusion efforts. However, questions still exist concerning the ability of these models to accurately represent the various influences on CO2 concentrations in continental boundary layers, and at mountaintop sites in particular. We will present an analysis of the diurnal cycles in CO2 concentration and CO2 variability at our sites, and compare these to various model estimates. Several of our sites near major population centers reflect the influence of industrial CO2 sources in afternoon upslope flows, with CO2 concentration increasing and variable in the mid to late afternoon. Other more remote sites show more consistent and decreasing CO2

  2. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan-li; Deng, Hong-xia; Xing, Gui-yang; Xia, Xiao-luan; Li, Hai-fang

    2015-01-01

    It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception. PMID:25883631

  3. Engaging Undergraduate Summer Research Students and Faculty in a Regional Neuroscience Network

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Jennifer R.; Stavnezer, Amy Jo

    2014-01-01

    Students who engage in experiential research programs and who form communities of learning are more likely to persist in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) programs. Faculty who collaborate are more likely to publish and to stay engaged in their field. With funding from the Great Lakes Colleges Association (GLCA) Expanding Collaboration Initiative, we engaged in a series of summer seminars with neuroscience faculty and their research students at five regional institutions, the College of Wooster, Ohio Wesleyan University, Earlham College, Oberlin College and Kenyon College. Our goals were to provide an opportunity for faculty and students to learn about the methods used in the labs at these institutions, to increase collaborative relationships across these institutions, to develop a community of learning among participating students, and to provide students with professional development opportunities. Pre- and post-assessment data indicate knowledge gains in demonstrated methods and increased comfort performing the methods with supervision or collaboration. In addition, several collaborative relationships were formed and significant assistance with planning, materials, and/or apparatus was provided across institutions. In open-ended post-experience questions, students indicated valuing the relationships formed with other students in this community of learning. We will continue this program with continued funding through the GLCA Expanding Collaboration Initiative and submission of a multi-center National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates grant and encourage others to engage in similar practices at their own institutions. PMID:25565919

  4. Sustaining a regional emerging infectious disease research network: a trust-based approach.

    PubMed

    Silkavute, Pornpit; Tung, Dinh Xuan; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut

    2013-01-01

    The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge generation (i.e., through research); (ii) research capacity building (e.g., by developing high-quality research proposals, by planning and conducting joint research projects, by adopting a broader Ecohealth/OneHealth approach); and (iii) policy advocacy (e.g., by disseminating research results to policy makers). This paper describes these achievements, with a focus on the partnership's five major areas of emerging infectious disease research: wild migratory birds, backyard poultry systems, socio-economic impact, policy analysis, and control measures. We highlight two case studies illustrating how the partnership's research results are being used to inform policy. We also highlight lessons learned after five years of working hard to build our partnership and the value added by a multi-country, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary research partnership like APEIR. PMID:23362419

  5. An effective regional Marine Protected Area network for the ROPME Sea Area: unrealistic vision or realistic possibility?

    PubMed

    Van Lavieren, Hanneke; Klaus, Rebecca

    2013-07-30

    Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) targets aim to encourage the establishment of an effective global network of MPAs covering 10% of coastal and marine ecoregions by 2020. This paper presents findings from the first ever regional assessment of MPA management effectiveness in the ROPME (Regional Organisation for the Protection of the Marine Environment) Sea Area (RSA). The RSA, extends from the Gulf to the Arabian Sea coast of Oman, and is bordered by 8 member states, including some of the world's richest and fastest growing global economies. There are 173 MPAs covering 7.8% of the RSA (36,182.03 km(2)). Progress towards CBD MPA targets is lower as: (i) stated area coverages often include a terrestrial component; (ii) only 37% are legally 'Designated' (5.4% RSA), while 73% remain 'Proposed' (2.4% RSA) and; (iii) assessment of management effectiveness revealed variable levels of performance (11% to 58%, with an average of 34%). Underlying causes for low performance are discussed and recommendations are offered to help RSA member states meet CBD MPA targets by 2020. PMID:23294567

  6. Determination of Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of D-region Electron Density during Annular Solar Eclipse from VLF Network Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, T.; Hobara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A major part of the path of the annular solar eclipse of May 20, 2012 (magnitude 0.9439) was over southern Japan. The D-region ionospheric changes associated with that eclipse, led to several degree of observable perturbations of sub-ionospheric very low frequency (VLF) radio signal. The University of Electro-Communications (UEC) operates VLF observation network over Japan. The solar eclipse associated signal changes were recorded in several receiving stations (Rx) simultaneously for the VLF signals coming from NWC/19.8kHz, JJI/22.2kHz, JJY/40.0kHz, NLK/24.8kHz and other VLF transmitters (Tx). These temporal dependences of VLF signal perturbation have been analyzed and the spatio-temporal characteristics of respective sub-ionospheric perturbations has already been studied by earlier workers using 2D-Finite Difference Time Domain method of simulation. In this work, we determine the spatial scale, depth and temporal dependence of lower ionospheric perturbation in consistence with umbral and penumbral motion. We considered the 2-parameter D-region ionospheric model with exponential electron density profile. To model the solar obscuration effect over it, we assumed a generalized space-time dependent 2-dimensional elliptical Gaussian distribution for ionospheric parameters, such as, effective reflection height (h') and sharpness factor (β). The depth (△hmax, △βmax), center of shadow (lato(t), lono(t)) and spatial scale (σlat,lon) of that Gaussian distribution are used as model parameters. In the vicinity of the eclipse zone, we compute the VLF signal perturbations using Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) code for several signal propagation paths. The propagation path characteristics, such as, ground and water conductivity and geomagnetic effect on ionosphere are considered from standard LWPC prescriptions. The model parameters are tuned to set an optimum agreement between our computation and observed positive and negative type of VLF perturbations. Thus

  7. Analysis of Regionally Detected Icequakes Using the STEEP Network, South-Central AK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neel, S.; Leblanc, L.; Larsen, C.; Truffer, M.; Hansen, R.; Rupert, N.; Pavlis, G.; None, N.

    2007-12-01

    Glaciers produce seismic energy that is detectable from local to teleseismic distances. Glaciolgical processes including calving, surface crevassing, basal sliding and other, yet unresolved source processes are capable of producing recordable seismicity. Twenty-two broadband sensors deployed in south-central Alaska during the SainT Elias TEctonics and Erosion Project (STEEP) provide an excellent means to study glacier-generated seismicity at regional distances. These instruments surround over 7500 km2 of glacier area including the Bering Glacier, Bagley Icefield and the tidewater calving glaciers of Icy Bay (Yahtse, Guyot, Tyndal). Our analysis shows that icequakes nominally occur several times hourly, and can be separated from tectonic seismicity using their unique spectral characteristics and hypocenter locations. The events typically propagate over 50-75 km distances, but occasionally are recorded at stations over 150 km away from the energy source. Hypocenters for more than 1000 events were manually calculated through a 26-day interval during October 2006, and suggest that a majority of the icequakes are associated with calving at tidewater glaciers that terminate in Icy Bay. Events with similar time and frequency domain characteristics also occur at locations away from calving fronts, but less often, and their mechanical origin remains undetermined. Automated detections from a frequency domain event detector exhibit strong correlation with the handpicked time series, and extend our analysis to all available data collected during 2006. We present the time distribution of several categories of icequakes and compare these distributions to environmental variables such as precipitation, temperature and tides to explore potential forcing for observed variability in icequake occurrence.

  8. Analysis of the protein network of cholesterol homeostasis in different brain regions: an age and sex dependent perspective.

    PubMed

    Segatto, Marco; Di Giovanni, Annalaura; Marino, Maria; Pallottini, Valentina

    2013-07-01

    Although a great knowledge about the patho-physiological roles of cholesterol metabolism perturbation in several organs has been reached, scarce information is available on the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the brain where this lipid is involved in the maintenance of several of neuronal processes. Currently, no study is available in literature dealing how and if sex and age may modulate the major proteins involved in the regulatory network of cholesterol levels in different brain regions. Here, we investigated the behavior of 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) in adult (3-month-old) and aged (12-month-old) male and female rats. The analyses were performed in four different brain regions: cortex, brain stem, hippocampus, and cerebellum which represent brain areas characterized by different neuronal cell types, metabolism, cytoarchitecture and white matter composition. The results show that in hippocampus HMGR is lower (30%) in adult female rats than in age-matched males. Differences in LDLr expression are also observable in old females with respect to age-matched males: the protein levels increase (40%) in hippocampus and decrease (20%) in cortex, displaying different mechanisms of regulation. The mechanism underlying the observed modifications are ascribable to Insig-1 and SREBP-1 modulation. The obtained data demonstrate that age- and sex-related differences in cholesterol homeostasis maintenance exist among brain regions, such as the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, important for learning, memory and affection. Some of these differences could be at the root of marked gender disparities observed in clinical disease incidence, manifestation, and prognosis. PMID:23280554

  9. Low-Cost Sensor Network for Stream Flow Monitoring in the Alto Beni Region of Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, M. D.; Fry, L. M.; Mihelcic, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Lack of data is a persistent problem in hydrology and other field work in developing countries. Low cost monitoring devices allow investigators to maximize spatial coverage on a limited budget, as well as to minimize the financial risk of loss of instruments placed in vulnerable locations. This work contributes to an ongoing project to evaluate the sustainability of discharge from springs supplying gravity-fed potable water systems in the Alto Beni region of Bolivia where land use is rapidly changing from forest to agriculture. The approach is to estimate ground water recharge as a function of land use variables using a water balance model in several representative watersheds. Monthly stream discharge is currently estimated using monthly manual measurements of water level by a local technician. Continuous water level measurements will allow an improved estimate of the cumulative discharge, and generate data on statistical distribution of daily flow that may be useful to estimate discharge in similar, ungaged watersheds. Continuous water level measurements, along with available precipitation data, will allow analysis and comparison of the response of watersheds to individual precipitation events as a function of land use variables. We assembled a low cost level logging system for stream flow monitoring that measures and records distance up to 6 m to the nearest 25 mm every ten minutes, and runs for a month on six rechargeable AA batteries. The system consists of a sonic range finder sensor (MaxSonar-EZ2, Maxbotix Inc., Baxter, MN, 30), a temperature sensor (MCP9701, Microchip Technology Inc., Chandler, AZ, 0.25), and a datalogger (Hobo U12, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA, 104) along with a weather-resistant enclosure and common items for a total cost of 230 per unit. The level loggers were attached to bridges over three subject streams. A local technician visits the sites monthly to download data, replace the rechargeable batteries, and take a manual water level

  10. Genome-wide analysis of glucocorticoid receptor binding regions in adipocytes reveal gene network involved in triglyceride homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chi-Yi; Mayba, Oleg; Lee, Joyce V; Tran, Joanna; Harris, Charlie; Speed, Terence P; Wang, Jen-Chywan

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids play important roles in the regulation of distinct aspects of adipocyte biology. Excess glucocorticoids in adipocytes are associated with metabolic disorders, including central obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. To understand the mechanisms underlying the glucocorticoid action in adipocytes, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing to isolate genome-wide glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding regions (GBRs) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, gene expression analyses were used to identify genes that were regulated by glucocorticoids. Overall, 274 glucocorticoid-regulated genes contain or locate nearby GBR. We found that many GBRs were located in or nearby genes involved in triglyceride (TG) synthesis (Scd-1, 2, 3, GPAT3, GPAT4, Agpat2, Lpin1), lipolysis (Lipe, Mgll), lipid transport (Cd36, Lrp-1, Vldlr, Slc27a2) and storage (S3-12). Gene expression analysis showed that except for Scd-3, the other 13 genes were induced in mouse inguinal fat upon 4-day glucocorticoid treatment. Reporter gene assays showed that except Agpat2, the other 12 glucocorticoid-regulated genes contain at least one GBR that can mediate hormone response. In agreement with the fact that glucocorticoids activated genes in both TG biosynthetic and lipolytic pathways, we confirmed that 4-day glucocorticoid treatment increased TG synthesis and lipolysis concomitantly in inguinal fat. Notably, we found that 9 of these 12 genes were induced in transgenic mice that have constant elevated plasma glucocorticoid levels. These results suggested that a similar mechanism was used to regulate TG homeostasis during chronic glucocorticoid treatment. In summary, our studies have identified molecular components in a glucocorticoid-controlled gene network involved in the regulation of TG homeostasis in adipocytes. Understanding the regulation of this gene network should provide important insight for future therapeutic developments for metabolic diseases. PMID:21187916

  11. Evaluation of a Partial Genome Screening of Two Asthma Susceptibility Regions Using Bayesian Network Based Bayesian Multilevel Analysis of Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Antal, Péter; Kiszel, Petra Sz.; Gézsi, András; Hadadi, Éva; Virág, Viktor; Hajós, Gergely; Millinghoffer, András; Nagy, Adrienne; Kiss, András; Semsei, Ágnes F.; Temesi, Gergely; Melegh, Béla; Kisfali, Péter; Széll, Márta; Bikov, András; Gálffy, Gabriella; Tamási, Lilla; Falus, András; Szalai, Csaba

    2012-01-01

    Genetic studies indicate high number of potential factors related to asthma. Based on earlier linkage analyses we selected the 11q13 and 14q22 asthma susceptibility regions, for which we designed a partial genome screening study using 145 SNPs in 1201 individuals (436 asthmatic children and 765 controls). The results were evaluated with traditional frequentist methods and we applied a new statistical method, called Bayesian network based Bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance (BN-BMLA). This method uses Bayesian network representation to provide detailed characterization of the relevance of factors, such as joint significance, the type of dependency, and multi-target aspects. We estimated posteriors for these relations within the Bayesian statistical framework, in order to estimate the posteriors whether a variable is directly relevant or its association is only mediated. With frequentist methods one SNP (rs3751464 in the FRMD6 gene) provided evidence for an association with asthma (OR = 1.43(1.2–1.8); p = 3×10−4). The possible role of the FRMD6 gene in asthma was also confirmed in an animal model and human asthmatics. In the BN-BMLA analysis altogether 5 SNPs in 4 genes were found relevant in connection with asthma phenotype: PRPF19 on chromosome 11, and FRMD6, PTGER2 and PTGDR on chromosome 14. In a subsequent step a partial dataset containing rhinitis and further clinical parameters was used, which allowed the analysis of relevance of SNPs for asthma and multiple targets. These analyses suggested that SNPs in the AHNAK and MS4A2 genes were indirectly associated with asthma. This paper indicates that BN-BMLA explores the relevant factors more comprehensively than traditional statistical methods and extends the scope of strong relevance based methods to include partial relevance, global characterization of relevance and multi-target relevance. PMID:22432035

  12. Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maren L.; Lopez, Marcelo F.; Archer, Kellie J.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Becker, Howard C.; Miles, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Long lasting abusive consumption, dependence, and withdrawal are characteristic features of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Mechanistically, persistent changes in gene expression are hypothesized to contribute to brain adaptations leading to ethanol toxicity and AUD. We employed repeated chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor chamber as a mouse model to simulate the cycles of ethanol exposure and withdrawal commonly seen with AUD. This model has been shown to induce progressive ethanol consumption in rodents. Brain CIE-responsive expression networks were identified by microarray analysis across five regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system and extended amygdala with tissue harvested from 0-hours to 7-days following CIE. Weighted Gene Correlated Network Analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify gene networks over-represented for CIE-induced temporal expression changes across brain regions. Differential gene expression analysis showed that long-lasting gene regulation occurred 7-days after the final cycle of ethanol exposure only in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Across all brain regions, however, ethanol-responsive expression changes occurred mainly within the first 8-hours after removal from ethanol. Bioinformatics analysis showed that neuroinflammatory responses were seen across multiple brain regions at early time-points, whereas co-expression modules related to neuroplasticity, chromatin remodeling, and neurodevelopment were seen at later time-points and in specific brain regions (PFC or HPC). In PFC a module containing Bdnf was identified as highly CIE responsive in a biphasic manner, with peak changes at 0 hours and 5 days following CIE, suggesting a possible role in mechanisms underlying long-term molecular and behavioral response to CIE. Bioinformatics analysis of this network and several other modules identified Let-7 family microRNAs as potential regulators of gene expression changes induced by CIE. Our results suggest a complex temporal

  13. Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maren L; Lopez, Marcelo F; Archer, Kellie J; Wolen, Aaron R; Becker, Howard C; Miles, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Long lasting abusive consumption, dependence, and withdrawal are characteristic features of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Mechanistically, persistent changes in gene expression are hypothesized to contribute to brain adaptations leading to ethanol toxicity and AUD. We employed repeated chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor chamber as a mouse model to simulate the cycles of ethanol exposure and withdrawal commonly seen with AUD. This model has been shown to induce progressive ethanol consumption in rodents. Brain CIE-responsive expression networks were identified by microarray analysis across five regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system and extended amygdala with tissue harvested from 0-hours to 7-days following CIE. Weighted Gene Correlated Network Analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify gene networks over-represented for CIE-induced temporal expression changes across brain regions. Differential gene expression analysis showed that long-lasting gene regulation occurred 7-days after the final cycle of ethanol exposure only in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Across all brain regions, however, ethanol-responsive expression changes occurred mainly within the first 8-hours after removal from ethanol. Bioinformatics analysis showed that neuroinflammatory responses were seen across multiple brain regions at early time-points, whereas co-expression modules related to neuroplasticity, chromatin remodeling, and neurodevelopment were seen at later time-points and in specific brain regions (PFC or HPC). In PFC a module containing Bdnf was identified as highly CIE responsive in a biphasic manner, with peak changes at 0 hours and 5 days following CIE, suggesting a possible role in mechanisms underlying long-term molecular and behavioral response to CIE. Bioinformatics analysis of this network and several other modules identified Let-7 family microRNAs as potential regulators of gene expression changes induced by CIE. Our results suggest a complex temporal

  14. Developing human functioning and rehabilitation research. Part II: Interdisciplinary university centers and national and regional collaboration networks.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Gerold; Celio, Marco

    2007-05-01

    There is a strong movement towards interdisciplinary research around common and scientifically competitive themes, both at universities and at the national and regional level. Human functioning and rehabilitation is a new, highly innovative and relevant theme. It has the potential to attract researchers from a wide range of disciplines, institutions and organizations. It is thus of interest for universities seeking to embark upon a new and unique research area. Similarly, it is a promising theme for individual researchers, institutions and organizations aiming to develop a national or regional collaboration network for interdisciplinary research. Human functioning and rehabilitation complements established themes from the biomedical perspective. In the context of the life sciences, it can be seen as an extension of the biosciences towards a comprehensive understanding of human life, including human interaction and communication, against the background of the natural and social environment. Based on a better understanding of human functioning and disability, there is a wide range of largely unexplored possibilities to optimize populations' functioning and minimize persons' experience of disability in the presence of a health condition. Rehabilitation research is uniquely positioned to integrate and translate scientific advances into benefits for people and the society. Rehabilitation research from the comprehensive perspective can thus become a catalyst of interdisciplinary research that crosses the boundaries of the natural sciences and engineering research, the human and behavioral sciences, the social sciences and a wide range of related scientific areas. Rehabilitation research is also uniquely positioned to cross the boundaries of medicine and the health sector at large, and to translate knowledge across sectors including education, labor and social affairs. PMID:17468805

  15. Rozwój i charakterystyka sieci Natura 2000 na Lubelszczyźnie / Developing of the network of Natura 2000 in the Lublin Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanicka, Małgorzata; Kałamucka, Wioletta; Meksuła, Mirosław

    2013-06-01

    European Ecological Network Natura 2000 is a system of protection of threatened components of biodiversity in the EU. The legal basis for the creation of the Natura 2000 network is Council Directive 79/409/EEC of 2 April 1979 on the conservation of wild birds (Birds Directive) and Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and wild fauna and flora (Habitats Directive). Natura 2000 sites are the youngest form of nature conservation in Poland. The author presents developing and geographical location of the Natura 2000 network in the Lublin Region. Against the background of Poland, the Lublin Region has the most - 123 - designated Natura 2000 sites: 100 habitat sites and 23 birds sites. These areas are extremely diverse in terms of location, area and character. Location of Natura 2000 in the Lublin Region is uneven. Their position refers in large part to a pre-existing network of the protected areas. Only 5 habitat sites and 23 bird sites designated in areas not covered so far areal forms of nature conservation. None of Lublin Natura 2000 areas has, as required by law, protection plans, for the eight habitat sites there are created conservation work plans. Also missing is good, kept up to map, the entire Natura 2000 network in Poland and the Lublin Region. The process of creating the Natura 2000 network in Poland is still ongoing. To meet the Natura 2000, its role of protection of species and habitat conservation plans are needed and their consistent implementation, taking into account the investment process and building public support for the existence and functioning of the newest forms of nature conservation in our country.

