Sample records for cell culture assay

  1. Biochemical Assays of Cultured Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    Subpopulations of human embryonic kidney cells isolated from continuous flow electrophoresis experiments performed at McDonnell Douglas and on STS-8 have been analyzed. These analyses have included plasminogen activator assays involving indirect methodology on fibrin plated and direct methodology using chromogenic substrates. Immunological studies were performed and the conditioned media for erythropoietin activity and human granulocyte colony stimulating (HGCSF) activity was analyzed.

  2. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-07-01

    We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay will significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools

  3. Defining cell culture conditions to improve human norovirus infectivity assays

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, Tim M.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Ozanich, Richard M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2013-01-10

    Significant difficulties remain for determining whether human noroviruses (hNoV) recovered from water, food, and environmental samples are infectious. Three-dimensional tissue culture of human intestinal cells has shown promise in developing an infectivity assay, but reproducibility, even within a single laboratory, remains problematic. From the literature and our observations, we hypothesized that the common factors that leads to more reproducible hNoV infectivity in vitro requires that the cell line be 1) of human gastrointestinal origin, 2) expresses apical microvilli, and 3) be a positive secretor cell line. The C2BBe1 cell line, which is a brush-border producing clone of Caco-2, meets these three criteria. When challenged with Genogroup II viruses, we observed a 2 Log10 increase in viral RNA titer. A passage experiment with GII viruses showed evidence of the ability to propagate hNoV by both reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and microscopy. Using 3-D C2BBe1 cells improves reproducibility of the infectivity assay for hNoV, but the assay can still be variable. Two sources of variability include the cells themselves (mixed phenotypes of small and large intestine) and initial titer measurements using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) that measures all RNA vs. plaque assays that measure infectious virus.

  4. A microfluidic platform for 3-dimensional cell culture and cell-based assays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minseok S; Yeon, Ju Hun; Park, Je-Kyun

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports a novel microfluidic platform introducing peptide hydrogel to make biocompatible microenvironment as well as realizing in situ cell-based assays. Collagen composite, OPLA and Puramatrix scaffolds are compared to select good environment for human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) by albumin measurement. The selected biocompatible self-assembling peptide hydrogel, Puramatrix, is hydrodynamically focused in the middle of main channel of a microfluidic device, and at the same time the cells are 3-dimensionally immobilized and encapsulated without any additional surface treatment. HepG2 cells have been 3-dimensionally cultured in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic device for 4 days. The cells cultured in micro peptide scaffold are compared with those cultured by conventional petri dish in morphology and the rate of albumin secretion. By injection of different reagents into either side of the peptide scaffold, the microfluidic device also forms a linear concentration gradient profile across the peptide scaffold due to molecular diffusion. Based on this characteristic, toxicity tests are performed by Triton X-100. As the higher toxicant concentration gradient forms, the wider dead zone of cells in the peptide scaffold represents. This microfluidic platform facilitates in vivo-like 3-dimensional microenvironment, and have a potential for the applications of reliable cell-based screening and assays including cytotoxicity test, real-time cell viability monitoring, and continuous dose-response assay. PMID:17103048

  5. Heat-transfer-method-based cell culture quality assay through cell detection by surface imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Eersels, Kasper; van Grinsven, Bart; Khorshid, Mehran; Somers, Veerle; Püttmann, Christiane; Stein, Christoph; Barth, Stefan; Diliën, Hanne; Bos, Gerard M J; Germeraad, Wilfred T V; Cleij, Thomas J; Thoelen, Ronald; De Ceuninck, Ward; Wagner, Patrick

    2015-02-17

    Previous work has indicated that surface imprinted polymers (SIPs) allow for highly specific cell detection through macromolecular cell imprints. The combination of SIPs with a heat-transfer-based read-out technique has led to the development of a selective, label-free, low-cost, and user-friendly cell detection assay. In this study, the breast cancer cell line ZR-75-1 is used to assess the potential of the platform for monitoring the quality of a cell culture in time. For this purpose, we show that the proposed methodology is able to discriminate between the original cell line (adherent growth, ZR-75-1a) and a descendant cell line (suspension growth, ZR-75-1s). Moreover, ZR-75-1a cells were cultured for a prolonged period of time and analyzed using the heat-transfer method (HTM) at regular time intervals. The results of these experiments demonstrate that the thermal resistance (Rth) signal decays after a certain number of cell culture passages. This can likely be attributed to a compromised quality of the cell culture due to cross-contamination with the ZR-75-1s cell line, a finding that was confirmed by classical STR DNA profiling. The cells do not express the same functional groups on their membrane, resulting in a weaker bond between cell and imprint, enabling cell removal by mechanical friction, provided by flushing the measuring chamber with buffer solution. These findings were further confirmed by HTM and illustrate that the biomimetic sensor platform can be used as an assay for monitoring the quality of cell cultures in time. PMID:25654744

  6. Microfluidic assay for simultaneous culture of multiple cell types on surfaces or within hydrogels

    E-print Network

    Shin, Yoojin

    This protocol describes a simple but robust microfluidic assay combining three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) cell culture. The microfluidic platform comprises hydrogel-incorporating chambers between surface-accessible ...

  7. Gonococcal and meningococcal pathogenesis as defined by human cell, cell culture, and organ culture assays.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, D S

    1989-01-01

    Human cells, cell cultures, and organ cultures have been extremely useful for studying the events that occur when gonococci and meningococci encounter human mucosal surfaces. The specificity and selectivity of these events for human cells are striking and correlate with the adaptation of these pathogens for survival on human mucous membranes. To colonize these sites, meningococci and gonococci have developed mechanisms to damage local host defenses such as the mucociliary blanket, to attach to epithelial cells, and to invade these cells. Attachment to epithelial cells mediated by pili, and to some types of cells mediated by PIIs, serves to anchor the organism close to sources of nutrition and allows multiplication. Intracellular invasion, possibly initiated by the major porin protein, may provide additional nutritional support and protection from host defenses. Mucosal invasion may also result in access of gonococci and meningococci to the bloodstream, leading to dissemination. Images PMID:2497953

  8. A Reliable Tool to Determine Cell Viability in Complex 3-D Culture: The Acid Phosphatase Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juergen Friedrich; Wolfgang Eder; Juana Castaneda; Markus Doss; Elisabeth Huber; Reinhard Ebner; Leoni A. Kunz-Schughart

    2007-01-01

    Cell-based assays are more complex than cell-free test systems but still reflect a highly artificial cellular environment. Incorporation of organotypic 3-dimensional (3-D) culture systems into mainstream drug development processes is increasingly discussed but severely limited by complex methodological requirements. The objective of this study was to explore a panel of standard assays to provide an easy-handling, standardized protocol for rapid

  9. Biochemical assays of cultured cells. [space shuttle oft-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    Assay systems were developed for use in interpreting samples to be returned on the space shuttle OFT-3 flights. Samples from electrophoretic separation were used to evaluate the techniques. All assays were determinable on the growth media. Approaches are described for assaying: (1) the human granulocyte conditioning factor; (2) urokinase activity; (3) erythropoietin; (4) the molecular form of urokinase; and (5) protein distribution. Other studies are planned to validate that the activity observed is urokinase and not that of other activators or proteases.

  10. TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

  11. Comparison of two rapid assays for Clostridium difficile Common antigen and a C difficile toxin A/B assay with the cell culture neutralization assay.

    PubMed

    Reller, Megan E; Alcabasa, Romina C; Lema, Clara A; Carroll, Karen C

    2010-01-01

    We compared 3 rapid assays for Clostridium difficile with a cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). Of 600 stool samples, 46 were positive for toxigenic C difficile. Both rapid common antigen assays were highly sensitive (91.3%-100%) and, therefore, were appropriate screening tests. The rapid toxin assay had poor sensitivity (61%) but excellent specificity (99.3%). Testing stools for glutamate dehydrogenase (step 1) and those positive with a rapid toxin assay (step 2) would correctly classify 81% of submitted specimens within 2 hours, including during periods of limited staffing (evenings, nights, and weekends). CCNA could then be used as a third step to test rapid toxin-negative samples, thereby providing a final result for the remaining 19% of samples by 48 to 72 hours. The use of rapid assays as outlined could enhance timely diagnosis of C difficile. PMID:20023265

  12. Controlled delivery of lipophilic agents to cell cultures for in vitro toxicity and biocompatibility assays.

    PubMed

    Zülli, F; Liechti, C; Suter, F

    2000-08-01

    In this report, we present a novel method for delivering lipophilic compounds to cell cultures. The delivery system is based on a nanoemulsion stabilized by phospholipids. These nanoemulsions are well tolerated by cell cultures, such as TK6 lymphoblastoid cells and can be used to deliver defined amounts of encapsulated lipophilic compounds into cells. We measured the growth inhibition of TK6 lymphoblastoid cells caused by different oils, UV-filters and fragrances to determine the biocompatibility or the toxicity of these compounds in simple cell culture experiments. Our data show that the applied nanoemulsion technology is also very suitable to study biological effects of the UV-A-irradiated compounds in cell culture assays. PMID:18503413

  13. COMPARATIVE TOXICITIES OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF ASBESTOS IN A CELL CULTURE ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three forms of Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) asbestos, amosite, crocidolite, and chrysotile, were assayed for their cytotoxicity (inhibition of colony formation) in cell culture. Using embryonic human intestine-derived (I-407) and adult rat liver-derived (ARL-6) ep...

  14. Gaussia luciferase-based mycoplasma detection assay in mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Degeling, M Hannah; Bovenberg, M Sarah S; Tannous, Marie; Tannous, Bakhos A

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma contamination in mammalian cell culture is a common problem with serious consequences on experimental data, and yet many laboratories fail to perform regular testing. In this chapter, we describe a simple and sensitive mycoplasma detection assay based on the bioluminescent properties of the Gaussia luciferase reporter. PMID:24166367

  15. Sheep poxvirus identification from clinical specimens by PCR, cell culture, immunofluorescence and agar gel immunoprecipitation assay.

    PubMed

    Mangana-Vougiouka, O; Markoulatos, P; Koptopoulos, G; Nomikou, K; Bakandritsos, N; Papadopoulos, P

    2000-10-01

    Some 40 clinical specimens of skin lesions from sheep pox suspected cases were investigated by four different diagnostic assays: PCR, virus isolation in lamb testis cell cultures, direct immunofluorescent assay (DIFA) and antigen detecting agar gel immune precipitation test (AGIPT). All the specimens were positive by PCR and virus isolation, 29 were positive by DIFA and 16 by AGIPT. Using virus isolation on cell cultures as the gold standard, the PCR sensitivity was 100%, while that of DIFA and AGIPT was 73% and 40%, respectively. Skin samples with orf lesions or normal skin biopsies were PCR-negative. Cross-reactions with orf virus were observed in three samples only in the AGIPT assay. The PCR described combines high specificity and sensitivity with speed. PCR was therefore shown to be the method of choice for sheep poxvirus diagnosis directly from clinical specimens. PMID:11040094

  16. A Qualitative and Quantitative Assay for Cells Lacking Postconfluence Inhibition of Cell Division: Characterization of This Phenotype in Carcinogen-treated Syrian Hamster Embryo Cells in Culture1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuji Nakano; Sarah A. Bruce; Hiroaki Ueo; Paul O. P. Ts

    We have developed a qualitative and quantitative assay system for detecting cells lacking postconfluence inhibition of cell division (contact insensitivity, CS~) in golden Syrian ham ster embryo cells in culture by measuring the number of cells able to form colonies on a lethally irradiated, confluent mono- layer of a contact-sensitive established cell line. A subpopula- tion in normal low-passage cultures

  17. A radiolabel-release microwell assay for proteolytic enzymes present in cell culture media

    SciTech Connect

    Rucklidge, G.J.; Milne, G. (Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen (England))

    1990-03-01

    A modified method for the measurement of proteolytic enzyme activity in cell culture-conditioned media has been developed. Using the release of 3H-labeled peptides from 3H-labeled gelatin the method is performed in microwell plates. The substrate is insolubilized and attached to the wells by glutaraldehyde treatment, thus eliminating the need for a precipitation step at the end of the assay. The assay is sensitive, reproducible, and convenient for small sample volumes. The effect of different protease inhibitors on activity can be assessed rapidly allowing an early characterization of the enzyme. It can also be adapted to microplate spectrophotometric analysis by staining residual substrate with Coomassie blue.

  18. Microfluidic assay for simultaneous culture of multiple cell types on surfaces or within hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yoojin; Han, Sewoon; Jeon, Jessie S.; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K.; Sudo, Ryo; Kamm, Roger D.; Chung, Seok

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes a simple but robust microfluidic assay combining three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) cell culture. The microfluidic platform comprises hydrogel incorporating chambers between surface-accessible microchannels. Using this platform, well-defined biochemical and biophysical stimuli can be applied to multiple cell types interacting over distances of <1mm, thereby replicating many aspects of the in vivo microenvironment. Capabilities exist for time-dependent manipulation of flows and concentration gradients as well as high-resolution real-time imaging for observing spatial-temporal single cell behavior, cell-cell communication, cell-matrix interactions and cell population dynamics. These heterotypic cell type assays can be used to study cell survival, proliferation, migration, morphogenesis and differentiation under controlled conditions. Applications include the study of previously unexplored cellular interactions, and have already provided new insights into how biochemical and biophysical factors regulate interactions between populations of different cell types. It takes 3 days to fabricate the system and experiments can run for up to several weeks. PMID:22678430

  19. Determination of monoclonal antibody production in cell culture using novel microfluidic and traditional assays.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Ryo; Otero, José Manuel; Chwistek, Adam; Hamel, Jean-François P

    2002-10-01

    This study compares microfluidic technology (Protein 200 LabChip Assay kit, Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer, referred to here as Protein 200) to the traditional approach for protein analysis, one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), for the sizing and quantification of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in hybridoma cell cultures. Internal references differ between each method: purified IgG was used alone in SDS-PAGE while myosin (the upper marker) was added to each sample in Protein 200. The IgG used here were produced in cultures propagated in either a serum-free or a serum-containing medium. With serum-containing samples, there was a significant difference in the IgG concentrations (p < 0.05) between SDS-PAGE and Protein 200. The concentration determined by SDS-PAGE was significantly higher (> 30%) than by Protein 200 or by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) because the large amounts of serum albumin in the samples affect the accuracy of SDS-PAGE. Protein 200 can determine size similarly to SDS-PAGE in serum-free samples (standard error of the mean, SEM, < 1%, 95% confidence < +/-1%), unlike in serum-containing samples. The Protein 200 assay was more effective than the traditional one-dimensional SDS-PAGE in determining concentration and size of IgG in cell culture samples and it provided a miniaturized and convenient platform for rapid analysis. PMID:12412133

  20. CellTiter-Glo 3D: A Sensitive, Accurate Viability Assay for 3D Cell Cultures

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    in Microtissue Spheroids Two-dimensional cell culture has long served as an invaluable tool for in vitro protocol is simple and fast, giving results in as little as 30 minutes. Michael P. Valley, Chad A. Zimprich

  1. Cell Culture-Taqman PCR Assay for Evaluation of Cryptosporidium parvum Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Keegan, Alexandra R.; Fanok, Stella; Monis, Paul T.; Saint, Christopher P.

    2003-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum represents a challenge to the water industry and a threat to public health. In this study, we developed a cell culture-quantitative PCR assay to evaluate the inactivation of C. parvum with disinfectants. The assay was validated by using a range of disinfectants in common use in the water industry, including low-pressure UV light (LP-UV), ozone, mixed oxidants (MIOX), and chlorine. The assay was demonstrated to be reliable and sensitive, with a lower detection limit of a single infectious oocyst. Effective oocyst inactivation was achieved (>2 log10 units) with LP-UV (20 mJ/cm2) or 2 mg of ozone/liter (for 10 min). MIOX and chlorine treatments of oocysts resulted in minimal effective disinfection, with <0.1 log10 unit being inactivated. These results demonstrate the inability of MIOX to inactivate Cryptosporidium. The assay is a valuable tool for the evaluation of disinfection systems for drinking water and recycled water. PMID:12732515

  2. A microtest system for the serial assay of phytotoxic compounds using photoautotrophic cell suspension cultures of Chenopodium rubrum.

    PubMed

    Thiemann, J; Nieswandt, A; Barz, W

    1989-10-01

    Chenopodium rubrum photoautotrophic cell suspensions were grown in plastic tissue culture dishes under photoautotrophic conditions. Growth was monitored by measuring cell number, packed cell volume, chlorophyll content and oxygen production. Such microtiter dishes are suitable systems for the serial assay of growth inhibition and various physiological effects (i.e. chlorophyll fluorescence, cell viability, oxygen production) of photoautotrophic cells as caused by herbicides and fungal phytotoxins. The applicability of the test system is discussed. PMID:24233362

  3. Development of an assay for the measurement of the surfactant pluronic F-68 in mammalian cell culture medium.

    PubMed

    Ghebeh, H; Handa-Corrigan, A; Butler, M

    1998-08-15

    A colorimetric assay is described for the measurement of Pluronic F-68 in animal cell culture medium. The assay is based on the formation of a complex with cobalt thiocyanate as previously developed for the measurement of Pluronic in liver tissue. To adapt the assay for the lower detection levels required in cell culture medium, the absorbance of the complex was measured at 328 nm. The reproducibility of the assay was improved by washing the complex with ethyl acetate. The addition of a critical volume of ethanol was found to be necessary to reduce the interference caused by unknown components of the culture medium. The assay was linear between concentrations of 0.01 and 0.2% (w/v) Pluronic in serum-free medium. At the lower level of detection of 0.01% (w/v), the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.998. The presence of serum in the medium decreased the sensitivity of the assay, which nevertheless was linear from 0.04 to 0.16% (w/v) Pluronic. The sensitivity and precision of the method are appropriate to study the dynamics of Pluronic in large-scale cell cultures in which Pluronic is added to reduce hydrodynamic cell damage. PMID:9735146

  4. RT-PCR and cell culture infectivity assay to detect enteroviruses during drinking water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Ali, M A; El-Esnawy, N A; Shoaeb, A R; Ibraheim, M; El-Hawaary, S E

    1999-01-01

    In this study, 62 water samples were collected from two water treatment plants (WTPs) in Suez Canal cities (Port Said and Ismaillia) and one plant in Cairo (Giza WTP) in addition to the beginning of the two Nile river branches (Rosetta and Damietta). Viruses were concentrated by adsorption-elution ethod sing 142 mm-diameter nitrocellulose membrane of 0.45 microm pore size and eluted with 3% beef extract at pH 9.5. The concentrated samples were inoculated for 3 successive passages in three cell culture types (Vero, BGM and RD). Enterovirus RNAs in CPE-induced samples were extracted by guanidinium thiocyanate/ phenol/chloroform and heat shock methods and detected by RT-PCR and neutralization test. The results showed that eight samples [14.5% (8/62)] contained enteroviruses most of them were polioviruses [87.5% (7/8)] and coxsackievirus type B2 [12.5% (1/8)]. The three cell cultures were of the same sensitivity to detect the isolated viruses. Also, RT-PCR followed by neutralization assay facilitates and accelerate the results. The guanidinium thiocyanate extraction method was more sensitive than heat shock method. The results turned our attention to review our technology of water treatment and disinfection step in addition to the selection of suitable intake for the drinking water treatment plants. PMID:17219867

  5. A nonradioisotope, enzymatic assay for 2-deoxyglucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle cells cultured in a 96-well microplate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norio Yamamoto; Takuya Sato; Kengo Kawasaki; Shinji Murosaki; Yoshihiro Yamamoto

    2006-01-01

    A nonradioisotope, 96-well-microplate assay to evaluate glucose uptake activity in cultured cells has been developed. 2-Deoxyglucose (2DG) was detected by measuring a potent fluorophore, resorufin, generated after incubation with a single assay solution containing hexokinase, adenosine 5?-triphosphate, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, ?-nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, diaphorase, and resazurin. This amplifying detection system could detect the fluorescence intensity induced by uptake of

  6. The application of 3D micropatterning of agarose substrate for cell culture and in situ comet assays.

    PubMed

    Mercey, Emilie; Obeïd, Patricia; Glaise, Denise; Calvo-Muñoz, Maria-Luisa; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Fouqué, Brigitte

    2010-04-01

    We report the fabrication of a 3D micropatterned agarose substrate that enables the culture of single or multiple cells. Patterning was performed on dried agarose using deep UV irradiation leading to 6-microm-deep micropatterns of 25-70 microm in diameter. Cell adhesion was facilitated by the specific grafting of ECM (extra cellular matrix) proteins such as fibronectin into the micropatterns. We show that the pattern size induced the adhesion of one or more cells, thus allowing precise control of the cell number used in the assay, and that cells proliferated similarly as in standard culture conditions. Moreover, cell polarity appeared well preserved on this substrate, so polarized cells like hepatoma HepaRG cells might maintain their differentiation status and act as primary human hepatocytes for hepatotoxicity testing. These 3D patterned culture slides have been successfully used for in situ comet assays and there is evidence that the genotoxic effects of sub-cytotoxic concentrations of drugs could be analyzed in a large number of single HeLa cells. Coupled with the parallel-based design of the 3D micropatterning, which allows automated image analysis, these results strongly indicate that this new cell array system is suitable for high-throughput cytotoxicity and genotoxicity screening applications. PMID:20149429

  7. Activation of nuclear factor kappa B by different agents: influence of culture conditions in a cell-based assay.

    PubMed

    Hellweg, Christine E; Arenz, Andrea; Bogner, Susanne; Schmitz, Claudia; Baumstark-Khan, Christa

    2006-12-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) or other components of this pathway have been identified as possible therapeutic targets in inflammatory processes, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. In order to clarify the role of NF-kappaB in epithelial cells in response to different stresses, a cell-based screening assay for activation of NF-kappaB-dependent gene transcription in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK/293) was developed. This assay allows detection of NF-kappaB activation by measurement of the fluorescence of the reporter protein destabilized enhanced green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP). For characterization of the cell-based assay, activation of the pathway by several agents, for example, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), camptothecin and phorbol ester (PMA), and the influence of the culture conditions on NF-kappaB activation by TNF-alpha were examined. NF-kappaB was activated by TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, PMA, and camptothecin in a dose-dependent manner, but not by LPS. TNF-alpha results in the strongest induction of NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression. However, this response fluctuated from 30 to 90% of the cell population showing d2EGFP expression. This variation can be explained by differences in growth duration and cell density at the time of treatment. With increasing confluence of the cells, the activation potential decreased. In a confluent cell layer, only 20-35% of the cell population showed d2EGFP expression. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon can be the production of soluble factors by the cells inhibiting the NF-kappaB activation or direct communication via gap junctions in the cell layer diminishing the TNF-alpha response. PMID:17341614

  8. MAMMALIAN CELL CULTURE ASSAY TO QUANTITATE CHEMICALLY INDUCED ANEUPLOIDY: USE OF A MONOCHROMOSOMAL HUMAN/MOUSE CELL HYBRID

    EPA Science Inventory

    A short-term assay utilizing a human/mouse monochromosomal hybrid cell line R3-5, to detect chemically induced aneuploidy in mammalian cells is described. A single human chromosome transferred into mouse cells was used as a cytogenetic marker to quantitate abnormal chromosome seg...

  9. Use of Shell-Vial Cell Culture Assay for Isolation of Bacteria from Clinical Specimens: 13 Years of Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederique Gouriet; Florence Fenollar; Jean-Yves Patrice; Michel Drancourt; Didier Raoult

    2005-01-01

    The shell-vial culture assay is performed routinely in our laboratory. Recently we revisited our experience of using the shell-vial culture assay for the isolation of microorganisms from various clinical samples. Over a 13-year period, we have isolated 580 bacterial strains (5%) from 11,083 clinical samples tested. Over the same period, 285 isolates of rickettsiae, bartonellae, or Coxiella burnetii were cultured

  10. Evaluation of a Soluble Tetrazolium\\/Formazan Assay for Cell Growth and Drug Sensitivity in Culture Using Human and Other Tumor Cell Lines1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic A. Scudiere; Robert H. Shoemaker; Kenneth D. Paul; Anne Monks; Siobhan Tierney; Thomas H. Nofziger; Michael J. Currens; Donna Seniff; Michael R. Boyd

    We have previously described the application of an automated micro- culture tetrazolium assay (MTA) involvingdimethyl sulfoxide solubiliza- tion of cellular-generated 3-{4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra- zolium bromide (MTTHormazan to the in vitro assessment of drug effects on cell growth (M. C. Alley et al., Proc. Am. Assen. Cancer Res., 27:389,1986; M. C. Alley et al.. Cancer Res. 48:589-601,1988). There are several inherent disadvantages of

  11. A rapid and specific microplate assay for the determination of intra- and extracellular ascorbate in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Lane, Darius J R; Lawen, Alfons

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbate) plays numerous important roles in cellular metabolism, many of which have only come to light in recent years. For instance, within the brain, ascorbate acts in a neuroprotective and neuromodulatory manner that involves ascorbate cycling between neurons and vicinal astrocytes--a relationship that appears to be crucial for brain ascorbate homeostasis. Additionally, emerging evidence strongly suggests that ascorbate has a greatly expanded role in regulating cellular and systemic iron metabolism than is classically recognized. The increasing recognition of the integral role of ascorbate in normal and deregulated cellular and organismal physiology demands a range of medium-throughput and high-sensitivity analytic techniques that can be executed without the need for highly expensive specialist equipment. Here we provide explicit instructions for a medium-throughput, specific and relatively inexpensive microplate assay for the determination of both intra- and extracellular ascorbate in cell culture. PMID:24747535

  12. Cell-mediated immunity in rubella assayed by cytotoxicity of supernatants from rubella virus-stimulated human lymphocyte cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Vesikari, T; Kanra, G Y; Buimovici-Klein, E; Cooper, L Z

    1975-01-01

    Rubella virus-stimulated lymphocytes from rubella-seropositive donors produced in the culture medium cytotoxic activity with preferential action against rubella-infected over uninfected target cells. The ability of lymphocytes to produce the cytotoxic activity upon stimulation by rubella virus correlated with the humoral rubella-immunity status, i.e. no such cytotoxic activity developed in the supernatants of lymphocyte cultures of rubella-seronegative donors. Stimulation of lymphocytes from seropositive donors by rubella virus was also detected by thymidine incorporation, but the correlation of lymphocyte responsiveness to the humoral rubella antibody status was not so clear as in the cytotoxicity assay. Conversion of lymphocytes from unresponsive to responsive to rubella virus following natural rubella infection and after rubella vaccination was demonstrated using both methods. Following vaccination rubella-specific cell-mediated immunity first became demonstrable at 14 days. The responsiveness of lymphocytes to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) after rubella vaccination was followed by studying thymidine uptake and the ability of lymphocytes to produce lymphootoxin. By both tests marked suppression of PHA response occurred at days 3 and 7 after vaccination. PMID:1081925

  13. Studies on cultured rat Schwann cells. III. Assays for peripheral myelin proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Brockes; M. C. Raff; D. J. Nishiguchi; J. Winter

    1980-01-01

    Summary Rabbit antisera to the rat myelin proteins P0 and P1 were used to assay for the presence of these components by both immunochemical and immunofluorescence methods. The antiserum to P0 did not react detectably with polyacrylamide gels containing central myelin, or with P1 and P2 in peripheral myelin; it did react with P0 in peripheral myelin, and in extracts

  14. VALIDATION ANALYSIS OF AN ECDYSTEROID RECEPTOR AGONIST ASSAY USING INTACT CULTURED LEPIDOPTERA CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we report on the ecdysteroid-responsiveness of the insect cell line Se4 (BCIRL/AMCY-SeE-CLG4) from embryos of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The cells express an ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) activity as indicated by their response to the insect molting hor...

  15. A novel sensitive assay to define immune status using short-term peripheral blood derived cell culture and dual-color flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Zella, D; Riva, A; Weichold, F F; Reitz, M S; Gerna, G

    1998-05-01

    In this study we describe a novel and highly sensitive in vitro system to determine the functionality of immune cells based on short term culture of peripheral blood derived mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and subsequent analysis of cellular proliferation and surface marker expression by automated dual-color flow cytometry. The standardized mild stimuli introduced into the culture system by supplemented medium (containing exogenous interleukin-2 (IL-2), and fetal bovine serum (FBS)) allow a more physiological interaction of the different cell subsets contained in PBMCs (including CD14+ accessory cells) than other methods that are based on potent and harsh cell activators, such as phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or anti-CD3 antibodies. Measurement of T-cell proliferation and cell surface marker (CD3, C25, CD26, CD71, HLA-DR) analysis revealed that activation response capacity in our assay depends on both the status of the obtained cells and their ability to interact in culture with CD14+ cells. This in vitro assay proved to be very sensitive in detecting changes in the status of T-cell activation and proliferation capacity, and avoid the use of radioactive reagents. PMID:9672147

  16. A southern blot assay for detection of hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA from cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Cai, Dawei; Nie, Hui; Yan, Ran; Guo, Ju-Tao; Block, Timothy M; Guo, Haitao

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B remains a substantial public health burden affecting approximately 350 million people worldwide, causing cirrhosis and liver cancer, and about 1 million people die each year from hepatitis B and its complications. Hepatitis B is caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. As an essential component of the viral life cycle, HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is synthesized and maintained at low copy numbers in the nucleus of infected hepatocytes, and serves as the transcription template for all viral RNAs. Therefore, cccDNA is responsible for the establishment of viral infection and persistence. The presence and longevity of cccDNA may also explain the limitations of current antiviral therapy for hepatitis B. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying cccDNA formation and regulation is critical in understanding the HBV pathogenesis and finding a cure for hepatitis B. Here we describe a protocol for HBV cccDNA extraction and detection in detail. The procedure includes two major steps: (1) HBV cccDNA extraction by Hirt protein-free DNA extraction method and (2) HBV cccDNA detection by Southern blot analysis. The method is straightforward and reliable for cccDNA assay with cell culture samples, and it is useful for both HBV molecular biology and antiviral research. PMID:23821267

  17. Functional evaluation of proliferative T cell responses in patients with severe T lymphopenia: characterization of optimal culture conditions and standardized activation signals for a simple whole blood assay.

    PubMed

    Wendelbo, Øystein; Bruserud, Øystein

    2003-10-01

    In this methodological study, we describe an assay for analysis of proliferative T cell responses in patients with severe leukopenia. Severe treatment-induced cytopenia is observed in patients with malignant disorders who receive conventional intensive chemotherapy or autologous stem cell transplantation. The quantitative T cell defect can then be characterized by flow cytometric analysis of membrane molecule expression, whereas the functional status of the remaining T cell population is more difficult to evaluate. In the present study, we describe a standardized whole blood assay that requires small sample volumes and can be used for repeated analysis even in severely ill patients. The assay is based on the following strategy: (i) blood samples are diluted with the serum-free medium X-vivo 10, (ii) T cells are activated either with monoclonal immunoglobulin E (IgE) anti-CD3 or anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28; (iii) T cell proliferation is assayed by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation after 4 days of in vitro culture. These proliferative responses are not affected by the plasma levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), sIL-2-R alpha, IL-7 and IL-15, and the kinetics of the response are not altered by the presence of exogenous cytokines. Detectable proliferation is observed for most patients with treatment-induced cytopenia. We conclude that the assay can be used for functional characterization of remaining T lymphocytes in patients with severe T lymphopenia. PMID:14594509

  18. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus-specific memory CD4+ T cells using a peptide-based cultured enzyme-linked immunospot assay.

    PubMed

    Calarota, Sandra A; Chiesa, Antonella; Zelini, Paola; Comolli, Giuditta; Minoli, Lorenzo; Baldanti, Fausto

    2013-08-01

    Approaches to evaluate T-cell responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) include enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT), which quantifies cells capable of immediate interferon-? secretion upon antigen stimulation. However, evaluation of expandable EBV-specific memory T cells in an ELISPOT format has not been described previously. We quantified EBV-specific T-cell precursors with high proliferative capacity by using a peptide-based cultured interferon-? ELISPOT assay. Standard and cultured ELISPOT responses to overlapping peptide pools (15-mers overlapping by 11 amino acids) covering the lytic (BZLF1 and BMRF1) and latent (EBNA1, EBNA3a, EBNA3b, EBNA3c, LMP1 and LMP2) EBV proteins were evaluated in 20 healthy subjects with remote EBV infection and, for comparison, in four solid organ transplant recipients. Cultured ELISPOT responses to both lytic and latent EBV antigens were significantly higher than standard ELISPOT responses. The distribution of EBV-specific T-cell responses detected in healthy virus carriers showed more consistent cultured ELISPOT responses compared with standard ELISPOT responses. T-cell responses quantified by cultured ELISPOT were mainly mediated by CD4+ T cells and a marked pattern of immunodominance to latent-phase antigens (EBNA1 > EBNA3 family antigens > LMP2 > LMP1) was shown. Both the magnitude and distribution of EBV-specific T-cell responses were altered in solid organ transplant recipients; in particular, cultured ELISPOT responses were almost undetectable in a lung-transplanted patient with EBV-associated diseases. Analysis of T-cell responses to EBV by ELISPOT assays might provide new insights into the pathogenesis of EBV-related diseases and serve as new tools in the monitoring of EBV infection in immunocompromised patients. PMID:23560877

  19. Time-lapse imaging assay using the BioStation CT: A sensitive drug-screening method for three-dimensional cell culture.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Ruriko; Rahman, M Mamunur; Shimomura, Manami; Itoh, Manabu; Nakatsura, Tetsuya

    2015-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is beneficial for physiological studies of tumor cells, due to its potential to deliver a high quantity of cell culture information that is representative of the cancer microenvironment and predictive of drug responses in vivo. Currently, gel-associated or matrix-associated 3D cell culture is comprised of intricate procedures that often result in experimental complexity. Therefore, we developed an innovative anti-cancer drug sensitivity screening technique for 3D cell culture on NanoCulture Plates (NCP) by employing the imaging device BioStation CT. Here, we showed that the human breast cancer cell lines BT474 and T47D form multicellular spheroids on NCP plates and compared their sensitivity to the anti-cancer drugs trastuzumab and paclitaxel using the BioStation CT. The anticancer drugs reduced spheroid migration velocity and suppressed spheroid fusion. In addition, primary cells derived from the human breast cancer tissues B58 and B61 grown on NCP plates also exhibited similar drug sensitivity. These results were in good agreement with the conventional assay method using ATP quantification. We confirmed the antitumor effects of the drugs on cells seeded in 96-well plates using the BioStation CT imaging technique. We expect this method to be useful in research for new antitumor agents and for drug sensitivity tests in individually-tailored cancer treatments. PMID:25865675

  20. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric assays for salinomycin in mouse plasma, liver, brain and small intestinal contents and in OptiMEM cell culture medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf W. Sparidans; Jurjen S. Lagas; Afred H. Schinkel; Jan H. M. Schellens; Jos H. Beijnen

    2007-01-01

    Fast and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric assays for the determination of salinomycin in mouse plasma, liver, brain and small intestinal contents and in OptiMEM cell culture medium, were developed and validated using simple sample pre-treatment procedures. Tissue samples were homogenized with phosphate buffered saline or, for high levels in liver, with human plasma. After addition of monensin as the

  1. Comparison of rt pcr assay and virus isolation in cell cultures for the detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus ( bvdv) in field samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. I Laamanen; E. P Neuvonen; E. M Yliviuhkola; P. M.-L Veijalainen

    1997-01-01

    The virus isolation-immunoperoxidase test (ipx) on cell cultures and the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay were compared for the detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) directly in serum samples. Material for this study consisted of 403 sera originating from cattle in 41 bvdv-infected Finnish dairy herds and one suckler cow herd. The presence of virus was demonstrated in

  2. Covalent binding of the benzamide RH-4032 to tubulin in suspension-cultured tobacco cells and its application in a cell-based competitive-binding assay.

    PubMed

    Young, D H; Lewandowski, V T

    2000-09-01

    The benzamide, RH-4032, was found to be a potent antimicrotubule agent in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells. It strongly inhibited root growth and produced swollen club-shaped roots, an accumulation of cells in arrested metaphase, and loss of microtubules. RH-4032 inhibited the in vitro assembly of bovine tubulin into microtubules, with inhibition requiring a relatively long incubation period. Treatment of tobacco suspension-cultured cells or isolated bovine tubulin with [(14)C]RH-4032, and analysis of radiolabeled protein revealed a highly specific covalent attachment to beta-tubulin. Binding of [(3)H]RH-4032 in tobacco suspension-cultured cells was shown to be saturable and to be influenced by pre-incubation of the cells with various antimicrotubule agents: Binding of [(3)H]RH-4032 was inhibited by the benzamides, pronamide and zarilamide, the N-phenylcarbamate, chlorpropham, and the microtubule-stabilizing drug, paclitaxel, whereas trifluralin and amiprophosmethyl were not inhibitory. A common characteristic of agents that cause microtubule disassembly was a slight enhancement of [(3)H]RH-4032 binding at low concentrations, which did not occur with the microtubule-stabilizing agent paclitaxel. For structural analogs of RH-4032 and various N-phenylcarbamates, it was shown that the ability to inhibit binding of [(3)H]RH-4032 was correlated with the ability to inhibit tobacco root elongation. The results suggest a common binding site on beta-tubulin for RH-4032, pronamide, zarilamide, and chlorpropham, which is distinct from the binding site(s) for trifluralin and amiprophosmethyl. RH-4032 provides a unique approach to studying effects of antimicrotubule agents on plant cells by allowing competitive tubulin binding assays to be conducted in whole cells. PMID:10982427

  3. Ex vivo culture of CD34+/Lin-/DR- cells in stroma-derived soluble factors, interleukin-3, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha maintains not only myeloid but also lymphoid progenitors in a novel switch culture assay.

    PubMed

    Miller, J S; McCullar, V; Verfaillie, C M

    1998-06-15

    We have demonstrated that long-term culture initiating cells (LTC-IC) are maintained in a stroma noncontact (SNC) culture where progenitors are separated from stroma by a microporous membrane and LTC-IC can proliferate if the culture is supplemented with interleukin-3 (IL-3) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha). We hypothesize that the same conditions, which result in LTC-IC proliferation, may also maintain lymphoid progenitors. Natural killer (NK) cells are of lymphoid lineage and a stromal-based culture can induce CD34+/Lin-/DR- cells to differentiate along the NK cell lineage. We developed a three-step switch culture assay that was required to demonstrate the persistence of NK progenitors in CD34+/Lin-/DR- cells assayed in SNC cultures supplemented with IL-3 and MIP-1alpha. When CD34+/Lin-/DR- progeny from the SNC culture were plated sequentially into "NK cell progenitor switch" conditions (contact with stromal ligands, hydrocortisone-containing long-term culture medium, IL-2, IL-7, and stem cell factor [SCF]) followed by "NK cell differentiation" conditions (contact with stromal ligands, human serum, no hydrocortisone, and IL-2), significant numbers of CD56+/CD3- NK resulted, which exhibited cytotoxic activity against K562 targets. All steps are required because a switch from SNC cultures with IL-3 and MIP-1alpha directly to "NK cell differentiation" conditions failed to yield NK cells suggesting that critical step(s) in lymphoid commitment were missing. Additional experiments showed that CD34+/CD33- cells present after SNC cultures with IL-3 and MIP-1alpha, which contained up to 30% LTC-IC, are capable of NK outgrowth using the three-step switch culture. Limiting dilution analysis from these experiments showed a cloning frequency within the cultured CD34+/CD33- population similar to fresh sorted CD34+/Lin-/DR- cells. However, after addition of FLT-3 ligand, the frequency of primitive progenitors able to develop along the NK lineage increased 10-fold. In conclusion, culture of primitive adult marrow progenitors ex vivo in stroma-derived soluble factors, MIP-1alpha, and IL-3 maintains both very primitive myeloid (LTC-IC) and lymphoid (NK) progenitors and suggests that these conditions may support expansion of human hematopoietic stem cells. Addition of FLT-3 ligand to IL-2, IL-7 SCF, and stromal factors are important in early stages of NK development. PMID:9616147

  4. Development of a combined in vitro cell culture--quantitative PCR assay for evaluating the disinfection performance of pulsed light for treating the waterborne enteroparasite Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Mary; Stocca, Alessia; Rowan, Neil

    2014-09-01

    Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan parasite that is recognised as a frequent cause of water-borne disease in humans and animals. We report for the first time on the use of a combined in vitro HCT-8 cell culture-quantitative PCR assay for evaluating the efficacy of using pulsed UV light for treating G. lamblia parasites. Findings showed that current methods that are limited to using vital stains before and after cyst excystation are not appropriate for monitoring or evaluating cyst destruction post PUV-treatments. Use of the human ileocecal HCT-8 cell line was superior to that of the human colon Caco-2 cell line for in vitro culture and determining PUV sensitivity of treated cysts. G. lamblia cysts were also shown to be more resistant to PUV irradiation compared to treating similar numbers of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. These observations also show that the use of this HCT-8 cell culture assay may replace use of animal models for determining disinfection performances of PUV for treating both C. parvum and G. lamblia. PMID:24929148

  5. Relevance of Influenza A Virus Detection by PCR, Shell Vial Assay, and Tube Cell Culture to Rapid Reporting Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Zitterkopf, Nicole L.; Leekha, Surbhi; Espy, Mark J.; Wood, Christina M.; Sampathkumar, Priya; Smith, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    Influenza A virus was detected at higher rates and for more extended time periods with real-time PCR than with cell cultures. We show here that, using the theranostic approach, rapid viral detection and reporting can provide for early implementation and assessment of available antiviral therapy. PMID:16954274

  6. Comparison of a Ligase Chain Reaction-Based Assay and Cell Culture for Detection of Pharyngeal Carriage of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Andrew J.; Gilleran, Gerry; Eastick, Kirstine; Ross, Jonathan D. C.

