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Cefuroxime-induced lupus.  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE) is a syndrome that shares symptoms and laboratory characteristics with idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus. Recognition of DILE is important because it usually reverts within a few weeks after stopping the offending drug. Antibiotics are uncommonly associated with DILE, and cefuroxime has never been incriminated as a cause. We present herein the first case of DILE induced by cefuroxime. Although this is the first report of cefuroxime-induced DILE, we should be aware of this occurrence. PMID:17913119

Uz, Ebru; Bavbek, Nuket; Turgut, Faruk Hilmi; Kanbay, Mehmet; Kaya, Arif; Akcay, Ali





... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, such as bronchitis; gonorrhea; Lyme disease; and infections ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or ...


Nonlinear intestinal absorption kinetics of cefuroxime axetil in rats.  

PubMed Central

Cefuroxime is commercially available for parenteral administration as a sodium salt and for oral administration as cefuroxime axetil, the 1-(acetoxy)ethyl ester of the drug. Cefuroxime axetil is a prodrug of cefuroxime and has little, if any, antibacterial activity until hydrolyzed in vivo to cefuroxime. In this study, the absorption of cefuroxime axetil in the small intestines of anesthetized rats was investigated in situ, by perfusion at four concentrations (11.8, 5, 118 and 200 microM). Oral absorption of cefuroxime axetil can apparently be described as a specialized transport mechanism which obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Parameters characterizing absorption of prodrug in free solution were obtained: maximum rate of absorption (Vmax) = 289.08 +/- 46.26 microM h-1, and Km = 162.77 +/- 31.17 microM. Cefuroxime axetil transport was significantly reduced in the presence of the enzymatic inhibitor sodium azide. On the other hand, the prodrug was metabolized in the gut wall through contact with membrane-bound enzymes in the brush border membrane before absorption occurred. This process reduces the prodrug fraction directly available for absorption. From a bioavailability point of view, therefore, the effects mentioned above can explain the variable and poor bioavailability following oral administration of cefuroxime axetil. Thus, future strategies in oral cefuroxime axetil absorption should focus on increasing the stability of the prodrug in the intestine by modifying the prodrug structure and/or targeting the compound to the absorption site. PMID:9021205

Ruiz-Balaguer, N; Nacher, A; Casabo, V G; Merino, M



Long-Term Cefuroxime Axetil in Subacute Cutaneous Lupus erythematosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) is a subset of lupus erythematosus characterized mainly by prominent photoaggravated cutaneous manifestations. Standard therapies for SCLE include topical or systemic steroids and antimalarial drugs. Both methods show limited efficacy in clearing cutaneous lesions and occasionally produce serious side effects. Aim: To assess the efficacy of cefuroxime axetil, an oral cephalosporin with antibacterial and

Lidia Rudnicka; Irena Walecka



Design and characterization of cefuroxime axetil biphasic floating minitablets.  


Biphasic floating minitablets of cefuroxime axetil were prepared by melt granulation technique using two different grades of gelucire namely 50/13 and 43/01 to maintain constant plasma drug concentration. Loading dose of cefuroxime axetil was formulated as immediate release (IR) minitablets by using hydrophilic grade of gelucire 50/13. Maintenance dose was formulated as floating sustained release (SR) minitablets by using hydrophobic grade of gelucire 43/01. The prepared IR and SR granules were subjected to micromeritic studies and scanning electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) study revealed that drug and selected carriers were compatible. In vitro dissolution study of optimized IR minitablets showed more than 85% of loading dose dissolved within 30?min. Optimized SR minitablets showed zero lag time with floating duration more than 12?h. The drug release from SR minitablets was linear with square root of time with non-Fickian diffusion-controlled release. The optimized batch of minitablets was filled into 0 size hard gelatin capsule. In vitro dissolution study for capsule showed an immediate burst release followed by SR up to 12?h. There is no significant change in dissolution data after storage at 40?°C and 75% RH for three months. Microbiological assay of dissolution samples of optimized minitablets filled in capsules showed proportionate increase in inhibition of growth against Escherichia coli up to 12?h samples. In vivo bioavailability study in albino rabbits showed three times improvement in oral bioavailability. PMID:24417642

Jammula, Sruti; Patra, Ch Niranjan; Swain, Suryakanta; Panigrahi, Kanhu Charan; Nayak, Sabita; Dinda, Subas Chandra; Rao, Muddana Eswara Bhanoji



Role of liquid membrane phenomenon in the anti-bacterial activity of Cefuroxime Sodium  

PubMed Central

The role of liquid membrane phenomenon has been studied in the anti bacterial activity of cephalosporins i.e. Cefuroxime sodium. In our earlier publication [1] it was reported that hydraulic permeability data obtained to demonstrate the existence of liquid membrane in series with supporting membrane generated by Cefuroxime sodium. Transport of selected permeants (glucose, PABA, glycine, and ions like Mg++, NH4+, PO4-, Ca++, Na+, K+ and Cl-) through liquid membrane generated by Cefuroxime sodium in series with supporting membrane has been studied. The results indicated that the liquid membrane generated by Cefuroxime sodium inhibit the transport of various essential bio-molecules and permeants in to the cell. This modification in permeability of different permeants in the presence of the liquid membranes is likely to play significant role in the biological actions of Cefuroxime sodium. The anti-bacterial activity of Cefuroxime sodium further confirmed that the generation of liquid membrane by Cefuroxime sodium is also contributing for the antibacterial activity of them. PMID:24825969

Nagesh, C.; Shankaraiah, M. M.; Venkatesh, J. S.; Setty, S. Ramachandra



Unexpected death due to cefuroxime-induced disulfiram-like reaction  

PubMed Central

Cefuoxime, a second-generation cephalosporin, is used in the treatment of Gram-positive infections. Here, we report a case cefuroxime-induced disulfiram-like reaction which led to sudden death of the patient. PMID:24014919

Dong, Hongmei; Zhang, Ji; Ren, Liang; Liu, Qian; Zhu, Shaohua



HPTLC determination of cefuroxime axetil and ornidazole in combined tablet dosage form.  


A new simple high-performance thin layer chromatographic method for determination of cefuroxime axetil and ornidazole in combined tablet dosage form is developed and validated. Cefuroxime axetil is second-generation cephalosporin used to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. Ornidazole is used to cure protozoan infections. The separation is carried out on Merck precoated silica gel aluminium plate 60 F(254) using toluene-n-butanol-triethylamine (8.5:2:0.5, v/v/v) as mobile phase. Quantitative determination of drugs is carried out by densitometric scanning of plates at 285 nm. The retention factor for ornidazole and cefuroxime axetil is found to be 0.51 +/- 0.007 and 0.67 +/- 0.009, respectively. The method is validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. Response found to be linear in the concentration range of 100-500 ng/band for both cefuroxime axetil and ornidazole. The method has been successfully applied for the analysis of drugs in pharmaceutical formulation. The % assay is found to be 102.36 +/- 0.775 and 101.00 +/- 1.192 for cefuroxime axetil and ornidazole, respectively. PMID:20056032

Ranjane, Poonam N; Gandhi, Santosh V; Kadukar, Sayali S; Bothara, Kailash G



Pharmacokinetics of Cefuroxime in Porcine Cortical and Cancellous Bone Determined by Microdialysis  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, the pharmacokinetics of antimicrobials in bone have been investigated using bone biopsy specimens, but this approach suffers from considerable methodological limitations. Consequently, new methods are needed. The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility of microdialysis (MD) for measuring cefuroxime in bone and to obtain pharmacokinetic profiles for the same drug in porcine cortical and cancellous bone. The measurements were conducted in bone wax sealed and unsealed drill holes in cortical bone and in drill holes in cancellous bone and in subcutaneous tissue. As a reference, the free and total plasma concentrations were also measured. The animals received a bolus of 1,500 mg cefuroxime over 30 min. No significant differences were found between the key pharmacokinetic parameters for sealed and unsealed drill holes in cortical bone. The mean ± standard error of the mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values from 0 to 5 h were 6,013 ± 1,339, 3,222 ± 1086, 2,232 ± 635, and 952 ± 290 min · ?g/ml for free plasma, subcutaneous tissue, cancellous bone, and cortical bone, respectively (P < 0.01, analysis of variance). The AUC for cortical bone was also significantly different from that for cancellous bone (P = 0.04). This heterogeneous tissue distribution was also reflected in other key pharmacokinetic parameters. This study validates MD as a suitable method for measuring cefuroxime in bone. Cefuroxime penetration was impaired for all tissues, and bone may not be considered one distinct compartment. PMID:24663019

Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Bendtsen, Michael; Bue, Mats; Brock, Birgitte; Fuursted, Kurt; Søballe, Kjeld; Birke-Sørensen, Hanne



Ampicillin/Sulbactam versus Cefuroxime as antimicrobial prophylaxis for cesarean delivery: a randomized study  

PubMed Central

Background The efficacy and safety of a single dose of ampicillin/sulbactam compared to a single dose of cefuroxime at cord clamp for prevention of post-cesarean infectious morbidity has not been assessed. Methods Women scheduled for cesarean delivery were randomized to receive a single dose of either 3 g of ampicillin-sulbactam or 1.5 g of cefuroxime intravenously, after umbilical cord clamping. An evaluation for development of postoperative infections and risk factor analysis was performed. Results One hundred and seventy-six patients (median age 28 yrs, IQR: 24-32) were enrolled in the study during the period July 2004 - July 2005. Eighty-five (48.3%) received cefuroxime prophylaxis and 91 (51.7%) ampicillin/sulbactam. Postoperative infection developed in 5 of 86 (5.9%) patients that received cefuroxime compared to 8 of 91 (8.8%) patients that received ampicillin/sulbactam (p = 0.6). In univariate analyses 6 or more vaginal examinations prior to the operation (p = 0.004), membrane rupture for more than 6 hours (p = 0.08) and blood loss greater than 500 ml (p = 0.018) were associated with developing a postoperative surgical site infection (SSI). In logistic regression having 6 or more vaginal examinations was the most significant risk factor for a postoperative SSI (OR 6.8, 95% CI: 1.4-33.4, p = 0.019). Regular prenatal follow-up was associated with a protective effect (OR 0.04, 95% CI: 0.005-0.36, p = 0.004). Conclusions Ampicillin/sulbactam was as safe and effective as cefuroxime when administered for the prevention of infections following cesarean delivery. Trial registration identifier: NCT01138852 PMID:21118502



Improvement in Dissolution Rate of Cefuroxime Axetil by using Poloxamer 188 and Neusilin US2.  


A combination of fusion and surface adsorption techniques was used to enhance the dissolution rate of cefuroxime axetil. Solid dispersions of cefuroxime axetil were prepared by two methods, namely fusion method using poloxamer 188 alone and combination of poloxamer 188 and Neusilin US2 by fusion and surface adsorption method. Solid dispersions were evaluated for solubility, phase solubility, flowability, compressibility, Kawakita analysis, Fourier transform-infrared spectra, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction study, in vitro drug release, and stability study. Solubility studies showed 12- and 14-fold increase in solubility for solid dispersions by fusion method, and fusion and surface adsorption method, respectively. Phase solubility studies showed negative ?G (0) tr values for poloxamer 188 at various concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1%) indicating spontaneous nature of solubilisation. Fourier transform-infrared spectra and differential scanning calorimetry spectra showed that drug and excipients are compatible with each other. Powder X-ray diffraction study studies indicated that presence of Neusilin US2 is less likely to promote the reversion of the amorphous cefuroxime axetil to crystalline state. in vitro dissolution studies, T50% and mean dissolution time have shown better dissolution rate for solid dispersions by fusion and surface adsorption method. Cefuroxime axetil release at 15 min (Q15) and DE15 exhibited 23- and 20-fold improvement in dissolution rate. The optimized solid dispersion formulation was stable for 6 months of stability study as per ICH guidelines. The stability was ascertained from drug content, in vitro dissolution, Fourier transform-infrared spectra and differential scanning calorimetry study. Hence, this combined approach of fusion and surface adsorption can be used successfully to improve the dissolution rate of poorly soluble biopharmaceutical classification system class II drug cefuroxime axetil. PMID:23901163

Sruti, J; Patra, Ch N; Swain, S K; Beg, S; Palatasingh, H R; Dinda, S C; Rao, M E Bhanoji



Improvement in Dissolution Rate of Cefuroxime Axetil by using Poloxamer 188 and Neusilin US2  

PubMed Central

A combination of fusion and surface adsorption techniques was used to enhance the dissolution rate of cefuroxime axetil. Solid dispersions of cefuroxime axetil were prepared by two methods, namely fusion method using poloxamer 188 alone and combination of poloxamer 188 and Neusilin US2 by fusion and surface adsorption method. Solid dispersions were evaluated for solubility, phase solubility, flowability, compressibility, Kawakita analysis, Fourier transform-infrared spectra, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction study, in vitro drug release, and stability study. Solubility studies showed 12- and 14-fold increase in solubility for solid dispersions by fusion method, and fusion and surface adsorption method, respectively. Phase solubility studies showed negative ?G0tr values for poloxamer 188 at various concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1%) indicating spontaneous nature of solubilisation. Fourier transform-infrared spectra and differential scanning calorimetry spectra showed that drug and excipients are compatible with each other. Powder X-ray diffraction study studies indicated that presence of Neusilin US2 is less likely to promote the reversion of the amorphous cefuroxime axetil to crystalline state. in vitro dissolution studies, T50% and mean dissolution time have shown better dissolution rate for solid dispersions by fusion and surface adsorption method. Cefuroxime axetil release at 15 min (Q15) and DE15 exhibited 23- and 20-fold improvement in dissolution rate. The optimized solid dispersion formulation was stable for 6 months of stability study as per ICH guidelines. The stability was ascertained from drug content, in vitro dissolution, Fourier transform-infrared spectra and differential scanning calorimetry study. Hence, this combined approach of fusion and surface adsorption can be used successfully to improve the dissolution rate of poorly soluble biopharmaceutical classification system class II drug cefuroxime axetil. PMID:23901163

Sruti, J.; Patra, Ch. N.; Swain, S. K.; Beg, S.; Palatasingh, H. R.; Dinda, S. C.; Rao, M. E. Bhanoji



Effectiveness of short-course therapy (5 days) with cefuroxime axetil in treatment of secondary bacterial infections of acute bronchitis.  

PubMed Central

Five hundred thirty-seven patients were enrolled in two independent, investigator-blinded, multicenter, randomized clinical trials comparing the clinical and bacteriologic efficacies and the safety of 5- or 10-day treatment with cefuroxime axetil with those of 10-day treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate in the treatment of secondary bacterial infections of acute bronchitis. Patients received either 5 or 10 days of treatment (n = 177 in each group) with cefuroxime axetil at 250 mg twice daily or 10 days of treatment (n = 183) with amoxicillin-clavulanate at 500 mg three times daily. Patients in the cefuroxime axetil (5 days) group received placebo on days 6 to 10. Bacteriologic assessments were based on sputum specimen cultures obtained preceding and, when possible, following treatment. Organisms were isolated from the pretreatment sputum specimens of 242 of 537 (45%) patients, with the primary pathogens being Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus (28, 25, 13, 9, and 8% of isolates, respectively). Pathogens were eradicated or presumed to be eradicated in 87% (52 of 60), 91% (53 of 58), and 86% (60 of 70) of bacteriologically evaluable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil (5 days), cefuroxime axetil (10 days), and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. A satisfactory clinical outcome (cure or improvement) was achieved in 82% (107 of 130), 86% (117 of 136), and 83% (130 of 157) of the clinically evaluable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil (5 days), cefuroxime axetil (10 days), and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. Treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate was associated with a significantly higher incidence of drug-related adverse events than was treatment with cefuroxime axetil for either 5 or 10 days (P = 0.001), primarily reflecting a higher incidence of drug-related gastrointestinal adverse events (37 versus 19 and 15%, respectively; P < 0.001), particularly diarrhea and nausea. These results indicate that treatment with cefuroxime axetil at 250 mg twice daily for 5 days is as effective as treatment for 10 days with either the same dose of cefuroxime axetil or amoxicillin-clavulanate at 500 mg three times daily in patients with acute bronchitis. In addition, treatment with cefuroxime axetil for either 5 or 10 days is associated with significantly fewer gastrointestinal adverse events, particularly diarrhea and nausea, than is 10-day treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate. PMID:8585739

Henry, D; Ruoff, G E; Rhudy, J; Puopolo, A; Drehobl, M; Schoenberger, J; Giguere, G; Collins, J J



Intracameral cefuroxime and moxifloxacin used as endophthalmitis prophylaxis after cataract surgery: systematic review of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness  

PubMed Central

Postoperative endophthalmitis is one of the most serious potential complications of ocular lens surgery. Its incidence can be reduced by means of antibiotic prophylaxis. Although the prophylactic use of intracameral cefuroxime has been extended, other drugs, such as moxifloxacin, have arisen as alternatives. We performed a systematic literature review on the effectiveness and efficiency of intracameral cefuroxime and moxifloxacin for the prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Several bibliographic databases were searched up to October 2010 and were updated up to January 2013. Outcomes were the onset of endophthalmitis after surgery and the cost-effectiveness ratio of using both antibiotic prophylaxis alternatives. The following were included: a clinical trial reported in two papers, six observational studies, and an economic evaluation. All studies assessed cefuroxime compared with another antibiotic prophylaxis or no prophylaxis. The only randomized controlled trial performed by the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery found that intracameral cefuroxime is significantly more effective than not using prophylaxis or the use of a topical antibiotic. The observational studies support these results. The economic evaluation compared different prophylaxis regimens and concluded that intracameral cefuroxime showed the best cost-effectiveness ratio. Both the observational studies and the economic evaluation have methodological limits that reduce their validity. This review confirmed that cefuroxime can prevent endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Further randomized controlled trials, with large sample sizes, are required to compare different antibiotic prophylaxis regimens. PMID:25152613

Linertová, Renata; Abreu-González, Rodrigo; García-Pérez, Lidia; Alonso-Plasencia, Marta; Cordovés-Dorta, Luis Mateo; Abreu-Reyes, José Augusto; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro



Toxic anterior segment syndrome after uncomplicated cataract surgery possibly associated with intracamaral use of cefuroxime  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) after cataract surgery possibly associated with intracameral use of cefuroxime. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review and analysis on the pre- and postoperative conditions of the subjects who had developed TASS. Results The patient group consisted of 17 patients. Tyndallization and fibrin fibers were positive in all eyes. In four eyes, hypopyon formation developed. These reactions diminished on the third day and fully resolved 1 week after the operations with the use of intensive topical steroid and mydriatic therapy. To determine the etiology of TASS, infusion fluid, viscoelastics, and intracameral antibiotic agent were changed respectively. After changing intracameral antibiotic agent from cefuroxime axetile to moxifloxacin no new cases of TASS were diagnosed. Conclusion All agents injected into the anterior chamber can cause TASS. Ophthalmologists and operating room staff need to pay careful attention to all drugs and irrigating solutions. PMID:25834384

Çak?r, Burçin; Celik, Erkan; Aksoy, Nilgün Özkan; Bursal?, Özlem; Uçak, Turgay; Bozkurt, Erdinç; Alagoz, Gursoy



Polymeric Recrystallized Agglomerates of Cefuroxime Axetil Prepared by Emulsion Solvent Diffusion Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To study the effect of different polymers on the solubility and dissolution rate of cefuroxime axetil (CFU) prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion (ESD) technique. Methods: The ESD technique employed involved three test solvents: first, substance dissolution medium-good solvent (acetone); second, partial dissolution medium for the substance-bridging liquid (dichloromethane), and third, immiscible with the substance-poor solvent (distilled water). The pure

VB Yadav; AV Yadav


Penetration of cefuroxime in subcutaneous tissue during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and rapid HPLC assay for determining cefuroxime penetration in the subcutaneous tissue near to surgical incision of patients submitted to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with or without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was performed. Blood and subcutaneous tissue samples were collected from 14 patients, in four periods during surgery. The analytical method presented linearity from 0.5 to 100?g\\/g, LOQ=0.50?g\\/g,

Jorge Willian Leandro Nascimento; Maria José Carvalho Carmona; Tânia Mara Varejão Strabelli; José Otávio Costa Auler Jr; Sílvia Regina Cavani Jorge Santos



Prophylaxis with teicoplanin and cefuroxime reduces the rate of prosthetic joint infection after primary arthroplasty.  


The aim of this study was to compare the prosthetic joint infection (PJI) rate after total joint arthroplasty in two consecutive periods of treatment with different antibiotic prophylaxes: cefuroxime versus cefuroxime plus teicoplanin. We retrospectively reviewed 1,896 patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty between March 2010 and February 2013. From March 2010 to August 2011, patients received 1.5 g of cefuroxime during induction of anesthesia and another 1.5 g 2 h later (the C group). From September 2011, 800 mg of teicoplanin was added to cefuroxime (the CT group). Throughout the period studied, there were no variations in pre- or postoperative protocols. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate independent predictors of PJI. There were 995 (55.7%) patients in the C group and 791 (44.3%) in the CT group. Patients in the CT group had a significantly lower PJI rate than patients in the C group (1.26% versus 3.51%, P=0.002). There were no infections due to Staphylococcus aureus in the CT group (0% versus 1.6% in the C group, P<0.001). A stepwise forward Cox regression model identified male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 3.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.09 to 7.18), a body mass index of ?35 kg/m2 (HR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.37 to 6.27), the presence of lung disease (HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.17 to 5.15), and red blood cell transfusion (HR, 3.70; 95% CI, 1.89 to 7.23) to be independent variables associated with a higher risk of PJI. The addition of teicoplanin was associated with a lower risk of infection (HR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.74). In conclusion, the addition of teicoplanin to cefuroxime during primary arthroplasty was associated with a significant reduction in the global PJI rate due to a reduction of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25403662

Tornero, Eduard; García-Ramiro, Sebastian; Martínez-Pastor, Juan C; Bori, Guillem; Bosch, Jordi; Morata, Laura; Sala, Marta; Basora, Misericordia; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex



Application of vibrational spectroscopy supported by theoretical calculations in identification of amorphous and crystalline forms of cefuroxime axetil.  


FT-IR and Raman scattering spectra of cefuroxime axetil were proposed for identification studies of its crystalline and amorphous forms. An analysis of experimental spectra was supported by quantum-chemical calculations performed with the use of B3LYP functional and 6-31G(d,p) as a basis set. The geometric structure of a cefuroxime axetil molecule, HOMO and LUMO orbitals, and molecular electrostatic potential were also determined by using DFT (density functional theory). The benefits of applying FT-IR and Raman scattering spectroscopy for characterization of drug subjected to degradation were discussed. PMID:25654137

Talaczy?ska, Alicja; Lewandowska, Kornelia; Jeli?ska, Anna; Garbacki, Piotr; Podborska, Agnieszka; Zalewski, Przemys?aw; Oszczapowicz, Irena; Sikora, Adam; Kozak, Maciej; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta



Comparison of cefuroxime axetil and doxycycline in treatment of patients with early Lyme disease associated with erythema migrans.  

PubMed Central

A randomized, multicenter, investigator-blinded clinical trial was undertaken in order to compare the efficacies of cefuroxime axetil and doxycycline in the treatment of patients with Lyme disease associated with erythema migrans. A total of 232 patients with physician-documented erythema migrans were treated orally for 20 days with either cefuroxime axetil, 500 mg twice daily (119 patients), or doxycycline, 100 mg three times daily (113 patients), and clinical evaluations were conducted during treatment (8 to 12 days) and at 1 to 5 days and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months posttreatment. Patients were assessed as to the resolution of erythema migrans and of the signs and symptoms related to early Lyme disease as well as to the prevention of late Lyme disease. A satisfactory clinical outcome (success or improvement) was achieved in 90 of 100 (90%) evaluable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil and in 89 of 94 (95%) patients treated with doxycycline (difference, -5%; 95% confidence interval, -12 to 3%). Patients with paresthesia, arthralgia, or irritability at enrollment were at higher risk for an unsatisfactory clinical outcome at 1 month posttreatment. Of the patients with satisfactory outcomes at 1 month posttreatment who were evaluable at 1 year posttreatment, a satisfactory outcome was achieved in 62 of 65 (95%) and in 53 of 53 (100%) patients treated with cefuroxime axetil and doxycycline, respectively (difference, -5%; 95% confidence interval, -10 to 4%). Twenty-eight percent of patients treated with doxycycline and 17% of those treated with cefuroxime axetil had one or more drug-related adverse events (P = 0.041). Doxycycline was associated with more photosensitivity reactions (6% compared with 0% for patients treated with cefuroxime axetil; P=0.006), and cefuroxime axetil was associated with more cases of diarrhea (5% compared with 0% for patients treated with doxycycline; P=0.030). Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions occurred in 12% of the patients in each treatment group. In summary, cefuroxime axetil is well tolerated and appears to be equally as effective as doxycycline in the treatment of early Lyme disease and in preventing the subsequent development of late Lyme disease. PMID:7793869

Luger, S W; Paparone, P; Wormser, G P; Nadelman, R B; Grunwaldt, E; Gomez, G; Wisniewski, M; Collins, J J



Glyceryl monooleate cubic phase gel as chemical stability enhancer of cefazolin and cefuroxime.  