  16. Intensive chemotherapy, azacitidine, or supportive care in older acute myeloid leukemia patients: an analysis from a regional healthcare network.

    PubMed

    Bories, Pierre; Bertoli, Sarah; Bérard, Emilie; Laurent, Julie; Duchayne, Eliane; Sarry, Audrey; Delabesse, Eric; Beyne-Rauzy, Odile; Huguet, Françoise; Récher, Christian

    2014-12-01

    We assessed in a French regional healthcare network the distribution of treatments, prognostic factors, and outcome of 334 newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia patients aged 60 years or older over a 4-year period of time (2007-2010). Patients were selected in daily practice for intensive chemotherapy (n = 115), azacitidine (n = 95), or best supportive care (n = 124). In these three groups, median overall survival was 18.9, 11.3, and 1.8 months, respectively. In the azacitidine group, multivariate analysis showed that overall survival was negatively impacted by higher age (P = 0.010 for one unit increase), unfavorable cytogenetics (P = 0.001), lymphocyte count <0.5 G/L (P = 0.015), and higher lactate dehydrogenase level (P = 0.005 for one unit increase). We compared the survival of patients treated by azacitidine versus intensive chemotherapy and best supportive care using time-dependent analysis and propensity score matching. Patients treated by intensive chemotherapy had a better overall survival compared with those treated by azacitidine from 6 months after diagnosis, whereas patients treated by azacitidine had a better overall survival compared with those treated by best supportive care from 1 day after diagnosis. This study of "real life" practice shows that there is a room for low intensive therapies such as azacitidine in selected elderly acute myeloid leukemia patients. PMID:25195872

  17. Soil Phosphorus Forms and Profile Distributions in the Tidal River Network Region in the Yellow River Delta Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Junbao; Qu, Fanzhu; Wu, Huifeng; Meng, Ling; Du, Siyao; Xie, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Modified Hedley fraction method was used to study the forms and profile distribution in the tidal river network region subjected to rapid deposition and hydrologic disturbance in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) estuary, eastern China. The results showed that the total P (Pt) ranged from 612.1 to 657.8 mg kg−1. Dilute HCl extractable inorganic P (Pi) was the predominant form in all profiles, both as absolute values and as a percentage of total extracted Pi. The NaOH extractable organic P (Po) was the predominant form of total extracted Po, while Bicarb-Pi and C.HCl-Po were the lowest fractions of total extracted Pi and Po in all the P forms. The Resin-P concentrations were high in the top soil layer and decreased with depth. The Pearson correlation matrix indicated that Resin-P, Bicarb-Pi, NaOH-Pi, and C.HCl-Pi were strongly positively correlated with salinity, TOC, Ca, Al, and Fe but negatively correlated with pH. The significant correlation of any studied form of organic P (Bicarb-Po, NaOH-Po, and C.HCl-Po) with geochemical properties were not observed in the study. Duncan multiple-range test indicated that the P forms and distribution heterogeneity in the profiles could be attributed to the influences of vegetation cover and hydrologic disturbance. PMID:24971393

  18. Anisotropy of the Earth's inner inner core from autocorrelations of earthquake coda in China Regional Seismic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, H.; Song, X.; Wang, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth's inner core possesses strong cylindrical anisotropy with the fast symmetry axis parallel to the rotation axis. However, recent study has suggested that the inner part of the inner core has a fast symmetry axis near the equator with a different form of anisotropy from the outer part (Wang et al., this session). To confirm the observation, we use data from dense seismic arrays of the China Regional Seismic Networks. We perform autocorrelation (ACC) of the coda after major earthquakes (Mw>=7.0) at each station and then stack the ACCs at each cluster of stations. The PKIKP2 and PKIIKP2 phases (round-trip phase from the Earth's surface reflections) can be clearly extracted from the stacked empirical Green's functions. We observe systematic variation of the differential times between PKIKP2 and PKIIKP2 phases, which are sensitive to the bulk anisotropy of the inner core. The differential times show large variations with both latitudes and longitudes, even though our ray paths are not polar (with our stations at mid-range latitudes of about 20 to 45 degrees). The observations cannot be explained by an averaged anisotropy model with the fast axis along the rotation axis. The pattern appears consistent with an inner inner core that has a fast axis near the equator.

  19. A topological restricted maximum likelihood (TopREML) approach to regionalize trended runoff signatures in stream networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, M. F.; Thompson, S. E.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce TopREML as a method to predict runoff signatures in ungauged basins. The approach is based on the use of linear mixed models with spatially correlated random effects. The nested nature of streamflow networks is taken into account by using water balance considerations to constrain the covariance structure of runoff and to account for the stronger spatial correlation between flow-connected basins. The restricted maximum likelihood (REML) framework generates the best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) of both the predicted variable and the associated prediction uncertainty, even when incorporating observable covariates into the model. The method was successfully tested in cross validation analyses on mean streamflow and runoff frequency in Nepal (sparsely gauged) and Austria (densely gauged), where it matched the performance of comparable methods in the prediction of the considered runoff signature, while significantly outperforming them in the prediction of the associated modeling uncertainty. TopREML's ability to combine deterministic and stochastic information to generate BLUPs of the prediction variable and its uncertainty makes it a particularly versatile method that can readily be applied in both densely gauged basins, where it takes advantage of spatial covariance information, and data-scarce regions, where it can rely on covariates, which are increasingly observable thanks to remote sensing technology.

  20. TopREML: a topological restricted maximum likelihood approach to regionalize trended runoff signatures in stream networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, M. F.; Thompson, S. E.

    2015-06-01

    We introduce topological restricted maximum likelihood (TopREML) as a method to predict runoff signatures in ungauged basins. The approach is based on the use of linear mixed models with spatially correlated random effects. The nested nature of streamflow networks is taken into account by using water balance considerations to constrain the covariance structure of runoff and to account for the stronger spatial correlation between flow-connected basins. The restricted maximum likelihood (REML) framework generates the best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) of both the predicted variable and the associated prediction uncertainty, even when incorporating observable covariates into the model. The method was successfully tested in cross-validation analyses on mean streamflow and runoff frequency in Nepal (sparsely gauged) and Austria (densely gauged), where it matched the performance of comparable methods in the prediction of the considered runoff signature, while significantly outperforming them in the prediction of the associated modeling uncertainty. The ability of TopREML to combine deterministic and stochastic information to generate BLUPs of the prediction variable and its uncertainty makes it a particularly versatile method that can readily be applied in both densely gauged basins, where it takes advantage of spatial covariance information, and data-scarce regions, where it can rely on covariates, which are increasingly observable via remote-sensing technology.

  1. Immunochemical analysis of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in HaCaT keratinocytes induced by the mono-alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES): Impact of experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Debiak, Malgorzata; Lex, Kirsten; Ponath, Viviane; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Mangerich, Aswin; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent with a long history of use as a chemical weapon. Although its last military use is dated for the eighties of the last century, a potential use in terroristic attacks against civilians remains a significant threat. Thus, improving medical therapy of mustard exposed individuals is still of particular interest. PARP inhibitors were recently brought into the focus as a potential countermeasure for mustard-induced pathologies, supported by the availability of efficient compounds successfully tested in cancer therapy. PARP activation after SM treatment was reported in several cell types and tissues under various conditions; however, a detailed characterization of this phenomenon is still missing. This study provides the basis for such studies by developing and optimizing experimental conditions to investigate poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) in HaCaT keratinocytes upon treatment with the monofunctional alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide ("half mustard", CEES). By using an immunofluorescence-based approach, we show that optimization of experimental conditions with regards to the type of solvent, dilution factors and treatment procedure is essential to obtain a homogenous PAR staining in HaCaT cell cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that different CEES treatment protocols significantly influence the cytotoxicity profiles of treated cells. Using an optimized treatment protocol, our data reveals that CEES induces a dose- and time-dependent dynamic PARylation response in HaCaT cells that could be completely blocked by treating cells with the clinically relevant pharmacological PARP inhibitor ABT888 (also known as veliparib). Finally, siRNA experiments show that CEES-induced PAR formation is predominantly due to the activation of PARP1. In conclusion, this study provides a detailed analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to study the

  2. Region-specific network plasticity in simulated and living cortical networks: comparison of the center of activity trajectory (CAT) with other statistics.

    PubMed

    Chao, Zenas C; Bakkum, Douglas J; Potter, Steve M

    2007-09-01

    Electrically interfaced cortical networks cultured in vitro can be used as a model for studying the network mechanisms of learning and memory. Lasting changes in functional connectivity have been difficult to detect with extracellular multi-electrode arrays using standard firing rate statistics. We used both simulated and living networks to compare the ability of various statistics to quantify functional plasticity at the network level. Using a simulated integrate-and-fire neural network, we compared five established statistical methods to one of our own design, called center of activity trajectory (CAT). CAT, which depicts dynamics of the location-weighted average of spatiotemporal patterns of action potentials across the physical space of the neuronal circuitry, was the most sensitive statistic for detecting tetanus-induced plasticity in both simulated and living networks. By reducing the dimensionality of multi-unit data while still including spatial information, CAT allows efficient real-time computation of spatiotemporal activity patterns. Thus, CAT will be useful for studies in vivo or in vitro in which the locations of recording sites on multi-electrode probes are important. PMID:17873432

  3. Region-specific network plasticity in simulated and living cortical networks: comparison of the center of activity trajectory (CAT) with other statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Zenas C.; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Potter, Steve M.

    2007-09-01

    Electrically interfaced cortical networks cultured in vitro can be used as a model for studying the network mechanisms of learning and memory. Lasting changes in functional connectivity have been difficult to detect with extracellular multi-electrode arrays using standard firing rate statistics. We used both simulated and living networks to compare the ability of various statistics to quantify functional plasticity at the network level. Using a simulated integrate-and-fire neural network, we compared five established statistical methods to one of our own design, called center of activity trajectory (CAT). CAT, which depicts dynamics of the location-weighted average of spatiotemporal patterns of action potentials across the physical space of the neuronal circuitry, was the most sensitive statistic for detecting tetanus-induced plasticity in both simulated and living networks. By reducing the dimensionality of multi-unit data while still including spatial information, CAT allows efficient real-time computation of spatiotemporal activity patterns. Thus, CAT will be useful for studies in vivo or in vitro in which the locations of recording sites on multi-electrode probes are important.

  4. [EUREGIO-projekt MRSA-net Twente/Münsterland. Creation of a regional network to combat MRSA].

    PubMed

    Daniels-Haardt, I; Verhoeven, F; Mellmann, A; Hendrix, M G R; Gemert-Pijnen, J E C; Friedrich, A W

    2006-11-01

    Over the last years, Germany has observed an increase in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRSA) in all S. aureus isolates from 2 % to about 25 % whereas in The Netherlands this proportion has continuously been kept below 1 % thanks to a consistent "search & destroy" policy. Both countries increasingly register so-called community-acquired (CA) MRSA which are a threat also to the healthy population without any known risk factor for MRSA carriership. The EUREGIO project "MRSA-net Twente/Münsterland" has made it its main goal to set up a German-Dutch network serving as a basis for a quality association which includes all those who are actively involved in health care provision on both sides of the border and to implement a coordinated strategy for MRSA control and prevention. The project is being carried out with the financial support of the European Union under the INTERREG-IIIA Community initiative and of the Ministry of Economics of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia. The epidemiological backbone of the MRSA-net is a genetic-based MRSA typing strategy (spa-typing) which has been developed by the Institute for Hygiene, University Hospital, Münster and which allows regional and cross-border comparability of laboratory results. The Faculty of Behavioural Sciences of the University of Twente examines MRSA hygiene protocols with regard to their acceptability and realisability with the intention of developing user-friendly, target group-oriented MRSA protocols for the EUREGIO. The health departments involved in the project play a central role in the coordination of the network partners in the municipalities. By performing their function of surveillance in accordance with Sections 23 and 36 of the Infectious Disease Control Act they provide an important contribution to enhancing MRSA control and prevention strategies. Thanks to its cross-border cooperation and exchange of knowledge and technology the EUREGIO project "MRSA-net" contributes to

  5. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Improving the Understanding and Prediction of Changing Land, Water, and Climate in the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Chun, K. P.; Shook, K.; Whitfield, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    Within the cold interior of western and northern Canada, rapid and widespread environmental changes are taking place, which are of serious concern for society and have a range of implications from local to regional and global scales. From a scientific standpoint there is an urgent need to understand the changes and develop improved diagnostic and predictive modelling tools to deal with the uncertainty faced in the future. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a research consortium of over 50 Canadian university and government scientists and international researchers aimed at addressing these issues within the geographic domain of the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins. CCRN's primary focus is to integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks. To support these activities, the network utilizes a suite of 14 world-class water, ecosystem, cryosphere and climate (WECC) observatories across this region that provide exceptional opportunities to observe change, investigate processes and their dynamics, and develop and test environmental models. This talk will briefly describe the CCRN thematic components and WECC observatories, and will then describe some of the observed environmental changes and their linkages across the northern and mountainous parts of the network study domain. In particular, this will include changes in permafrost, terrestrial vegetation, snowcover, glaciers, and river discharge in relation to observed climatic changes across the region. The observations draw on a wide range of literature sources and statistical analyses of federal and provincial regional monitoring network data, while more detailed observations at some of the WECC observatories help to show how these regional changes are manifested at local scales and vice versa. A coordinated special observation and analysis period across all

  6. Improving the network management of integrated primary mental healthcare for older people in a rural Australian region: protocol for a mixed methods case study

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Jeffrey; Oster, Candice; Dawson, Suzanne; O'Kane, Deb; Lawn, Sharon; Henderson, Julie; Gerace, Adam; Reed, Richard; Nosworthy, Ann; Galley, Philip; McPhail, Ruth; Cochrane, Eimear Muir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction An integrated approach to the mental healthcare of older people is advocated across health, aged care and social care sectors. It is not clear, however, how the management of integrated servicing should occur, although interorganisational relations theory suggests a reflective network approach using evaluation feedback. This research will test a network management approach to help regional primary healthcare organisations improve mental health service integration. Methods and analysis This mixed methods case study in rural South Australia will test facilitated reflection within a network of health and social care services to determine if this leads to improved integration. Engagement of services will occur through a governance group and a series of three 1-day service stakeholder workshops. Facilitated reflection and evaluation feedback will use information from a review of health sector and local operational policies, a network survey about current service links, gaps and enablers and interviews with older people and their carers about their help seeking journeys. Quantitative and qualitative analysis will describe the policy enablers and explore the current and ideal links between services. The facilitated reflection will be developed to maximise engagement of senior management in the governance group and the service staff at the operational level in the workshops. Benefit will be assessed through indicators of improved service coordination, collective ownership of service problems, strengthened partnerships, agreed local protocols and the use of feedback for accountability. Ethics, benefits and dissemination Ethics approval will deal with the sensitivities of organisational network research where data anonymity is not preserved. The benefit will be the tested utility of a facilitated reflective process for a network of health and social care services to manage linked primary mental healthcare for older people in a rural region. Dissemination will

  7. Analysis of surface-water data network in Kansas for effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information; with a section on theory and application of generalized least squares

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medina, K.D.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1987-01-01

    This report documents the results of an analysis of the surface-water data network in Kansas for its effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information. The network was analyzed using generalized least squares regression. The correlation and time-sampling error of the streamflow characteristic are considered in the generalized least squares method. Unregulated medium-, low-, and high-flow characteristics were selected to be representative of the regional information that can be obtained from streamflow-gaging-station records for use in evaluating the effectiveness of continuing the present network stations, discontinuing some stations, and (or) adding new stations. The analysis used streamflow records for all currently operated stations that were not affected by regulation and for discontinued stations for which unregulated flow characteristics, as well as physical and climatic characteristics, were available. The State was divided into three network areas, western, northeastern, and southeastern Kansas, and analysis was made for the three streamflow characteristics in each area, using three planning horizons. The analysis showed that the maximum reduction of sampling mean-square error for each cost level could be obtained by adding new stations and discontinuing some current network stations. Large reductions in sampling mean-square error for low-flow information could be achieved in all three network areas, the reduction in western Kansas being the most dramatic. The addition of new stations would be most beneficial for mean-flow information in western Kansas. The reduction of sampling mean-square error for high-flow information would benefit most from the addition of new stations in western Kansas. Southeastern Kansas showed the smallest error reduction in high-flow information. A comparison among all three network areas indicated that funding resources could be most effectively used by discontinuing more stations in northeastern and southeastern Kansas

  8. Estimate of inner core rotation rate from United Kingdom regional seismic network data and consequences for inner core dynamical behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Jonathan D.; Helffrich, George

    2001-12-01

    We analyse over 12 500 records of southwest Pacific earthquakes recorded by the UK network for PKP BC and PKP DF phases to seek constraints on the inner core's rotation rate. Careful analysis and strict rejection criteria yield 655 PKP BC-PKP DF differential travel time residuals computed with respect to the AK135 reference model, densely sampling a small region of the inner core over a time period of 15 years. The data images both lateral and radial velocity heterogeneity in the inner core located geographically beneath the north Pacific between radii of 870 and 1080 km. The dominant feature is a longitudinal wave speed gradient centred at about 180° longitude. In combination with different earthquake catalogues and inner core anisotropy models, we explore different techniques to use this gradient to constrain the rotation rate. Our estimates range from 0.45±0.25 to 0.74±0.29°/yr relative to the mantle, with two of four estimates including zero rotation at the 95% (2σ) confidence level, indicating that rotation is marginally detectable. As an alternative to monotonic rotation, we find weak evidence for rotational oscillation of the inner core on time scales of about 280 days. In consequence, these observations suggest that: (1) viscous coupling between the outer and inner core simulated using viscous hyperdiffusivity is not appropriate for modelling inner core rotation; (2) temperature gradients between the interior and exterior of the tangent cylinder in the core are also small; (3) gravitational torques coupling the inner core to the mantle are large, on the order of 2×10 21 Nm; and (4) the inner core's viscosity is high, 3.9×10 19 Pas.

  9. An eddy covariance network to investigate post-fire carbon and energy dynamics in remote regions of Alaskan arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. V.; Shaver, G. R.; Rastetter, E.; Jiang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Alaskan arctic is experiencing pronounced changes such as fires, increased shrub cover, and permafrost thaw that are the result of increased air temperatures. Quantifying the effect of these changes on arctic carbon and energy fluxes is difficult because the Arctic is remote and difficult to access throughout the year. Here we report on an experimental design that uses a roving eddy covariance network, remote sensing, and model data fusion to determine post-fire effects on carbon and energy exchange over hours to decadal timescales in Alaskan arctic tundra. We describe the approach, challenges and goals of this project, and present some preliminary data. Our approach incorporated a number of sites along an Alaskan tundra fire chronosequence, and paired fire scars of different age with an unburned control. Challenges included; limited site access and power, communication and data acquisition, spatial variability, and missing data. We approached these challenges in a variety of ways, including; assessing spatial variability with MODIS data and roving towers, comparing burned to nearby unburned sites, harvesting biomass to understand decadal carbon recovery, and developing models that incorporate remotely sensed, eddy covariance, and biomass data. Our experimental design provides a test-bed for assessing large-scale variability across time and space, which is critical for understanding the role of disturbance on regional carbon and energy fluxes. Conceptual framework for our study. Field measurements will encompass both fast [top of hatched line] to slow [bottom of hatched line] ecosystem processes and states along a fire chronosequence [1] that will be assimilated into a fast and slow response model framework through model-data fusion [2], and used to scale up to the North Slope with MODIS data [3].