    2000-01-01

    In 264 genitourinary medicine clinic attenders reporting recent fellatio, the prevalence of pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis determined by an expanded standard including cell culture and two in-house PCR tests was 1.5% in 194 women and zero in 70 men. The ligase chain reaction (Abbott LCx) had a specificity of 99.2% and a positive predictive value of 60%. PMID:10970416

  7. An assay combining cell culture with reverse transcriptase PCR to detect and determine the infectivity of waterborne Cryptosporidium parvum.

    PubMed Central

    Rochelle, P A; Ferguson, D M; Handojo, T J; De Leon, R; Stewart, M H; Wolfe, R L

    1997-01-01

    The presence of Cryptosporidium in drinking water supplies is a significant problem faced by the water industry. Although a variety of methods exist for the detection of waterborne oocysts, water utilities currently have no way of assessing the infectivity of detected oocysts and consequently are unable to accurately determine the risks posed to public health by waterborne Cryptosporidium. In this paper, the development of an infectivity assay for waterborne Cryptosporidium parvum is described. Oocysts were inoculated onto monolayers of Caco-2 cells and grown on microscope slides, and infections were detected by C. parvum specific reverse transcriptase PCR of extracted mRNA, targeting the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene. A single infectious oocyst was detected by this experimental procedure. The use of concentrated samples obtained from 250 liters of finished water had no observable effect on the integrity of cell monolayers or on the infectivity of oocysts seeded into the concentrate. Intracellular developmental stages of the parasite were also detected by using fluorescently labeled antibodies. One pair of PCR primers targeting the hsp70 gene was specific for C. parvum, while a second pair recognized all species of Cryptosporidium tested. The C. parvum-specific primers amplified DNA from 1 to 10 oocysts used to seed 65 to 100 liters of concentrated environmental water samples and were compatible with multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of C. parvum and Giardia lambia. This paper confirms the utility of PCR for the detection of waterborne C. parvum and, most importantly, demonstrates the potential of an in vitro infectivity assay. PMID:9143132

  8. Comparison of a frozen human foreskin fibroblast cell assay to an enzyme immunoassay and toxigenic culture for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile????

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, Alastair J.; Evans, Natalie E.; Williams, O. Martin; Spencer, Robert C.; Greenwood, Rosemary; Probert, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to validate the Hs27 ReadyCell assay (RCCNA) as an alternative CCNA method compared against a commonly used commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method and toxigenic culture (TC) reference standard. A total of 860 samples were identified from those submitted to the Health Protection Agency microbiology laboratories over a 30-week period. RCCNA performed much better than EIA when using TC as a gold standard, with sensitivities of 90.8% versus 78.6% and positive predictive value of 87.3% to 81.9%, respectively. The Hs27 Human Foreskin Fibroblast ReadyCells are an easy-to-use and a sensitive CCNA method for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile directly from stool. A turnaround time of up to 48 h for a negative result and possible need for repeat testing make it an unsuitable method to be used in most clinical laboratory setting. PMID:23107315

  9. Comparison of a frozen human foreskin fibroblast cell assay to an enzyme immunoassay and toxigenic culture for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Alastair J; Evans, Natalie E; Williams, O Martin; Spencer, Robert C; Greenwood, Rosemary; Probert, Chris J

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to validate the Hs27 ReadyCell assay (RCCNA) as an alternative CCNA method compared against a commonly used commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method and toxigenic culture (TC) reference standard. A total of 860 samples were identified from those submitted to the Health Protection Agency microbiology laboratories over a 30-week period. RCCNA performed much better than EIA when using TC as a gold standard, with sensitivities of 90.8% versus 78.6% and positive predictive value of 87.3% to 81.9%, respectively. The Hs27 Human Foreskin Fibroblast ReadyCells are an easy-to-use and a sensitive CCNA method for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile directly from stool. A turnaround time of up to 48 h for a negative result and possible need for repeat testing make it an unsuitable method to be used in most clinical laboratory setting. PMID:23107315

  10. Identification of Candidate Agents Active against N. ceranae Infection in Honey Bees: Establishment of a Medium Throughput Screening Assay Based on N. ceranae Infected Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Many flowering plants in both natural ecosytems and agriculture are dependent on insect pollination for fruit set and seed production. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees are key pollinators providing this indispensable eco- and agrosystem service. Like all other organisms, bees are attacked by numerous pathogens and parasites. Nosema apis is a honey bee pathogenic microsporidium which is widely distributed in honey bee populations without causing much harm. Its congener Nosema ceranae was originally described as pathogen of the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) but jumped host from A. cerana to A. mellifera about 20 years ago and spilled over from A. mellifera to Bombus spp. quite recently. N. ceranae is now considered a deadly emerging parasite of both Western honey bees and bumblebees. Hence, novel and sustainable treatment strategies against N. ceranae are urgently needed to protect honey and wild bees. We here present the development of an in vitro medium throughput screening assay for the identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infections. This novel assay is based on our recently developed cell culture model for N. ceranae and coupled with an RT-PCR-ELISA protocol for quantification of N. ceranae in infected cells. The assay has been adapted to the 96-well microplate format to allow automated analysis. Several substances with known (fumagillin) or presumed (surfactin) or no (paromomycin) activity against N. ceranae were tested as well as substances for which no data concerning N. ceranae inhibition existed. While fumagillin and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole) totally inhibited N. ceranae proliferation, all other test substances were inactive. In summary, the assay proved suitable for substance screening and demonstrated the activity of two synthetic antibiotics against N. ceranae. PMID:25658121

  11. Identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infection in honey bees: establishment of a medium throughput screening assay based on N. ceranae infected cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Many flowering plants in both natural ecosytems and agriculture are dependent on insect pollination for fruit set and seed production. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees are key pollinators providing this indispensable eco- and agrosystem service. Like all other organisms, bees are attacked by numerous pathogens and parasites. Nosema apis is a honey bee pathogenic microsporidium which is widely distributed in honey bee populations without causing much harm. Its congener Nosema ceranae was originally described as pathogen of the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) but jumped host from A. cerana to A. mellifera about 20 years ago and spilled over from A. mellifera to Bombus spp. quite recently. N. ceranae is now considered a deadly emerging parasite of both Western honey bees and bumblebees. Hence, novel and sustainable treatment strategies against N. ceranae are urgently needed to protect honey and wild bees. We here present the development of an in vitro medium throughput screening assay for the identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infections. This novel assay is based on our recently developed cell culture model for N. ceranae and coupled with an RT-PCR-ELISA protocol for quantification of N. ceranae in infected cells. The assay has been adapted to the 96-well microplate format to allow automated analysis. Several substances with known (fumagillin) or presumed (surfactin) or no (paromomycin) activity against N. ceranae were tested as well as substances for which no data concerning N. ceranae inhibition existed. While fumagillin and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole) totally inhibited N. ceranae proliferation, all other test substances were inactive. In summary, the assay proved suitable for substance screening and demonstrated the activity of two synthetic antibiotics against N. ceranae. PMID:25658121

  12. Investigation of multidrug resistance in cultured human renal cell carcinoma cells by 31 P-NMR spectroscopy and treatment survival assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. W. Lutz; S. E. Franks; M. H. Frank; S. Pomer; W. E. Hull

    2005-01-01

    KTCTL-26 and KTCTL-2 are renal cell carcinoma (RCC) lines with high and lowexpression of P-170 glycoprotein, respectively. Inherent differences between the two cell lines in terms of phosphate metabolites and growth characteristics in culture were examined for possible association with multidrug resistance (MDR). Differences in response to drug treatment were investigated for 40 h incubations with various doses of vinblastine

  13. Detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile: comparison of the cell culture neutralization, Xpert C. difficile, Xpert C. difficile/Epi, and Illumigene C. difficile assays.

    PubMed

    Pancholi, P; Kelly, C; Raczkowski, M; Balada-Llasat, J M

    2012-04-01

    Clostridium difficile is the most important cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Several laboratory techniques are available to detect C. difficile toxins or the genes that encode them in fecal samples. We evaluated the Xpert C. difficile and Xpert C. difficile/Epi (Cepheid, CA) that detect the toxin B gene (tcdB) and tcdB, cdt, and a deletion in tcdC associated with the 027/NAP1/BI strain, respectively, by real-time PCR, and the Illumigene C. difficile (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.) that detects the toxin A gene (tcdA) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification in stool specimens. Toxigenic culture was used as the reference method for discrepant stool specimens. Two hundred prospective and fifty retrospective diarrheal stool specimens were tested simultaneously by the cell cytotoxin neutralization assay (CCNA) and the Xpert C. difficile, Xpert C. difficile/Epi, and Illumigene C. difficile assays. Of the 200 prospective stools tested, 10.5% (n = 23) were determined to be positive by CCNA, 17.5% (n = 35) were determined to be positive by Illumigene C. difficile, and 21.5% (n = 43) were determined to be positive by Xpert C. difficile and Xpert C. difficile/Epi. Of the 50 retrospective stools, previously determined to be positive by CCNA, 94% (n = 47) were determined to be positive by Illumigene C. difficile and 100% (n = 50) were determined to be positive by Xpert C. difficile and Xpert C. difficile/Epi. Of the 11 discrepant results (i.e., negative by Illumigene C. difficile but positive by Xpert C. difficile and Xpert C. difficile/Epi), all were determined to be positive by the toxigenic culture. A total of 21% of the isolates were presumptively identified by the Xpert C. difficile/Epi as the 027/NAP1/BI strain. The Xpert C. difficile and Xpert C. difficile/Epi assays were the most sensitive, rapid, and easy-to use assays for the detection of toxigenic C. difficile in stool specimens. PMID:22278839

  14. Clonogenic assay of endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Haruchika; Asahara, Takayuki

    2013-05-01

    In stem cell biology, CD34+ or CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to two types of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) colonies: primitive and definitive EPC-colony forming units (primitive EPC-CFU and definitive EPC-CFU), which can be morphologically defined. Based on their morphology, an evaluation of the number or the ratio of each EPC colony constitutes the Endothelial Progenitor Cell Clonogenic Forming Assay (EPC-CFA), a novel assay to quantify the differentiation of colony forming EPCs. This assay system allows us to practically evaluate the vasculogenic potential of primary or cultured stem cell populations, i.e., mononuclear cells or fractionated stem cells (CD34+ or CD133+ cells) in peripheral blood, bone marrow, or umbilical cord blood. EPC-CFA can be used not only for basic research in vascular biology but also for evaluating the vascular reparative activity of patients with cardiovascular diseases. This review summarizes the underlying concepts and significance of the EPC-CFA in vascular biology. PMID:23375595

  15. Insect Cell Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oers van M. M; D. E. Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from lepidopteran insects around 1960. Since then, more than 600 insect cell lines have been described from over 100

  16. Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Charles L. (Downers Grove, IL); Thilly, William G. (Winchester, MA)

    1985-01-01

    A line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity) is disclosed. Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. Mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics, are also disclosed.

  17. A novel sensitive assay to define immune status using short-term peripheral blood derived cell culture and dual-color flow cytometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davide Zella; Agostino Riva; Frank F Weichold; Marvin S Reitz Jr; Giuseppe Gerna

    1998-01-01

    In this study we describe a novel and highly sensitive in vitro system to determine the functionality of immune cells based on short term culture of peripheral blood derived mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and subsequent analysis of cellular proliferation and surface marker expression by automated dual-color flow cytometry. The standardized mild stimuli introduced into the culture system by supplemented medium (containing

  18. Time-Resolved Cell Culture Assay Analyser (TReCCA Analyser) for the Analysis of On-Line Data: Data Integration—Sensor Correction—Time-Resolved IC50 Determination

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Tobias; Wölfl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Time-resolved cell culture assays circumvent the need to set arbitrary end-points and reveal the dynamics of quality controlled experiments. However, they lead to the generation of large data sets, which can represent a complexity barrier to their use. We therefore developed the Time-Resolved Cell Culture Assay (TReCCA) Analyser program to perform standard cell assay analyses efficiently and make sophisticated in-depth analyses easily available. The functions of the program include data normalising and averaging, as well as smoothing and slope calculation, pin-pointing exact change time points. A time-resolved IC50/EC50 calculation provides a better understanding of drug toxicity over time and a more accurate drug to drug comparison. Finally the logarithmic sensor recalibration function, for sensors with an exponential calibration curve, homogenises the sensor output and enables the detection of low-scale changes. To illustrate the capabilities of the TReCCA Analyser, we performed on-line monitoring of dissolved oxygen in the culture media of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 treated with different concentrations of the anti-cancer drug Cisplatin. The TReCCA Analyser is freely available at www.uni-heidelberg.de/fakultaeten/biowissenschaften/ipmb/biologie/woelfl/Research.html. By introducing the program, we hope to encourage more systematic use of time-resolved assays and lead researchers to fully exploit their data. PMID:26110644

  19. Fine-tuning of a three-dimensional microcarrier-based angiogenesis assay for the analysis of endothelial-mesenchymal cell co-cultures in fibrin and collagen gels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franziska Dietrich; Peter I. Lelkes

    2006-01-01

    A prerequisite for successful tissue engineering is the existence of a functional microvascular network. We hypothesized that such networks can be created and quantified in an in vitro setting by co-culturing endothelial cells (ECs) with tissue-specific ‘bystander cells’ in 3-D gel matrices. To test this hypothesis we adapted a previously described in vitro microcarrier-based angiogenesis assay (V. Nehls and D.

  20. 21 CFR 866.2350 - Microbiological assay culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2350 Microbiological assay culture medium. (a) Identification....

  1. 21 CFR 866.2350 - Microbiological assay culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2350 Microbiological assay culture medium. (a) Identification....

  2. Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, C.L.; Thilly, W.G.

    1999-08-10

    The present invention pertains to a line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity). Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. The invention also includes mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics. 3 figs.

  3. Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Charles L. (Marblehead, MA); Thilly, William G. (Winchester, MA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity). Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. The invention also includes mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics.

  4. Nerve Growth Factor Receptors on Cultured Rat Schwann Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter S. DiStefano; Eugene M. Johnson

    1988-01-01

    Neonatal rat Schwann ceils were grown in tissue culture and assayed for NGF receptors with time in culture. NGF receptor levels on freshly prepared Schwann cells (day 0) were low but increased dramatically during the first week in culture. Characterization of 1a51-NGF binding to resuspended cells grown for 4 d in culture revealed that binding was not sat- urable at

  5. Mammalian Cell Culture Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

    1991-01-01

    A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)

  6. Comparison of SmartCycler real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay in a public health laboratory with direct immunofluorescence and cell culture assays in a medical center for detection of influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Habib-Bein, Nadia F; Beckwith, William H; Mayo, Donald; Landry, Marie L

    2003-08-01

    A single-tube real-time (fluorogenic) reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with the SmartCycler instrument (SmartCycler RT-PCR) for influenza A virus detection was evaluated with 238 respiratory specimens. Direct immunofluorescence antibody staining (DFA) and primary rhesus monkey kidney cell culture were performed on-site at Yale-New Haven Hospital. Specimens were transported to the Connecticut Department of Public Health Laboratory for real-time RT-PCR. Cell culture detected influenza A virus in all 150 influenza A virus-positive specimens, DFA detected the virus in 148 influenza A virus-positive specimens, and SmartCycler RT-PCR detected the virus 143 influenza A virus-positive specimens. The sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR were 95.3 and 100%, respectively. The high sensitivity and specificity and the rapid turnaround time made the SmartCycler RT-PCR valuable for the rapid diagnosis of influenza A, especially in a public health laboratory. The closed real-time RT-PCR system avoided cross-contamination possible with RT-PCR and the excessive manipulations required for conventional RT-PCR analysis and saved time and labor as well. In a medical center, rapid diagnosis by DFA was labor intensive but was 98.7% sensitive and 100% specific compared to the results of culture and provided results within 2 h throughout operating hours, helping with bed allocation on admission and patient management. PMID:12904361

  7. A new Schizosaccharomyces pombe chronological lifespan assay reveals that caloric restriction promotes efficient cell cycle exit and extends longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo-Ruei Chen; Kurt W. Runge

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new chronological lifespan (CLS) assay for the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Yeast CLS assays monitor the loss of cell viability in a culture over time, and this new assay shows a continuous decline in viability without detectable regrowth until all cells in the culture are dead. Thus, the survival curve is not altered by the generation of mutants

  8. Fluorescence Assay 2. http://www.tgrbio.com/cancer-cell-lines-primary-cell-

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Fluorescence Assay References 1. 2. http://www.tgrbio.com/cancer-cell-lines-primary-cell- cultures-therapies in cancer patients. This makes the study of both agonist and antagonist ligands important as the knowledge kidney cells (HEK-293) using cDNA prepared from plasmid cDNA expressed in E.coli The pcDNA then underwent

  9. Optimization of NRU assay in primary cultures of Eisenia fetida for metal toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Irizar, Amaia; Duarte, Daniel; Guilhermino, Lucia; Marigómez, Ionan; Soto, Manu

    2014-09-01

    Coelomocytes, immunocompetent cells of lumbricids, have received special attention for ecotoxicological studies due to their sensibility to pollutants. Their in vitro responses are commonly quantified after in vivo exposure to real or spiked soils. Alternatively, quantifications of in vitro responses after in vitro exposure are being studied. Within this framework, the present study aimed at optimizing the neutral red uptake (NRU) assay in primary culture of Eisenia fetida coelomocytes for its application in soil toxicity testing. Optimized assay conditions were: earthworm depuration for 24 h before retrieving coelomocytes by electric extrusion; 2 × 10(5) seeded cells/well (200 µl) for the NRU assay and incubation for 1 h with neutral red dye. Supplementation of the culture medium with serum was not compatible with the NRU assay, but coelomocytes could be maintained with high viability for 3 days in a serum-free medium without replenishment. Thus, primary cultures were used for 24 h in vitro toxicity testing after exposure to different concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb (ranging from 0.1 to 100 ?g/ml). Primary cultures were sensitive to metals, the viability declining in a dose-dependent manner. The toxicity rank was, from high to low, Pb > Ni > Cd > Cu. Therefore, it can be concluded that the NRU assay in coelomocytes in primary cultures provides a sensitive and prompt response after in vitro exposure to metals. PMID:25011921

  10. Rapidly derived colorectal cancer cultures recapitulate parental cancer characteristics and enable personalized therapeutic assays.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Neil; Jones, Matthew; Ouaret, Djamila; Wilding, Jenny; Bodmer, Walter F

    2014-09-01

    We have developed a simple procedure for deriving pure cultures of growing cancer cells from colorectal cancers, including material refrigerated overnight, for pathological characterization and cytotoxicity assays. Forty-six cancers were processed and cultures set up under varying culture conditions. Use of a Rho kinase (ROCK1) inhibitor markedly increased culture survival, resulting in 80% of samples growing in culture for at least 1 month and beyond. Overnight refrigeration of samples before culture initiation had little effect on success rates, paving the way for cultures to be established for samples collected over wide geographical areas, such as those for clinical trials. Primary cultures demonstrated good correlation for differentiation markers compared to parent cancers, and were highly dynamic in 3D culture. In Matrigel, many colonies formed central lumens, indicating the presence of stem-like cells. Viable colonies in these cultures recapitulated the in vivo generation of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-positive necrotic/apoptotic debris, much of which was derived from abnormal vacuolated dynamic 'bubble cells' that have not previously been described. Although bubble cells morphologically resembled signet ring cells, a rare cancer subtype, immunostaining suggested that they were most likely derived from terminally differentiated enterocytes. Micro-assays showed that drug toxicity could be measured in these cultures within hours and with sensitivity down to a few hundred cells. Primary cultures derived by our method provide valid in vitro avatars for studying the pathology of cancers in vitro and are amenable to pre-clinical drug testing, paving the way for personalized cancer treatment. PMID:24797403

  11. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, T P; Bickham, U; Bayne, C J

    2013-06-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

  12. Fluorometric assay for red blood cell antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, A.B.; Lambermont, M.; Strosberg, A.D.; Wybran, J.

    1981-03-01

    A fluorometric assay is described for the detection of red blood cell antibodies. The assay reveals as little as 600 molecules of bound, fluoroesceinated rabbit anti-human IgG antibodies per erythrocyte. Eleven patients with possible autoimmune erythrocyte disorder and negative direct antiglobulin test were studied by the fluorometric assay. The outcome of the fluorometric assay was compared with that of the human allogeneic rosette test. Results obtained by the two methods were in complete agreement. Five of the patients were shown to possess unexpectedly high levels of erythrocyte-bound IgG in spite of a negative, direct antiglobulin test. These findings and the validity of the fluorometric assay are discussed.

  13. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  14. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc. has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc. is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  15. Assaying Cell Cycle Status Using Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang Ho; Sederstrom, Joel M

    2015-01-01

    In this unit, two protocols are described for analyzing cell cycle status using flow cytometry. The first is based on the simultaneous analysis of proliferation-specific marker (Ki-67) and cellular DNA content, which discriminate resting/quiescent cell populations (G0 cell) and quantify cell cycle distribution (G1, S, or G2/M), respectively. The second is based on differential staining of DNA and RNA through co-staining of Hoechst 33342 and Pyronin Y, which is also useful to identify G0 cells from G1 cells. Along with these methods for analyzing cell cycle status, two additional methods for cell proliferation assays with recent updates of newly developed fluorophores, which allow multiplex analysis of cell cycle status, cell proliferation, and a gene of interest using flow cytometry, are outlined. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26131851

  16. Perfusion Based Cell Culture Chips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Heiskanen; J. Emnéus; M. Dufva

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Performing cell culture in miniaturized perfusion chambers gives possibilities to experiment with cells under near in vivo like conditions. In contrast to traditional batch cultures, miniaturized perfusion systems provide precise control of medium\\u000a composition, long term unattended cultures and tissue like structuring of the cultures. However, as this chapter illustrates,\\u000a many issues remain to be identified regarding perfusion cell culture

  17. Multinucleated giant cells from fibroblast cultures

    PubMed Central

    Holt, DJ; Grainger, DW

    2011-01-01

    Many multinucleated giant cells are well-known to form from macrophage origin. Those formed from other cell types are less described, but may be as prevalent in pathological tissue. Giant multinucleated cells derived from secondary and primary fibroblast sources in various cultures with similar characteristics to foreign body giant cells are reported. Secondary-transformed NIH 3T3 fibroblasts rapidly fuse within 24 hours in contact co-cultures with RAW 264.7 immortalized macrophages, while 3T3 mono-cultures, non-contact (transwell) co-cultures, and macrophage-conditioned media-treated 3T3 mono-cultures all do not fuse. Primary-derived murine fibroblasts also form multinucleated cells, both in the presence or absence of co-cultured macrophages that increase during long-term culture (5–30 days). In contrast to 3T3 fusion, this primary cell phenomenon is not due to fibroblast fusion, but rather to nuclear division without cytokinesis. That these multinucleated fibroblasts can originate via different mechanisms may influence and distinguish their behaviors in conditions under which they may arise, including various in vitro culture assays, and in certain fibroblastic pathologies such as the foreign body response, fibrosis, cancer and aged tissue. PMID:21397323

  18. Measurement of reactive oxygen species in the culture media using Acridan Lumigen PS-3 assay.

    PubMed

    Uy, Benedict; McGlashan, Susan R; Shaikh, Shamim B

    2011-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated continuously during aerobic metabolism. ROS are highly reactive molecules and in excessive amounts, can lead to protein and DNA oxidation, protein cross-linking, and cell death. Cell-culture models provide a valuable tool in understanding the mechanisms that lead to cell death. Accumulation of ROS within cells and/or their release into the culture media are highly cell type-specific. The ability to estimate ROS levels in the culture media is an important step in understanding the mechanisms contributing to disease processes. In this paper, we describe the optimization of a simple method to estimate ROS levels in the culture media using the Acridan Lumigen PS-3 reagent provided in the Amersham ECL Plus kit (GE Healthcare, UK). We have shown that the Acridan Lumigen PS-3 assay generates ROS-specific chemiluminescence in fresh as well as media stored at -20°C, in as little as 10-20 ?l of samples. The method was able to detect the dose (of stimulants)- and time (acute and chronic)-dependent changes in ROS levels in media collected from various cell types. Our results suggest that the kit reagents, PBS buffer, and various media did not contribute significantly to the overall chemiluminescence generated in the assay; however, we suggest that the unused medium specific for each cell type should be used as blanks and final readings of test samples normalized against these readings. As this method uses commonly available laboratory equipment and commercially available reagents, we believe this assay is convenient, economical, and specific in estimating ROS released extracellularly into the culture media. PMID:21966257

  19. Polyester ?-assay chip for stem cell studies

    PubMed Central

    Piraino, Francesco; Selimovi?, Šeila; Adamo, Marco; Pero, Alessandro; Manoucheri, Sam; Bok Kim, Sang; Demarchi, Danilo; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The application of microfluidic technologies to stem cell research is of great interest to biologists and bioengineers. This is chiefly due to the intricate ability to control the cellular environment, the reduction of reagent volume, experimentation time and cost, and the high-throughput screening capabilities of microscale devices. Despite this importance, a simple-to-use microfluidic platform for studying the effects of growth factors on stem cell differentiation has not yet emerged. With this consideration, we have designed and characterized a microfluidic device that is easy to fabricate and operate, yet contains several functional elements. Our device is a simple polyester-based microfluidic chip capable of simultaneously screening multiple independent stem cell culture conditions. Generated by laser ablation and stacking of multiple layers of polyester film, this device integrates a 10?×?10 microwell array for cell culture with a continuous perfusion system and a non-linear concentration gradient generator. We performed numerical calculations to predict the gradient formation and calculate the shear stress acting on the cells inside the device. The device operation was validated by culturing murine embryonic stem cells inside the microwells for 5 days. Furthermore, we showed the ability to maintain the pluripotency of stem cell aggregates in response to concentrations of leukemia inhibitory factor ranging from 0 to ?1000 U/ml. Given its simplicity, fast manufacturing method, scalability, and the cell-compatible nature of the device, it may be a useful platform for long-term stem cell culture and studies. PMID:24278097

  20. Application of long-term cultured interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay for assessing effector and memory T cell responses in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effector and memory T cells are generated through developmental programing of naïve cells following antigen recognition. If the infection is controlled, up to 95% of the T cells generated during the expansion phase are eliminated (i.e., contraction phase) and memory T cells remain, sometimes for a l...

  1. Miniaturized Systems for Cell-based Assays

    PubMed Central

    Zieziulewicz, T.; Rice, J.; Cady, N.; Lynes, M.; Lawrence, D.

    2010-01-01

    s3-2 Flow cytometry can immunophenotype cells and assess expression of a limited number of molecules/cell, and the Biacore and Flexchip systems can quantify protein-protein or protein-oligonucleotide interactions. However, there are currently few systems that can quantify cell function in a microfluidic system that is combined with multiplexed analyte measurements. A novel technology capable of assaying different structural and functional characteristics of cells, using blood leukocytes as a prototype cell population, will be described. This chip-based system for functional and phenotypic cell analysis that is based on surface plasmon enhanced plasmonics. Since this microchip assay system is miniaturized, small volumes of blood and minimal amounts of reagents are consumed in the analyses. In this system, multiple different leukocyte subpopulations can be individually captured by antibodies or by MHC/peptide conjugates on a single sensor chip surface. The functional activities of these captured cells can be quantified in real-time by SPEF measurements of cytokines and other secreted proteins. This system also can be adapted to sort cells followed by characterization, which is suggested to be useful for circulating tumor cell assessment. Modifications of this system that incorporating an microcapillary system for chemotaxis also will be described. There is potential for these multiplexed microarray systems in the analysis of biomarker disease signatures, the potential for prognosis of disease processes, and the consequences of disease manipulation.

  2. Semi-quantitative assay for polyketide prymnesins isolated from Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyta) cultures.

    PubMed

    La Claire, J W; Manning, S R; Talarski, A E

    2015-08-01

    A fluorometric assay was developed to semi-quantify co-purified polyketide prymnesins-1 and -2 (PPs) from Prymnesium parvum cultures. Evaluations performed throughout the growth cycle of 5 practical salinity unit (PSU) cultures detected relatively 8-10 × more PPs in the culture medium (exotoxins) than in cells (endotoxins). The [exotoxin] remained stable and relatively low until post-log growth, when they increased significantly. However, on a per-cell basis, [exotoxin] declined throughout log phase and subsequently increased dramatically during late- and post-log phases. The [endotoxin] remained stable until late- and post-log phases, when it achieved its highest level before declining sharply. Shaking cultures of strains from Texas, South Carolina and the United Kingdom displayed dramatically different [exotoxin] during post-log decline. Cultures adapted to 30 PSU had significantly lower [exotoxin] over the course of cultivation than those grown at 5 PSU. Phosphate limitation enhanced [exotoxin] on a per-cell basis, especially in late- and post-log cultures. Media containing streptomycin exhibited a ?20% increase in [exotoxin] in post-log cultures vs. control treatments, but it had only negligible effects on endotoxin levels. Brefeldin A had minimal effects on [exotoxin], suggesting that the presence of PPs in the medium may be largely derived from cell lysis or some other passive means. PMID:26079952

  3. Antibody secreting cell assay for influenza A virus in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ELISPOT assay to enumerate B-cells producing antibodies specific to a given antigen, also known as an antibody secreting cell (ASC) assay, was adapted to detect B-cells specific for influenza A virus (IAV). The assay is performed ex vivo and enumerates ASC at a single cell level. A simple ASC det...

  4. KERATINOCYTE CELL-MEDIATED MUTAGENESIS ASSAY: CORRELATION WITH IN VIVO TUMOR STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A murine keratinocyte cell-mediated mutagenesis assay was characterized and examined as an in vitro model system for studying the biotransformation of promutagens/procarcinogens by mouse skin. The assay used living cultured newborn SENCAR keratinocytes for the metabolic activatio...

  5. DETECTION AND TITRATION OF BLUETONGUE VIRUS IN CULICOIDES INSECT CELL CULTURE BY AN ANTIGEN-CAPTURE ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) infects sheep, cattle and other ruminants and is transmitted by Culicoides spp. of biting midges. Virus is typically isolated and characterized by infection of susceptible vertebrate cells that undergo detectable and measurable cytopathic effects. Cell lines derived from C. ...

  6. Cell culture's spider silk road.

    PubMed

    Perkel, Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    A number of synthetic and natural materials have been tried in cell culture and tissue engineering applications in recent years. Now Jeffrey Perkel takes a look at one new culture component that might surprise you-spider silk. PMID:24924388

  7. The morphologies of breast cancer cell lines in three-dimensional assays correlate with their profiles of gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paraic A. Kenny; Genee Y. Lee; Connie A. Myers; Richard M. Neve; Jeremy R. Semeiks; Paul T. Spellman; Katrin Lorenz; Eva H. Lee; Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff; Ole W. Petersen; Joe W. Gray; Mina J. Bissell

    2007-01-01

    3D cell cultures are rapidly becoming the method of choice for the physiologically relevant modeling of many aspects of non-malignant and malignant cell behavior ex vivo. Nevertheless, only a limited number of distinct cell types have been evaluated in this assay to date. Here we report the first large scale comparison of the transcriptional profiles and 3D cell culture phenotypes

  8. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section...Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used...

  9. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section...Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section...Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used...

  11. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section...Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used...

  12. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section...Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used...

  13. Ureaplasma infection of cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Kotani, H; McGarrity, G J

    1986-01-01

    Studies were performed to characterize the effects of ureaplasmas in HeLa, 3T6, and CV-1 cell cultures. The ureaplasmas studied were human Ureaplasma urealyticum T960 (serotype VIII), bovine U. diversum T95, simian strain T167-2, ovine strain 1202, canine strain D1M-C, and feline strains 382 and FT2-B. FT2-B was the only ureaplasma to grow in the cell free culture medium, Dulbecco modified Eagle-Earle medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. The growth pattern of the ureaplasmas varied in the different cell cultures, but each strain grew in at least two of the cell cultures, suggesting a requirement for a product of the cell culture and for low concentrations of urea. When growth occurred, organisms grew to concentrations that approached, but did not equal, those observed in 10B broth. Most, but not all, ureaplasmas grew quickly, reaching peak titers 2 days after infection. Canine strain D1M-C did not grow in 3T6, but showed rapid growth in HeLa and CV-1 cells, killing both cultures, In some systems, e.g., U. urealyticum T960 and simian strain T167-2, the infection persisted, and ureaplasmas could be recovered from cell cultures four passages after infection, when studies were terminated. The cell culture ureaplasmas grew on T agar, but not on mycoplasma agar medium. Images PMID:3699891

  14. [Xenotransplantation assay for cancer stem cells].

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Katsuto

    2015-05-01

    Immunodeficient mice are widely used to reconstitute human hematopoiesis by xenotransplantation of hematopoietic stem cells(HSCs). This humanized mouse model provides a powerful tool to evaluate biological properties of human HSCs in vivo. This systems have been used also to study human cancer stem cells. Currently, NOD -background immunodeficient strains are the most efficient to reconstitute human hematopoiesis in the mice, but even they are not enough for cancer stem cell assay. NOD strain has multiple immune deficiencies. For this reason, to improve and establish a new xenotransplantation model, lymphoid-depleted strains have been backcrossed into the NOD-inbred strain to introduce such numerous NOD-specific abnormalities. Our positional genetic study has located the NOD-specific polymorphic Sirpa as a molecular responsible for its high xenograft efficiency. We established B6-based immunodeficient strains harboring NOD-Sirpa (BRGS) which showed efficient human cell engraftment comparable to that of NOD -background strains. Consequently, BRGS mice are free from NOD-related abnormalities. This simplified strain should be useful in future xenotransplant study of cancer stem cells. PMID:25985627

  15. CYTOTOXICITY OF CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS TOWARDS HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS EVALUATED IN A CLONAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Survival of human bronchial epithelial cells after administration of four chemical carcinogens was measured in a clonal assay. Human bronchial epithelial cells were obtained from outgrowths of explanted tissue pieces. Serum-free medium was used for both explant culture and clonal...

  16. High density cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  17. A ring barrier-based migration assay to assess cell migration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Das, Asha M; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Ten Hagen, Timo L M

    2015-06-01

    Cell migration is a key feature of virtually every biological process, and it can be studied in a variety of ways. Here we outline a protocol for the in vitro study of cell migration using a ring barrier-based assay. A 'barrier' is inserted in the culture chamber, which prevents cells from entering a defined area. Cells of interest are seeded around this barrier, and after the formation of a peripheral monolayer the barrier is removed and migration into the cell-free area is monitored. This assay is highly reproducible and convenient to perform, and it allows the deduction of several parameters of migration, including total and effective migration, velocity and cell polarization. An advantage of this assay over the conventional scratch assay is that the cells move over an unaltered and virgin surface, and thus the effect of matrix components on cell migration can be studied. In addition, the cells are not harmed at the onset of the assay. Through computer automation, four individual barrier assays can be monitored at the same time. The procedure can be used in a 12-well standard plate allowing higher throughput, or it can be modified to perform invasion assays. The basic procedure takes 2-3 d to complete. PMID:25996790

  18. Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Inferences-from In Vivo Assays

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Inferences-from In Vivo Assays CONNIEEAVES,CINDYMILLER,JOHANNE CASHMAN Columbia, Canada Key Words.Hematopoietic stem cells Transplantation Cord blood. Expansion Growthfactors murine hematopoietic stem cells to be quantitated. Measurements of murine CRU have shown

  19. IRAG Working Group 3: Cell function-based assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Botham; R. Osborne; K. Atkinson; G. Carr; M. Cottin; R. G. Van Buskirk

    1997-01-01

    Cell function-based tests measure responses of cells at sublytic concentrations of test agents. The fluorescein leakage assay measures effects of substances on the barrier function of epithelial monolayers or multilayers (MDCK or NHEK cells) as in vitro models of corneal epithelial function. Two IRAG data submissions suggest that the fluorescein leakage assay shows promise as a screening test for surfactants

  20. The Molecular Bacterial Load Assay Replaces Solid Culture for Measuring Early Bactericidal Response to Antituberculosis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mtafya, Bariki; Phillips, Patrick P. J.; Hoelscher, Michael; Ntinginya, Elias N.; Kohlenberg, Anke; Rachow, Andrea; Rojas-Ponce, Gabriel; McHugh, Timothy D.; Heinrich, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the use of the molecular bacterial load (MBL) assay, for measuring viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum, in comparison with solid agar and liquid culture. The MBL assay provides early information on the rate of decline in bacterial load and has technical advantages over culture in either form. PMID:24871215

  1. Cell Migration and Invasion Assays as Tools for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Hulkower, Keren I.; Herber, Renee L.

    2011-01-01

    Cell migration and invasion are processes that offer rich targets for intervention in key physiologic and pathologic phenomena such as wound healing and cancer metastasis. With the advent of high-throughput and high content imaging systems, there has been a movement towards the use of physiologically relevant cell-based assays earlier in the testing paradigm. This allows more effective identification of lead compounds and recognition of undesirable effects sooner in the drug discovery screening process. This article will review the effective use of several principle formats for studying cell motility: scratch assays, transmembrane assays, microfluidic devices and cell exclusion zone assays. PMID:24310428

  2. The XTT Cell Proliferation Assay Applied to Cell Layers Embedded in Three-Dimensional Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Huyck, Lynn; Ampe, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cell proliferation, a main target in cancer therapy, is influenced by the surrounding three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM). In vitro drug screening is, thus, optimally performed under conditions in which cells are grown (embedded or trapped) in dense 3D matrices, as these most closely mimic the adhesive and mechanical properties of natural ECM. Measuring cell proliferation under these conditions is, however, technically more challenging compared with two-dimensional (2D) culture and other “3D culture conditions,” such as growth on top of a matrix (pseudo-3D) or in spongy scaffolds with large pore sizes. Consequently, such measurements are only slowly applied on a wider scale. To advance this, we report on the equal quality (dynamic range, background, linearity) of measuring the proliferation of cell layers embedded in dense 3D matrices (collagen, Matrigel) compared with cells in 2D culture using the easy (one-step) and in 2D well-validated, 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT)-assay. The comparison stresses the differences in proliferation kinetics and drug sensitivity of matrix-embedded cells versus 2D culture. Using the specific cell-layer-embedded 3D matrix setup, quantitative measurements of cell proliferation and cell invasion are shown to be possible in similar assay conditions, and cytostatic, cytotoxic, and anti-invasive drug effects can thus be reliably determined and compared in physiologically relevant settings. This approach in the 3D matrix holds promise for improving early-stage, high-throughput drug screening, targeting either highly invasive or highly proliferative subpopulations of cancers or both. PMID:22574651

  3. Multiwell cell culture plate format with integrated microfluidic perfusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domansky, Karel; Inman, Walker; Serdy, Jim; Griffith, Linda G.