The primary objective of this study was to determine the ability of the glyceryl monooleate (GMO) cubic phase gel to protect drugs from chemical instability reactions such as hydrolysis and oxidation. Stability was assessed on cefazolin incorporated in cubic phase gel and in solution at two different concentrations (200 and 50 micrograms/g), at 22, 37, and 50 degrees C. Degradation profiles, plotting percent cefazolin remaining on a logarithmic scale versus time, were constructed and the degradation rate constants calculated from the slopes. At both concentrations, degradation of cefazolin was found to be slower in the cubic phase gel than in solution at 22 and 37 degrees C, but not at 50 degrees C. The degradation rate constants were 3- to 18-fold lower in the gel than in solution at low concentration of cefazolin. At 22 and 37 degrees C, the kinetics of degradation at high concentration of cefazolin was not first-order but showed a lag phase followed by an exponential loss of cefazolin, typical of oxidation. The potential oxidation of the thioether moiety of cefazolin was confirmed by its 18-fold higher stability in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrogen in solution. Cefuroxime, a cephalosporin which degrades solely via beta-lactam hydrolysis, degraded twice as fast in solution as it did in the gel. The enhanced stability of cefazolin and cefuroxime in the GMO cubic phase gel shows its potential as a chemical stability enhancer and this is the first report to demonstrate oxidation, in addition to beta-lactam hydrolysis, as a mechanism for degradation of cefazolin. PMID:9834958

Sadhale, Y; Shah, J C



Simultaneous determination of cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cephalexin and cephaloridine in plasma using HPLC and a column-switching technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed using a column-switching technique for the simultaneous determination of cephalexin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin and cephaloridine in plasma. The plasma samples were injected onto a precolumn packed with Corasil RP C18 (37–50 ?m) after simple dilution with an internal standard solution in 0.01 M acetate buffer (pH 3.5). Polar plasma components were washed

Y. J. Lee; H. S. Lee



Transferable resistance to cefotaxime, cefoxitin, cefamandole and cefuroxime in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In conjugational crosses, threeKlebsiella pneumoniae strains and oneSerratia marcescens strain have been demonstrated to transfer resistance determinants to newer types of cephalosporins. WhileKlebsiella strains donated cefotaxime, cefamandole and cefuroxime resistance toEscherichia coli K-12 recipients, the genetic analysis of exconjugants after the transfer of plasmids fromSerratia strains toProteus orSalmonella recipients showed that the cefoxitin resistance determinant was also co-transferred. In

H. Knothe; P. Shah; V. Krcmery; M. Antal; S. Mitsuhashi



Development and Validation of a Rapid Turbidimetric Assay to Determine the Potency of Cefuroxime Sodium in Powder for Injection  

PubMed Central

The cefuroxime sodium is a second generation cephalosporin indicated for infections caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Although this drug is highly studied and researched regarding the antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, there are few studies regarding the development of analytical methodology for this cephalosporin. Thus, research involving analytical methods is essential and highly relevant to optimize its analysis in the pharmaceutical industry and guarantee the quality of the product already sold. This study describes the development and validation of a microbiological assay applying the turbidimetric method for the determination of cefuroxime, using Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 as micro-organism test and 3x3 parallel line assay design, with nine tubes for each assay, as recommended by the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. The developed and validated method showed excellent results of linearity, seletivity, precision and robustness, in the concentration range from 30.0 to 120.0 mg/mL, with 100.21% accuracy and content 99.97% to cefuroxime sodium in injectable pharmaceutical form. PMID:25438016

Vieira, Daniela C. M.; Fiuza, Thalita F. M.; Salgado, Hérida R.N.



Enhancement in photocatalytic activity of NiO by supporting onto an Iranian clinoptilolite nano-particles of aqueous solution of cefuroxime pharmaceutical capsule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NiO/nano-clinoptilolite (NiO-NCP) was prepared by ion exchanging process of the prepared ball-mill nano-clinoptilolite particles with nickel(II) chloride aqueous solution. The prepared composite was characterized by XRD, UV-Vis DRS, TEM and FT-IR and then used as a catalyst in the photodegradation of cefuroxime (CF) using Hg lamp. The best experimental parameters were obtained as: 0.025 g L-1 of the photocatalyst containing 13.3% NiO, 50 times diluted cefuroxime solution at pH 5. The degradation extent was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and the results were confirmed by HPLC and COD. The kinetics of the photodegradation process obeyed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

Pourtaheri, Asieh; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza



Enhancement in photocatalytic activity of NiO by supporting onto an Iranian clinoptilolite nano-particles of aqueous solution of cefuroxime pharmaceutical capsule.  


NiO/nano-clinoptilolite (NiO-NCP) was prepared by ion exchanging process of the prepared ball-mill nano-clinoptilolite particles with nickel(II) chloride aqueous solution. The prepared composite was characterized by XRD, UV-Vis DRS, TEM and FT-IR and then used as a catalyst in the photodegradation of cefuroxime (CF) using Hg lamp. The best experimental parameters were obtained as: 0.025 g L(-1) of the photocatalyst containing 13.3% NiO, 50 times diluted cefuroxime solution at pH 5. The degradation extent was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and the results were confirmed by HPLC and COD. The kinetics of the photodegradation process obeyed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. PMID:25233023

Pourtaheri, Asieh; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza



Development and validation of a rapid turbidimetric assay to determine the potency of cefuroxime sodium in powder for dissolution for injection.  


The cefuroxime sodium is a second generation cephalosporin indicated for infections caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Although this drug is highly studied and researched regarding the antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, there are few studies regarding the development of analytical methodology for this cephalosporin. Thus, research involving analytical methods is essential and highly relevant to optimize its analysis in the pharmaceutical industry and guarantee the quality of the product already sold. This study describes the development and validation of a microbiological assay applying the turbidimetric method for the determination of cefuroxime, using Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 as micro-organism test and 3x3 parallel line assay design, with nine tubes for each assay, as recommended by the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. The developed and validated method showed excellent results of linearity, seletivity, precision and robustness, in the concentration range from 30.0 to 120.0 mg/mL, with 100.21% accuracy and content 99.97% to cefuroxime sodium in injectable pharmaceutical form. PMID:25438016

Vieira, Daniela C M; Fiuza, Thalita F M; Salgado, Hérida R N



Determination of cefuroxime lysine in rat brain microdialysates by ultra-fast liquid chromatography with UV and tandem mass spectrometry: application to an acute toxicokinetic study.  


Cefuroxime lysine is a new second-generation cephalosporins, which can penetrate the blood-brain barrier to cure the meningitis. In order to investigate its acute toxicokinetic study after intraperitoneal injection of 675?mg/kg cefuroxime lysine, a sensitive and clean ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of cefuroxime lysine in microdialysate samples was developed and validated, which was compared with UFLC-UV as a reference method. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75?×?3.0?mm, 2.2?µm), with an isocratic elution of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water (45:55, v/v) for LC-MS and acetonitrile-20?mm potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH?3.0,20:80, v/v) for LC-UV. The lower limit of detection was 0.01?µg/mL for LC-MS and 0.1?µg/mL for LC-UV method, with the same corresponding linearity range of 0.1-50?µg/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) for both methods were from 1.1 to 8.9%, while the accuracy was all within ±10.9%. The results of both methods were finally compared using paired t-test; the results indicated that the concentrations measured by the two methods correlated significantly (p?

Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Zhu, Heyun; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun



Oral gemifloxacin once daily for 5 days compared with sequential therapy with i.v. ceftriaxone\\/oral cefuroxime (maximum of 10 days) in the treatment of hospitalized patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a randomized, open-label, controlled, multicentre study, the clinical and bacteriological efficacy, safety and tolerability of oral gemifloxacin (320 mg once daily, 5 days) was compared with sequential intravenous (i.v.) ceftriaxone (1 g once daily, maximum 3 days) followed by oral cefuroxime axetil (500 mg twice daily, maximum 7 days) in adult hospitalized patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis




Oral gemifloxacin versus sequential therapy with intravenous ceftriaxone\\/oral cefuroxime with or without a macrolide in the treatment of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: A randomized, open-label, multicenter study of clinical efficacy and tolerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of oral gemifloxacin, an enhanced-affinity quinolone, with sequential therapy with IV ceftriaxone followed by oral cefuroxime (with or without a macrolide) in patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).Methods: A randomized, open-label, multicenter study comprised adults hospitalized with a clinical and radiologic diagnosis of CAP. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive

Hartmut Lode; Thomas M File; Lionel Mandell; Peter Ball; Rienk Pypstra; Michael Thomas



Activity of WY-49605 compared with those of amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, cefaclor, cefpodoxime, cefuroxime, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 384 anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards agar dilution method was used to compare the in vitro activity of WY-49605 (also called SUN/SY 5555 and ALP-201), a new broad-spectrum oral penem, to those of amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, cefaclor, cefpodoxime, cefuroxime, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 384 clinically isolated anaerobes. These anaerobic organisms included 90 strains from the Bacteroides fragilis group, 87 Prevotella and Porphyromonas strains, non-B. fragilis group Bacteroides strains, 56 fusobacteria, 55 peptostreptococci, 49 gram-positive non-spore-forming rods, and 47 clostridia. Overall, WY-49605 had an MIC range of 0.015 to 8.0 micrograms/ml, an MIC at which 50% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of 0.25 microgram/ml, and an MIC at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC90) of 2.0 micrograms/ml. Good activity against all anaerobe groups was observed, except for Clostridium difficile and lactobacilli (MIC50s of 4.0 and 2.0 micrograms/ml, respectively, and MIC90s of 8.0 and 2.0 micrograms/ml, respectively). Imipenem had an MIC50 of 0.03 microgram/ml and an MIC90 of 0.25 microgram/ml. Ciprofloxacin was much less active (MIC50 of 2.0 micrograms/ml and MIC90 of 16.0 micrograms/ml). By comparison, all oral beta-lactams were less active than WY-49605, with susceptibilities as follows: amoxicillin MIC50 of 8.0 micrograms/ml and MIC90 of > 256.0 micrograms/ml), amoxicillin-clavulanate MIC50 of 1.0 microgram/ml and MIC90 of 8.0 micrograms/ml, cefaclor MIC50 of 8.0 micrograms/ml and MIC90 of > 32.0 micrograms/ml, cefpodoxime MIC50 of 4.0 micrograms/ml and MIC90 of > 32.0 micrograms/ml, and cefuroxime MIC50 of 4.0 micrograms/ml and MIC90 of > 32.0 micrograms/ml. Clindamycin was active against all groups except some members of the B. fragilis group, Fusobacterium varium, and some clostridia ( overall MIC50 of 0.5 micrograms/ml and overall MIC90 of 8.0 micrograms/ml). Metronidazole was active (MIC of less than or equal to 4.0 micrograms/ml) against all gram-negative anaerobic rods, but most gram-positive non-spore-forming rods, some peptostreptococci, and some clostridia were less susceptible. To date, WY-49605 is the most active oral beta-lactam against anaerobes: these results suggest clinical evaluation for clinical indications suitable for oral therapy. PMID:7872754

Spangler, S K; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C



Comparative In Vitro Activities of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate against Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated from Antral Puncture Specimens from Patients with Sinusitis  

PubMed Central

By an agar dilution method, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of antral sinus puncture isolates were studied. Pneumococci were generally susceptible to amoxicillin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin, but 17% of pneumococcal isolates were resistant to cefuroxime. Haemophilus influenzae isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and clarithromycin. ?-Lactamase production occurred in 69% of Prevotella species. One-third of Peptostreptococcus magnus isolates were resistant to azithromycin and clarithromycin. Cefuroxime had limited activity against Prevotella species and P. magnus. Levofloxacin was active against most isolates except peptostreptococci. Amoxicillin-clavulanate was active against all isolates, with the MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited being ?1 ?g/ml. PMID:10049296

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni



Susceptibilities of Penicillin and Erythromycin-Susceptible and Resistant Pneumococci to HMR 3647 (RU 66647), a New Ketolide, Compared with Susceptibilities to 17 Other Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility of 230 penicillin- and erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci to HMR 3647 (RU 66647), a new ketolide, was tested by agar dilution, and results were compared with those of erythromycin, azi- thromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, rokitamycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, doxycycline, chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and vanco- mycin. HMR 3647 was very active against all strains tested, with MICs at



Spectrophotometric Determination of Cephalosporins in Pure Form and in Pharmaceutical Preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectrophotometric determination is described for cephalosporins, offering adequate sensitivity and good precision. The procedure applies successfully to a wide variety of cephalosporins, also in pharmaceutical preparations: cephalothin, cefacetrile, cephapirin, cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, cephaloridine, cefazolin, cefamandole nafate, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefoxitin and cefuroxime. The method employs a reaction with ammonium molybdate in sulphuric acid medium. The antibiotic is heated at 91.5°C for

Basilio Morelli; Pasquale Peluso



The Infection Control Doctor and Clostridium difficile  

E-print Network

­ Serious complications · Review data by: ­ Date ­ Origin ­ Age distribution · Statistical process control;Relationship between antibiotic defined daily doses (DDD, total and cefuroxime) and C difficile cases (UHL that the 027 ribotype was the predominant ribotype in Leicester at this time. 2. A quantitative antibiotic

Glasgow, University of


Comparative in vitro activity of 1-oxa-beta-lactam (LY127935) and cefoperazone with other beta-lactam antibiotics against anaerobic bacteria.  


The in vitro activity of 1-oxa-beta-lactam (LY127935), cefoperazone (T-1551), cefuroxime, cefsulodin, cefaclor, cefotaxime, and cefoxitin on 85 anaerobic clinical isolates (30 Bacteroides, 30 Clostridium, 25 Peptococcaceae) was simultaneously determined by the agar dilution test in two different media, Brucella Agar (Difco Laboratories) and Wilkins-Chalgren agar. In Wilkins-Chalgren agar, 90% of Bacteroides were inhibited by (micrograms per milliliter): LY127935, 0.5; T-1551, 64; cefoxitin or cefuroxime, 8; cefsulodin or cefotaxime, 32; and cefaclor, 128. All Clostridia were inhibited in Wilkins-Chalgren by (micrograms per milliliter): LY127935, 4; T-1551, 2; cefoxitin, 6; cefuroxime, 0.12; cefsulodin, 0.5; cefaclor, 1; and cefotaxime, 8. All Peptococccaceae were inhibited by T-1551, cefsulodin or cefotaxime at 4 microgram/ml and by cefoxitin or cefuroxime at 1 to 2 microgram/ml. With cefaclor at 8 microgram/ml, 92% of strains were inhibited, and LY127935 at 16 microgram/ml only inhibited 64% of strains. LY127935 was the most active of the antibiotics tested against Bacteroides, showing good activity against Clostridia and poor activity on Peptococcaceae, whereas T-1551 was more active against Peptococccaceae and had similar activity against Clostridia and poor activity on Bacteroides. There are no significant differences between minimal inhibitory concentrations obtained in Brucella Agar and those obtained in Wilkins-Chalgren. PMID:6247966

Borobio, M V; Aznar, J; Jimenez, R; Garcia, F; Perea, E J



Clinical Efficacy of Intravenous followed by Oral Azithromycin Monotherapy in Hospitalized Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravenous (i.v.) azithromycin followed by oral azithromycin as a monotherapeutic regimen for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Two trials of i.v. azithromycin used as initial monotherapy in hospitalized CAP patients are summarized. Clinical efficacy is reported from an open-label randomized trial of azithromycin compared to cefuroxime with or without erythromycin. Bacteriologic and clinical efficacy results are also presented from a noncomparative trial of i.v. azithromycin that was designed to give additional clinical experience with a larger number of pathogens. Azithromycin was administered to 414 patients: 202 and 212 in the comparative and noncomparative trials, respectively. The comparator regimen was used as treatment for 201 patients; 105 were treated with cefuroxime alone and 96 were given cefuroxime plus erythromycin. In the comparative trial, clinical outcome data were available for 268 evaluable patients with confirmed CAP at the 10- to 14-day visit, with 106 (77%) of the azithromycin patients cured or improved and 97 (74%) of the comparator patients cured or improved. Mean i.v. treatment duration and mean total treatment duration (i.v. and oral) for the clinically evaluable patients were significantly (P < 0.05) shorter for the azithromycin group (3.6 days for the i.v. group and 8.6 days for the i.v. and oral group) than for the evaluable patients given cefuroxime plus erythromycin (4.0 days for the i.v. group and 10.3 days for the i.v. and oral group). The present comparative study demonstrates that initial therapy with i.v. azithromycin for hospitalized patients with CAP is associated with fewer side effects and is equal in efficacy to a 1993 American Thoracic Society-suggested regimen of cefuroxime plus erythromycin when the erythromycin is deemed necessary by clinicians. PMID:10858333

Plouffe, Joseph; Schwartz, Douglas B.; Kolokathis, Antonia; Sherman, Bruce W.; Arnow, Paul M.; Gezon, John A.; Suh, Byungse; Anzuetto, Antonio; Greenberg, Richard N.; Niederman, Michael; Paladino, Joseph A.; Ramirez, Julio A.; Inverso, Jill; Knirsch, Charles A.



The effects of the morphological response of Enterobacteriaceae to cephalosporins on PAE and CERT.  


PAE and CERT values of cefaclor, loracarbef and cefuroxime (0.1-100 x MIC) were established for 8 E. coli, 3 K. pneumoniae and 2 P. mirabilis isolates. Cell enumeration was by impedance (IMP) monitoring in combination with either bioluminescence (BIOL) or viable counting (VC). Morphology was determined by interference contrast microscopy. After 2 h exposure to cefaclor, loracarbef and cefuroxime; concentration-dependent differences in counts were seen by BIOL and VC, varying from a mean value of 0.07 x log10 after exposing the P. mirabilis isolates to 0.1 x MIC cefaclor to a mean value of 2.24 x log10 after exposing the E. coli strains to 100 x MIC cefuroxime. Higher concentrations gave rise to fragile morphological forms including spheroplasts and lower concentrations to less fragile forms such as long bacilli. The longest PAE and CERT values were obtained after exposing the E. coli strains to 100 x MIC cefaclor with mean values of 4.07 and 4.87 h, respectively. Corresponding values were PAE and CERT values of 2.17 and 2.60 h for 100 x cefuroxime and 3.45 and 2.91 h for 100 x MIC loracarbef. By the Student's t-test, PAE values determined by IMP/BIOL and IMP/VC were found to be significantly different, whereas CERT values were found not to be significantly different. PAE and CERT are concentration dependent and vary with specific antibiotic/organism combinations. PMID:9817524

Mackenzie, F M; Milne, K E; Gould, I M



Early antibiotic treatment in acute necrotising pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryDespite improvements in surgical treatment and intensive care, mortality from severe acute pancreatitis remains high. We have carried out a randomised study of 60 consecutive patients with alcohol-induced necrotising pancreatitis to find out whether early antibiotic treatment can improve outcome.30 patients were assigned cefuroxime (4·5 g\\/day intravenously) from admission. In the second group, no antibiotic treatment was given until clinical

V Sainio; E Kemppainen; P Puolakkainen; R Haapiainen; T Schröder; E Kivilaakso; V Valtonen; M Taavitsainen; L Kivisaarl



Evolution of antimicrobial prophylaxis in cardiovascular surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the optimal duration of antibiotic prophylaxis in major cardiovascular surgery. Methods: In the past 15 years, four prospective randomized, controlled studies, conducted by the same group of authors, compared seven prophylactic antimicrobial regimens in 2970 patients undergoing major cardiovascular surgery. In 1980\\/81, a 4-day cefazolin (CFZ) prophylaxis was compared with a 2-day cefuroxime (CFX) administration (n=566). In

I. Kriaras; A. Michalopoulos; M. Turina; S. Geroulanos



In vitro activity of gemifloxacin and contemporary oral antimicrobial agents against 27,247 Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic isolates: a global surveillance study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was a multi-centre, multi-country surveillance of 27,247 Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates collected from 131 study centres in 44 countries from 1997 to 2000. MICs of gemifloxacin were compared with penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, azithromycin, clarithromycin, trimethoprim–sulphamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, grepafloxacin and levofloxacin by broth microdilution. Penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae was extremely high in the Middle East (65.6%), Africa (64.0%)

S. K Bouchillon; D. J Hoban; J. L Johnson; B. M Johnson; D. L Butler; K. A Saunders; L. A Miller; J. A Poupard



Sequence of the 68,869 bp IncP-1? plasmid pTB11 from a waste-water treatment plant reveals a highly conserved backbone, a Tn 402-like integron and other transposable elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyse the significance of conjugative broad-host-range IncP-1? plasmids for the spread of antibiotic resistance determinants in waste-water treatment plants we isolated and characterised five different IncP-1? plasmids from bacteria of activated sludge and the final effluents of a municipal waste-water treatment plant. These plasmids mediate resistance to ampicillin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, gentamicin, kanamycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, tobramycin, and trimethoprim. The

Thomas Tennstedt; Rafael Szczepanowski; Irene Krahn; Alfred Pühler; Andreas Schlüter



Comparable Evaluation of Orally Active Beta-Lactam Compounds in Ampicillin-Resistant Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Rods: Role of Beta-Lactamases on Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial activity of the recently developed cephems cefixime and cefetamet-pivoxyl was evaluated in 408 gram-positive and gram-negative rods, all isolated recently from clinical specimens, and compared to that of other orally active agents such as ampicillin, amoxycillin + clavulanic acid, cefaclor, cefuroxime-axetil and to ceftriaxone. With regard to ampicillin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae ceftriaxone proved to be the most active agent, followed

Wolfgang Cullmann; Wolfgang Dick; Michaela Stieglitz; Wolfgang Opferkuch



Activity of cefotiam in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics on enterobacterial hospital strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using checkerboard titrations the effect of cefotiam combined with different beta-lactam antibiotics on fifty strains of Enterobacteriaceae moderately susceptible (minimal inhibiting concentration ?8 mg\\/l) or resistant (minimal inhibiting concentration ?64 mg\\/l) to cefotiam was evaluated. The following compounds were tested: cefamandole, cefazolin, cefmenoxime, cefotaxime, cefotiam, ceftazidime, cefuroxime, mecillinam and piperacillin. The synergistic effect varied markedly. The combination cefotiam—mecillinam showed

R. Vanhoof; J. M. Hubrechts; H. J. Nyssen; E. Nulens; J. Leger; N. de Schepper; E. Kupperberg; M. L. Couvreur



Aeromonas and Pseudomonas : antibiotic and heavy metal resistance species from Iskenderun Bay, Turkey (northeast Mediterranean Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the susceptibility patterns to 15 different antibiotics and six heavy metals in Aeromonas spp. and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from Iskenderun Bay, Turkey (northeast Mediterranean Sea). A high percentage of Aeromonas isolates showed resistance to cefazolin (66.6%) and trimethoprim–sulphamethoxazole (66.6%). Amongst the Pseudomonas isolates, there was a high incidence of resistance to nitrofurantoin (86.2%), cefazolin (84.8%) and cefuroxime (71.7%).

Fatih Matyar; Tamer Akkan; Yasemin Uçak; Buse Eraslan



Susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae to 10 Oral Antimicrobial Agents Based on Pharmacodynamic Parameters: 1997 U.S. Surveillance Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually all H. influenzae strains were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate (98%), cefixime (100%), and ciprofloxacin (100%), while 78% were susceptible to cefuroxime, 57% were susceptible to amoxicillin, 14% were susceptible to cefprozil, 9% were susceptible to loracarbef, 2% were susceptible to cefaclor, and 0% were susceptible to azithromycin and clarithromycin. Among S. pneumoniae isolates, 49.6% were penicillin suscep- tible, 17.9% were




Simultaneous determination of most prescribed antibiotics in multiple urban wastewater by SPE-LC-MS/MS.  