  10. 2013 Asia-Pacific Education Research Institutes Network (ERI-Net) Regional Study on Transversal Competencies in Education Policy & Practice (Phase I). Regional Synthesis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoko, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an understanding of how transversal competencies are viewed, implemented, and adapted in education policy and curriculum across the Asia-Pacific region. The publication consolidates the results of ten country studies carried out in 2013-2014 in ten countries and economies of the Asia-Pacific region, including: Australia; China…

  11. Cloud Classification in Polar and Desert Regions and Smoke Classification from Biomass Burning Using a Hierarchical Neural Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, June; Corwin, Edward; Lloyd, David; Logar, Antonette; Welch, Ronald

    1996-01-01

    This research focuses on a new neural network scene classification technique. The task is to identify scene elements in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometry (AVHRR) data from three scene types: polar, desert and smoke from biomass burning in South America (smoke). The ultimate goal of this research is to design and implement a computer system which will identify the clouds present on a whole-Earth satellite view as a means of tracking global climate changes. Previous research has reported results for rule-based systems (Tovinkere et at 1992, 1993) for standard back propagation (Watters et at. 1993) and for a hierarchical approach (Corwin et al 1994) for polar data. This research uses a hierarchical neural network with don't care conditions and applies this technique to complex scenes. A hierarchical neural network consists of a switching network and a collection of leaf networks. The idea of the hierarchical neural network is that it is a simpler task to classify a certain pattern from a subset of patterns than it is to classify a pattern from the entire set. Therefore, the first task is to cluster the classes into groups. The switching, or decision network, performs an initial classification by selecting a leaf network. The leaf networks contain a reduced set of similar classes, and it is in the various leaf networks that the actual classification takes place. The grouping of classes in the various leaf networks is determined by applying an iterative clustering algorithm. Several clustering algorithms were investigated, but due to the size of the data sets, the exhaustive search algorithms were eliminated. A heuristic approach using a confusion matrix from a lightly trained neural network provided the basis for the clustering algorithm. Once the clusters have been identified, the hierarchical network can be trained. The approach of using don't care nodes results from the difficulty in generating extremely complex surfaces in order to separate one class from

  12. Gravity waves in mesopause region induced by thunderstorms over Northern China observed by a no-gap OH airglow imager network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiyao

    2016-07-01

    A no-gap OH airglow all-sky imager network was established in northern China in February 2012. The network is composed of 6 all-sky airglow imagers that make observations of OH airglow gravity waves and cover an area of about 2000 km east and west and about 1400 km south and north. A large number of gravity wave events in the mesopause region induced by thunderstorms were observed by the network during the past 4 years. A comparison of the observations in 2012, 2013, and 2014 are made, which shows that there were more strong thunderstorms take place in 2013 in the northern China and produce more Concentric Gravity Wave (CGW) events. Especially, a series of CGW events were observed by the network nearly every night during the first half of August 2013. These events were also observed by satellite sensors from FY-2, AIRS/Aqua, and VIIRS/Suomi NPP. Combination of the ground imager network with satellites provides multi-level observations of the CGWs from the stratosphere to the mesopause region. In this talk, two representative CGW events in August 2013 are studied in detail and movies of the two events are displayed. One is the CGW on the night of 13 August 2013, likely launched by a single thunderstorm. The temporal and spatial analyses indicate that the CGW horizontal wavelengths agree with the GW dispersion relation within 300 km from the storm center. A gravity wave with horizontal wavelength of about 20 km propagates horizontally to more than 800 km in the mesopause region, probably due to a ducting layer. Another CGW event was induced by two very strong thunderstorms on 09 August 2013. Multi-scale waves with horizontal wavelengths ranging from less than 10 km to 200 km were observed. Many ripples were found, probably due to the breaking of strong gravity waves with large relative OH intensity perturbations of 10%.

  13. Regional seismic event identification and improved locations with small arrays and networks. Final report, 7 May 1993-30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, F.L.; Minster, J.B.; Orcutt, J.A.

    1995-09-20

    This final report contains a summary of our work on the use of seismic networks and arrays to improve locations and identify small seismic event. We have developed techniques to migrate 3-component array records of local, regional and teleseismic wavetrains to directly image buried two- and three-dimensional heterogeneities (e.g. layer irregularities, volumetric heterogeneities) in the vicinity of the array. We have developed a technique to empirically characterize local and regional seismic code by binning and stacking network recordings of dense aftershock sequences. The principle motivation for this work was to look for robust coda phases dependent on source depth. We have extended our ripple-fired event discriminant (based on the time-independence of coda produced by ripple firing) by looking for an independence of the coda from the recording direction (also indicative of ripple-firing).

  14. Data reduction and tying in regional gravity surveys—results from a new gravity base station network and the Bouguer gravity anomaly map for northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado-Cardador, Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    Since 1947 Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has conducted oil exploration projects using potential field methods. Geophysical exploration companies under contracts with Pemex carried out gravity anomaly surveys that were referred to different floating data. Each survey comprises observations of gravity stations along highways, roads and trails at intervals of about 500 m. At present, 265 separate gravimeter surveys that cover 60% of the Mexican territory (mainly in the oil producing regions of Mexico) are available. This gravity database represents the largest, highest spatial resolution information, and consequently has been used in the geophysical data compilations for the Mexico and North America gravity anomaly maps. Regional integration of gravimeter surveys generates gradients and spurious anomalies in the Bouguer anomaly maps at the boundaries of the connected surveys due to the different gravity base stations utilized. The main objective of this study is to refer all gravimeter surveys from Pemex to a single new first-order gravity base station network, in order to eliminate problems of gradients and spurious anomalies. A second objective is to establish a network of permanent gravity base stations (BGP), referred to a single base from the World Gravity System. Four regional loops of BGP covering eight States of Mexico were established to support the tie of local gravity base stations from each of the gravimeter surveys located in the vicinity of these loops. The third objective is to add the gravity constants, measured and calculated, for each of the 265 gravimeter surveys to their corresponding files in the Pemex and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo database. The gravity base used as the common datum is the station SILAG 9135-49 (Latin American System of Gravity) located in the National Observatory of Tacubaya in Mexico City. We present the results of the installation of a new gravity base network in northeastern Mexico, reference of the 43 gravimeter surveys

  15. Landscape Genetics for the Empirical Assessment of Resistance Surfaces: The European Pine Marten (Martes martes) as a Target-Species of a Regional Ecological Network

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A.; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale. PMID:25329047

  16. Network Management Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Ira W.

    A study was made of management practices in different computer networks. The five networks were chosen as typical of different approaches to network implementation and management: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Network, MERIT Network, Triangle Universities Computation Center (TUCC), Oregon State Regional Network, and Tymnet (a…

  17. [Improving practice in breast pathology: 34-months experience of the regional SENOPATH network and webinars as a tool for diagnosis of difficult lesions of the breast].

    PubMed

    Quintyn-Ranty, Marie-Laure; Gordien, Karine; Caveriviere, Paul; Mery, Éliane; Jamme-Lallemand, Muriel; Wuithier, Pascal; Palasse, Julien; Reyre, Joelle; Laborie, Vincent; Despax, Brigitte; Rolland, Véronique; Thibaut, Isabelle; Maissongrosse, Véronique; Escourrou, Ghislaine; Duprez-Paumier, Raphaëlle; Bauvin, Éric; Jacob, Michel; Lacroix-Triki, Magali

    2015-10-01

    Pathologists commonly face breast lesions that are difficult to diagnose. To reduce second opinion delay, erase geographical barrier and provide continuing education, we aimed to develop a telepathology-based regional network of pathologists. With the support of ONCOMIP network, we founded a peer-group named SENOPATH, composed of experienced breast pathologists practising in private laboratories, university hospitals or comprehensive cancer center in the region of Midi-Pyrénées in France. Submitted cases are digitalized at the University Hospital, stored in a shared space with a possible access via Internet prior to the SENOPATH sessions. The group meets monthly, via a synchronized webinar and multihead microscope session. A consensual diagnosis and final pathology report is issued for each case, and sent to the referring clinician via the patient medical file securely hosted by ONCOMIP. Between 2012 and 2014, 142 cases were reviewed, for either diagnostic 'routine' difficulty or rare histological type. The SENOPATH group, also regularly called by oncologists to solve difficult cases, has considerably improved the pathologist network in Southern France. Supported by the webinar tool, its educational impact is prominent, with a considerable progress in the region with regards to standardization of pathology processes, literature review and knowledge sharing. PMID:26384691

  18. National Network of Eisenhower Regional Consortia and Clearinghouse: Supporting the Improvement of Mathematics and Science in America's Schools. Evaluation Summary Report for 1995-2000 with In-Depth Evaluation of Training and Technical Assistance, Dissemination, and Collaboration and Networking Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Network of Eisenhower Regional Consortia and National Clearinghouse.

    This report, addressed to sponsors and partners of the Eisenhower consortia and clearinghouse network as well as the staff of those organizations, contains the evaluation summary report of the National Network of Eisenhower Regional Consortia and Clearinghouse. It summarizes network outcomes over the 5-year period between 1995-2000. The report…

  19. Individual 3D region-of-interest atlas of the human brain: neural-network-based tissue classification with automatic training point extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Kaiser, Hans-Juergen; Obladen, Thorsten; Sabri, Osama; Buell, Udalrich

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of individual 3D region-of-interest atlas extraction is to automatically define anatomically meaningful regions in 3D MRI images for quantification of functional parameters (PET, SPECT: rMRGlu, rCBF). The first step of atlas extraction is to automatically classify brain tissue types into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), scalp/bone (SB) and background (BG). A feed-forward neural network with back-propagation training algorithm is used and compared to other numerical classifiers. It can be trained by a sample from the individual patient data set in question. Classification is done by a 'winner takes all' decision. Automatic extraction of a user-specified number of training points is done in a cross-sectional slice. Background separation is done by simple region growing. The most homogeneous voxels define the region for WM training point extraction (TPE). Non-white-matter and nonbackground regions are analyzed for GM and CSF training points. For SB TPE, the distance from the BG region is one feature. For each class, spatially uniformly distributed training points are extracted by a random generator from these regions. Simulated and real 3D MRI images are analyzed and error rates for TPE and classification calculated. The resulting class images can be analyzed for extraction of anatomical ROIs.

  20. Determination and mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity of natural spring water in the Eastern Black Sea Region by using artificial neural network method.

    PubMed

    Yeşilkanat, Cafer Mert; Kobya, Yaşar

    2015-09-01

    In this study, radiological distribution of gross alpha, gross beta, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs for a total of 40 natural spring water samples obtained from seven cities of the Eastern Black Sea Region was determined by artificial neural network (ANN) method. In the ANN method employed, the backpropagation algorithm, which estimates the backpropagation of the errors and results, was used. In the structure of ANN, five input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, major soil groups, and rainfall) were used for natural radionuclides and four input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, and rainfall) were used for artificial radionuclides, respectively. In addition, 75 % of the total data were used as the data of training and 25 % of them were used as test data in order to reveal the structure of each radionuclide. It has been seen that the results obtained explain the radiographic structure of the region very well. Spatial interpolation maps covering the whole region were created for each radionuclide including spots not measured by using these results. It has been determined that artificial neural network method can be used for mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity with this study, which is conducted for the first time for the Black Sea Region. PMID:26307690

  1. Cerebral Blood Flow in Posterior Cortical Nodes of the Default Mode Network Decreases with Task Engagement but Remains Higher than in Most Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Chanraud, Sandra; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Müller-Oehring, Eva; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C.; Rohlfing, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies provide converging evidence for existence of intrinsic brain networks activated during resting states and deactivated with selective cognitive demands. Whether task-related deactivation of the default mode network signifies depressed activity relative to the remaining brain or simply lower activity relative to its resting state remains controversial. We employed 3D arterial spin labeling imaging to examine regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) during rest, a spatial working memory task, and a second rest. Change in regional CBF from rest to task showed significant normalized and absolute CBF reductions in posterior cingulate, posterior-inferior precuneus, and medial frontal lobes . A Statistical Parametric Mapping connectivity analysis, with an a priori seed in the posterior cingulate cortex, produced deactivation connectivity patterns consistent with the classic “default mode network” and activation connectivity anatomically consistent with engagement in visuospatial tasks. The large task-related CBF decrease in posterior-inferior precuneus relative to its anterior and middle portions adds evidence for the precuneus' heterogeneity. The posterior cingulate and posterior-inferior precuneus were also regions of the highest CBF at rest and during task performance. The difference in regional CBF between intrinsic (resting) and evoked (task) activity levels may represent functional readiness or reserve vulnerable to diminution by conditions affecting perfusion. PMID:20484322

  2. Atypical coupling between posterior regions of the default mode network in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pharmaco-magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Franzen, John D.; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; White, Matthew L.; Wetzel, Martin W.; Knott, Nichole L.; Wilson, Tony W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dysfunction in the default mode network (DMN), a group of cortical areas more active during the resting state, has been linked to attentional deficits and symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Prior imaging studies have shown decreased functional connectivity between DMN nodes in patients with ADHD, primarily between anterior and posterior regions. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we evaluated phase coherence (i.e., functional connectivity) among regions of the DMN in healthy controls and adults with ADHD before and after stimulant therapy. Methods We obtained a resting-state MEG recording for all participants. Magnetoencephalography data were transformed into a ~30 node regional source model using inverse spatial filtering, including regions corresponding to the DMN. We computed the zero-lag phase coherence between these regions pairwise for 5 distinct frequency bands, and we assessed group and medication effects. Results Twelve adults with and 13 without ADHD participated in our study. Functional connectivity was stronger between particular node pairs and showed frequency-specific effects. Unmedicated patients showed reduced phase locking between posterior cingulate/precuneus regions (PCC) and right inferior parietal cortices (RIPL), and between medial prefrontal regions (MPFC) and the left inferior parietal region (LIPL) and the PCC. Unmedicated patients had increased phase locking between the RIPL and LIPL regions compared with controls. Administration of stimulants improved phase locking abnormalities along the MPFC–PCC and LIPL–RIPL pathways in patients with ADHD. Limitations Modest sample size and lack of duration of patient treatment history may limit the generalizability of our findings. Conclusion Adults with ADHD exhibit hyper- and hypoconnectivity between regions of the DMN during rest, which were suppressed after stimulant medication administration. PMID:23611175

  3. Heterogeneous GPS Velocity Field and Active Faults in the Northern Puget Lowland and San Juan Island Region of Northwestern Washington: First Results From the Northwest Washington Geodetic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldow, J. S.; Apel, E. V.

    2002-12-01

    Velocities from a dense GPS network in the northern Puget lowland and San Juan Island region of northwestern Washington support geological and geophysical investigations and suggest active deformation on several throughgoing fault systems. The Northwest Washington Geodetic Network (NWGN) consists of 27 sites along an east-northeast transect stretching from the Pacific coast on the Olympic Peninsula to east of the northern Cascade Range. GPS sites within the network are concentrated along a broad north-south swath covering the San Juan Islands, northern Puget lowland, western Cascade foothills, and the eastern Olympic Peninsula. Baselines in the central part of the network range between 10 and 50 km and provide the site density needed to assess whether or not specific fault zones within the region are active. Twenty four sites of the NWGN were successfully reoccupied in 2001, five years after the initial network deployment in 1996. Of the original sites, two were destroyed and one site solution was contaminated by multipathing. Site occupations in 1995 ranged from 24 to 48 hours and in 2001 all sites were occupied for 48 hours. Although based on only two occupations, the NWGN velocities are consistent with those determined for the wide aperture Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array and give us a degree of confidence in the validity of the solutions. In a fixed North American reference frame, NWGN sites show a west to east decrease in velocity from near the Pacific coast where displacements of ~18 mm/yr directed to the northeast progressively decrease to essentially zero in the foothills east of the northern Cascade Range. In the northern Puget lowland and San Juan Island region, the regional velocity field is characterized by substantial spatial variability. When effects of the locked Cascadia megathrust are removed, differential motions of up to 5 mm/yr are recognized within the central NWGN. The velocity field is heterogeneous with significant variations in azimuth and

  4. Individual 3D region-of-interest atlas of the human brain: automatic training point extraction for neural-network-based classification of brain tissue types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Kaiser, Hans-Juergen; Obladen, Thorsten; Sabri, Osama; Buell, Udalrich

    2000-04-01

    Individual region-of-interest atlas extraction consists of two main parts: T1-weighted MRI grayscale images are classified into brain tissues types (gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), scalp/bone (SB), background (BG)), followed by class image analysis to define automatically meaningful ROIs (e.g., cerebellum, cerebral lobes, etc.). The purpose of this algorithm is the automatic detection of training points for neural network-based classification of brain tissue types. One transaxial slice of the patient data set is analyzed. Background separation is done by simple region growing. A random generator extracts spatially uniformly distributed training points of class BG from that region. For WM training point extraction (TPE), the homogeneity operator is the most important. The most homogeneous voxels define the region for WM TPE. They are extracted by analyzing the cumulative histogram of the homogeneity operator response. Assuming a Gaussian gray value distribution in WM, a random number is used as a probabilistic threshold for TPE. Similarly, non-white matter and non-background regions are analyzed for GM and CSF training points. For SB TPE, the distance from the BG region is an additional feature. Simulated and real 3D MRI images are analyzed and error rates for TPE and classification calculated.

  5. The role of conflict minerals, artisanal mining, and informal trading networks in African intrastate and regional conflicts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between natural resources and armed conflict gained public and political attention in the 1990s, when it became evident that the mining and trading of diamonds were connected with brutal rebellions in several African nations. Easily extracted resources such as alluvial diamonds and gold have been and continue to be exploited by rebel groups to fund their activities. Artisanal and small-scale miners operating under a quasi-legal status often mine these mineral deposits. While many African countries have legalized artisanal mining and established flow chains through which production is intended to travel, informal trading networks frequently emerge in which miners seek to evade taxes and fees by selling to unauthorized buyers. These networks have the potential to become international in scope, with actors operating in multiple countries. The lack of government control over the artisanal mining sector and the prominence of informal trade networks can have severe social, political, and economic consequences. In the past, mineral extraction fuelled violent civil wars in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola, and it continues to do so today in several other countries. The significant influence of the informal network that surrounds artisanal mining is therefore an important security concern that can extend across borders and have far-reaching impacts.

  6. Comparative Analysis of University-Government-Enterprise Co-Authorship Networks in Three Scientific Domains in the Region of Madrid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmeda-Gomez, Carlos; Perianes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Ovalle-Perandones, Maria Antonia; Moya-Anegon, Felix

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In an economy geared to innovation and competitiveness in research and development activities, inter-relationships between the university, private enterprise and government are of considerable interest. Networking constitutes a priority strategy to attain this strategic objective and a tool in knowledge-based economies. Method:…

  7. Association of Cerebral Networks in Resting State with Sexual Preference of Homosexual Men: A Study of Regional Homogeneity and Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaohua; Xu, Dongrong; Peterson, Bradley; Wang, Qidong; He, Xiaofu; Hu, Jianbo; Xu, Xiaojun; Wei, Ning; Long, Dan; Huang, Manli; Zhou, Weihua; Xu, Weijuan

    2013-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have shown that brain morphology and neural activity during sexual arousal differ between homosexual and heterosexual men. However, functional differences in neural networks at the resting state is unknown. The study is to characterize the association of homosexual preference with measures of regional homogeneity and functional connectivity in the resting state. Participants were 26 healthy homosexual men and 26 age-matched healthy heterosexual men in whom we collected echo planar magnetic resonance imaging data in the resting state. The sexual orientation was evaluated using the Kinsey Scale. We first assessed group differences in regional homogeneity and then, taking the identified differences as seed regions, we compared groups in measures of functional connectivity from those seeds. The behavioral significances of the differences in regional homogeneity and functional connectivity were assessed by examining their associations with Kinsey Scores. Homosexual participants showed significantly reduced regional homogeneity in the left inferior occipital gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, right superior occipital gyrus, left cuneus, right precuneus, and increased regional homogeneity in rectal gyrus, bilateral midbrain, and left temporal lobe. Regional homogeneity correlated positively with Kinsey scores in the left inferior occipital gyrus. The homosexual group also showed reduced functional connectivity between left middle temporal gyrus, left supra-marginal gyrus, right cuneus and the seed region, i.e. left inferior occipital gyrus. Additionly, the connection between the left inferior occipital gyrus and right thalamus correlated positively with Kinsey scores. These differences in regional homogeneity and functional connectivity may contribute to a better understanding of the neural basis of male sexual orientation. PMID:23555670

  8. Transforming Your Regional Economy through Uncertainty and Surprise: Learning from Complexity Science, Network Theory and the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley, June

    The field of regional development blossomed in the last decade, as researchers and practitioners increasingly asserted that the region was the most effective geographic unit for supporting the excellence and innovation of entrepreneurs. See, for example, the many studies by the European Union and the work by Michael Porter.