    2006-01-01

    A new cell culture analog has been developed. It is based on the standard multiwell cell culture plate format but it provides perfused three-dimensional cell culture capability. The new capability is achieved by integrating microfluidic valves and pumps into the plate. The system provides a means to conduct high throughput assays for target validation and predictive toxicology in the drug discovery and development process. It can be also used for evaluation of long-term exposure to drugs or environmental agents or as a model to study viral hepatitis, cancer metastasis, and other diseases and pathological conditions.

  4. Shape memory polymers for active cell culture.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kevin A; Luo, Xiaofan; Mather, Patrick T; Henderson, James H

    2011-01-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of "smart" materials that have the ability to change from a fixed, temporary shape to a pre-determined permanent shape upon the application of a stimulus such as heat(1-5). In a typical shape memory cycle, the SMP is first deformed at an elevated temperature that is higher than its transition temperature, T(trans;) [either the melting temperature (T(m;)) or the glass transition temperature (T(g;))]. The deformation is elastic in nature and mainly leads to a reduction in conformational entropy of the constituent network chains (following the rubber elasticity theory). The deformed SMP is then cooled to a temperature below its T(trans;) while maintaining the external strain or stress constant. During cooling, the material transitions to a more rigid state (semi-crystalline or glassy), which kinetically traps or "freezes" the material in this low-entropy state leading to macroscopic shape fixing. Shape recovery is triggered by continuously heating the material through T(trans;) under a stress-free (unconstrained) condition. By allowing the network chains (with regained mobility) to relax to their thermodynamically favored, maximal-entropy state, the material changes from the temporary shape to the permanent shape. Cells are capable of surveying the mechanical properties of their surrounding environment(6). The mechanisms through which mechanical interactions between cells and their physical environment control cell behavior are areas of active research. Substrates of defined topography have emerged as powerful tools in the investigation of these mechanisms. Mesoscale, microscale, and nanoscale patterns of substrate topography have been shown to direct cell alignment, cell adhesion, and cell traction forces(7-14). These findings have underscored the potential for substrate topography to control and assay the mechanical interactions between cells and their physical environment during cell culture, but the substrates used to date have generally been passive and could not be programmed to change significantly during culture. This physical stasis has limited the potential of topographic substrates to control cells in culture. Here, active cell culture (ACC) SMP substrates are introduced that employ surface shape memory to provide programmed control of substrate topography and deformation. These substrates demonstrate the ability to transition from a temporary grooved topography to a second, nearly flat memorized topography. This change in topography can be used to control cell behavior under standard cell culture conditions. PMID:21750496

  5. Standardization of a micro-cytotoxicity assay for human natural killer cell lytic activity.

    PubMed

    Mariani, E; Monaco, M C; Sgobbi, S; de Zwart, J F; Mariani, A R; Facchini, A

    1994-06-24

    Cytotoxicity assays are widely used to evaluate the functional activity of NK and T cells against tumour target cells and the release of radioactive sodium chromate from labelled target cells is still the most commonly used marker of target lysis in culture supernatants. We describe here the standardization of a micro-cytotoxicity test in which the number of cytolytic effector and tumour target cells have been decreased by a factor of 10. The release obtained by 500 tumour target cells was compared with the release obtained by 5000 target cells in the standard cytotoxicity assay for target:effector cell ratios from 1:1 to 1:100. Both gamma and beta emissions of the 51Cr isotope were evaluated to determine the assay release. The results obtained by the micro-cytotoxicity assay (500 target cells) were comparable to those of the standard assay (5000 target cells) and 51Cr release evaluation using the gamma counter was the most sensitive method of determining lytic activity using 500 tumour target cells. beta counter evaluation using solid phase scintillation was found to be a reproducible alternative method, even if the lytic curves cannot be compared with those obtained using the traditional method. PMID:8034970

  6. Optimization and control of perfusion cultures using a viable cell probe and cell specific perfusion rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason E. Dowd; Anthea Jubb; K. Ezra Kwok; James M. Piret

    2003-01-01

    Consistent perfusion culture production requires reliable cell retention and control of feed rates. An on-line cell probe\\u000a based on capacitance was used to assay viable biomass concentrations. A constant cell specific perfusion rate controlled medium\\u000a feed rates with a bioreactor cell concentration of ?5 106 cells mL-1. Perfusion feeding was automatically adjusted based on the cell concentration signal from the

  7. Production of tropane alkaloids in cultured cells of Hyoscyamus niger.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Hashimoto, T

    1982-04-01

    Tests for calluses rich in tropane alkaloids were made with newly induced calluses of Atropa belladonna, Datura stramonium and Hyoscyamus niger. Only calluses of H. niger gave an alkaloid-positive test.A Hyoscyamus cell line had the highest total alkaloid content of all the calluses screened by the cell-squash alkaloid assay. Both hyoscyamine and scopolamine were identified in the cultured cells of this line by TLC, GLC and GC-MS. PMID:24259019

  8. Opsonophagocytic assay.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Markryan; Gadjeva, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    The opsonophagocytic killing (OPK) assay is used as a correlate for protection to measure the functional capacities of vaccine-candidate-raised antibodies. This in vitro assay aids selecting promising vaccines by demonstrating whether the vaccine-induced antibodies drive efficient complement deposition and subsequent opsonophagocytic killing. Here, we describe two protocols for an OPK assay using either human-derived PMNs or cultured HL-60 cells. PMID:24218277

  9. A microfluidic live cell assay to study anthrax toxin induced cell lethality assisted by conditioned medium.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Cai, Changzu; Yu, Zhilong; Pang, Yuhong; Zhou, Ying; Qian, Lili; Wei, Wensheng; Huang, Yanyi

    2015-01-01

    It is technically challenging to investigate the function of secreted protein in real time by supply of conditioned medium that contains secreted protein of interest. The internalization of anthrax toxin is facilitated by a secreted protein Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and its receptor, and eventually leads to cell lethality. To monitor the dynamic interplay between these components in live cells, we use an integrated microfluidic device to perform the cell viability assays with real-time controlled culture microenvironment in parallel. Conditioned medium, which contains the secreted proteins from specific cell lines, can be continuously pumped towards the cells that exposed to toxin. The exogenous DKK1 secreted from distant cells is able to rescue the sensitivity to toxin for those DKK1-knocked-down cells. This high-throughput assay allows us to precisely quantify the dynamic interaction between key components that cause cell death, and provide independent evidence of the function of DKK1 in the complex process of anthrax toxin internalization. PMID:25731605

  10. Three-dimensional in vitro assay of endothelial cell invasion and capillary tube morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    di Blasio, Laura; Bussolino, Federico; Primo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In vitro assays with endothelial cells (EC) cultured on three-dimensional gel recapitulate several aspects of vascular morphogenesis and pathological angiogenesis. The two most used in vitro assays of vascular morphogenesis are the tube formation on extracellular matrix gel and the sprouting from EC spheroids. Tube formation assay measures the ability of EC, plated on gel derived from reconstituted basement membrane, to form capillary-like structures. Sprouting assay is based on spheroids of EC, embedded in collagen gel and stimulated with angiogenic factors, which originate a complex network of capillary-like structures invading the gel. Both these assays can be exploited for antiangiogenic drug screening and gene function analysis during vascular morphogenesis. PMID:25468598

  11. An assay for screening microbial cultures for chalkophore production.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sukhwan; Kraemer, Stephan M; Dispirito, Alan A; Semrau, Jeremy D

    2010-04-01

    Methanotrophs, bacteria that utilize methane as their sole carbon and energy source, are known to have high requirements for copper. These bacteria have recently been found to synthesize a copper-chelating agent, or chalkophore, termed methanobactin. To aid in screening methanobactin production by methanotrophs, a plate assay developed from the chrome azurol S (CAS) assay for siderophore production, was modified. In the typical CAS assay, a colour change from blue to orange in iron-CAS plates is observed as iron (III) ion weakly bound to CAS is sequestered by siderophores with higher affinities. In our modified assay, iron (III) chloride of the original CAS solution was substituted with copper (II) chloride, and removal of copper from CAS caused a colour change from blue to yellow. Assay results indicated that of the four tested methanotrophs (Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, Methylococcus capsulatus Bath, Methylomicrobium album BG8 and Methylocystis parvus OBBP), only M. trichosporium OB3b, M. capsulatus Bath and M. album BG8 produced chalkophores capable of competing with CAS for copper, while M. parvus OBBP did not or did not export sufficient concentrations of methanobactin for detection by this assay. It was also found using Fe-CAS plates that at least M. trichosporium OB3b and M. album BG8 produce siderophores. These results may be expanded for the detection of chalkophores in other microorganisms as well as for screening of putative mutants of chalkophore synthesis. PMID:23766081

  12. Using a medium-throughput comet assay to evaluate the global DNA methylation status of single cells

    PubMed Central

    Lewies, Angélique; Van Dyk, Etresia; Wentzel, Johannes F.; Pretorius, Pieter J.

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a simple and cost effective technique, commonly used to analyze and quantify DNA damage in individual cells. The versatility of the comet assay allows introduction of various modifications to the basic technique. The difference in the methylation sensitivity of the isoschizomeric restriction enzymes HpaII and MspI are used to demonstrate the ability of the comet assay to measure the global DNA methylation level of individual cells when using cell cultures. In the experiments described here, a medium-throughput comet assay and methylation sensitive comet assay are combined to produce a methylation sensitive medium-throughput comet assay to measure changes in the global DNA methylation pattern in individual cells under various growth conditions. PMID:25071840

  13. Using a medium-throughput comet assay to evaluate the global DNA methylation status of single cells.

    PubMed

    Lewies, Angélique; Van Dyk, Etresia; Wentzel, Johannes F; Pretorius, Pieter J

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a simple and cost effective technique, commonly used to analyze and quantify DNA damage in individual cells. The versatility of the comet assay allows introduction of various modifications to the basic technique. The difference in the methylation sensitivity of the isoschizomeric restriction enzymes HpaII and MspI are used to demonstrate the ability of the comet assay to measure the global DNA methylation level of individual cells when using cell cultures. In the experiments described here, a medium-throughput comet assay and methylation sensitive comet assay are combined to produce a methylation sensitive medium-throughput comet assay to measure changes in the global DNA methylation pattern in individual cells under various growth conditions. PMID:25071840

  14. Reference cells and ploidy in the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Brunborg, Gunnar; Collins, Andrew; Graupner, Anne; Gutzkow, Kristine B; Olsen, Ann-Karin

    2015-01-01

    In the comet assay single cells are analyzed with respect to their level of DNA damage. Discrimination of the individual cell or cell type based on DNA content, with concomitant scoring of the DNA damage, is useful since this may allow analysis of mixtures of cells. Different cells can then be characterized based on their ploidy, cell cycle stage, or genome size. We here describe two applications of such a cell type-specific comet assay: (i) Testicular cell suspensions, analyzed on the basis of their ploidy during spermatogenesis; and (ii) reference cells in the form of fish erythrocytes which can be included as internal standards to correct for inter-assay variations. With standard fluorochromes used in the comet assay, the total staining signal from each cell - whether damaged or undamaged - was found to be associated with the cell's DNA content. Analysis of the fluorescence intensity of single cells is straightforward since these data are available in scoring systems based on image analysis. The analysis of testicular cell suspensions provides information on cell type specific composition, susceptibility to genotoxicants, and DNA repair. Internal reference cells, either untreated or carrying defined numbers of lesions induced by ionizing radiation, are useful for investigation of experimental factors that can cause variation in comet assay results, and for routine inclusion in experiments to facilitate standardization of methods, and comparison of comet assay data obtained in different experiments or in different laboratories. They can also be used - in combination with a reference curve - to quantify the DNA lesions induced by a certain treatment. Fish cells of a range of genome sizes, both greater and smaller than human, are suitable for this purpose, and they are inexpensive. PMID:25774164

  15. Radiation oncogenesis in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Borek, C.

    1982-01-01

    This review article examines the oncogenic effects of radiation with emphasis on ionizing radiations. Cell transformation in vitro is examined with respect to culture systems currently used in these studies, initiation and phenotypic expression of transformation and criteria for transformation. The section of radiation oncogenesis in vitro includes ionizing and nonionizing radiation studies and cocarcinogens and modulators of radiogenic transformations.

  16. Microfluidic Cell-Culture Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuyuki Sakai; Eric Leclerc; Teruo Fujii

    Microfluidics is the emerging technologies that could bring favorable features to tissue engineering applications. Fundamental\\u000a techniques to fabricated microfluidic cell-culture devices and experimental attempts towards in vitro liver tissue reconstitution\\u000a are presented for further discussion on the possible developments in the field of lab-on-a-chip for cellomics.

  17. Quantitative Analysis Reveals Expansion of Human Hematopoietic Repopulating Cells After Short-term Ex Vivo Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mickie Bhatia; Dominique Bonnet; Ursula Kapp; Jean C. Y. Wang; Barbara Murdoch; John E. Dick

    Summary Ex vivo culture of human hematopoietic cells is a crucial component of many therapeutic ap- plications. Although current culture conditions have been optimized using quantitative in vitro progenitor assays, knowledge of the conditions that permit maintenance of primitive human repopulating cells is lacking. We report that primitive human cells capable of repopulating nonobese diabetic (NOD)\\/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice

  18. Are in vitro estimates of cell diffusivity and cell proliferation rate sensitive to assay geometry?

    PubMed

    Treloar, Katrina K; Simpson, Matthew J; McElwain, D L Sean; Baker, Ruth E

    2014-09-01

    Cells respond to various biochemical and physical cues during wound-healing and tumour progression. in vitro assays used to study these processes are typically conducted in one particular geometry and it is unclear how the assay geometry affects the capacity of cell populations to spread, or whether the relevant mechanisms, such as cell motility and cell proliferation, are somehow sensitive to the geometry of the assay. In this work we use a circular barrier assay to characterise the spreading of cell populations in two different geometries. Assay 1 describes a tumour-like geometry where a cell population spreads outwards into an open space. Assay 2 describes a wound-like geometry where a cell population spreads inwards to close a void. We use a combination of discrete and continuum mathematical models and automated image processing methods to obtain independent estimates of the effective cell diffusivity, D, and the effective cell proliferation rate, ?. Using our parameterised mathematical model we confirm that our estimates of D and ? accurately predict the time-evolution of the location of the leading edge and the cell density profiles for both assay 1 and assay 2. Our work suggests that the effective cell diffusivity is up to 50% lower for assay 2 compared to assay 1, whereas the effective cell proliferation rate is up to 30% lower for assay 2 compared to assay 1. PMID:24787651

  19. Chick Heart Invasion Assay for Testing the Invasiveness of Cancer Cells and the Activity of Potentially Anti-invasive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Marc E; Roman, Bart I; Stevens, Christian V; Mus, Liselot M; Parmar, Virinder S; De Wever, Olivier; Mareel, Marc M

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the chick heart assay is to offer a relevant organ culture method to study tumor invasion in three dimensions. The assay can distinguish between invasive and non-invasive cells, and enables study of the effects of test compounds on tumor invasion. Cancer cells - either as aggregates or single cells - are confronted with fragments of embryonic chick heart. After organ culture in suspension for a few days or weeks the confronting cultures are fixed and embedded in paraffin for histological analysis. The three-dimensional interaction between the cancer cells and the normal tissue is then reconstructed from serial sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin or after immunohistochemical staining for epitopes in the heart tissue or the confronting cancer cells. The assay is consistent with the recent concept that cancer invasion is the result of molecular interactions between the cancer cells and their neighbouring stromal host elements (myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, extracellular matrix components, etc.). Here, this stromal environment is offered to the cancer cells as a living tissue fragment. Supporting aspects to the relevance of the assay are multiple. Invasion in the assay is in accordance with the criteria of cancer invasion: progressive occupation and replacement in time and space of the host tissue, and invasiveness and non-invasiveness in vivo of the confronting cells generally correlates with the outcome of the assay. Furthermore, the invasion pattern of cells in vivo, as defined by pathologists, is reflected in the histological images in the assay. Quantitative structure-activity relation (QSAR) analysis of the results obtained with numerous potentially anti-invasive organic congener compounds allowed the study of structure-activity relations for flavonoids and chalcones, and known anti-metastatic drugs used in the clinic (e.g., microtubule inhibitors) inhibit invasion in the assay as well. However, the assay does not take into account immunological contributions to cancer invasion. PMID:26131648

  20. Comet assay, cloning assay, and light and electron microscopy on one preselected cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Oehring, H.; Halbhuber, Karl-Juergen; Fiedler, Ursula; Bauer, Eckhard; Greulich, Karl O.

    1997-12-01

    In order to perform long-term studies up to one week on a preselected single cell after micromanipulation (e.g. UVA and NIR microbeam exposure) in comparison with non-treated neighbor cells (control cells) we applied a variety of single cell diagnostic techniques and developed a special comet assay for single preselected cells. For that purpose adherent cells were grown in low concentrations and maintained in special sterile centimeter-sized glass cell chambers. After preselection, a single cell was marked by means of diamond-produced circles on the outer cell chamber window. During exposure to microbeams, NADH-attributed autofluorescence of the chosen cell was detected by fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy. In addition, cell morphology was video-monitored (formation of pseudopodia, membrane blebbing,...). Maintaining the microchamber in the incubator, the irradiated cell was examined 24 h later for cell division (clone formation) and modifications in autofluorescence and morphology (including daughter cells). In the case that no division occurred the vitality of the light-exposed cell and of the control cells were probed by intranuclear propidium iodide accumulation. After fixation, either electron microscopy or single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was performed. To monitor comet formation indicating photoinduced DNA damage in the preselected single cell in comparison with the non-exposed neighbor cells the chamber was filled with low-melting gel and lysis solution and exposed to an electric field. In contrast to the conventional comet assay, where only randomly chosen cells of a suspension are investigated, the novel optimized electrophoresis technique should enhance the possibilities of DNA damage detection to a true single (preselected) cell level. The single cell techniques applied to UVA microexposed Chinese hamster ovary cells (364 nm, 1 mW, 3.5 W/cm2) revealed significant cell damage for J/cm2 fluences such as modifications of intracellular redox state, impaired cell division, formation of giant cells and cell shrinking, swelling of mitochondria and loss of cristae as well as DNA damage.

  1. Mammosphere culture of cancer stem cells in a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadin, Katayoon; White, Ian M.

    2012-03-01

    It is known that tumor-initiating cells with stem-like properties will form spherical colonies - termed mammospheres - when cultured in serum-free media on low-attachment substrates. Currently this assay is performed in commercially available 96-well trays with low-attachment surfaces. Here we report a novel microsystem that features on-chip mammosphere culture on low attachment surfaces. We have cultured mammospheres in this microsystem from well-studied human breast cancer cell lines. To enable the long-term culture of these unattached cells, we have integrated diffusion-based delivery columns that provide zero-convection delivery of reagents, such as fresh media, staining agents, or drugs. The multi-layer system consists of parallel cell-culture chambers on top of a low-attachment surface, connected vertically with a microfluidic reagent delivery layer. This design incorporates a reagent reservoir, which is necessary to reduce evaporation from the cell culture micro-chambers. The development of this microsystem will lead to the integration of mammosphere culture with other microfluidic functions, including circulating tumor cell recovery and high throughput drug screening. This will enable the cancer research community to achieve a much greater understanding of these tumor initiating cancer stem cells.

  2. Establishment of primary cell cultures: Experiences with 155 cell strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dietel; H. Arps; D. Gerding; M. Trapp; A. Niendorf

    1987-01-01

    Summary Cell culture systems allow the examination of cell populations in a functional state. To simulate in vivo conditions as closely as possible freshly established cell strains are superior to permanent cell lines. Different aspects for the establishment of primary cell cultures obtained from various tissues are compared: (1) Disintegration, (2) culture media supplemented with basal additions, (3) special supplements

  3. A novel in vitro survival assay of small intestinal stem cells after exposure to ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Motohiro; Otsuka, Kensuke; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Tomita, Masanori; Takahashi, Masayuki; Nakasono, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Yoshida, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The microcolony assay developed by Withers and Elkind has been a gold standard to assess the surviving fraction of small intestinal stem cells after exposure to high (?8 Gy) doses of ionizing radiation (IR), but is not applicable in cases of exposure to lower doses. Here, we developed a novel in vitro assay that enables assessment of the surviving fraction of small intestinal stem cells after exposure to lower IR doses. The assay includes in vitro culture of small intestinal stem cells, which allows the stem cells to develop into epithelial organoids containing all four differentiated cell types of the small intestine. We used Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-CreERT2/ROSA26-tdTomato mice to identify Lgr5+ stem cells and their progeny. Enzymatically dissociated single crypt cells from the duodenum and jejunum of mice were irradiated with 7.25, 29, 101, 304, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mGy of X-rays immediately after plating, and the number of organoids was counted on Day 12. Organoid-forming efficiency of irradiated cells relative to that of unirradiated controls was defined as the surviving fraction of stem cells. We observed a significant decrease in the surviving fraction of stem cells at ?1000 mGy. Moreover, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses and passage of the organoids revealed that proliferation of stem cells surviving IR is significantly potentiated. Together, the present study demonstrates that the in vitro assay is useful for quantitatively assessing the surviving fraction of small intestinal stem cells after exposure to lower doses of IR as compared with previous examinations using the microcolony assay. PMID:24511147

  4. Ensemble Analysis of Angiogenic Growth in Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Cell Cultures

    E-print Network

    Farahat, Waleed A.

    We demonstrate ensemble three-dimensional cell cultures and quantitative analysis of angiogenic growth from uniform endothelial monolayers. Our approach combines two key elements: a micro-fluidic assay that enables ...

  5. Hydroxyethyl disulfide as an efficient metabolic assay for cell viability in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Donglan; Ward, Kathleen M.; Prendergast, George C.; Ayene, Iraimoudi S.

    2012-01-01

    Cell viability assays have a variety of well known practical and technical limitations. All the available approaches have disadvantages, such as non-linearity, high background and cumbersome protocols. Several commonly used tetrazolium chemicals rely upon generation of a colored formazan product formed by mitochondrial reduction of these compounds via phenazine methosulfate (PMS). However, sensitivity is inherently limited because their reduction relies on mitochondrial bioreduction and cellular transport of PMS, as well as accessibility to tetrazolium chemicals. In this study, we identify hydroxethyldisulfide (HEDS) as an inexpensive probe that can measure cellular metabolic activity without the need of PMS. In tissue culture medium, HEDS accurately quantitated metabolically active live cells in a linear manner superior to tetrazolium based and other assays. Cell toxicity produced by chemotherapeutics (cisplatin, etoposide), oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, acetaminophen), toxins (Phenyl arsine oxide, arsenite) or ionizing radiation was rapidly determined by the HEDS assay. We found that HEDS was superior to other commonly used assays for cell viability determinations in its solubility, membrane permeability, and intracellular conversion to a metabolic reporter that is readily transported into the extracellular medium. Our findings establish the use of HEDS in a simple, rapid and low cost assay to accurately quantify viable cells. PMID:22321380

  6. A novel method for preserving cultured limbal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Utheim, Tor Paaske; Raeder, Sten; Utheim, Øygunn Aass; Cai, Yiqing; Roald, Borghild; Drolsum, Liv; Lyberg, Torstein; Nicolaissen, Bjørn

    2007-01-01

    Aim To investigate organ culture preservation of cultured limbal epithelial cells in order to enhance the availability of tissue?engineered epithelia that are used to treat patients with limbal stem cell deficiency. Methods Limbal epithelial cells were cultured for 3?weeks on intact amniotic membrane fastened to a polyester membrane carrier. The cultured epithelia were stored for 1?week at 23°C in organ culture medium. The preserved epithelia were then examined using a colorimetric cell viability assay, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Results The viability of the preserved epithelia was 84% (20%), and no statistically significant difference was found compared with non?preserved epithelia. In general, the cell borders were maintained, the nuclei showed no sign of degeneration, and the original layered structure was preserved. Mild intercellular oedema was occasionally observed. Expression of p63, K19 and vimentin was maintained. Conclusions Cultured limbal epithelial cells can be preserved in organ culture medium for 1?week at room temperature, while maintaining the original layered structure and undifferentiated phenotype. PMID:17124242

  7. Inflight Assay of Red Blood Cell Deformability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, M.; Paglia, D. E.; Eckstein, E. C.; Frazer, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on Soviet and American astronauts have demonstrated that red blood cell production is altered in response to low gravity (g) environment. This is associated with changes in individual red cells including increased mean cell volume and altered membrane deformability. During long orbital missions, there is a tendency for the red cell mass deficit to be at least partly corrected although the cell shape anomalies are not. Data currently available suggest that the observed decrease in red cell mass is the result of sudden suppression of erythropoieses and that the recovery trend observed during long missions reflects re-establishment of erythropoietic homeostasis at a "set point" for the red cell mass that is slightly below the normal level at 1 g.

  8. A microfluidic system for automatic cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun-Wei; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2007-07-01

    This study presents a new chip capable of automating the cell culture process by using microfluidic technology. This microfluidic cell culture system comprising microheaters, a micro temperature sensor, micropumps, microvalves, microchannels, a cell culture area and several reservoirs was fabricated by using micro-electro-mechanical-systems' fabrication processes. Traditional manual cell culture processes can be performed on this chip. A uni-directional pneumatic micropump was developed to transport the culture reagents and constraint the solutions to flow only in one direction, safeguarding the entire culture process from contamination. A new micro check valve was also used to prevent the culture solutions from flowing back into the microchannels. The microheaters and the micro temperature sensor were used to maintain a constant temperature during the cell culturing process. The pH value suitable for cell growth was also regulated during the cell culture process. A typical cell culturing process for human lung cancer cells (A549) was successfully performed to demonstrate the capability of the developed microfluidic system. This automatic cell culturing system can be eventually integrated with subsequent microfluidic modules for cell purification, collection, counting and lysis to form a cell-based micro-total-analysis system. Preliminary results have been presented in The Asia-Pacific Conference of Transducers and Micro-Nano Technology (APCOT), 25-28 June 2006

  9. Use of a New Tetrazolium-Based Assay to Study the Production of Superoxide Radicals by Tobacco Cell Cultures Challenged with Avirulent Zoospores of Phytophthora parasitica var nicotianae1

    PubMed Central

    Able, Amanda J.; Guest, David I.; Sutherland, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between the production of reactive oxygen species and the hypersensitive response (HR) of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) toward an incompatible race of the Oomycete Phytophthora parasitica var nicotianae has been investigated. A new assay for superoxide radical (O2?) production based on reduction of the tetrazolium dye sodium,3?-(1-[phenylamino-carbonyl]-3,4-tetrazolium)-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzene-sulfonic acid hydrate (XTT) has enabled the quantitative estimation of perhydroxyl/superoxide radical acid-base pair (HO2·/O2?) production during the resistant response. Tobacco suspension cells were inoculated with zoospores from compatible or incompatible races of the pathogen. Subsequent HO2·/O2? production was monitored by following the formation of XTT formazan. In the incompatible interaction only, HO2·/O2? was produced in a minor burst between 0 and 2 h and then in a major burst between 8 and 10 h postinoculation. During this second burst, rates of XTT reduction equivalent to a radical flux of 9.9 × 10?15 mol min?1 cell?1 were observed. The HO2·/O2? scavengers O2? dismutase and Mn(III)desferal each inhibited dye reduction. An HR was observed in challenged, resistant cells immediately following the second burst of radical production. Both scavengers inhibited the HR when added prior to the occurrence of either radical burst, indicating that O2? production is a necessary precursor to the HR. PMID:9625702

  10. Choosing an Appropriate Modelling Framework for Analysing Multispecies Co-culture Cell Biology Experiments.

    PubMed

    Markham, Deborah C; Simpson, Matthew J; Baker, Ruth E

    2015-04-01

    In vitro cell biology assays play a crucial role in informing our understanding of the migratory, proliferative and invasive properties of many cell types in different biological contexts. While mono-culture assays involve the study of a population of cells composed of a single cell type, co-culture assays study a population of cells composed of multiple cell types (or subpopulations of cells). Such co-culture assays can provide more realistic insights into many biological processes including tissue repair, tissue regeneration and malignant spreading. Typically, system parameters, such as motility and proliferation rates, are estimated by calibrating a mathematical or computational model to the observed experimental data. However, parameter estimates can be highly sensitive to the choice of model and modelling framework. This observation motivates us to consider the fundamental question of how we can best choose a model to facilitate accurate parameter estimation for a particular assay. In this work we describe three mathematical models of mono-culture and co-culture assays that include different levels of spatial detail. We study various spatial summary statistics to explore if they can be used to distinguish between the suitability of each model over a range of parameter space. Our results for mono-culture experiments are promising, in that we suggest two spatial statistics that can be used to direct model choice. However, co-culture experiments are far more challenging: we show that these same spatial statistics which provide useful insight into mono-culture systems are insufficient for co-culture systems. Therefore, we conclude that great care ought to be exercised when estimating the parameters of co-culture assays. PMID:25549623

  11. Metabolomic profiling of cultured cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Scoazec, Marie; Durand, Sylvere; Chery, Alexis; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative proteomics approaches have been developed-and now begin to be implemented on a high-throughput basis-to fill-in the large gap between the genomic/transcriptomic setup of (cancer) cells and their phenotypic/behavioral traits, reflecting a significant degree of posttranscriptional regulation in gene expression as well as a robust posttranslational regulation of protein function. However, proteomic profiling assays not only fail to detect labile posttranslational modifications as well as unstable protein-to-protein interactions but also are intrinsically incapable of assessing the enzymatic activity, as opposed to the mere abundance, of a given protein. Thus, determining the abundance of theoretically all the metabolites contained in a cell/tissue/organ/organism may significantly improve the informational value of proteomic approaches. Several techniques have been developed to this aim, including high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). This approach is particularly advantageous for metabolomic profiling as it offers elevated accuracy and improved sensitivity. Here, we describe a simple procedure to determine the complete complement of intracellular metabolites in cultured malignant cells by HPLC coupled to Q-TOF HRMS. According to this method, (1) cells are collected and processed to minimize contaminations as well as fluctuations in their metabolic profile; (2) samples are separated by HPLC and analyzed on a Q-TOF spectrometer; and (3) data are extracted, normalized, and deconvoluted according to refined mathematical methods. This protocol constitutes a simple approach to determine the intracellular metabolomic profile of cultured cancer cells. With minimal variations (mostly related to sample collection and processing), this method is expected to provide reliable metabolomic data on a variety of cellular samples. PMID:24924132

  12. Normal and leukemic human stem cells assayed in SCID mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Dick

    1996-01-01

    Understanding the processes that regulate the developmental program of normal stem cells and those that initiate proliferative diseases such as leukemia remains one of the major challenges in biology. Progress to address these major questions in the human hematopoietic system have been hampered, until recently, by the lack of in-vivo assays for normal and leukemic stem cells. The recent development

  13. Rotavirus-specific intestinal immune response in mice assessed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay and intestinal fragment culture.

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, C A; Brown, K A; Kim, J E; Offit, P A

    1994-01-01

    Primate rotavirus strain RRV and bovine strain WC3 or reassortants made between these animal viruses and human rotaviruses have been administered to infants as candidate vaccines. We compared RRV and WC3 in a murine model of oral infection. We determined the relative capacities of these viruses to induce a virus-specific humoral immune response by intestinal lymphocytes as tested by enzyme-linked immunospot assay, intestinal fragment culture, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of intestinal contents. We found that inoculation of mice with RRV induced higher frequencies of virus-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA)-secreting cells in the lamina propria, greater quantities of virus-specific IgA in intestinal fragment cultures, and greater quantities of virus-specific IgA in intestinal secretions than did inoculation with WC3 or inactivated RRV (iRRV). The induction of an IgA response in serum was predictive of an IgA response among intestinal lymphocytes after inoculation with RRV but not WC3. In addition, large quantities of IgG, IgA, and IgM not specific for rotavirus were produced in fragment cultures from mice inoculated with RRV but not in cultures from mice inoculated with WC3 or iRRV. Possible mechanisms of RRV-induced polyclonal stimulation of intestinal B cells are discussed. PMID:8556527

  14. Cell-surface glycoproteins of human sarcomas: differential expression in normal and malignant tissues and cultured cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Rettig; P. Garin-Chesa; H. R. Beresford; H. F. Oettgen; M. R. Melamed; L. J. Old

    1988-01-01

    Normal differentiation and malignant transformation of human cells are characterized by specific changes in surface antigen phenotype. In the present study, the authors have defined six cell-surface antigens of human sarcomas and normal mesenchymal cells, by using mixed hemadsorption assays and immunochemical methods for the analysis of cultured cells and immunohistochemical staining for the analysis of normal tissues and >

  15. Microfluidic devices for studying heterotypic cell-cell interactions and tissue specimen cultures under controlled microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Zervantonakis, Ioannis K.; Kothapalli, Chandrasekhar R.; Chung, Seok; Sudo, Ryo; Kamm, Roger D.

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic devices allow for precise control of the cellular and noncellular microenvironment at physiologically relevant length- and time-scales. These devices have been shown to mimic the complex in vivo microenvironment better than conventional in vitro assays, and allow real-time monitoring of homotypic or heterotypic cellular interactions. Microfluidic culture platforms enable new assay designs for culturing multiple different cell populations and?or tissue specimens under controlled user-defined conditions. Applications include fundamental studies of cell population behaviors, high-throughput drug screening, and tissue engineering. In this review, we summarize recent developments in this field along with studies of heterotypic cell-cell interactions and tissue specimen culture in microfluidic devices from our own laboratory. PMID:21522496

  16. Antigen-specific cell adherence assay: a new method for separation of antigen-specific hybridoma cells.

    PubMed

    Najbauer, J; Tigyi, G J; Nemeth, P

    1986-01-01

    A new method for the detection and separation of antigen-specific antibody-producing cells on the basis of antibody-mediated recognition of solid-phase immobilized antigen molecules is described. Hybridoma cells are placed on microtiter plate wells coated with antigen molecules, and antigen-specific antibody-producing cells bind to the immobilized antigen molecules; antibody nonproducing or nonspecific antibody-producing cells can be easily separated from the bound cells by inverting the plate. Cells bound to solid-phase immobilized antigen molecules can readily be quantitated by counting under a light microscope, and the cells recovered can produce antibody in culture. Unspecific binding of cells in antigen-specific cell adherence assay (ASCAA) is optimally below 5%. Also, effect of drugs interfering with processes related to antibody production of antigen-specific cells can be detected and evaluated by ASCAA. PMID:3804362

  17. Toxaphene is antiestrogenic in a human breast-cancer cell assay.

    PubMed

    Arcaro, K F; Yang, Y; Vakharia, D D; Gierthy, J F

    2000-02-11

    Toxaphene is a complex mixture of chlorinated bornanes, bornenes, and bornadienes and was a heavily used insecticide in the United States until its use was restricted in 1982. There are conflicting reports regarding the potential for toxaphene to induce estrogenic responses in human and nonhuman animals. Due to the public concern over environmental estrogens, the estrogenicity of toxaphene was examined in a human breast-cancer cell assay, the MCF-7 focus assay, which is based on in vitro postconfluent cell proliferation and tissue restructuring. In this assay, 0.1-1 nM 17beta-estradiol (E2) produces maximum postconfluent proliferation and formation of multicellular nodules or foci. Toxaphene was also tested for its ability (1) to bind the estrogen receptor (ER) in a competitive binding assay using recombinant human ERalpha (rhER) and in a whole-cell competitive ER binding assay, and (2) to alter the catabolism of E2 in MCF-7 cell cultures. Results from the MCF-7 focus assay showed: (1) Toxaphene alone was not estrogenic between the concentrations of 0.5 nM and 10 microM, (2) toxaphene in binary combinations with chlordane, dieldrin, or endosulfan (alpha or beta) was not estrogenic, and (3) toxaphene was weakly antiestrogenic (it reduced the number of foci induced by 0.1 nM and 0.01 nM E2). Results from the competitive binding assays showed that (1) toxaphene alone did not bind rhER or ER in MCF-7 cells, and (2) toxaphene in binary combinations with other pesticides did not bind rhER. Results from the growth assay and radiometric analysis of E2 catabolism showed that (1) toxaphene did not alter the growth rate of MCF-7 cell cultures over 13 d, and (2) toxaphene did not alter the catabolism of E2. In conclusion, results from the MCF-7 focus assay demonstrate that toxaphene is weakly antiestrogenic rather than estrogenic. PMID:10667634

  18. Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Sunila, Ellanzhiyil Surendran; Preethi, Korengath Chandran; Kuttan, Girija

    2009-01-01

    Although reports on the efficacy of homeopathic medicines in animal models are limited, there are even fewer reports on the in vitro action of these dynamized preparations. We have evaluated the cytotoxic activity of 30C and 200C potencies of ten dynamized medicines against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites, Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma, lung fibroblast (L929) and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines and compared activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. The effect of dynamized medicines to induce apoptosis was also evaluated and we studied how dynamized medicines affected genes expressed during apoptosis. Mother tinctures as well as some dynamized medicines showed significant cytotoxicity to cells during short and long-term incubation. Potentiated alcohol control did not produce any cytotoxicity at concentrations studied. The dynamized medicines were found to inhibit CHO cell colony formation and thymidine uptake in L929 cells and those of Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosinum were found to induce apoptosis in DLA cells. Moreover, dynamized Carcinosinum was found to induce the expression of p53 while dynamized Thuja produced characteristic laddering pattern in agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. These results indicate that dynamized medicines possess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties. PMID:18955237

  19. Catechin production in cultured Polygonum hydropiper cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanji Ono; Mayumi Nakao; Masao Toyota; Yoshimi Terashi; Masashi Yamada; Tetsuya Kohno; Yoshinori Asakawa

    1998-01-01

    Callus and suspension-cultured cells were induced from hypocotyls of Polygonum hydropiper seedlings. Both the callus and suspension-cultured cells produced mainly (+)-catechin accompanied by (?)-epicatechin and (?)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate. The (+)-catechin production of suspension-cultured cells increased with cell growth and reached the maximal value (29.0mgg?1 dry wt) after 6days from the start of subculture. This is the highest value of (+)-catechin content among

  20. Cytotoxicity of TSP in 3D Agarose Gel Cultured Cell

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Song-I; Mun, Chi-Woong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A reference reagent, 3-(trimethylsilyl) propionic-2, 2, 3, 3-d4 acid sodium (TSP), has been used frequently in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as an internal reference to identify cell and tissue metabolites, and determine chemical and protein structures. This reference material has been exploited for the quantitative and dynamic analyses of metabolite spectra acquired from cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of TSP on three-dimensionally, agarose gel, cultured cells. Materials and Methods A human osteosarcoma cell line (MG-63) was selected, and cells were three dimensionally cultured for two weeks in an agarose gel. The culture system contained a mixture of conventional culture medium and various concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20 30 mM) of TSP. A DNA quantification assay was conducted to assess cell proliferation using Quant-iT PicoGreen dsDNA reagent and kit, and cell viability was determined using a LIVE/DEAD Viability/Cytotoxicity kit. Both examinations were performed simultaneously at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days from cell seeding. Results In this study, the cytotoxicity of TSP in the 3D culture of MG-63 cells was evaluated by quantifying DNA (cell proliferation) and cell viability. High concentrations of TSP (from 10 to 30 mM) reduced both cell proliferation and viability (to 30% of the control after one week of exposure), but no such effects were found using low concentrations of TSP (0–10mM). Conclusions This study shows that low concentrations of TSP in 3D cell culture medium can be used for quantitative NMR or MRS examinations for up to two weeks post exposure. PMID:26058017

  1. Towards personalized medicine: chemosensitivity assays of patient lung cancer cell spheroids in a perfused microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Ruppen, Janine; Wildhaber, Franziska D; Strub, Christoph; Hall, Sean R R; Schmid, Ralph A; Geiser, Thomas; Guenat, Olivier T

    2015-06-30

    Cancer is responsible for millions of deaths worldwide and the variability in disease patterns calls for patient-specific treatment. Therefore, personalized treatment is expected to become a daily routine in prospective clinical tests. In addition to genetic mutation analysis, predictive chemosensitive assays using patient's cells will be carried out as a decision making tool. However, prior to their widespread application in clinics, several challenges linked to the establishment of such assays need to be addressed. To best predict the drug response in a patient, the cellular environment needs to resemble that of the tumor. Furthermore, the formation of homogeneous replicates from a scarce amount of patient's cells is essential to compare the responses under various conditions (compound and concentration). Here, we present a microfluidic device for homogeneous spheroid formation in eight replicates in a perfused microenvironment. Spheroid replicates from either a cell line or primary cells from adenocarcinoma patients were successfully created. To further mimic the tumor microenvironment, spheroid co-culture of primary lung cancer epithelial cells and primary pericytes were tested. A higher chemoresistance in primary co-culture spheroids compared to primary monoculture spheroids was found when both were constantly perfused with cisplatin. This result is thought to be due to the barrier created by the pericytes around the tumor spheroids. Thus, this device can be used for additional chemosensitivity assays (e.g. sequential treatment) of patient material to further approach the personalized oncology field. PMID:26088102

  2. Radiometric macrophage culture assay for rapid evaluation of antileprosy activity of rifampin

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.