A rapid analytical method was developed for the application of a long-term monitoring (>one year) of the most prescribed and often in hospitals used antibiotics in diverse wastewaters of an urban sewage treatment plant (STP). Additionally to the selected multi-class antibiotics amoxicillin, penicillin V and piperacillin (penicillins), cefotaxime and cefuroxime (cephalosporins), azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin (macrolids), ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin-ofloxacin (fluoroquinolones), clindamycin (lincosamide), doxycycline (tetracycline), sulfamethoxazole (sulfonamide) and trimethoprim (dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor), the bioactive metabolite clindamycin-sulfoxide, the reserve antibiotic vancomycin (glycopeptide) and as tracer of the STP the anticonvulsant carbamazepine and the antifungal fluconazole were involved. The analytical method combines a low-sample-volume solid phase extraction (SPE), followed by a chromatographic separation using a reversed phase (RP) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) technique, respectively, coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Detection was performed with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) measured with positive electrospray ionization (ESI+). The extraction efficiency of different SPE cartridges and optimized pH-values of the preparation procedure were tested. Finally, the extraction of antibiotics was realized with the Oasis HLB cartridge and a pH adjustment at 3.5. An external calibration curve in diluted blank urine was used for quality control of the sample set of daily composite samples of the STP for the duration of one year monitoring. The squared coefficient of determination (r(2)) in the concentration range (20-20,000ng/L or 100-100,000ng/L) of the calibration curves for the method was higher than 0.99 for all determined substances. The limit of quantification (LoQ) ranged between 0.8ng/L (azithromycin) and 245.1ng/L (vancomycin). Furthermore, a standard addition was used for quantification in wastewater samples. The process efficiencies ranged from 20% (doxycycline) to 134% (cefuroxime) in influent samples and from 31% (doxycycline) to 171% (cefuroxime) in effluent samples of the STP. All selected substances have been found in wastewater samples. Cefuroxime, doxycycline, levofloxacin, piperacillin, sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine showed highest concentrations up to 6.2?g/L. PMID:25171505

Rossmann, Julia; Schubert, Sara; Gurke, Robert; Oertel, Reinhard; Kirch, Wilhelm



Activities and Postantibiotic Effects of Gemifloxacin Compared to Those of 11 Other Agents against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of gemifloxacin against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis was compared to those of 11 other agents. All quinolones were very active (MICs, <0.125 mg\\/ml) against 248 quinolone-susceptible H. influenzae isolates (40.7% of which were b-lactamase positive); cefixime (MICs, <0.125 mg\\/ml) and amoxicillin- clavulanate (MICs <4.0 mg\\/ml) were active, followed by cefuroxime (MICs, <16.0 mg\\/ml); azithromycin MICs were <4.0




Effect of storage temperature and pH on the stability of antimicrobial agents in MIC trays.  

PubMed Central

Twelve antimicrobial agents, ampicillin, aztreonam, cefamandole, cefazolin, cefonicid, ceforanide, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, were prepared at pH 6.80 and 7.31 in microdilution trays for storage at 4, -10, -25, and -70 degrees C and for weekly susceptibility testing. All 12 drugs had stable biological activity when stored at -70 degrees C for 1 year. All but ampicillin and aztreonam were stable at -25 degrees C. Storage at -10 degrees C was least satisfactory. Desiccation occurred at 4 degrees C, but short-term storage at this temperature is possible since the antimicrobial agents are stable for up to several months. PMID:3711284

Hwang, J M; Piccinini, T E; Lammel, C J; Hadley, W K; Brooks, G F



InVitro Selective Antibiotic Concentrations ofP-Lactams for Penicillin-Resis tant Streptococcus pneumoniae Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

S.pneumo- niae wasevaluated inaninvitro modelwithmixedpopulations withpenicillin susceptibilities of0.015, 0.5, 1, and2,ug\\/ml. Theantibiotic concentration selecting forlow-level resistance strongly reduced thesusceptible population. Increasing antibiotic concentrations tended todecrease thetotal proportion ofpenicillin-resis tant bacteria because ofreduced numbers ofthelow-level-resistant population. Theantibiotic concentration selecting forhigh-level resistance produced fewer resistant populations, butmostoftheorganisms selected represented high-level resistance. Ingeneral, amoxicillin wasa goodselector forthelow-level-resistant population andapoorselector forhigh-level resistance; cefuroxime andcefotaxime




In Vitro Antibiotic Susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Jakarta, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined for 122 Neisseria gonorrheae isolates obtained from 400 sex workers in Jakarta, Indonesia, and susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and spectinomycin were found. All isolates were resistant to tetracycline. A number of the isolates demonstrated decreased susceptibilities to erythromycin (MIC ? 1.0 ?g/ml), thiamphenicol (MIC ? 1.0 ?g/ml), kanamycin (MIC ? 16.0 ?g/ml), penicillin (MIC ? 2.0 ?g/ml), gentamicin (MIC ? 16.0 ?g/ml), and norfloxacin (MIC = 0.5 ?g/ml). These data showed that certain antibiotics previously used in the treatment of gonorrhea are no longer effective. PMID:11120999

Lesmana, Murad; Lebron, Carlos I.; Taslim, Djufri; Tjaniadi, Periska; Subekti, Decy; Wasfy, Momtaz O.; Campbell, James R.; Oyofo, Buhari A.



Determination of an inoculum effect with various cephalosporins among clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.  


Using 98 clinical methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates of known beta-lactamase (Bla) type, we found a pronounced inoculum effect for cephalexin (mostly Bla type A and C strains), a mild inoculum effect for cephalothin (especially types B and C), and no inoculum effects for ceftriaxone and cefuroxime. Ceftobiprole showed the lowest MICs at a high inoculum but with a slight increase for Bla-positive versus Bla-negative strains. Since a potential therapeutic effect associated with a cephalosporin inoculum effect has been described, further studies are warranted. PMID:20211890

Nannini, Esteban C; Stryjewski, Martin E; Singh, Kavindra V; Rude, Tom H; Corey, G Ralph; Fowler, Vance G; Murray, Barbara E



In vitro selective antibiotic concentrations of beta-lactams for penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae populations.  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic regimens containing beta-lactam antibiotics are selecting penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae populations all over the world. The selective pressure after 4 h of exposure to different concentrations of amoxicillin, cefixime, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime for low-level or high-level penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae was evaluated in an in vitro model with mixed populations with penicillin susceptibilities of 0.015, 0.5, 1, and 2 micrograms/ml. The antibiotic concentration selecting for low-level resistance strongly reduced the susceptible population. Increasing antibiotic concentrations tended to decrease the total proportion of penicillin-resistant bacteria because of reduced numbers of the low-level-resistant population. The antibiotic concentration selecting for high-level resistance produced fewer resistant populations, but most of the organisms selected represented high-level resistance. In general, amoxicillin was a good selector for the low-level-resistant population and a poor selector for high-level resistance; cefuroxime and cefotaxime were poor selectors for low-level resistance and better selectors than amoxicillin for high-level penicillin resistance. Cefixime was the best selector of low-level penicillin resistance. When only resistant populations were mixed, the strains with high-level resistance were selected even at low antibiotic concentrations. Determination of the effects of selective antibiotic concentrations on mixed cultures of bacteria expressing different antibiotic resistance levels may help researchers to understand the ecology and epidemiology of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae populations. PMID:8141563

Negri, M C; Morosini, M I; Loza, E; Baquero, F



The effects of subconjunctival betamethasone on the blood aqueous barrier following cataract surgery: a double-blind randomised prospective study.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this double-blind randomised prospective study was to assess the effect of subconjunctival Betnesol (betamethasone sodium phosphate 0.1%) on the recovery of the blood aqueous barrier (BAB) following cataract surgery in uncomplicated eyes. Twenty patients [10 male, mean age 71.4 (SD 12.7) years] admitted for routine cataract surgery were randomised into two groups. All patients recruited into the study were free of other ocular disease and were not taking any anti-inflammatory medication. Group A received a subconjunctival injection of cefuroxime (125 mg) alone while group B received a subconjunctival injection of both cefuroxime and Betnesol. All surgery was performed by a single surgeon using a standardised surgical technique and all patients received the same postoperative medication. The Kowa laser flare cell meter was used to measure aqueous flare and cells preoperatively and on the first, second, and seventh postoperative day, and at 1 and 3 months following surgery. The code was broken only after all patients had been followed-up for 3 months postoperatively. There was no significant difference between the two groups in aqueous flare and cells at any of the postoperative visits. In this study we were unable to demonstrate any beneficial effect of subconjunctival betamethasone on damage to and recovery of the BAB following cataract surgery in the uncomplicated eye. PMID:1390529

Shah, S M; McHugh, J D; Spalton, D J



Ultrafast quantification of ?-lactam antibiotics in human plasma using UPLC-MS/MS.  


There is an increasing interest in monitoring plasma concentrations of ?-lactam antibiotics. The objective of this work was to develop and validate a fast ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometric detection (UPLC-MS/MS) for simultaneous quantification of amoxicillin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, meropenem and piperacillin with minimal turn around time. Sample clean-up included protein precipitation with acetonitrile containing 5 deuterated internal standards, and subsequent dilution of the supernatant with water after centrifugation. Runtime was only 2.5 min. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC system using a BEH C18 column (1.7 ?m, 100 mm × 2.1 mm) applying a binary gradient elution of water and methanol both containing 0.1% formic acid and 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate on a Water TQD instrument in MRM mode. All compounds were detected in electrospray positive ion mode and could be quantified between 1 and 100 mg/L for amoxicillin and cefuroxime, between 0.5 and 80 mg/L for meropenem and ceftazidime, and between 1 and 150 mg/L for piperacillin. The method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, linearity, matrix effect and recovery and has been compared to a previously published UPLC-MS/MS method. PMID:25531875

Carlier, Mieke; Stove, Veronique; De Waele, Jan J; Verstraete, Alain G



Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella enterica Isolates from Tonsil and Jejunum with Lymph Node Tissues of Slaughtered Swine in Metro Manila, Philippines  

PubMed Central

Due to frequent antibiotic exposure, swine is now recognized as potential risk in disseminating drug-resistant Salmonella enterica strains. This study thus subjected 20 randomly selected S. enterica isolates from tonsil and jejunum with lymph node (JLN) tissues of swine slaughtered in Metro Manila, Philippines, to VITEK 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). The test revealed all 20 isolates had resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent, in which highest occurrence of resistance was to amikacin (100%), cefazolin (100%), cefuroxime (100%), cefuroxime axetil (100%), cefoxitin (100%), and gentamicin (100%), followed by ampicillin (50%), and then by sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim (30%). Three multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates were detected. The sole S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolate showed resistance to 12 different antibiotics including ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, amikacin, gentamicin, and tigecycline. This study is the first to report worldwide on the novel resistance to tigecycline of MDR S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolated from swine tonsil tissues. This finding poses huge therapeutic challenge since MDR S. enterica infections are associated with increased rate of hospitalization or death. Thus, continual regulation of antimicrobial use in food animals and prediction of resistant serotypes are crucial to limit the spread of MDR S. enterica isolates among hogs and humans. PMID:24724034

Ng, Kamela Charmaine S.; Rivera, Windell L.



Evaluation of two in vitro pharmacodynamic simulation models: microfiltration versus centrifugation-filtration.  


Pharmacodynamic in vitro models that simulate serum antimicrobial concentrations provide more information about the activity of an antibiotic than MICs or traditional time-kill methods. The aim of this study was to compare two pharmacodynamic simulation models using ATCC strains of five different species and five antibiotics. In the first model (Centriprep-10 system), a filtration-centrifugation process was used to eliminate the antibiotic; in the second model (microfiltration system) no centrifugation was necessary. The antibiotic concentrations tested were similar to those in serum after normal doses of cefuroxime, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and cefotaxime. No significant differences were observed in the killing rates between the models except in the case of Haemophilus influenzae and cefotaxime. The new microfiltration model had the following advantages: lack of the carry-over effect, the absence of centrifugation that could damage bacteria and the possibility of increasing the number of incubation periods to give a better fit of the kinetic profile of man. PMID:11337222

Alou, L; Sevillano, D; Bugella, J H; Fuentes, F; Gómez-Lus, M L; Prieto, J



Bacteremia by multidrug-resistant Capnocytophaga sputigena.  


A case of bacteremia caused by a multiresistant strain of Capnocytophaga sputigena in a patient with hematological malignancy is described. The strain presented with a pattern of marked resistance to beta-lactams, with MICs of > 256 mg/liter for ampicillin, ticarcillin, piperacillin, cefazolin, and cefuroxime, 64 mg/liter for cefotaxime, and 32 mg/liter for ceftazidime. In addition, the MIC of ciprofloxacin was 16 mg/liter. Both of these groups of antimicrobial agents are frequently used in the empiric treatment of infections in immunocompromised patients. The appearance of resistant strains suggests the need for antimicrobial susceptibility studies in all patients with severe infections caused by Capnocytophaga spp. or other capnophilic organisms present in the oral microflora of these patients. PMID:8027314

Gomez-Garces, J L; Alos, J I; Sanchez, J; Cogollos, R



Increased Expression Levels of Chromosomal AmpC ?-Lactamase in Clinical Escherichia coli Isolates and Their Effect on Susceptibility to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins.  


Forty-nine clinical Escherichia coli isolates, both extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) negative and ESBL positive, were studied to investigate whether increased AmpC expression is a mechanism involved in cefoxitin resistance and if this influences the third-generation cephalosporin activity. Nine of 33 (27.2%) cefoxitin-resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] >8?mg/L) isolates showed hyperproduction of chromosomal AmpC (c-AmpC) based on (1) at least two positive tests using AmpC inhibitors, (2) mutations in the promoter/attenuator regions, and (3) a 6.1- to 163-fold increase in c-ampC expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In ESBL-negative isolates, MICs of ceftazidime and cefotaxime were mostly above the wild-type (WT) level, but below the S/I breakpoint (EUCAST guideline), except for one isolate with MICs of 4?mg/L. No plasmid-mediated AmpCs were found. Periplasmic extracts of nine c-AmpC hyperproducers were preincubated with or without cefuroxime or ceftazidime and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Cefuroxime and ceftazidime were stable to hydrolysis but acted as inhibitors of the enzyme. None of these isolates showed loss of porins. Thus, cefoxitin resistance has low specificity for detecting upregulated c-AmpC production. c-AmpC hyperproducing E. coli is mostly still susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins but less than WT E. coli. Surveillance of cefoxitin-resistant E. coli to monitor developments in the activity of third-generation cephalosporins against c-AmpC hyperproducers is warranted. PMID:25188329

Paltansing, Sunita; Kraakman, Margriet; van Boxtel, Ria; Kors, Ivo; Wessels, Els; Goessens, Wil; Tommassen, Jan; Bernards, Alexandra



Intracellular activity of antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus in a mouse peritonitis model.  


Antibiotic treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections is often problematic due to the slow response to therapy and the high frequency of infection recurrence. The intracellular persistence of staphylococci has been recognized and could offer a good explanation for these treatment difficulties. Knowledge of the interplay between intracellular antibiotic activity and the overall outcome of infection is therefore important. Several intracellular in vitro models have been developed, but few experimental animal models have been published. The mouse peritonitis/sepsis model was used as the basic in vivo model exploring a quantitative ex vivo extra- and intracellular differentiation assay. The intracellular presence of S. aureus was documented by electron microscopy. Five antibiotics, dicloxacillin, cefuroxime, gentamicin, azithromycin, and rifampin (rifampicin), were tested in the new in vivo model; and the model was able to distinguish between their extra- and intracellular effects. The intracellular effects of the five antibiotics could be ranked as follows as the mean change in the log(10) number of CFU/ml (Delta log(10) CFU/ml) between treated and untreated mice after 4 h of treatment: dicloxacillin (3.70 Delta log(10) CFU/ml) > cefuroxime (3.56 Delta log(10) CFU/ml) > rifampin (1.86 Delta log(10) CFU/ml) > gentamicin (0.61 Delta log(10) CFU/ml) > azithromycin (0.21 Delta log(10) CFU/ml). We could also show that the important factors during testing of intracellular activity in vivo are the size, number, and frequency of doses; the time of exposure; and the timing between the start of infection and treatment. A poor correlation between the intracellular accumulation of the antibiotics and the actual intracellular effect was found. This stresses the importance of performing experimental studies, like those with the new in vivo model described here, to measure actual intracellular activity instead of making predictions based on cellular pharmacokinetic and MICs. PMID:19223616

Sandberg, Anne; Hessler, Jonas H R; Skov, Robert L; Blom, Jens; Frimodt-Møller, Niels



In vitro antibiotic resistance in bacterial keratitis in London  

PubMed Central

AIM—To document changes in the profile of bacterial isolates from cases of keratitis and changes in their susceptibility to first line antibiotic therapies.?METHODS—A retrospective review was performed of all bacterial isolates from cases of keratitis seen between 1984 and 1999. In vitro laboratory susceptibilities to antibiotics were determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The number of isolates, changes in the proportion of bacterial types, and the number that were fully resistant to monotherapy (ofloxacin), dual therapy (gentamicin and cefuroxime), and prophylactic treatment (chloramphenicol) were calculated.?RESULTS—There were 1312 bacterial isolates over 16 years. Gram positive bacteria accounted for 54.7% of isolates and Staphylococcus species (33.4%) were the most frequently isolated organisms. During the study period there has been an increase in the proportion of Pseudomonas species isolates but no overall increase in the proportion of Gram negative isolates. There has not been an increase in the proportion of isolates resistant to ofloxacin since 1995 or an increase in resistance to the combination of gentamicin and cefuroxime. However, since 1984 there has been a significant increase in proportion of Gram negative organisms resistant to chloramphenicol (p=0.0019).?CONCLUSIONS—An increase in the in vitro resistance of organisms to first line therapies for bacterial keratitis has not been observed. An increased resistance to chloramphenicol indicates that this drug is unlikely to provide prophylactic cover when Gram negative infection is a risk. Continued monitoring for the emergence of antibiotic resistance is recommended.?? PMID:10873974

Tuft, S.; Matheson, M.



Heat inactivation of beta-lactam antibiotics in milk.  


The presence of residues of antimicrobial substances in milk is one of the main concerns of the milk industry, as it poses a risk of toxicity to public health, and can seriously influence the technological properties of milk and dairy products. Moreover, the information available on the thermostability characteristics of these residues, particularly regarding the heat treatments used in control laboratories and the dairy industry, is very scarce. The aim of the study was, therefore, to analyze the effect of different heat treatments (40 degrees C for 10 min, 60 degrees C for 30 min, 83 degrees C for 10 min, 120 degrees C for 20 min, and 140 degrees C for 10 s) on milk samples fortified with three concentrations of nine beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin G: 3, 6, and 12 microg/liter; ampicillin: 4, 8, and 16 microg/liter; amoxicillin: 4, 8, and 16 microg/liter; cloxacillin: 60, 120, and 240 microg/liter; cefoperazone: 55, 110, and 220 microg/liter; cefquinome: 100, 200, and 400 microg/liter; cefuroxime: 65, 130, and 260 microg/liter; cephalexin: 80, 160, and 220 microg/ liter; and cephalonium: 15, 30, and 60 microg/liter). The method used was a bioassay based on the inhibition of Geobacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis. The results showed that heating milk samples at 40 degrees C for 10 min hardly produced any heat inactivation at all, while the treatment at 83 degrees C for 10 min caused a 20% loss in penicillin G, 27% in cephalexin, and 35% in cefuroxime. Of the three dairy industry heat treatments studied in this work, low pasteurization (60 degrees C for 30 min) and treatment at 140 degrees C for 10 s only caused a small loss of antimicrobial activity, whereas classic sterilization (120 degrees C for 20 min) showed a high level of heat inactivation of over 65% for penicillins and 90% for cephalosporins. PMID:18592745

Zorraquino, M A; Roca, M; Fernandez, N; Molina, M P; Althaus, R



Incidence and transferability of antibiotic resistance in the enteric bacteria isolated from hospital wastewater  

PubMed Central

This study reports the occurrence of antibiotic resistance and production of ?-lactamases including extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ES?L) in enteric bacteria isolated from hospital wastewater. Among sixty-nine isolates, tested for antibiotic sensitivity, 73.9% strains were resistant to ampicillin followed by nalidixic acid (72.5%), penicillin (63.8%), co-trimoxazole (55.1%), norfloxacin (53.6%), methicillin (52.7%), cefuroxime (39.1%), cefotaxime (23.2%) and cefixime (20.3%). Resistance to streptomycin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, and doxycycline was recorded in less than 13% of the strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) showed a high level of resistance (800–1600 ?g/mL) to one or more antibiotics. Sixty three (91%) isolates produced ?-lactamases as determined by rapid iodometric test. Multiple antibiotic resistances were noted in both among ES?L and non-ES?L producers. The ?-lactamases hydrolyzed multiple substrates including penicillin (78.8% isolates), ampicillin (62.3%), cefodroxil (52.2%), cefotoxime (21.7%) and cefuroxime (18.8%). Fifteen isolates producing ES?Ls were found multidrug resistant. Four ES?L producing isolates could transfer their R-plasmid to the recipient strain E. coli K-12 with conjugation frequency ranging from 7.0 × 10?3 to 8.8 × 10?4. The findings indicated that ES?L producing enteric bacteria are common in the waste water. Such isolates may disseminate the multiple antibiotic resistance traits among bacterial community through genetic exchange mechanisms and thus requires immediate attention. PMID:24516448

Alam, Mohammad Zubair; Aqil, Farrukh; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ahmad, Shamim



Antimicrobial associations of an outbreak of diarrhoea due to Clostridium difficile.  


An increased incidence of diarrhoea due to Clostridium difficile (CDD) at the Northern General Hospital, Sheffield, prompted an investigation into antibiotic use on the renal, medical and geriatric wards, those mostly affected. For the first half of 1997 affected patients on these wards were identified and data collected as to which antimicrobials they had taken between admission and diagnosis. Rates were then calculated of the number of affected patients on a drug over the quantity prescribed (N/1000 x defined daily doses). These were expressed as rate ratios (RR) over the rate of ampicillin/amoxycillin. A corrective procedure was also applied to the RR in an attempt to compensate for bias from the effect of drug combinations. Additionally, quarterly data were collected of numbers of patients with CDD and the amount of cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and cefuroxime issued between January 1996 and September 1997. Those drugs with the greatest association with CDD were cefotaxime (RR = 27.5, P < 0.000001), ceftriaxone (15.1, 0.00004), cefuroxime (8.6, < 0.000001) and ceftazidime (6.4, 0.00008). Several other drugs had increased uncorrected RR (P < 0.05). However, after correction for drug combinations, only the above four drugs remained with significantly increased RRs of 16.9, 8.6, 5.3 and 4.8, respectively. The time course of the outbreak showed a correlation with the use of cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. The incidence peaked in the first months of 1997, following greatest use of cefotaxime in the last quarter of 1996 and of ceftriaxone in the first quarter of 1997. This study confirms the association of cephalosporin and particularly cefotaxime usage with CDD incidence and shows the need to review the use of these drugs, especially in the treatment of respiratory infection. The method is useful for looking at local effects of prescribing with a view to controlling outbreaks of antibiotic resistant bacteria. PMID:9699138

Zadik, P M; Moore, A P



Clinical aspects and applications of hemofiltration.  


Thirty patients were referred for intermittent hemofiltration (HF) and were followed for long-term effects. Biochemical and uremic controls were comparable to those in the preceding hemodialysis (HD) period. All patients preferred to continue HF since they suffered fewer and less serious treatment-related complications. One hundred critically ill patients who developed acute renal failure were treated with continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH). The survival rate was 45% and adequate uremic control was achieved with CAVH alone in 89 patients. The major improvement obtained with CAVH was the possibility of giving adequate nutritional support without the risk of overhydration, even to anuric hypotensive patients. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous cefuroxime was studied during HF and CAVH. During HF removal of cefuroxime was considerably higher than during HD. During CAVH, extrarenal clearance was two thirds of the total clearance. Dosage recommendations for HF and CAVH are given. Aluminum clearance and aluminum removal after a desferrioxamine infusion test was found to be 2.5-3 times higher during HF than during ordinary HD. A combination of HD and charcoal hemoperfusion was found to be more effective than HD, but less effective than HF. During HF there was a significant decrease in intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) in serum as well as in mid-C regional PTH and C-terminal PTH. Significant amounts of intact PTH were found in the ultrafiltrate of 8 of 17 patients. Another explanation of the fall in PTH was a down-regulation of the secretion of intact PTH, since there was an increase in serum calcium during hemofiltration. Osteocalcin--i.e., bone Gla-protein--was found in the ultrafiltrate during hemofiltration in all patients and the serum levels of osteocalcin decreased significantly during hemofiltration. PMID:2785286

Weiss, L G



Perioperative antibiotics for prevention of acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Endophthalmitis is a severe inflammation of the anterior and/or posterior chambers of the eye that may be sterile or associated with infection. It is a potentially vision-threatening complication of cataract surgery. Prophylactic measures for endophthalmitis are targeted against various sources of infection. Objectives The objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for endophthalmitis following cataract surgery. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to October 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (, ( and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) ( We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 October 2012. We also searched for additional studies that cited any included trials using the Science Citation Index. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials that enrolled adults undergoing cataract surgery (any method and incision type) for lens opacities due to any origin. Trials that evaluated preoperative antibiotics, intraoperative (intracameral, subconjunctival or systemic) or postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis for acute endophthalmitis were included. We did not include studies that evaluated antiseptic preoperative preparations using agents such as povidone iodine, nor did we include studies that evaluated antibiotics for treating acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles for eligibility, assessed the risk of bias for each included study, and abstracted data. Main results Four studies met the inclusion criteria for this review, including 100,876 adults and 131 endophthalmitis cases. While the sample size is very large, the heterogeneity of the study designs and modes of antibiotic delivery made it impossible to conduct a formal meta-analysis. Interventions investigated in the studies included the utility of adding vancomycin and gentamycin to the irrigating solution compared with standard balanced saline solution irrigation alone, use of intracameral cefuroxime and/or topical levofloxacin perioperatively, periocular penicillin injections and topical chloramphenicol-sulphadimidine drops compared with topical antibiotics alone, and mode of antibiotic delivery (subconjunctival versus retrobulbar injections). Two studies with adequate sample sizes to evaluate a rare outcome found reduced risk of endophthalmitis with antibiotic injections during surgery compared with topical antibiotics alone: risk ratio (RR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 0.92 (periocular penicillin versus topical chloramphenicol-sulphadimidine) and RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.74 (intracameral cefuroxime versus topical levofloxacin). Another study found no significant difference in endophthalmitis when comparing subconjunctival versus retrobulbar antibiotic injections (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.32). The fourth study which compared irrigation with balanced salt solution (BSS) alone versus BSS with antibiotics was not sufficiently powered to detect differences in endophthalmitis between groups. The risk of bias among studies was low to unclear due to information not being reported. Authors' conclusions Multiple measures for preventing endophthalmitis following cataract surgery have been studied. One of the included studies, the ESCRS (European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons) study, was performed using contemporary surgical technique and employed cefuroxime, an antibiotic comm

Gower, Emily W; Lindsley, Kristina; Nanji, Afshan A; Leyngold, Ilya; McDonnell, Peter J



Modelling the concentration-time relationship in milk from cattle administered an intramammary drug.  