  9. NEPTUNE Canada Regional Cabled Ocean Observatory Network: Scientific results across the earth/ocean sciences from two years of continuous real-time data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, M.; Johnson, F.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Founding Scientists Of Neptune Canada

    2011-12-01

    NEPTUNE Canada completed the installation and is now operating an 800 km, 5-node, regional cabled ocean network that spans the northern Juan de Fuca tectonic plate and continental shelf/slope in the northeastern Pacific. The NEPTUNE Canada network is part of the Ocean Networks Canada Observatory. Public data flow started in 2009 and interactive instruments continue to be added to this technically advanced system which provides continuous power and high bandwidth for enabling the collection of real-time physical, chemical, geological, and biological oceanographic data at resolutions relevant for furthering our understanding of the dynamics of the earth-ocean system. Here we present an overview and some initial results of the early installed real-time experiments, developed through workshops and international competitions, at five offshore locations. Inshore at Folger Passage, Barkley Sound, observations are focused on understanding biological productivity and the effects that marine processes have on fish and marine mammals. Experiments around Barkley Canyon allow quantification of changes in benthic activity with nutrient and sediment transport. There and north along the mid-continental slope near ODP Site 889, instruments are monitoring changes in the distribution, structure, related biotas and venting of gas hydrates. A Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) at our mid-plate site (ODP 1026) monitors real-time changes in crustal temperature and pressure, particularly related to events such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hydrothermal convection; these data are also important for understanding regional plate strain. At Endeavour on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, complex interactions among volcanic, tectonic, hydrothermal and biological processes are being observed. Across the NEPTUNE Canada network, high resolution acoustic and seismic monitoring elucidates tectonic processes such as earthquakes, and a tsunami detection system allows for the determination of open ocean

  10. Comprehensive analysis of regional human-driven environmental change with multitemporal remote sensing images using observed object-specified dynamic Bayesian network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Hua, Yi; Ren, Qinglong; Zhang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Traditional remote sensing change-detection algorithms only generate change-detection map and few quantitative evaluation indicators as the results, but they are unable to provide comprehensive analysis and further understanding of the detected changes. Aiming to assess regional development, we develop a comprehensive analysis method for human-driven environmental change by multitemporal remote sensing images. In order to adapt to analyze the time-varying multiple changed objects, an observed object-specified dynamic Bayesian network (i.e., OOS-DBN) is first proposed to adjust DBN structure and variables. Using semantic analysis for the relationship between multiple changed objects and regional development, all levels of situations and evidences (i.e., detected attributes of changed objects) are extracted as hidden variables and observed variables and inputted to OOS-DBN. Furthermore, conditional probabilities are computed by levels and time slices in OOS-DBN, resulting in the comprehensive analysis results. The experiments on the coastal region in Huludao, China, from 2003 to 2014 demonstrate that comprehensive analysis of changes reflecting that reclamation, construction of infrastructure, and New Huludao port contributed to the regional development. During four time slices, this region experienced rapid and medium-speed development, whose corresponding probabilities are 0.90, 0.87, 0.41, and 0.54, respectively, which is consistent with our field surveys.

  11. Interaction networks and the use of floral resources by male orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in a primary rain forests of the Chocó Region (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo; Montoya-Pfeiffer, Paula María; Parra-H, Alejandro; Solarte, Victor; Tupac Otero, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Orchid bees are important keystone pollinators from the Neotropics. With the aim to study the relationships between orchid bees and their nectar and aromatic host species, we made systematic samplings of males across two conservation areas in the biogeographic Choc6 Region of Colombia. We used chemical baits to collect 352 male bees during five months. The pollen attached to their bodies was extracted for palynological identification and to estimate interaction networks. The euglossine community consisted of at least 22 species including Eg. maculilabris, Eg. orellana, Eg. championi and Eg. ignita. The male bees were associated with 84 plants but depended on a small group of them (Peperomia spp. and Anthurium spp, as well as species of Solanaceae, Ericaceae and Malpighiaceae) which were widely distributed across the altitudinal gradient, and were available through the year. The resulting interaction networks revealed a typical nested pattern usually found in plant-pollinator interactions, with several rare bee and plant species interaction with a small group of generalist bees and plant species. Albeit, we found variation within networks related to species composition. Such variation may be a consequence of specific differences in plant flowering phenology. PMID:26666122

  12. Non-Linearity Explanation in Artificial Neural Network Application with a Case Study of Fog Forecast Over Delhi Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurabh, K.; Dimri, A. P.

    2015-11-01

    Fog affects human life in a number of ways by reducing the visibility, hence affecting critical infrastructure, transportation, tourism or by the formation of frost, thus harming the standing crops. Smog is becoming a regular phenomenon in urban areas which is highly toxic to humans. Delhi was chosen as the area of study as it encounters all these hazards of fog stated apart from other political and economic reasons. The complex relationship behind the parameters and processes behind the formation of fog makes it extremely difficult to model and forecast it accurately. It is attempted to forecast the fog and understand its dynamics through a statistical downscaling technique of artificial neural network which is deemed accurate for short-term forecasting and usually outperform time-series models. The backpropagation neural network, which is a gradient descent algorithm where the network weights are moved along the negative of the gradient of the performance function, has been used for our analysis. Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) supported National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data had been used for carrying out the simulations. The model was found to have high accuracy but lacking in skill. An attempt has been made to present the data in a binary form by determining a threshold by the contingency table approach followed by its critical analysis. It is found that the calculation of an optimum threshold was also difficult to fix as the parameters of fog formation on which the model has been has been trained had shown some changes in their trend over a period of time.

  13. Non-Linearity Explanation in Artificial Neural Network Application with a Case Study of Fog Forecast Over Delhi Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurabh, K.; Dimri, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    Fog affects human life in a number of ways by reducing the visibility, hence affecting critical infrastructure, transportation, tourism or by the formation of frost, thus harming the standing crops. Smog is becoming a regular phenomenon in urban areas which is highly toxic to humans. Delhi was chosen as the area of study as it encounters all these hazards of fog stated apart from other political and economic reasons. The complex relationship behind the parameters and processes behind the formation of fog makes it extremely difficult to model and forecast it accurately. It is attempted to forecast the fog and understand its dynamics through a statistical downscaling technique of artificial neural network which is deemed accurate for short-term forecasting and usually outperform time-series models. The backpropagation neural network, which is a gradient descent algorithm where the network weights are moved along the negative of the gradient of the performance function, has been used for our analysis. Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) supported National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data had been used for carrying out the simulations. The model was found to have high accuracy but lacking in skill. An attempt has been made to present the data in a binary form by determining a threshold by the contingency table approach followed by its critical analysis. It is found that the calculation of an optimum threshold was also difficult to fix as the parameters of fog formation on which the model has been has been trained had shown some changes in their trend over a period of time.

  14. Ground-based GNSS network and integrated water vapor mapping during the development of severe storms at the Cuyo region (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calori, A.; Santos, J. R.; Blanco, M.; Pessano, H.; Llamedo, P.; Alexander, P.; de la Torre, A.

    2016-07-01

    Mendoza is a province of Argentina located between 32° S and 34° S at the leeside of the Andes Foothills. Very intense thunderstorms form between October and March (southern hemisphere summer), which produce large hail and damage in crops and properties. Although some hypotheses and conceptual models were proposed in order to identify key possible mechanisms that contribute to trigger convection, they are still waiting for the validation process. As moisture is the main ingredient for storms formation, the identification of its geographical distribution could be used together with other synoptic and mesoscale forcing features to forecast intense convective events. A novel technique in estimating moisture concentration and its geographical distribution has been introduced in order to observe the influx and variability of humidity at this region, during a 45-day period in midsummer. In doing so, we resort to the information provided by the ground-basedGlobal Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) network. More than 300 active stations constitute the continuously operating GNSS network over Southern and Central America (SIRGAS-CON, Sistema de Referencia Geocéntrico para las Américas de Operación Continua). This network allows to retrieve integrated water vapor (IWV) content, mapping this variable by the use of a digital model of terrain. In the period and region under study, a prevailing influx of humidity from N and NE and a high correlation between the accumulation/depletion of humidity and the hail/no hail precipitation days is observed. We discuss in particular the development of five storms detected by the S-Band radar network belonging to the Province of Mendoza. Although the results strongly suggest that IWV maps are capable to represent the humidity dynamics in the considered region, it is still important to highlight that the calculated values for IWV are unrealistic at some locations as the consequence of deep atmospheric gradients. These biases may be

  15. Cardiac myocyte diversity and a fibroblast network in the junctional region of the zebrafish heart revealed by transmission and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lafontant, Pascal J; Behzad, Ali R; Brown, Evelyn; Landry, Paul; Hu, Norman; Burns, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model of heart development and regeneration. While the structural characteristics of the developing and adult zebrafish ventricle have been previously studied, little attention has been paid to the nature of the interface between the compact and spongy myocardium. Here we describe how these two distinct layers are structurally and functionally integrated. We demonstrate by transmission electron microscopy that this interface is complex and composed primarily of a junctional region occupied by collagen, as well as a population of fibroblasts that form a highly complex network. We also describe a continuum of uniquely flattened transitional cardiac myocytes that form a circumferential plate upon which the radially-oriented luminal trabeculae are anchored. In addition, we have uncovered within the transitional ring a subpopulation of markedly electron dense cardiac myocytes. At discrete intervals the transitional cardiac myocytes form contact bridges across the junctional space that are stabilized through localized desmosomes and fascia adherentes junctions with adjacent compact cardiac myocytes. Finally using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, segmentation and volume reconstruction, we confirm the three-dimensional nature of the junctional region as well as the presence of the sheet-like fibroblast network. These ultrastructural studies demonstrate the previously unrecognized complexity with which the compact and spongy layers are structurally integrated, and provide a new basis for understanding development and regeneration in the zebrafish heart. PMID:24058412

  16. Braided rivers corridor characterization at a regional scale based on high resolution archived aerial photos (example of the Rhône network, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belletti, B.; Dufour, S.; Piégay, H.

    2009-12-01

    Aerial photos provide meaningful information for interpreting riverscape evolution and characterising aquatic and riparian habitats, but also fluvial forms and processes to better understand the links between physical processes and organisms. In this study we collected archived orthorectified aerial photos (50 cm in resolution) from the French National Geographical Institute (IGN) database. We selected 55 braided reaches, in average 2,658 km long, within the 45000 km of river length of the Rhône hydrographic network to study riverscape organization and to identify geographical patterns. An object-orientated method has been applied on the set of photos using the Definiens® 2007 software to detect and classify riverscape patches (e.g. gravel bars, water channels, forest, etc.). Based on the landscape mapping, metrics and indicators have been calculated to explain braided pattern characters (braiding intensity, riparian mosaic diversity and low flow channel network pattern) in relation to longitudinal, altitudinal and regional locations. We performed also an inter-annual comparison between two dates (about 1950 and 2000) for each reach to evaluate their temporal evolution. Advantages and limitations of high resolution aerial photos are discussed to answer to scientific questions at a regional scale and also to planning issues, notably in the case of the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive.

  17. Orbit and clock determination of BDS regional navigation satellite system based on IGS M-GEX and WHU BETS tracking network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GENG, T.; Zhao, Q.; Shi, C.; Shum, C.; Guo, J.; Su, X.

    2013-12-01

    BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) began to provide the regional open service on December 27th 2012 and will provide the global open service by the end of 2020. Compared to GPS, the space segment of BDS Regional System consists of 5 Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), 5 Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit satellites (IGSO) and 4 Medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites. Since 2011, IGS Multiple-GNSS Experiment (M-GEX) focuses on tracking the newly available GNSS signals. This includes all signals from the modernized satellites of the GPS and GLONASS systems, as well as signals of the BDS, Galileo and QZSS systems. Up to now, BDS satellites are tracked by around 25 stations with a variety of different antennas and receivers from different GNSS manufacture communities in M-GEX network. Meanwhile, there are 17 stations with Unicore Communications Incorporation's GPS/BDS receivers in BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) network by Wuhan University. In addition, 5 BDS satellites have been tracking by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS). BDS performance is expected to be further studied by the GNSS communities. Following an introduction of the BDS system and above different tracking network, this paper discusses the achieved BDS characterization and performance assessment. Firstly, the BDS signal and measurement quality are analyzed with different antennas and receivers in detail compared to GPS. This includes depth of coverage for satellite observation, carrier-to-noise-density ratios, code noise and multipath, carrier phase errors. Secondly, BDS Precise Orbit Determination (POD) is processed. Different arc lengths and sets of orbit parameters are tested using Position And Navigation Data Analysis software (PANDA) which is developed at the Wuhan University. GEO, IGSO and MEO satellites orbit quality will be assessed using overlap comparison, 2-day orbit fit and external validations with Satellite Laser Range (SLR). Then BDS satellites are equipped

  18. Offshore double-planed shallow seismic zone in the NE Japan forearc region revealed by sP depth phases recorded by regional networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamage, Shantha S. N.; Umino, Norihito; Hasegawa, Akira; Kirby, Stephen H.

    2009-07-01

    We detected the sP depth phase at small epicentral distances of about 150 km or more in the seismograms of shallow earthquakes in the NE Japan forearc region. The focal depths of 1078 M > 3 earthquakes that occurred from 2000 to 2006 were precisely determined using the time delay of the sP phase from the initial P-wave arrival. The distribution of relocated hypocentres clearly shows the configuration of a double-planed shallow seismic zone beneath the Pacific Ocean. The upper plane has a low dip angle near the Japan Trench, increasing gradually to ~30° at approximately 100 km landward of the Japan Trench. The lower plane is approximately parallel to the upper plane, and appears to be the near-trench counterpart of the lower plane of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. The distance between the upper and lower planes is 28-32 km, which is approximately the same as or slightly smaller than that of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. Focal mechanism solutions of the relocated earthquakes are determined from P-wave initial motion data. Although P-wave initial motion data for these offshore events are not ideally distributed on the focal sphere, we found that the upper-plane events that occur near the Japan Trench are characterized by normal faulting, whereas lower-plane events are characterized by thrust faulting. This focal mechanism distribution is the opposite to that of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. The characteristics of these focal mechanisms for the shallow and deep doubled-planed seismic zones can be explained by a bending-unbending model of the subducting Pacific plate. Some of relocated earthquakes took place in the source area of the 1933 Mw8.4 Sanriku earthquake at depths of 10-23 km. The available focal mechanisms for these events are characterized by normal faulting. Given that the 1933 event was a large normal-fault event that occurred along a fault plane dipping landward, the

  19. Offshore double-planed shallow seismic zone in the NE Japan forearc region revealed by sP depth phases recorded by regional networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamage, S.S.N.; Umino, N.; Hasegawa, A.; Kirby, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    We detected the sP depth phase at small epicentral distances of about 150 km or more in the seismograms of shallow earthquakes in the NE Japan forearc region. The focal depths of 1078 M > 3 earthquakes that occurred from 2000 to 2006 were precisely determined using the time delay of the sP phase from the initial P-wave arrival. The distribution of relocated hypocentres clearly shows the configuration of a double-planed shallow seismic zone beneath the Pacific Ocean. The upper plane has a low dip angle near the Japan Trench, increasing gradually to ???30?? at approximately 100 km landward of the Japan Trench. The lower plane is approximately parallel to the upper plane, and appears to be the near-trench counterpart of the lower plane of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. The distance between the upper and lower planes is 28-32 km, which is approximately the same as or slightly smaller than that of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. Focal mechanism solutions of the relocated earthquakes are determined from P-wave initial motion data. Although P-wave initial motion data for these offshore events are not ideally distributed on the focal sphere, we found that the upper-plane events that occur near the Japan Trench are characterized by normal faulting, whereas lower-plane events are characterized by thrust faulting. This focal mechanism distribution is the opposite to that of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. The characteristics of these focal mechanisms for the shallow and deep doubled-planed seismic zones can be explained by a bending-unbending model of the subducting Pacific plate. Some of relocated earthquakes took place in the source area of the 1933 Mw8.4 Sanriku earthquake at depths of 10-23 km. The available focal mechanisms for these events are characterized by normal faulting. Given that the 1933 event was a large normal-fault event that occurred along a fault plane dipping landward, the

  20. A Network for Educational Change in the Great Lakes Region: A View through the Lens of Educational Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Randal E.; Svedkauskaite, Asta

    2008-01-01

    The major purpose of this descriptive report is to provide an overview of the structure, capacity, and roles of educational service agencies (ESAs) across five states--Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin--in the Great Lakes region, within the context of the broader statewide systems of support for educational improvement and progress.…

  1. Earthquake source imaging by high-resolution array analysis at regional distances: the 2010 M7 Haiti earthquake as seen by the Venezuela National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L.; Ampuero, J. P.; Rendon, H.

    2010-12-01

    Back projection of teleseismic waves based on array processing has become a popular technique for earthquake source imaging,in particular to track the areas of the source that generate the strongest high frequency radiation. The technique has been previously applied to study the rupture process of the Sumatra earthquake and the supershear rupture of the Kunlun earthquakes. Here we attempt to image the Haiti earthquake using the data recorded by Venezuela National Seismic Network (VNSN). The network is composed of 22 broad-band stations with an East-West oriented geometry, and is located approximately 10 degrees away from Haiti in the perpendicular direction to the Enriquillo fault strike. This is the first opportunity to exploit the privileged position of the VNSN to study large earthquake ruptures in the Caribbean region. This is also a great opportunity to explore the back projection scheme of the crustal Pn phase at regional distances,which provides unique complementary insights to the teleseismic source inversions. The challenge in the analysis of the 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake is its very compact source region, possibly shorter than 30km, which is below the resolution limit of standard back projection techniques based on beamforming. Results of back projection analysis using the teleseismic USarray data reveal little details of the rupture process. To overcome the classical resolution limit we explored the Multiple Signal Classification method (MUSIC), a high-resolution array processing technique based on the signal-noise orthognality in the eigen space of the data covariance, which achieves both enhanced resolution and better ability to resolve closely spaced sources. We experiment with various synthetic earthquake scenarios to test the resolution. We find that MUSIC provides at least 3 times higher resolution than beamforming. We also study the inherent bias due to the interferences of coherent Green’s functions, which leads to a potential quantification

  2. NANOOS, the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems: a regional Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) for the Pacific Northwest US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, J.; Martin, D.; Kosro, M.

    2012-12-01

    NANOOS is the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems, the Pacific Northwest Regional Association of the United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (US IOOS). User driven since its inception in 2003, this regional observing system is responding to a variety of scientific and societal needs across its coastal ocean, estuaries, and shorelines. Regional priorities have been solicited and re-affirmed through active engagement with users and stakeholders. NANOOS membership is composed of an even mix of academic, governmental, industry, and non-profit organizations, who appoint representatives to the NANOOS Governing Council who confirm the priority applications of the observing system. NANOOS regional priorities are: Maritime Operations, Regional Fisheries, Ecosystem Assessment, Coastal Hazards, and Climate. NANOOS' regional coastal ocean observing system is implemented by seven partners (three universities, three state agencies, and one industry). Together, these partners conduct the observations, modeling, data management and communication, analysis products, education and outreach activities of NANOOS. Observations, designed to span coastal ocean, shorelines, and estuaries, include physical, chemical, biological and geological measurements. To date, modeling has been more limited in scope, but has provided the system with increased coverage for some parameters. The data management and communication system for NANOOS, led by the NANOOS Visualization System (NVS) is the cornerstone of the user interaction with NANOOS. NVS gives users access to observational data, both real time and archived, as well as modeling output. Given the diversity of user needs, measurements, and the complexity of the coastal environment, the challenge for the system is large. NANOOS' successes take advantage of technological advances, including real-time data transmission, profiling buoys, gliders, HF radars, and modeling. The most profound challenges NANOOS faces stem

  3. Reduced-Median-Network Analysis of Complete Mitochondrial DNA Coding-Region Sequences for the Major African, Asian, and European Haplogroups

    PubMed Central

    Herrnstadt, Corinna; Elson, Joanna L.; Fahy, Eoin; Preston, Gwen; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Anderson, Christen; Ghosh, Soumitra S.; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Beal, M. Flint; Davis, Robert E.; Howell, Neil

    2002-01-01

    The evolution of the human mitochondrial genome is characterized by the emergence of ethnically distinct lineages or haplogroups. Nine European, seven Asian (including Native American), and three African mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have been identified previously on the basis of the presence or absence of a relatively small number of restriction-enzyme recognition sites or on the basis of nucleotide sequences of the D-loop region. We have used reduced-median-network approaches to analyze 560 complete European, Asian, and African mtDNA coding-region sequences from unrelated individuals to develop a more complete understanding of sequence diversity both within and between haplogroups. A total of 497 haplogroup-associated polymorphisms were identified, 323 (65%) of which were associated with one haplogroup and 174 (35%) of which were associated with two or more haplogroups. Approximately one-half of these polymorphisms are reported for the first time here. Our results confirm and substantially extend the phylogenetic relationships among mitochondrial genomes described elsewhere from the major human ethnic groups. Another important result is that there were numerous instances both of parallel mutations at the same site and of reversion (i.e., homoplasy). It is likely that homoplasy in the coding region will confound evolutionary analysis of small sequence sets. By a linkage-disequilibrium approach, additional evidence for the absence of human mtDNA recombination is presented here. PMID:11938495

  4. Neural networks combined with region growing techniques for tumor detection in [18F]-fluorothymidine dynamic positron emission tomography breast cancer studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cseh, Zoltan; Kenny, Laura; Swingland, James; Bose, Subrata; Turheimer, Federico E.