    1983-10-01

    The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of (3H)thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of (3H)thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay.

  3. Method of assay of red cell folate activity and the value of the assay as a test for folate deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Hoffbrand; Beverley F. A. Newcombe; D. L. Mollin

    1966-01-01

    A simplified microbiological assay for determining the folate content of red cells is described. As in previously reported methods Lactobacillus casei is used as test organism but two modifications are introduced. First, haemolysis is carried out in water containing 1 g.% of ascorbic acid; secondly, haemolysates are not incubated before the assay. Using this assay, recovery of pteroylglutamic acid added

  4. Comparison of saliva PCR assay versus rapid culture for detection of congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Ross, Shannon A; Shimamura, Masako; Novak, Zdenek; Palmer, April L; Ahmed, Amina; Tolan, Robert W; Bernstein, David I; Michaels, Marian G; Sánchez, Pablo J; Fowler, Karen B; Boppana, Suresh B

    2015-05-01

    As part of the CMV and Hearing Multicenter Screening (CHIMES) study, 72,239 newborns were screened for cytomegalovirus by rapid culture and real-time PCR of saliva samples. Of the 266 infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection, discordance between rapid culture and PCR was observed in 14 children, and 13 were identified only by PCR, demonstrating the superiority of the PCR assay. PMID:25876092

  5. Progress in Cell Based Assays for Botulinum Neurotoxin Detection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent human toxins known and the causative agent of botulism, and are widely used as valuable pharmaceuticals. The BoNTs are modular proteins consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain linked by a disulfide bond. Intoxication of neuronal cells by BoNTs is a multi-step process including specific cell binding, endocytosis, conformational change in the endosome, translocation of the enzymatic light chain into the cells cytosol, and SNARE target cleavage. The quantitative and reliable potency determination of fully functional BoNTs produced as active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) requires an assay that considers all steps in the intoxication pathway. The in vivo mouse bioassay has for years been the ‘gold standard’ assay used for this purpose, but it requires the use of large numbers of mice and thus causes associated costs and ethical concerns. Cell-based assays are currently the only in vitro alternative that detect fully functional BoNTs in a single assay and have been utilized for years for research purposes. Within the last 5 years, several cell-based BoNT detection assays have been developed that are able to quantitatively determine BoNT potency with similar or greater sensitivity than the mouse bioassay. These assays now offer an alternative method for BoNT potency determination. Such quantitative and reliable BoNT potency determination is a crucial step in basic research, in the development of pharmaceutical BoNTs, and in the quantitative detection of neutralizing antibodies. PMID:23239357

  6. Cell culture techniques in honey bee research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cell culture techniques are indispensable in most if not all life science disciplines to date. Wherever cell culture models are lacking scientific development is hampered. Unfortunately this has been and still is the case in honey bee research because permanent honey bee cell lines have not yet been...

  7. Cell culture model for antiulcerogenic agents.

    PubMed

    Terano, A; Hiraishi, H; Shimada, T; Takahashi, M; Yoshiura, K; Horie-Sakata, K

    2001-06-15

    To elucidate the mechanisms of antiulcerogenic agents, we established the cell culture model derived from rat gastric epithelium. The cultured cells were identified as mucus-producing cells by using histological analysis. This culture model is useful for investigating the untiulcer effect of various agents and to reveal the mechanisms of the drug action. In particular, the ulcer-healing model using the cultured monolayer is promising and convenient for the study of several growth factors such as HGF as well as antiulcerogenic agents. The effect of polaporezinc in the cultured model is introduced. PMID:11525256

  8. Semliki Forest Virus Replication in Cultured Aedes albopictus Cells: studies on the Establishment of Persistence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARY W. DAVEY; L. DALGARNOt

    1974-01-01

    SUMMARY Semliki Forest virus (SFV) established a persistent, non-cytopathic infection in cultured Aedes albopictus cells with no effect on cumulative cell number as com- pared with control cultures. All cells were initially infected by SFV as judged by infective centre and immunofluorescence assay and released approx. 5o to 7o p.f.u.\\/cell in the initial a4 h after infection. At 12 h

  9. A Duplex PCR-Based Assay for Measuring the Amount of Bacterial Contamination in a Nucleic Acid Extract from a Culture of Free-Living Protists

    PubMed Central

    Marron, Alan O.; Akam, Michael; Walker, Giselle

    2013-01-01

    Background Cultures of heterotrophic protists often require co-culturing with bacteria to act as a source of nutrition. Such cultures will contain varying levels of intrinsic bacterial contamination that can interfere with molecular research and cause problems with the collection of sufficient material for sequencing. Measuring the levels of bacterial contamination for the purposes of molecular biology research is non-trivial, and can be complicated by the presence of a diverse bacterial flora, or by differences in the relative nucleic acid yield per bacterial or eukaryotic cell. Principal Findings Here we describe a duplex PCR-based assay that can be used to measure the levels of contamination from marine bacteria in a culture of loricate choanoflagellates. By comparison to a standard culture of known target sequence content, the assay can be used to quantify the relative proportions of bacterial and choanoflagellate material in DNA or RNA samples extracted from a culture. We apply the assay to compare methods of purifying choanoflagellate cultures prior to DNA extraction, to determine their effectiveness in reducing bacterial contamination. Together with measurements of the total nucleic acid concentration, the assay can then be used as the basis for determining the absolute amounts of choanoflagellate DNA or RNA present in a sample. Conclusions The assay protocol we describe here is a simple and relatively inexpensive method of measuring contamination levels in nucleic acid samples. This provides a new way to establish quantification and purification protocols for molecular biology and genomics in novel heterotrophic protist species. Guidelines are provided to develop a similar protocol for use with any protistan culture. This assay method is recommended where qPCR equipment is unavailable, where qPCR is not viable because of the nature of the bacterial contamination or starting material, or where prior sequence information is insufficient to develop qPCR protocols. PMID:23593495

  10. EVALUATION OF MIXED CELL TYPES AND 5-IODO-2'-DEOXYURIDINE TREATMENT UPON PLAQUE ASSAY TITERS OF HUMAN ENTERIC VIRUSES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four continuous cell lines BGM, L-132, HEL-299, and RD were compared both when cultured separately and as mixtures for use in plaque assay titrations of human Adenovirus 1 and six human enterovirus serotypes. The effect of incubating these cell cultures in media containing IDU (5...

  11. [Polysaccharides of cell cultures of Silene vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Giunter, E A; Ovodov, Iu S

    2007-01-01

    Callus and suspension cultures of campion (Silene vulgaris) produced pectin polysaccharides, similar in structure to the polysaccharides of intact plants. The major components of the pectins were D-galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, and rhamnose residues. The maximum content of pectins was found in callus. The monosaccharide composition of arabinogalactans isolated from cells and a culture medium of callus cultures were similar, with the ratio between arabinose and galactose of 1: (2.3-6.5) being retained. The arabinogalactans from the cells and culture medium of the suspension cultures also had a similar structure, and the arabinose to galactose ratio was 1: (1.5-1.8). In contrast to the callus cultures, the suspension cultures produced arabinogalactans with an increased content of arabinose residues and a decreased content of galactose residues. The greatest content of arabinogalactan was detected in the culture medium of the suspension cultures. PMID:17345866

  12. MAMMALIAN CELL GENE MUTATION ASSAYS WORKING GROUP REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammalian cell gene mutation assays have been used for many years and the diversity of the available systems attests to the varied methods found to grow mammalian dells and detect mutations. s part of the International Workshop on Standardization of Genotoxicity Test Procedures, ...

  13. Nanopillar based electrochemical biosensor for monitoring microfluidic based cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangadharan, Rajan

    In-vitro assays using cultured cells have been widely performed for studying many aspects of cell biology and cell physiology. These assays also form the basis of cell based sensing. Presently, analysis procedures on cell cultures are done using techniques that are not integrated with the cell culture system. This approach makes continuous and real-time in-vitro measurements difficult. It is well known that the availability of continuous online measurements for extended periods of time will help provide a better understanding and will give better insight into cell physiological events. With this motivation we developed a highly sensitive, selective and stable microfluidic electrochemical glucose biosensor to make continuous glucose measurements in cell culture media. The performance of the microfluidic biosensor was enhanced by adding 3D nanopillars to the electrode surfaces. The microfluidic glucose biosensor consisted of three electrodes---Enzyme electrode, Working electrode, and Counter electrode. All these electrodes were enhanced with nanopillars and were optimized in their respective own ways to obtain an effective and stable biosensing device in cell culture media. For example, the 'Enzyme electrode' was optimized for enzyme immobilization via either a polypyrrole-based or a self-assembled-monolayer-based immobilization method, and the 'Working electrode' was modified with Prussian Blue or electropolymerized Neutral Red to reduce the working potential and also the interference from other interacting electro-active species. The complete microfluidic biosensor was tested for its ability to monitor glucose concentration changes in cell culture media. The significance of this work is multifold. First, the developed device may find applications in continuous and real-time measurements of glucose concentrations in in-vitro cell cultures. Second, the development of a microfluidic biosensor will bring technical know-how toward constructing continuous glucose monitoring devices. Third, the methods used to develop 3D electrodes incorporated with nanopillars can be used for other applications such as neural probes, fuel cells, solar cells etc., and finally, the knowledge obtained from the immobilization of enzymes onto nanostructures sheds some new insight into nanomaterial/biomolecule interactions.

  14. Double-layered collagen gel hemisphere for cell invasion assay: successful visualization and quantification of cell invasion activity.

    PubMed

    Takata, Masahiko; Maniwa, Yoshimasa; Doi, Takefumi; Tanaka, Yugo; Okada, Kenji; Nishio, Wataru; Ohbayashi, Chiho; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Okita, Yutaka

    2007-10-01

    Although various methods for collagen gel-based cell invasion assays have been described, there continues to be a need for a simpler and more objective assay. Here, we describe an easy-to-prepare double-layered collagen gel hemisphere (DL-CGH) system that satisfies these requirements, and we demonstrate the advantages of this new system for visualizing cell movements during invasion. DL-CGH consists of a central core collagen layer surrounded by an outer cover collagen layer. A droplet of collagen I solution (containing cells to be examined) naturally forms a small hemisphere on the bottom of the culture dish. After this central core layer gels, a second droplet is placed atop the first gel, encapsulating it completely. The hemisphere is submerged in the medium and cultured. The invasive activity of cells that infiltrate from the inner to the outer layer can be evaluated optically. Using this in vitro system, we measured the inhibitory effect of E-cadherin expression on cancer cell invasion. DL-CGH also allowed visualization of interactions between invading cancer cells and the stroma. Cancer cells, which lack the proteases required for direct entrance into the three-dimensional collagen matrix, were seen to slip like amoebas through matrix gaps generated by the pericellular proteolytic activity of fibroblasts. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Cell Communication and Adhesion for the following free supplemental resources: Movies 1-3; 4a and b]. PMID:17957531

  15. Cell-based reporter gene assay for therapy-induced neutralizing antibodies to interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Thomas B; Rose, John W; Gardiner, Gareth L; Kusukawa, Noriko; Husebye, Dee; Hill, Harry R

    2013-02-01

    Patients with therapy-induced neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to interferon-beta (IFN-?) have reduced responses to IFN-? treatment, resulting in higher relapse rates, increased magnetic resonance imaging activity, and a higher risk of disease progression. A functional assay was employed for both screening and titering of IFN-? NAbs utilizing a human cell line transfected with a luciferase reporter gene responsive to IFN-?. This assay demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with the traditional cytopathic effect (CPE) assay and normal donor specimens. Additionally, 183 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) undergoing therapy with IFN-? were tested in the reporter gene assay. Percent positivity for NAbs to the IFN-? was as follows: Avonex (1?) 26.5%, Rebif (1?) 34.1%, and Betaseron (1?) 31.8%. The IFN-? reporter gene assay showed excellent correlation with the well-established CPE assay offering clear advantages. The 50% false-positivity rate typically seen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays could be eliminated by using a functional assay for both screening and titering. Results can be reported within 20 h, and the cell line is cryopreserved, eliminating the need to maintain live viral and cell cultures. The use of this functional assay should be a valuable tool for detecting and monitoring the presence of NAbs in IFN-?-treated patients with MS. PMID:23153300

  16. Particle-induced cell migration assay (PICMA): A new in vitro assay for inflammatory particle effects based on permanent cell lines.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Götz A; Schremmer, Isabell; Rostek, Alexander; Loza, Kateryna; Rosenkranz, Nina; Brüning, Thomas; Epple, Matthias; Bünger, Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation is a decisive pathophysiologic mechanism of particle toxicity and accumulation of neutrophils in the lung is believed to be a crucial step in this process. This study describes an in vitro model for investigations of the chemotactic attraction of neutrophils in response to particles using permanent cell lines. We challenged NR8383 rat macrophages with particles that were characterized concerning chemical nature, crystallinity, and size distribution in the dry state and in the culture medium. The cell supernatants were used to investigate migration of differentiated human leukemia cells (dHL-60 cells). The dose range for the tests was determined using an impedance-based Real-Time Cell Analyzer. The challenge of NR8383 cells with 32-96?gcm(-2) coarse and nanosized particles resulted in cell supernatants which induced strong and dose-dependent migration of dHL-60 cells. Quartz caused the strongest effects - exceeding the positive control "fetal calf serum" (FCS) several-fold, followed by silica, rutile, carbon black, and anatase. BaSO4 served as inert control and induced no cell migration. Particles caused NR8383 cells to secrete chemotactic compounds. The assay clearly distinguished between the particles of different inflammatory potential in a highly reproducible way. Specificity of the test is suggested by negative results with BaSO4. PMID:25896209

  17. Antibody inhibition of human cytomegalovirus spread in epithelial cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaohong; Lee, Ronzo; Adler, Stuart P.; McVoy, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies reduce the incidence of CMV transmission and ameliorate the severity of CMV-associated disease. Neutralizing activity, measured as the ability of antibodies to prevent entry of cell-free virus, is an important component of natural immunity. However, in vivo CMV amplification may occur mainly via spread between adjacent cells within tissues. Thus, inhibition of cell-to-cell spread may be important when evaluating therapeutic antibodies or humoral responses to infection or immunization. In vitro CMV cell-to-cell spread is largely resistant to antibodies in fibroblast cultures but sensitive in endothelial cell cultures. In the present study antibodies in CMV hyperimmuneglobulin or seropositive human sera inhibited CMV cell-to-cell spread in epithelial cell cultures. Spread inhibition activity was quantitated with a GFP reporter assay employing GFP-tagged epithelialtropic variants of CMV strains Towne or AD169. Measurement of spread inhibition provides an additional parameter for the evaluation of candidate vaccines or immunotherapeutics and to further characterize the role of antibodies in controlling CMV transmission and disease. PMID:23669101

  18. Culture of Cells from Amphibian Embryos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanisstreet, Martin

    1983-01-01

    Describes a method for in vitro culturing of cells from amphibian early embryos. Such cells can be used to demonstrate such properties of eukaryote cells as cell motility, adhesion, differentiation, and cell sorting into tissues. The technique may be extended to investigate other factors. (Author/JN)

  19. In vitro BALB/3T3 cell transformation assay of nonoxynol-9 and 1,4-dioxane

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, C.W.; Moreland, F.M.; Lee, J.K.; Dunkel, V.C.

    1988-01-01

    The spermicidal surfactant nonoxynol-9 (Igepal CO-630, GAF Corp.) and a potential impurity, 1,4-dioxane, were tested in the in vitro cell transformation assay using BALB/3T3 cells. Two treatment periods, 48 hr and 13 days, were used. Nonoxynol-9, tested at levels up to 10 /sup +/g/ml, did not induce transformation, whereas dioxane was very active in the induction type II foci in the cultured BALB/3T3 cells.

  20. Assay for inorganic pyrophosphate in chondrocyte culture using anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography and radioactive orthophosphate labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Prins, A.P.; Kiljan, E.; v.d. Stadt, R.J.; v.d. Korst, J.K.

    1986-02-01

    A method is described for determination of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in cell culture medium and in rabbit articular chondrocytes grown in the presence of radioactive orthophosphate (/sup 32/Pi). Intra- and extracellular /sup 32/PPi formed was measured using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation of the PPi from orthophosphate (Pi) and other phosphate-containing compounds. The chromatographic separation on a weak anion-exchange column is based on the extent to which various phosphate compounds form complexes with Mg2+ at low pH and the rate at which such formation occurs. These complexes are eluted more readily than the uncomplexed compounds. Best results were obtained using a simultaneous gradient of Mg2+ ions and ionic strength. In this case separation of small amounts of PPi from a large excess of Pi was possible without prior removal of Pi or extraction of the PPi fraction. The assay is also useful for measurement of inorganic pyrophosphatase activity. The sensitivity of the assay depends on the specific activity of the added /sup 32/Pi and on the culture conditions, but is comparable with the most sensitive of the enzymatic assays. Sample preparation, particularly deproteinization, proved to be of importance. The losses of PPi which occur during procedures of this sort due to hydrolysis and coprecipitation were quantitated.

  1. In vitro replication assay with mammalian cell extracts.

    PubMed

    Rizwani, Wasia; Chellappan, Srikumar P

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory mechanisms are crucial to control DNA replication during cell cycle in eukaryotic cells. Cell-free in vitro replication assay (IVRA) is one of the widely used assays to understand the complex mammalian replication system. IVRA can provide a snapshot of the regulatory mechanisms controlling replication in higher eukaryotes by using a single plasmid, pEPI-1. This chapter outlines the general strategies and protocols used to perform IVRA to study the differential recruitment of replication factors either independently or in combination, based on the experience in studying the role of prohibitin in replication as well as other published protocols. This method can be employed to identify not only proteins that assist replication but also proteins that inhibit replication of mammalian genome. PMID:25827890

  2. Regulating apoptosis in mammalian cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilou Arden; M. J. Betenbaugh

    2006-01-01

    Cell culture technology has become a widely accepted method used to derive therapeutic and diagnostic protein products. Mammalian\\u000a cells adapted to grow in bioreactors now play an integral role in the development of these biologicals. A major limiting factor\\u000a determining the output efficiency of mammalian cell cultures however, is apoptosis or programmed cell death. Methods to delay\\u000a apoptosis and increase

  3. Cell culture approach to biocompatibility evaluation of unconventionally prepared hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Kundu, P K; Waghode, T S; Bahadur, D; Datta, D

    1998-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 was produced by microwave irradiation of calcium nitrate (CaNO3.4H2O) and di-ammonium phosphate in aqueous solution. The HA formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. HA prepared by this unconventional route was subjected to biocompatibility assay by a cell-culture method using the hybridoma cell line AE9D6 in both conventional Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM) and simulated body fluid (SBF), both supplemented with 5% fetal calf serum. HA synthesised through this unconventional method showed the presence of tricalcium phosphate which can be reduced only after heat treatment at 1150 degrees C. The HA conformed to the X-ray data index file for hydroxyapatite. Biocompatibility assays showed reproducible growth and secretion patterns of cells both in DMEM as well as in SBF, thereby indicating the effectiveness of this method for the production of biocompatible HA. PMID:10367453

  4. Assessment of virus infection in cultured cells using metabolic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Singhvi, R; Markusen, J F; Ky, B; Horvath, B J; Aunins, J G

    1996-01-01

    A rapid, in-process assessment of virus replication is disired to quickly investigate the effects of process parameters on virus infection, and to monitor consistency of process in routine manufacturing of viral vaccines. Live virus potency assays are generally based on plaque formation, cytopathic effect, or antigen production (TCID(50)) and can take days to weeks to complete. Interestingly, when infected with viruses, cultured cells undergo changes in cellular metabolism that can be easily measured. These phenomena appear to be common as they has been observed in a variety of virus-host systems, e.g., in insect cells infected with baculovirus, Vero cells infected with Rotavirus, MRC-5 cells infected with Hepatitis A virus, and MRC-5 cells infected with the Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV). In this article, changes in glycolytic metabolism of MRC-5 cells as a result of CVZ infection are described. Both glucose consumption and lactate production in VZV infected MRC-5 cells are significantly elevated in comparison to uninfected cells. Based on this result, a rapid, in-process assay to follow VZV infection has been developed. The relative increase in lactate production in infected cells (?) increases as the infection progresses and then plateaus as the infection peaks. This plateau correlates with time of peak virus titer and could be used as a harvest triggering parameter in a virus production process.X(u) = cell density of uninfected cellsX(i) = cell density of infected cellsX(T) = total cell densityL(i) = cumulative lactate production in infected culturesL(u) = cumulative lactate production in uninfected culturesq(Li) = specific lactate production of infected cellsq(Lu) = specific lactate production of uninfected cellsk(1), K(2) = constants. PMID:22358917

  5. Silk Protein Sericin Improves Mammalian Cell Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Terada; Naoki Takada; Kazuaki Itoh; Takuya Saitoh; Masahiro Sasaki; Hideyuki Yamada

    Mammalian cell cultures generally require supplementation with fetal bovine serum (FBS), or its replacement, into the culture\\u000a media. Sera contain various unidentified and unknown factors and the risk of infections, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy\\u000a (BSE), is of serious concern. Therefore, the supplementation of sera into culture media is a major obstacle for purification\\u000a to recover cell products and this limits

  6. Culture and characterisation of epithelial cells from human pterygia

    PubMed Central

    Di, G; Tedla, N.; Kumar, R.; McCluskey, P.; Lloyd, A.; Coroneo, M.; Wakefield, D.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Pterygia are a common disorder of the ocular surface. The disease represents a chronic fibrovascular and degenerative process thought to originate at the conjunctival-corneal junction, where altered limbal stem cells are proposed to be the cell of origin. Extensive epidemiological evidence exists to implicate ultraviolet B irradiation in the pathogenesis of pterygia. To date no animal or in vitro culture model has been developed to test such an hypothesis. The aim of this study was to establish and characterise a pure population of epithelial cells derived from pterygium tissue.?METHODS—Tissue specimens were obtained from patients undergoing pterygium excision. Explants were cultured in either serum free or serum supplemented medium. Primary and passaged cells were processed for light microscopy, analysed by flow cytometry, and characterised immunohistochemically using specific antibodies.?RESULTS—In serum free culture, cuboidal cells with typical morphology of epithelial cells migrated from the pterygium explants from 3 days onwards and eventually formed a cohesive monolayer. Passaged cells consisted of 98.4% cytokeratin positive cells and demonstrated immunoreactivity for multiple cytokeratins, including AE1, AE3, AE5, but were negative for AE8. These cells also expressed an epithelial specific antigen, together with vimentin and mucin, as did epithelial cells in sections of pterygia.?CONCLUSIONS—A relatively simple method of isolating pterygium epithelial cells has been established. Cultured pterygium epithelial cells are phenotypically and functionally similar to their in vivo counterparts with respect to keratin, vimentin, and mucin expression. In vitro assays using these cells may aid in elucidating the pathogenesis of pterygia.?? PMID:10460780

  7. Mutagenesis of haploid cultured frog cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mezger-Freed, L.

    1973-01-01

    From 13th international congress of genetics; Berkeley, California (20 Aug 1973). Haploid cells afford an opportunity to test some of the assumptions from bacterial genetics which have been adopted by somatic cell geneticists. Haploid cultured cell lines derived from the grass frog Rana pipiens were compared to diploid cell lines in order to test a model which predicts that recessive mutations will be expressed in diploid cells with a frequency equal to the square of that in haploid cells. Haploid and diploid monolayer cultures were compared for (1) survival after exposure to compounds known to be mutagenic for bacteria (a measure of the frequency with which lethal mutations are expressed), and (2) the induction of drug-resistant variants (putative mutants) by such compounds. The proportion of cells that survived from diploid cultures was no more than ten times that from haploid cultures, a much smaller difference than predicted. Furthermore, the frequency of drug-resistant variants was independent of ploidy. (auth)

  8. Characterization of glucose transport by cultured rabbit kidney proximal convoluted and proximal straight tubule cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro L. Del Valle; Anna Trifillis; Charles E. Ruegg; Andrew S. Kane

    2002-01-01

    Summary  Rabbit kidney proximal convoluted tubule (RPCT) and proximal straight tubule (RPST) cells were independently isolated and\\u000a cultured. The kinetics of the sodium-dependent glucose transport was characterized by determining the uptake of the glucose\\u000a analog alpha-methylglucopyranoside. Cell culture and assay conditions used in these experiments were based on previous experiments\\u000a conducted on the renal cell line derived from the whole kidney

  9. Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium accelerates skin wound healing: An in vitro study of fibroblast and keratinocyte scratch assays

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M.N.M. [Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG (United Kingdom) [Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG (United Kingdom); School of Life and Health Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7EJ (United Kingdom); Wright, K.T.; Fuller, H.R. [Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG (United Kingdom)] [Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG (United Kingdom); MacNeil, S. [Kroto Research Institute and Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Sheffield University, Sheffield, S1 2UE (United Kingdom)] [Kroto Research Institute and Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Sheffield University, Sheffield, S1 2UE (United Kingdom); Johnson, W.E.B., E-mail: w.e.johnson@aston.ac.uk [School of Life and Health Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7EJ (United Kingdom)] [School of Life and Health Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7EJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    We have used in vitro scratch assays to examine the relative contribution of dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes in the wound repair process and to test the influence of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) secreted factors on both skin cell types. Scratch assays were established using single cell and co-cultures of L929 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes, with wound closure monitored via time-lapse microscopy. Both in serum supplemented and serum free conditions, wound closure was faster in L929 fibroblast than HaCaT keratinocyte scratch assays, and in co-culture the L929 fibroblasts lead the way in closing the scratches. MSC-CM generated under serum free conditions significantly enhanced the wound closure rate of both skin cell types separately and in co-culture, whereas conditioned medium from L929 or HaCaT cultures had no significant effect. This enhancement of wound closure in the presence of MSC-CM was due to accelerated cell migration rather than increased cell proliferation. A number of wound healing mediators were identified in MSC-CM, including TGF-{beta}1, the chemokines IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES, and collagen type I, fibronectin, SPARC and IGFBP-7. This study suggests that the trophic activity of MSC may play a role in skin wound closure by affecting both dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte migration, along with a contribution to the formation of extracellular matrix.

  10. Induction and repair of DNA damage measured by the comet assay in human T lymphocytes separated by immunomagnetic cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Bausinger, Julia; Speit, Günter

    2014-11-01

    The comet assay is widely used in human biomonitoring to measure DNA damage in whole blood or isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as a marker of exposure to genotoxic agents. Cytogenetic assays with phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated cultured T lymphocytes are also frequently performed in human biomonitoring. Cytogenetic effects (micronuclei, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges) may be induced in vivo but also occur ex vivo during the cultivation of lymphocytes as a consequence of DNA damage present in lymphocytes at the time of sampling. To better understand whether DNA damage measured by the comet assay in PBMC is representative for DNA damage in T cells, we comparatively investigated DNA damage and its repair in PBMC and T cells obtained by immunomagnetic cell sorting. PBMC cultures and T cell cultures were exposed to mutagens with different modes of genotoxic action and DNA damage was measured by the comet assay after the end of a 2h exposure and after 18h post-incubation. The mutagens tested were methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), (±)-anti-B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO), styrene oxide and potassium bromate. MMS and potassium bromate were also tested by the modified comet assay with formamido pyrimidine glycosylase (FPG) protein. The results indicate that the mutagens tested induce DNA damage in PBMC and T cells in the same range of concentrations and removal of induced DNA lesions occurs to a comparable extent. Based on these results, we conclude that the comet assay with PBMC is suited to predict DNA damage and its removal in T cells. PMID:25771724

  11. Fluorescence-based recombination assay for sensitive and specific detection of genotoxic carcinogens in human cells.

    PubMed

    Ireno, Ivanildce C; Baumann, Cindy; Stöber, Regina; Hengstler, Jan G; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    In vitro genotoxicity tests are known to suffer from several shortcomings, mammalian cell-based assays, in particular, from low specificities. Following a novel concept of genotoxicity detection, we developed a fluorescence-based method in living human cells. The assay quantifies DNA recombination events triggered by DNA double-strand breaks and damage-induced replication fork stalling predicted to detect a broad spectrum of genotoxic modes of action. To maximize sensitivities, we engineered a DNA substrate encompassing a chemoresponsive element from the human genome. Using this substrate, we screened various human tumor and non-transformed cell types differing in the DNA damage response, which revealed that detection of genotoxic carcinogens was independent of the p53 status but abrogated by apoptosis. Cell types enabling robust and sensitive genotoxicity detection were selected for the generation of reporter clones with chromosomally integrated DNA recombination substrate. Reporter cell lines were scrutinized with 21 compounds, stratified into five sets according to the established categories for identification of carcinogenic compounds: genotoxic carcinogens ("true positives"), non-genotoxic carcinogens, compounds without genotoxic or carcinogenic effect ("true negatives") and non-carcinogenic compounds, which have been reported to induce chromosomal aberrations or mutations in mammalian cell-based assays ("false positives"). Our results document detection of genotoxic carcinogens in independent cell clones and at levels of cellular toxicities <60 % with a sensitivity of >85 %, specificity of ?90 % and detection of false-positive compounds <17 %. Importantly, through testing cyclophosphamide in combination with primary hepatocyte cultures, we additionally provide proof-of-concept for the identification of carcinogens requiring metabolic activation using this novel assay system. PMID:24671466

  12. A standardized and reproducible protocol for serum-free monolayer culturing of primary paediatric brain tumours to be utilized for therapeutic assays

    PubMed Central

    Sandén, Emma; Eberstål, Sofia; Visse, Edward; Siesjö, Peter; Darabi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cultured brain tumour cells are indispensable tools for drug screening and therapeutic development. Serum-free culture conditions tentatively preserve the features of the original tumour, but commonly comprise neurosphere propagation, which is a technically challenging procedure. Here, we define a simple, non-expensive and reproducible serum-free cell culture protocol for establishment and propagation of primary paediatric brain tumour cultures as adherent monolayers. The success rates for establishment of primary cultures (including medulloblastomas, atypical rhabdoid tumour, ependymomas and astrocytomas) were 65% (11/17) and 78% (14/18) for sphere cultures and monolayers respectively. Monolayer culturing was particularly feasible for less aggressive tumour subsets, where neurosphere cultures could not be generated. We show by immunofluorescent labelling that monolayers display phenotypic similarities with corresponding sphere cultures and primary tumours, and secrete clinically relevant inflammatory factors, including PGE2, VEGF, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-15. Moreover, secretion of PGE2 was considerably reduced by treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor Valdecoxib, demonstrating the functional utility of our newly established monolayer for preclinical therapeutic assays. Our findings suggest that this culture method could increase the availability and comparability of clinically representative in vitro models of paediatric brain tumours, and encourages further molecular evaluation of serum-free monolayer cultures. PMID:26183281

  13. A standardized and reproducible protocol for serum-free monolayer culturing of primary paediatric brain tumours to be utilized for therapeutic assays.

    PubMed

    Sandén, Emma; Eberstål, Sofia; Visse, Edward; Siesjö, Peter; Darabi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cultured brain tumour cells are indispensable tools for drug screening and therapeutic development. Serum-free culture conditions tentatively preserve the features of the original tumour, but commonly comprise neurosphere propagation, which is a technically challenging procedure. Here, we define a simple, non-expensive and reproducible serum-free cell culture protocol for establishment and propagation of primary paediatric brain tumour cultures as adherent monolayers. The success rates for establishment of primary cultures (including medulloblastomas, atypical rhabdoid tumour, ependymomas and astrocytomas) were 65% (11/17) and 78% (14/18) for sphere cultures and monolayers respectively. Monolayer culturing was particularly feasible for less aggressive tumour subsets, where neurosphere cultures could not be generated. We show by immunofluorescent labelling that monolayers display phenotypic similarities with corresponding sphere cultures and primary tumours, and secrete clinically relevant inflammatory factors, including PGE2, VEGF, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-15. Moreover, secretion of PGE2 was considerably reduced by treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor Valdecoxib, demonstrating the functional utility of our newly established monolayer for preclinical therapeutic assays. Our findings suggest that this culture method could increase the availability and comparability of clinically representative in vitro models of paediatric brain tumours, and encourages further molecular evaluation of serum-free monolayer cultures. PMID:26183281

  14. Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

  15. Cell assay using a two-photon-excited europium chelate

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xudong; Haushalter, Jeanne P.; Kotz, Kenneth T.; Faris, Gregory W.

    2011-01-01

    We report application of two-photon excitation of europium chelates to immunolabeling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) cell surface proteins on A431 cancer cells. The europium chelates are excited with two photons of infrared light and emit in the visible. Europium chelates are conjugated to antibodies for EGFR. A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma) cells are labeled with this conjugate and imaged using a multiphoton microscope. To minimize signal loss due to the relatively long-lived Eu3+ emission, the multiphoton microscope is used with scanning laser two-photon excitation and non-scanning detection with a CCD. The chelate labels show very little photobleaching (less than 1% during continuous illumination in the microscope for 20 minutes) and low levels of autofluorescence (less than 1% of the signal from labeled cells). The detection limit of the europium label in the cell assay is better than 100 zeptomoles. PMID:21833362

  16. Differentiation of dendritic cells in cultures of rat bone marrow cells

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Although dendritic cells (DC) originate from bone marrow, they were not observed in fresh preparations of bone marrow cells (BMC). Likewise, accessory activity was barely measurable in a sensitive assay for this potent function of DC. However, both DC and accessory activity developed when BMC were cultured for 5 d. Based on fractionation before culture, nearly all of the accessory activity could be attributed to only 5% of the total BMC recovered in a low-density (LD) fraction. The LD-DC precursors differed from mature DC in a number of important respects. Removal of Ia+ cells from the LD fraction by panning did not decrease the production of DC when the nonadherent cells were cultured. Thus, the cell from which the DC is derived does not express or minimally expresses Ia antigens, in contrast to the strongly Ia+ DC that is produced in bone marrow cultures. Irradiation of LD cells before culture prevented the development of DC. When irradiation was delayed by daily intervals, progressive increases in the number of DC resulted, up to the fifth day. These findings, together with preliminary autoradiographic data, indicate that cell division has occurred, in contrast to the DC, which does not divide. We conclude that bone marrow-derived DC arise in culture from the division of LD, Ia- precursors. PMID:3512761

  17. Sensitive fluorometric nanoparticle assays for cell counting and viability.

    PubMed

    Pihlasalo, Sari; Pellonperä, Lotta; Martikkala, Eija; Hänninen, Pekka; Härmä, Harri

    2010-11-15

    We have developed easy-to-use homogeneous methods utilizing time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) and fluorescence quenching for quantification of eukaryotic cells. The methods rely on a competitive adsorption of cells and fluorescently labeled protein onto citrate-stabilized colloidal gold nanoparticles or carboxylate-modified polystyrene nanoparticles doped with an Eu(III) chelate. In the gold nanoparticle sensor, the adsorption of the labeled protein to the gold nanoparticles leads to quenching of the fluorochrome. Eukaryotic cells reduce the adsorption of labeled protein to the gold particles increasing the fluorescence signal. In the Eu(III) nanoparticle sensor, the time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the nanoparticles and an acceptor-labeled protein is detected; a decrease in the magnitude of the time-resolved energy transfer signal (sensitized time-resolved fluorescence) is proportional to the cell-nanoparticle interaction and subsequent reduced adsorption of the labeled protein. Less than five cells were detected and quantified with the nanoparticle sensors in the homogeneous microtiter assay format with a coefficient of variation of 6% for the gold and 12% for the Eu(III) nanoparticle sensor. The Eu(III) nanoparticle sensor was also combined with a cell impermeable nucleic acid dye assay to measure cell viability in a single tube test with cell counts below 1000 cells/tube. This sensitive and easy-to-use nanoparticle sensor combined with a viability test for a low concentration of cells could potentially replace existing microscopic methods in biochemical laboratories. PMID:20954745

  18. Constructing a High Density Cell Culture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  19. White Blood Cell-Based Detection of Asymptomatic Scrapie Infection by Ex Vivo Assays

    PubMed Central

    Halliez, Sophie; Jaumain, Emilie; Huor, Alvina; Douet, Jean-Yves; Lugan, Séverine; Cassard, Hervé; Lacroux, Caroline; Béringue, Vincent; Andréoletti, Olivier; Vilette, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Prion transmission can occur by blood transfusion in human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in experimental animal models, including sheep. Screening of blood and its derivatives for the presence of prions became therefore a major public health issue. As infectious titer in blood is reportedly low, highly sensitive and robust methods are required to detect prions in blood and blood derived products. The objectives of this study were to compare different methods - in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays - to detect prion infectivity in cells prepared from blood samples obtained from scrapie infected sheep at different time points of the disease. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) and bioassays in transgenic mice expressing the ovine prion protein were the most efficient methods to identify infected animals at any time of the disease (asymptomatic to terminally-ill stages). However scrapie cell and cerebellar organotypic slice culture assays designed to replicate ovine prions in culture also allowed detection of prion infectivity in blood cells from asymptomatic sheep. These findings confirm that white blood cells are appropriate targets for preclinical detection and introduce ex vivo tools to detect blood infectivity during the asymptomatic stage of the disease. PMID:25122456

  20. Development of an ELISA assay for the quantification of soluble huntingtin in human blood cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Huntington’s disease (HD) is a monogenic disorder caused by an aberrant expansion of CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene (HTT). Pathogenesis is associated with expression of the mutant (mHTT) protein in the CNS, with its levels most likely related to disease progression and symptom severity. Since non-invasive methods to quantify HTT in the CNS do not exist, measuring amount of soluble HTT in peripheral cells represents an important step in development of disease-modifying interventions in HD. Results An ELISA assay using commercially available antibodies was developed to quantify HTT levels in complex matrices like mammalian cell cultures lysates and human samples. The immunoassay was optimized using a recombinant full-length HTT protein, and validated both on wild-type and mutant HTT species. The ability of the assay to detect significant variations of soluble HTT levels was evaluated using an HSP90 inhibitor that is known to enhance HTT degradation. Once optimized, the bioassay was applied to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HD patients, demonstrating good potential in tracking the disease course. Conclusions The method described here represents a validated, simple and rapid bio-molecular assay to evaluate soluble HTT levels in blood cells as useful tool in disease and pharmacodynamic marker identification for observational and clinical trials. PMID:24274906

  1. Alginate as a cell culture substrate for growth and differentiation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Razeih; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Samiei, Shahram; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Davari, Maliheh; Nazemroaya, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Abouzar; Deezagi, Abdolkhalegh

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells' behavior in alginate beads that establish 3D environment for cellular growth and mimic extracellular matrix versus the conventional 2D monolayer culture. RPE cells were encapsulated in alginate beads by dripping alginate cell suspension into CaCl2 solution. Beads were suspended in three different media including Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/F12 alone, DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS), and DMEM/F12 supplemented with 30 % human amniotic fluid (HAF). RPE cells were cultivated on polystyrene under the same conditions as controls. Cell phenotype, cell proliferation, cell death, and MTT assay, immunocytochemistry, and real-time RT-PCR were performed to evaluate the effect of alginate on RPE cells characteristics and integrity. RPE cells can survive and proliferate in alginate matrixes. Immunocytochemistry analysis exhibited Nestin, RPE65, and cytokeratin expressions in a reasonable number of cultured cells in alginate beads. Real-time PCR data demonstrated high levels of Nestin, CHX10, RPE65, and tyrosinase gene expressions in RPE cells immobilized in alginate when compared to 2D monolayer culture systems. The results suggest that alginate can be used as a reliable scaffold for maintenance of RPE cells' integrity and in vitro propagation of human retinal progenitor cells for cell replacement therapies in retinal diseases. PMID:25502925

  2. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on mouse mast cell induction by a splenic cell culture system.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Z Q; Asano, K; Yamazaki, T; Shimamura, T

    1994-01-01

    We have previously reported a method of mast cell induction by long-term culture of mouse spleen cells without using exogenous mast cell growth factor (Z.-Q. Hu, T. Yoshida, and T. Shimamura, J. Immunol. Methods 149:173, 1992). Supernatants recovered from the long-term cultures contain endogenous interleukin 3 and soluble stem cell factor. These were assessed by the capacity of the recovered supernatants to foster the growth of a mast cell growth factor-dependent cell line and by neutralizing antibodies. Besides the soluble factors, cell-to-cell contacts mediated by membrane stem cell factor on splenic stromal cells and c-Kit receptors on mast cells also affect mast cell induction. Different lots of fetal calf serum (FCS) were examined to determine a possible trigger for cytokine production. FCS can be divided into mast cell-inducible and noninducible sera by this process. However, not all FCS lots contain mast cell growth factor. The mast cell-inducible lots contain lipopolysaccharide (LPS) confirmed by a Limulus assay. Polymyxin B can neutralize the mast cell induction activity. Non-mast cell-inducible FCS can be converted to inducible FCS by adding exogenous LPS. The results indicate that LPS as a trigger of cytokine production is responsible for mast cell induction. Images PMID:7520422

  3. Genotoxicity of complex mixtures: CHO cell mutagenicity assay

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, M.E.; Samuel, J.E.