Antimicrobial drugs are often infused directly through the streak canal into the bovine udder for the treatment or prevention of mastitis. These infusions have two major problems: drug residues in milk and variable antimicrobial efficacy. Both problems are influenced by the pharmacokinetics of intramammary delivery and elimination of drugs. This pharmacokinetics does not conform to the assumptions of traditional first-order mamillary pharmacokinetic models. To help understand drug delivery into and elimination from the udder, a new approach to pharmacokinetic modelling of the udder is proposed. This new model was used to predict the movement of drug within the udder and the concentrations of drug achieved within physiological compartments of the udder. These predictions were examined using computer modelling. The model was evaluated using data from in vivo intramammary infusion of cefuroxime. The model predicts that changes in milking efficiency (residual volume), milk productivity and milking frequency can impact both the drug residue persistence and the time that milk drug concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory concentrations for pathogens. The model provides a new tool for future evaluation of intramammary dosing studies. PMID:22150507

Whittem, T; Whittem, J H; Constable, P D



Automated ribotyping and antibiotic resistance determining of Bacillus spp from conjunctiva of diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): We aimed to characterize the phenotype and genotype of Bacillus spp isolated from diabetic patients’ eyes, by studying the drug sensitivity patterns with a disc-diffusion method. Materials and Methods: Fifty eyes of 25 patients with type II diabetes mellitus, with at least 10 years of diabetes history, were included in the study. We analyzed the eyes for the presence of Bacillus spp.; presumptive isolates were identified by morphological, and biochemical tests, and confirmed by the VITEK system. Automated EcoRI ribotyping was performed with a RiboPrinter® Microbial Characterization System. We determined the antibiotic resistance of the isolates by the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion test. Results: Seven out of 25 patients were on insulin treatment; 7 on oral anti-diabetic medication; and 11 on combination therapy of insulin and oral medications. Among the 28 Bacillus spp isolates, 14 were B. cereus, 11 were B. pumilus, 2 were B. mojavensis and 1 was B. subtilis. Almost all the strains were either resistant or multiresistant, particularly towards cefuroxime, methicillin, and ceftazidime. Conclusion: Diabetic patients seem to be more prone to B. cereus infections than healthy individuals. It would be greatly beneficial to understand and recognize the prevalence of microorganisms and their resistance patterns for better outcome in ocular surgeries. PMID:24711899

Argun K?vanç, Sertaç; K?vanç, Merih; Güllülü, Gülay



Identification of penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Chile during clinical and microbiological study of gonococcal susceptibility to antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed Central

The first penicillinase producing isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) identified in Chile were discovered during a clinical and microbiological study to compare the efficacy of penicillin (4.8 MIU aqueous procaine penicillin G plus 1 g oral probenecid) and tetracycline (1.5 g followed by 500 mg four times daily for four days) treatment regimens for acute uncomplicated gonorrhoea. Penicillin treatment was effective in 93.1% (282) of 303 patients, whereas tetracycline was effective in 98.3% (233) of 237 patients. Six of the penicillin treatment failures were attributable to PPNG strains. In all, 21 PPNG strains were identified during the study. They were genetically identical, having a wild type auxotype, a WII/III serotype (serovar Bajk), and carrying cryptic and transfer plasmids and an Asian type penicillinase producing plasmid. In addition, 674 non-PPNG isolates were tested for their susceptibility to eight antimicrobials. Over 95% were sensitivie to 1 mg/l of penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, and erythromycin, over 90% were sensitive to 1 mg/l of tetracycline and 2 mg/l of thiamphenicol, and all were sensitive to spectinomycin. Of 226 non-PPNG isolates characterised for plasmid content and auxotype, 90% (205) were either wild type or proline requiring, 67% (153) carried only the cryptic plasmid, and a further 31% (71) carried both cryptic and transfer plasmids. Unusually, three of four isolates lacking the cryptic plasmid carried only the transfer plasmid. Images PMID:3102348

Garcia Moreno, J; Dillon, J R; Arroyave, R; Maldonado, A; Fich, F; Salvo, A; Villalobos, D; Vincent, P; Pauze, M



[Pseudomembranous colitis caused by antibiotic therapy. Results of a survey of the patient material from the praxis of 900 gastroenterologists].  


A retrospective study conducted by interviewing French gastroenterologists was performed with the objective of evaluating the incidence and etiology of pseudomembranous colitis in cases where the diagnosis has been confirmed by coloscopy. This study allowed to collect data on 878 pseudomembranous colitis observed by 438 gastroenterologists within 6 months. It shows evidence of the importance of various antibiotics in the etiology of pseudomembranous colitis (89% of the identified cases). The following is the list of antibiotics or antibiotic classes, in increasing order of their association with the development of pseudomembranous colitis: macrolides which are very rarely associated, a group represented by cefaclor, cefuroxime axetil and cyclins, which are rarely associated, a third group constituted by amoxicillin, ofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole which appears to be 2 to 3 times more frequently associated than the previous group, and a fourth group of antibiotics, represented by cefixime and the association amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, which is 7 times more frequently associated than antibiotics of the second group. PMID:7878599

Carbon, C; Richard, A; Bons, B



Community-acquired urinary tract infection in hospitalized children: etiology and antimicrobial resistance. A comparison between first episode and recurrent infection.  


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in infants and children, and Escherichia coli is the leading pathogen. The aims of this study were to compare first episode of UTI with recurrent infection, reveal organisms that cause UTI, uropathogen resistance, and presence of bacteria producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL). The first-UTI group included 456 children. E coli was the leading pathogen (80.5%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in 1.5%. The uropathogens were resistant to gentamicin (3.41%) and cefuroxime (5.71%), and highly resistant to cefamezin (37.39%). The recurrent-infection group included 106 children. E coli was also the leading pathogen, but 7.5% of the isolates were P aeruginosa (P = .002 compared with first-episode group); 6.6% were ESBL-producing bacteria compared with 1.1% in the first-episode group (P = .002). E coli is the leading pathogen in both groups. P aeruginosa and ESBL-producing bacteria were more common in the recurrent infection group. PMID:25385933

Sakran, Waheeb; Smolkin, Vladislav; Odetalla, Ahmad; Halevy, Raphael; Koren, Ariel



In vitro displacement of bilirubin by antibiotics and 2-hydroxybenzoylglycine in newborns.  

PubMed Central

Hyperbilirubinemia is frequently observed in neonates, and serious neurological complications such as kernicterus can be precipitated when the concentration of unconjugated bilirubin is abnormally increased. The administration of drugs which bind to albumin and compete with bilirubin can increase the possibility of such a complication. To test the bilirubin-displacing activity of pharmacological agents that are used with newborns, 52 antimicrobial agents were investigated in vitro. A glycine conjugate of salicylate, 2-hydroxybenzoylglycine, which is known to be present at elevated levels in newborns and has a potent bilirubin-displacing property, was used as a positive control agent. Pooled cord serum was used as a source of hyperbilirubinemic serum. A centrifugal ultrafiltration method with semipermeable cones was employed to determine the effects of potential bilirubin-displacing agents on the levels of total bilirubin. 2-Hydroxybenzoylglycine was demonstrated to be the most potent bilirubin-displacing agent. Antibiotics could be classified into four groups: high-level displacers (sulfisoxazole, sulfamethoxazole, dicloxacillin, cefoperazone, and ceftriaxone), intermediate-level displacers (moxalactam, nafcillin, and 14 others), low-level displacers (aztreonam, carbenicillin, and 11 others), and nondisplacers (mezlocillin, cefuroxime, kanamycin, and 15 others). It is concluded that the ultrafiltration method is a rapid and readily reproducible for the determination of bilirubin displacement and that antibiotics with a tendency to displace bilirubin should be avoided in jaundiced newborns whenever appropriate alternatives are available. PMID:3190184

Wadsworth, S J; Suh, B



Mutations in the primary sigma factor ?A and termination factor rho that reduce susceptibility to cell wall antibiotics.  


Combinations of glycopeptides and ?-lactams exert synergistic antibacterial activity, but the evolutionary mechanisms driving resistance to both antibiotics remain largely unexplored. By repeated subculturing with increasing vancomycin (VAN) and cefuroxime (CEF) concentrations, we isolated an evolved strain of the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis with reduced susceptibility to both antibiotics. Whole-genome sequencing revealed point mutations in genes encoding the major ? factor of RNA polymerase (sigA), a cell shape-determining protein (mreB), and the ? termination factor (rho). Genetic-reconstruction experiments demonstrated that the G-to-C substitution at position 336 encoded by sigA (sigA(G336C)), in the domain that recognizes the -35 promoter region, is sufficient to reduce susceptibility to VAN and works cooperatively with the rho(G56C) substitution to increase CEF resistance. Transcriptome analyses revealed that the sigA(G336C) substitution has wide-ranging effects, including elevated expression of the general stress ? factor (?(B)) regulon, which is required for CEF resistance, and decreased expression of the glpTQ genes, which leads to fosfomycin (FOS) resistance. Our findings suggest that mutations in the core transcriptional machinery may facilitate the evolution of resistance to multiple cell wall antibiotics. PMID:25112476

Lee, Yong Heon; Helmann, John D



Rapid quantification of six ?-lactams to optimize dosage regimens in severely septic patients.  


A fast analytical procedure was developed for the simultaneous quantification of cefepime (CEF), meropenem (MEM), ceftazidime (CZA), cefuroxime (CFX), aztreonam (AZT), and piperacillin (PIP) in serum of intensive care patients. The ?-lactam pharmacokinetic parameters can be altered in severe sepsis due to changes in the distribution, the metabolism and the elimination process. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of ?-lactams is therefore recommended in critically ill patients. The plasma samples were spiked with cefoperazone as internal standard and proteins were precipitated with methanol. The different ?-lactams were separated with high performance liquid chromatography within 18 min, and quantified by UV spectrophotometry with a diode array detector. The method was validated by means of the accuracy profile approach based on ? expectation tolerance intervals. The acceptance limits were settled at ± 30% according to the regulatory requirements. Assay validation demonstrated good performance for all ?-lactams analyzed in terms of trueness, repeatability, linearity and intermediate precision over the range of 2-200 ?g/mL. The simple extraction procedure provides respective absolute and relative recoveries ranging from 70% to 86% and from 66% to 89% for all the ?-lactams analyzed. Few interferences were observed and the method was easily applicable to TDM in intensive care patients. The quantification of ?-lactams should allow for antibiotic regimen adjustment in critically ill patients. PMID:23200371

Wolff, Fleur; Deprez, Guillaume; Seyler, Lucie; Taccone, Fabio; Hites, Maya; Gulbis, Béatrice; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Jacobs, Frédérique; Cotton, Frédéric



Antibiotic Resistance in Uropathogenic E. Coli Strains Isolated from Non-Hospitalized Patients in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To study multidrug-resistance in Uropathogenic E. Coli (UPEC) isolated from non-hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: Altogether, 250 bacterial samples were collected from non-hospitalized patients. Their identifications were done on basis of Gram-staining, colony morphology, biochemical testing and PCR. Susceptibility testing was performed by using standard protocols which were recommended by CLSI. Statistical analysis: For comparisons, statistical analysis was performed by using software, Graphpad Prism 5.0 Results: In total, 32% (n = 80) of the isolates were identified as E. Coli strains and their susceptibility patterns for different antibiotics were determined. The data indicated least resistance against tazocin [(TZP) -1.25%], amikacin [(AK) -1.8%], tigecycline [(TGC)- 2.5%] and nitrofurantoin [(F) -3.75%]. For both minocycline (MH) and sulzone (SUL), resistance rate was 5%, for gentamicin (CN), it was 16.25%, while higher resistances were observed against cephalothine [(KF)- 70%], cefotaxime [(CTX) -58.5%], ceftazidime [(CAZ)- 57.5%], cefepime [(FEP) -55%], cefuroxime and cefixime [(CXM) (CFM)- 53.75 %]. Resistance against ciprofloxacin (CIP) was 57.5%, for norfloxacine (NOR), it was 52.5% and incase of sparfloxacin (SPX), it remained 55%. High percentage of the isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole [(SXT) -86%] and Amoxicillin [AMX-CLA (AMC)- 76%]. No resistance against meropenem (MEM) was observed. Conclusion: Highest level of drug-resistance was observed against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) among clinical isolates of uropathogenic E. Coli collected from non-hospitalized patients. PMID:25386430

Ali, Ihsan; Kumar, Neeraj; Ahmed, Safia



Molecular identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia spp. isolated from bovine mastitis in Brazil.  


Nocardia spp. infections can cause severe damage to the mammary gland due to suppurative pyogranulomatous lesions and lack of clinical cure in response to conventional antimicrobial therapy. Although Nocardia infections are considered relatively uncommon in cows, there has been an apparent worldwide increase in the incidence of bovine mastitis caused by Nocardia spp, perhaps due to environmental transmission of this ubiquitous pathogen. The objectives of present study were to determine: (i) species distribution of 80 Nocardia isolates involved in bovine mastitis (based on molecular methods); and (ii) antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of all isolates from three geographical areas in Brazil. In this study, Nocardia nova (80%) was the most frequently isolated species, followed by Nocardia farcinica (9%). Additionally, Nocardia puris, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia veterana, Nocardia africana, and Nocardia arthritidis were detected using 16S rRNA sequencing. This is apparently the first report of N. puris, N. veterana, N. cyriacigeorgica, N. arthritidis and N. africana in association with bovine mastitis. Based on the disk diffusion test, isolates were most frequently resistant to cloxacillin (75%), ampicillin (55%) and cefoperazone (47%), whereas few Nocardia spp. were resistant to amikacin, cefuroxime or gentamicin. PMID:24060098

Condas, Larissa A Z; Ribeiro, Márcio G; Yazawa, Katsukiyo; de Vargas, Agueda P Castagna; Salerno, Tatiana; Giuffrida, Rogério; Langoni, Hélio; Melville, Priscila A; Biesdorf, Sônia; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Gonoi, Tohru; Kastelic, John P; Barkema, Herman W



Aeromonas and Pseudomonas: antibiotic and heavy metal resistance species from Iskenderun Bay, Turkey (northeast Mediterranean Sea).  


We studied the susceptibility patterns to 15 different antibiotics and six heavy metals in Aeromonas spp. and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from Iskenderun Bay, Turkey (northeast Mediterranean Sea). A high percentage of Aeromonas isolates showed resistance to cefazolin (66.6%) and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (66.6%). Amongst the Pseudomonas isolates, there was a high incidence of resistance to nitrofurantoin (86.2%), cefazolin (84.8%) and cefuroxime (71.7%). Most isolates showed tolerance to different concentrations of heavy metals, and minimal inhibition concentrations ranged from 25 to >3,200 microg/ml. The Aeromonas spp. and Pseudomonas spp. showed high resistance to copper of 98.3% and 75.4%, respectively, and low resistance to lead of 1.7% and 7.2%, respectively. Our results show that antibiotic and heavy metal resistant Aeromonas spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were widespread in Iskenderun Bay in 2007 and 2008. The increasing presence of antibiotic and heavy metal resistant Aeromonas spp. and Pseudomonas spp. may become a potential human health hazard. PMID:19551480

Matyar, Fatih; Akkan, Tamer; Uçak, Yasemin; Eraslan, Buse



Prevalence, Spectrum and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacterial and Candida Colonization between the 21st and 33rd Week of Gestation in Women with PPROM – 5 Years? Experience in 1 Perinatal Center  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, spectrum and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial and Candida colonization of the vagina between the 21st and the 33rd week of gestation in women who had preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Study design: High vaginal swabs from 245 subjects with PPROM were analyzed in a retrospective cohort study using cultivation-dependent methods. Patients were additionally divided into two groups: women with PPROM between the 21st and 27th week of gestation (group A) and women with PPROM between the 28th and 33rd week of gestation (group B). A subgroup analysis comparing the two groups was done. Results: The prevalence of pathological bacterial colonization was similar in both study groups (40.8 vs. 41.4?%; p?>?0.05), however, a difference in antibiotic susceptibility was noted, which did not reach statistical significance (resistance to ampicillin 71.4 vs. 52.5?%; cefuroxime 9.5 vs. 11.7?%; gentamicin 28.6 vs. 16.4?%; ciprofloxacin 5.0 vs. 5.4?%). In group A there was a statistically significant lower rate of Candida colonization (11.1 vs. 24.3?%; p?=?0.04). Conclusion: In patients with early PPROM, the rate of Candida colonization (group A) is lower and there are indications of a difference in antibiotic susceptibility of the colonizing bacteria depending on gestational age. Larger study groups are required to confirm these preliminary results. PMID:24771885

Reinhard, J.; Sänger, N.; Hanker, L. C.; Peiffer, S.; Yuan, J.; Kempf, V. A. J.; Louwen, F.



The Escherichia coli phylogenetic group B2 with integrons prevails in childhood recurrent urinary tract infections.  


The aim of our study was to characterize the phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli, antibiotic resistance, and containment of class 1 integrons in the first attack of pyelonephritis and in subsequent recurrences in young children. Altogether, 89 urine E. coli isolates from 41 children with urinary tract infection (UTI) were studied for prevalence and persistence of phylogenetic groups by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), antibacterial resistance by minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and class 1 integrons by PCR. Phylogenetic group B2 was most common (57%), followed by D (20%), A (18%) and B1 (5%). Overall resistance to betalactams was 61%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 28%, and was not associated with phylogenetic groups. According to PFGE, the same clonal strain persisted in 77% of patients. The persistence was detected most often in phylogenetic group B2 (70%). Phylogenetic group B2 more often contained class 1 integrons than group A. Integron positive strains had higher MIC values of cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and gentamicin. In conclusion, phylogenetic group B2 was the most common cause of the first episode of pyelonephritis, as well as in case of the persistence of the same strain and contained frequently class 1 integrons in childhood recurrent UTI. An overall frequent betalactam resistance was equally distributed among phylogenetic groups. PMID:24033434

Kõljalg, Siiri; Truusalu, Kai; Stsepetova, Jelena; Pai, Kristiine; Vainumäe, Inga; Sepp, Epp; Mikelsaar, Marika



The pneumococcus and the mouse-protection test: correlation of in vitro and in vivo activity for beta-lactam antibiotics, vancomycin, erythromycin and gentamicin.  


The mouse-protection test with intraperitoneal inoculation of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 was employed to compare the effect in vivo and to correlate with activity in vitro of ampicillin, piperacillin, methicillin, cefuroxime, erythromycin, vancomycin and gentamicin. The MICs for these drugs were lowest for the beta-lactam antibiotics, highest for vancomycin and gentamicin. Relative to the MIC, gentamicin and vancomycin showed the highest bactericidal rates against the pneumococcus. Vancomycin was the most effective in vivo as measured by the 50% effective dose (ED50) after single doses 1 h post-inoculation. Serum vancomycin concentrations measured after doses equal to the ED50 were below the minimal concentration measurable by our bioassay (i.e. less than 3.7 micrograms/ml). For the other drugs, peak concentrations in serum were higher than those produced even by high doses in man. Among pharmacokinetic parameters studied at dosages equal to the ED50s, the period during which the serum concentration exceeded the MIC (delta T(MIC] was the factor which varied the least for the beta-lactam antibiotics (range, 2-5 h). For gentamicin and probably also for vancomycin the delta T(MIC) was below 20 min, while it was considerably longer (i.e. 19 h) for erythromycin, although the bactericidal activity of this drug in vitro was comparable to that of the beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:3630711

Frimodt-Møller, N; Thomsen, V F



Screening for antimicrobial resistance in fecal samples by the replica plating method.  

PubMed Central

Replica plating can be used for the detection of antibiotic resistance in normal flora. We have evaluated this application of the replica plating method by comparing it with a five-colony method. The replica plating method uses a single plate for each antibiotic, with a concentration just above that for borderline resistance. By the five-colony method, five colonies per sample were picked, chosen to represent all different colony morphologies present, and MICs were determined by a standard agar dilution method. The gram-negative, aerobic floras of 131 fecal samples were screened for resistance to ampicillin, cefuroxime, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline by both methods. The rate of resistance detection by the two methods did not differ statistically for any of the antibiotics tested. The breakpoint concentrations used for the replica plates in the study gave results similar to those produced by the agar dilution method and the breakpoint values of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards and can thus be recommended. As the only currently used resistance detection method, replica plating facilitates an exact determination of the percentage of resistant colonies/total number of colonies (between 1 and 100%) in a sample. This revealed an uneven distribution, with only 23% of the samples having resistance frequencies in the range of 10 to 85%; usually, the resistant flora either was a small minority or was very dominant in samples with resistance. This phenomenon was present for all of the antibiotics. PMID:8586690

Osterblad, M; Leistevuo, T; Huovinen, P



Predominant staphylococci in the intensive care unit of a paediatric hospital.  


Coagulase-negative staphylococci cause a significant number of infections, especially in immunocompromised patients, including premature neonates. Nosocomial strains present in the environment create a special risk.We studied staphylococci isolated from the intensive care unit of a paediatric teaching hospital over the period of six months in 1997. Biotyping and species identification were performed; resistance to methicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics and patterns of resistance to antimicrobial agents were determined. Staphylococcus cohnii was the predominant species of 147 isolates of staphylococci recovered from the ward environment. Strains were resistant to several antibiotics and 97% were resistant to methicillin. In isolates from infants (72) methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis were predominant. Susceptibility to beta-lactams (penicillin, amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and cephalosporins: cephalothin, cefuroxime and cefotaxime) showed differences between the two species. Some S. cohnii were susceptible to penicillin and amoxycillin despite methicillin-resistance. S. epidermidis were relatively susceptible to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and cephalosporins. All strains investigated were susceptible to vancomycin, but nearly 30% demonstrated high-level resistance to mupirocin. The search for strains of the same origin showed clones belonging to S. epidermidis, S. hominis and S. saprophyticus but not S. cohnii.A large number of multiresistant, phenotypically different S. cohnii strains surviving in the ward environment may provide a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:10860691

Szewczyk, E M; Piotrowski, A; Rózalska, M



A Simple Assay to Screen Antimicrobial Compounds Potentiating the Activity of Current Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic resistance continues to pose a significant problem in the management of bacterial infections, despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Here, we suggest a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-perform assay to screen antimicrobial compounds from natural products or synthetic chemical libraries for their potential to work in tandem with the available antibiotics against multiple drug-resistant bacteria. The aqueous extract of Juglans regia tree bark was tested against representative multiple drug-resistant bacteria in the aforementioned assay to determine whether it potentiates the activity of selected antibiotics. The aqueous extract of J. regia bark was added to Mueller-Hinton agar, followed by a lawn of multiple drug-resistant bacteria, Salmonella typhi or enteropathogenic E. coli. Next, filter paper discs impregnated with different classes of antibiotics were placed on the agar surface. Bacteria incubated with extract or antibiotics alone were used as controls. The results showed a significant increase (>30%) in the zone of inhibition around the aztreonam, cefuroxime, and ampicillin discs compared with bacteria incubated with the antibiotics/extract alone. In conclusion, our assay is able to detect either synergistic or additive action of J. regia extract against multiple drug-resistant bacteria when tested with a range of antibiotics. PMID:23865073

Iqbal, Junaid; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj; Khan, Naveed Ahmed



Is there any benefit in pre-operative urinary analysis before elective total joint replacement?  


Whether patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria should be investigated and treated before elective hip and knee replacement is controversial, although it is a widespread practice. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study with urine analyses before surgery and three days post-operatively. Patients with symptomatic urinary infections or an indwelling catheter were excluded. Post-discharge surveillance included questionnaires to patients and general practitioners at three months. Among 510 patients (309 women and 201 men), with a median age of 69 years (16 to 97) undergoing lower limb joint replacements (290 hips and 220 knees), 182 (36%) had pre-operative asymptomatic bacteriuria, mostly due to Escherichia coli, and 181 (35%) had white cells in the urine. Most patients (95%) received a single intravenous peri-operative dose (1.5 g) of cefuroxime as prophylaxis. On the third post-operative day urinary analysis identified white cells in 99 samples (19%) and bacteriuria in 208 (41%). Pathogens in the cultures on the third post-operative day were different from those in the pre-operative samples in 260 patients (51%). Only 25 patients (5%) developed a symptomatic urinary infection during their stay or in a subsequent three-month follow-up period, and two thirds of organisms identified were unrelated to those found during the admission. All symptomatic infections were successfully treated with oral antibiotics with no perceived effect on the joint replacement. We conclude that testing and treating asymptomatic urinary tract colonisation before joint replacement is unnecessary. PMID:24589797

Bouvet, C; Lübbeke, A; Bandi, C; Pagani, L; Stern, R; Hoffmeyer, P; Uçkay, I



Comparison of Wilkins-Chalgren medium supplemented with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and Haemophilus test medium for susceptibility testing of clinical Haemophilus isolates.  