    2013-03-01

    Early detection and precise localization of malignant tumors has been a primary challenge in medical imaging in recent years. Functional modalities play a continuously increasing role in these efforts. Image segmentation algorithms which enable automatic, accurate tumor visualization and quantification on noisy positron emission tomography (PET) images would significantly improve the quality of treatment planning processes and in turn, the success of treatments. In this work a novel multistep method has been applied in order to identify tumor regions in 4D dynamic [18F] fluorothymidine (FLT) PET studies of patients with locally advanced breast cancer. In order to eliminate the effect of inherently detectable high inhomogeneity inside tumors, specific voxel-kinetic classes were initially introduced by finding characteristic FLT-uptake curves with K-means algorithm on a set of voxels collected from each tumor. Image voxel sets were then split based on voxel time-activity curve (TAC) similarities, and models were generated separately on each voxel set. At first, artificial neural networks, in comparison with linear classification algorithms were applied to distinguish tumor and healthy regions relying on the characteristics of TACs of the individual voxels. The outputs of the best model with very high specificity were then used as input seeds for region shrinking and growing techniques, the application of which considerably enhanced the sensitivity and specificity (78.65% +/- 0.65% and 98.98% +/- 0.03%, respectively) of the final image segmentation model.

  5. Prediction of ionospheric scintillation using neural network over East African region during ascending phase of sunspot cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taabu, S. D.; D'ujanga, F. M.; Ssenyonga, T.

    2016-04-01

    VHF and GPS-SCINDA receivers located both at Nairobi (36.8°E, 1.3°S) in Kenya and at Kampala (32.57°E, 0.335°N) in Uganda were used to investigate ionospheric scintillation and forecast scintillations of a few hundred meter-scale irregularities associated with equatorial ionospheric irregularities for the period 2011 and 2012. VHF scintillations was characterized by long duration of activity and slow fading that lasted till early morning hours (05:00 LT). Furthermore, different percentage occurrence of scintillations in some months were observed, but found that weak scintillation (0.2 network and the modeled data for the occurrence of scintillations was found to match well with original data.

  6. Can epidemic detection systems at the hospital level complement regional surveillance networks: Case study with the influenza epidemic?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early knowledge of influenza outbreaks in the community allows local hospital healthcare workers to recognise the clinical signs of influenza in hospitalised patients and to apply effective precautions. The objective was to assess intra-hospital surveillance systems to detect earlier than regional surveillance systems influenza outbreaks in the community. Methods Time series obtained from computerized medical data from patients who visited a French hospital emergency department (ED) between June 1st, 2007 and March 31st, 2011 for influenza, or were hospitalised for influenza or a respiratory syndrome after an ED visit, were compared to different regional series. Algorithms using CUSUM method were constructed to determine the epidemic detection threshold with the local data series. Sensitivity, specificity and mean timeliness were calculated to assess their performance to detect community outbreaks of influenza. A sensitivity analysis was conducted, excluding the year 2009, due to the particular epidemiological situation related to pandemic influenza this year. Results The local series closely followed the seasonal trends reported by regional surveillance. The algorithms achieved a sensitivity of detection equal to 100% with series of patients hospitalised with respiratory syndrome (specificity ranging from 31.9 and 92.9% and mean timeliness from −58.3 to 20.3 days) and series of patients who consulted the ED for flu (specificity ranging from 84.3 to 93.2% and mean timeliness from −32.3 to 9.8 days). The algorithm with the best balance between specificity (87.7%) and mean timeliness (0.5 day) was obtained with series built by analysis of the ICD-10 codes assigned by physicians after ED consultation. Excluding the year 2009, the same series keeps the best performance with specificity equal to 95.7% and mean timeliness equal to −1.7 day. Conclusions The implementation of an automatic surveillance system to detect patients with influenza or

  7. A training network for introducing telemedicine, telecare and hospital informatics in the Adriatic-Danube-Black Sea region.

    PubMed

    Anogeianaki, Antonia; Ilonidis, George; Anogianakis, George; Lianguris, John; Katsaros, Kyriakos; Pseftogianni, Dimitra; Klisarova, Anelia; Negrev, Negrin

    2004-01-01

    DIMNET is a training mechanism for a region of central Europe. The aim is to upgrade the information technology skills of local hospital personnel and preserve their employability following the introduction of medical informatics. DIMNET uses Internet-based virtual classrooms to provide a 200-hour training course in medical informatics. Training takes place in the cities of Drama, Kavala, Xanthi and Varna. So far, more than 600 people have benefited from the programme. Initial results are encouraging. DIMNET promotes a new vocational training culture in the Balkans and is supported by local governments that perceive health-care as a fulcrum for economic development. PMID:15603593

  8. Application of artificial neural network approach and remotely sensed imagery for regional eco-environmental quality evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhou; Li, Hongyi

    2007-05-01

    Eco-environment quality evaluation is an important research theme in environment management. In the present study, Fuzhou city in China was selected as a study area and a limited number of 222 sampling field sites were first investigated in situ with the help of a GPS device. Every sampling site was assessed by ecological experts and given an Eco-environment Background Value (EBV) based on a scoring and ranking system. The higher the EBV, the better the ecological environmental quality. Then, three types of eco-environmental attributes that are physically-based and easily-quantifiable at a grid level were extracted: (1) remote sensing derived attributes (vegetation index, wetness index, soil brightness index, surface land temperature index), (2) meteorological attributes (annual temperature and annual precipitation), and (3) terrain attribute (elevation). A Back Propagation (BP) Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was proposed for the EBV validation and prediction. A three-layer BP ANN model was designed to automatically learn the internal relationship using a training set of known EBV and eco-environmental attributes, followed by the application of the model for predicting EBV values across the whole study area. It was found that the performance of the BP ANN model was satisfactory and capable of an overall prediction accuracy of 82.4%, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.801 in the validation. The evaluation results showed that the eco-environmental quality of Fuzhou city is considered as satisfactory. Through analyzing the spatial correlation between the eco-environmental quality and land uses, it was found that the best eco-environmental areas were related to forest lands, whereas the urban area had the relatively worst eco-environmental quality. Human activities are still considered as a major impact on the eco-environmental quality in this area. PMID:17016751

  9. Impact Of Landslides Along Road Network And Direct Cost Estimation: A Case Study In Marche Region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, P.; Donnini, M.; Guzzetti, F.; Ardizzone, F.; Cardinali, M.; Bucci, F.; Fiorucci, F.; Alvioli, M.; Santangelo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In November and December 2013, the Marche region (Central Italy) was hit by three severe, but not rare, meteorological events. The maximum value of the three days cumulative rainfall (499 mm) was recorded at the rain gauge of Pintura di Bolognola. The intense rainfall caused floods along the rivers and triggered numerous landslides, mostly located in the hilly and mountainous terrain of the region. The territory is crossed by a large number of roads connecting small rural settlements. After the events, the Regional Civil Protection Office requested to the Research Institute for the geo-hydrological Protection (IRPI-CNR) a technical support to evaluate the hazard condition for different sites affected by landslides. For an area of approximately 200 km2, in the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione, field surveys were carried out to identify the rainfall-induced landslides and to produce an event inventory map. More than 1,500 slope failures were mapped including earth flows, slide-earth flows, slides, rock-falls and complex slides. Field surveys were focused also to estimate qualitatively damages along the roads. Roads were classified in two classes: the main roads under the State responsibility and the secondary roads under the Municipality responsibility. The different types of damage were classified in three classes: i) aesthetic (minor), where the road functionality was not compromised; ii) functional (medium), where the functionality was compromised and iii) structural (severe) where roads are severely or completely damaged. Immediately after the event, the technicians of the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione spent major efforts to partially restore the functionality of the secondary roads in order to guarantee the primary human needs. In the following ten days, they compiled a list of interventions, associated with the relative direct costs, aimed to the total restoration of the roads functionality. In collaboration with the

  10. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential. PMID:24243879

  11. Securing health through food systems: an initiative of the nutrition consortium of the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan and Asia Pacific regional partners as a network.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Kuo, Ken N

    2009-01-01

    There are growing concerns about the health impacts of climate change with ecosystem degradation and global warming, finite reserves of non-renewable energy, water shortages in food-producing regions, limits to contemporary agriculture with its dependence on exhaustible petrochemical nitrogen and rock phosphate fertilizers, and failure of the global financial system. To date, health security has meant attention to safe environments especially water, sanitation and waste disposal; and access to health care and its affordability. Its dependency on food security (safety, sufficiency, sustainability, and satisfaction which requires diversity and quality) has been under-estimated because the current and imminent risks have increased and extended to more populations, because these may be less tractable and because the nature, extent and dynamics of nutritionally-related health are better appreciated. As a step towards more collaborative food and health systems, the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan has created an interdisciplinary Nutrition Consortium (NC) with research and policy agendas. The NC held a food in Health Security (FIHS) in the Asia Pacific region roundtable in conjunction with the World Vegetable Center based in Tainan, supported by the National Science Council and Academia Sinica in Taiwan and the Australian Academies of Science and of Science Technology and Engineering, August 2-5th 2009 in Taiwan. A FIHS Network is being established to further the initiative. It should form part of the broader Human Security agenda. PMID:19965334

  12. Communications infrastructure requirements for telemedicine/telehealth in the context of planning for and responding to natural disasters: Considering the need for shared regional networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John Carver

    1991-01-01

    During the course of recent years the frequency and magnitude of major disasters - of natural, technological, or ecological origin - have made the world community dramatically aware of the immense losses of human life and economic resources that are caused regularly by such calamities. Particularly hard hit are developing countries, for whom the magnitude of disasters frequently outstrips the ability of the society to cope with them. In many cases this situation can be prevented, and the recent trend in disaster management has been to emphasize the importance of preparedness and mitigation as a means of prevention. In cases of disaster, a system is needed to respond to relief requirements, particularly the delivery of medical care. There is no generic telecommunications infrastructure appropriate for the variety of applications in medical care and disaster management. The need to integrate telemedicine/telehealth into shared regional disaster management telecommunications networks is discussed. Focus is on the development of infrastructure designed to serve the needs of disaster prone regions of the developing world.

  13. Cocaine addiction related reproducible brain regions of abnormal default-mode network functional connectivity: a group ICA study with different model orders.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoyu; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2013-08-26

    Model order selection in group independent component analysis (ICA) has a significant effect on the obtained components. This study investigated the reproducible brain regions of abnormal default-mode network (DMN) functional connectivity related with cocaine addiction through different model order settings in group ICA. Resting-state fMRI data from 24 cocaine addicts and 24 healthy controls were temporally concatenated and processed by group ICA using model orders of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50, respectively. For each model order, the group ICA approach was repeated 100 times using the ICASSO toolbox and after clustering the obtained components, centrotype-based anterior and posterior DMN components were selected for further analysis. Individual DMN components were obtained through back-reconstruction and converted to z-score maps. A whole brain mixed effects factorial ANOVA was performed to explore the differences in resting-state DMN functional connectivity between cocaine addicts and healthy controls. The hippocampus, which showed decreased functional connectivity in cocaine addicts for all the tested model orders, might be considered as a reproducible abnormal region in DMN associated with cocaine addiction. This finding suggests that using group ICA to examine the functional connectivity of the hippocampus in the resting-state DMN may provide an additional insight potentially relevant for cocaine-related diagnoses and treatments. PMID:23707901

  14. Accurate Ab Initio and Template-Based Prediction of Short Intrinsically-Disordered Regions by Bidirectional Recurrent Neural Networks Trained on Large-Scale Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Volpato, Viola; Alshomrani, Badr; Pollastri, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically-disordered regions lack a well-defined 3D structure, but play key roles in determining the function of many proteins. Although predictors of disorder have been shown to achieve relatively high rates of correct classification of these segments, improvements over the the years have been slow, and accurate methods are needed that are capable of accommodating the ever-increasing amount of structurally-determined protein sequences to try to boost predictive performances. In this paper, we propose a predictor for short disordered regions based on bidirectional recurrent neural networks and tested by rigorous five-fold cross-validation on a large, non-redundant dataset collected from MobiDB, a new comprehensive source of protein disorder annotations. The system exploits sequence and structural information in the forms of frequency profiles, predicted secondary structure and solvent accessibility and direct disorder annotations from homologous protein structures (templates) deposited in the Protein Data Bank. The contributions of sequence, structure and homology information result in large improvements in predictive accuracy. Additionally, the large scale of the training set leads to low false positive rates, making our systems a robust and efficient way to address high-throughput disorder prediction. PMID:26307973

  15. Proterozoic structure, cambrian rifting, and younger faulting as revealed by a regional seismic reflection network in the Southern Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, C.J.; Drahovzal, J.A.; Sargent, M.L.; McBride, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Four high-quality seismic reflection profiles through the southern Illinois Basin, totaling 245 km in length, provide an excellent regional subsurface stratigraphic and structural framework for evaluation of seismic risk, hydrocarbon occurrence, and other regional geologic studies. These data provide extensive subsurface information on the geometry of the intersection of the Cambrian Reelfoot and Rough Creek rifts, on extensive Proterozoic reflection sequences, and on structures (including the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex and Hicks Dome) that underlie a transitional area between the well-defined New Madrid seismic zone (to the southwest) and a more diffuse area of seismicity in the southern Illinois Basin. Our principal interpretations from these data are listed here in order of geologic age, from oldest to youngest: 1. Prominent Proterozoic layering, possibly equivalent to Proterozoic (???1 Ga) Middle Run Formation clastic strata and underlying (1.3-1.5 Ga) volcanic rocks of the East Continent rift basin, has been strongly deformed, probably as part of the Grenville foreland fold and thrust belt. 2. A well-defined angular unconformity is seen in many places between Proterozoic and Cambrian strata; a post-Grenville Proterozoic sequence is also apparent locally, directly beneath the base of the Cambrian. 3. We infer a major reversal in Cambrian rift polarity (accommodation zone) in the Rough Creek Graben in western Kentucky. 4. Seismic facies analysis suggests the presence of basin-floor fan complexes at and near the base of the Cambrian interval and within parts of a Proterozoic post-Grenville sequence in several parts of the Rough Creek Graben. 5. There is an abrupt pinchout of the Mount Simon Sandstone against crystalline basement beneath the Dale Dome (near the Texaco no. 1 Cuppy well, Hamilton County) in southeastern Illinois, and a more gradual Mount Simon pinchout to the southeast. 6. Where crossed by the seismic reflection line in southeast Illinois, some

  16. The foot and mouth disease network in the southern cone of South America: an example of regional governance.

    PubMed

    Corrales Irrazábal, H A

    2012-08-01

    The fact that foot and mouth disease is highly contagious, easily spread and of major commercial importance makes it a redoubtable challenge for animal health in South American countries and the world over. A number of factors impact directly on the effectiveness of national programmes to eradicate foot and mouth disease. Therefore, in order to meet the challenges posed by today's globalised world, it is of the utmost importance that national level eradication programmes be considered state policies and that they be the subject of broad political agreement at the highest level and consolidated as regional programmes between national Veterinary Services. The programmes, agreements and technical cooperation projects established jointly by Member Countries of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) were a key factor in building management capacity to control foot and mouth disease in the area. Another key factor has been a partnership with one of the most sensitive sectors--the private production sector. Its active and responsible participation in operational functions has done much to strengthen and ensure the competitive development of South American countries and consolidate their role as global beef exporters. However, to prevent further outbreaks it is essential to maintain and reinforce the structure of national programmes and to have strong and highly trained Veterinary Services and sufficient funding to ensure efficient and sustainable plans. These plans must enable Veterinary Services, by means of good governance, to implement effective measures in the areas of animal health and international trade in animals and animal products/by-products, thereby achieving rapid and more equitable social and economic development. PMID:23413740

  17. Making Knowledge from Numbers : The Shale Network as an Honest Broker for Evaluating and Educating about the Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing in the Marcellus Shale Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollak, J.; Brantley, S.; Williams, J.; Dykhoff, S.; Brazil, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Marcellus Shale Network is an NSF-funded project that investigates the impacts of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas development on water resources in and around the state of Pennsylvania. It is a collaborative effort that aims to be an honest broker in the shale gas conversation by involving multiple entities (including universities, government agencies, industry groups, nonprofits, etc.) to collect, analyze, and disseminate data that describe the past and current conditions of water in the Marcellus shale region. A critical component of this project has been to engage multiple types of stakeholders - academia, government agencies, industry, and citizen science groups - in annual workshops to present and discuss how to ensure the integrity of water resources in light of the challenges that natural gas extraction can present. Each workshop has included a hands-on activity that allows participants to access water quality data using the tools provided by the CUAHSI Water Data Center. One of these tools is HydroDesktop, which is an open source GIS application that can be used in formal and informal education settings as a geoscience research tool. In addition to being a GIS, HydroDesktop accesses CUAHSI's large catalog of water data thus enabling students, professional researchers, and citizen scientists to discover data that can expand the understanding of water quality issues in one's local environment and beyond. This presentation will highlight the goals of the Shale Network project and the stakeholders involved in addition to how cyberinfrastructure is being used to create a democratic, data-driven conversation about the relationship between energy production from shale gas and our water resources.

  18. Characterizing Information Flux Within the Distributed Pediatric Expressive Language Network: A Core Region Mapped Through fMRI-Constrained MEG Effective Connectivity Analyses.

    PubMed

    Kadis, Darren S; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Toro-Serey, Claudio A; Smith, Mary Lou; Holland, Scott K

    2016-02-01

    Using noninvasive neuroimaging, researchers have shown that young children have bilateral and diffuse language networks, which become increasingly left lateralized and focal with development. Connectivity within the distributed pediatric language network has been minimally studied, and conventional neuroimaging approaches do not distinguish task-related signal changes from those that are task essential. In this study, we propose a novel multimodal method to map core language sites from patterns of information flux. We retrospectively analyze neuroimaging data collected in two groups of children, ages 5-18 years, performing verb generation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (n = 343) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) (n = 21). The fMRI data were conventionally analyzed and the group activation map parcellated to define node locations. Neuronal activity at each node was estimated from MEG data using a linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer, and effective connectivity within canonical frequency bands was computed using the phase slope index metric. We observed significant (p ≤ 0.05) effective connections in all subjects. The number of suprathreshold connections was significantly and linearly correlated with participant's age (r = 0.50, n = 21, p ≤ 0.05), suggesting that core language sites emerge as part of the normal developmental trajectory. Across frequencies, we observed significant effective connectivity among proximal left frontal nodes. Within the low frequency bands, information flux was rostrally directed within a focal, left frontal region, approximating Broca's area. At higher frequencies, we observed increased connectivity involving bilateral perisylvian nodes. Frequency-specific differences in patterns of information flux were resolved through fast (i.e., MEG) neuroimaging. PMID:26456242

  19. Characterizing Information Flux Within the Distributed Pediatric Expressive Language Network: A Core Region Mapped Through fMRI-Constrained MEG Effective Connectivity Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Toro-Serey, Claudio A.; Smith, Mary Lou; Holland, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Using noninvasive neuroimaging, researchers have shown that young children have bilateral and diffuse language networks, which become increasingly left lateralized and focal with development. Connectivity within the distributed pediatric language network has been minimally studied, and conventional neuroimaging approaches do not distinguish task-related signal changes from those that are task essential. In this study, we propose a novel multimodal method to map core language sites from patterns of information flux. We retrospectively analyze neuroimaging data collected in two groups of children, ages 5–18 years, performing verb generation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (n = 343) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) (n = 21). The fMRI data were conventionally analyzed and the group activation map parcellated to define node locations. Neuronal activity at each node was estimated from MEG data using a linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer, and effective connectivity within canonical frequency bands was computed using the phase slope index metric. We observed significant (p ≤ 0.05) effective connections in all subjects. The number of suprathreshold connections was significantly and linearly correlated with participant's age (r = 0.50, n = 21, p ≤ 0.05), suggesting that core language sites emerge as part of the normal developmental trajectory. Across frequencies, we observed significant effective connectivity among proximal left frontal nodes. Within the low frequency bands, information flux was rostrally directed within a focal, left frontal region, approximating Broca's area. At higher frequencies, we observed increased connectivity involving bilateral perisylvian nodes. Frequency-specific differences in patterns of information flux were resolved through fast (i.e., MEG) neuroimaging. PMID:26456242

  20. Integration of permanent and periodic GPS/GNSS measurements for local and regional geodynamic research in the area of the Polish-Czech Network SUDETEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, Bernard; Kaplon, Jan; Schenk, Vladimir; Schenkova, Zdenka; Badura, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    Since 1997 all current local geodynamic studies in the area of the Polish and Czech parts of the Sudeten and the Sudetic Foreland have been associated with annual periodic GPS campaigns, epoch measurements. The most epochs consisted of more than twelve observation hours and some of them kept on two or three 24-hour observations. Experience collected by international research teams carrying out geodynamic researches with the GPS technique in seismically active areas (USA, Japan) proved that more information can give permanent measurements. However, the Sudeten area, regarded as an area of the weak tectonic activity, can be hardly covered with the dense network of GNSS stations from economic reasons. Hence rational using of existing permanent GPS stations located in studied area and in its vicinity detects the coordinate changes that cannot be appointed from periodic campaign data and that, on the other hand, have rather regional than local character. Creating the spatial models of irregularities of the continuous signals should improve results of the epoch measurements. From this viewpoint, in this project authors used measurement data of chosen permanent GPS stations located in the area: the EPN stations, ASG-EUPOS stations, GEONAS stations and all epoch observations. These data were gained as part of research projects carried out within 1997-2009 period, as well as during new supplementing campaigns realized in the frame of the project N526278940 in the 2011 and 2012 years. Reprocessing of all the permanent and epoch data performed by the latest version of Bernese GNSS Software (V5.2) was performed using EPN guidelines for the processing, reference frame realization and the usage of physical models (atmosphere, Earth rotation, etc.). Standardized results of processing the aggregated GPS network, including permanent stations and all local networks on the area of research, serve for conducting new geodynamic interpretation. Further parameters that estimate the

  1. Prospects of the New Science and Outreach Network Baltic Earth with Results of the Second Climate Change Assessment for the Baltic Sea Region (BACC II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, M.; Von Storch, H.; Omstedt, A. T.; Meier, M.; Rutgersson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Baltic Sea region in Northern Europe spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most intensively studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. A major outcome of Baltic Earth will be the update of the BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin (BACC II). This new study after 5 years finds the results of BACC I still valid. Climate change can be detected at the regional scale but attribution is still weak. The effect of changing atmospheric aerosol loads and land use change is largely unknown so far and needs further attention in the coming years. For the observed changes in biogeochemical and ecological systems, multiple drivers are at work of which climate change is one. Their relative importance still needs to be evaluated. When addressing climate change impacts on e.g. forestry, agriculture, urban

  2. Building Multidisciplinary Training Networks for Rural Development. Report of the Regional Workshop for Pre-service Training of Members of Multidisciplinary Educational Teams in Rural Areas (Pune, India, July 16-20, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Papers designed to help build multidisciplinary training networks for rural development are collected in this document, an outgrowth of a regional training workshop attended by participants from Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Thailand, and India. The six papers deal with the objectives of the workshop which were to:…

  3. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of regional grey and white matter volume abnormalities within the speech production network of children who stutter

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Deryk S.; Gracco, Vincent L.; Brettschneider, Jane; Kroll, Robert M.; De Nil, Luc F.