    1985-02-01

    A Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mammalian cell assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of complex mixtures (synthetic fuels). The genotoxicity (mutagenic potency) of the mixtures increased as the temperature of their boiling range increased. Most of the genotoxicity in the 750/sup 0/F+ boiling-range materials was associated with the neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fractions. Chemical analysis data indicate that the PAH fractions of high-boiling coal liquids contain a number of known chemical carcinogens, including five- and six-ring polyaromatics (e.g., benzo(a)pyrene) as well as four- and five-ring alkyl-substituted PAH (e.g., methylchrysene and dimethylbenzanthracenes); concentrations are a function of boiling point (bp). In vitro genotoxicity was also detected in fractions of nitrogen-containing polyaromatic compounds, as well as in those with aliphatics of hydroxy-containing PAH. Mutagenic activity of some fractions was detectable in the CHO assay in the absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system; in some instances, addition of exogenous enzymes and cofactors inhibited expression of the direct-acting mutagenic potential of the fraction. These data indicate that the organic matrix of the chemical fraction determines whether, and to what degree, various mutagens are expressed in the CHO assay. Therefore, the results of biological assays of these mixtures must be correlated with chemical analyses for proper interpretation of these data. 29 references, 16 figures, 4 tables.

  4. Establishment of a New Cell-Based Assay To Measure the Activity of Sweeteners in Fluorescent Food Extracts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Taste receptors have been defined at the molecular level in the past decade, and cell-based assays have been developed using cultured cells heterologously expressing these receptors. The most popular approach to detecting the cellular response to a tastant is to measure changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration using Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes. However, this method cannot be applied to food-derived samples that contain fluorescent substances. To establish an assay system that would be applicable to fluorescent samples, we tested the use of Ca2+-sensitive photoproteins, such as aequorin and mitochondrial clytin-II, as Ca2+ indicators in a human sweet taste receptor assay. Using these systems, we successfully detected receptor activation in response to sweetener, even when fluorescent compounds coexisted. This luminescence-based assay will be a powerful tool to objectively evaluate the sweetness of food-derived samples even at an industry level. PMID:21981007

  5. Fetal calf sera can distort cell-based luminescent proteasome assays through heat-resistant chymotrypsin-like activity.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Susan; Theile, Dirk; Seckinger, Anja; Burhenne, Jürgen; Weiss, Johanna

    2015-02-15

    Luminescence-based proteasome activity assays use specific substrates that are supposed to be cleaved by cellular proteasome activity leading to luciferase substrates. Usually, control wells containing cell culture medium supplemented with antibiotics and fetal calf serum are used as background. Using the Proteasome-Glo chymotrypsin-like cell-based assay from Promega, we show here that fetal calf sera from different manufacturers contain heat-resistant, bortezomib-inhibitable, chymotrypsin-like activities that can interfere with proteasome activity assays. These data strongly recommend the use of pure phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or serum-free medium during proteasome activity assays to diminish background luminescence and, thus, to obtain reliable results. PMID:25447494

  6. A sensible technique to detect mollicutes impurities in human cells cultured in GMP condition.

    PubMed

    Ugolotti, Elisabetta; Vanni, Irene

    2014-01-01

    In therapeutic trials the use of manipulated cell cultures for clinical applications is often required. Mollicutes microorganism contamination of tissue cultures is a major problem because it can determine various and severe alterations in cellular function. Thus methods able to detect and trace cell cultures with Mollicutes contamination are needed in the monitoring of cells grown under good manufacturing practice conditions, and cell lines in continuous culture must be tested at regular intervals. We here describe a multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay able to detect contaminant Mollicutes species in a single-tube reaction through analysis of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions and Tuf and P1 cytoadhesin genes. The method shows a sensitivity, specificity, and robustness comparable with the culture and the indicator cell culture as required by the European Pharmacopoeia guidelines and was validated following International Conference on Harmonization guidelines and Food and Drug Administration requirements. PMID:24740225

  7. Establishment and Characterization of a Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Reporter Cell Line for Influenza A Virus Assays?

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Jaber; Perez, Sandra; Guo, Zhu; Chen, Li-Mei; Donis, Ruben O.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza virus diagnosis has traditionally relied on virus isolation in chicken embryo or cell cultures. Many laboratories have adopted rapid molecular methods for detection of influenza viruses and discontinued routine utilization of the relatively slow viral culture methods. We describe an influenza A virus reporter cell line that contributes to more efficient viral detection in cell culture. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were engineered to constitutively produce an influenza virus genome-like luciferase reporter RNA driven by the canine RNA polymerase I promoter. Induction of a high level of luciferase activity was detected in the Luc9.1 cells upon infection with various strains of influenza A virus, including 2009 H1N1 pandemic and highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. In contrast, infection with influenza B virus or human adenovirus type 5 did not induce significant levels of reporter expression. The reporter Luc9.1 cells were evaluated in neutralizing antibody assays with convalescent H3N2 ferret serum, yielding a neutralization titer comparable to that obtained by the conventional microneutralization assay, suggesting that the use of the reporter cell line might simplify neutralization assays by facilitating the establishment of infectious virus endpoints. Luc9.1 cells were also used to determine the susceptibility of influenza A viruses to a model antiviral drug. The equivalence to conventional antiviral assay results indicated that the Luc9.1 cells could provide an alternative cell-based platform for high-throughput drug discovery screens. In summary, the MDCK-derived Luc9.1 reporter cell line is highly permissive for influenza A virus replication and provides a very specific and sensitive approach for simultaneous detection and isolation of influenza A viruses as well as functional evaluation of antibodies and antiviral molecules. PMID:20504984

  8. Facilitated nuclear transport of calmodulin in tissue culture cells

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) potentiates Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. We have investigated the mechanism of CaM nuclear transport using tissue culture cell microinjection and a permeabilized cell import assay. The inhibition of CaM import by the translocation inhibitor wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and by chilling, indicates that CaM import is facilitated, but because ATP depletion does not affect CaM import, the mechanism does not appear to be active. Chilling and WGA arrest persist in ATP-depleted cells, indicating that CaM is not retained in the cytoplasm by an ATP-dependent mechanism. In permeabilized cells, both Ca(2+)-CaM and Ca(2+)-free CaM are sensitive to extract-dependent WGA and chilling import inhibition. Titration experiments in microinjected and permeabilized cells indicate that a saturable cytosolic factor(s) mediates chilling and WGA arrest. PMID:7798309

  9. A Differential Cell Capture Assay for Evaluating Antibody Interactions with Cell Surface Targets

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, David J.; Kenanova, Vania E.; Lepin, Eric J.; McCabe, Katelyn E.; Kamei, Ken-ichiro; Ohashi, Minori; Wang, Shutao; Tseng, Hsian-Rong; Wu, Anna M.; Behrenbruch, Christian P.

    2015-01-01

    Many biological and biomedical laboratory assays require the use of antibodies and antibody fragments that strongly bind to their cell-surface targets. Conventional binding assays such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometry have many challenges, including capital equipment requirements, labor intensiveness, and large reagent and sample consumption. Although these techniques are successful in mainstream biology, there is an unmet need for a tool to quickly ascertain the relative binding capabilities of antibodies/antibody fragments to cell-surface targets on the bench top at low cost. We describe a novel cell capture assay that enables several candidate antibodies to be evaluated quickly as to their relative binding efficacies to their cell-surface targets. We used chimeric rituximab and murine anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies as cell capture agents on a functionalized microscope slide surface to assess their relative binding affinities based on how well they capture CD20-expressing mammalian cells. We found that these antibodies’ concentration-dependent cell capture profiles correlate with their relative binding affinities. A key observation of this assay involved understanding how differences in capture surfaces affect the assay results. This approach can find utility when an antibody or antibody fragment against a known cell line needs to be selected for targeting studies. PMID:20178770

  10. Aminoacid transport into cultured tobacco cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Berry; H. M. Harrington; R. L. Bernsteint; R. R. Henkel

    1981-01-01

    Arginine transport in suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Wisconsin-38 was investigated. Cells that were preincubated in the presence of Ca2+ for 6 h prior to transport exhibited stimulated transport rates. After the preincubation treatment, initial rates of uptake were constant for at least 45 min. Arginine accumulated in the cells against a concentration gradient; this accumulation was not

  11. Bioprocessing technology for plant cell suspension cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei wen Su

    1995-01-01

    Considering various forms of in vitro plant tissue cultures, cell suspension culture is most amenable to large-scale production\\u000a of natural compounds, owing primarily to its superior culture homogeneity. This fact has already been demonstrated in several\\u000a largescale applications, including the commercial shikonin process. The scope of this work is to review the state of the art\\u000a in bioprocessing technologies pertinent

  12. Development of culture-based serological assays to diagnose Babesia divergens infections.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Simona; Galuppi, Roberta; Marcer, Federica; Marini, Carla; Tampieri, Maria Paola; Moretti, Annabella; Pietrobelli, Mario; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2012-02-01

    Babesioses are hematic tick-borne diseases that induce malaria-like disorders in domestic, wild animals, and humans. Although indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) commercial kits are available to test the presence of antibodies against most Babesia species, no kit exists to serologically diagnose the infections due to Babesia divergens, one of the most important zoonotic species. To fill this gap and to develop assays to detect animal and human infections, in vitro cultures (microaerophilous stationary phase system) of B. divergens were organized. Infected erythrocytes were adsorbed as corpuscular antigen (CA) on IFAT slides and ELISA microwells. The supernatant medium of the cultures (metabolic antigen, MA) was collected and employed in ELISA and western blot (WB) assays. B. divergens was also used to produce positive sera in Meriones unguiculatus and to infect a calf. Serological tests were set up with sera from experimentally/naturally infected animals, and possible cross-reactions were evaluated using heterologous sera from cattle positive to other piroplasms. Sera from clinically healthy people at risk of infection were also tested. As expected, assays based on the purified MAs from in vitro cultures proved more sensitive and specific than CA-IFAT and CA-ELISA. In fact, MA-ELISA provided satisfactory performances (even if 8.4%-15.7% cross-reactions were evidenced), and the WB developed proved totally sensitive and specific. WB indicated as immunodominant antigens two major protein bands at 33 and 37?kDa, which were also evidenced in 2.2% of the human sera tested, proving the parasite transmission to humans also in Italy. PMID:21995263

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations from whole blood cultures correlate with isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many cellular immune assays are impractical because they require labor-intensive isolation of cells from their natural environment. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between cell culture supernatant TNF-alpha from isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and w...

  14. Cryopreservation of Taxus chinensis suspension cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Kim, S I; Choi, H K; Son, J S; Yun, J H; Jang, M S; Kim, H R; Song, J Y; Kim, J H; Choi, H J; Hong, S S

    2001-01-01

    A simple cryopreservation method for suspension cells of Taxus chinensis was established. In this procedure 7 days old suspension cells were used without any pre-culture treatment. At first, cells were incubated in cryoprotectant solution (0.5M DMSO and 0.5M glycerol) on ice for 30 min and then frozen at a cooling rate of 1 degree C/min to -40 degrees C prior to immersion in liquid nitrogen. The average viability of frozen-thawed cells was between 30 to 40%. The recovery of cryopreserved cells in liquid nitrogen for 1 month was accomplished. After rapid thawing, cells were transferred to solid medium and cultivated for 4-6 weeks. The treatment of trehalose as a cryoprotectant enhanced re-growth of frozen-thawed cells. The stable maintenance of paclitaxel biosynthetic ability in cryopreserved cells was confirmed by comparing with that of regularly sub-cultured suspension cells. PMID:11788843

  15. Assaying stem cell mechanobiology on microfabricated elastomeric substrates with geometrically modulated rigidity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Michael T; Fu, Jianping; Wang, Yang-Kao; Desai, Ravi A; Chen, Christopher S

    2011-02-01

    We describe the use of a microfabricated cell culture substrate, consisting of a uniform array of closely spaced, vertical, elastomeric microposts, to study the effects of substrate rigidity on cell function. Elastomeric micropost substrates are micromolded from silicon masters comprised of microposts of different heights to yield substrates of different rigidities. The tips of the elastomeric microposts are functionalized with extracellular matrix through microcontact printing to promote cell adhesion. These substrates, therefore, present the same topographical cues to adherent cells while varying substrate rigidity only through manipulation of micropost height. This protocol describes how to fabricate the silicon micropost array masters (~2 weeks to complete) and elastomeric substrates (3 d), as well as how to perform cell culture experiments (1-14 d), immunofluorescence imaging (2 d), traction force analysis (2 d) and stem cell differentiation assays (1 d) on these substrates in order to examine the effect of substrate rigidity on stem cell morphology, traction force generation, focal adhesion organization and differentiation. PMID:21293460

  16. Oscillatory behavior of cells in tissue culture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaever, Ivar; Linton, Michael F. A.; Keese, Charles R.

    1998-03-01

    Fibroblasts and epithelial cells organize themselves in distinct patterns in tissue culture which indicates that neighboring cells communicate. A striking example of such communication is the oscillatory behavior of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells reported here. These oscillations were discovered using a biosensor referred to as ECIS (Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing). In this measurement cells are seeded out on a small electrode deposited at the bottom of a tissue culture well and immersed in ordinary culture medium. By measuring the changes in the impedance of the electrode as a function of time, many important properties of the cells on the electrode can be inferred, such as motion, morphology changes and membrane capacitance. The impedance oscillations of MDCK cells were observed with highly confluent cell layers, where the approximately 100 cells on the electrode acted in unison. The communication between cells can be demonstrated directly by a variation of the ECIS concept, where cells are cultured on two closely spaced electrodes. The impedance fluctuations are measured independently on each electrode and compared by using a cross-correlation function.

  17. Cell Culture on MEMS Platforms: A Review

    E-print Network

    Ni, Ming

    Microfabricated systems provide an excellent platform for the culture of cells, and are an extremely useful tool for the investigation of cellular responses to various stimuli. Advantages offered over traditional methods ...

  18. An adaptation of the human HepaRG cells to the in vitro micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Jossé, Rozenn; Rogue, Alexandra; Lorge, Elisabeth; Guillouzo, André

    2012-05-01

    The in vitro micronucleus test is considered as an attractive tool for genotoxicity testing of chemicals because of its simplicity of scoring and wide applicability in different cell types. However, most of the cells currently in use are devoid of the enzyme equipment required for activation of promutagens in the genotoxic metabolites. We postulated that the human HepaRG cell line, which can express xenobiotic metabolising enzymes at levels close to those found in primary human hepatocytes and has retained the indefinite growth capacity of transformed cells, could represent a more suitable model for genotoxicity testing of chemicals requiring metabolic activation. Based on the recommendations of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline TG 487 for testing of chemicals, HepaRG cell cultures containing >80% mature hepatocytes were treated in situ with various chemicals for 24 h followed by a 3-day mitogenic stimulation with epidermal growth factor without cytokinesis block. In such culture conditions, HepaRG cells underwent >1.5 cell cycle per cell during the mitogenic stimulation. While non-genotoxic compounds (mannitol and staurosporine) did not increase the rate of micronucleated mononucleated cells, all aneugens (colchicine, nocodazole and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) as well as the direct acting clastogen methyl methanesulfonate and clastogens requiring metabolic activation (aflatoxin B1, benzo(a)pyrene and 2-nitrofluorene) induced a statistically significant concentration-related increase in the number of mono-micronucleated cells. The micronucleus test was also performed after 7-day repeat exposure of HepaRG cells to the chemicals. Noticeably, a time-dependent effect was obtained with the three clastogens requiring metabolic activation. In conclusion, our results obtained with HepaRG hepatocytes exposed to various genotoxic compounds requiring or not bioactivation, compared favorably with those reported in various other cell types. They support the view that metabolically competent HepaRG cells have unique potential benefits for testing genotoxic compounds using the in vitro micronucleus assay. PMID:22058015

  19. Impact of static magnetic fields on human myoblast cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Stern-Straeter, Jens; Bonaterra, Gabriel Alejandro; Kassner, Stefan S; Faber, Anne; Sauter, Alexander; Schulz, Johannes D; Hörmann, Karl; Kinscherf, Ralf; Goessler, Ulrich Reinhart

    2011-12-01

    Treatment of skeletal muscle loss due to trauma or tumor ablation therapy still lacks a suitable clinical approach. Creation of functional muscle tissue in vitro using the differentiation potential of human satellite cells (myoblasts) is a promising new research field called tissue engineering. Strong differentiation stimuli, which can induce formation of myofibers after cell expansion, have to be identified and evaluated in order to create sufficient amounts of neo-tissue. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of static magnetic fields (SMF) on human satellite cell cultures as one of the preferred stem cell sources in skeletal muscle tissue engineering. Experiments were performed using human satellite cells with and without SMF stimulation after incubation with a culture medium containing low [differentiation medium (DM)] or high [growth medium (GM)] concentrations of growth factors. Proliferation analysis using the alamarBlue assay revealed no significant influence of SMF on cell division. Real-time RT-PCR of the following marker genes was investigated: myogenic factor 5 (MYF5), myogenic differentiation antigen 1 (MYOD1), myogenin (MYOG), skeletal muscle ?1 actin (ACTA1), and embryonic (MYH3), perinatal (MYH8) and adult (MYH1) skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain. We detected an influence on marker gene expression by SMF in terms of a down-regulation of the marker genes in cell cultures treated with SMF and DM, but not in cell cultures treated with SMF and GM. Immunocytochemical investigations using antibodies directed against the differentiation markers confirmed the gene expression results and showed an enhancement of maturation after stimulation with GM and SMF. Additional calculation of the fusion index also revealed an increase in myotube formation in cell cultures treated with SMF and GM. Our findings show that the effect of SMF on the process of differentiation depends on the growth factor concentration in the culture medium in human satellite cultures. SMF alone enhances the maturation of human satellite cells treated with GM, but not satellite cells that were additionally stimulated with serum cessation. Therefore, further investigations are necessary before consideration of SMF for skeletal muscle tissue engineering approaches. PMID:21837362

  20. Digital microfluidics for automated hanging drop cell spheroid culture.

    PubMed

    Aijian, Andrew P; Garrell, Robin L

    2015-06-01

    Cell spheroids are multicellular aggregates, grown in vitro, that mimic the three-dimensional morphology of physiological tissues. Although there are numerous benefits to using spheroids in cell-based assays, the adoption of spheroids in routine biomedical research has been limited, in part, by the tedious workflow associated with spheroid formation and analysis. Here we describe a digital microfluidic platform that has been developed to automate liquid-handling protocols for the formation, maintenance, and analysis of multicellular spheroids in hanging drop culture. We show that droplets of liquid can be added to and extracted from through-holes, or "wells," and fabricated in the bottom plate of a digital microfluidic device, enabling the formation and assaying of hanging drops. Using this digital microfluidic platform, spheroids of mouse mesenchymal stem cells were formed and maintained in situ for 72 h, exhibiting good viability (>90%) and size uniformity (% coefficient of variation <10% intraexperiment, <20% interexperiment). A proof-of-principle drug screen was performed on human colorectal adenocarcinoma spheroids to demonstrate the ability to recapitulate physiologically relevant phenomena such as insulin-induced drug resistance. With automatable and flexible liquid handling, and a wide range of in situ sample preparation and analysis capabilities, the digital microfluidic platform provides a viable tool for automating cell spheroid culture and analysis. PMID:25510471

  1. Culture and transfection of axolotl cells.

    PubMed

    Denis, Jean-François; Sader, Fadi; Ferretti, Patrizia; Roy, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    The use of cells grown in vitro has been instrumental for multiple aspects of biomedical research and especially molecular and cellular biology. The ability to grow cells from multicellular organisms like humans, squids, or salamanders is important to simplify the analyses and experimental designs to help understand the biology of these organisms. The advent of the first cell culture has allowed scientists to tease apart the cellular functions, and in many situations these experiments help understand what is happening in the whole organism. In this chapter, we describe techniques for the culture and genetic manipulation of an established cell line from axolotl, a species widely used for studying epimorphic regeneration. PMID:25740487

  2. Image-based cell-resolved screening assays in flow.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Man Ching; McKenna, Brian; Wang, Steve S; Wolf, Dane; Ehrlich, Daniel J

    2015-06-01

    A parallel microfluidic cytometer (PMC) is based on a one-dimensional (1D) scanning detector, a parallel array of flow channels, and new multiparameter analysis algorithms that operate on low-pixel-count 1D images. In this article, we explore a series of image-based live- and fixed-cell screening assays, including two NF-kB nuclear translocations and T-cell capping. We then develop a new multiparametric linear weighted classifier that achieves a Z' factor sufficient for scaled pharmaceutical discovery with Jurkat cells in suspension. We conclude that the PMC should have the throughput and statistical power to permit a new capability for image-based high-sample-number pharmaceutical screening with suspension samples. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25515084

  3. Sensitivity of Edge Detection Methods for Quantifying Cell Migration Assays

    PubMed Central

    Treloar, Katrina K.; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative imaging methods to analyze cell migration assays are not standardized. Here we present a suite of two-dimensional barrier assays describing the collective spreading of an initially-confined population of 3T3 fibroblast cells. To quantify the motility rate we apply two different automatic image detection methods to locate the position of the leading edge of the spreading population after , and hours. These results are compared with a manual edge detection method where we systematically vary the detection threshold. Our results indicate that the observed spreading rates are very sensitive to the choice of image analysis tools and we show that a standard measure of cell migration can vary by as much as 25% for the same experimental images depending on the details of the image analysis tools. Our results imply that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to meaningfully compare previously published measures of cell migration since previous results have been obtained using different image analysis techniques and the details of these techniques are not always reported. Using a mathematical model, we provide a physical interpretation of our edge detection results. The physical interpretation is important since edge detection algorithms alone do not specify any physical measure, or physical definition, of the leading edge of the spreading population. Our modeling indicates that variations in the image threshold parameter correspond to a consistent variation in the local cell density. This means that varying the threshold parameter is equivalent to varying the location of the leading edge in the range of approximately 1–5% of the maximum cell density. PMID:23826283

  4. Direct 5S rRNA Assay for Monitoring Mixed-Culture Bioprocesses

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, D. L.; Browning, C. K.; Bulmer, D. K.; Ward, T. E.; MacDonell, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    This study demonstrates the efficacy of a direct 5S rRNA assay for the characterization of mixed microbial populations by using as an example the bacteria associated with acidic mining environments. The direct 5S rRNA assay described herein represents a nonselective, direct molecular method for monitoring and characterizing the predominant, metabolically active members of a microbial population. The foundation of the assay is high-resolution denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which is used to separate 5S rRNA species extracted from collected biomass. Separation is based on the unique migration behavior of each 5S rRNA species during electrophoresis in denaturing gradient gels. With mixtures of RNA extracted from laboratory cultures, the upper practical limit for detection in the current experimental system has been estimated to be greater than 15 different species. With this method, the resolution was demonstrated to be effective at least to the species level. The strength of this approach was demonstrated by the ability to discriminate between Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 19859 and Thiobacillus thiooxidans ATCC 8085, two very closely related species. Migration patterns for the 5S rRNA from members of the genus Thiobacillus were readily distinguishable from those of the genera Acidiphilium and Leptospirillum. In conclusion, the 5S rRNA assay represents a powerful method by which the structure of a microbial population within acidic environments can be assessed. PMID:16535333

  5. Diagnostic Assay of Trace Mercury in Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Ly, Suw Young; Chun, Seung Kyu

    2012-09-10

    An electrochemical diagnostic assay of a trace mercury was performed using stripping voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Three graphite pencil electrode systems were used as the working, auxiliary and reference electrodes. Fluorine immobilization was performed on the working electrode to improve the sensitive low detection limit. Clean seawater was used instead of an expensive electrolyte such as buffer solution, acid or base solution. The working ranges are better sensitive then observed for analogous method. The result was applied to the muscle cell of an earthworm that lived in soil contaminated with trace mercury. PMID:22974290

  6. Culturing primary mouse pancreatic ductal cells.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Maximilian; Rhim, Andrew D; Rustgi, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    The most common subtype of pancreatic cancer is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PDAC resembles ductal cells morphologically. To study pancreatic ductal cell (PDC) and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN)/PDAC biology, it is essential to have reliable in vitro culture conditions. Here we describe a methodology to isolate, culture, and passage PDCs and duct-like cells from the mouse pancreas. It can be used to isolate cells from genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), providing a valuable tool to study disease models in vitro to complement in vivo findings. The culture conditions allow epithelial cells to outgrow fibroblast and other "contaminating" cell types within a few passages. However, the resulting cultures, although mostly epithelial, are not completely devoid of fibroblasts. Regardless, this protocol provides guidelines for a robust in vitro culture system to isolate, maintain, and expand primary pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. It can be applied to virtually all GEMMs of pancreatic disease and other diseases and cancers that arise from ductal structures. Because most carcinomas resemble ductal structures, this protocol has utility in the study of other cancers in addition to PDAC, such as breast and prostate cancers. PMID:26034301

  7. Accuracy of an Accelerated, Culture-Based Assay for Detection of Group B Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Faro, Jonathan P.; Bishop, Karen; Riddle, Gerald; Ramirez, Mildred M.; Katz, Allan R.; Turrentine, Mark A.; Faro, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the validity of a novel Group B Streptococcus (GBS) diagnostic assay for the detection of GBS in antepartum patients. Study Design. Women were screened for GBS colonization at 35 to 37 weeks of gestation. Three vaginal-rectal swabs were collected per patient; two were processed by traditional culture (commercial laboratory versus in-house culture), and the third was processed by an immunoblot-based test, in which a sample is placed over an antibody-coated nitrocellulose membrane, and after a six-hour culture, bound GBS is detected with a secondary antibody. Results. 356 patients were evaluated. Commercial processing revealed a GBS prevalence rate of 85/356 (23.6%). In-house culture provided a prevalence rate of 105/356 (29.5%). When the accelerated GBS test result was compared to the in-house GBS culture, it demonstrated a sensitivity of 97.1% and a specificity of 88.4%. Interobserver reliability for the novel GBS test was 88.2%. Conclusions. The accelerated GBS test provides a high level of validity for the detection of GBS colonization in antepartum patients within 6.5 hours and demonstrates a substantial agreement between observers. PMID:23509420

  8. Photosynthetic characterization of photoautotrophic cells cultured in a minimal medium.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, C S; Widholm, J M

    1990-12-01

    Photosynthetic properties of photoautotrophic suspensions cultured in a minimal growth medium have been evaluated to determine whether changes have occurred in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity, phosphoenol-pyruvate (PEP) carboxylase activity, chlorophyll content, or culture growth. Five photoautotrophic lines Amaranthus powellii, Datura innoxia, Glycine max, Gossypium hirsutum, and a Nicotiana tabacum-Nicotiana glutinosa fusion hybrid were grown in a medium without organic carbon other than phytohormones, and without vitamins. These photoautotrophic lines had total Rubisco activities ranging from 85 to 266 micromoles CO(2) fixed per milligram chlorophyll hour(-1), with percent activation of Rubisco ranging from 16 to 53%. Inclusion of protease inhibitors in the homogenization buffer did not result in higher Rubisco activity. PEP carboxylase activity for cells cultured in minimal medium was found to range from 16 to 146 micromoles CO(2) per milligram chlorophyll hour(-1), with no higher activity in the C(4)Amaranthus cells compared with PEP carboxylase activity in the C(3) species assayed. Rubisco-to-PEP carboxylase ratios ranged from 2.2 to 1 up to 9.4 to 1. Chlorophyll contents increased in all but the Nicotiana cell line, and all of the photoautotrophic culture lines were capable of growth in vitamin-free medium with the exception of SB-P, which requires thiamine. PMID:16667897

  9. Enhanced growth medium and method for culturing human mammary epithelial cells

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, Martha R. (7290 Sayre Dr., Oakland, CA 94611); Smith, Helene S. (5693 Cabot Dr., Oakland, CA 94611); Hackett, Adeline J. (82 Evergreen Dr., Orinda, CA 94563)

    1983-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for isolating and culturing human mammary epithelial cells of both normal and malignant origin. Tissue samples are digested with a mixture including the enzymes collagenase and hyaluronidase to produce clumps of cells substantially free from stroma and other undesired cellular material. Growing the clumps of cells in mass culture in an enriched medium containing particular growth factors allows for active cell proliferation and subculture. Clonal culture having plating efficiencies of up to 40% or greater may be obtained using individual cells derived from the mass culture by plating the cells on appropriate substrates in the enriched media. The clonal growth of cells so obtained is suitable for a quantitative assessment of the cytotoxicity of particular treatment. An exemplary assay for assessing the cytotoxicity of the drug adriamycin is presented.

  10. Characterization of DNA in cell culture supernatant by fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lihan; Yeo, Veronica; Yang, Yuansheng; Gagnon, Pete

    2015-05-01

    A fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography (FSEC) method was developed to characterize DNA in cell culture supernatant. Samples stained with Picogreen were fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and monitored simultaneously by UV absorbance and fluorescence. SEC provided a size-characterization capability absent from bulk fluorescent assays, and was also free from interference from other fluorescent and UV-absorbing small-molecule cell culture components. FSEC revealed that DNA in mammalian cell culture supernatant exists mostly in the form of nucleosomal arrays. FSEC combined with agarose electrophoresis revealed spontaneous degradation of DNA in mammalian cell culture supernatant over a 30 day period at 4 °C: from arrays containing up to ~40 nucleosomes, down to arrays containing three or fewer nucleosomes. It also detected nucleosomal DNA in wheat, soy, and yeast hydrolysates commonly used to enhance cell culture productivity. PMID:25821116

  11. Cell damage by UVA radiation of a mercury microscopy lamp probed by autofluorescence modifications, cloning assay, and comet assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten Koenig; Tatiana B. Krasieva; Eckhard Bauer; Ursula Fiedler; Michael W. Berns; Bruce J. Tromberg; Karl O. Greulich

    1996-01-01

    Cell damage by low-power 365-nm radiation of a 50-W high-pressure mercury microscopy lamp was studied. Exposure of Chinese hamster ovary cells to ultraviolet-A (UVA) radiation > 10 kJ\\/m2 resulted in significant modifications of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide attributed autofluorescence and inhibition of cell division. Single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) revealed UVA-induced single-strand DNA breaks. According to these results, UVA excitation radiation

  12. Microtechnology for Stem Cell Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Serena; Elisa Cimetta; Camilla Luni; Nicola Elvassore

    \\u000a Advances in stem cell research in recent decades have been aided by progress in the development of novel technologies aimed\\u000a at biological systems. At the same time mimicking stem cell niches in vitro has become crucial for both basic stem cell research\\u000a and the development of innovative therapies based on stem cells. Innovative microscale technologies can contribute to our\\u000a quantitative

  13. Biosynthesis of cellulose: studies with tobacco protoplasts and cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, G.; Blaschek, W.; Haass, D.; Koehler, H.

    1983-01-01

    The cell wall of regenerating tobacco protoplasts was shown to be mainly composed of noncellulosic ..beta..-1,3- and ..beta..-1,4-linked glucans with a cellulose content of only about 5%. Some pectic and hemicellulosic material is released by these protoplasts into the culture medium. The DP distribution of the ..cap alpha..-cellulose in regenerating protoplasts as well as in suspension-cultured cells, callus, or tobacco mesophyll revealed the existence of mainly two DP fractions with low (DP<500) and higher (DP 2000-3000) molecular weight, both of which contribute to the cellulosic network of the primary cell wall. The alkali-soluble and alkali-insoluble products of glucan synthetase assays with particulate enzyme fractions were analyzed in detail. By prelabeling with (/sup 14/C)glucose, the existence of primer glucans, which are elongated in the appropriate in vitro assay, could be substantiated. Alkali-soluble glucans consisted of a very short, if any, primer glucan, to which about 40 glucose units were added in vitro. The glucans in the alkali-insoluble fraction have an average DP of 200-250 and are synthesized in vitro by chain elongation via addition of about 30 new glucose units to a 1,4-linked primer glucan of DPapprox.200. 27 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Comparison of sensitivity to arsenic compounds between a Bhas 42 cell transformation assay and a BALB\\/c 3T3 cell transformation assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dai Muramatsu; Kiyoshi Sasaki; Sachiko Kuroda; Kumiko Hayashi; Noriho Tanaka; Ayako Sakai

    2009-01-01

    A short-term cell transformation assay has recently been developed, using Bhas 42 cells which were established from BALB\\/c 3T3 cells transfected by v-Ha-ras gene and postulated to be initiated in the two-stage carcinogenesis theory. The Bhas 42 cell transformation assay has been reported to be capable of detecting initiating and promoting activities of chemical carcinogens, according to the different protocols,

  15. A high-throughput platform for stem cell niche co-cultures and downstream gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Gracz, Adam D; Williamson, Ian A; Roche, Kyle C; Johnston, Michael J; Wang, Fengchao; Wang, Yuli; Attayek, Peter J; Balowski, Joseph; Liu, Xiao Fu; Laurenza, Ryan J; Gaynor, Liam T; Sims, Christopher E; Galanko, Joseph A; Li, Linheng; Allbritton, Nancy L; Magness, Scott T

    2015-03-01

    Stem cells reside in 'niches', where support cells provide critical signalling for tissue renewal. Culture methods mimic niche conditions and support the growth of stem cells in vitro. However, current functional assays preclude statistically meaningful studies of clonal stem cells, stem cell-niche interactions, and genetic analysis of single cells and their organoid progeny. Here, we describe a 'microraft array' (MRA) that facilitates high-throughput clonogenic culture and computational identification of single intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and niche cells. We use MRAs to demonstrate that Paneth cells, a known ISC niche component, enhance organoid formation in a contact-dependent manner. MRAs facilitate retrieval of early enteroids for quantitative PCR to correlate functional properties, such as enteroid morphology, with differences in gene expression. MRAs have broad applicability to assaying stem cell-niche interactions and organoid development, and serve as a high-throughput culture platform to interrogate gene expression at early stages of stem cell fate choices. PMID:25664616

  16. Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

  17. Hydrogels as extracellular matrix mimics for 3D cell culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark W. Tibbitt; Kristi S. Anseth

    2009-01-01

    Methods for culturing mammalian cells ex vivo are increasingly needed to study cell and tissue physiology and to grow replacement tissue for regenerative medicine. Two-dimensional culture has been the paradigm for typical in vitro cell culture; however, it has been demonstrated that cells behave more natively when cultured in three- dimensional environments. Permissive, synthetic hydrogels and promoting, natural hydrogels have

  18. Characteristics of cardiac cell cultures derived from human myocardial explants.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, S V; Perovskii, P P; Chepeleva, E V; Malakhova, A A; Dement'eva, E V; Pokushalov, E A; Sukhikh, G T; Zakiyan, S M

    2013-11-01

    Primary cell cultures derived from human myocardial explants were obtained and characterized. The explant cultures contained cardiac stem cells (c-kit(+); ? 4%), microvascular cells (endothelial cells and pericytes), fibroblasts, and myofibroblasts. It was demonstrated that culturing of cardiac cells in cardiospheres did not promote enrichment of the cell culture with stem cells. MACS-sorted c-kit(+) cells from the explant culture were characterized by limited proliferative capacity and were capable of cardiomyogenic differentiation. The presence of microvascular cells determined general angiogenic potential of the culture. PMID:24319709

  19. Silencing of exogenous DNA in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroshi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kamiya, Hiroyuki

    2006-06-01

    The intranuclear disposition of exogenous DNA is highly important for the therapeutic effects of the administrated DNA. Naked luciferase-plasmid DNA was transfected into cultured cells including HeLa by electroporation, and the amounts of intranuclear plasmid DNA and luciferase were quantitated at various time points. Decrease in expression efficiency from one copy of the exogenous DNA over time occurred as the case of mouse liver, and its degrees varied between cell lines. These results suggest that exogenous DNA is 'silenced' in the cultured cells as well as in mouse hepatocytes. PMID:16755038

  20. Cell-surface glycoproteins of human sarcomas: differential expression in normal and malignant tissues and cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rettig, W.F.; Garin-Chesa, P.; Beresford, H.R.; Oettgen, H.F.; Melamed, M.R.; Old, L.J.

    1988-05-01

    Normal differentiation and malignant transformation of human cells are characterized by specific changes in surface antigen phenotype. In the present study, the authors have defined six cell-surface antigens of human sarcomas and normal mesenchymal cells, by using mixed hemadsorption assays and immunochemical methods for the analysis of cultured cells and immunohistochemical staining for the analysis of normal tissues and > 200 tumor specimens. Differential patterns of F19, F24, G171, G253, S5, and Thy-1 antigen expression were found to characterize (i) subsets of cultured sarcoma cell lines, (ii) cultured fibroblasts derived from various organs, (iii) normal resting and activated mesenchymal tissues, and (iv) sarcoma and nonmesenchymal tumor tissues. These results provide a basic surface antigenic map for cultured mesenchymal cells and mesenchymal tissues and permit the classification of human sarcomas according to their antigenic phenotypes.

  1. Large-scale culture of plant cells.

    PubMed

    Scragg, A H; Fowler, M W

    1990-01-01

    The large-scale or mass cultivation of plant cells is the growth of plant cell suspensions at volumes above those normally produced in shake flasks, that is, above IL. Attempts to grow plant cells in fermenters or bioreactors started in the early 1960s with converted carboys. The area has developed steadily, such that today bioreactors in excess of 5000 L have been used successfully for large-scale plant cell culture (1,2). Much of the early work was carried out using bioreactors designed for microbial culture. It was soon found, however, that although plant cell suspensions appear to be similar in many ways to microbial cultures, there are, in fact, key differences that can have a significant influence on large-scale cultivation. Plant cells are large, 20-40 µM in diameter, and up to 100 PM in length; further, they rarely occur as single cells, but as aggregates of up to 2 mm in diameter (Fig. 1). The individual plant cell soon after division is typically rounded, containing considerable amounts of cytoplasm; however, as it ages, the cell expands and becomes dominated by a large vacuole. In consequence, the overall metabolic activity is low compared with microbial cells, which in turn gives a very slow growth rate (measured in days. PMID:21390630

  2. Effect of amniotic fluid on the in vitro culture of human corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Sepehr; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Bagheri, Abouzar; Balagholi, Sahar; Mohammadian, Azam; Rezaei-Kanavi, Mozhgan; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Samiei, Shahram; Negahban, Kambiz

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on the growth of human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) and to establish an in vitro method for expanding HCECs. HCECs were cultured in DMEM-F12 supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Confluent monolayer cultures were trypsinized and passaged using either FBS- or HAF-containing media. Cell proliferation and cell death ELISA assays were performed to determine the effect of HAF on cell growth and viability. The identity of the cells cultured in 20% HAF was determined using immunocytochemistry (ICC) and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques to evaluate the expression of factors that are characteristic of HCECs, including Ki-67, Vimentin, Na+/K+-ATPase and ZO-1. HCEC primary cultures were successfully established using 20% HAF-containing medium, and these cultures demonstrated rapid cell proliferation according to the cell proliferation and death ELISA assay results. The ICC and real time RT-PCR results indicated that there was a higher expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and ZO-1 in the 20% HAF cell cultures compared with the control (20% FBS) (P < 0.05). The 20% HAF-containing medium exhibited a greater stimulatory effect on HCEC growth and could represent a potential enriched supplement for HCEC regeneration studies. PMID:24726921

  3. Cell damage by UVA radiation of a mercury microscopy lamp probed by autofluorescence modifications, cloning assay, and comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Bauer, Eckhard; Fiedler, Ursula; Berns, Michael W.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Greulich, Karl O.