Haemophilus test medium (HTM) was compared with Wilkins-Chalgren agar (WCA; supplemented with 15 micrograms/ml nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)) for antibiotic susceptibility testing of 74 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. The Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion method and the agar dilution procedure were the two tests employed. WCA + NAD and HTM yielded comparable results for the following antimicrobial drugs and drug combinations: ampicillin, amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, ampicillin plus sulbactam, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline. However, WCA + NAD slightly antagonized rifampin. Co-trimoxazole was significantly antagonized by WCA + NAD. WCA + NAD was much simpler with regard to in-house preparation, and WCA plates could be supplemented with NAD following pouring, solidification and storage of the plates simply by surface spreading the required amount of NAD with a glass spatula, thus adding considerably to laboratory flexibility. It is suggested that additional laboratories comparatively and critically examine WCA + NAD medium for antibiotic susceptibility testing of clinical Haemophilus isolates. PMID:8529434

Traub, W H; Leonhard, B



Antibiotic susceptibility of clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.  


Ninety-three representative, recent clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were examined for susceptibility to 9 antimicrobial drugs utilizing Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) enriched with sheep blood and a hypercapnic atmosphere of incubation. One isolate was resistant to penicillin G (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC = 2 micrograms/ml) and 6 isolates were of intermediate susceptibility to penicillin G (MICs = 0.125-0.25 microgram/ml). The penicillin-G-resistant isolate was also resistant to cefuroxime (MIC = 4 micrograms/ml) and of intermediate susceptibility to cefotaxime (MIC = 1 microgram/ml). This isolate was resistant to chloramphenicol (MIC = 16 micrograms/ml) as well. All 93 isolates were susceptible to teicoplanin and vancomycin. Two isolates each were resistant (MICs = 16 micrograms/ml) or moderately susceptible (MICs = 8 micrograms/ml) to chloramphenicol. Eight isolates were resistant to doxycycline (MICs > or = 8 micrograms/ml), whereas 2 isolates were of intermediate susceptibility to this antibiotic (MICs = 4 micrograms/ml). Three isolates were resistant to erythromycin (MICs > or = 4 micrograms/ml), and 2 isolates showed reduced susceptibility to erythromycin (MICs = 2 micrograms/ml). Chocolatized MHA antagonized the activity of teicoplanin and vancomycin against pneumococcal isolates. Haemophilus test and Wilkins-Chalgren media failed to support optimal growth of all pneumococcal isolates. PMID:8804790

Traub, W H; Leonhard, B



Group A streptococcal endophthalmitis complicating a sore throat in a 2-year-old child.  


A previously well 2-year-old presented to her general practitioner after 5?days of fever, lethargy, sore throat and a slightly red eye. A viral infection was diagnosed. Two days later, she re-presented with a swollen right eyelid and a moderately red eye. Oral amoxicillin and chloramphenicol eye drops were prescribed. The next day, marked periorbital swelling developed. She was admitted to hospital and parenteral ceftriaxone was started. Examination under anaesthetic showed injected globe diffuse corneal clouding and peripheral corneal opacities; ultrasound and CT suggested endophthalmitis. On transfer to a tertiary centre, intraocular vancomycin and subconjunctival cefuroxime were given. Aqueous fluid samples were positive for group A Streptococcus (GAS) by PCR, so parenteral clindamycin was added. GAS endophthalmitis was confirmed 1?day later from the positive intraocular fluid culture results. Visual evoked potentials revealed complete loss of vision. The eye was removed to limit potential spread. She made a good recovery postoperatively and was discharged on oral antibiotics. PMID:25858925

Fitzgerald, Felicity; Harris, Kathryn; Henderson, Robert; Edelsten, Clive



Evaluation of anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity and synergy of some bioactive plant extracts.  


Anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of ethanolic extracts of four medicinal plants namely Acorus calamus (rhizome) Hemidesmus indicus (stem), Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark), and Plumbago zeylanica (root), were detected with inhibition zone size ranged from 11 to 44 mm and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) varied from 0.32 to 3.25 mg/mL. Further, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol fractions of above plants demonstrated antibacterial activity. The potency of these fractions based on zone of inhibition and MIC value was relatively higher in P. zeylanica (ethylacetate fraction), followed by acetone fractions of H. indicus, A. calamus, and H. antidysenterica. Time kill assay with most promising fractions of these plant extracts, demonstrated concentration-dependent killing of MRSA within 9-12 h of incubation. Interestingly, synergistic interaction among alcoholic extracts and some fractions of above four plants was evident against MRSA. Further, synergistic interaction of these extracts was detected with one or more antibiotics tested (tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime and ceftidizime). The findings also validate the traditional uses of above plants against infectious diseases. Phytochemical studies demonstrated flavonoids and phenols as major active constituents. Further investigations are needed to characterize the active principle and its interaction mechanism with antibiotics. PMID:17004300

Aqil, Farrukh; Ahmad, Iqbal; Owais, Mohd



Isolation and antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli from urinary tract infections in a tertiary care hospital  

PubMed Central

Objective: The study was conducted to isolate and determine the antibiotic resistance in E. coli from urinary tract infections in a tertiary care hospital, Lahore. Methods: Urine samples (n=500) were collected from patients with signs and symptoms of Urinary tract infections. Bacteria were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical profile. Antibiotic resistance pattern of E. coli against different antibiotic was determined by Kirby-Baur method. Results: Bacterial etiological agent was isolated from 402 samples with highest prevalence of E. coli (321, 80%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (9.4%), Proteus species (5.4%) and Pseudomonas species (5.2%). The E. coli were highly resistant to penicillin (100%), amoxicillin (100%) and cefotaxime (89.7%), followed by intermediate level of resistance to ceftazidime (73.8%), cephradine (73.8%), tetracycline (69.4%), doxycycline (66.6%), augmentin (62.6%), gentamycin (59.8%), cefuroxime (58.2%), ciprofloxacin (54.2%), cefaclor (50%), aztreonam (44.8%), ceftriaxone (43.3%), imipenem (43.3%), and low level of resistance to streptomycin (30%), kanamycin (19.9%), tazocin (14%), amikacin (12.7%) and lowest to norfloxacin (11.2%). Out of 321 E. coli isolates, 261 (81%) were declared as multiple drug resistant and 5 (1.5%) were extensive drug resistant. Conclusion: It is concluded that most of the urinary tract infections in human are caused by multiple drug resistant E. coli. PMID:24772149

Sabir, Sumera; Ahmad Anjum, Aftab; Ijaz, Tayyaba; Asad Ali, Muhammad; ur Rehman Khan, Muti; Nawaz, Muhammad



Antibiotic resistance of lactobacilli isolated from two italian hard cheeses.  


One hundred forty-one lactobacilli strains isolated from natural whey starter cultures and ripened Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano cheeses were tested for their susceptibility to 13 antibiotics, in particular, penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin, oxacillin, cephalotin, cefuroxime, vancomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, co-trimoxazole, and nitrofurantoin. The strains belonged to the species Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, L. rhamnosus, and L. casei. The strains of the first two species were isolated from whey starter cultures, and the strains of the last two species were from the ripened cheeses. Significant differences among the strains in their antibiotic resistance were found in relation to the type of cheese and, especially, the strains from Parmigiano Reggiano were more resistant to gentamicin and penicillin G. The strains isolated in the ripened cheese were generally more resistant than those isolated from natural whey starter cultures; in particular, significant differences regarding oxacillin, vancomycin, cephalotin, and co-trimoxazole were observed. Finally, no significant difference in relation to the type of cheese was found among the thermophilic lactobacilli isolated from whey cultures, while the facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli isolated from Parmigiano Reggiano showed higher resistance toward gentamicin and penicillin G than did the same species isolated from Grana Padano. PMID:19833040

Belletti, Nicoletta; Gatti, Monica; Bottari, Benedetta; Neviani, Erasmo; Tabanelli, Giulia; Gardini, Fausto



Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates from free range domestic duck (Cairina moschata) in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania.  


Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter isolated from free-ranging ducks was determined in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. Ninety intestinal contents from ducks were screened for thermophilic Campylobacter using Skirrow's protocol. Of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates, 50 were tested for sensitivity to 12 antibiotics. Overall prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter was 80%. The prevalence of Campylobacter in adult ducks (91.3%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than ducklings (68.2%). The isolation rate of C. jejuni (81.9%) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than C. coli (18.1%). All C. jejuni isolates were susceptible to streptomycin, nitrofurantoin and amikacin. Forty eight percent, 74% and 82% of isolates were resistant to cefuroxime sodium, tetracycline and ampicillin respectively. Between 20-50% of isolates were resistant to erythromycin, gentamicin, cloxacillin and amoxicillin. Norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin had lower C. jejuni resistance of 10% and 16% respectively. C. jejuni isolates from adult ducks showed significantly higher rates of resistance (p < 0.05) to most antibiotics than did duckling isolates. High prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter in ducks could be of public health significance in Morogoro municipality. The observed multidrug resistance in this study poses a threat of transfer of antibiotic resistance to human pathogens because of the close contact between ducks and human. PMID:19562499

Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel; Muhairwa, A P



Significant asymptomatic bacteriuria among Nigerian type 2 diabetics.  

PubMed Central

Significant asymptomatic bacteriuria is a risk factor for symptomatic urinary infection and septicemia among predisposed individuals such as diabetics. We investigated the pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria among our type 2 diabetics with a view to documenting the prevalence, type of organisms responsible and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern. One hundred and twenty-four type 2 Nigerian diabetics (55 males and 69 females) submitted midstream urine specimens for culture. Thirty-three patients had significant bacteriuria (9 males and 24 females), showing the frequency of occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria to be 26.6%. The most common organism isolated was Klebsiella pneumonia at 42.4%. Gram-negative bacilli made up about 23 (69.7%) of the isolates. Isolates were poorly sensitive to the readily available antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole), but a large number of the organisms isolated were sensitive to nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Sensitivity to erythromycin, nalidixic acid and cefuroxime was moderate. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is, thus, more prevalent among the Nigerian diabetic population than in the non-diabetics. A changing pattern of disease is observed with Klebsiella sp. now accounting for the majority of asymptomatic bacteriuria among diabetics. The organisms are not sensitive to the commonly available antibacterial agents. PMID:12793791

Alebiosu, C. O.; Osinupebi, O. A.; Olajubu, F. A.



Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Environmental Sources?  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic bacteria that cause serious infections in both poikilothermic and endothermic animals, including humans. Clinical isolates have shown an increasing incidence of antibiotic and antimicrobial drug resistance since the widespread use of antibiotics began. A total of 282 Aeromonas pure cultures were isolated from both urban and rural playa lakes in the vicinity of Lubbock, Texas, and several rivers in West Texas and New Mexico. Of these, at least 104 were subsequently confirmed to be independent isolates. The 104 isolates were identified by Biolog and belonged to 11 different species. The MICs of six metals, one metalloid, five antibiotics, and two antimicrobial drugs were determined. All aeromonads were sensitive to chromate, cobalt, copper, nickel, zinc, cefuroxime, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole. Low incidences of trimethoprim resistance, mercury resistance, and arsenite resistance were found. Dual resistances were found in 5 of the 104 Aeromonas isolates. Greater numbers of resistant isolates were obtained from samples taken in March versus July 2002 and from sediment versus water. Plasmids were isolated from selected strains of the arsenite- and mercury-resistant organisms and were transformed into Escherichia coli XL1-Blue MRF?. Acquisition of the resistance phenotypes by the new host showed that these resistance genes were carried on the plasmids. Mercury resistance was found to be encoded on a conjugative plasmid. Despite the low incidence of resistant isolates, the six playa lakes and three rivers that were sampled in this study can be considered a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:16950901

Huddleston, Jennifer R.; Zak, John C.; Jeter, Randall M.



[Antimicrobial susceptibility of a selection of Salmonella enterica strains of various origins isolated in Spain].  


The widespread use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary practice is increasingly causing the emergence of different multidrug-resistant human pathogens. This situation makes treating infections caused by these microorganisms difficult. Salmonella enterica is an ubiquitous organism and may be a good indicator of the influence of the use and abuse of antimicrobials on the appearance of multiresistant strains. One hundred and ninety S. enterica strains of different origins isolated in Spain in 1996 were randomly selected. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was studied using the agar dilution method according to NCCLS criteria in the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, ticarcillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, imipenem, gentamicin, apramycin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole and co-trimoxazole. Sixty-three percent of the S. enterica tested were resistant and 24% were multiresistant. The percentage of resistant and multiresistant strains of S. enterica of human origin was slightly higher than those of nonhuman origin. Statistically, ampicillin, ticarcillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were significantly more resistant in strains of human origin. Ninety-one percent of the strains of Typhimurium serotype and phagotype 104 were multiresistant. The Salmonella Typhimurium serotype and phagotype 104 ACSTSu-resistant clone, which is widespread in various Western countries, was also isolated in this study. The use of different antimicrobials in human and veterinary practice needs to be rationalized. PMID:10878517

Cruchaga, S; Echeita, A; Usera, M A



In vitro activity of beta-lactam antibiotics to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA).  


Community-associated (CA) MRSA often display low MIC values against oxacillin. The in vitro activity of various beta-lactam antibiotics against heterogeneous CA-MRSA (n?=?98) isolated in a low endemic area was determined by Etest, and Mueller-Hinton agar (MUHAP) was compared with Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 2% NaCl (MUHSP). In general, the CA-MRSA isolates showed higher MIC values for the various beta-lactam antibiotics on MUHSP compared with MUHAP. MIC values for oxacillin ranged from 1 to >256 mg/L on MUHSP. Cephalothin, representing the first generation of cephalosporins, showed MICs from 0.75 to 96 mg/L and the MIC(50) and MIC(90) for cefuroxime, cefotaxime and cefepime, representing the second, third and fourth generations, respectively, were rather high. However, the MIC(50) and MIC(90) for ceftobiprole (fifth generation) were 1.5 and 2 mg/L, respectively, on MUHSP. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) for imipenem were 0.75 and 2 mg/L, respectively, on MUHSP. Only 3/98 (3%) CA-MRSA isolates showed a MIC >4 mg/L. Consequently, low MIC values for imipenem, lower than those of the newly developed fifth generation cephalosporins, were found among CA-MRSA. These findings may be considered for further studies including clinical trials in order to evaluate carbapenems as a potential treatment option for infections caused by CA-MRSA. PMID:21932140

Germel, C; Haag, A; Söderquist, B



Mechanism of action of DD-peptidases: role of asparagine-161 in the Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase.  

PubMed Central

The role of residue Asn-161 in the interaction between the Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase and various substrates or beta-lactam inactivators was probed by site-directed mutagenesis. The residue was successively replaced by serine and alanine. In the first case, acylation rates were mainly affected with the peptide and ester substrates but not with the thiol-ester substrates and beta-lactams. However, the deacylation rates were decreased 10-30-fold with the substrates yielding benzoylglycyl and benzoylalanyl adducts. The Asn161Ala mutant was more generally affected, although the acylation rates with cefuroxime and cefotaxime remained similar to those observed with the wild-type enzyme. Surprisingly, the deacylation rates of the benzoylglycyl and benzoylalanyl adducts were very close to those observed with the wild-type enzyme. The results also indicate that the interaction with the peptide substrate and the transpeptidation reaction were more sensitive to the mutations than the other reactions studied. The results are discussed and compared with those obtained with the Asn-132 mutants of a class A beta-lactamase. PMID:8328960

Wilkin, J M; Jamin, M; Joris, B; Frere, J M



Can a Simple Urinalysis Predict the Causative Agent and the Antibiotic Sensitivities?  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study was (1) to determine the reliability of urinalysis (UA) for predicting urinary tract infection (UTI) in febrile children, (2) to determine whether UA findings can predict Escherichia coli versus non–E. coli urinary tract infection, and (3) to determine if empiric antibiotics should be selected based on E. coli versus non–E. coli infection predictions. Methods This was a retrospective chart review of children from 2 months to 2 years of age who presented to the emergency department with fever (rectal temperature >100.4°F) and had a positive urine culture. This study was conducted between January 2004 and December 2007. Negative UA was defined as urine white blood cell count less than 5 per high-power field, negative leukocyte esterase, and negative nitrites. Urine cultures were classified into E. coli and non–E. coli groups. These groups were compared for sex, race, and UA findings. Multivariate forward logistic regression, using the Wald test, was performed to calculate the likelihood ratio (LR) of each variable (eg, sex, race, UA parameters) in predicting UTI. In addition, antibiotic sensitivities between both groups were compared. Results Of 749 medical records reviewed, 608 were included; negative UA(?) was present in 183 cases, and positive UA(+) was observed in 425 cases. Furthermore, 424 cases were caused by E. coli, and 184 were due to non–E. coli organisms. Among 425 UA(+) cases, E. coli was identified in 349 (82.1%), whereas non–E. coli organisms were present in 76 (17.9%); in contrast, in 183 UA(?) cases, 108 (59%) were due to non–E. coli organisms versus 75 (41%), which were caused by E. coli. Urinalysis results were shown to be associated with organism group (P < 0.001). Positive leukocytes esterase had an LR of 2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–4.2), positive nitrites had an LR of 2.8 (95% CI, 1.4–5.5), and urine white blood cell count had an LR of 1.8 (95% CI, 1.3–2.4) in predicting E. coli versus non–E. coli infections. Antibiotic sensitivity compared between UA groups demonstrated equivalent superiority of cefazolin (94.7% sensitive in UA(+) vs 84.0% in UA(?) group; P < 0.0001), cefuroxime (98.2% vs 91.7%; P < 0.001), and nitrofurantoin (96.1% vs 82.2%; P < 0.0001) in the UA(+) group. In contrast, the UA(?) group showed significant sensitivity to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (82.2% vs 71.3% in UA(+); P = 0.008). Conclusions Urinalysis is not an accurate predictor of UTI. A positive urine culture in the presence of negative UA most likely grew non–E. coli organisms, whereas most UA(+) results were associated with E. coli. This study also highlighted local patterns of antibiotic resistance between E. coli and non–E. coli groups. Negative UA results in the presence of strong suspicion of a UTI suggest a non–E. coli organism, which may be best treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Conversely, UA(+) results suggest E. coli, which calls for treatment with cefazolin or cefuroxime. PMID:24651215

Waseem, Muhammad; Chen, Justin; Paudel, Govinda; Sharma, Nirdesh; Castillo, Manuel; Ain, Yumna; Leber, Mark



Identification of specific mRNA signatures as fingerprints for carcinogenesis in mice induced by genotoxic and nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens.  


Long-term rodent carcinogenicity studies for evaluation of chemicals and pharmaceuticals concerning their carcinogenic potential to humans are currently receiving critical revision. Additional data from mechanistic studies can support cancer risk assessment by clarifying the underlying mode of action. In the course of the IMI MARCAR project, a European consortium of EFPIA partners and academics, which aims to identify biomarkers for nongenotoxic carcinogenesis, a toxicogenomic mouse liver database was generated. CD-1 mice were orally treated for 3 and 14 days with 3 known genotoxic hepatocarcinogens: C.I. Direct Black 38, Dimethylnitrosamine and 4,4'-Methylenedianiline; 3 nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Phenobarbital sodium and Piperonyl butoxide; 4 nonhepatocarcinogens: Cefuroxime sodium, Nifedipine, Prazosin hydrochloride and Propranolol hydrochloride; and 3 compounds that show ambiguous results in genotoxicity testing: Cyproterone acetate, Thioacetamide and Wy-14643. By liver mRNA expression analysis using individual animal data, we identified 64 specific biomarker candidates for genotoxic carcinogens and 69 for nongenotoxic carcinogens for male mice at day 15. The majority of genotoxic carcinogen biomarker candidates possess functions in DNA damage response (eg, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, DNA repair). Most of the identified nongenotoxic carcinogen biomarker candidates are involved in regulation of cell cycle progression and apoptosis. The derived biomarker lists were characterized with respect to their dependency on study duration and gender and were successfully used to characterize carcinogens with ambiguous genotoxicity test results, such as Wy-14643. The identified biomarker candidates improve the mechanistic understanding of drug-induced effects on the mouse liver that result in hepatocellular adenomas and/or carcinomas in 2-year mouse carcinogenicity studies. PMID:25410580

Kossler, Nadine; Matheis, Katja A; Ostenfeldt, Nina; Bach Toft, Dorthe; Dhalluin, Stéphane; Deschl, Ulrich; Kalkuhl, Arno



Antibiogram of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Isolated From Nkonkobe Municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background: Assessment of resistance genes is imperative, as they become disseminated to bacterial flora in plants and to the indigenous bacterial community, and thus ultimately contributes to the clinical problems of antibiotic resistant pathogens. Objectives: The research was to assess the antibiotic characteristics and incidence of sul3 genes of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates recovered from rhizospheres plant in Nkonkobe Municipality. Materials and Methods: Identification and assessment of resistance genes (sul2 and sul3 genes) were carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analytical profile index (API) was used for biochemical characterization for identification before the PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out using the approved guidelines and standards of Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). Results: A total of 125 isolates were identified, composed of 120 (96%) from grass root rhizosphere and 5 (4%) from soil butternut root rhizosphere. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility tests showed varying resistances to meropenem (8.9%), cefuroxime (95.6 %), ampicillin-sulbactam (53.9%), ceftazidime (10.7%), cefepime (29.3 %), minocycline (2.2%), kanamycin (56.9%), ofloxacin (2.9%), levofloxacin (1.3%), moxifloxacin (2.8%), ciprofloxacin (24.3%), gatifloxacin (1.3%), polymyxin B (2.9 %), cotrimoxazole (26.1%), trimethoprim (98.6%) and aztreonam (58%). The isolates were susceptible to the fluoroquinolones (74.3-94.7%), polymycin (97.1%) and meropenem (88.1%). The newest sulphonamide resistance gene, sul3, was detected among the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (cotrimoxazole)-resistant isolates, while the most frequent sulphonamide-resistant gene in animal source isolates, sul2, was not. Conclusions: The commensal S. maltophilia isolates in the Nkonkobe Municipality environment harbored the resistant gene sul3 as clinical counterparts, especially from the perspective of reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants. PMID:25789125

Adegoke, Anthony Ayodeji; Okoh, Anthony I.



[Peptostreptococcus magnus osteoarticular infections after orthopedic surgery. 14 cases and pathogenicity factors].  