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that neuroanatomical differences exist between adults who stutter and their fluently speaking peers. Specifically, adults who stutter have been found to have more grey matter volume (GMV) in speech relevant regions including inferior frontal gyrus, insula and superior temporal gyrus (Beal et al., 2007; Song et al., 2007). Despite stuttering having its onset in childhood only one study has investigated the neuroanatomical differences between children who do and do not stutter. Chang et al. (2008) reported children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyrus relative to fluently speaking children. Thus it appears that children who stutter present with unique neuroanatomical abnormalities as compared to those of adults who stutter. In order to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of stuttering earlier in its development, near the time of onset, we used voxel-based morphometry to examine volumetric differences between 11 children who stutter and 11 fluent children. Children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left putamen but more GMV in right Rolandic operculum and superior temporal gyrus relative to fluent children. Children who stutter also had less white matter volume bilaterally in the forceps minor of the corpus callosum. We discuss our findings of widespread anatomic abnormalities throughout the cortical network for speech motor control within the context of the speech motor skill limitations identified in people who stutter (Namasivayam and van Lieshout, 2008; Smits-Bandstra et al., 2006). PMID:23140891

  4. Logistic regression and artificial neural network models for mapping of regional-scale landslide susceptibility in volcanic mountains of West Java (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngadisih, Bhandary, Netra P.; Yatabe, Ryuichi; Dahal, Ranjan K.

    2016-05-01

    West Java Province is the most landslide risky area in Indonesia owing to extreme geo-morphological conditions, climatic conditions and densely populated settlements with immense completed and ongoing development activities. So, a landslide susceptibility map at regional scale in this province is a fundamental tool for risk management and land-use planning. Logistic regression and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models are the most frequently used tools for landslide susceptibility assessment, mainly because they are capable of handling the nature of landslide data. The main objective of this study is to apply logistic regression and ANN models and compare their performance for landslide susceptibility mapping in volcanic mountains of West Java Province. In addition, the model application is proposed to identify the most contributing factors to landslide events in the study area. The spatial database built in GIS platform consists of landslide inventory, four topographical parameters (slope, aspect, relief, distance to river), three geological parameters (distance to volcano crater, distance to thrust and fault, geological formation), and two anthropogenic parameters (distance to road, land use). The logistic regression model in this study revealed that slope, geological formations, distance to road and distance to volcano are the most influential factors of landslide events while, the ANN model revealed that distance to volcano crater, geological formation, distance to road, and land-use are the most important causal factors of landslides in the study area. Moreover, an evaluation of the model showed that the ANN model has a higher accuracy than the logistic regression model.

  5. A Location-Based Duplex Scheme for Cost Effective Rural Broadband Connectivity Using IEEE 802.22 Cognitive Radio Based Wireless Regional Area Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalidoss, R.; Bhagyaveni, M. A.; Vishvaksenan, K. S.

    2014-08-01

    The search for a method of utilizing the scarce spectrum in an efficient manner is an active area of research in both academic and industrial communities. IEEE 802.22 is a standard for wireless regional area network (WRAN) based on cognitive radio (CR) that operates over underutilized portions of TV bands (54-862 MHz). Time division duplex (TDD)-based WRAN cells have such advantages as dynamic traffic allocation, traffic asymmetry to users and ease of spectrum allocation. However, these cells suffer from severe cross time slot (CTS) interference when the frames of the cells are not synchronized with adjacent WRAN cells. In this paper, we evaluate the location-based duplex (LBD) scheme for eliminating the CTS interference. The proposed LBD system is much more flexible and efficient in providing asymmetric data service and eliminating CTS interference by exploiting the advantages of both TDD and frequency division duplex (FDD) schemes. We also compare the performance of LBD systems with virtual cell concepts. Furthermore, our simulation results reveal that LBD-based systems outperform the virtual cell approach in terms of the low signal-to-interference (SIR) ratio requirement by mitigating the effects of CTS.

  6. The 7.9 Denali Fault, Alaska Earthquake of November 3, 2002: Aftershock Locations, Moment Tensors and Focal Mechanisms from the Regional Seismic Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratchkovski, N. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Kore, K. R.

    2003-04-01

    The largest earthquake ever recorded on the Denali fault system (magnitude 7.9) struck central Alaska on November 3, 2002. It was preceded by a magnitude 6.7 earthquake on October 23. This earlier earthquake and its zone of aftershocks were located ~20 km to the west of the 7.9 quake. Aftershock locations and surface slip observations from the 7.9 quake indicate that the rupture was predominately unilateral in the eastward direction. The geologists mapped a ~300-km-long rupture and measured maximum offsets of 8.8 meters. The 7.9 event ruptured three different faults. The rupture began on the northeast trending Susitna Glacier Thrust fault, a splay fault south of the Denali fault. Then the rupture transferred to the Denali fault and propagated eastward for 220 km. At about 143W the rupture moved onto the adjacent southeast-trending Totschunda fault and propagated for another 55 km. The cumulative length of the 6.7 and 7.9 aftershock zones along the Denali and Totschunda faults is about 380 km. The earthquakes were recorded and processed by the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC). The AEIC acquires and processes data from the Alaska Seismic Network, consisting of over 350 seismograph stations. Nearly 40 of these sites are equipped with the broad-band sensors, some of which also have strong motion sensors. The rest of the stations are either 1 or 3-component short-period instruments. The data from these stations are collected, processed and archived at the AEIC. The AEIC staff installed a temporary seismic network of 6 instruments following the 6.7 earthquake and an additional 20 stations following the 7.9 earthquake. Prior to the 7.9 Denali Fault event, the AEIC was locating 35 to 50 events per day. After the event, the processing load increased to over 300 events per day during the first week following the event. In this presentation, we will present and interpret the aftershock location patterns, first motion focal mechanism solutions, and regional seismic

  7. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Integration of OMI and TES Aerosol Products into the EPA Regional Planning Organizations' FASTNET Aerosol Tracking and Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.

    2006-01-01

    Every year, more than 280 million visitors tour our Nation s most treasured parks and wilderness areas. Unfortunately, many visitors are unable to see the spectacular vistas they expect because of white or brown haze in the air. Most of this haze is not natural; it is air pollution, carried by the wind often hundreds of miles from its origin. Some of the pollutants have been linked to serious health problems, such as asthma and other lung disorders, and even premature death. In addition, nitrates and sulfates contribute to acid rain formation, which contaminates rivers and lakes and erodes buildings and historical monuments. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency RPOs (Regional Planning Organizations) have been tasked with monitoring and determining the nature and origin of haze in Class I scenic areas, and finding ways to reduce haze in order to improve visibility in these areas. The RPOs have developed an Internet-based air quality DST (Decision Support Tool) called FASTNET (Fast Aerosol Sensing Tools for Natural Event Tracking). While FASTNET incorporates a few satellite datasets, most of the data utilized by this DST comes from ground-based instrument networks. The problem is that in many areas the sensors are sparsely located, with long distances between them, causing difficulties in tracking haze over the United States, determining its source, and analyzing its content. Satellite data could help to fill in the data gaps and to supplement and verify ground-recorded air quality data. Although satellite data are now being used for air quality research applications, such data are not routinely used for environmental decision support, in part because of limited resources, difficulties with interdisciplinary data interpretation, and the need for advanced inter-agency partnerships. As a result, the validation and verification of satellite data for air quality operational system applications has been limited This candidate solution evaluates the usefulness of OMI

  8. Regional transportation network blocked by snowdrifts: assessment of risk reduction strategies by the example of the wind event of February 2015 in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2016-04-01

    The 5-8th February, a meteorological situation characterized by a strong wind coming from the North generated many snowdrifts on roads and railways in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland. The affected region, about 900 km2, is located on the Swiss Plateau. More than thirty roads and few railways were blocked during the event. On some areas, too many roads and railways tracks were closed to assure the school transports making obligatory the total closure of seven schools and the partial closure of three schools affecting 8'000 students, which is almost 10% of students of the Canton of Vaud. Over hundred vehicles blocked in the snowdrifts had to be unobstructed. Over 150 snowplows drivers were requisitioned but the wind with gusts of over 80 km/h was too strong to release the roads from the snow accumulation. The boat transport on the Lake Geneva was interrupted during three days because of the danger generated by the strong wind during the berths. This interruption generated up to 100 km deviation for commuting traffic. The county police recommended to the population to limit their travels on the road. The last roads closures due to snowdrifts in the Canton of Vaud occurred ten years ago, in 2005. This particular event that affected considerably the accessibility of a large area of the Canton of Vaud is interesting because results of a "simple" meteorological situation that strongly reduced the accessibility during four days of an area with a population of about 340'000. It raises several questions as for examples: how the emergency services accessibility is assured; what are the tools that can reduce the roads closures; what is the best road management to follow during such an event (which roads must be priority cleaned, which roads can be left covered by snow); how to prevent such an event, are snow fences enough to avoid snowdrifts or is there another way to limit their creation? To try obtaining answers to those questions, we assess the most critical infrastructures

  9. Centers for Environmental Education: Guidelines for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Terry; Martin, Joan

    This report presents a model of collaborative effort that established a network of 15 university-based and 2 non-university based Centers for Environmental Education (CEE) in the Tennessee River watershed region. The report begins by establishing definitions for a Center for Environmental Education and a network system, both of which are…

  10. Learning Regions in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thinesse-Demel, Jutta

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) launched the programme "Learning Regions--Providing Support for Networks'" in cooperation with the Lander. It was co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF). Some 90 regions were selected and financially supported. After one year, 71 regions continued to build-up their…

  11. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries. PMID:26433305

  12. Pennsylvania Action Research Network (PA-ARN) Staff Development through Five Regional Staff Development Centers. Final Report. July 1997-June 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., McKeesport.

    The Pennsylvania Action Research Network project was initiated in 1995-1996 to provide Pennsylvania literacy educators with the following: a better method for taking published research findings and testing and adapting them in their own classrooms; a way to study their own research ideas on a daily-action basis; and a systematic way to share and…

  13. Pennsylvania Action Research Network (PA-ARN) Staff Development through Five Regional Staff Development Centers. Final Report, July 1998-June 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., McKeesport.

    With the existence of 67 monographs and approximately 60 practitioners trained in action research in the western and central parts of Pennsylvania from project years 1995-98, the 1998-99 Section 353 project expanded the action research network (ARN) to include teachers, administrators, and researchers in the northeastern and southeastern parts of…

  14. Arctic Risk Management (ARMNet) Network: Linking Risk Management Practitioners and Researchers Across the Arctic Regions of Canada and Alaska To Improve Risk, Emergency and Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation Through Comparative Analysis and Applied Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic Risk Management Network (ARMNet) was conceived as a trans-disciplinary hub to encourage and facilitate greater cooperation, communication and exchange among American and Canadian academics and practitioners actively engaged in the research, management and mitigation of risks, emergencies and disasters in the Arctic regions. Its aim is to assist regional decision-makers through the sharing of applied research and best practices and to support greater inter-operability and bilateral collaboration through improved networking, joint exercises, workshops, teleconferences, radio programs, and virtual communications (eg. webinars). Most importantly, ARMNet is a clearinghouse for all information related to the management of the frequent hazards of Arctic climate and geography in North America, including new and emerging challenges arising from climate change, increased maritime polar traffic and expanding economic development in the region. ARMNet is an outcome of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) for Long Term Observations, Governance, and Management Discussions, www.arcus.org/search-program. The AON goals continue with CRIOS (www.ariesnonprofit.com/ARIESprojects.php) and coastal erosion research (www.ariesnonprofit.com/webinarCoastalErosion.php) led by the North Slope Borough Risk Management Office with assistance from ARIES (Applied Research in Environmental Sciences Nonprofit, Inc.). The constituency for ARMNet will include all northern academics and researchers, Arctic-based corporations, First Responders (FRs), Emergency Management Offices (EMOs) and Risk Management Offices (RMOs), military, Coast Guard, northern police forces, Search and Rescue (SAR) associations, boroughs, territories and communities throughout the Arctic. This presentation will be of interest to all those engaged in Arctic affairs, describe the genesis of ARMNet and present the results of stakeholder meetings and webinars designed to guide the next stages of the Project.

  15. The use of discriminant analysis and neural networks to forecast the severity of the Poaceae pollen season in a region with a typical Mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Mesa, Juan Antonio; Galán, Carmen; Hervás, César

    2005-07-01

    Biological particles in the air such as pollen grains can cause environmental problems in the allergic population. Medical studies report that a prior knowledge of pollen season severity can be useful in the management of pollen-related diseases. The aim of this work was to forecast the severity of the Poaceae pollen season by using weather parameters prior to the pollen season. To carry out the study a historical database of 21 years of pollen and meteorological data was used. First, the years were grouped into classes by using cluster analysis. As a result of the grouping, the 21 years were divided into 3 classes according to their potential allergenic load. Pre-season meteorological variables were used, as well as a series of characteristics related to the pollen season. When considering pre-season meteorological variables, winter variables were separated from early spring variables due to the nature of the Mediterranean climate. Second, a neural network model as well as a discriminant linear analysis were built to forecast Poaceae pollen season severity, according to the three classes previously defined. The neural network yielded better results than linear models. In conclusion, neural network models could have a high applicability in the area of prevention, as the allergenic potential of a year can be determined with a high degree of reliability, based on a series of meteorological values accumulated prior to the pollen season.

  16. Telecommunications network optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis discusses STACOM (state criminal justic communication) network topology program used to design and evaluate digital telecommunications networks STACOM employs ESAU-WILLIAMS technique to search for direct links between system terminations and regional switching center. Inputs include traffic data, terminal locations, and functional requirements.

  17. Regional Resource Center for Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Theis, K.

    2000-04-26

    The Regional Resource Centers for Innovation (RRCIs) promote networking among the various regional, state, and local specialists who provide services to inventors and small business innovators. This networking facilitates the rapid deployment of I&I technologies that provide solutions for the energy challenges facing the U.S.

  18. From network structure to network reorganization: implications for adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider-Mizell, Casey M.; Parent, Jack M.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Zochowski, Michal R.; Sander, Leonard M.

    2010-12-01

    Networks can be dynamical systems that undergo functional and structural reorganization. One example of such a process is adult hippocampal neurogenesis, in which new cells are continuously born and incorporate into the existing network of the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus. Many of these introduced cells mature and become indistinguishable from established neurons, joining the existing network. Activity in the network environment is known to promote birth, survival and incorporation of new cells. However, after epileptogenic injury, changes to the connectivity structure around the neurogenic niche are known to correlate with aberrant neurogenesis. The possible role of network-level changes in the development of epilepsy is not well understood. In this paper, we use a computational model to investigate how the structural and functional outcomes of network reorganization, driven by addition of new cells during neurogenesis, depend on the original network structure. We find that there is a stable network topology that allows the network to incorporate new neurons in a manner that enhances activity of the persistently active region, but maintains global network properties. In networks having other connectivity structures, new cells can greatly alter the distribution of firing activity and destroy the initial activity patterns. We thus find that new cells are able to provide focused enhancement of network only for small-world networks with sufficient inhibition. Network-level deviations from this topology, such as those caused by epileptogenic injury, can set the network down a path that develops toward pathological dynamics and aberrant structural integration of new cells.

  19. An Explicit Representation of High Resolution River Networks using a Catchment-based Land Surface Model with the NHDPlus dataset for California Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Kim, H.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    The main motivation of this study is to characterize how accurately we can estimate river discharge, river depth and inundation extent using an explicit representation of the river network with a catchment-based hydrological and routing modeling system (CHARMS) framework. Here we present a macroscale implementation of CHARMS over California. There are two main components in CHARMS: a land surface model based on National Center Atmospheric Research Community Land Model (CLM) 4.0, which is modified for implementation on a catchment template; and a river routing model that considers the water transport of each river reach. The river network is upscaled from the National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus) to the Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC8) river basins. Both long-term monthly and daily streamflow simulation are generated and show reasonable results compared with gage observations. With river cross-section profile information derived from empirical relationships between channel dimensions and drainage area, river depth and floodplain extent associated with each river reach are also explicitly represented. Results have implications for assimilation of surface water altimetry and for implementation of the approach at the continental scale.

  20. Improving Conservation of Florida Manatees ( Trichechus manatus latirostris): Conceptualization and Contributions Toward a Regional Warm-Water Network Management Strategy for Sustainable Winter Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flamm, Richard Owen; Reynolds, John Elliot; Harmak, Craig

    2013-01-01

    We used southwestern Florida as a case study to lay the groundwork for an intended and organized decision-making process for managing warm-water habitat needed by endangered manatees to survive winters in Florida. Scientists and managers have prioritized (a) projecting how the network of warm-water sites will change over the next 50 years as warmed industrial discharges may expire and as flows of natural springs are reduced through redirection of water for human uses, and (b) mitigating such changes to prevent undue consequences to manatees. Given the complexities introduced by manatee ecology; agency organizational structure; shifting public demands; fluctuating resource availability; and managing within interacting cultural, social, political, and environmental contexts, it was clear that a structured decision process was needed. To help promote such a process, we collected information relevant to future decisions including maps of known and suspected warm-water sites and prototyped a characterization of sites and networks. We propose steps that would lead to models that might serve as core tools in manatee/warm-water decision-making, and we summarized topics relevant for informed decision-making (e.g., manatee spatial cognition, risk of cold-stress morbidity and mortality, and human dimensions). A major impetus behind this effort is to ensure proactively that robust modeling tools are available well in advance of the anticipated need for a critical management decision.