    1996-04-01

    Cell damage by low-power 365-nm radiation of a 50-W high-pressure mercury microscopy lamp was studied. Exposure of Chinese hamster ovary cells to ultraviolet-A (UVA) radiation > 10 kJ/m2 resulted in significant modifications of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide attributed autofluorescence and inhibition of cell division. Single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) revealed UVA-induced single-strand DNA breaks. According to these results, UVA excitation radiation in fluorescence microscopy may damage cells. This has to be considered in vital cell microscopy, e.g., in calcium measurements.

  4. Approaches for identifying germ cell mutagens: Report of the 2013 IWGT workshop on germ cell assays(?).

    PubMed

    Yauk, Carole L; Aardema, Marilyn J; Benthem, Jan van; Bishop, Jack B; Dearfield, Kerry L; DeMarini, David M; Dubrova, Yuri E; Honma, Masamitsu; Lupski, James R; Marchetti, Francesco; Meistrich, Marvin L; Pacchierotti, Francesca; Stewart, Jane; Waters, Michael D; Douglas, George R

    2015-05-01

    This workshop reviewed the current science to inform and recommend the best evidence-based approaches on the use of germ cell genotoxicity tests. The workshop questions and key outcomes were as follows. (1) Do genotoxicity and mutagenicity assays in somatic cells predict germ cell effects? Limited data suggest that somatic cell tests detect most germ cell mutagens, but there are strong concerns that dictate caution in drawing conclusions. (2) Should germ cell tests be done, and when? If there is evidence that a chemical or its metabolite(s) will not reach target germ cells or gonadal tissue, it is not necessary to conduct germ cell tests, notwithstanding somatic outcomes. However, it was recommended that negative somatic cell mutagens with clear evidence for gonadal exposure and evidence of toxicity in germ cells could be considered for germ cell mutagenicity testing. For somatic mutagens that are known to reach the gonadal compartments and expose germ cells, the chemical could be assumed to be a germ cell mutagen without further testing. Nevertheless, germ cell mutagenicity testing would be needed for quantitative risk assessment. (3) What new assays should be implemented and how? There is an immediate need for research on the application of whole genome sequencing in heritable mutation analysis in humans and animals, and integration of germ cell assays with somatic cell genotoxicity tests. Focus should be on environmental exposures that can cause de novo mutations, particularly newly recognized types of genomic changes. Mutational events, which may occur by exposure of germ cells during embryonic development, should also be investigated. Finally, where there are indications of germ cell toxicity in repeat dose or reproductive toxicology tests, consideration should be given to leveraging those studies to inform of possible germ cell genotoxicity. PMID:25953399

  5. A microfluidic dual-well device for high-throughput single-cell capture and culture.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hui; Hsiao, Yi-Hsing; Chang, Hao-Chen; Yeh, Chuan-Feng; He, Cheng-Kun; Salm, Eric M; Chen, Chihchen; Chiu, Ing-Ming; Hsu, Chia-Hsien

    2015-06-30

    In vitro culture of single cells facilitates biological studies by deconvoluting complications from cell population heterogeneity. However, there is still a lack of simple yet high-throughput methods to perform single cell culture experiments. In this paper, we report the development and application of a microfluidic device with a dual-well (DW) design concept for high-yield single-cell loading (~77%) in large microwells (285 and 485 ?m in diameter) which allowed for cell spreading, proliferation and differentiation. The increased single-cell loading yield is achieved by using sets of small microwells termed "capture-wells" and big microwells termed "culture-wells" according to their utilities for single-cell capture and culture, respectively. This novel device architecture allows the size of the "culture" microwells to be flexibly adjusted without affecting the single-cell loading efficiency making it useful for cell culture applications as demonstrated by our experiments of KT98 mouse neural stem cell differentiation, A549 and MDA-MB-435 cancer cell proliferation, and single-cell colony formation assay with A549 cells in this paper. PMID:26060987

  6. High-Content Assays for Hepatotoxicity Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell–Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sirenko, Oksana; Hesley, Jayne; Rusyn, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Development of predictive in vitro assays for early toxicity evaluation is extremely important for improving the drug development process and reducing drug attrition rates during clinical development. High-content imaging-based in vitro toxicity assays are emerging as efficient tools for safety and efficacy testing to improve drug development efficiency. In this report we have used an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)–derived hepatocyte cell model having a primary tissue-like phenotype, unlimited availability, and the potential to compare cells from different individuals. We examined a number of assays and phenotypic markers and developed automated screening methods for assessing multiparameter readouts of general and mechanism-specific hepatotoxicity. Endpoints assessed were cell viability, nuclear shape, average and integrated cell area, mitochondrial membrane potential, phospholipid accumulation, cytoskeleton integrity, and apoptosis. We assayed compounds with known mechanisms of toxicity and also evaluated a diverse hepatotoxicity library of 240 compounds. We conclude that high-content automated screening assays using iPSC-derived hepatocytes are feasible, provide information about mechanisms of toxicity, and can facilitate the safety assessment of drugs and chemicals. PMID:24229356

  7. A Fluid Membrane-Based Soluble Ligand Display System for Live CellAssays

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Jwa-Min; Nair, Pradeep N.; Neve, Richard M.; Gray, Joe W.; Groves, Jay T.

    2005-10-14

    Cell communication modulates numerous biological processes including proliferation, apoptosis, motility, invasion and differentiation. Correspondingly, there has been significant interest in the development of surface display strategies for the presentation of signaling molecules to living cells. This effort has primarily focused on naturally surface-bound ligands, such as extracellular matrix components and cell membranes. Soluble ligands (e.g. growth factors and cytokines) play an important role in intercellular communications, and their display in a surface-bound format would be of great utility in the design of array-based live cell assays. Recently, several cell microarray systems that display cDNA, RNAi, or small molecules in a surface array format were proven to be useful in accelerating high-throughput functional genetic studies and screening therapeutic agents. These surface display methods provide a flexible platform for the systematic, combinatorial investigation of genes and small molecules affecting cellular processes and phenotypes of interest. In an analogous sense, it would be an important advance if one could display soluble signaling ligands in a surface assay format that allows for systematic, patterned presentation of soluble ligands to live cells. Such a technique would make it possible to examine cellular phenotypes of interest in a parallel format with soluble signaling ligands as one of the display parameters. Herein we report a ligand-modified fluid supported lipid bilayer (SLB) assay system that can be used to functionally display soluble ligands to cells in situ (Figure 1A). By displaying soluble ligands on a SLB surface, both solution behavior (the ability to become locally enriched by reaction-diffusion processes) and solid behavior (the ability to control the spatial location of the ligands in an open system) could be combined. The method reported herein benefits from the naturally fluid state of the supported membrane, which allows surface-linked ligands to diffuse freely in two dimensions. Ligands can become reorganized beneath cells, by reaction-diffusion processes, and may also adopt spatial configurations reflecting those of their cognate receptors on the cell surface (Figure 1B). This provides a significant benefit over conventional cell signaling and culturing systems that present inflexible distributions of signaling molecules. In this study, we observe marked differences in the response of cells to membrane surface displayed soluble ligands as a function of membrane fluidity. Tethering of soluble signaling molecules to fluid supported membranes opens up opportunities to use already developed membrane fabrication technologies to present soluble components within a surface array format.

  8. Cell Culture on MEMS Platforms: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Ming; Tong, Wen Hao; Choudhury, Deepak; Rahim, Nur Aida Abdul; Iliescu, Ciprian; Yu, Hanry

    2009-01-01

    Microfabricated systems provide an excellent platform for the culture of cells, and are an extremely useful tool for the investigation of cellular responses to various stimuli. Advantages offered over traditional methods include cost-effectiveness, controllability, low volume, high resolution, and sensitivity. Both biocompatible and bio-incompatible materials have been developed for use in these applications. Biocompatible materials such as PMMA or PLGA can be used directly for cell culture. However, for bio-incompatible materials such as silicon or PDMS, additional steps need to be taken to render these materials more suitable for cell adhesion and maintenance. This review describes multiple surface modification strategies to improve the biocompatibility of MEMS materials. Basic concepts of cell-biomaterial interactions, such as protein adsorption and cell adhesion are covered. Finally, the applications of these MEMS materials in Tissue Engineering are presented. PMID:20054478

  9. Effect of black tea extract on herpes simplex virus-1 infection of cultured cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this investigation was to determine if black tea extract (BTE), consisting primarily of flavanol compounds called theaflavins, could inhibit herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection in cultured A549 (human epithelial) and Vero cells. Methods The effect of BTE both on A549 and Vero cultured cells and on HSV-1 was assessed by using phase contrast and fluorescent microscopy, and cell viability and proliferation assays. After establishing the maximum non-cytotoxic concentration of BTE, A549 and Vero cells and HSV-1 virions were treated with varying concentrations of BTE, respectively. A549 and Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) insert at the UL46 gene. The effect of infectivity was determined by viral DNA extraction followed by PCR, plaque assays, adsorption assays, and electrophoresis of PCR products. Results BTE was not cytotoxic to A549 and Vero cells, as confirmed by cell viability and proliferation assays, in which BTE treated groups paralleled the positive control group. For both cell lines, plaque assays and fluorescent microscopy indicated an inverse relationship between BTE concentration (from 0.14 ?M – 1.4 mM) and HSV-1 infectivity. Specifically, PCR and electrophoresis showed a reduction in the viral genome following treatment with BTE. In addition, there was a noticeable decrease in the amount of viral plaques for BTE treated samples in the adsorption assays. Conclusions BTE consisting primarily of theaflavins is not cytotoxic and can reduce or block the production of infectious HSV-1 virions in cultured A549 and Vero cells, thus inhibiting the infectivity of the virus by interfering in the attachment, penetration and viral DNA replication of HSV-1 particles. These findings indicate that BTE enriched with theaflavins has the potential to be developed as a safe, therapeutic antiviral agent to prevent the spread of HSV-1. PMID:23777309

  10. Single-Cell Based Quantitative Assay of Chromosome Transmission Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin; Heinecke, Dominic; Mulla, Wahid A.; Bradford, William D.; Rubinstein, Boris; Box, Andrew; Haug, Jeffrey S.; Li, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Errors in mitosis are a primary cause of chromosome instability (CIN), generating aneuploid progeny cells. Whereas a variety of factors can influence CIN, under most conditions mitotic errors are rare events that have been difficult to measure accurately. Here we report a green fluorescent protein?based quantitative chromosome transmission fidelity (qCTF) assay in budding yeast that allows sensitive and quantitative detection of CIN and can be easily adapted to high-throughput analysis. Using the qCTF assay, we performed genome-wide quantitative profiling of genes that affect CIN in a dosage-dependent manner and identified genes that elevate CIN when either increased (icCIN) or decreased in copy number (dcCIN). Unexpectedly, qCTF screening also revealed genes whose change in copy number quantitatively suppress CIN, suggesting that the basal error rate of the wild-type genome is not minimized, but rather, may have evolved toward an optimal level that balances both stability and low-level karyotype variation for evolutionary adaptation. PMID:25823586

  11. Genetic reprogramming of human amniotic cells with episomal vectors: neural rosettes as sentinels in candidate selection for validation assays

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    The promise of genetic reprogramming has prompted initiatives to develop banks of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from diverse sources. Sentinel assays for pluripotency could maximize available resources for generating iPSCs. Neural rosettes represent a primitive neural tissue that is unique to differentiating PSCs and commonly used to identify derivative neural/stem progenitors. Here, neural rosettes were used as a sentinel assay for pluripotency in selection of candidates to advance to validation assays. Candidate iPSCs were generated from independent populations of amniotic cells with episomal vectors. Phase imaging of living back up cultures showed neural rosettes in 2 of the 5 candidate populations. Rosettes were immunopositive for the Sox1, Sox2, Pax6 and Pax7 transcription factors that govern neural development in the earliest stage of development and for the Isl1/2 and Otx2 transcription factors that are expressed in the dorsal and ventral domains, respectively, of the neural tube in vivo. Dissociation of rosettes produced cultures of differentiation competent neural/stem progenitors that generated immature neurons that were immunopositive for ?III-tubulin and glia that were immunopositive for GFAP. Subsequent validation assays of selected candidates showed induced expression of endogenous pluripotency genes, epigenetic modification of chromatin and formation of teratomas in immunodeficient mice that contained derivatives of the 3 embryonic germ layers. Validated lines were vector-free and maintained a normal karyotype for more than 60 passages. The credibility of rosette assembly as a sentinel assay for PSCs is supported by coordinate loss of nuclear-localized pluripotency factors Oct4 and Nanog in neural rosettes that emerge spontaneously in cultures of self-renewing validated lines. Taken together, these findings demonstrate value in neural rosettes as sentinels for pluripotency and selection of promising candidates for advance to validation assays. PMID:25426336

  12. Prevention and Detection of Mycoplasma Contamination in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Nikfarjam, Laleh; Farzaneh, Parvaneh

    2012-01-01

    One of the main problems in cell culture is mycoplasma infection. It can extensively affect cell physiology and metabolism. As the applications of cell culture increase in research, industrial production and cell therapy, more concerns about mycoplasma contamination and detection will arise. This review will provide valuable information about: 1. the ways in which cells are contaminated and the frequency and source of mycoplasma species in cell culture; 2. the ways to prevent mycoplasma contamination in cell culture; 3. the importance of mycoplasma tests in cell culture; 4. different methods to identify mycoplasma contamination; 5. the consequences of mycoplasma contamination in cell culture and 6. available methods to eliminate mycoplasma contamination. Awareness about the sources of mycoplasma and pursuing aseptic techniques in cell culture along with reliable detection methods of mycoplasma contamination can provide an appropriate situation to prevent mycoplasma contamination in cell culture. PMID:23508237

  13. The pesticide methoxychlor decreases myotube formation in cell culture by slowing myoblast proliferation.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Bradley W; Batia, Lyn M; Baarson, Chad J; Choi, Chang-Kun Charles; Grow, Wade A

    2007-08-01

    We studied the effect of the estrogenic pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) on skeletal muscle development using C2C12 cell culture. Myoblast cultures were exposed to various concentrations of MXC at various times during the process of myoblast fusion into myotubes. We observed that MXC exposure decreased myotube formation. In addition, we observed myoblasts with cytoplasmic vacuoles in cultures exposed to MXC. Because cytoplasmic vacuoles can be characteristic of cell death, apoptosis assays and trypan blue exclusion assays were performed. We found no difference in the frequency of apoptosis or in the frequency of cell death for cultures exposed to MXC and untreated cultures. Collectively, these results indicate that MXC exposure decreases myotube formation without causing cell death. In contrast, when cell proliferation was assessed, untreated cultures had a myoblast proliferation rate 50% greater than cultures exposed to MXC. We conclude that MXC decreases myotube formation at least in part by slowing myoblast proliferation. Furthermore, we suggest that direct exposure to MXC could affect skeletal muscle development in animals or humans, in addition to the defects in reproductive development that have previously been reported. PMID:17314029

  14. Image classifiers for the cell transformation assay: a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urani, Chiara; Crosta, Giovanni F.; Procaccianti, Claudio; Melchioretto, Pasquale; Stefanini, Federico M.

    2010-02-01

    The Cell Transformation Assay (CTA) is one of the promising in vitro methods used to predict human carcinogenicity. The neoplastic phenotype is monitored in suitable cells by the formation of foci and observed by light microscopy after staining. Foci exhibit three types of morphological alterations: Type I, characterized by partially transformed cells, and Types II and III considered to have undergone neoplastic transformation. Foci recognition and scoring have always been carried visually by a trained human expert. In order to automatically classify foci images one needs to implement some image understanding algorithm. Herewith, two such algorithms are described and compared by performance. The supervised classifier (as described in previous articles) relies on principal components analysis embedded in a training feedback loop to process the morphological descriptors extracted by "spectrum enhancement" (SE). The unsupervised classifier architecture is based on the "partitioning around medoids" and is applied to image descriptors taken from histogram moments (HM). Preliminary results suggest the inadequacy of the HMs as image descriptors as compared to those from SE. A justification derived from elementary arguments of real analysis is provided in the Appendix.

  15. Rotavirus-induced fusion from without in tissue culture cells.

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, M M; Gilbert, J M; Roper, A M; Greenberg, H B; Gavora, J S

    1995-01-01

    We present the first evidence of fusion from without induced in tissue culture cells by a nonenveloped virus. Electron micrographs of two strains of rotavirus, bovine rotavirus C486 and rhesus rotavirus, show that virally mediated cell-cell fusion occurs within 1 h postinfection. Trypsin activation is necessary for rotavirus to mediate cell-cell fusion. The extent of fusion is relative to the amount of virus used, and maximum fusion occurs between pHs 6.5 and 7.5. Fusion does not require virus-induced protein synthesis, as virus from both an empty capsid preparation and from an EDTA-treated preparation, which is noninfectious, can induce fusion. Incubation of rotavirus with neutralizing and nonneutralizing monoclonal antibodies before addition to cells indicates that viral protein 4 (VP4; in the form of VP5* and VP8*) and VP7 are involved in fusion. Light and electron micrographs document this fusion, including the formation of pores or channels between adjacent fused cells. These data support direct membrane penetration as a possible route of infection. Moreover, the assay should be useful in determining the mechanisms of cell entry by rotavirus. PMID:7637004

  16. The Effect of Spaceflight on Bone Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the response of bone to mechanical loading (unloading) is extremely important in defining the means of adaptation of the body to a variety of environmental conditions such as during heightened physical activity or in extended explorations of space or the sea floor. The mechanisms of the adaptive response of bone are not well defined, but undoubtedly they involve changes occurring at the cellular level of bone structure. This proposal has intended to examine the hypothesis that the loading (unloading) response of bone is mediated by specific cells through modifications of their activity cytoskeletal elements, and/or elaboration of their extracellular matrices. For this purpose, this laboratory has utilized the results of a number of previous studies defining molecular biological, biochemical, morphological, and ultrastructural events of the reproducible mineralization of a primary bone cell (osteoblast) culture system under normal loading (1G gravity level). These data and the culture system then were examined following the use of the cultures in two NASA shuttle flights, STS-59 and STS-63. The cells collected from each of the flights were compared to respective synchronous ground (1G) control cells examined as the flight samples were simultaneously analyzed and to other control cells maintained at 1G until the time of shuttle launch, at which point they were terminated and studied (defined as basal cells). Each of the cell cultures was assayed in terms of metabolic markers- gene expression; synthesis and secretion of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, including certain cytoskeletal components; assembly of collagen into macrostructural arrays- formation of mineral; and interaction of collagen and mineral crystals during calcification of the cultures. The work has utilized a combination of biochemical techniques (radiolabeling, electrophoresis, fluorography, Western and Northern Blotting, and light microscopic immunofluorescence) and structural methods (conventional and high voltage electron microscopy, inununocytochemistry, stereomicroscopy, and 3D image reconstruction). The studies have provided new knowledge of aspects of bone cell development and structural regulation, extracellular matrix assembly, and mineralization during spaceflight and under normal gravity. The information has contributed to insights into the means in general by which cells respond and adapt to different conditions of gravity (loading). The data may as well have suggested an underlying basis for the observed loss of bone by vertebrates, including man, in microgravity; and these scientific results may have implications for understanding bone loss following fracture healing and extended periods of inactivity such as during long-term bedrest.

  17. Transcriptional activation and repression by Ultrabithorax proteins in cultured Drosophila cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Krasnow; Emma E. Saffman; Kerry Kornfeld; David S. Hogness

    1989-01-01

    Summary Homeotic genes of Drosophila melanogaster such as Ultrabithorax (Ubx) and Antennapedia (Antp) have long been thought to select metameric identity during development by controlling the expression of various target genes. Here we describe a cotransfection assay in cultured D. melanogaster cells that is used to dem- onstrate that Ubx proteins (UBX) can repress an Antp promoter fusion and activate

  18. Identification of Hedgehog Pathway Components by RNAi in Drosophila Cultured Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence Lum; Shenqin Yao; Brian Mozer; Alessandra Rovescalli; Doris Von Kessler; Marshall Nirenberg; Philip A. Beachy

    2003-01-01

    Classical genetic screens can be limited by the selectivity of mutational targeting, the complexities of anatomically based phenotypic analysis, or difficulties in subsequent gene identification. Focusing on signaling response to the secreted morphogen Hedgehog (Hh), we used RNA interference (RNAi) and a quantitative cultured cell assay to systematically screen functional roles of all kinases and phosphatases, and subsequently 43% of

  19. UV inactivation of adenovirus type 41 measured by cell culture mRNA RT-PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwangpyo Ko; Theresa L. Cromeans; Mark D. Sobsey

    2005-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most resistant waterborne pathogens to UV disinfection, yet of the 51 serologically distinct human adenoviruses, only a few have been evaluated for their sensitivities to UV irradiation. Human enteric adenoviruses (Ad40 and Ad41) are difficult to cultivate and reliably assay for infectivity, requiring weeks to obtain cytopathogenic effects (CPE). Inoculated cell cultures often deteriorate before the

  20. THE ACTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES IN A CELL CULTURE TEST FOR ASBESTOS TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inhibition of colony-forming efficiency of cultured human embryonic intestine-derived epithelial (I-407) cells was utilized in order to assay the toxic potential of six coded samples of particulate matter provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Th...

  1. Developmental modulation of tubulin protein and mRNA levels during somatic embryogenesis in cultured carrot cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Cyr; M. M. Bustos; M. J. Guiltinan; D. E. Fosket

    1987-01-01

    The number of cortical microtubules (MTs) increases considerably as cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells initiate and progress through somatic embryogenesis. The basis for this increase in MT number was investigated. A radioimmune assay was used to show that tubulin-protein per cell first decreased as the undifferentiated cells initiated embryonic development, but subsequently increased approximately fivefold between the globular and

  2. Automatic transwell assay by an EIS cell chip to monitor cell migration.

    PubMed

    Primiceri, Elisabetta; Chiriacò, Maria Serena; Dioguardi, Francesca; Monteduro, Anna Grazia; D'Amone, Eliana; Rinaldi, Ross; Giannelli, Gianluigi; Maruccio, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    Here an EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) biochip to detect cell migration is demonstrated. This biochip has been inspired by a traditional transwell assay/modified Boyden chamber and consists of two compartments separated by a porous membrane. This structure (PDMS-based) is aligned to EIS sensors. Cells are seeded in the upper chamber through microfluidic channels. During migration cells go through the pores of the membrane and get in touch with the electrodes that detect migrated cells. The performance of our cell-chip was tested by investigating the migratory ability of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells as a function of microenvironment. For this purpose we challenged HCC cells to migrate on different extra-cellular matrix (ECM) components including laminin 1, collagen IV and laminin 5. The results reveal that our cell chip provides reliable results that consistently overlap with those obtained with traditional standardized Boyden chambers. Thus, we demonstrate a new, easy tool to study cell migration and to perform automatic assays. This approach is easier and faster than traditional transwell assays and can be suitable for high-throughput studies in drug discovery applications. PMID:22012570

  3. Cell-based protein stabilization assays for the detection of interactions between small-molecule inhibitors and BRD4.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Jessica; Moosmayer, Dieter; Weiske, Joerg; Fernández-Montalván, Amaury; Herbst, Christopher; Jung, Marie; Haendler, Bernard; Bader, Benjamin

    2015-02-01

    Bromodomain protein 4 (BRD4), a member of the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein family, acts as a central element in transcriptional elongation and plays essential roles in cell proliferation. Inhibition of BRD4 binding to acetylated histone tails via its two bromodomains, BD1 and BD2, with small-molecule inhibitors has been shown to be a valid strategy to prevent cancer growth. We have evaluated and established two novel assays that quantify the interaction of transfected BRD4 BD1 with chemical inhibitors inside cultured cells. Both methods are based on the principle of ligand-induced protein stabilization by which the binding of a small-molecule inhibitor stabilizes intracellular BRD4 BD1 and protects it from proteolytic degradation. We demonstrate the universal character of this principle by using two orthogonal, highly sensitive detection technologies for the quantification of BRD4 BD1 levels in cellular lysates: enzyme fragment complementation and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET). Upon optimization of both assays to a miniaturized high-throughput format, the methods were validated by testing a set of small-molecule BET inhibitors and comparing the results with those from a cell-free binding assay and a biophysical thermal shift assay. In addition, point mutations were introduced into BRD4 BD1, and the corresponding mutants were characterized in the TR-FRET stabilization assay. PMID:25266565

  4. Progress Towards Drosophila Epithelial Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila epithelial research is at the forefront of the field; however, there are no well-characterized epithelial cell lines that could provide a complementary in vitro model for studies conducted in vivo. Here, a protocol is described that produces epithelial cell lines. The method uses genetic manipulation of oncogenes or tumor suppressors to induce embryonic primary culture cells to rapidly progress to permanent cell lines. It is, however, a general method and the type of cells that comprise a given line is not controlled experimentally. Indeed, only a small fraction of the lines produced are epithelial in character. For this reason, additional work needs to be done to develop a more robust epithelial cell-specific protocol. It is expected that Drosophila epithelial cell lines will have great utility for in vitro analysis of epithelial biology, particularly high-throughput analyses such as RNAi screens. PMID:23097097

  5. Neurosphere and adherent culture conditions are equivalent for malignant glioma stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Maryam; Reyner, Karina; Deleyrolle, Loic; Millette, Sebastien; Azari, Hassan; Day, Bryan W; Stringer, Brett W; Boyd, Andrew W; Johns, Terrance G; Blot, Vincent; Duggal, Rohit; Reynolds, Brent A

    2015-03-01

    Certain limitations of the neurosphere assay (NSA) have resulted in a search for alternative culture techniques for brain tumor-initiating cells (TICs). Recently, reports have described growing glioblastoma (GBM) TICs as a monolayer using laminin. We performed a side-by-side analysis of the NSA and laminin (adherent) culture conditions to compare the growth and expansion of GBM TICs. GBM cells were grown using the NSA and adherent culture conditions. Comparisons were made using growth in culture, apoptosis assays, protein expression, limiting dilution clonal frequency assay, genetic affymetrix analysis, and tumorigenicity in vivo. In vitro expansion curves for the NSA and adherent culture conditions were virtually identical (P=0.24) and the clonogenic frequencies (5.2% for NSA vs. 5.0% for laminin, P=0.9) were similar as well. Likewise, markers of differentiation (glial fibrillary acidic protein and beta tubulin III) and proliferation (Ki67 and MCM2) revealed no statistical difference between the sphere and attachment methods. Several different methods were used to determine the numbers of dead or dying cells (trypan blue, DiIC, caspase-3, and annexin V) with none of the assays noting a meaningful variance between the two methods. In addition, genetic expression analysis with microarrays revealed no significant differences between the two groups. Finally, glioma cells derived from both methods of expansion formed large invasive tumors exhibiting GBM features when implanted in immune-compromised animals. A detailed functional, protein and genetic characterization of human GBM cells cultured in serum-free defined conditions demonstrated no statistically meaningful differences when grown using sphere (NSA) or adherent conditions. Hence, both methods are functionally equivalent and remain suitable options for expanding primary high-grade gliomas in tissue culture. PMID:25806119

  6. Neurosphere and adherent culture conditions are equivalent for malignant glioma stem cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Reyner, Karina; Deleyrolle, Loic; Millette, Sebastien; Azari, Hassan; Day, Bryan W.; Stringer, Brett W.; Boyd, Andrew W.; Johns, Terrance G.; Blot, Vincent; Duggal, Rohit; Reynolds, Brent A.

    2015-01-01

    Certain limitations of the neurosphere assay (NSA) have resulted in a search for alternative culture techniques for brain tumor-initiating cells (TICs). Recently, reports have described growing glioblastoma (GBM) TICs as a monolayer using laminin. We performed a side-by-side analysis of the NSA and laminin (adherent) culture conditions to compare the growth and expansion of GBM TICs. GBM cells were grown using the NSA and adherent culture conditions. Comparisons were made using growth in culture, apoptosis assays, protein expression, limiting dilution clonal frequency assay, genetic affymetrix analysis, and tumorigenicity in vivo. In vitro expansion curves for the NSA and adherent culture conditions were virtually identical (P=0.24) and the clonogenic frequencies (5.2% for NSA vs. 5.0% for laminin, P=0.9) were similar as well. Likewise, markers of differentiation (glial fibrillary acidic protein and beta tubulin III) and proliferation (Ki67 and MCM2) revealed no statistical difference between the sphere and attachment methods. Several different methods were used to determine the numbers of dead or dying cells (trypan blue, DiIC, caspase-3, and annexin V) with none of the assays noting a meaningful variance between the two methods. In addition, genetic expression analysis with microarrays revealed no significant differences between the two groups. Finally, glioma cells derived from both methods of expansion formed large invasive tumors exhibiting GBM features when implanted in immune-compromised animals. A detailed functional, protein and genetic characterization of human GBM cells cultured in serum-free defined conditions demonstrated no statistically meaningful differences when grown using sphere (NSA) or adherent conditions. Hence, both methods are functionally equivalent and remain suitable options for expanding primary high-grade gliomas in tissue culture. PMID:25806119

  7. High Frequency Retrotransposition in Cultured Mammalian Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John V Moran; Susan E Holmes; Thierry P Naas; Ralph J DeBerardinis; Jef D Boeke; Haig H Kazazian

    1996-01-01

    We previously isolated two human L1 elements (L1.2 and LRE2) as the progenitors of disease-producing insertions. Here, we show these elements can actively retrotranspose in cultured mammalian cells. When stably expressed from an episome in HeLa cells, both elements retrotransposed into a variety of chromosomal locations at a high frequency. The retrotransposed products resembled endogenous L1 insertions, since they were

  8. Establishing midgut cell culture from Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) and toxicity assessment against ten different insecticides.

    PubMed

    Aljabr, Ahmed Mohammed; Rizwan-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Hussain, Abid; Al-Mubarak, Abdullah I; Al-Ayied, Hassan Y

    2014-04-01

    Midgut epithelial cell culture was successfully developed from red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) during this study and named as RPW-1. Optimum conditions for four different commercial media were also worked out to successfully maintain the culture. Grace's medium was found to be the most effective for RPW-1 culturing which resulted in the highest cell density of 7.5 × 10(6) cells/ml after 72 h of cell seeding with 96% cell viability. It was followed by Schneider's medium and TNM-FH medium where cell densities reached up to 7.4 × 10(6) and 5.9 × 10(6) cells/ml, respectively, after 72 h having 91 and 89% cell viability. Comparatively, Media-199 was least effective for RPW-1 cell culturing. As a whole, temperature at 27°C and pH 6.3 were the best for RPW-1 culturing where the highest cell density and maximum cell viability were noted. Individually, Grace's medium, Schneider's medium, TNM-FH medium, and Media-199 produced better results at 27°C, 27°C, 24°C, and 21°C and pH 6.3, 6.4, 5.3, and 7.1, respectively. The toxicity assay and MTT cell proliferation assay revealed that, out of the ten insecticides used in this study, emamectin benzoate was the most toxic insecticide to RPW-1 cells resulting in 92% cell mortality and 74% cell growth inhibition. Dieldrin was the least potent, causing only 19% cell mortality and 18% cell growth inhibition. PMID:24197670

  9. Cultured Adherent Cells from Marrow can Serve as Long-Lasting Precursor Cells for Bone, Cartilage, and Lung in Irradiated Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Pereira; K. W. Halford; M. D. O'Hara; D. B. Leeper; B. P. Sokolov; M. D. Pollard; O. Bagasra; D. J. Prockop

    1995-01-01

    Cells from transgenic mice expressing a human mini-gene for collagen I were used as markers to follow the fate of mesenchymal precursor cells from marrow that were partially enriched by adherence to plastic, expanded in culture, and then injected into irradiated mice. Sensitive PCR assays for the marker collagen I gene indicated that few of the donor cells were present

  10. ANTHOCYANIN (ACN) STABILITY IN CELL CULTURE MEDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins (ACNs) are potential oxygen radical scavengers that have coronary vasoactive and vasoprotective properties. Cell or tissue culture systems have been used to examine the bioactivity and mechanisms of action of ACNs on the vascular system. However, due to their unique chemical structure, ...

  11. Isolation and culture of protoplasts from cotton cell cultures

    E-print Network

    Finer, John James

    1981-01-01

    cellulase, and 0. 5X Macerase pec. tinase with a pH of 4. 7, (d) and an agitation rate of 40 rpm. This procedure enabled the conversion of 20. 5X of the callus cells to protoplasts. The protoplasts were plated at 10 to 10 protoplasts per ml. 4 5 About 0... Efficiency Protoplast Plating Procedure 17 18 RESULTS 20 Determination of Exponential Growth Phase 20 Length of Incubation Period Concentration of Enzymes Effect of pH Effect of Mannitol Concentration Effect of Agitation Rate Protoplast Culture...

  12. High throughput quantification of cells with complex morphology in mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Pritika J; Gibbons, Hannah M; Mee, Edward W; Faull, Richard L; Dragunow, Michael

    2007-08-30

    Automated image-based and biochemical assays have greatly increased throughput for quantifying cell numbers in in vitro studies. However, it has been more difficult to automate the counting of specific cell types with complex morphologies in mixed cell cultures. We have developed a fully automated, fast, accurate and objective method for the quantification of primary human GFAP-positive astrocytes and CD45-positive microglia from images of mixed cell populations. This method, called the complex cell count (CCC) assay, utilizes a combination of image processing and analysis operations from MetaMorph (Version 6.2.6, Molecular Devices). The CCC assay consists of four main aspects: image processing with a unique combination of morphology filters; digital thresholding; integrated morphometry analysis; and a configuration of object standards. The time needed to analyze each image is 1.82s. Significant correlations have been consistently achieved between the data obtained from CCC analysis and manual cell counts. This assay can quickly and accurately quantify the number of human astrocytes and microglia in mixed cell culture and can be applied to quantifying a range of other cells/objects with complex morphology in neuroscience research. PMID:17559941

  13. An Approach for Assessing the Signature Quality of Various Chemical Assays when Predicting the Culture Media Used to Grow Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Aimee E.; Sego, Landon H.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Anderson, Richard M.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Weimar, Mark R.; Tardiff, Mark F.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate an approach for assessing the quality of a signature system designed to predict the culture medium used to grow a microorganism. The system was comprised of four chemical assays designed to identify various ingredients that could be used to produce the culture medium. The analytical measurements resulting from any combination of these four assays can be used in a Bayesian network to predict the probabilities that the microorganism was grown using one of eleven culture media. We evaluated combinations of the signature system by removing one or more of the assays from the Bayes network. We measured and compared the quality of the various Bayes nets in terms of fidelity, cost, risk, and utility, a method we refer to as Signature Quality Metrics

  14. Isolation of cultured endothelial progenitor cells in vitro from PBMCs and CD133(+) enriched cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weihong; Wan, Yafeng; Ma, Xiaopeng; Li, Xingrui; Yang, Zhifang; Yin, Qian; Yi, Jilin

    2010-02-01

    Two isolation methods for sorting of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs): from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and CD133(+) enriched cells were compared, by defining the cell morphology, phenotype, reproductive activities and function in vitro, to provide a reference for clinical application of EPCs. PBMCs from healthy subjects were used either directly for cell culture or for CD133(+) sorting. The two groups of cells were cultured in complete medium 199 (M199) for 7 to 14 days and the phenotypes of EPCs were analyzed by FACS. The proliferation of differentiated EPCs was studied by MTT assay, and the VEGF concentration was measured using an ELISA kit. ECM gel experiment and migration assay were performed in vivo. The results showed that PBMCs produced more colony-forming units (CFU) than CD133(+) enriched cells from the same volume of blood (P<0.01). From day 7 to 14, the two groups showed decreased expression of hematopoietic stem cell markers and increased level of endothelial markers, but CD144(+) cells in CD133(+) group were less than in PBMCs group (P<0.01). PBMCs group secreted more VEGF than CD133(+) group on the day 7 (P<0.01). As compared with CD133(+) group, PBMCs group had more potent potential of proliferation and vascularization in vitro. It was concluded that CD133(+) sorted cells showed a lower capacity of differentiation, secretion, proliferation and vascularization in vitro, suggesting that CD133-negative cells may be a preferential way to get EPCs for clinical therapy. PMID:20155450

  15. Neonatal rat heart cells cultured in simulated microgravity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Akins; Nancy A. Schroedl; Steve R. Gonda; Charles R. Hartzell

    1997-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a In vitro characteristics of cardiac cells cultured in simulated microgravity are reported. Tissue culture methods performed at unit\\u000a gravity constrain cells to propagate, differentiate, and interact in a two-dimensional (2D) plane. Neonatal rat cardiac cells\\u000a in 2D culture organize predominantly as bundles of cardiomyocytes with the intervening areas filled by nonmyocyte cell types.\\u000a Such cardiac cell cultures respond predictably

  16. Some properties of Bomirski Ab amelanotic melanoma cells, which underwent spontaneous melanization in primary cell culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Stomifiski

    1985-01-01

    Summary Four types of the Bomirski Ab amelanotic melanoma primary cell culture, differing in the presence of calf serum in the medium and in the cell number used for starting the culture, were employed in the study. In all types of cell culture, rapid melanization occurred in the cytoplasm of the cultured cells. Calf serum in the culture medium stimulated

  17. Preparation of mouse embryonic fibroblast cells suitable for culturing human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jozefczuk, Justyna; Drews, Katharina; Adjaye, James

    2012-01-01

    In general, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)(1) can be cultured under variable conditions. However, it is not easy to establish an effective system for culturing these cells. Since the culture conditions can influence gene expression that confers pluripotency in hESCs and hiPSCs, the optimization and standardization of the culture method is crucial. The establishment of hESC lines was first described by using MEFs as feeder cells and fetal bovine serum (FBS)-containing culture medium(2). Next, FBS was replaced with knockout serum replacement (KSR) and FGF2, which enhances proliferation of hESCs(3). Finally, feeder-free culture systems enable culturing cells on Matrigel-coated plates in KSR-containing conditioned medium (medium conditioned by MEFs)(4). Subsequently, hESCs culture conditions have moved towards feeder-free culture in chemically defined conditions(5-7). Moreover, to avoid the potential contamination by pathogens and animal proteins culture methods using xeno-free components have been established(8). To obtain improved conditions mouse feeder cells have been replaced with human cell lines (e.g. fetal muscle and skin cells(9), adult skin cells(10), foreskin fibroblasts(11-12), amniotic mesenchymal cells(13)). However, the efficiency of maintaining undifferentiated hESCs using human foreskin fibroblast-derived feeder layers is not as high as that from mouse feeder cells due to the lower level of secretion of Activin A(14). Obviously, there is an evident difference in growth factor production by mouse and human feeder cells. Analyses of the transcriptomes of mouse and human feeder cells revealed significant differences between supportive and non-supportive cells. Exogenous FGF2 is crucial for maintaining self-renewal of hESCs and hiPSCs, and has been identified as a key factor regulating the expression of Tgf?1, Activin A and Gremlin (a BMP antagonist) in feeder cells. Activin A has been shown to induce the expression of OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG in hESCs(15-16). For long-term culture, hESCs and hiPSCs can be grown on mitotically inactivated MEFs or under feeder-free conditions in MEF-CM (MEF-Conditioned Medium) on Matrigel-coated plates to maintain their undifferentiated state. Success of both culture conditions fully depends on the quality of the feeder cells, since they directly affect the growth of hESCs. Here, we present an optimized method for the isolation and culture of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), preparation of conditioned medium (CM) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the levels of Activin A within the media. PMID:22760161

  18. Method of determining the number of cells in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, D.T.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a color-sensitivity method for determining the number of cells in in vitro cell culture at a sensitivity as low as about 100 or about 500 cells. It comprises lysing the cells and incubating the lysate with p-nitrophenyl phosphate at acid pH for a predetermined period of time at a temperature of from about 35{degrees} to about 38{degrees}C. and then measuring the color development at 400 to 420 nanometers and correlating the color development with cell number by comparing with a control standard of known cell number.