We report a retrospective study of 14 Peptostreptococcus magnus bone and joint infections, following orthopaedic prostheses or implantation of fixation devices, diagnosed in two Paris hospitals between 1992 and 1996. Five patients experienced a knee joint infection after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with 4 artificial grafts, and 9 caught joint or wound infections, after limb traumatic injuries or bone neoplastic ruptures involving femur, tibia, calcaneum and humerus, treated by arthroplasty or osteosynthesis with implantation of biomaterials. Septic arthritis was experienced one week to one year after reconstructive surgery, and had evolved for several months to years before etiologic diagnosis in 5 cases. Specimens of pus, tissues or removed implants produced numerous slow growing small colonies of Gram positive cocci arranged in clumps on culture media incubated in anaerobic atmosphere only. In 10 patients, the same organism was disclosed in several separate specimens. The identification of P. magnus was assessed by the enzyme profile (rapid ID 32A API strips), gaz liquid chromatography, catalase and coagulase production, resistance to novobiocin and Na polyanethol sulphonate. Antibiotic sensitivity testing performed by disc method was constant to penicillin G, amoxicillin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, imipenem and pristinamycin with penicillin G MICs < 0.125 mg/l and metronidazole MICs < 1 mg/l. Erythromycin, clindamycin, rifampicin, tetracycline and fosfomycin were active against more than 70% of P. magnus. All patients were cured after a prolonged course of various antibiotics and surgical removal of the foreign material whenever possible. We studied in vitro binding of P. magnus with extracellular matrix proteins adsorbed onto biomaterials, by particle agglutination assays of latex beads coated with proteins. Eighty one% of strains bound to collagen, 69% to fibrinogen and 46% to fibronectin. Comparison of orthopaedic strains with strains of other infections and from skin showed a correlation between P. magnus from bone and joint infections and their fibrinogen binding ability (69% against 20%, p < 0.05). PMID:9769879

Felten, A; Desplaces, N; Nizard, R; Sedel, L; Lagrange, P



Beta- Lactam Antibiotics Stimulate Biofilm Formation in Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae by Up-Regulating Carbohydrate Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common acute otitis media pathogen, with an incidence that is increased by previous antibiotic treatment. NTHi is also an emerging causative agent of other chronic infections in humans, some linked to morbidity, and all of which impose substantial treatment costs. In this study we explore the possibility that antibiotic exposure may stimulate biofilm formation by NTHi bacteria. We discovered that sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotic (i.e., amounts that partially inhibit bacterial growth) stimulated the biofilm-forming ability of NTHi strains, an effect that was strain and antibiotic dependent. When exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics NTHi strains produced tightly packed biofilms with decreased numbers of culturable bacteria but increased biomass. The ratio of protein per unit weight of biofilm decreased as a result of antibiotic exposure. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilms had altered ultrastructure, and genes involved in glycogen production and transporter function were up regulated in response to antibiotic exposure. Down-regulated genes were linked to multiple metabolic processes but not those involved in stress response. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilm bacteria were more resistant to a lethal dose (10 µg/mL) of cefuroxime. Our results suggest that beta-lactam antibiotic exposure may act as a signaling molecule that promotes transformation into the biofilm phenotype. Loss of viable bacteria, increase in biofilm biomass and decreased protein production coupled with a concomitant up-regulation of genes involved with glycogen production might result in a biofilm of sessile, metabolically inactive bacteria sustained by stored glycogen. These biofilms may protect surviving bacteria from subsequent antibiotic challenges, and act as a reservoir of viable bacteria once antibiotic exposure has ended. PMID:25007395

Wu, Siva; Li, Xiaojin; Gunawardana, Manjula; Maguire, Kathleen; Guerrero-Given, Debbie; Schaudinn, Christoph; Wang, Charles; Baum, Marc M.; Webster, Paul



Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of human and piglet Clostridium difficile PCR-ribotype 078  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, outbreaks of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) occurred worldwide. A new emerging type, PCR-ribotype 027, was the associated pathogen. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of this type were extensively investigated and used to partly explain its spread. In Europe, the incidence of C. difficile PCR-ribotype 078 recently increased in humans and piglets. Using recommendations of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) we studied the antimicrobial susceptibility to eight antimicrobials, mechanisms of resistance and the relation with previously prescribed antimicrobials in human (n=49) and porcine (n=50) type 078 isolates. Human and porcine type 078 isolates showed similar antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for the antimicrobials tested. In total, 37% of the isolates were resistant to four or more antimicrobial agents. The majority of the human and porcine isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin (100%), tetracycline (100%) and clindamycin (96%) and resistant to ciprofloxacin (96%). More variation was found for resistance patterns to erythromycin (76% in human and 59% in porcine isolates), imipenem (29% in human and 50% in porcine isolates) and moxifloxacin (16% for both human and porcine isolates). MIC values of cefuroxim were high (MICs >256 mg/L) in 96% of the isolates. Resistance to moxifloxacin and clindamycin was associated with a gyr(A) mutation and the presence of the erm(B) gene, respectively. A large proportion (96%) of the erythromycin resistant isolates did not carry the erm(B) gene. The use of ciprofloxacin (humans) and enrofloxacin (pigs) was significantly associated with isolation of moxifloxacin resistant isolates. Increased fluoroquinolone use could have contributed to the spread of C. difficile type 078. PMID:23566553



Multidrug Resistance and Plasmid Patterns of Escherichia coli O157 and Other E. coli Isolated from Diarrhoeal Stools and Surface Waters from Some Selected Sources in Zaria, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

We have assessed the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in diarrhoeal patients and surface waters from some selected sources in Zaria (Nigeria), evaluating the antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profiles of 184 E. coli isolates, obtained from 228 water samples and 112 diarrhoeal stool specimens (collected from children aged <15 years), using standard methods. The detection rate of E. coli O157 in surface waters was 2.2% and its prevalence in children with diarrhoea was 5.4%. The most active antibiotics were gentamicin, chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones. Seventy-nine (42.9%) of 184 E. coli isolates were resistant to four or more antibiotics. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was higher amongst aquatic isolates than the clinical isolates. Out of 35 MDR isolates (20 of which were O157 strains), 22 (62.9%) harboured plasmids all of which were no less than 2.1 kb in size. Amongst the 20 E. coli O157 strains, only seven (35.0%) contained multiple plasmids. An aquatic O157 isolate containing two plasmids was resistant to seven drugs, including ampicillin, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin and tetracycline. Loss of plasmid correlated with loss of resistance to antibiotics in cured (mutant) strains selected in tetracycline (50 ?g/mL)-nutrient agar plates. Our findings revealed that plasmids were prevalent in both the aquatic and clinical isolates, and suggest that the observed MDR is plasmid-mediated. The occurrence of plasmid-mediated multidrug resistant E. coli O157 in surface waters used as sources for drinking, recreation and fresh produce irrigation heightens public health concern. PMID:21139863

Chigor, Vincent N.; Umoh, Veronica J.; Smith, Stella I.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Okoh, Anthony I.



Genotypes and phenotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Purpose To characterize the prevalence of hemolytic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) with a multidrug-resistant pattern in different age groups in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Methods Nonrepetitive E. coli isolates were collected from 202 subjects with or without evidence of diarrhea. Each isolate was biochemically identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. A sorbitol fermentation test of all the E. coli isolates was done and the minimum inhibitory concentration of suspected STEC was measured by the standard broth microdilution method to determine antibiotic resistance. The genotypes of stx1, stx2, and hlyA were determined by polymerase chain reaction assay. Results The majority of subjects were aged ?40 years (41.6%) and were female (61.9%). Of the 202 subjects, 86.1% had STEC isolates (P<0.05). A high rate of STEC isolates resistant to amoxicillin (90.6%), cefotaxime (77.7%), and cefuroxime (75.7%) was observed. Resistance to amoxicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime was demonstrated with a minimum inhibitory concentration >16 ?g/mL in 13.9%, 11.4%, and 10.4% of the isolates, respectively. The prevalence of stx1, stx2, and hlyA was 13.9%, 6.9%, and 2.0%, respectively; 5.5% of stx1 were in the 0–10-year-old age group, 3.5% of stx2 were aged ?40 and above, and 1.0% of the hlyA isolates were in the 0–10-year-old age group. Conclusion The prevalence of virulent STEC is a public health concern. The use of polymerase chain reaction assay should aid quick detection of this virulent serotype and help curb the severe epidemic of human diseases associated with STEC infections. PMID:25342913

Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Aboderin, Bukola W; Idris, Olayinka O; Mabayoje, Victor O; Opaleye, Oluyinka O; Adekunle, O Catherine; Olowe, Rita Ayanbolade; Akinduti, Paul Akinniyi; Ojurongbe, Olusola



Deep neck abscess: an analysis of microbial etiology and the effectiveness of antibiotics  

PubMed Central

The objective was to demonstrate the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of deep neck space abscess and to analyze the coverage rate of different empiric antimicrobial agents. A retrospective review of hospitalized patients with deep neck abscess diagnosed at a tertiary-care, general hospital between April 2001 and October 2006. The study enrolled 100 patients. The bacterial cultures of 89 patients yielded positive results (89%). The predominant aerobes were viridans streptococci, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The predominant anaerobes included species of Prevotella, Peptostreptococcus, and Bacteroides. Five different combinations of empiric antibiotics, namely regimen 1: penicillin G and clindamycin and gentamicin, regimen 2: ceftriaxone and clindamycin, regimen 3: ceftriaxone and metronidazole, regimen 4: cefuroxime and clindamycin, and regimen 5: penicillin and metronidazole, were compared using the antimicrobial susceptibility of 89 cases. The coverage rates of regimens 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 67.4%, 76.4%, 70.8%, 61.8%, and 16.9%, respectively. The coverage of regimen 5 was considerably worse than that of the other four regimens (p < 0.001). Regimen 2 was significantly better than regimen 4 (p < 0.001). Regimen 2 had better coverage than regimens 1 (p = 0.096) and 3 (p = 0.302), but the difference was not statistically significant. This study demonstrates the bacteriology of deep neck abscess and analyzes the coverage rate of different empiric antimicrobial agents. Regimens 1, 2, and 3 could be good candidates for empiric antibiotics. Pathogen-directed antimicrobial therapy should be adjusted after the culture results are obtained. PMID:21694873

Yang, Shih-Wei; Lee, Ming-Hsun; See, Lai-Chu; Huang, Shu-Huan; Chen, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Tai-An



In vitro susceptibility to 17 antimicrobials of clinical Clostridium difficile isolates collected in 1993-2007 in Sweden.  


This study investigated the MICs of 17 antimicrobials, for 606 toxigenic clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile collected between 1993 and 2007 in Sweden. Low MIC(90) values were found for metronidazole (0.5 mg/L), vancomycin (1.0 mg/L), teicoplanin (0.125 mg/L), fusidic acid (1.0 mg/L), linezolid (2.0 mg/L), daptomycin (2.0 mg/L) and tigecycline (0.064 mg/L). Three isolates (0.5%) had elevated MICs for vancomycin (4-8 mg/L); however, these isolates originated from the same patient, who was receiving long-term intravenous vancomycin treatment. High-level clindamycin resistant isolates (MIC >256 mg/L) peaked in 1997 with 39 of 95 (41%) and out of these, 36% were also highly resistant to erythromycin. beta-Lactams such as penicillin V and piperacillin displayed MIC(90)s of 8 and 32 mg/L, respectively, whereas MICs of cefuroxime were >256 mg/L for all isolates. Universal resistance to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin was found, and resistance to moxifloxacin increased from 4% of isolates in 2004 to 23% in 2007. Notably, these moxifloxacin-resistant isolates did not belong to the recent epidemic PCR ribotype 027, but to the pre-existing epidemic type 012 (82%), and these isolates accounted for the majority of isolates that were resistant to clindamycin (70%), tetracycline (84%) and rifampicin (92%) as well. This investigation of susceptibility data on clinical C. difficile isolates showed variations of multiresistance to be due to a specific PCR ribotype 012, emphasizing the importance of genotyping when evaluating emerging resistance over time. PMID:19732094

Norén, T; Alriksson, I; Akerlund, T; Burman, L G; Unemo, M



Antibacterial agents and heavy metal resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from seawater, shrimp and sediment in Iskenderun Bay, Turkey.  


The aim of the present study was to determine the level of antibiotic resistance patterns and distribution of heavy metal resistance of bacterial isolates from seawater, sediment and shrimps, and to determine if there is a relationship between antibiotic and heavy metal resistance. We undertook studies in 2007 in the industrially polluted Iskenderun Bay, on the south coast of Turkey. The resistance of 236 Gram-negative bacterial isolates (49 from seawater, 90 from sediment and 97 from shrimp) to 16 different antibiotics, and to 5 heavy metals, was investigated by agar diffusion and agar dilution methods, respectively. A total of 31 species of bacteria were isolated: the most common strains isolated from all samples were Escherichia coli (11.4%), Aeromonas hydrophila (9.7%) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (9.3%). There was a high incidence of resistance to ampicillin (93.2%), streptomycin (90.2%) and cefazolin (81.3%), and a low incidence of resistance to imipenem (16.5%), meropenem (13.9%) and cefepime (8.0%). Some 56.8% of all bacteria isolated from seawater, sediment and shrimp were resistant to 7 or more antibiotics. Most isolates showed tolerance to different concentrations of heavy metals, and minimal inhibition concentrations ranged from 12.5 microg/ml to > 3200 microg/ml. The bacteria from seawater, sediment and shrimp showed high resistance to cadmium of 69.4%, 88.9%, and 81.1% respectively, and low resistance to manganese of 2%, 6.7% and 11.3% respectively. The seawater and sediment isolates which were metal resistant also showed a high resistance to three antibiotics: streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. In contrast, the shrimp isolates which were metal resistant were resistant to four antibiotics: cefazolin, nitrofurantoin, cefuroxime and ampicillin. Our results show that Iskenderun Bay has a significant proportion of antibiotic and heavy metal resistant Gram-negative bacteria, and these bacteria constitute a potential risk for public health. PMID:18804847

Matyar, Fatih; Kaya, Aysenur; Dinçer, Sadik



High prevalence and risk factors of fecal carriage of CTX-M type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from healthy rural residents of Taian, China  

PubMed Central

The study was carried out to understand the prevalence of CTX-M type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-harboring Enterobacteriaceae and to analyze risk factors related with fecal carriage in healthy rural residents in Taian, China. A total of 620 stool samples were collected from rural residents. The ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae was screened using ChromID ESBL agar, and then further confirmed by double-disk diffusion. The CTX-M genes were determined using polymerase chain reaction. The risk factors associated with fecal carriage of CTX-M-positive isolates were analyzed using the standard statistic methods. 458 isolates carrying CTX-M gene (458/620, 73.9%) were obtained from different individuals, and the most dominant genotype was CTX-M-9 group (303/458, 66.2%). The dominant species were Escherichia coli (E. coli; 403/458, 88.0%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae; 26/458, 5.7%) among the isolates carrying CTX-M genes. All the CTX-M producers were resistant to ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, and ceftriaxone, but were all susceptible to biapenem, imipenem, and meropenem. The results of multivariate logistic regression model identified the enrollment in formal education (OR 2.321; 95% CI 1.302–3.768; P= 0.039), the hospitalization history within the last 6 months (OR 1.753; 95% CI 1.127–2.584; P= 0.031) and the antibiotics use within the last 6 months (OR 1.892; 95% CI 1.242–2.903; P= 0.034). The three variables were significantly associated with carriage of CTX-M ESBL producers (x2 = 21.21; df = 3; P< 0.001). The prevalence of fecal carriage of CTX-M ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among healthy rural humans in Taian was high, and the recent antibiotic use and hospitalization history may be the important contributors. PMID:25870591

Zhang, Hongna; Zhou, Yufa; Guo, Shuyuan; Chang, Weishan



Antimicrobial prophylaxis in minor and major surgery.  


Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a frequent cause of morbidity following surgical procedures. Gram-positive cocci, particularly staphylococci, cause many of these infections, although Gram-negative organisms are also frequently involved. The risk of developing a SSI is associated with a number of factors, including aspects of the operative procedure itself, such as wound classification, and patient-related variables, such as preexisting medical conditions. Antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) plays an important role in reducing SSIs, especially if patient-related risk factors for SSIs are present. The main components of antimicrobial prophylaxis are: timing, selection of drugs and patients, duration and costs. Compliance with these generally accepted preventive principles may lead to overall decreases in the incidence of these infections. Ideally the administration of the prophylactic agent should start within 30 minutes from the surgical incision. The duration of the AP should not exceed 24 hours for the majority of surgical procedures. The shortest effective period of prophylactic antimicrobial administration is not known and studies have demonstrated that post-surgical antibiotic administration is unnecessary. Furthermore, there were no proven benefits in multiple dose regimens when compared to single-dose regimens. The choice of an appropriate prophylactic antimicrobial agent should be based primarily on efficacy and safety. Broad spectrum antibiotics should be avoided due to the risk of promoting bacterial resistance. Cephalosporins are the most commonly used antibiotics in surgical prophylaxis; specifically, cefazolin or cefuroxime are mainly used in the prophylaxis regimens for cardio-thoracic surgery, vascular surgery, hip or knee arthroplasty surgery, neurosurgical procedures and gynecologic and obstetric procedures. A review of the prophylactic regimens regarding the main surgical procedures is presented. PMID:24561611

Bassetti, M; Righi, E; Astilean, A; Corcione, S; Petrolo, A; Farina, E C; De Rosa, F G



The incidence of deep brain stimulator hardware infection: the effect of change in antibiotic prophylaxis regimen and review of the literature.  


The complication of hardware infection related to deep brain stimulator implantation (or revision) varies between 0 and 15.2% in the literature. However, no national guidelines exist at present to define an average or acceptable rate of infection associated with, nor the preferred antibiotic prophylaxis required for, this procedure. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of changing the antibiotic prophylaxis regimen used in a single neurosurgical centre on the incidence and outcome of hardware infection. A prospective cohort of 38 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantation or internal pulse generator (IPG) replacement and receiving perioperative vancomycin (including intravenous gentamicin on induction) and pouch-installed gentamicin, was compared to a historical cohort of 35 patients receiving perioperative cefuroxime in the same unit. The infection rate over 2 years in the prospective group for DBS surgery was 0 compared to 1 (5.6%) in the historical cohort (p?=?0.11, ?(2)); the infection rate for IPG replacements was 1(3.6%) in the prospective cohort, versus 3 (17.6%) in the historical (p?=?0.44, ?(2)). In this article, we have also systematically reviewed the literature to date and derived an average infection rate of 4.7% (PI 0.9-22%, Random Effects Meta-analysis, Stata) for 35 studies comprising 3550 patients. There is no significant difference in infection rates between DBS procedures that are primarily internalised (n?=?9) compared to those in which there is a period of electrode externalisation (n?=?23) (p?=?0.9, Meta-regression analysis, Stata). PMID:21501065

Bhatia, Robin; Dalton, Arthur; Richards, Mike; Hopkins, Chris; Aziz, Tipu; Nandi, Dipankar



[Coxitis in the newborn infant and infant. Diagnosis and therapy].  


From 198 o 1996 (12 years) we saw 24 neonates and small infants with septic arthritis of the hip joint. A minority of these infants was simultaneously affected by osteomyelitis of the femoral neck or the acetabulum. Clinical signs are a painful leg, pseudoparalysis, uneasiness and refusal to drink. Quantitative measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) are more reliable then leucocyte count and sedimentation rate. Ultrasound images yield early information about capsular swelling and septic effusion; in late cases US can visualize femoral neck necrosis. Emergency arthrotomy to relieve the joint from septic effusion, bacteriological specimens and capsular biopsy are mandatory. Intravenous application of a second-generation cephalosporin as antibiotic has proven effective. We have been using cefuroxim for the past 10 years, changed if necessary according to the antibiogram. Parenteral antibiotic treatment is continued for an average of 3 weeks, followed by oral treatment for another 3 weeks. CRP normalisation monitors the cure from the disease. Our 24 cases included 7 with group B streptococci 2 with Staphylococcus aureus, 2 with Staphylococcus epidermidis and 2 with Escherichia coli. In 8 cases no germs could be cultured; 6 of them had outside antibiotic treatment before being transferred. If treatment was initiated within 3 days, healing without residuals was the rule. In 18 cases with early and sufficient treatment no sequelae were observed. With delay of treatment for several days, moderate osteomyelitic changes of the neck and the acetabulum were observed. In a case with delay of surgical treatment for 5 weeks, complete destruction of the hip joint occurred, causing a poor final result. PMID:9446091

Parsch, K; Savvidis, E



The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli populations isolated from farm animals with different exposure to antimicrobial agents.  


The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the presence or the absence of antibiotic input on the emergence and maintenance of resistance in commensal bacteria from food producing animals. The research material constituted E. coli isolates from two animal species: swine at different age from one conventional pig farm with antibiotic input in young pigs and from beef and dairy cattle originated from organic breeding farm. The sensitivity to 16 antimicrobial agents was tested, and the presence of 15 resistance genes was examined. In E. coli from swine, the most prevalent resistance was resistance to streptomycin (88.3%), co-trimoxazole (78.8%), tetracycline (57.3%) ampicillin (49.3%) and doxycycline (44.9%) with multiple resistance in the majority. The most commonly observed resistance genes were: bla(TEM) (45.2%), tetA (35.8%), aadA1 (35.0%), sul3 (29.5%), dfrA1 (20.4%). Differences in phenotypes and genotypes of E. coli between young swine undergoing prevention program and the older ones without the antibiotic pressure occurred. A disparate resistance was found in E. coli from cattle: cephalothin (36.9%), cefuroxime (18.9%), doxycycline (8.2%), nitrofurantoin (7.7%), and concerned mainly dairy cows. Among isolates from cattle, multidrug resistance was outnumbered by resistance to one or two antibiotics and the only found gene markers were: bla(SHV), (3.4%), tetA (1.29%), bla(TEM) (0.43%) and tetC (0.43%). The presented outcomes provide evidence that antimicrobial pressure contributes to resistance development, and enteric microflora constitutes an essential reservoir of resistance genes. PMID:24053020

Mazurek, Justyna; Pusz, Pawe?; Bok, Ewa; Stosik, Micha?; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna



Antimicrobial resistance status and prevalence rates of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers isolated from a mixed human population  

PubMed Central

Owing to the increasing epidemiological and therapeutic challenges associated with infections due to ESBL producers, ESBL prevalence rate among some bacteria isolates from healthy and non-healthy human population in a metropolitan Nigerian setting was evaluated. A total of one hundred and forty-five (145) bacteria strains were isolated from a total of four hundred and sixty (460) samples collected from urine, wound, throat and anal swabs of 220 healthy volunteers in the community and from 240 patients in 2 secondary and 2 tertiary hospitals (altogether, 4) in Enugu metropolis. The presumptive confirmatory test used for ESBL detection was the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST) method. Conjugation and plasmid curing studies were also done for resistance factor determination. Of the 145 isolates, 20 were ESBL producers with 35% of these ESBL producers being of community origin and 65% from hospitals. This translates to 4.8% and 9% incidences (comparably higher than established prevalence of 4.4% and 7.5 respectively) for community and hospital infections respectively. The ESBL isolates showed high resistance to tetracycline, gentamicin, pefloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin and Augmentin® (Amoxicilin and clavulanic acid combination). Conjugation studies for Resistance plasmid transfer showed non-transference of resistance determinants between the ESBL transconjugants and recipient strains. Correspondingly, the plasmid curing studies revealed that the acridine orange could not effect a cure on the isolates as they still retained high resistance to the antibiotics after the treatment. This study confirms the growing incidences/pool of ESBL strains in Nigeria and call for widespread and continuous monitoring towards an effective management of the potential therapeutic hurdle posed by this trend. PMID:21619555

Afunwa, Ruth A.; Odimegwu, Damian C.; Iroha, Romanus I.; Esimone, Charles O.



Geographical Variation in Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Stool, Cow-Dung and Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

Little information is available on relationships between the biophysical environment and antibiotic resistance. This study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from child stool samples, cow-dung and drinking water from the non-coastal (230 households) and coastal (187 households) regions of Odisha, India. Susceptibility testing of E. coli isolates (n = 696) to the following antibiotics: tetracycline, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefixime, cotrimoxazole, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the disk diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates (n = 83). Resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 90% or more of the E. coli isolates. Ciprofloxacin MIC values ranged from 8 to 32 µg/mL. The odds ratio (OR) of resistance in E. coli isolates from children’s stool (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.18–8.01), cow-dung (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.59–8.03, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.00–14.44, P = 0.049) were higher in non-coastal compared to coastal region. Similarly, the co-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.39–4.37, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.36–7.41, P = 0.008) as well as the multi-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.12–4.34, P = 0.022) and drinking water (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.06–7.07, P = 0.036) were also higher in the non-coastal compared to the coastal region. PMID:22690160

Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Sahoo, Soumyakanta; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Klintz, Senia Rosales; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby



Antimicrobial resistance pattern in Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infection among inpatients  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Recent studies suggest an increasing antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infection (UTI). We undertook this study to know the resistance pattern of E. coli causing UTI in patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in north India, and to know the treatment given and response of the patients. Methods: The details of E. coli grown from urine samples and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern were collected from the laboratory registers and the patient details were collected from the case records. The urine samples received were processed using standard methods and antibiotic susceptibility was done by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. Results: Of the total 311 E. coli isolates, 119 (38.2%) were isolated from in-patients, which were considered for the study. Of these 119 E. coli isolates, 91 (76.51%) were multi drug resistant (MDR). The isolates showed high levels of resistance to ampicillin (88.4%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.4%), norfloxacin (74.2%), cefuroxime (72.2%), ceftriaxone (71.4%) and co-trimoxazole (64.2%). The isolates were sensitive to amikacin (82.6%), piperacillin-tazobactum (78.2%), nitrofurantoin (82.1%) and imipenem (98.9%). Ceftriaxone was most commonly used for empirical therapy for UTI among inpatients in our hospital. Of the 93 cases of UTI due to MDR E. coli, 73 improved on treatment and 12 worsened, which were referred to higher centres. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed that 76.5 per cent of E. coli isolates from urine samples of inpatients were MDR. Diabetes, chronic renal disease and catherization were some of the risk factors associated. The high rate of resistance could be because only inpatients were included and the increased usage of cephalosporins in our hospital for empirical therapy. PMID:25109731

Niranjan, V.; Malini, A.



Synthetic amphibian peptides and short amino-acids derivatives against planktonic cells and mature biofilm of Providencia stuartii clinical strains.  