  1. Improving conservation of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris): conceptualization and contributions toward a regional warm-water network management strategy for sustainable winter habitat.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Richard Owen; Reynolds, John Elliot; Harmak, Craig

    2013-01-01

    We used southwestern Florida as a case study to lay the groundwork for an intended and organized decision-making process for managing warm-water habitat needed by endangered manatees to survive winters in Florida. Scientists and managers have prioritized (a) projecting how the network of warm-water sites will change over the next 50 years as warmed industrial discharges may expire and as flows of natural springs are reduced through redirection of water for human uses, and (b) mitigating such changes to prevent undue consequences to manatees. Given the complexities introduced by manatee ecology; agency organizational structure; shifting public demands; fluctuating resource availability; and managing within interacting cultural, social, political, and environmental contexts, it was clear that a structured decision process was needed. To help promote such a process, we collected information relevant to future decisions including maps of known and suspected warm-water sites and prototyped a characterization of sites and networks. We propose steps that would lead to models that might serve as core tools in manatee/warm-water decision-making, and we summarized topics relevant for informed decision-making (e.g., manatee spatial cognition, risk of cold-stress morbidity and mortality, and human dimensions). A major impetus behind this effort is to ensure proactively that robust modeling tools are available well in advance of the anticipated need for a critical management decision. PMID:23161252

  2. The p55 tumour necrosis factor receptor TNFR1 contains a trans-Golgi network localization signal in the C-terminal region of its cytoplasmic tail.

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Helen; Stewart, Abigail; Vandenabeele, Peter; Luzio, J Paul

    2002-01-01

    It has been reported in some human cells that, in addition to a plasma membrane localization, members of the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily may be localized to the Golgi complex. We have shown by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy that the p55 tumour necrosis factor receptor, TNFR1, is principally localized to the trans-Golgi network in the human breast carcinoma cell line, MCF7. Chimaeras consisting of the extracellular and transmembrane domains of CD8 together with the cytoplasmic tail of TNFR1 were targeted to the trans-Golgi network in stably transfected rat fibroblastic cells. Deletions in the cytoplasmic tails of these chimaeras demonstrated the requirement for the C-terminal sequence of 23 amino acids for this targeting. The 23 amino acid sequence is mostly outside the death domain and contains both an acid patch and a dileucine motif. Interaction of this sequence with membrane traffic adaptor proteins may play an important role in controlling the responses of cells to tumour necrosis factor, since binding of signalling adaptor proteins has only been demonstrated for plasma membrane, and not Golgi-localized, TNFR1. PMID:11985495

  3. The Implementation of Project and Research Activities in Working with Gifted Children in Terms of School-University Network Cooperation (Regional Aspect)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdrafikova, Albina R.; Akhmadullina, Rimma M.; Singatullova, Aliya A.

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with regional experience in using modern strategies in teaching gifted children. The value of project and research activity is actualized as one of the most effective educational technologies in work with gifted children. The article shows examples of organization of combined project and research activities of student-teachers…

  4. Empowering People as a Matter of Policy: Five Years of Success of a State-Initiated Regional Alliance Network for Middle School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitel, Lee

    In 1992, Massachusetts's Department of Education established five regional alliances throughout the state to support middle-school restructuring and reform. The project began with 50 schools and colleges and grew to include 11 alliances comprised of more than 165 schools and colleges. A statewide case study that describes the alliances, the…

  5. Decentralization of the National Biomedical Communications Network; Development of Regional and State Plans. North Dakota Library Notes, Vol. 5, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Elizabeth W.

    1974-01-01

    The current trend in biomedical information systems is to decentralization. Starting with the Medical Library Assistance Act of 1965, various plans of organization have been tried for improving the national diffusion of medical information. In 1968 the John Crerar Library became the Midwest Regional Medical Library, serving as an intermediary…

  6. Exploring spatial patterns of particulate sulfur and OMH from the Project MOHAVE summer intensive regional network using analyses of variance techniques and meteorological parameters as sort determinants.

    PubMed

    Farber, R J; Murray, L C; Moran, W A

    2000-05-01

    Project MOHAVE (Measurements of Haze and Visual Effects) encompassed a 1-yr field study in the southwestern United States from September 1991 through August 1992. The congressionally mandated study was a joint partnership between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Southern California Edison, and the National Park Service. A major objective of this study was to quantify the potential haze impacts on the nearby Grand Canyon National Park from the 1580 MW coal-fired MOHAVE Power Project (MPP). Any regional impacts from MPP were from secondary fine sulfate. In this paper, we explore the temporal and spatial patterns of particulate sulfur (Sp) and "organic mass by hydrogen" (OMH) during the summer intensive, conducted from mid-July through the end of August 1992. Using an innovative hierarchical pattern recognition classification scheme, we developed 6 groups of Sp and 8 groups of OMH temporally similar behaving patterns in the sampling region. From a regional understanding of synoptic meteorology, these Sp patterns were explainable. We observed two regional gradients. One gradient was a west-to-east decreasing gradient, most likely the result of major sources from urban southern California, including the San Joaquin Valley. The other decreasing gradient was from south-to-north, perhaps the result of emissions emanating from the large urban centers in northern Mexico. The patterns for OMH were not as regionally homogeneous as the patterns for Sp. A west-to-east decreasing gradient was observed for OMH, along with reduced values in the lower Colorado River Valley and some higher values in central and eastern Arizona. The west-to-east decreasing gradient suggests the presence of the Los Angeles urban plume, while the higher values in central and eastern Arizona may be due to biogenic emissions and increased seasonal fires. PMID:10842937

  7. Principal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Clayden, Jonathan D.; Dayan, Michael; Clark, Chris A.

    2013-01-01

    Graph representations of brain connectivity have attracted a lot of recent interest, but existing methods for dividing such graphs into connected subnetworks have a number of limitations in the context of neuroimaging. This is an important problem because most cognitive functions would be expected to involve some but not all brain regions. In this paper we outline a simple approach for decomposing graphs, which may be based on any measure of interregional association, into coherent “principal networks”. The technique is based on an eigendecomposition of the association matrix, and is closely related to principal components analysis. We demonstrate the technique using cortical thickness and diffusion tractography data, showing that the subnetworks which emerge are stable, meaningful and reproducible. Graph-theoretic measures of network cost and efficiency may be calculated separately for each principal network. Unlike some other approaches, all available connectivity information is taken into account, and vertices may appear in none or several of the subnetworks. Subject-by-subject “scores” for each principal network may also be obtained, under certain circumstances, and related to demographic or cognitive variables of interest. PMID:23630578

  8. Surface wave tomography of North America and the Caribbean using global and regional broad-band networks: Phase velocity maps and limitations of ray theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godey, S.; Snieder, R.; Villasenor, A.; Benz, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    We present phase velocity maps of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves across the North American and Caribbean plates. Our data set consists of 1846 waveforms from 172 events recorded at 91 broad-band stations operating in North America. We compute phase velocity maps in four narrow period bands between 50 and 150 s using a non-linear waveform inversion method that solves for phase velocity perturbations relative to a reference Earth model (PREM). Our results show a strong velocity contrast between high velocities beneath the stable North American craton, and lower velocities in the tectonically active western margin, in agreement with other regional and global surface wave tomography studies. We perform detailed comparisons with global model results, which display good agreement between phase velocity maps in the location and amplitude of the anomalies. However, forward modelling shows that regional maps are more accurate for predicting waveforms. In addition, at long periods, the amplitude of the velocity anomalies imaged in our regional phase velocity maps is three time larger than in global phase velocity models. This amplitude factor is necessary to explain the data accurately, showing that regional models provide a better image of velocity structures. Synthetic tests show that the raypath coverage used in this study enables one to resolve velocity features of the order of 800-1000 km. However, only larger length-scale features are observed in the phase velocity maps. The limitation in resolution of our maps can be attributed to the wave propagation theory used in the inversion. Ray theory does not account for off-great-circle ray propagation effects, such as ray bending or scattering. For wavelengths less than 1000 km, scattering effects are significant and may need to be considered.

  9. The Century of Education. CEE DP 109

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisson, Christian; Murtin, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    Global economic transformations have never been as dramatic as in the twentieth century. Most countries have experienced radical changes in the standards of income per capita, technology, fertility, mortality, income inequality and the extent of democracy in the course of the past century. It is the goal of many disciplines--economics, history,…

  10. Hourly air temperature driven using multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function networks in arid and semi-arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaeian-Zadeh, Mehdi; Zand-Parsa, Shahrookh; Abghari, Hirad; Zolghadr, Masih; Singh, Vijay P.

    2012-08-01

    This study employed two artificial neural network (ANN) models, including multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF), as data-driven methods of hourly air temperature at three meteorological stations in Fars province, Iran. MLP was optimized using the Levenberg-Marquardt (MLP_LM) training algorithm with a tangent sigmoid transfer function. Both time series (TS) and randomized (RZ) data were used for training and testing of ANNs. Daily maximum and minimum air temperatures (MM) and antecedent daily maximum and minimum air temperatures (AMM) constituted the input for ANNs. The ANN models were evaluated using the root mean square error (RMSE), the coefficient of determination ( R 2) and the mean absolute error. The use of AMM led to a more accurate estimation of hourly temperature compared with the use of MM. The MLP-ANN seemed to have a higher estimation efficiency than the RBF ANN. Furthermore, the ANN testing using randomized data showed more accurate estimation. The RMSE values for MLP with RZ data using daily maximum and minimum air temperatures for testing phase were equal to 1.2°C, 1.8°C, and 1.7°C, respectively, at Arsanjan, Bajgah, and Kooshkak stations. The results of this study showed that hourly air temperature driven using ANNs (proposed models) had less error than the empirical equation.

  11. Analysis of regional scale risk of whirling disease in populations of Colorado and Rio Grande cutthroat trout using a Bayesian belief network model.

    PubMed

    Ayre, Kimberley Kolb; Caldwell, Colleen A; Stinson, Jonah; Landis, Wayne G

    2014-09-01

    Introduction and spread of the parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease, has contributed to the collapse of wild trout populations throughout the intermountain west. Of concern is the risk the disease may have on conservation and recovery of native cutthroat trout. We employed a Bayesian belief network to assess probability of whirling disease in Colorado River and Rio Grande cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus and Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis, respectively) within their current ranges in the southwest United States. Available habitat (as defined by gradient and elevation) for intermediate oligochaete worm host, Tubifex tubifex, exerted the greatest influence on the likelihood of infection, yet prevalence of stream barriers also affected the risk outcome. Management areas that had the highest likelihood of infected Colorado River cutthroat trout were in the eastern portion of their range, although the probability of infection was highest for populations in the southern, San Juan subbasin. Rio Grande cutthroat trout had a relatively low likelihood of infection, with populations in the southernmost Pecos management area predicted to be at greatest risk. The Bayesian risk assessment model predicted the likelihood of whirling disease infection from its principal transmission vector, fish movement, and suggested that barriers may be effective in reducing risk of exposure to native trout populations. Data gaps, especially with regard to location of spawning, highlighted the importance in developing monitoring plans that support future risk assessments and adaptive management for subspecies of cutthroat trout. PMID:24660663

  12. Piloting a Social Networks Strategy to Increase HIV Testing and Counseling Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Greater Accra and Ashanti Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Girault, Philippe; Green, Kimberly; Clement, Nana Fosua; Rahman, Yussif Ahmed Abdul; Adams, Bashiru; Wambugu, Samuel

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Ghana Men's Study identified a high prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Accra/Tema (34.4 %) and in Kumasi (13.6 %), whereas the HIV rate among MSM referred through peer educators (PEs) to HIV testing and counseling (HTC) services in these two sites was substantially lower (8.4 %). These findings raised questions about possible limitations of the peer-education strategy to reach high-risk MSM. Therefore, a pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of using a social network strategy (SNS) to identify and refer MSM to HTC services. Within 3 months, 166 MSM were reached and referred to HTC services: 62.7 % reported no recent exposure to PEs; 61.5 % were unaware of their recent HIV serostatus; and 32.9 % were newly diagnosed HIV positive. This pilot study suggests that an SNS could be an important strategy to reach MSM and to increase the uptake of HTC. PMID:25903507

  13. Analysis of regional scale risk to whirling disease in populations of Colorado and Rio Grande cutthroat trout using Bayesian belief network model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolb Ayre, Kimberley; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Stinson, Jonah; Landis, Wayne G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and spread of the parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease, has contributed to the collapse of wild trout populations throughout the intermountain west. Of concern is the risk the disease may have on conservation and recovery of native cutthroat trout. We employed a Bayesian belief network to assess probability of whirling disease in Colorado River and Rio Grande cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus and Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis, respectively) within their current ranges in the southwest United States. Available habitat (as defined by gradient and elevation) for intermediate oligochaete worm host, Tubifex tubifex, exerted the greatest influence on the likelihood of infection, yet prevalence of stream barriers also affected the risk outcome. Management areas that had the highest likelihood of infected Colorado River cutthroat trout were in the eastern portion of their range, although the probability of infection was highest for populations in the southern, San Juan subbasin. Rio Grande cutthroat trout had a relatively low likelihood of infection, with populations in the southernmost Pecos management area predicted to be at greatest risk. The Bayesian risk assessment model predicted the likelihood of whirling disease infection from its principal transmission vector, fish movement, and suggested that barriers may be effective in reducing risk of exposure to native trout populations. Data gaps, especially with regard to location of spawning, highlighted the importance in developing monitoring plans that support future risk assessments and adaptive management for subspecies of cutthroat trout.

  14. Use of Mobile Health (mHealth) Tools by Primary Care Patients in the WWAMI Region Practice and Research Network (WPRN)

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Amy M.; Rue, Tessa; Keppel, Gina A.; Cole, Allison M.; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Katon, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of mobile health (mHealth) use among primary care patients and examine demographic and clinical correlates. Methods Adult patients who presented to 1 of 6 primary care clinics in a practice-based research network in the northwest United States during a 2-week period received a survey that assessed smart-phone ownership; mHealth use; sociodemographic characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, health literacy); chronic conditions; and depressive symptoms (2-item Patient Health Questionnaire). Data analysis used descriptive statistics and mixed logistic regression. Results Of 918 respondents (estimated response rate, 67.4%), 55% owned a smartphone, among whom 70% were mHealth users. In multivariate analyses, smartphone ownership and mHealth use were not associated with health literacy, chronic conditions, or depression but were less common among adults >45 years old (adjusted odds ratio, 0.07– 0.39; P < .001). Only 10% of patients learned about mHealth tools from their physician, and few (31%) prioritized their provider’s involvement. Conclusions Use of mHealth technologies is lower among older adults but otherwise is common among primary care patients, including those with limited health literacy and those with chronic conditions. Findings support the potential role of mHealth in improving disease management among certain groups in need; however, greater involvement of health care providers may be important for realizing this potential. PMID:25381075

  15. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also

  16. A remote sensing technique for measuring spatio-temporal rainfall patterns in a mountainous region with a low density rain gauge network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Miro; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    In drought years, millions of Ethiopians are dependent on assistance, not only because of deficient total rainfall amounts but also because of long dry spells within the rain season. The semi-arid to subhumid mountain climate of the North Ethiopian Highlands is especially vulnerable to rainfall anomalies. In this research spatio-temporal rainfall patterns are analyzed on a regional scale in the North Ethiopian Highlands using NOAAs satellite-derived Rainfall Estimates (RFE). To counter the weak correlation in the dry season, only the rain season rainfall from March till September is used, responsible for ca. 91% of the annual rainfall. Validation analysis demonstrates that the RFEs are well correlated with the Meteorological Station (MS) rainfall data (81% for RFE 1.0 (1996-2000) and 80% for RFE 2.0 (2001-2006)). However discrepancies indicate that RFEs generally underestimate MS rainfall and the scatter around the trendlines indicates that the estimation by RFEs can be in gross error. A local calibration of RFE with rain gauge information is validated as a technique to improve the RFEs for a regional mountainous study area. Slope gradient, slope aspect and elevation have no added value for the calibration of the RFEs. The estimation of monthly rainfall using this calibration model improved on average by 8%. Based upon the calibration model, annual rainfall maps and an average isohyet map for the period 1996-2006 were constructed. The maps show a general northeast-southwest gradient of increasing rainfall in the study area and a sharp east-west gradient in its northern part. Slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, easting and northing were evaluated as explanatory factors for the spatial variability of annual rainfall in a stepwise multiple regression with the calibrated average of RFE 1.0 as dependent variable. Easting and northing are the only significant contributing variables (R2: 0.86), of which easting has proven to be the most important factor (R2: 0

  17. Effects of road network on diversiform forest cover changes in the highest coverage region in China: An analysis of sampling strategies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xisheng; Wu, Zhilong; Wu, Chengzhen; Ye, Limin; Lan, Chaofeng; Tang, Kun; Xu, Lu; Qiu, Rongzu

    2016-09-15

    Forest cover changes are of global concern due to their roles in global warming and biodiversity. However, many previous studies have ignored the fact that forest loss and forest gain are different processes that may respond to distinct factors by stressing forest loss more than gain or viewing forest cover change as a whole. It behooves us to carefully examine the patterns and drivers of the change by subdividing it into several categories. Our study includes areas of forest loss (4.8% of the study area), forest gain (1.3% of the study area) and forest loss and gain (2.0% of the study area) from 2000 to 2012 in Fujian Province, China. In the study area, approximately 65% and 90% of these changes occurred within 2000m of the nearest road and under road densities of 0.6km/km(2), respectively. We compared two sampling techniques (systematic sampling and random sampling) and four intensities for each technique to investigate the driving patterns underlying the changes using multinomial logistic regression. The results indicated the lack of pronounced differences in the regressions between the two sampling designs, although the sample size had a great impact on the regression outcome. The application of multi-model inference indicated that the low level road density had a negative significant association with forest loss and forest loss and gain, the expressway density had a positive significant impact on forest loss, and the road network was insignificantly related to forest gain. The model including socioeconomic and biophysical variables illuminated potentially different predictors of the different forest change categories. Moreover, the multiple comparisons tested by Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) were a good compensation for the multinomial logistic model to enrich the interpretation of the regression results. PMID:27156213

  18. Waveform through the subducted plate under the Tokyo region in Japan observed by a ultra-dense seismic network (MeSO-net) and seismic activity around mega-thrust earthquakes area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nanjo, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Tsuruoka, H.; Morita, Y.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Hirata, N.; Tanada, T.; Obara, K.; Sekine, S.; Kurashimo, E.

    2009-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area, the Kanto region, where it causes mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. We had started the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan area (2007-2012). Under this project, the construction of the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) that consists of about 400 observation sites was started [Kasahara et al., 2008; Nakagawa et al., 2008]. Now, we had 178 observation sites. The correlation of the wave is high because the observation point is deployed at about 2 km intervals, and the identification of the later phase is recognized easily thought artificial noise is very large. We also discuss the relation between a deformation of PSP and intra-plate M7+ earthquakes: the PSP is subducting beneath the Honshu arc and also colliding with the Pacific plate. The subduction and collision both contribute active seismicity in the Kanto region. We are going to present a high resolution tomographic image to show low velocity zone which suggests a possible internal failure of the plate; a source region of the M7+ intra-plate earthquake. Our study will contribute a new assessment of the seismic hazard at the Metropolitan area in Japan. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  19. Volcano-tectonic deformation in the Kivu Region, Central Africa: Results from multi-year InSAR time series analysis and continuous GNSS observations of the Kivu Geodetic Network (KivuGNet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsson, Halldor; D'Oreye, Nicolas; Smets, Benoît; Nobile, Adriano; Samsonov, Sergey; De Rauw, Dominique; Mashagiro, Niche; Kervyn, Francois

    2016-04-01

    The Kivu Region in Central Africa is a topographic dome cut by the depression of the western branch of the East African Rift, where the Nubia plate and the Victoria micro-plate are diverging by approximately 2-3 mm/yr (Stamps et al. 2008). Two closely spaced and frequently active volcanoes, Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira, are located at the plate boundary. Here, deformation signals from transient deformation events (i.e. earthquakes, eruptions, rifting episodes, intrusions or other subsurface mass movements) are intertwined with the more perpetual nature of inter-seismic strain accumulation and gradual magma accumulation. Here, we present deformation results from six years of operation of the 15- station KivuGNet (Kivu Geodetic Network) in the Kivu Region and multi-year InSAR time series of the region using the MSBAS approach (Samsonov & d'Oreye, 2012). Since 2009, KivuGNet has captured transient deformation from a) the 2010 eruption of Nyamulagira, b) the 2011-2012 eruption of Nyamulagira c) the Mw5.8 August 7, 2015 Katana earthquake at the western border of Lake Kivu. Importantly, the GPS data also show an ongoing deformation signal, which is most readily explained by long-term magma accumulation under the volcanic region. We use the GPS and InSAR deformation signals to constrain and compare source parameters of simplistic elastic models for the different time periods. Although not well constrained, most of the time periods indicate the presence of a deep (~15-30 km) magmatic source centered approximately under Nyamulagira or to the southeast of Nyamulagira, that inflates between eruptions and deflates during eruptions.