  19. Plastid transformation of tobacco suspension cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Staub, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast transformation has been extremely valuable for the study of plastid biology and gene expression, but the tissue culture methodology involved can be laborious, and it can take several months to obtain homoplasmic regenerated plants useful for molecular or physiological studies. In contrast, transformation of tobacco suspension cell plastids provides an easy and efficient system to rapidly evaluate the efficacy of multiple constructs prior to plant regeneration. Suspension cell cultures can be initiated from many cell types, and once established, can be maintained by subculture for more than a year with no loss of transformation efficiency. Using antibiotic selection, homoplasmy is readily achieved in uniform cell colonies useful for comparative gene expression analyses, with the added flexibility to subsequently regenerate plants for in planta studies. Plastids from suspension cells grown in the dark are similar in size and cellular morphology to those in embryogenic culture systems of monocot species, thus providing a useful model for understanding the steps leading to plastid transformation in those recalcitrant species. PMID:24599853

  20. Induction of antibody to foot-and-mouth disease virus in presensitized mouse spleen cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Collen, T; McCullough, K C; Doel, T R

    1984-01-01

    Cultures of spleen cells from immunized mice were stimulated in vitro by soluble preparations of purified foot-and-mouth disease virus. Virus-specific antibody, as detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was produced by immune spleen cells but not by normal, nonimmune cells. The optimal specific response was obtained with 1 microgram of virus per ml of culture; as the virus concentration was increased, the production of specific antibody was reduced. For very low concentrations of virus (less than 0.01 microgram per culture), there was tentative evidence of suppression of the specific antibody response. The levels of specific antibody induced were dependent on the source and number of plastic-adherent cells present in the cultures. We intend to use this model system to study further the basis of immunity to foot-and-mouth disease virus. PMID:6092687

  1. Development of a novel cell-based assay to monitor the transactivation activity of the HSV-1 protein ICP0.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Angela M; Shinogle, Heather E; Davido, David J

    2015-08-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) immediate-early phosphoprotein infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) is a potent transcriptional activator of viral genes and is required for efficient viral replication and reactivation from latency. However, it is largely unknown what role specific cellular factors play in the transactivator function of ICP0. With the long-term goal of identifying these factors, we developed a cell-based assay in a 96-well format to measure this activity of ICP0. We designed a system using a set of HSV-1 GFP reporter viruses in which the expression of GFP is potently induced by ICP0 in cell culture. The initial feasibility of this system was confirmed over a 24-h period by fluorescence microscopy. We adapted this assay to a 96-well plate format, quantifying GFP expression with a fluorescence scanner. Our results indicate that the cell-based assay we developed is a valid and effective method for examining the transactivating activity of ICP0. This assay can be used to identify cellular factors that regulate the transactivating activity of ICP0. PMID:25936965

  2. Dynamic cell culture system (7-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    This experiment is one of the Biorack experiments being flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (MIL-1) mission as part of an investigation studying cell proliferation and performance in space. One of the objectives of this investigation is to assess the potential benefits of bioprocessing in space with the ultimate goal of developing a bioreactor for continuous cell cultures in space. This experiment will test the operation of an automated culture chamber that was designed for use in a Bioreactor in space. The device to be tested is called the Dynamic Cell Culture System (DCCS). It is a simple device in which media are renewed or chemicals are injected automatically, by means of osmotic pumps. This experiment uses four Type I/O experiment containers. One DCCS unit, which contains a culture chamber with renewal of medium and a second chamber without a medium supply fits in each container. Two DCCS units are maintained under zero gravity conditions during the on-orbit period. The other two units are maintained under 1 gh conditions in a 1 g centrifuge. The schedule for incubator transfer is given.

  3. An embryogenic cell suspension culture of Picea glauca (White spruce)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Hakman; L. C. Fowke

    1987-01-01

    A cell suspension culture of Picea glauca (White spruce) which continuously produces somatic embryos has been established. Embryogenic callus derived from cultured zygotic embryos was used to initiate the culture. Numerous embryos at various early stages of development were recognized; they exhibited a meristematic embryonic region and suspensor consisting of elongate, vacuolated cells. The culture also contained clumps of meristematic

  4. Rapid chemosensitivity testing of human lung tumor cells using the MTT assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. C. Cole

    1986-01-01

    Numerous procedures have been described which test the chemosensitivity of tumor cell lines. A major disadvantage of most of these assays is that practical limitations prevent the testing of more than a few variables. We have adapted a rapid and efficient colorimetric assay for testing the chemosensitivity of human lung tumor cells. In this assay, a tetrazolium salt (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide,

  5. Measuring stem cell frequency in epidermis: A quantitative in vivo functional assay for long-term repopulating cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, T. E.; Barland, C.; Alex, A. M.; Mancianti, M. L.; Lu, Y.; Cleaver, J. E.; Lawrence, H. J.; Ghadially, R.

    2003-09-01

    Epidermal stem cells play a central role in tissue homeostasis, wound repair, tumor initiation, and gene therapy. A major impediment to the purification and molecular characterization of epidermal stem cells is the lack of a quantitative assay for cells capable of long-term repopulation in vivo, such as exists for hematopoietic cells. The tremendous strides made in the characterization and purification of hematopoietic stem cells have been critically dependent on the availability of competitive transplantation assays, because these assays permit the accurate quantitation of long-term repopulating cells in vivo. We have developed an analogous functional assay for epidermal stem cells, and have measured the frequency of functional epidermal stem cells in interfollicular epidermis. These studies indicate that cells capable of long-term reconstitution of a squamous epithelium reside in the interfollicular epidermis. We find that the frequency of these long-term repopulating cells is 1 in 35,000 total epidermal cells, or in the order of 1 in 104 basal epidermal cells, similar to that of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, and much lower than previously estimated in epidermis. Furthermore, these studies establish a novel functional assay that can be used to validate immunophenotypic markers and enrichment strategies for epidermal stem cells, and to quantify epidermal stem cells in various keratinocyte populations. Thus further studies using this type of assay for epidermis should aid in the progress of cutaneous stem cell-targeted gene therapy, and in more basic studies of epidermal stem cell regulation and differentiation.

  6. Improved Culture-Based Isolation of Differentiating Endothelial Progenitor Cells from Mouse Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruki Sekiguchi; Masaaki Ii; Kentaro Jujo; Ayumi Yokoyama; Nobuhisa Hagiwara; Takayuki Asahara

    2011-01-01

    Numerous endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-related investigations have been performed in mouse experiments. However, defined characteristics of mouse cultured EPC have not been examined. We focused on fast versus slow adherent cell population in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) in culture and examined their characteristics. After 24 h-culture of BMMNCs, attached (AT) cells and floating (FL) cells were further cultured in

  7. Copper Modulates the Differentiation of Mouse Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaosong; Pierce, L. Jeanne; Cobine, Paul A.; Winge, Dennis R.; Spangrude, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    Copper chelation has been shown to favor the expansion of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in vitro. To further understand the effects of copper modulation on defined subsets of stem cells versus progenitor cells, we extended the studies in a mouse system. We isolated mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) or hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and cultured them with or without the copper chelator tetraethylen-epentamine (TEPA) or CuCl2. Cytokine-stimulated HPC cultures treated with TEPA for 7 days generated about two to three times more total and erythroid colony-forming cells (CFCs) compared to control cultures. In contrast, CuCl2 treatment decreased the CFC numbers. Similar results were seen with HSC after 14, but not 7, days of culture. Transplant studies showed that HPCs cultured for 7 days in TEPA had about twofold higher short-term erythroid repopulation potential compared to control cultures, while CuCl2 decreased the erythroid potential of cultured HPCs compared to control cultures. HSCs cultured with TEPA for 7 days did not exhibit significantly higher repopulation potential in either leukocyte or erythrocyte lineages compared to control cultures in short-term or long-term assays. Based on JC-1 staining, the mitochondrial membrane potential of HPCs cultured with TEPA was lower relative to control cultures. Our data suggest that decreasing the cellular copper content with TEPA results in preferential expansion or maintenance of HPC that are biased for erythroid differentiation in vivo, but does not enhance the maintenance of HSC activity in culture. PMID:19520051

  8. Copper modulates the differentiation of mouse hematopoietic progenitor cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaosong; Pierce, L Jeanne; Cobine, Paul A; Winge, Dennis R; Spangrude, Gerald J

    2009-01-01

    Copper chelation has been shown to favor the expansion of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in vitro. To further understand the effects of copper modulation on defined subsets of stem cells versus progenitor cells, we extended the studies in a mouse system. We isolated mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) or hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and cultured them with or without the copper chelator tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) or CuCl(2). Cytokine-stimulated HPC cultures treated with TEPA for 7 days generated about two to three times more total and erythroid colony-forming cells (CFCs) compared to control cultures. In contrast, CuCl(2) treatment decreased the CFC numbers. Similar results were seen with HSC after 14, but not 7, days of culture. Transplant studies showed that HPCs cultured for 7 days in TEPA had about twofold higher short-term erythroid repopulation potential compared to control cultures, while CuCl(2) decreased the erythroid potential of cultured HPCs compared to control cultures. HSCs cultured with TEPA for 7 days did not exhibit significantly higher repopulation potential in either leukocyte or erythrocyte lineages compared to control cultures in short-term or long-term assays. Based on JC-1 staining, the mitochondrial membrane potential of HPCs cultured with TEPA was lower relative to control cultures. Our data suggest that decreasing the cellular copper content with TEPA results in preferential expansion or maintenance of HPC that are biased for erythroid differentiation in vivo, but does not enhance the maintenance of HSC activity in culture. PMID:19520051

  9. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid?Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post?explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13?52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20?53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin?secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer. PMID:25937205

  10. Mutagen-testing assay based on heterogeneity in diameter and integrated optical density of mammalian cell colonies

    SciTech Connect

    Dairkee, S.H.; Glaser, D.A.

    1984-04-01

    The effects of the well-known mutagenic agents ethyl methanesulfonate (EtMes), N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguaninde (MNNG), and ICR-191 on colonies of the Chinese hamster ovary line CHO cultured on a semisolid substrate were investigated. These agents induced heterogeneity in diameter and integrated optical density of colonies as determined by computer-assisted photography and subsequent analysis of the images of the colonies. When CHO colonies were exposed to agents such as urethane that are not known to be mutagens such as cyclophosphamide, there was no noticeable effect on the distribution of colony diameter and volume. Similarly, nonmutagenic agents such as dimethyl sulfoxide (Me/sub 2/SO) also did not induce heterogeneity in colony diameter and integrated optical density. Our observations recommend the use of agar-grown mammalian cell colonies for predictive testing of chemical mutagens and carcinogens in a simple, in vitro mammalian cell assay. This assay system, unlike other mammalian cell culture assays, allows detection and measurement of the simultaneous effects of chemical mutagens on several genetic and nongenetic targets and, thus, may emulate more closely the potential hazards of these agents in vivo. 19 references, 5 figures.

  11. Ex vivo T cell–based HIV suppression assay to evaluate HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    So Youn Shin; Pierre Versmisse; Françoise Barré-Sinoussi; Gianfranco Pancino; Asier Sáez-Cirión

    2010-01-01

    To advance T cell–based HIV vaccine development, it is necessary to evaluate the immune correlates of a protective CD8+ T-cell response. We have developed an assay that assesses the capacity ex vivo of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells to suppress HIV-1 infection of autologous CD4+ T cells. This assay directly reflects the ultimate effector function of CD8+ T cells, the elimination

  12. Acetaldehyde and hexanaldehyde from cultured white cells

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye-Won; Umber, Brandon J; Meinardi, Simone; Leu, Szu-Yun; Zaldivar, Frank; Blake, Donald R; Cooper, Dan M

    2009-01-01

    Background Noninvasive detection of innate immune function such as the accumulation of neutrophils remains a challenge in many areas of clinical medicine. We hypothesized that granulocytes could generate volatile organic compounds. Methods To begin to test this, we developed a bioreactor and analytical GC-MS system to accurately identify and quantify gases in trace concentrations (parts per billion) emitted solely from cell/media culture. A human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL60, frequently used to assess neutrophil function, was grown in serum-free medium. Results HL60 cells released acetaldehyde and hexanaldehyde in a time-dependent manner. The mean ± SD concentration of acetaldehyde in the headspace above the cultured cells following 4-, 24- and 48-h incubation was 157 ± 13 ppbv, 490 ± 99 ppbv, 698 ± 87 ppbv. For hexanaldehyde these values were 1 ± 0.3 ppbv, 8 ± 2 ppbv, and 11 ± 2 ppbv. In addition, our experimental system permitted us to identify confounding trace gas contaminants such as styrene. Conclusion This study demonstrates that human immune cells known to mimic the function of innate immune cells, like neutrophils, produce volatile gases that can be measured in vitro in trace amounts. PMID:19402909

  13. Eradication of Mycoplasma contaminations from cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Uphoff, Cord C; Drexler, Hans G

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma contaminations have a multitude of effects on cultured cell lines that may influence the results of experiments or pollute bioactive substances isolated from the eukaryotic cells. The elimination of mycoplasma contaminations from cell cultures with antibiotics has been proven to be a practical alternative to discarding and re-establishing important or irreplaceable cell lines. Different fluoroquinolones, tetracyclins, pleuromutilins, and macrolides shown to have strong anti-mycoplasma properties are employed for the decontamination. These antibiotics are applied as single treatments, as combination treatment of two antibiotics in parallel or successively, or in combination with a surface-active peptide to enhance the action of the antibiotic. The protocols in this unit allow eradication of mycoplasmas, prevention of the development of resistant mycoplasma strains, and potential cure of heavily contaminated and damaged cells. Consistent and permanent alterations to eukaryotic cells attributable to the treatment have not been demonstrated. Curr. Protoc. Mol. Biol. 106:28.5.1-28.5.12. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:24733241

  14. In vitro osteogenesis assays: Influence of the primary cell source on alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    such as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs), or various osteoblast cell lines. With time of published osteogenic assays using calvarial cells, calvaria-derived cell lines, and bone marrow stromal marrow stromal cells; MC3T3-E1; Chitosan; Cartilage repair; Bone fracture repair; Alkaline phosphatase

  15. An Introductory Undergraduate Course Covering Animal Cell Culture Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozdziak, Paul E.; Petitte, James N.; Carson, Susan D.

    2004-01-01

    Animal cell culture is a core laboratory technique in many molecular biology, developmental biology, and biotechnology laboratories. Cell culture is a relatively old technique that has been sparingly taught at the undergraduate level. The traditional methodology for acquiring cell culture training has been through trial and error, instruction when…

  16. Apoptosis in Batch Cultures of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    E-print Network

    Sinskey, Anthony J.

    Apoptosis in Batch Cultures of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells J. Goswami,1 A. J. Sinskey,2 H. Steller of the main problems in the culture of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells continues to be the inability. Keywords: cell culture; Chinese Hamster Ovary; apopto- sis; caspase; bcl-2 INTRODUCTION Chinese Hamster

  17. Reversible gelling culture media for in-vitro cell culture in three-dimensional matrices

    DOEpatents

    An, Yuehuei H. (Charleston, SC); Mironov, Vladimir A. (Mt. Pleasant, SC); Gutowska, Anna (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    A gelling cell culture medium useful for forming a three dimensional matrix for cell culture in vitro is prepared by copolymerizing an acrylamide derivative with a hydrophilic comonomer to form a reversible (preferably thermally reversible) gelling linear random copolymer in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum gelling molecular weight cutoff, mixing the copolymer with an aqueous solvent to form a reversible gelling solution and adding a cell culture medium to the gelling solution to form the gelling cell culture medium. Cells such as chondrocytes or hepatocytes are added to the culture medium to form a seeded culture medium, and temperature of the medium is raised to gel the seeded culture medium and form a three dimensional matrix containing the cells. After propagating the cells in the matrix, the cells may be recovered by lowering the temperature to dissolve the matrix and centrifuging.

  18. Cell Culture in 3Dimensional Microfluidic Structure of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Leclerc; Yasuyuki Sakai; Teruo Fujii

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a device with 3-dimensional microfluidic structure composed of two stacked layers of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) is fabricated for mammalian cell culture. This microdevice is tested with Hepatocarcinoma liver cells (Hep G2 cells). The purpose of this study is to understand to what extent cell culture in a PDMS microdevice is available. The experimental protocols for Hep G2 cell

  19. A simple and rapid Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) titration assay based on antibiotic resistance of infected cells: evaluation of the HAV neutralization potency of human immune globulin preparations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishnamurthy Konduru; Maria Luisa Virata-Theimer; Mei-ying W Yu; Gerardo G Kaplan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A virus (HAV), the causative agent of acute hepatitis in humans, is an atypical Picornaviridae that grows poorly in cell culture. HAV titrations are laborious and time-consuming because the virus in general does not cause cytopathic effect and is detected by immunochemical or molecular probes. Simple HAV titration assays could be developed using currently available viral construct containing

  20. The use of chicken tracheal organ cultures for the isolation and assay of avian infectious bronchitis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane K. A. Cook; J. H. Darbyshire; R. W. Peters

    1976-01-01

    Summary A study has been made of the use of chicken tracheal organ cultures for the isolation and assay of avian infectious bronchitis (AIB) virus from both naturally and experimentally infected chickens. Six strains of AIB virus were investigated, 3 of which had been isolated from natural outbreaks of disease. Two of the virus isolations from the outbreaks of AIB

  1. Enrichment of prostate cancer stem cells from primary prostate cancer cultures of biopsy samples

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shunqi; Huang, Shengsong; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Qimin; Wu, Min; Sun, Feng; Han, Gang; Wu, Denglong

    2014-01-01

    This study was to enrich prostate cancer stem cells (PrCSC) from primary prostate cancer cultures (PPrCC). Primary prostate cancer cells were amplified in keratinocyte serum-free medium with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bovine pituitary extract (BPE), supplemented with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), stem cell factor (SCF) and cholera toxin. After amplification, cells were transferred into ultra-low attachment dishes with serum-free DMEM/F12 medium, supplemented with EGF, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), bovine serum albumin (BSA), insulin, and N2 nutrition. Expression of cell-type-specific markers was determined by RT-qPCR and immunostaining. Tumorigenicity of enriched PrCSC was determined by soft agar assay and xenograft assay in NOD/SCID mice. Biopsy samples from 19 confirmed prostate cancer patients were used for establishing PPrCC, and 18 cases (95%) succeeded. Both basal marker (CK5) and luminal markers (androgen receptor and CK8) strongly co-expressed in most of PPrCC, indicating their basal epithelial origin. After amplification under adherent culture condition in vitro, transient amplifying cells were the dominant cells. Sphere formation efficiency (SFE) of passaged PPrCC was about 0.5%, which was 27 times lower than SFE of LNCaP (13.67%) in the same condition. Compared with adherent cells from PPrCC, prostasphere from PPrCC showed up regulated stem cell markers and increased tumorigenic potential in soft-agar assay. However, spheroid cells from PPrCC prostasphere failed to initiate tumor in xenograft assay in 6 months. Thus, PPrCC can be established and amplified from prostate cancer biopsy samples. Our modified sphere culture system can enrich PrCSC from PPrCC. PMID:24427338

  2. Cell Culture-Derived Influenza Vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip R. Dormitzer

    \\u000a Conventional egg-based vaccine manufacture has provided decades of safe and effective influenza vaccines using the technologies\\u000a of the 1930–1960s. Concerns over the vulnerability of the egg supply in the case of a pandemic with a high pathogenicity avian\\u000a influenza strain have spurred the development and licensure of mammalian cell culture-based influenza vaccines, the first\\u000a major technological innovation in influenza vaccine

  3. Micro-Arrayed Human Embryonic Stem Cells-Derived Cardiomyocytes for In Vitro Functional Assay

    PubMed Central

    Serena, Elena; Cimetta, Elisa; Zatti, Susi; Zaglia, Tania; Zagallo, Monica; Keller, Gordon; Elvassore, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The heart is one of the least regenerative organs in the body and any major insult can result in a significant loss of heart cells. The development of an in vitro-based cardiac tissue could be of paramount importance for many aspects of the cardiology research. In this context, we developed an in vitro assay based on human cardiomyocytes (hCMs) and ad hoc micro-technologies, suitable for several applications: from pharmacological analysis to physio-phatological studies on transplantable hCMs. We focused on the development of an assay able to analyze not only hCMs viability, but also their functionality. Methods hCMs were cultured onto a poly-acrylamide hydrogel with tunable tissue-like mechanical properties and organized through micropatterning in a 20×20 array. Arrayed hCMs were characterized by immunofluorescence, GAP-FRAP analyses and live and dead assay. Their functionality was evaluated monitoring the excitation-contraction coupling. Results Micropatterned hCMs maintained the expression of the major cardiac markers (cTnT, cTnI, Cx43, Nkx2.5, ?-actinin) and functional properties. The spontaneous contraction frequency was (0.83±0.2) Hz, while exogenous electrical stimulation lead to an increase up to 2 Hz. As proof of concept that our device can be used for screening the effects of pathological conditions, hCMs were exposed to increasing levels of H2O2. Remarkably, hCMs viability was not compromised with exposure to 0.1 mM H2O2, but hCMs contractility was dramatically suppressed. As proof of concept, we also developed a microfluidic platform to selectively treat areas of the cell array, in the perspective of performing multi-parametric assay. Conclusions Such system could be a useful tool for testing the effects of multiple conditions on an in vitro cell model representative of human heart physiology, thus potentially helping the processes of therapy and drug development. PMID:23152776

  4. Cytopathogenicity of Naegleria for cultured neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fulford, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    The cytopathic activity of live Naegleria amoebae and cell-free lysates of Naegleria for B-103 rat neuroblastoma cells was investigated using a /sup 51/Cr release assay. Live amoebae and cell-free lysates of N. fowleri, N. australiensis, N. lovaniensis, and N. gruberi all induced sufficient damage to radiolabeled B-103 cells to cause a significant release of chromium. The cytotoxic activity present in the cell-free lysates of N. fowleri can be recovered in the supernatant fluid following centrifugation at 100,000xg and precipitation of the 100,000xg supernatant fluid with ammonium sulfate. Initial characterization of the cytotoxic factor indicates that it is a heat labile, pH sensitive, soluble protein. The cytotoxic activity is abolished by either extraction, unaffected by repeated freeze-thawing, and is not sensitive to inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes. Phospholipase A activity was detected in the cytotoxic ammonium sulfate precipitable material, suggesting that this enzyme activity may have a role in the cytotoxic activity of the cell-free lysates.

  5. Analysis of Matrix-Dependent Cell Migration with a Barrier Migration Assay

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sven Kroening (University Hospital Erlangen; Department of Nephrology and Hypertension REV)

    2010-06-15

    Cell migration plays a pivotal role in many biological processes and is modulated by cytokines and growth factors. In vivo, cells are embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM proteins are linked to the cellular cytoskeleton by integrin adhesion receptors, which transmit extracellular signals into the cell, thereby affecting cell adhesion and migration as well as gene expression. We describe a cell migration assay that uses a barrier device to separate the cells. The assay enables quantification of the migration of adherent cells on defined matrix proteins and the ability to evaluate migration-associated characteristics of individual cells. Thus, the barrier cell migration assay is a useful tool for exploring matrix-dependent migration of adherent cells.

  6. Development and evaluation of an anchorage-independent agar-based clonal assay for human primary breast carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Besch, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The development and evaluation of an anchorage-independent clonal cytotoxic assay for primary human breast carcinoma cells is described in this thesis. This assay was developed in three stages which include: (1) the optimization of the production of a monodispersed cell suspension from solid breast carcinomas, (2) the systematic development of a growth medium for the clonal growth of these cells, and (3) the adaptation of these methods for use in the quantitation of cytotoxicity. The results of these studies indicated that hydrocortisone, fetal bovine serum and red blood cells stimulated the clonal growth of breast carcinoma cells. The optimal concentrations of these three factors were simultaneously determined using response surface methodology. These culture conditions were then used to develop radiation-cytotoxicity assays for both primary and recurrent breast carcinomas. The methodology developed and evaluated in this thesis may be useful to: (1) study the biology and radiobiology of human breast cancer, (2) customize the treatment of individual breast cancer patients, and (3) identify and/or develop new drugs and/or other treatment modalities for breast cancer.

  7. Bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cell adhesion assay for studying Escherichia coli O157 adherence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An adherence assay, using recto-anal junction squamous epithelial cells (RSEC), was developed for Escherichia coli O157 and related organisms. The assay was standardized in comparison with the routinely used HEp-2 cell adherence assay, in this “proof of concept” study. The novel RSEC adhesion assay ...

  8. Nitroglycerin Stimulates Synthesis of Prostacyclin by Cultured Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Richard I.; Jaffe, Eric A.; Weksler, Babette B.; Tack-Goldman, Karen

    1981-01-01

    Nitroglycerin (NTG), the agent most commonly used to treat acute angina pectoris, is a vasodilator whose mechanism of action remains unknown. We hypothesized that NTG might induce endothelial cells to synthesize prostacyclin (PGI2), a known vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Therefore, cultured human endothelial cells were incubated with NTG at various concentrations for 1-3 min. PGI2 biologic activity in the endothelial cell supernates was assayed by inhibition of platelet aggregation in vitro. The concentration of 6-keto-PGF1?, the stable hydrolysis product of PGI2, was measured by specific radioimmunoassay. NTG alone significantly inhibited platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 synthesis only at suprapharmacologic concentrations (?1 ?g/ml). However, when NTG at clinically attainable concentrations (0.1-10 ng/ml) was incubated with endothelial cells, the endothelial cell supernates inhibited platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitor was heat labile. Radioimmunoassay of the endothelial cell supernates for 6-keto-PGF1? demonstrated that NTG elicited dose-dependent increments in the synthesis of PGI2 by endothelial cells, ranging from 13% at NTG 10 pg/ml to 63% at NTG 10 ng/ml (P < 0.01, n = 10). Pretreatment of endothelial cells with either aspirin (50 ?M for 120 min) or the prostacyclin synthetase inhibitor 15-hydroperoxyarachidonic acid (20 ?g/ml for 15 min) abolished production of the platelet inhibitory substance. Synergy between NTG and PGI2 in the inhibition of platelet aggregation was not present at clinically attainable concentrations of NTG. Thus, NTG at clinically attainable concentrations causes a dose-dependent increase in PGI2 synthesis by endothelial cells. If this phenomenon occurs in vivo, the PGI2 produced could ameliorate myocardial ischemia by causing peripheral vasodilation and decreasing cardiac work, inhibiting platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 synthesis, and possibly reversing coronary artery vasospasm. PMID:6782121

  9. Microfluidic Probe for Single-Cell Lysis and Analysis in Adherent Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Han, Jongyoon

    2014-01-01

    Single-cell analysis provides information critical to understanding key disease processes that are characterized by significant cellular heterogeneity. Few current methods allow single-cell measurement without removing cells from the context of interest, which not only destroys contextual information but also may perturb the process under study. Here we present a microfluidic probe that lyses single adherent cells from standard tissue culture and captures the contents to perform single-cell biochemical assays. We use this probe to measure kinase and housekeeping protein activities, separately or simultaneously, from single human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in adherent culture. This tool has the valuable ability to perform measurements that clarify connections between extracellular context, signals and responses, especially in cases where only a few cells exhibit a characteristic of interest. PMID:24594667

  10. Isolation, culture, and differentiation of progenitor cells from the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Scott R; Pevny, Larysa H

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe ability to prospectively identify and characterize neural progenitor cells in vivo has been difficult due to a lack of cell-surface markers specific for these cell types. A widely used in vitro culture method, known as the Neurosphere Assay (NSA), has provided a means to retrospectively identify neural progenitor cells as well as to determine both their self-renewal capacity and their ability to generate the three primary cell types of the nervous system: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Today, combined with the establishment of multiple transgenic mouse strains expressing fluorescent markers and advances in cell isolation techniques such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), the NSA provides a powerful system to prospectively elucidate neural progenitor characteristics and functions. Here we describe methods for the isolation, culture, and differentiation of neural progenitors from the developing mouse and adult cortex. PMID:21356718

  11. Sodium 22+ washout from cultured rat cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kino, M.; Nakamura, A.; Hopp, L.; Kuriyama, S.; Aviv, A.

    1986-10-01

    The washout of Na/sup +/ isotopes from tissues and cells is quite complex and not well defined. To further gain insight into this process, we have studied /sup 22/Na/sup +/ washout from cultured Wistar rat skin fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In these preparations, /sup 22/Na/sup +/ washout is described by a general three-exponential function. The exponential factor of the fastest component (k1) and the initial exchange rate constant (kie) of cultured fibroblasts decrease in magnitude in response to incubation in K+-deficient medium or in the presence of ouabain and increase in magnitude when the cells are incubated in a Ca++-deficient medium. As the magnitude of the kie declines (in the presence of ouabain) to the level of the exponential factor of the middle component (k2), /sup 22/Na/sup +/ washout is adequately described by a two-exponential function. When the kie is further diminished (in the presence of both ouabain and phloretin) to the range of the exponential factor of the slowest component (k3), the washout of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ is apparently monoexponential. Calculations of the cellular Na/sup +/ concentrations, based on the /sup 22/Na/sup +/ activity in the cells at the initiation of the washout experiments, and the medium specific activity agree with atomic absorption spectrometry measurements of the cellular concentration of this ion. Thus, all three components of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ washout from cultured rat cells are of cellular origin. Using the exponential parameters, compartmental analyses of two models (in parallel and in series) with three cellular Na/sup +/ pools were performed. The results indicate that, independent of the model chosen, the relative size of the largest Na+ pool is 92-93% in fibroblasts and approximately 96% in VSMCs. This pool is most likely to represent the cytosol.

  12. ASBESTOS AND GASTRO-INTESTINAL CANCER: CELL CULTURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three forms of asbestos: amosite, crocidolite, and chrysotile, were assayed for their cytotoxicity and mutagenicity in cell clture. Using embjryonic human intestine derived and adult rat liver derived epitelial cells, the order of toxicity was chrysotile > amosite = crocidolite. ...

  13. Survey of Culture, GoldenGate Assay, Universal Biosensor Assay, and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing as Alternative Methods of Bacterial Pathogen Detection

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Mihai; Antonio, Martin; Walker, Alan W.; Mai, Volker; Ahmed, Dilruba; Oundo, Joseph; Tamboura, Boubou; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M.; Kotloff, Karen; Li, Shan; Magder, Laurence S.; Paulson, Joseph N.; Liu, Bo; Ikumapayi, Usman; Ebruke, Chinelo; Dione, Michel; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Rance, Richard; Stares, Mark D.; Ukhanova, Maria; Barnes, Bret; Lewis, Ian; Ahmed, Firoz; Alam, Meer Taifur; Amin, Ruhul; Siddiqui, Sabbir; Ochieng, John B.; Ouma, Emmanuel; Juma, Jane; Mailu, Eunice; Omore, Richard; O'Reilly, Ciara E.; Hannis, James; Manalili, Sheri; DeLeon, Jonna; Yasuda, Irene; Blyn, Lawrence; Ranken, Raymond; Li, Feng; Housley, Roberta; Ecker, David J.; Hossain, M. Anowar; Breiman, Robert F.; Morris, J. Glenn; McDaniel, Timothy K.; Parkhill, Julian; Saha, Debasish; Sampath, Rangarajan; Stine, O. Colin; Nataro, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation-based assays combined with PCR or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based methods for finding virulence factors are standard methods for detecting bacterial pathogens in stools; however, with emerging molecular technologies, new methods have become available. The aim of this study was to compare four distinct detection technologies for the identification of pathogens in stools from children under 5 years of age in The Gambia, Mali, Kenya, and Bangladesh. The children were identified, using currently accepted clinical protocols, as either controls or cases with moderate to severe diarrhea. A total of 3,610 stool samples were tested by established clinical culture techniques: 3,179 DNA samples by the Universal Biosensor assay (Ibis Biosciences, Inc.), 1,466 DNA samples by the GoldenGate assay (Illumina), and 1,006 DNA samples by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Each method detected different proportions of samples testing positive for each of seven enteric pathogens, enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica, and Aeromonas spp. The comparisons among detection methods included the frequency of positive stool samples and kappa values for making pairwise comparisons. Overall, the standard culture methods detected Shigella spp., EPEC, ETEC, and EAEC in smaller proportions of the samples than either of the methods based on detection of the virulence genes from DNA in whole stools. The GoldenGate method revealed the greatest agreement with the other methods. The agreement among methods was higher in cases than in controls. The new molecular technologies have a high potential for highly sensitive identification of bacterial diarrheal pathogens. PMID:23884998

  14. A flow-cytometry based cytotoxicity assay using stained effector cells in combination with native target cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maike Höppner; Jürgen Luhm; Peter Schlenke; Petra Koritke; Christoph Frohn

    2002-01-01

    Flow-cytometry based assays for cellular cytotoxicity have established themselves widely over the last years. Discrimination of target and effector cells is critical for such assays. If scatter properties are not informative, the standard approach until now has been to label the target cells with a suitable fluorescent dye. However, this cannot be applied to a number of experimental settings, e.g.

  15. A simple and rapid method for the quantitation of secreted hepatitis B virions in cell culture models.

    PubMed

    Samal, J; Kandpal, M; Vivekanandan, P

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture models for hepatitis B virus (HBV) remain the mainstay for screening and testing the efficacy of anti-hepatitis B virus agents. Gradient-based ultracentrifugation followed by Southern Blotting is used for hepatitis B virion estimation in cell culture; this method has several limitations. We report the development of an assay using a commercially available HBsAg-ELISA plate for immunocapture followed by real-time PCR for quantification of hepatitis B virions in cell cultures. This assay is rapid, highly sensitive (50 copies/reaction) and highly specific for virion-associated DNA. In addition, the assay requires only 20 ?L of supernatant, allowing scaling down of transfections. PMID:25865986

  16. Novel cell- and tissue-based assays for detecting misfolded and aggregated protein accumulation within aggresomes and inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dee; Coleman, Jack; Chan, Eric; Nicholson, Thomas P; Dai, Lijun; Sheppard, Paul W; Patton, Wayne F

    2011-07-01

    Aggresomes and related inclusion bodies appear to serve as storage depots for misfolded and aggregated proteins within cells, which can potentially be degraded by the autophagy pathway. A homogenous fluorescence-based assay was devised to detect aggregated proteins inside aggresomes and inclusion bodies within an authentic cellular context. The assay employs a novel red fluorescent molecular rotor dye, which is essentially nonfluorescent until it binds to structural features associated with the aggregated protein cargo. Aggresomes and related structures were generated within cultured cells using various potent, cell permeable, proteasome inhibitors: MG-132, lactacystin, epoxomicin and bortezomib, and then selectively detected with the fluorescent probe. Employing the probe in combination with various fluorescein-labeled primary antibodies facilitated co-localization of key components of the autophagy system (ubiquitin, p62, and LC3) with aggregated protein cargo by fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, cytoplasmic aggregates were highlighted in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells incubated with exogenously supplied amyloid beta peptide 1-42. SMER28, a small molecule modulator of autophagy acting via an mTOR-independent mechanism, prevented the accumulation of amyloid beta peptide within these cells. The described assay allows assessment of the effects of protein aggregation directly in cells, without resorting to the use of non-physiological protein mutations or genetically engineered cell lines. With minor modification, the assay was also adapted to the analysis of frozen or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, with demonstration of co-localization of aggregated cargo with ?-amyloid and tau proteins in brain tissue sections from Alzheimer's disease patients. PMID:21132543

  17. Culturing conditions affecting the production of anthocyanin in suspended cell cultures of strawberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Sato; Mamoru Nakayama; Jun-ichi Shigeta

    1996-01-01

    The increase of anthocyanin content in suspended cell cultures of strawberry varied with the increase in the amount of pigmentation in pigmented cells and in number of pigmented cells in a culture. The anthocyanin yield was enhanced by increasing light irradiation, and this may have resulted from increased accumulation of anthocyanin in pigmented cells. The increased anthocyanin yield for the

  18. The antioxidant effect of the Malaysian Gelam honey on pancreatic hamster cells cultured under hyperglycemic conditions.

    PubMed

    Batumalaie, Kalaivani; Qvist, Rajes; Yusof, Kamaruddin Mohd; Ismail, Ikram Shah; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2014-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes consists of progressive hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and pancreatic ?-cell failure which could result from glucose toxicity, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigate the effect of pretreatment with Gelam honey (Melaleuca spp.) and the individual flavonoid components chrysin, luteolin, and quercetin, on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell viability, lipid peroxidation, and insulin content in hamster pancreatic cells (HIT-T15 cells), cultured under normal and hyperglycemic conditions. Phenolic extracts from a local Malaysian species of Gelam honey (Melaleuca spp.) were prepared using the standard extraction methods. HIT-T15 cells were cultured in 5 % CO2 and then preincubated with Gelam honey extracts (20, 40, 60, and 80 ?g/ml) as well as some of its flavonoid components chrysin, luteolin, and quercetin (20, 40, 60, and 80 ?M), prior to stimulation by 20 and 50 mM of glucose. The antioxidative effects were measured in these cultured cells at different concentrations and time point by DCFH-DA assay. Pretreatment of cells with Gelam honey extract or the flavonoid components prior to culturing in 20 or 50 mM glucose showed a significant decrease in the production of ROS, glucose-induced lipid peroxidation, and a significant increase in insulin content and the viability of cells cultured under hyperglycemic condition. Our results show the in vitro antioxidative property of the Gelam honey and the flavonoids on the ?-cells from hamsters and its cytoprotective effect against hyperglycemia. PMID:23584372

  19. Differentiated cultures of primary hamster tracheal airway epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina K. Rowe; Steven L. Brody; Andrew Pekosz

    2004-01-01

    Summary  Primary airway epithelial cell cultures can provide a faithful representation of the in vivo airway while allowing for a controlled\\u000a nutrient source and isolation from other tissues or immune cells. The methods used have significant differences based on tissue\\u000a source, cell isolation, culture conditions, and assessment of culture purity. We modified and optimized a method for generating\\u000a tracheal epithelial cultures

  20. The cell-surface proteome of cultured adipose stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Donnenberg, Albert D; Meyer, E Michael; Rubin, J Peter; Donnenberg, Vera S

    2015-07-01

    In this technical note we describe a method to evaluate the cell surface proteome of human primary cell cultures and cell lines. The method utilizes the BD Biosciences lyoplate, a system covering 242 surface proteins, glycoproteins, and glycosphingolipids plus relevant isotype controls, automated plate-based flow cytometry, conventional file-level analysis and unsupervised K-means clustering of markers on the basis of percent of positive events and mean fluorescence intensity of positive and total clean events. As an example, we determined the cell surface proteome of cultured adipose stromal cells (ASC) derived from 5 independent clinical isolates. Between-sample agreement of very strongly expressed (n?=?32) and strongly expressed (n =16) markers was excellent, constituting a reliable profile for ASC identification and determination of functional properties. Known mesenchymal markers (CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105) were among the identified strongly expressed determinants. Among other strongly expressed markers are several that are potentially immunomodulatory including three proteins that protect from complement mediated effects (CD46, CD55, and CD59), two that regulate apoptosis (CD77 and CD95) and several with ectoenzymatic (CD10, CD26, CD13, CD73, and CD143) or receptor tyrosine kinase (CD140b (PDGFR), CD340 (Her-2), EGFR) activity, suggesting mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory and tissue remodeling properties of ASC. Because variables are standardized for K-means clustering, results generated using this methodology should be comparable between instrumentation platforms. It is widely generalizable to human primary explant cultures and cells lines and will prove useful to determine how cell passage, culture interventions, and gene expression and silencing affect the cell-surface proteome. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25929697

  1. The effects of poly L-lactic acid nanofiber scaffold on mouse spermatogonial stem cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Eslahi, Neda; Hadjighassem, Mahmoud Reza; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Mirzapour, Tooba; Bakhtiyari, Mehrdad; Shakeri, Malak; Pirhajati, Vahid; Shirinbayan, Peymaneh; Koruji, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A 3D-nanofiber scaffold acts in a similar way to the extracellular matrix (ECM)/basement membrane that enhances the proliferation and self-renewal of stem cells. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of a poly L-lactic acid (PLLA) nanofiber scaffold on frozen-thawed neonate mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and testis tissues. Methods The isolated spermatogonial cells were divided into six culture groups: (1) fresh spermatogonial cells, (2) fresh spermatogonial cells seeded onto PLLA, (3) frozen-thawed spermatogonial cells, (4) frozen-thawed spermatogonial cells seeded onto PLLA, (5) spermatogonial cells obtained from frozen-thawed testis tissue, and (6) spermatogonial cells obtained from frozen-thawed testis tissue seeded onto PLLA. Spermatogonial cells and testis fragments were cryopreserved and cultured for 3 weeks. Cluster assay was performed during the culture. The presence of spermatogonial cells in the culture was determined by a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for spermatogonial markers (Oct4, GFR?-1, PLZF, Mvh(VASA), Itg?6, and Itg?1), as well as the ultrastructural study of cell clusters and SSCs transplantation to a recipient azoospermic mouse. The significance of the data was analyzed using the repeated measures and analysis of variance. Results The findings indicated that the spermatogonial cells seeded on PLLA significantly increased in vitro spermatogonial cell cluster formations in comparison with the control groups (culture of SSCs not seeded on PLLA) (P?0.001). The viability rate for the frozen cells after thawing was 63.00% ± 3.56%. This number decreased significantly (40.00% ± 0.82%) in spermatogonial cells obtained from the frozen-thawed testis tissue. Both groups, however, showed in vitro cluster formation. Although the expression of spermatogonial markers was maintained after 3 weeks of culture, there was a significant downregulation for some spermatogonial genes in the experimental groups compared with those of the control groups. Furthermore, transplantation assay and transmission electron microscopy studies suggested the presence of SSCs among the cultured cells. Conclusion Although PLLA can increase the in vitro cluster formation of neonate fresh and frozen-thawed spermatogonial cells, it may also cause them to differentiate during cultivation. The study therefore has implications for SSCs proliferation and germ cell differentiation in vitro. PMID:24348035

  2. Induction of vascular endothelial phenotype and cellular proliferation from human cord blood stem cells cultured in simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Brian; Z-M Wan, Jim; Abley, Doris; Akabutu, John

    2005-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that stem cells derived from adult hematopoietic tissues are capable of trans-differentiation into non-hematopoietic cells, and that the culture in microgravity ( ?g) may modulate the proliferation and differentiation. We investigated the application of ?g to human umbilical cord blood stem cells (CBSC) in the induction of vascular endothelial phenotype expression and cellular proliferation. CD34+ mononuclear cells were isolated from waste human umbilical cord blood samples and cultured in simulated ?g for 14 days. The cells were seeded in rotary wall vessels (RWV) with or without microcarrier beads (MCB) and vascular endothelial growth factor was added during culture. Controls consisted of culture in 1 G. The cell cultures in RWV were examined by inverted microscopy. Cell counts, endothelial cell and leukocyte markers performed by flow-cytometry and FACS scan were assayed at days 1, 4, 7 and at the termination of the experiments. Culture in RWV revealed significantly increased cellular proliferation with three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like aggregates. At day 4, CD34+ cells cultured in RWV bioreactor without MCB developed vascular tubular assemblies and exhibited endothelial phenotypic markers. These data suggest that CD34+ human umbilical cord blood progenitors are capable of trans-differentiation into vascular endothelial cell phenotype and assemble into 3D tissue structures. Culture of CBSC in simulated ?g may be potentially beneficial in the fields of stem cell biology and somatic cell therapy.