Over the last decade, the growing number of multidrug resistant strains limits the use of many of the currently available chemotherapeutic agents. Furthermore, bacterial biofilm, due to its complex structure, constitutes an effective barrier to conventional antibiotics. The in vitro activities of naturally occurring peptide (Citropin 1.1), chemically engineered analogue (Pexiganan), newly-designed, short amino-acid derivatives (Pal-KK-NH2, Pal-KKK-NH2, Pal-RRR-NH2) and six clinically used antimicrobial agents (Gatifloxacin, Ampicilin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Cefuroxime and Cefalexin) were investigated against planktonic cells and mature biofilm of multidrug-resistant Providencia stuartii strains, isolated from urological catheters. The MICs, MBCs values were determined by broth microdilution technique. Inhibition of biofilm formation by antimicrobial agents as well as biofilm susceptibility assay were tested using a surrogate model based on the Crystal Violet method. The antimicrobial activity of amino-acids derivatives and synthetic peptides was compared to that of clinically used antibiotics. For planktonic cells, MICs of peptides and antibiotics ranged between 1 and 256 ?g/ml and 256 and ? 2048 ?g/ml, respectively. The MBCs values of Pexiganan, Citropin 1.1 and amino-acids derivatives were between 16 and 256 ?g/ml, 64 and 256 ?g/ml and 16 and 512 ?g/ml, respectively. For clinically used antibiotics the MBCs values were above 2048 ?g/ml. All of the tested peptides and amino-acids derivatives, showed inhibitory activity against P. stuartii biofilm formation, in relation to their concentrations. Pexiganan and Citropin 1.1 in concentration range 32 and 256 ?g/ml caused both strong and complete suppression of biofilm formation. None of the antibiotics caused complete inhibition of biofilm formation process. The biofilm susceptibility assay verified the extremely poor antibiofilm activity of conventional antibiotics compared to synthetic peptides. The obtained results showed that synthetic peptides are generally more potent and effective than clinically used antibiotics. PMID:25804062

Ostrowska, Kinga; Kamysz, Wojciech; Dawgul, Ma?gorzata; Ró?alski, Antoni



Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of ES?L Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Urine Samples of Pregnant Women in Karnataka  

PubMed Central

Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae possess a new problem to health care professionals worldwide, which complicates and limits therapeutic options. It is one of the leading nosocomial bacterial pathogens, and the present study aims to determine the prevalence of ES?L producing K. pneumoniae isolates with their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in urine samples of the pregnant women with UTI. Materials and Methods: Using standard isolation and identification procedures a total of 41 isolates were obtained from 417 midstream urine samples of pregnant women with suspected UTI in Karnataka. The antibiotic resistance profile of each isolate was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and ES?L production by standard phenotypic method. Results: Isolation rate of K. pneumoniae in pregnant women was 19.9% and overall incidence rate was 9.8%. Among the 41 K. pneumoniae isolates, 26 (63.4%) were ES?L producers and all were found to be Multi Drug Resistance (MDR). The antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) for the isolates revealed that the highest number of K. pneumoniae were resistant to ampicillin (75.6%) followed by, nitrofurontoin and cefuroxime (73.1%) and least to chloramphenicol (12.1%). ES?L producers were highly resistance to nitrofurontoin (69.2%) and cotrimonazole (65.2%) and lower resistance was (7.6%) to amaikacin, observed. A higher resistance pattern to these two antibiotics was observed against ES?L non producing K. pneumonia but lowest to polymyxin B (13.3%) instead of amikacin (26.6%). All the isolates were found to be susceptible to imipenem. Conclusion: Present investigation revealed high prevalence of MDR- ES?L producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, which indicates dire need for effective ES?L surveillance in the community by using cost effective antimicrobials agents. PMID:25478341

N G, Manjula; C Math, Girish; Nagshetty, Kavita; Patil, Shripad A; Gaddad, Subhashchandra M



Antibiotic susceptibility survey of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Thailand.  


The antibiotic susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Cholburi and Bangkok, Thailand, were determined by agar dilution. Some 28.2% of isolates produced beta-lactamase. A total of 97.9% of beta-lactamase-positive and 51% of beta-lactamase-negative isolates tested were resistant to penicillin (MICs, greater than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml), 70% of isolates tested were resistant to tetracycline (MICs, greater than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml), and 91% of isolates tested were susceptible to spectinomycin (MICs, less than or equal to 64 micrograms/ml). The MICs for 90% of isolates for the other drugs tested were 2 micrograms/ml for erythromycin, 2 micrograms/ml for cefoxitin, 1 micrograms/ml for cefuroxime, 0.125 micrograms/ml for cefpodoxime, 0.06 micrograms/ml for cefotaxime, 0.25 micrograms/ml for ceftazidime, 0.03 micrograms/ml for ceftizoxime, 0.03 micrograms/ml for ceftriaxone, 0.03 micrograms/ml for cefixime, 0.06 micrograms/ml for aztreonam, 0.008 micrograms/ml for ciprofloxacin, 0.125 micrograms/ml for norfloxacin, and 0.075 micrograms/ml for ofloxacin. Fewer than 1.5% of isolates were resistant to the extended-spectrum cephalosporins tested. Some 0.3% or fewer isolates were resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, or the monobactam aztreonam. Antibiotic resistance among N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Cholburi and Bangkok in May 1990 appeared to be primarily limited to penicillin and tetracycline, which are no longer used to control gonorrhea. Spectinomycin, which has been in general use against gonorrhea in Thailand since 1983, has dwindling utility, with resistance at a level of 8.9%. PMID:1416851

Clendennen, T E; Echeverria, P; Saengeur, S; Kees, E S; Boslego, J W; Wignall, F S



Effect of heat treatments on stability of ?-lactams in milk.  


The presence of residues of antimicrobial substances in milk may have serious toxicological and technical consequences. To date, few studies have been done to evaluate the effect of heat treatments on ?-lactam residues in milk. However, the few studies that have been conducted estimate losses of antimicrobial activity under different combinations of temperature and time using microbiological methods. The aims of this study were to calculate the kinetic parameters for the degradation of ?-lactam antibiotics in milk and to develop prediction models to estimate the concentration losses of these compounds in conventional dairy heat treatments. To do so, we employed a quantitative HPLC method to calculate losses in concentrations of 10 ?-lactam antibiotics in milk with different combinations of temperature and time. Increasing the temperature from 60°C to 100°C decreased the half-life of amoxicillin (372 to 50 min), ampicillin (741 to 26 min), cloxacillin (367 to 46 min), and penicillin G (382 to 43 min). These increases in temperature caused further degradation in cephalosporins, which was accompanied by a decrease in half-life times to reach very low values; for instance, 4, 5, and 6 min for cefoperazone, cephurexime, and cephapirin, respectively. Kinetic equations were applied to different heat treatments used in dairy processing. Heat treatments at high temperatures and long times (e.g., 120°C for 20 min) led to a further degradation of ?-lactam antibiotics with percentages close to 100% for cefoperazone and cefuroxime. In contrast, when milk was subjected to heat treatments at lower temperatures and times (e.g., 72°C for 15s), the degradation of ?-lactam in milk did not exceed 1% for the 10 antibiotics tested. PMID:21338781

Roca, M; Villegas, L; Kortabitarte, M L; Althaus, R L; Molina, M P



Prevalence and characterisation of non-cholerae Vibrio spp. in final effluents of wastewater treatment facilities in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: implications for public health.  


Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population. We assessed the prevalence of three non-cholerae vibrios in wastewater effluents of 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for a period of 12 months. With the exception of WWTP10 where presumptive vibrios were not detected in summer and spring, presumptive vibrios were detected in all seasons in other WWTP effluents. When a sample of 1,000 presumptive Vibrio isolates taken from across all sampling sites were subjected to molecular confirmation for Vibrio, 668 were confirmed to belong to the genus Vibrio, giving a prevalence rate of 66.8 %. Further, molecular characterisation of 300 confirmed Vibrio isolates revealed that 11.6 % (35) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 28.6 % (86) were Vibrio fluvialis and 28 % (84) were Vibrio vulnificus while 31.8 % (95) belonged to other Vibrio spp. not assayed for in this study. Antibiogram profiling of the three Vibrio species showed that V. parahaemolyticus was ?50 % susceptible to 8 of the test antibiotics and ?50 % resistant to only 5 of the 13 test antibiotics, while V. vulnificus showed a susceptibility profile of ?50 % to 7 of the test antibiotics and a resistance profile of ?50 % to 6 of the 13 test antibiotics. V. fluvialis showed ?50 % resistance to 8 of the 13 antibiotics used while showing ?50 % susceptibility to only 4 antibiotics used. All three Vibrio species were susceptible to gentamycin, cefuroxime, meropenem and imipenem. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant. These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a third of the population directly relying on surface water sources for drinking and daily use. PMID:25167817

Okoh, Anthony I; Sibanda, Timothy; Nongogo, Vuyokazi; Adefisoye, Martins; Olayemi, Osuolale O; Nontongana, Nolonwabo



Histopathological Studies on Rabbits Infected by Bacteria Causing Infectious Keratitis in Human through Eye Inoculation  

PubMed Central

Aim This study aimed to investigate the pathogenic effect of bacteria causing infectious keratitis among patients through experimental study conducted on rabbits’ eyes with the aid of histopathology as eye infection is a common disease in developing countries that may complicate to loss of vision. Methodology 100 swab samples were collected from human infected eyes, at Qassim region during 2012, for the isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolated pathogenic bacteria were tested to various antibiotics using some selected antibiotics discs through agar-well diffusion method. Then, experimental study conducted on 27 rabbits. The rabbits were divided randomly into three equal groups, each containing 9 rabbits. Rabbits of group (1) served as control group (Negative Control) and their eyes were inoculated with the buffer only. Rabbits of group (2) were inoculated through eyes with the isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rabbits of group (3) were inoculated through eyes with the isolated Staphylococcus aureus. Results Out of 100 collected swab samples from human infected eyes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated with a total percentage of 25.21% and 15.65%; respectively and used in this study. Both bacterial isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin and Cefuroxime. Clinically, experimentally infected rabbits by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, revealed varying degree corneal abrasions, corneal abscess and dense corneal opacity. Histopathologically, at 3rd day post-infection (PI), the cornea revealed polymorpho-nuclear cells infiltration with loss of the outer epithelial lining. At 7th day PI, neutrophils were seen in the stroma. At 15th day PI, proliferation of fibroblasts and new vascularisation were seen in the stroma. Clinically, rabbits experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus, revealed corneal ulcers and focal abscesses. Histopathologically, at 3rd and 7th day PI, the cornea revealed edema and infiltration of leukocytes. At 15th day PI, hyperplasia of corneal epithelium and proliferation of keratocytes were evident. The liver and kidneys of experimented rabbits revealed no remarkable histopathological alterations along the period of experiment. Conclusion Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are common eye infection in human, both induced severe lesions in the eyes of rabbits that could interfere with vision, therefore, strict measures to control these infections in human is recommended. PMID:25505861

Aldebasi, Yousef H.; Mohamed, Hala A.; Aly, Salah M.



047. Endobronchial hamartoma diagnosed incidentally  

PubMed Central

Background Hamartoma, the most common benign lung tumor is often located peripherally in the lung parenchyma and rarely endobronchially: in this case it is diagnosed because of complications secondary to bronchial obstruction or because of chronic cough, hemoptysis and wheezing. We present a case of endobronchial hamartoma, discovered by chance. Case report We present the case of a 62-year-old man with a history of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and anxiety disorder, who was hospitalized because of acute respiratory failure and persistent fever despite receiving cefuroxime. The radiological examination showed opacities of the right lower lobe which progressed to lung consolidation and right pleural effusion. The chest CT scan revealed peribronchial infiltration in the right lower lobe with concomitant parapneumonic effusion, as well as an endobronchial nodule in the left main bronchus. The characters of the pleural fluid after thoracocentesis were: pH =7.48, ADA =16 U/L, glu =143 gr/dL, total protein =3.54 gr/dL, albumin =2.16 gr/dL, 3,800 cells, 80% neutrophils. The cytological examination of the pleural fluid was negative for malignancy. The patient underwent bronchoscopy, which revealed a lesion of significant size in the left main bronchus before its division into upper and lower left bronchus, while no abnormal findings were found in the right bronchial tree. The cytological examination of bronchial brushing and bronchial washings were negative for malignancy, and the pathologic examination of the lesion revealed findings of hamartoma. The patient was treated with oxygen therapy and administration of moxifloxacin. Fever resolved within two days, respiratory failure was gradually restored, and radiographic findings resolved in ten days. The patient refused any intervention and is monitored regularly with a stable clinical and radiographic picture. Conclusions The reported case is rare because of the localization of endobronchial hamartoma, which was diagnosed incidentally, without being accompanied by characteristic clinical and radiological findings. The likelihood of hamartoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of endobronchial lesions.

Moulara, Evdokia; Siopi, Dimitra; Tryfon, Stavros; Ampelidou, Varvara; Cheva, Angelliki; Palladas, Panagiotis; Chloros, Diamantis; Tsara, Venetia



An outpatient antibacterial stewardship intervention during the journey to JCI accreditation  

PubMed Central

Background Antibacterial overuse, misuse and resistance have become a major global threat. The Joint Commission International (JCI) accreditation standards include quality improvement and patient safety, which is exemplified by antimicrobial stewardship. There are currently few reports on interventions to improve the quality of outpatient antibacterial prescribing. Methods A before-after intervention study, aiming at antibacterial use in outpatients, was performed in a university-affiliated hospital with 2.8 million outpatient visits annually during the journey to JCI accreditation (March of 2012 - March of 2013). Comprehensive intervention measures included formulary adjustment, classification management, motivational, information technological, educational and organizational measures. A defined daily dose (DDD) methodology was applied. Pharmacoeconomic data and drug-related problems (DRPs) were statistically compared between the two phases. Results The variety of antibacterials available in outpatient pharmacy decreased from 38 to 16. The proportion of antibacterial prescriptions significantly decreased (12.7% versus 9.9%, P?cefuroxime axetil, ornidazole, clindamycin palmitate, cefaclor, amoxicillin and clarithromycin. Occurrence rate of DRPs decreased from 13.6% to 4.0% (P?



Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) indices of antibiotics predicted by a semimechanistic PKPD model: a step toward model-based dose optimization.  


A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model that characterizes the full time course of in vitro time-kill curve experiments of antibacterial drugs was here evaluated in its capacity to predict the previously determined PK/PD indices. Six drugs (benzylpenicillin, cefuroxime, erythromycin, gentamicin, moxifloxacin, and vancomycin), representing a broad selection of mechanisms of action and PK and PD characteristics, were investigated. For each drug, a dose fractionation study was simulated, using a wide range of total daily doses given as intermittent doses (dosing intervals of 4, 8, 12, or 24 h) or as a constant drug exposure. The time course of the drug concentration (PK model) as well as the bacterial response to drug exposure (in vitro PKPD model) was predicted. Nonlinear least-squares regression analyses determined the PK/PD index (the maximal unbound drug concentration [fC(max)]/MIC, the area under the unbound drug concentration-time curve [fAUC]/MIC, or the percentage of a 24-h time period that the unbound drug concentration exceeds the MIC [fT(>MIC)]) that was most predictive of the effect. The in silico predictions based on the in vitro PKPD model identified the previously determined PK/PD indices, with fT(>MIC) being the best predictor of the effect for ?-lactams and fAUC/MIC being the best predictor for the four remaining evaluated drugs. The selection and magnitude of the PK/PD index were, however, shown to be sensitive to differences in PK in subpopulations, uncertainty in MICs, and investigated dosing intervals. In comparison with the use of the PK/PD indices, a model-based approach, where the full time course of effect can be predicted, has a lower sensitivity to study design and allows for PK differences in subpopulations to be considered directly. This study supports the use of PKPD models built from in vitro time-kill curves in the development of optimal dosing regimens for antibacterial drugs. PMID:21807983

Nielsen, Elisabet I; Cars, Otto; Friberg, Lena E



Antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients with colorectal lesions undergoing endoscopic resection  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of prophylaxis with antibiotics on clinical adverse events in patients who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for colorectal lesions. METHODS: From June 2011 to December 2013, a total of 428 patients were enrolled into the study, of which 214 patients admitted to hospital underwent EMR or ESD procedures. These patients were randomized to an antibiotic group, in which patients were given cefuroxime 1.5 g iv half an hour before and 6 h after surgery respectively, and a control group, in which patients were not given any antibiotic. A further 214 outpatients with small polyps treated by polypectomy were compared with controls that were matched by age and gender, and operations were performed as outpatient surgery. Recorded patient parameters were demographics, characteristics of lesions and treatment modality, and the size of the wound area. The primary outcome measures were clinical adverse events, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, hemotachezia, and fever. Secondary outcome measures were white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and blood culture. Additionlly, the relationship between the size of the wound area and clinical adverse events was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 409 patients were enrolled in this study, with 107 patients in the control group, 107 patients in the antibiotic group, and another 195 cases in the follow-up outpatient group. The patients’ demographic characteristics, including age, gender, characteristics of lesions, treatment modality, and the size of the wound area were similar between the 2 groups. The rates of adverse events in the antibiotic group were significantly lower than in the control group: abdominal pain (2.8% vs 14.9%, P < 0.01), diarrhea (2.0% vs 9.3%, P < 0.05), and fever (0.9% vs 8.4%, P < 0.05) respectively. The levels of inflammatory markers also decreased significantly in the antibiotic group compared with the control group: leukocytosis (2.0% vs 11.2%, P < 0.01), and C-reactive protein (2.0% vs 10.7%, P < 0.05). Additionally, clinical adverse events were related to the size of the surgical wound area. When the surgical wound area was larger than 10 mm × 10 mm, there were more clinical adverse events. CONCLUSION: Clinical adverse events are not uncommon after EMR or ESD procedures. Prophylactic antibiotics can reduce the incidence of clinical adverse events. This should be further explored.

Zhang, Qi-Sheng; Han, Bing; Xu, Jian-Hua; Gao, Peng; Shen, Yu-Cui



Randomised controlled trial of intrapleural streptokinase in community acquired pleural infection  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Standard treatment for pleural infection includes catheter drainage and antibiotics. Tube drainage often fails if the fluid is loculated by fibrinous adhesions when surgical drainage is needed. Streptokinase may aid the process of pleural drainage, but there have been no controlled trials to assess its efficacy. METHODS: Twenty four patients with infected community acquired parapneumonic effusions were studied. All had either frankly purulent/culture or Gram stain positive pleural fluid (13 cases; 54%) or fluid which fulfilled the biochemical criteria for pleural infection. Fluid was drained with a 14F catheter. The antibiotics used were cefuroxime and metronidazole or were guided by culture. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive intrapleural streptokinase, 250,000 i.u. daily, or control saline flushes for three days. The primary end points related to the efficacy of pleural drainage--namely, the volume of pleural fluid drained and the chest radiographic response to treatment. Other end points were the number of pleural procedures needed and blood indices of inflammation. RESULTS: The streptokinase group drained more pleural fluid both during the days of streptokinase/control treatment (mean (SD) 391 (200) ml versus 124 (44) ml; difference 267 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) 144 to 390; p < .001) and overall (2564 (1663) ml, 95% CI 465 to 2545; p < 0.01). They showed greater improvement on the chest radiograph at discharge, measured as the fall in the maximum dimension of the pleural collection (6.0 (2.7) cm versus 3.4 (2.7) cm; difference 2.9 cm, 95% CI 0.3 to 4.4; p < 0.05) and the overall reduction in pleural fluid collection size (p < 0.05, two-tailed Fisher's exact test). Systemic fibrinolysis and bleeding complications did not occur. Surgery was required by three control patients but none in the streptokinase group. CONCLUSIONS: Intrapleural streptokinase probably aids the treatment of pleural infections by improving pleural drainage without causing systemic fibrinolysis or local haemorrhage. ??? PMID:9176531

Davies, R. J.; Traill, Z. C.; Gleeson, F. V.



Antibiotic resistance of Lactobacillus pentosus and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides isolated from naturally-fermented Aloreña table olives throughout fermentation process.  


Antimicrobial resistance of Lactobacillus pentosus (n=59) and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (n=13) isolated from Aloreña green table olives (which are naturally-fermented olives from Málaga, Spain) to 15 antibiotics was evaluated. Most Lb. pentosus (95%) and all Lc. pseudomesenteroides were resistant to at least three antibiotics. Principal component analysis determined that the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in LAB throughout the fermentation process was highly dependent on the fermenter where the fermentation took place. All Lb. pentosus and Lc. pseudomesenteroides strains were highly sensitive to amoxicillin and ampicillin (MIC?2 ?g/ml), and also to chloramphenicol (MIC?4 ?g/ml), gentamicin and erythromycin (MIC?16 ?g/ml). However, they were phenotypically resistant to streptomycin (83-100%, MIC>256 ?g/ml), vancomycin and teicoplanin (70-100%, MIC>128 ?g/ml), trimethoprim (76% of Lb. pentosus and 15% of Lc. pseudomesenteroides, MIC>128 ?g/ml), trimethoprim/sulfomethoxazol (71-100%, MIC>4-64 ?g/ml) and cefuroxime (44% of Lb. pentosus and 85% of Lc. pseudomesenteroides, MIC>32-128 ?g/ml). Lb. pentosus was susceptible to tetracycline and clindamycin, while 46% of Lc. pseudomesenteroides strains were resistant to these antibiotics. Only Lb. pentosus strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin (70%, MIC>4-64 ?g/ml), although no mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions of the genes encoding GyrA and ParC were found, thus indicating an intrinsic resistance. Similarly, no genes encoding possible transferable resistance determinants for the observed phenotypic resistance were detected by PCR. In some cases, a bimodal distribution of MICs was observed for some antibiotics to which both LAB species exhibited resistance. Nevertheless, such resistances resulted from an intrinsic mechanism, non-transferable or non-acquired resistance determinants which may in part be due to chromosomally encoded efflux pumps (NorA, MepA and MdeA). Results of the present study demonstrate that all Lb. pentosus and Lc. pseudomesenteroides strains lack transferable resistance-related genes (cat, bla, blaZ, ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA/B, ereA, ereB, mphA, mefA, tet(M), tet(O), tet(S), tet(W), tet(L), tet(K), aad(E), aac(6')-Ie-aph(2')-Ia, aph(2')-Ib, aph(2')-Ic, aph(2')-Id, aph(3')-IIIa, ant(4')-Ia, dfrA, dfrD, vanA, vanB, vanC and vanE) and should therefore, according to Qualified Presumption of Safety criteria, be considered safe for future application as starter cultures or as probiotics. PMID:24370969

Casado Muñoz, María del Carmen; Benomar, Nabil; Lerma, Leyre Lavilla; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate



Access to antibiotics in New Delhi, India: implications for antibiotic policy  

PubMed Central

Objective The present survey was conducted to investigate the price and availability of a basket of 24 essential antibiotics and eight high-end antibiotics at various levels of health care in public and private sector in National Capital Territory of Delhi, India using standardized WHO/HAI methodology. Methods Data on procurement price and availability was collected from three public healthcare providers in the state: the federal (central) government, state government and Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD). Overall a total of 83 public facilities, 68 primary care, 10 secondary cares and 5 tertiary care facilities were surveyed. Data was also collected from private retail (n?=?40) and chain pharmacies (n?=?40) of a leading corporate house. Prices were compared to an international reference price (expressed as median price ratio-MPR). Results Public sector: Delhi state government has its essential medicine list (Delhi state EML) and was using Delhi state EML 2007 for procurement; the other two agencies had their own procurement list. All the antibiotics procured including second and third generation antibiotics except for injections were available at primary care facilities. Antibiotic available were on the basis of supply rather than rationality or the Delhi state EML and none was 100% available. There was sub-optimal availability of some essential antibiotics while other non-essential ones were freely available. Availability of antibiotics at tertiary care facilities was also sub-optimal. Private sector: Availability of antibiotics was good. For most of the antibiotics the most expensive and popular trade names were often available. High-end antibiotics, meropenam, gemifloxacin, and moxifloxacin were commonly available. In retail pharmacies some newer generation non-essential antibiotics like gemifloxacin were priced lower than the highest-priced generic of amoxicillin?+?clavulanic acid, azithromycin, and cefuroxime aexitl. Conclusions Inappropriate availability and pricing of newer generation antibiotics, which may currently be bought without prescription, is likely to lead to their over-use and increased resistance. All providers should follow the EML of whichever of the three concerned Delhi public sector agencies that it is under and these EMLs should follow the essential medicine concept. The Indian regulatory authorities need to consider urgently, drug schedules and pricing policies that will curtail inappropriate access to new generation antibiotics. PMID:24764541



Sequence of the 68,869 bp IncP-1alpha plasmid pTB11 from a waste-water treatment plant reveals a highly conserved backbone, a Tn402-like integron and other transposable elements.  