  20. Retrieval Assimilation and Modeling of Atmospheric Water Vapor from Ground- and Space-Based GPS Networks: Investigation of the Global and Regional Hydrological Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1999-01-01

    Uncertainty over the response of the atmospheric hydrological cycle (particularly the distribution of water vapor and cloudiness) to anthropogenic forcing is a primary source of doubt in current estimates of global climate sensitivity, which raises severe difficulties in evaluating its likely societal impact. Fortunately, a variety of advanced techniques and sensors are beginning to shed new light on the atmospheric hydrological cycle. One of the most promising makes use of the sensitivity of the Global Positioning System (GPS) to the thermodynamic state, and in particular the water vapor content, of the atmosphere through which the radio signals propagate. Our strategy to derive the maximum benefit for hydrological studies from the rapidly increasing GPS data stream will proceed in three stages: (1) systematically analyze and archive quality-controlled retrievals using state-of-the-art techniques; (2) employ both currently available and innovative assimilation procedures to incorporate these determinations into advanced regional and global atmospheric models and assess their effects; and (3) apply the results to investigate selected scientific issues of relevance to regional and global hydrological studies. An archive of GPS-based estimation of total zenith delay (TZD) data and water vapor where applicable has been established with expanded automated quality control. The accuracy of the GPS estimates is being monitored; the investigation of systematic errors is ongoing using comparisons with water vapor radiometers. Meteorological packages have been implemented. The accuracy and utilization of the TZD estimates has been improved by implementing a troposphere gradient model. GPS-based gradients have been validated as real atmospheric moisture gradients, establishing a link between the estimated gradients and the passage of weather fronts. We have developed a generalized ray tracing inversion scheme that can be used to analyze occultation data acquired from space

  1. Identifying Determinants of Oncomelania hupensis Habitats and Assessing the Effects of Environmental Control Strategies in the Plain Regions with the Waterway Network of China at the Microscale

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Juan; Li, Rendong; Xu, Xingjian; Yu, Chuanhua; Xia, Xin; Hong, Xicheng; Chang, Bianrong; Yi, Fengjia; Shi, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify the landscape ecological determinants related to Oncomelania hupensis distribution, map the potential high risk of O. hupensis habitats at the microscale, and assess the effects of two environmental control strategies. Sampling was performed on 242 snail sites and 726 non-snail sites throughout Qianjiang City, Hubei Province, China. An integrated approach of landscape pattern analysis coupled with multiple logistic regression modeling was applied to investigate the effects of environmental factors on snail habitats. The risk probability of snail habitats positively correlated with patch fractal dimension (FD), paddy farm land proportion, and wetness index but inversely correlated with categorized normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation. These findings indicate that FD can identify irregular features (e.g., irrigation ditches) in plain regions and that a moderate NDVI increases the microscale risk probability. Basing on the observed determinants, we predicted a map showing high-risk areas of snail habitats and simulated the effects of conduit hardening and paddy farming land rotation to dry farming land. The two approaches were confirmed effective for snail control. These findings provide an empirical basis for health professionals in local schistosomiasis control stations to identify priority areas and promising environmental control strategies for snail control and prevention. PMID:25003174

  2. Network discovery with DCM

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.; Li, Baojuan; Daunizeau, Jean; Stephan, Klaas E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about inferring or discovering the functional architecture of distributed systems using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM). We describe a scheme that recovers the (dynamic) Bayesian dependency graph (connections in a network) using observed network activity. This network discovery uses Bayesian model selection to identify the sparsity structure (absence of edges or connections) in a graph that best explains observed time-series. The implicit adjacency matrix specifies the form of the network (e.g., cyclic or acyclic) and its graph-theoretical attributes (e.g., degree distribution). The scheme is illustrated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series to discover functional brain networks. Crucially, it can be applied to experimentally evoked responses (activation studies) or endogenous activity in task-free (resting state) fMRI studies. Unlike conventional approaches to network discovery, DCM permits the analysis of directed and cyclic graphs. Furthermore, it eschews (implausible) Markovian assumptions about the serial independence of random fluctuations. The scheme furnishes a network description of distributed activity in the brain that is optimal in the sense of having the greatest conditional probability, relative to other networks. The networks are characterised in terms of their connectivity or adjacency matrices and conditional distributions over the directed (and reciprocal) effective connectivity between connected nodes or regions. We envisage that this approach will provide a useful complement to current analyses of functional connectivity for both activation and resting-state studies. PMID:21182971

  3. Network discovery with DCM.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Li, Baojuan; Daunizeau, Jean; Stephan, Klaas E

    2011-06-01

    This paper is about inferring or discovering the functional architecture of distributed systems using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM). We describe a scheme that recovers the (dynamic) Bayesian dependency graph (connections in a network) using observed network activity. This network discovery uses Bayesian model selection to identify the sparsity structure (absence of edges or connections) in a graph that best explains observed time-series. The implicit adjacency matrix specifies the form of the network (e.g., cyclic or acyclic) and its graph-theoretical attributes (e.g., degree distribution). The scheme is illustrated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series to discover functional brain networks. Crucially, it can be applied to experimentally evoked responses (activation studies) or endogenous activity in task-free (resting state) fMRI studies. Unlike conventional approaches to network discovery, DCM permits the analysis of directed and cyclic graphs. Furthermore, it eschews (implausible) Markovian assumptions about the serial independence of random fluctuations. The scheme furnishes a network description of distributed activity in the brain that is optimal in the sense of having the greatest conditional probability, relative to other networks. The networks are characterised in terms of their connectivity or adjacency matrices and conditional distributions over the directed (and reciprocal) effective connectivity between connected nodes or regions. We envisage that this approach will provide a useful complement to current analyses of functional connectivity for both activation and resting-state studies. PMID:21182971

  4. Networks model of the East Turkistan terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ben-xian; Zhu, Jun-fang; Wang, Shun-guo

    2015-02-01

    The presence of the East Turkistan terrorist network in China can be traced back to the rebellions on the BAREN region in Xinjiang in April 1990. This article intends to research the East Turkistan networks in China and offer a panoramic view. The events, terrorists and their relationship are described using matrices. Then social network analysis is adopted to reveal the network type and the network structure characteristics. We also find the crucial terrorist leader. Ultimately, some results show that the East Turkistan network has big hub nodes and small shortest path, and that the network follows a pattern of small world network with hierarchical structure.

  5. Network Cosmology

    PubMed Central

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology. PMID:23162688

  6. Regional Development and the European Consortium of Innovative Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Saskia Loer; Kokkeler, Ben; van der Sijde, P. C.

    2002-01-01

    The European Consortium of Innovative Universities is a network that shares information not just among universities but with affiliated incubators, research parks, and other regional entities. The learning network contributes to regional development.(JOW)

  7. WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach/Austria: From local measurements to weather and climate data products at 1 km-scale resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabas, T.; Leuprecht, A.; Bichler, C.; Kirchengast, G.

    2010-12-01

    South-eastern Austria is characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns. For this reason, the county of Feldbach was selected by the Wegener Center as a focus area for a pioneering observation experiment at very high resolution: The WegenerNet climate station network (in brief WegenerNet) comprises 151 meteorological stations within an area of about 20 km × 15 km (~ 1.4 km × 1.4 km station grid). All stations measure the main parameters temperature, humidity and precipitation with 5 minute sampling. Selected further stations include measurements of wind speed and direction completed by soil parameters as well as air pressure and net radiation. The collected data is integrated in an automatic processing system including data transfer, quality control, product generation, and visualization. Each station is equipped with an internet-attached data logger and the measurements are transferred as binary files via GPRS to the WegenerNet server in 1 hour intervals. The incoming raw data files of measured parameters as well as several operating values of the data logger are stored in a relational database (PostgreSQL). Next, the raw data pass the Quality Control System (QCS) in which the data are checked for its technical and physical plausibility (e.g., sensor specifications, temporal and spatial variability). In consideration of the data quality (quality flag), the Data Product Generator (DPG) results in weather and climate data products on various temporal scales (from 5 min to annual) for single stations and regular grids. Gridded data are derived by vertical scaling and squared inverse distance interpolation (1 km × 1 km and 0.01° × 0.01° grids). Both subsystems (QCS and DPG) are realized by the programming language Python. For application purposes the resulting data products are available via the bi-lingual (dt, en) WegenerNet data portal (www.wegenernet.org). At this time, the main interface is still online in a system in which

  8. Use of the SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) P band for detection of the Moche and Lambayeque canal networks in the Apurlec region, Perù

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria; Santovito, Maria Rosaria; Pica, Giulia; Catapano, Ilaria; Fornaro, Gianfranco; Lanari, Riccardo; Soldovieri, Francesco; Wester La Torre, Carlos; Fernandez Manayalle, Marco Antonio; Longo, Francesco; Facchinetti, Claudia; Formaro, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    , glaciers investigation, biomass monitoring, detection of buried targets. Its extension to non-civil application concerns sub-surface target detection and foliage penetration (FOPEN). In order to achieve the flexibility to face all the above mentioned fields of application, the CORISTA system has been designed as a multi-mode and multi-frequency radar. Multimode stands for the functionality of the system both as Sounder and Imager. In addition, P-band radar is a multi-frequency instrument, since it is designed to work in three different frequency bands, as mentioned above: lower frequency band is used in sounder operative mode, higher frequency in imager operative mode. In the Imager operative mode, low resolution and high resolution capabilities are implemented. The data collected by the radar system have been processed using a model-based microwave tomographic approach, recently developed by IREA-CNR, with the aim to enhance the interpretability of the raw-data radar images. Currently, the non-invasive SAR P band application is under evaluation for testing in the Northern Coast of Perù, in collaboration with the Museo Arqueológico Nacional Brüning. The project will aim to recognize the subsurface ancient Moche (100-700 d.C.) and Lambayeque (700-1375 d.C.) canal networks, whose water supply comes from the Canal Taymi, started to be dug by the Mochicas, still in use by local communities.

  9. A critical assessment of oral care protocols for patients under radiation therapy in the regional University Hospital Network of Madrid (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Lanzós, Isabel; Lanzós, Eduardo; Sanz, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Background This research was aimed to critically evaluate, under the light of the available scientific evidence, the oral care protocols recommended by different hospitals in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients under radiation therapy. Material and Methods A questionnaire requesting all the relevant information for the oral care of these patients was sent to the 9 University Hospitals in Madrid. The answers were categorized and analyzed. In addition, an electronic search was conducted to identify the most relevant papers (systematic reviews [SR] and randomized clinical trials [RCTs]) assessing oral care protocols for patients treated for HNC with radiation therapy. Results Eight out of nine centers answered the questionnaire and the retrieved information was tabulated and compared. These recommendations were analyzed by a computerized search on MEDLINE and the Cochrane Oral Health Collaboration Database. The results of the analysis clearly shown a great heterogeneity, in terms of oral health care protocols, regarding the management of irradiated patients (for HNC) within the Hospitals of Madrid region. In addition, some of the recommendations lack solid scientific support. Conclusions The present survey revealed that the recommendations provided by the different hospitals were clearly different. The available evidence, supported by SR and RCTs, suggested the need of an oral assessment before cancer treatment, in order to prevent and treat dental pathologies and avoiding potential complications; during cancer treatment, it is relevant monitoring the patient in order to decrease the severity of the side effects, and to avoid any tooth extraction or surgery and special attention should be paid to mucositis, xerostomia and candidiasis; after cancer treatment, the following are relevant aspects: the risk of osteoradionecrosis, trismus, caries and the risks associated to dental implants. Key words:Head and neck cancer, supportive care in cancer, radiotherapy

  10. Mutated Genes in Schizophrenia Map to Brain Networks

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2013 Mutated Genes in Schizophrenia Map to Brain Networks Schizophrenia networks in the prefrontal cortex area of the brain. ... of spontaneous mutations in genes that form a network in the front region of the brain. The ...

  11. Interictal networks in magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Urszula; Badier, Jean-Michel; Gavaret, Martine; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Chauvel, Patrick; Bénar, Christian-George

    2014-06-01

    Epileptic networks involve complex relationships across several brain areas. Such networks have been shown on intracerebral EEG (stereotaxic EEG, SEEG), an invasive technique. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a noninvasive tool, which was recently proven to be efficient for localizing the generators of epileptiform discharges. However, despite the importance of characterizing non-invasively network aspects in partial epilepsies, only few studies have attempted to retrieve fine spatiotemporal dynamics of interictal discharges with MEG. Our goal was to assess the relevance of magnetoencephalography for detecting and characterizing the brain networks involved in interictal epileptic discharges. We propose here a semi-automatic method based on independent component analysis (ICA) and on co-occurrence of events across components. The method was evaluated in a series of seven patients by comparing its results with networks identified in SEEG. On both MEG and SEEG, we found that interictal discharges can involve remote regions which are acting in synchrony. More regions were identified in SEEG (38 in total) than in MEG (20). All MEG regions were confirmed by SEEG when an electrode was present in the vicinity. In all patients, at least one region could be identified as leading according to our criteria. A majority (71%) of MEG leaders were confirmed by SEEG. We have therefore shown that MEG measurements can extract a significant proportion of the networks visible in SEEG. This suggests that MEG can be a useful tool for defining noninvasively interictal epileptic networks, in terms of regions and patterns of connectivity, in search for a "primary irritative zone". PMID:24105895

  12. Network Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vietzke, Robert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This special section explains the latest developments in networking technologies, profiles school districts benefiting from successful implementations, and reviews new products for building networks. Highlights include ATM (asynchronous transfer mode), cable modems, networking switches, Internet screening software, file servers, network management…

  13. Networking standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Mark

    1991-01-01

    The enterprise network is currently a multivendor environment consisting of many defacto and proprietary standards. During the 1990s, these networks will evolve towards networks which are based on international standards in both Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) space. Also, you can expect to see the higher level functions and applications begin the same transition. Additional information is given in viewgraph form.

  14. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  15. Assessing the Impacts of Land-Use Change and Ecological Restoration on CH4 and CO2 Fluxes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California: Findings from a Regional Network of Eddy Covariance Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, S. H.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Oikawa, P. Y.; Matthes, J. H.; Koteen, L. E.; Anderson, F. E.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    The new generation of open-path, low power, laser spectrometers has allowed us to measure methane (CH4) fluxes continuously in remote regions and answer new and exciting questions on the spatial and temporal variability of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes using networks of eddy covariance (EC) towers. Our research is focused in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta where we have installed a regional network of flux towers to assess the impacts of land-use change and ecological restoration on CH4 and CO2 fluxes. The Delta was drained for agriculture over a century ago and has since has experienced high rates of subsidence. It is recognized that agriculture on drained peat soils in the Delta is unsustainable in the long-term, and to help reverse subsidence and capture carbon (C) there is an interest in restoring drained land-use types to flooded conditions. However, flooding increases CH4 emissions. We conducted multiple years of simultaneous EC measurements at drained agricultural peatlands (a pasture, a corn field and an alfalfa field) and flooded land-use types (a rice paddy and 3 restored wetlands) to assess the impact of drained to flooded land-use change on CO2 and CH4 fluxes. Since these sites are all within 20 km of each other, they share the same basic meteorology, enabling a direct comparison of differences in the C and GHG budgets between sites. Using a multi-tower approach we found that converting drained agricultural peatlands to flooded land-use types can help reverse soil subsidence and reduce GHG emissions from the Delta. Furthermore, there is a growing interest in wetland restoration in California to generate C credits for both the voluntary C market and the state's cap-and-trade program. However, information on GHG fluxes from restored wetlands is lacking. Using multi-year measurements of GHG fluxes from restored wetlands of varying ages, our research also aims to understand how CO2 and CH4 fluxes from restored wetlands vary during ecosystem development

  16. Deinterlacing using modular neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Dong H.; Eom, Il K.; Kim, Yoo S.

    2004-05-01

    Deinterlacing is the conversion process from the interlaced scan to progressive one. While many previous algorithms that are based on weighted-sum cause blurring in edge region, deinterlacing using neural network can reduce the blurring through recovering of high frequency component by learning process, and is found robust to noise. In proposed algorithm, input image is divided into edge and smooth region, and then, to each region, one neural network is assigned. Through this process, each neural network learns only patterns that are similar, therefore it makes learning more effective and estimation more accurate. But even within each region, there are various patterns such as long edge and texture in edge region. To solve this problem, modular neural network is proposed. In proposed modular neural network, two modules are combined in output node. One is for low frequency feature of local area of input image, and the other is for high frequency feature. With this structure, each modular neural network can learn different patterns with compensating for drawback of counterpart. Therefore it can adapt to various patterns within each region effectively. In simulation, the proposed algorithm shows better performance compared with conventional deinterlacing methods and single neural network method.

  17. Applications of Complex Networks on Analysis of World Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Maeng, Seong Eun; Ha, Gyeong-Gyun; Hyeok Lee, Moon; Cho, Eun Seong

    2013-02-01

    We consider the wealth and the money flow of the world trade data. We analyze the world trade data from year 1948 to 2000 which include the total amounts of the import and export for every country per year. We apply the analyzing methods of the complex networks to the world trade network. We define the wealth as the gross domestic products (GDP) of each country. We defined the backbone network of the world trade network. We generate the backbone network keeping the link with the largest wealth flowing out each country by the import and deleting all remaining links. We observed that the wealth was transferred from the poorer countries to the wealthier countries. We found the asymmetry of the world trade flow by the disparity of the networks. From the backbone network of the world trade we can identify the regional economic connections and wealth flow among the countries.

  18. Fermionic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2016-08-01

    We study the structure of fermionic networks, i.e. a model of networks based on the behavior of fermionic gases, and we analyze dynamical processes over them. In this model, particle dynamics have been mapped to the domain of networks, hence a parameter representing the temperature controls the evolution of the system. In doing so, it is possible to generate adaptive networks, i.e. networks whose structure varies over time. As shown in previous works, networks generated by quantum statistics can undergo critical phenomena as phase transitions and, moreover, they can be considered as thermodynamic systems. In this study, we analyze fermionic networks and opinion dynamics processes over them, framing this network model as a computational model useful to represent complex and adaptive systems. Results highlight that a strong relation holds between the gas temperature and the structure of the achieved networks. Notably, both the degree distribution and the assortativity vary as the temperature varies, hence we can state that fermionic networks behave as adaptive networks. On the other hand, it is worth to highlight that we did not finding relation between outcomes of opinion dynamics processes and the gas temperature. Therefore, although the latter plays a fundamental role in gas dynamics, on the network domain, its importance is related only to structural properties of fermionic networks.

  19. Network Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    1992-01-01

    Explains how users can find and access information resources available on the Internet. Highlights include network information centers (NICs); lists, both formal and informal; computer networking protocols, including international standards; electronic mail; remote log-in; and file transfer. (LRW)

  20. Network. Regional Policy Analysts and Advisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Judy L.; Pollard, Joyce S.

    This publication contains two articles which focus on the teaching profession within the context of systemic reform. The first article, "Systemic Reform: Teachers and the Condition of Teaching," discusses the role and the preparation of teachers. The level of coordination among the various systems that relate to the teacher's role is greater for…

  1. Sensitivity analysis of artificial neural network (ANN) brightness temperature predictions over snow-covered regions in North America using the Advanced Microwave Sounding Radiometer (AMSR-E) from 2002 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.; Forman, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Snow is a significant contributor to the earth's hydrologic cycle, energy cycle, and climate system. Further, up to 80% of freshwater supply in the western United States originates as snow (and ice). Characterization of the mass of snow, or snow water equivalent (SWE), across regional and continental scales has commonly been conducted using satellite-based passive microwave (PMW) brightness temperatures (Tb) within a SWE retrieval algorithm. However, SWE retrievals often suffer from deficiencies related to deep snow, wet snow, snow evolution, snow aging, overlying vegetation, surface and internal ice lenses, depth hoar, and sub-grid scale lakes. As an alternative to SWE retrievals, this study explores the potential for using PMW Tb and machine learning within a data assimilation framework. An artificial neural network (ANN) is presented for eventual use as an observation operator to map the land surface model states into Tb space. This study explores the sensitivity of an ANN as a computationally efficient measurement model operator for the prediction of PMW Tb across North America. The analysis employs normalized sensitivity coefficients and a one-at-a-time approach such that each of the 11 different inputs could be examined separately in order to quantify the impact of perturbations to each input on the multi-frequency, multi-polarization Tb output from the ANN. Spatiotemporal variability in the Tb predictions across regional spatial scales and seasonal timescales is investigated from 2002 to 2011. Preliminary results suggest ANN-based Tb predictions are sensitive to certain snow states, such as SWE, snow density, and snow temperature in non-vegetated or sparsely vegetated regions. Further, sensitivity of ANN prediction of ΔTb=Tb, 18v*-Tb, 36v* to changes in SWE suggest the likelihood for success when the ANN is eventually implemented into a data assimilation framework. Despite the promise in these initial results, challenges remain at enhancing ANN sensitivity

  2. Spatial networks