To analyse the significance of conjugative broad-host-range IncP-1alpha plasmids for the spread of antibiotic resistance determinants in waste-water treatment plants we isolated and characterised five different IncP-1alpha plasmids from bacteria of activated sludge and the final effluents of a municipal waste-water treatment plant. These plasmids mediate resistance to ampicillin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, gentamicin, kanamycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, tobramycin, and trimethoprim. The complete 68,869 bp DNA-sequence of the IncP-1alpha plasmid pTB11 was determined. The pTB11 backbone modules for replication (Rep), mating pair formation (Trb), multimer resolution (Mrs), post-segregational killing (Psk), conjugative DNA-transfer (Tra), plasmid control (Ctl), and stable maintenance and inheritance (KilA, KilE, and KilC) are highly conserved as compared to the 'Birmingham' IncP-1alpha plasmids. In contrast to the 'Birmingham' plasmids pTB11 carries an insert of a Tn402-derivative integrating a class 1 integron in the intergenic region between the multimer resolution operon parCBA and the post-segregational killing operon parDE. The integron comprises the resistance gene cassettes oxa2 (beta-lactamase), aacA4 (aminoglycoside-6'N-acetyltransferase), and aadA1 (aminoglycoside-3'-adenylyltransferase) and a complete tniABQR transposition module. Integron-specific sequences were also identified on other IncP-1alpha plasmids analysed in this work. In contrast to the 'Birmingham' plasmids the pTB11 tetracycline resistance module carries a pecM- and a pncA-like gene downstream of the tetracycline resistance gene tetA and contains an insertion of the new insertion sequence element ISTB11. The transposable elements IS21 and Tn1 which disrupted, respectively, orf7 and klcB on the 'Birmingham' plasmids are not present on pTB11. Identification of IncP-1alpha plasmids in bacteria of the waste-water treatment plant's final effluents indicates that bacteria carrying these kind of plasmids are released into the environment. PMID:15848226

Tennstedt, Thomas; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Krahn, Irene; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas



Diversity and Antibiograms of Bacterial Organisms Isolated from Samples of Household Drinking-water Consumed by HIV-positive Individuals in Rural Settings, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Diarrhoea is a hallmark of HIV infections in developing countries, and many diarrhoea-causing agents are often transmitted through water. The objective of the study was to determine the diversity and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacterial organisms isolated from samples of household drinking-water consumed by HIV-infected and AIDS patients. In the present study, household water stored for use by HIV-positive patients was tested for microbial quality, and isolated bacterial organisms were analyzed for their susceptibility profiles against 25 different antibiotics. The microbial quality of water was generally poor, and about 58% of water samples (n=270) were contaminated with faecal coliforms, with counts varying from 2 colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL to 2.4×104 CFU/100 mL. Values of total coliform counts ranged from 17 CFU/100 mL to 7.9×105/100 mL. In total, 37 different bacterial species were isolated, and the major isolates included Acinetobacter lwoffii (7.5%), Enterobacter cloacae (7.5%), Shigella spp. (14.2%), Yersinia enterocolitica (6.7%), and Pseudomonas spp. (16.3%). No Vibrio cholerae could be isolated; however, V. fluvialis was isolated from three water samples. The isolated organisms were highly resistant to cefazolin (83.5%), cefoxitin (69.2%), ampicillin (66.4%), and cefuroxime (66.2%). Intermediate resistance was observed against gentamicin (10.6%), cefepime (13.4%), ceftriaxone (27.6%), and cefotaxime (29.9%). Levofloxacin (0.7%), ceftazidime (2.2%), meropenem (3%), and ciprofloxacin (3.7%) were the most active antibiotics against all the microorganisms, with all recording less than 5% resistance. Multiple drug resistance was very common, and 78% of the organisms were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Education on treatment of household water is advised for HIV-positive patients, and measures should be taken to improve point-of-use water treatment as immunosuppressed individuals would be more susceptible to opportunistic infections. PMID:23082625

Mashao, M.B.; Bessong, P.O.; NKgau, T.F.; Momba, M.N.B.; Obi, C.L.



Occurrence of Escherichia coli O157 in raw material and food in Czech Republic.  


The study was carried out to investigate the incidence of Escherichia coli O157 in raw materials, foodstuffs and the agricultural environment. Of a total of 987 samples examined, 22 strains (2.2%) were identified as E. coli O157 and 10 of them as E. coli O157:H7. Cefixime-Tellurite MacConkey sorbitol agar (CT-SMAC) agar and Biosynth culture medium (BCM) E. coli O157:7 medium were used for the isolation. The virulence factors (stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA genes) were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Most strains were isolated from the mechanically deboned poultry meat (nine), minced meat (six) and raw milk (four). One strain was isolated from beef carcass and two strains from waste water. No strains were were found in mass for sausages, refreshment salads, swabs of pork and poultry carcasses and faeces of cattle and pigs. Ten strains from the 22 identified proved to be positive for all factors of virulence. They were isolated from minced meat (four), raw milk (four), waste water (one) and swab from beef carcass (one). Sensitivity to the antimicrobial drugs ampicillin (AMS), ampicillin-sublactam (SAM), tetracycline (TET), ofloxacine (OFL), cefuroxime (CRX), chloramphenicol (CPM), gentamicine (GEN), colistin (COL), cephalozine (CLZ), cefoxitin (CXT), aztreonam (AZT), and sulphamethoxazole + trimethoprim (COT) was tested using the standard dilution technique and disc diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) characteristics (MIC(50), MIC(90), MIC range) and inhibitory zone diameter were determined for each strain. As determined by MICs, the resistance to tested antibiotics in E. coli O157 isolates was found to AMS (90.9%), CLZ (81.8%), CRX (63.6%), CXT (72.7%), CPM (72.7%), TET (81.8%), SAM (59.1%), COT (9.1%), COL (63.61%), AZT (9%) and GEN (4.5%). The similar results were obtained using the disc diffusion method. The differences were found relating to SAM, CXT, CMO and TET. Resistance against one or more antibiotics was found in 95.4% of E. coli O157. Only one strain was susceptible to all tested antibiotics. Most of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and cephalozine. Eight different resistance phenotypes were demonstrated in E. coli O157. PMID:15030605

Lukásová, J; Abraham, B; Cupáková, S



Risk Factors of Fecal Toxigenic or Non-Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Colonization: Impact of Toll-Like Receptor Polymorphisms and Prior Antibiotic Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background This study is to investigate the significance and risk factors of fecal toxigenic (tCdC) or non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile colonization (ntCdC) among hospitalized patients. Methods Adults admitted to medical wards in a district hospital between January 2011 and June 2012 were enrolled, and those with a history of colectomy, C. difficile fecal colonization or infection or receipt of either metronidazole or oral vancomycin within 3 months, were excluded. Stools collected within 48 hours after admission and every week during hospitalization were cultured for C. difficile. Findings Among the 441 enrolled patients, 84 (20.0%) had CdC at initial screening, including 58 (13.2%) with tCdC and 26 (6.8%) with ntCdC. Among patients with initial negative fecal screening for CdC, it took an average of 70.6 days or 66.5 days to develop tCdC or ntCdC during the study period. Finally 78 (17.7%) had tCdC and 34 (7.7%) had ntCdC. During the follow-up period, the patients with tCdC had a higher risk of CDAD (11/79, 14.1%) than those without CdC (3/328, 0.9%) and those with ntCdC (0/34, 0%) (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, the TLR4 rs1927914 polymorphism (GG genotype) (odds ratio [OR] 4.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6–11.8, P?=?0.003) and recent cefepime therapy (OR 5.3, 95% CI 2.1–13.2, P<0.001) were independently associated with tCdC, whereas recent cefuroxime (OR 11.7, 95% CI 2.3–60.2, P?=?0.003) and glycopeptide therapy (OR 10.9, CI: 2.1–57.2, P?=?0.005) associated with ntCdC. Conclusion The incidence of CDAD is highest in patients with tCdC and lowest in patients with ntCdC, and the TLR4 rs1927914 polymorphism GG genotype and recent cefepime therapy were independently associated with tCdC. PMID:23936050

Wu, Tai-Chieh; Liu, Hsiu-Chuan; Lee, Jen-Chieh; Lee, Chih-I; Wu, Yi-Hui; Wan, Lei; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Ko, Wen-Chien



Prevalence of Extended Spectrum ?-lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Clinical Isolates  

PubMed Central

Background: Extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) are gram-negative bacteria that produce the enzyme, ?-lactamase, which can break down commonly used antibiotics, such as penicillin and cephalosporins, making infections with ESBL producing bacteria more difficult to treat. Extended spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae were first reported in 1983 from Germany, and since then a steady increase in resistance against cephalosporins has been seen causing health problems. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL in strains of K. pneumoniae isolated from different clinical samples. Patients and Methods: One hundred and thirty isolates of K. pneumoniae were isolated from different clinical specimens from King Khalid hospital, Hafr Elbatin, Kingdom Saudi Arabia. These isolates were then characterized, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and screened for ESBL production by the MicroScan WalkAway-96 SI System. Extended spectrum ?-lactamase production was confirmed by the phenotypic confirmatory disc diffusion test (PCDDT) and the double disc synergy test (DDST). Results: Overall, 76.9% (100) of the isolates were resistant to cefuroxime, cefepime and cefazolin, 69.23% (90) were resistant to cefotaxime, and 46.15% (60) were resistant to cefoxitin. Extended spectrum ?-lactamase was detected in 53.8% (70) of K. pneumoniae as detected by the MicroScan “WalkAway-96” SI System and 50.07% (66) by PCDDT and 46.15% (60) by DDST. All K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to ampicillin followed by both piperacillin and mezlocillin 92.30% (120). K. pneumoniae isolates showed high sensitivity to imipenem (15.38%) (20), followed by ertapenem, tetracycline, tigecycline pipracilline/tazobactam and amikacin (23.07%) (30). Conclusions: Our study showed that the prevalence of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae at King Khalid Hospital was significantly high. Routine detection of ESBL-producing microorganisms is required by each of the laboratory standard detection methods to control the spread of these infections and allow a proper therapeutic strategy. For detection, the phenotypic confirmatory disc diffusion test is simple, sensitive and cost effective. However, there is a need for larger scale drug susceptibility surveillance.

Ali Abdel Rahim, Khalid Abdalla; Ali Mohamed, Ahmed Mohamed



Antibiotic susceptibility testing (agar disk diffusion and agar dilution) of clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium: comparison of Mueller-Hinton, Iso-Sensitest, and Wilkins-Chalgren agar media.  


Forty-two isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and 56 isolates of Enterococcus faecium, including 8 vancomycin-resistant strains, were examined for comparative susceptibility to 27 antimicrobial drugs with the agar dilution method, employing Mueller-Hinton (MHA), Iso-Sensitest (ISTA), and Wilkins-Chalgren (WCA) agar. The Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion method was used to comparatively test 24 of the agents in parallel. The enterococci yielded better growth on ISTA and WCA. However, WCA completely antagonized co-trimoxazole and, though less, fosfomycin. Importantly, WCA slightly reduced the activities of teicoplanin (minimal inhibitory concentrations, MICs, raised up to twofold) and vancomycin (MICs raised two- to fourfold) against enterococci and staphylococcal quality control strains. Therefore, WCA was judged unsuitable for susceptibility testing of enterococci. For E. faecalis no discrepancies between agar dilution MICs and inhibition zone diameters were encountered with augmentin, ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, chloramphenicol, mupirocin, oxacillin, teicoplanin, and co-trimoxazole. Overall, MHA yielded fewer very major (category I) and major (category II) discrepancies than ISTA. However, numerous minor (category III), slight (category IV), minimal (category V), and/or negligible (category VI) discrepancies were encountered with ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, meropenem, ofloxacin and rifampin. With respect to E. faecium, only cefotaxime, mupirocin, oxacillin, and teicoplanin yielded nondiscrepant results. Several very major (I) and major (II) discrepancies were observed with augmentin, ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, doxycycline, fusidic acid, imipenem, and penicillin G. Minor discrepancies (categories III-VI) were particularly numerous with augmentin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, and piperacillin. The largest numbers of negligible (VI) discrepancies were noted with fosfomycin, fusidic acid, and ofloxacin. It is recommended to test one cephalosporin (cefuroxime or the like) in parallel for educational purposes and to exclude fosfomycin, fusidic acid, and rifampin from test batteries because of the wide scatter of test results. The large number of minimal (V) discrepancies of ciprofloxacin against E. faecalis, the numerous minor (III) and slight (IV) discrepancies of chloramphenicol against E. faecium, and the not insignificant number of very major (I) and minor (III) discrepancies observed with meropenem against isolates of E. faecalis necessitated proposals for new disk intermediate susceptibility criteria. PMID:9681198

Traub, W H; Geipel, U; Leonhard, B



Susceptibility of bacterial etiological agents to commonly-used antimicrobial agents in children with sepsis at the Tamale Teaching Hospital  

PubMed Central

Background Bloodstream infections in neonates and infants are life-threatening emergencies. Identification of the common bacteria causing such infections and their susceptibility patterns will provide necessary information for timely intervention. This study is aimed at determining the susceptibilities of bacterial etiological agents to commonly-used antimicrobial agents for empirical treatment of suspected bacterial septicaemia in children. Methods This is a hospital based retrospective analysis of blood cultures from infants to children up to 14 years of age with preliminary diagnosis of sepsis and admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and Paediatric Wards of the Teaching Hospital Tamale from July 2011 to January 2012. Results Out of 331 blood specimens cultured, the prevalence of confirmed bacterial sepsis was 25.9% (86/331). Point prevalence for confirmed cases from NICU was 44.4% (28/63) and 21.6% (58/268) from the Paediatric ward. Gram positive cocci (GPC) were the predominant isolates with Coagulase positive (32.2%) and Coagulase-negative (28.7%) Staphylococci accounting for 60.9% of the total isolates. Gram negative rods (GNR) comprised 39.1% of all isolates with Klebsiella, E.coli and Salmonella being the most common organisms isolated. Klebsiella was the most frequent GNR from the NICU and Salmonella typhi was predominantly isolated from the paediatric ward. Acinetobacter showed 100.0% susceptibility to Ceftriaxone and Cefotaxime but was resistant (100.0%) to Ampicillin, Tetracycline and Cotrimoxazole. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella were 80.0% and 91.0% susceptible to Ceftriaxone and Cefotaxime respectively. Klebsiella species showed 8.3% susceptibility to Tetracycline but was resistant to Ampicillin and Cotrimoxazole. Escherichia coli showed 40.0% susceptibility to Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Cotrimoxazole; 20.0% susceptibility to Tetracycline and 80.0% susceptible to Gentamicin and Cefuroxime. Coagulase negative Staphylococci was susceptible to Gentamicin (72.0%) but Coagulase positive Staphylococci showed intermediate sensitivity to Gentamicin (42.9%). Conclusion Coagulase Negative, Coagulase Positive Staphylococci, Salmonella and Klebsiella were the aetiological agents of bloodstream infection among children at TTH. While gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria showed low susceptibility to Ampicillin, Tetracycline and Cotrimoxazole, the GNR were susceptible to Gentamicin and third-generation cephalosporins. PMID:23419199



Risk of Acute Liver Injury Associated with the Use of Moxifloxacin and Other Oral Antimicrobials: A Retrospective, Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Study Objective To estimate the incidence and relative risk of a hospitalization or emergency visit for noninfectious liver injury in users of eight oral antimicrobials—amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, clarithromycin, cefuroxime, doxycycline, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, telithromycin—compared with nonusers of these antimicrobials. Design Retrospective, observational cohort study with a nested case-control analysis. Data Source HealthCore Integrated Research Database. Patients Adults with continuous health plan enrollment for at least 6 months before study entry who had a new dispensing of a study antimicrobial between July 1, 2001, and March 31, 2009. Cases had diagnoses indicating noninfectious liver injury during follow-up. To control for potentially confounding risk factors, 10 controls at risk for liver injury during follow-up were matched to each case by age, sex, and event date (liver injury date of the case), and analyses were adjusted for medical history, concomitant drugs, and health care service use. Measurements and Main Results Two physician reviewers (blind to exposure) validated the cases. Among 1.3 million antimicrobial users, we identified 607 cases of liver injury, including 82 cases of severe hepatocellular injury and 11 cases of liver failure. Liver injury incidence in nonusers of study antimicrobials was 35/100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 29–42/100,000 person-years). For valid cases, the adjusted relative risk among current users of multiple antimicrobials was 3.2 (95% CI 1.6–6.7). Levofloxacin had the highest relative risk for current single use (3.2, 95% CI 1.8–5.8). Relative risks were also elevated for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (2.5, 95% CI 1.3–5.0), doxycycline (2.5, 95% CI 1.2–5.2), moxifloxacin (2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.7), and amoxicillin (2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.7). Conclusion The results support a comparatively high adjusted relative risk of liver injury among patients exposed concurrently to multiple antimicrobials and modest elevations in the risk for several antimicrobials used alone; however, we found little evidence of any strong effect of commonly used antimicrobials on the risk of liver injury. PMID:24865821

Kaye, James A; Castellsague, Jordi; Bui, Christine L; Calingaert, Brian; McQuay, Lisa J; Riera-Guardia, Nuria; Saltus, Catherine W; Quinlan, Scott; Holick, Crystal N; Wahl, Peter M; Suzart, Kiliana; Rothman, Kenneth J; Wallander, Mari-Ann; Perez-Gutthann, Susana



Tonsillitis and sore throat in children.  


Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcomes after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy have slowly changed in Germany. However, no national guidelines exist and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies across the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under six years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i.e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (=tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more of such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and fungi belong to the healthy flora and do no harm. Ten percent of healthy children even bear strepptococcus pyogenes all the time in the tonsils with no clinical signs. In these children decolonization is not necessary. Therefore, microbiological screening tests in children without symptoms are senseless and do not justify an antibiotic treatment (which is sometimes postulated by the kindergartens). The acute tonsillitis should be treated with steroids (e.g. dexamethasone), NSAIDs (e.g. ibuprofene) and betalactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillin or cefuroxime). With respect to the symptom reduction and primary healing the short-term late-generation antibiotic therapy (azithromycin, clarithromycin or cephalosporine for three to five days) is comparable to the long-term penicilline therapy. There is no difference in the course of healing, recurrence or microbiological resistance between the short-term penicilline therapy and the standard ten days therapy. On the other hand, only the ten days antibiotic therapy has proven to be effective in the prevention of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritic diseases. The incidence of rheumatic heart disease is currently 0.5 per 100,000 children of school age. The main morbidity after tonsillectomy is pain and the late haemorrhage. Posttonsillectomy bleeding can occur till the whole wound is completely healed, which is normally after three weeks. Life-threatening haemorrhages occur often after smaller bleedings, which can spontaneously cease. That is why every haemorrhage, even the smallest, has to be treated properly and in ward. Patients and parents have to be informed about the correct behaviour in case of haemorrhage with a written consent before the surgery. The handout should contain important addresses, phone numbers and contact persons. Almost all cases of fatal outcome after tonsillectomy were due to false management of haemorrhage. Haemorrhage in small children can be especially life-threatening because of the lower blood volume and the danger of aspiration with asphyxia. A massive haemorrhage is an extreme challenge for eve

Stelter, Klaus



[Tonsillitis and sore throat in childhood].  


Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcome after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy slowly change in Germany since that. However, there exist no national guidelines and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies in the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under 6 years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i. e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (=?tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and fungi belong to the healthy flora and do no harm. Ten percent of the healthy children bear even streptococcus pyogenes all the time in the tonsils with no clinical signs. In these children decolonization is not necessary. Therefore, microbiological screening tests in children without symptoms are senseless and do not justify an antibiotic treatment (which is sometimes postulated by the kindergartens). The acute tonsillitis should be treated with steroids (e.g. dexamethasone), NSAIDs (e.g. ibuprofene) and betalactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillin or cefuroxime). With respect to the symptom reduction and primary healing the short-term late-generation antibiotic therapy (azithromycin, clarithromycin or cephalosporine for 3 to 5 days) is comparable to the long-term penicilline therapy. There is no difference in the course of healing, recurrence or microbiological resistance between the short-term penicilline therapy to the standard 10 days therapy, as well. On the other hand, only the 10 days antibiotic therapy has prooven to be effective in the prevention of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritic diseases. The incidence of rheumatic heart disease is currently 0.5 per 100.000 children in school age. The main morbidity after tonsillectomy is pain and the late hemorrhage. Posttonsillectomy bleeding can occur till the whole wound is completely healed, which is normally after 3 weeks. Life-threatening hemorrhages occur often after smaller bleedings, which can spontaneously cease. That is why every hemorrhage, even the smallest, has to be treated properly and in ward. Patients and parents have to be informed about the correct behavior in case of hemorrhage with a written consent before the surgery. The handout should contain important adresses, phone numbers and contact persons. Almost all cases of fatal outcome after tonsillectomy were due to false management of hemorrhage. Especially in small children hemorrhage can be life-threatening because of the lower blood volume and the danger of aspiration with asphyxia. A massive hemorrhage is an extreme challenge for every pa

Stelter, K



Pharmacokinetics of antibacterial agents in the CSF of children and adolescents.  


The adequate management of central nervous system (CNS) infections requires that antimicrobial agents penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and achieve concentrations in the CNS adequate for eradication of the infecting pathogen. This review details the currently available literature on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antibacterials in the CNS of children. Clinical trials affirm that the physicochemical properties of a drug remain one of the most important factors dictating penetration of antimicrobial agents into the CNS, irrespective of the population being treated (i.e. small, lipophilic drugs with low protein binding exhibit the best translocation across the BBB). These same physicochemical characteristics determine the primary disposition pathways of the drug, and by extension the magnitude and duration of circulating drug concentrations in the plasma, a second major driving force behind achievable CNS drug concentrations. Notably, these disposition pathways can be expected to change during the normal process of growth and development. Finally, CNS drug penetration is influenced by the nature and extent of the infection (i.e. the presence of meningeal inflammation). Aminoglycosides have poor CNS penetration when administered intravenously. Intrathecal gentamicin has been studied in children with more promising results, often exceeding the minimum inhibitory concentration. There are very limited data with intrathecal tobramycin in children. However, in the few patients that have been studied, the CSF concentrations were highly variable. Penicillins generally have good CNS penetration. Aqueous penicillin G reaches greater concentrations than procaine or benzathine penicillin. Concentrations remain detectable for ? 12 h. Of the aminopenicillins, both ampicillin and parenteral amoxicillin reach adequate CNS concentrations; however, orally administered amoxicillin resulted in much lower concentrations. Nafcillin and piperacillin are the final two penicillins with pediatric data: their penetration is erratic at best. Cephalosporins vary greatly in regard to their CSF penetration. Few first- and second-generation cephalosporins are able to reach higher CSF concentrations. Cefuroxime is the only exception and is usually avoided due to its adverse effects and slower sterilization of the CSF than third-generation agents. Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefixime and cefepime have been studied in children and are all able to adequately penetrate the CSF. As with penicillins, concentrations are greatest in the presence of meningeal inflammation. Meropenem and imipenem are the only carbapenems with pediatric data. Imipenem reaches higher CSF concentrations; however, meropenem is preferred due to its lower incidence of seizures. Aztreonam has also demonstrated favorable penetration but only one study has been completed in children. Both chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (cotrimoxazole) penetrate into the CNS well; however, significant toxicities limit their use. The small size and minimal protein binding of fosfomycin contribute to its favorable CNS PK. Although rarely used, it achieves higher concentrations in the presence of inflammation and accumulation is possible. Linezolid reaches high CSF concentrations; however, more frequent dosing might be required in infants due to their increased elimination. Metronidazole also has very limited information but it demonstrated favorable results similar to adult data; CSF concentrations even exceeded plasma concentrations at certain time points. Rifampin (rifampicin) demonstrated good CNS penetration after oral administration. Vancomycin demonstrates poor CNS penetration after intravenous administration. When combined with intraventricular therapy, CNS concentrations are much greater. Of the antituberculosis agents, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and streptomycin have been studied in children. Isoniazid and pyrazinamide have favorable CSF penetration. Streptomycin appears to produce unpredictable CSF levels. No pediatric-specific data are available for clindamycin, daptom

Sullins, Amanda K; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M



Tonsillitis and sore throat in children  

PubMed Central

Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcomes after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy have slowly changed in Germany. However, no national guidelines exist and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies across the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under six years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i.e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (=tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more of such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and fungi belong to the healthy flora and do no harm. Ten percent of healthy children even bear strepptococcus pyogenes all the time in the tonsils with no clinical signs. In these children decolonization is not necessary. Therefore, microbiological screening tests in children without symptoms are senseless and do not justify an antibiotic treatment (which is sometimes postulated by the kindergartens). The acute tonsillitis should be treated with steroids (e.g. dexamethasone), NSAIDs (e.g. ibuprofene) and betalactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillin or cefuroxime). With respect to the symptom reduction and primary healing the short-term late-generation antibiotic therapy (azithromycin, clarithromycin or cephalosporine for three to five days) is comparable to the long-term penicilline therapy. There is no difference in the course of healing, recurrence or microbiological resistance between the short-term penicilline therapy and the standard ten days therapy. On the other hand, only the ten days antibiotic therapy has proven to be effective in the prevention of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritic diseases. The incidence of rheumatic heart disease is currently 0.5 per 100,000 children of school age. The main morbidity after tonsillectomy is pain and the late haemorrhage. Posttonsillectomy bleeding can occur till the whole wound is completely healed, which is normally after three weeks. Life-threatening haemorrhages occur often after smaller bleedings, which can spontaneously cease. That is why every haemorrhage, even the smallest, has to be treated properly and in ward. Patients and parents have to be informed about the correct behaviour in case of haemorrhage with a written consent before the surgery. The handout should contain important addresses, phone numbers and contact persons. Almost all cases of fatal outcome after tonsillectomy were due to false management of haemorrhage. Haemorrhage in small children can be especially life-threatening because of the lower blood volume and the danger of aspiration with asphyxia. A massive haemorrhage is an extreme challenge for eve

Stelter, Klaus