  3. Infection on a chip: a microscale platform for simple and sensitive cell-based virus assays.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Warrick, Jay W; Haubert, Kathryn; Beebe, David J; Yin, John

    2009-06-01

    The plaque assay has long served as the "gold standard" to measure virus infectivity and test antiviral drugs, but the assay is labor-intensive, lacks sensitivity, uses excessive reagents, and is hard to automate. Recent modification of the assay to exploit flow-enhanced virus spread with quantitative imaging has increased its sensitivity. Here we performed flow-enhanced infection assays in microscale channels, employing passive fluid pumping to inoculate cell monolayers with virus and drive infection spread. Our test of an antiviral drug (5-fluorouracil) against vesicular stomatitis virus infections of BHK cell monolayers yielded a two-fold improvement in sensitivity, relative to the standard assay based on plaque counting. The reduction in scale, simplified fluid handling, image-based quantification, and higher assay sensitivity will enable infection measurements for high-throughput drug screening, sero-conversion testing, and patient-specific diagnosis of viral infections. PMID:19142734

  4. Artifacts by marker enzyme adsorption on nanomaterials in cytotoxicity assays with tissue cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlleben, Wendel; Kolle, Susanne N.; Hasenkamp, Laura-Carolin; Böser, Alexander; Vogel, Sandra; von Vacano, Bernhard; van Ravenzwaay, Ben; Landsiedel, Robert

    2011-07-01

    We used precision cut lung slices (PCLS) to study the cytotoxicity of cobalt ferrite nanomaterials with and without bovine serum albumin (BSA) stabilization. Using mitochondrial activity as an indicator of cytotoxicity (WST-1 assay) increasing concentrations of cobalt ferrite nanomaterial caused increasing levels of cytotoxicity in PCLS irrespective of BSA stabilization. However, there was no increase in released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels caused by BSA stabilized nanomaterial indicating concentration depended cytotoxictiy. Moreover, non-stabilized nanomaterial caused a decrease of background LDH levels in the PCLS culture supernatant confirmed by complementary methods. Direct characterization of the protein corona of extracted nanomaterial shows that the LDH decrease is due to adsorption of LDH onto the surface of the non-stabilized nanomaterial, correlated with strong agglomeration. Preincubation with serum protein blocks the adsorption of LDH and stabilizes the nanomaterial at low agglomeration. We have thus demonstrated the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials in PCLS does not correlate with disrupted membrane integrity followed by LDH release. Furthermore, we found that intracellular enzymes such as the marker enzyme LDH are able to bind onto surfaces of nanomaterial and thereby adulterate the detection of toxic effects. A replacement of BSA by LDH or a secondary LDH-on-BSA-corona were not observed, confirming earlier indications that the protein corona exchange rate are slow or vanishing on inorganic nanomaterial. Thus, the method(s) to assess nanomaterial-mediated effects have to be carefully chosen based on the cellular effect and possible nano-specific artifacts.

  5. Primary targets in photochemical inactivation of cells in culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Kristian; Jones, Stuart G.; Prydz, Kristian; Moan, Johan

    1995-01-01

    The mechanisms of photoinactivation of NHIK 3025 cells in culture sensitized by tetrasulfonated phenylporphines (TPPS4) are described). Ultracentrifugation studies on postnuclear supernatants indicated that the intracellular distribution of TPPS4 resembles that of (beta) -N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase ((beta) -AGA), a lysosomal marker enzyme, and that the cytosolic content of TPPS4 is below the detection limit of the ultracentrifugation method. Upon light exposure more than 90% of TPPS4 was lost from the lysosomal fractions, due to lysosomal rupture. The content of TPPS4 in the postnuclear supernatants was reduced by 30 - 40% upon exposure to light. This is most likely due to binding of TPPS4 to the nuclei, which were removed from the cell extracts before ultracentrifugation, after photochemical treatment. The unpolymerized form of tubulin seems to be an important target for the photochemical inactivation of NHIK 3025 cells. Since TPPS4 is mainly localized in lysosomes it was assumed that a dose of light disrupting a substantial number of lysosomes followed by microtubule depolymerization by nocodazole would enhance the sensitivity of the cells to photoinactivation. This was confirmed by using a colony-forming assay. The increased phototoxic effect exerted by such a treatment regime could be explained by an enhanced sensitivity of tubulin to light. Another cytosolic constituent, lactate dehydrogenase, was not photoinactivated by TPPS4 and light.

  6. Propagation and Immortalization of Human Lens Epithelial Cells in Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Usha P. Andley; Johng S. Rhim; Leo T. Chylack; Timothy P. Fleming

    Purpose. To establish primary and immortalized cell cultures of human lens epithelial cells for a model system investigating human lens epithelial physiology and cataract. Methods. Human lens epithelial cells in culture were grown by isolating epithelium fragments from infant human lenses from patients who underwent treatment for retinopathy of prema- turity and by allowing epithelial cells to grow from explants.

  7. Altered sensitivity to colchicine and PHA in human cultured cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Chamla; Monique Roumy; Marguerite Lassègues; J. Battin

    1980-01-01

    PHA-stimulated lymphocytes cultivated from a pair of human monozygotic twins yielded mostly tetraploid cells when colchicine was not used to arrest the metaphases. The rate of tetraploidy was also enhanced by colchicine in fibroblasts cultured without PHA. In in situ condition, larger than usual cells were observed. Other defects found in parental lymphocyte cultures included C-anaphase cells and increased cell

  8. Development of phenotypic screening assays for ?-globin induction using primary human bone marrow day 7 erythroid progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Xie, Wensheng; Gore, Elizabeth R; Montoute, Monica N; Bee, Weilin Tiger; Zappacosta, Francesca; Zeng, Xin; Wu, Zining; Kallal, Lorena; Ames, Robert S; Pope, Andrew J; Benowitz, Andrew; Erickson-Miller, Connie L

    2013-12-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a genetic disorder of the ?-globin gene. SCA results in chronic ischemia with pain and tissue injury. The extent of SCA symptoms can be ameliorated by treatment with drugs, which result in increasing the levels of ?-globin in patient red blood cells. Hydroxyurea (HU) is a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for SCA, but it has dose-limiting toxicity, and patients exhibit highly variable treatment responses. To identify compounds that may lead to the development of better and safer medicines, we have established a method using primary human bone marrow day 7 erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) to screen for compounds that induce ?-globin production. First, human marrow CD34(+) cells were cultured and expanded for 7 days and characterized for the expression of erythroid differentiation markers (CD71, CD36, and CD235a). Second, fresh or cryopreserved EPCs were treated with compounds for 3 days in 384-well plates followed by ?-globin quantification by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was validated using HU and decitabine. From the 7408 compounds screened, we identified at least one new compound with confirmed ?-globin-inducing activity. Hits are undergoing analysis in secondary assays. In this article, we describe the method of generating fit-for-purpose EPCs; the development, optimization, and validation of the ELISA and secondary assays for ?-globin detection; and screening results. PMID:24163393

  9. Equipment for large-scale mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Sadettin S

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides information on commonly used equipment in industrial mammalian cell culture, with an emphasis on bioreactors. The actual equipment used in the cell culture process can vary from one company to another, but the main steps remain the same. The process involves expansion of cells in seed train and inoculation train processes followed by cultivation of cells in a production bioreactor. Process and equipment options for each stage of the cell culture process are introduced and examples are provided. Finally, the use of disposables during seed train and cell culture production is discussed. PMID:24429549

  10. In vitro tests of resveratrol radiomodifying effect on rhabdomyosarcoma cells by comet assay.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, V D; Rogero, S O; Cruz, A S; Vieira, D P; Okazaki, K; Rogero, J R

    2014-12-01

    Cancer is a global public health problem. Resveratrol is a defensive polyphenol that is synthesized by a wide variety of plants in response to exposure to ultraviolet radiation or also due to mechanical stress caused by the action of pathogens and chemical and physical agents. Grape vines have a high capacity to produce resveratrol, so grape juice and wine, mainly red wine, are considered good sources of resveratrol. The protective effects of resveratrol include promotion of antiinflammatory response, antitumor activity and prevention of degenerative diseases, reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases and inhibition of platelet aggregation, among others. Therefore, resveratrol is considered to be a cell protector. However, at high concentrations, resveratrol promotes contrary effects by sensitizing cells. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the radiomodifying effect of resveratrol in culture of human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD) by applying the comet assay to evaluate the cell damage and repair capacity. The LD50 (lethal dose) obtained was 499.95 ± 9.83 Gy (Mean ± SD) and the CI50 (cytotoxicity index) was 150 ?M in the RD cells. Based on these data, it was defined the gamma radiation doses (50 and 100 Gy) and resveratrol concentrations (15, 30 and 60 ?M) to be used in this study. The results indicated that resveratrol acts as a cell protector at a concentration of 15 ?M and has a cytotoxic effect at 60 ?M. However, with the interaction of the gamma radiation, the concentration of 60 ?M did not produce a statistically significant radiosensitizing effect. PMID:25084316

  11. Responses of the L5178Y mouse Lymphoma cell forward mutation assay. V: 27 coded chemicals.

    PubMed

    McGregor, D B; Brown, A G; Howgate, S; McBride, D; Riach, C; Caspary, W J

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-seven chemicals were tested for their mutagenic potential in the L5178Y tk+/tk- mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay using procedures based upon those described by McGregor et al. (McGregor DB, Martin R, Cattanach P, Edwards I, McBride D, Caspary WJ (1987): Environ Mol Mutagen 9:143-160). Cultures were exposed to the chemicals for 4 hr, then cultured for 2 days before plating in soft agar with or without trifluorothymidine (TFT), 3 micrograms/ml. The chemicals were tested at least twice. Statistically significant responses were obtained with acid orange 10, aniline, benzaldehyde, o-chloroaniline, chlorodibromomethane, cytembena, 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromomethyl) cyclohexane, dieldrin, lithocholic acid, oxytetracycline, phenazopyridine HCl, 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, solvent yellow 14, tetraethylthiuram disulfide (disulfiram), 2,4-toluene diisocyanate, and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate. Apart from phenazopyridine HCl, acid orange 10, and solvent yellow 14, rat liver S9 mix was not a requirement for the mutagenic activity of these compounds. Chemical not identified as mutagens were N-4-acetylaminofluorene, chlorpheniramine maleate, chloropropamide, 1,4-dioxane, endrin, ethylene glycol, iron dextran, methapyrilene, sodium(2-ethylhexyl)alcohol PMID:1902415

  12. The Corticostriatal System in Dissociated Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Fiona E.; Garcia-Munoz, Marianela; Vickers, Catherine; Schock, Sarah C.; Staines, William A.; Arbuthnott, Gordon W.

    2011-01-01

    The sparse connectivity within the striatum in vivo makes the investigation of individual corticostriatal synapses very difficult. Most studies of the corticostriatal input have been done using electrical stimulation under conditions where it is hard to identify the precise origin of the cortical input. We have employed an in vitro dissociated cell culture system that allows the identification of individual corticostriatal pairs and have been developing methods to study individual neuron inputs to striatal neurons. In mixed corticostriatal cultures, neurons had resting activity similar to the system in vivo. Up/down states were obvious and seemed to encompass the entire culture. Mixed cultures of cortical neurons from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein with striatal neurons from wild-type mice of the same developmental stage allowed visual identification of individual candidate corticostriatal pairs. Recordings were performed between 12 and 37 days in vitro (DIV). To investigate synaptic connections we recorded from 69 corticostriatal pairs of which 44 were connected in one direction and 25 reciprocally. Of these connections 41 were corticostriatal (nine inhibitory) and 53 striatocortical (all inhibitory). The observed excitatory responses were of variable amplitude (?10 to ?370?pA, n?=?32). We found the connections very secure – with negligible failures on repeated stimulation (approximately 1?Hz) of the cortical neuron. Inhibitory corticostriatal responses were also observed (?13 to ?314?pA, n?=?9). Possibly due to the mixed type of culture we found an inhibitory striatocortical response (?14 to ?598?pA, n?=?53). We are now recording from neurons in separate compartments to more closely emulate neuroanatomical conditions but still with the possibility of the easier identification of the connectivity. PMID:21743806

  13. Chloride and fluid secretion by cultured human polycystic kidney cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darren P Wallace; Jared J Grantham; Lawrence P Sullivan

    1996-01-01

    Chloride and fluid secretion by cultured human polycystic kidney cells. Epithelial cells cultured from the renal cysts of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) secrete fluid via a process stimulated by adenosine 3?,5?-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). We have investigated the hypothesis that fluid secretion by these cells is dependent on cAMP-mediated chloride secretion. Individual cultured ADPKD cells were suspended

  14. Replication of Chinese sacbrood virus in primary cell cultures of Asian honeybee (Apis cerana).

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaocui; Mao, Qianzhou; Wang, Haitao; Zhou, Bingfeng; Wei, Taiyun

    2014-12-01

    A primary cell culture system was established for the first time from embryonic tissues of Asian honeybee, Apis cerana, and used to trace the early infection process of Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV), an iflavirus in the family Iflaviridae. A monolayer of epithelium-like cells of A. cerana, approximately 8-10 ?m in diameter, was grown in Kimura's insect medium at 28 °C within 3-4 days of setting up the cultures. Such cultured cells were inoculated with CSBV purified from infected larvae or pupae for 2 h. In electron and confocal micrographs, viral particles accumulated as filamentous or vesicular inclusions in the cytoplasm of infected cultured cells at 36 h post-inoculation (hpi). Real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay showed that the expression levels of four cistrons of CSBV in the cultured cells increased rapidly between 12 and 48 hpi. This newly established primary cell culture derived from A. cerana will be useful for further studies of infection caused by CSBV. PMID:25139546

  15. Defining the actual sensitivity and specificity of the neurosphere assay in stem cell biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf Knoth; Ralf P Meyer; Jaroslaw Maciaczyk; Benedikt Volk; Guido Nikkhah; Michael Frotscher; Ilyas Singec; Evan Y Snyder

    2006-01-01

    For more than a decade the 'neurosphere assay' has been used to define and measure neural stem cell (NSC) behavior, with similar assays now used in other organ systems and in cancer. We asked whether neurospheres are clonal structures whose diameter, number and composition accurately reflect the proliferation, self-renewal and multipotency of a single founding NSC. Using time-lapse video microscopy,

  16. Problems utilizing an enzyme sensitive site assay for photorepair of exogenous DNA with cell-free

    E-print Network

    Smith, M. Alex

    restriction-enzyme (ESS) assay. Cell-free protein extracts of amphibian eggs caused the degradation of even­ESS assays to determine the UVB damage repair abilities of amphibian eggs. Proper estimation of amphibian-free protein extracts cre- ated from amphibian embryos covered in protective jelly. The process of releasing

  17. Culture bag systems for clinical applications of adult human neural crest-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Facing the challenging treatment of neurodegenerative diseases as well as complex craniofacial injuries such as those common after cancer therapy, the field of regenerative medicine increasingly relies on stem cell transplantation strategies. Here, neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) offer many promising applications, although scale up of clinical-grade processes prior to potential transplantations is currently limiting. In this study, we aimed to establish a clinical-grade, cost-reducing cultivation system for NCSCs isolated from the adult human nose using cGMP-grade Afc-FEP bags. Methods We cultivated human neural crest-derived stem cells from inferior turbinate (ITSCs) in a cell culture bag system using Afc-FEP bags in human blood plasma-supplemented medium. Investigations of viability, proliferation and expression profile of bag-cultured ITSCs were followed by DNA-content and telomerase activity determination. Cultivated ITSCs were introduced to directed in vitro differentiation assays to assess their potential for mesodermal and ectodermal differentiation. Mesodermal differentiation was determined using an enzyme activity assay (alkaline phosphatase, ALP), respective stainings (Alizarin Red S, Von Kossa and Oil Red O), and RT-PCR, while immunocytochemistry and synaptic vesicle recycling were applied to assay neuroectodermal differentiation of ITSCs. Results When cultivated within Afc-FEP bags, ITSCs grew three-dimensionally in a human blood plasma-derived matrix, thereby showing unchanged morphology, proliferation capability, viability and expression profile in comparison to three dimensionally-cultured ITSCs growing in standard cell culture plastics. Genetic stability of bag-cultured ITSCs was further accompanied by unchanged telomerase activity. Importantly, ITSCs retained their potential to differentiate into mesodermal cell types, particularly including ALP-active, Alizarin Red S-, and Von Kossa-positive osteogenic cell types, as well as adipocytes positive in Oil Red O assays. Bag culture further did not affect the potential of ITSCs to undergo differentiation into neuroectodermal cell types coexpressing ?-III-tubulin and MAP2 and exhibiting the capability for synaptic vesicle recycling. Conclusions Here, we report for the first time the successful cultivation of human NCSCs within cGMP-grade Afc-FEP bags using a human blood plasma-supplemented medium. Our findings particularly demonstrate the unchanged differentiation capability and genetic stability of the cultivated NCSCs, suggesting the great potential of this culture system for future medical applications in the field of regenerative medicine. PMID:24629140

  18. Alternative Methods for the Detection of Emerging Marine Toxins: Biosensors, Biochemical Assays and Cell-Based Assays

    PubMed Central

    Reverté, Laia; Soliño, Lucía; Carnicer, Olga; Diogène, Jorge; Campàs, Mònica

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of marine toxins in water and seafood may have a considerable impact on public health. Although the tendency in Europe is to consolidate, when possible, official reference methods based on instrumental analysis, the development of alternative or complementary methods providing functional or toxicological information may provide advantages in terms of risk identification, but also low cost, simplicity, ease of use and high-throughput analysis. This article gives an overview of the immunoassays, cell-based assays, receptor-binding assays and biosensors that have been developed for the screening and quantification of emerging marine toxins: palytoxins, ciguatoxins, cyclic imines and tetrodotoxins. Their advantages and limitations are discussed, as well as their possible integration in research and monitoring programs. PMID:25431968

  19. Conventional viral cultures and shell vial assay for diagnosis of apparently culture-negative Coxiella burnetii endocarditis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gil-Grande; J. M. Aguado; C. Pastor; M. García-Bravo; C. Gómez-Pellico; F. Soriano; A. R. Noriega

    1995-01-01

    A patient with culture-negative endocarditis was diagnosed with Q fever endocarditis based on the results of serological tests and positive leukocyte cultures obtained using conventional viral cultures and the shell vial technique. This case report suggests that isolation ofCoxiella burnetii from blood may allow better diagnostic and therapeutical evaluation of patients with Q fever endocarditis. The use of both conventional

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL CELLS CULTURED IN SEMIPERMEABLE HOLLOW FIBERS

    PubMed Central

    Grek, Christina L.; Newton, Danforth A.; Qiu, Yonhzhi; Wen, Xuejun; Spyropoulos, Demetri D.; Baatz, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Cell culture methods commonly used to represent alveolar epithelial cells in vivo have lacked airflow, a 3-dimensional air-liquid interface, and dynamic stretching characteristics of native lung tissue—physiological parameters critical for normal phenotypic gene expression and cellular function. Here the authors report the development of a selectively semipermeable hollow fiber culture system that more accurately mimics the in vivo microenvironment experienced by mammalian distal airway cells than in conventional or standard air-liquid interface culture. Murine lung epithelial cells (MLE-15) were cultured within semipermeable polyurethane hollow fibers and introduced to controlled airflow through the microfiber interior. Under these conditions, MLE-15 cells formed confluent monolayers, demonstrated a cuboidal morphology, formed tight junctions, and produced and secreted surfactant proteins. Numerous lamellar bodies and microvilli were present in MLE-15 cells grown in hollow fiber culture. Conversely, these alveolar type II cell characteristics were reduced in MLE-15 cells cultured in conventional 2D static culture systems. These data support the hypothesis that MLE-15 cells grown within our microfiber culture system in the presence of airflow maintain the phenotypic characteristics of type II cells to a higher degree than those grown in standard in vitro cell culture models. Application of our novel model system may prove advantageous for future studies of specific gene and protein expression involving alveolar epithelial or bronchiolar epithelial cells. PMID:19263283

  1. Fetal Calf Serum Protects Cultured Porcine Corneal Endothelial Cells from Endotoxin-Mediated Cell Damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela C. Sobottka Ventura; Katrin Engelmann; Matthias Böhnke

    1999-01-01

    In corneal organ culture, a contamination of sterile culture media with endotoxin is frequently found. Thus, we investigated if the presence of endotoxin affects the viability of cultured porcine corneal endothelial cells. Endotoxin in high concentrations caused morphological cell changes in porcine corneal endothelial monolayer cultures, delayed proliferation and decreased cellular esterase activity of porcine corneal endothelial cells in vitro.

  2. Hydrogels as Extracellular Matrix Mimics for 3D Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Tibbitt, Mark W.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2010-01-01

    Methods for culturing mammalian cells ex vivo are increasingly needed to study cell and tissue physiology and to grow replacement tissue for regenerative medicine. Two-dimensional culture has been the paradigm for typical in vitro cell culture; however, it has been demonstrated that cells behave more natively when cultured in three-dimensional environments. Permissive, synthetic hydrogels and promoting, natural hydrogels have become popular as three-dimensional cell culture platforms; yet, both of these systems possess limitations. In this perspective, we discuss the use of both synthetic and natural hydrogels as scaffolds for three-dimensional cell culture as well as synthetic hydrogels that incorporate sophisticated biochemical and mechanical cues as mimics of the native extracellular matrix. Ultimately, advances in synthetic–biologic hydrogel hybrids are needed to provide robust platforms for investigating cell physiology and fabricating tissue outside of the organism. PMID:19472329

  3. Studies on the differentiation pathway and growth characteristics of epithelial culture cells of the human prostate.

    PubMed

    Planz, B; Tabatabaei, S; Kirley, S D; Aretz, H T; Wang, QiFa; Lin, C-W; McDougal, W S; Marberger, M

    2004-01-01

    We established explant primary cultures in order to study the growth and hormone responsiveness, and the differentiation process of prostatic epithelial cells. Cell outgrowth was achieved from explant tissue by using a new DU145-cell-conditioned medium and special plastic coverslips. To define the present model, proliferation assays were tested by [3H]thymidine assay and planimetric analysis. Cells were analyzed using immunocytochemistry, light, phase contrast and electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, telomerase ELISA and immunoassay (PSA). Morphology and electron microscopy revealed typical epithelial differentiation. Immunocytochemistry showed the content of basal and secretory epithelial cells, endocrine paracrine cells and a high level of proliferation. With increasing culture time, mature epithelial differentiation (PSA) increases and the initial increase of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) decreases again. After further passaging, alpha-SMA expression is no longer detected and PSA expression decreases. Furthermore, epithelial cells showed both androgen responsiveness and androgen receptor expression. These findings show the presence of epithelial cells in a process of differentiation with endocrine paracrine cells and a high level of proliferation. This model may maintain the cellular and functional properties more closely related to the human prostate and may provide a valuable tool for studying stem cells and differentiation characteristics. PMID:14999242

  4. Characterizing the mechanics of cultured cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Loic; Bellis, Julien; Baum, Buzz; Kabla, Alexandre J.; Charras, Guillaume T.

    2012-01-01

    One-cell-thick monolayers are the simplest tissues in multicellular organisms, yet they fulfill critical roles in development and normal physiology. In early development, embryonic morphogenesis results largely from monolayer rearrangement and deformation due to internally generated forces. Later, monolayers act as physical barriers separating the internal environment from the exterior and must withstand externally applied forces. Though resisting and generating mechanical forces is an essential part of monolayer function, simple experimental methods to characterize monolayer mechanical properties are lacking. Here, we describe a system for tensile testing of freely suspended cultured monolayers that enables the examination of their mechanical behavior at multi-, uni-, and subcellular scales. Using this system, we provide measurements of monolayer elasticity and show that this is two orders of magnitude larger than the elasticity of their isolated cellular components. Monolayers could withstand more than a doubling in length before failing through rupture of intercellular junctions. Measurement of stress at fracture enabled a first estimation of the average force needed to separate cells within truly mature monolayers, approximately ninefold larger than measured in pairs of isolated cells. As in single cells, monolayer mechanical properties were strongly dependent on the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton, myosin, and intercellular adhesions interfacing adjacent cells. High magnification imaging revealed that keratin filaments became progressively stretched during extension, suggesting they participate in monolayer mechanics. This multiscale study of monolayer response to deformation enabled by our device provides the first quantitative investigation of the link between monolayer biology and mechanics. PMID:22991459

  5. Optimized luciferase assay for cell-penetrating peptide-mediated delivery of short oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Helmfors, Henrik; Eriksson, Jonas; Langel, Ülo

    2015-09-01

    An improved assay for screening for the intracellular delivery efficacy of short oligonucleotides using cell-penetrating peptides is suggested. This assay is an improvement over previous assays that use luciferase reporters for cell-penetrating peptides because it has been scaled up from a 24-well format to a 96-well format and no longer relies on a luciferin reagent that has been commercially sourced. In addition, the homemade luciferin reagent is useful in multiple cell lines and in different assays that rely on altering the expression of luciferase. To establish a new protocol, the composition of the luciferin reagent was optimized for both signal strength and longevity by multiple two-factorial experiments varying the concentrations of adenosine triphosphate, luciferin, coenzyme A, and dithiothreitol. In addition, the optimal conditions with respect to cell number and time of transfection for both short interfering RNA (siRNA) and splice-correcting oligonucleotides (SCOs) are established. Optimal transfection of siRNA and SCOs was achieved using the reverse transfection method where the oligonucleotide complexes are already present in the wells before the cells are plated. Z' scores were 0.73 for the siRNA assay and 0.71 for the SCO assay, indicating that both assays are suitable for high-throughput screening. PMID:26049099

  6. A plasmacytoid dendritic cell (CD123+/CD11c-) based assay system to predict contact allergenicity of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ayehunie, Seyoum; Snell, Maureen; Child, Matthew; Klausner, Mitchell

    2009-10-01

    A predictive allergenicity test system for assessing the contact allergenicity of chemicals is needed by the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry to monitor product safety in the marketplace. Development of such non-animal alternative assay systems for skin sensitization and hazard identification has been pursued by policy makers and regulatory agencies. We investigated whether phenotypic and functional changes to a subset of dendritic cells (DC), plasmacytoid DC (pDC), could be used to identify contact allergens. To achieve this goal, normal human DC were generated from CD34+ progenitor cells and cryopreserved. Frozen DC were thawed and the pDC fraction (CD123+/CD11c-) was harvested using FACS sorting. The pDC were cultured, expanded, and exposed to chemical allergens (N=26) or non-allergens (N=22). Concentrations of each chemical that resulted in >50% viability was determined using FACS analysis of propidium iodide stained cells using pDC from 2 to 5 donors. Expression of the surface marker, CD86, which has been implicated in dendritic cell maturation, was used as a marker of allergenicity. CD86 expression increased (> or =1.5-fold) for 25 of 26 allergens (sensitivity=96%) but did not increase for 19 of 22 non-allergens (specificity=86%). In a direct comparison to historical data for the regulatory approved, mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) for 23 allergens and 22 non-allergens, the pDC method had sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 86%, respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity of the LLNA assay was 83% and 82%, respectively. In conclusion, CD86 expression in pDC appears to be a sensitive and specific indicator to identify contact allergenicity. Such an assay method utilizing normal human cells will be useful for high throughput screening of chemicals for allergenicity. PMID:19665512

  7. A plasmacytoid dendritic cell (CD123+/CD11c-) based assay system to predict contact allergenicity of chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Ayehunie, Seyoum; Snell, Maureen; Child, Matthew; Klausner, Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    A predictive allergenicity test system for assessing the contact allergenicity of chemicals is needed by the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry to monitor product safety in the marketplace. Development of such non-animal alternative assay systems for skin sensitization and hazard identification has been pursued by policy makers and regulatory agencies. We investigated whether phenotypic and functional changes to a subset of dendritic cells (DC), plasmacytoid DC (pDC), could be used to identify contact allergens. To achieve this goal, normal human DC were generated from CD34+ progenitor cells and cryopreserved. Frozen DC were thawed and the pDC fraction (CD123+/CD11c-) was harvested using FACS sorting. The pDC were cultured, expanded, and exposed to chemical allergens (N=26) or non-allergens (N=22). Concentrations of each chemical that resulted in >50% viability was determined using FACS analysis of propidium iodide stained cells using pDC from 2-5 donors. Expression of the surface marker, CD86, which has been implicated in dendritic cell maturation, was used as a marker of allergenicity. CD86 expression increased (? 1.5 fold) for 25 of 26 allergens (sensitivity = 96%) but did not increase for 19 of 22 non-allergens (specificity = 86%). In a direct comparison to historical data for the regulatory approved, mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) for 23 allergens and 22 non-allergens, the pDC method had sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 86%, respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity of the LLNA assay was 83% and 82%, respectively. In conclusion, CD86 expression in pDC appears to be a sensitive and specific indicator to identify contact allergenicity. Such an assay method utilizing normal human cells will be useful for high throughput screening of chemicals for allergenicity. PMID:19665512

  8. Tension, Free Space, and Cell Damage in a Microfluidic Wound Healing Assay

    E-print Network

    Murrell, Michael

    We use a novel, microfluidics-based technique to deconstruct the classical wound healing scratch assay, decoupling the contribution of free space and cell damage on the migratory dynamics of an epithelial sheet. This method ...

  9. Detection of circulating immune complexes by Raji cell assay: comparison of flow cytometric and radiometric methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsmore, S.F.; Crockard, A.D.; Fay, A.C.; McNeill, T.A.; Roberts, S.D.; Thompson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Several flow cytometric methods for the measurement of circulating immune complexes (CIC) have recently become available. We report a Raji cell flow cytometric assay (FCMA) that uses aggregated human globulin (AHG) as primary calibrator. Technical advantages of the Raji cell flow cytometric assay are discussed, and its clinical usefulness is evaluated in a method comparison study with the widely used Raji cell immunoradiometric assay. FCMA is more precise and has greater analytic sensitivity for AHG. Diagnostic sensitivity by the flow cytometric method is superior in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients: however, diagnostic specificity is similar for both assays, but the reference interval of FCMA is narrower. Significant correlations were found between CIC levels obtained with both methods in SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients and in longitudinal studies of two patients with cerebral SLE. The Raji cell FCMA is recommended for measurement of CIC levels to clinical laboratories with access to a flow cytometer.

  10. Gravity, chromosomes, and organized development in aseptically cultured plant cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, Abraham D.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the PCR experiment are: to test the hypothesis that microgravity will in fact affect the pattern and developmental progression of embryogenically competent plant cells from one well-defined, critical stage to another; to determine the effects of microgravity in growth and differentiation of embryogenic carrot cells grown in cell culture; to determine whether microgravity or the space environment fosters an instability of the differentiated state; and to determine whether mitosis and chromosome behavior are adversely affected by microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: special embryogenically competent carrot cell cultures will be grown in cell culture chambers provided by NASDA; four cell culture chambers will be used to grow cells in liquid medium; two dishes (plant cell culture dishes) will be used to grow cells on a semi-solid agar support; progression to later embryonic stages will be induced in space via crew intervention and by media manipulation in the case of liquid grown cell cultures; progression to later stages in case of semi-solid cultures will not need crew intervention; embryo stages will be fixed at a specific interval (day 6) in flight only in the case of liquid-grown cultures; and some living cells and somatic embryos will be returned for continued post-flight development and 'grown-out.' These will derive from the semi-solid grown cultures.

  11. Nanocrystalline diamond: In vitro biocompatibility assessment by MG63 and human bone marrow cells cultures.

    PubMed

    Amaral, M; Dias, A G; Gomes, P S; Lopes, M A; Silva, R F; Santos, J D; Fernandes, M H

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) has a great potential for prosthetic implants coating. Nevertheless, its biocompatibility still has to be better understood. To do so, we employed several materials characterization techniques (SEM, AFM, micro-Raman spectroscopy) and cell culture assays using MG63 osteoblast-like and human bone marrow cells. Biochemical routines (MTT assays, Lowry's method, ALP activity) supported by SEM and confocal microscopy characterization were carried out. We used silicon nitride (Si3N4) substrates for NCD coatings based on a previous demonstration of the superior adhesion and tribological performance of these NCD coated ceramics. Results demonstrate an improved human osteoblast proliferation and the stimulation of differentiated markers, like ALP activity and matrix mineralization, compared with standard polystyrene tissue culture plates. The nanometric featuring of NCD, associated to its chemical affinity are key points for bone regeneration purposes. PMID:18085649

  12. Improvement of 96-well microplate assay for estimation of cell growth and inhibition of Leishmania with Alamar Blue.

    PubMed

    Corral, María Jesús; González, Elena; Cuquerella, Montserrat; Alunda, José María

    2013-08-01

    The value of resazurin-based Alamar Blue redox indicator to determine multiplication of Leishmania promastigotes in 96-well microtiter plates was examined. In addition, assay was validated with amphotericin B (AmB) and allicin. The method was tested on L.donovani and L.infantum promastigotes under different culture conditions (variable air-phase, presence of phenol red, initial cell density, incubation time, use of Hepes buffer). Results showed that the gas-phase of promastigote cultures was critical. The method yielded consistent results with initial plating cell densities of 2.5 × 10? promastigotes/well, up to 72 h incubation and 5% CO? atmosphere or reduced air availability (sealed plastic bags, film-sealed microplates). Detection of low numbers of promastigotes and earlier results could be obtained using fluorimetry instead of spectrophotometry. The addition of 20 mM Hepes improved the results. Fluorescence intensity correlated to promastigotes number in both Leishmania spp. Inhibitory concentration (IC??) values for AmB and allicin using cell counting and fluorimetry were comparable. Under these conditions this one-step, low-cost redox indicator can be used in drug sensitivity assays and studies of differential proliferation rates of Leishmania isolates or strains in a 96-well format. PMID:23707202

  13. Microfluidic devices for cell culture and handling in organ-on-a-chip applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Holger; Schulz, Ingo; Mosig, Alexander; Jahn, Tobias; Gärtner, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    For many problems in system biology or pharmacology, in-vivo-like models of cell-cell interactions or organ functions are highly sought after. Conventional stationary cell culture in 2D plates quickly reaches its limitations with respect to an in-vivo like expression and function of individual cell types. Microfabrication technologies and microfluidics offer an attractive solution to these problems. The ability to generate flow as well as geometrical conditions for cell culture and manipulation close to the in-vivo situation allows for an improved design of experiments and the modeling of organ-like functionalities. Furthermore, reduced internal volumes lead to a reduction in reagent volumes necessary as well as an increased assay sensitivity. In this paper we present a range of microfluidic devices designed for the co-culturing of a variety of cells. The influence of substrate materials and surface chemistry on the cell morphology and viability for long-term cell culture has been investigated as well as strategies and medium supply for on-chip cell cultivation.

  14. Three-dimensional culture of differentiated endometrial stromal cells to oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in fibrin hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Asmani, Mohammad Nabi; Ai, Jafar; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Noroozi, Abbas; Azami, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Ai, Armin; Jafarabadi, Mina

    2013-12-01

    Neural tissue engineering is one of the most promising strategies for treatment of nerve tissue injuries. Three-dimensional (3D) environment mimics in vivo conditions for cells. 3D distribution and growth of the cells within the scaffold are both important for neural tissue engineering. In this study, endometrial stromal cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (EnSC-derived OPCs) were cultured in fibrin gel and cell differentiation and viability were evaluated after 8 days of post-culture. The structural and mechanical characteristics of fibrin gel-like scaffold were examined with rheological analysis. EnSCs were isolated from donor tissue and were induced to OPCs with growth factors (FGF2/EGF/PDGF-AA) for 12 days, then were cultured in fibrin gel with Triiodothyronine (T3) medium for another 8 days. The viability of cells was analyzed using MTT assay for a period of 8 days culturing in a fibrin matrix. Structure of fibrin matrix and cell morphology was analyzed with SEM. TEM, immunostaining and quantitative RT-PCR was performed for OPCs markers after cell culturing in fibrin matrix. Cell viability is enhanced in fibrin matrix after 8 days. SEM and TEM show that cells are in good integration with nano-fibers. Moreover, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR of OPCs differentiation markers showed that Olig2, Sox10, PDGFRa, CNP, and A2B5 are expressed after 8 days culturing within fibrin matrix. Fibrin can provide a suitable 3-D scaffold for EnSCs differentiated cells for the regeneration of CNS. PMID:24038753

  15. On the measurement of human osteosarcoma cell elastic modulus using shear assay experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yifang Cao; Randy Bly; Will Moore; Zhan Gao; Alberto M. Cuitino; Wole Soboyejo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method for determining the elastic modulus of human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells. The method involves a\\u000a combination of shear assay experiments and finite element analysis. Following in-situ observations of cell deformation during\\u000a shear assay experiments, a digital image correlation (DIC) technique was used to determine the local displacement and strain\\u000a fields. Finite element analysis was then used

  16. A 125 I-protein A-binding assay detecting antibodies to cell surface antigens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Fäldt; J. Ankerst

    1983-01-01

    Summary  A 125I-protein A-binding assay detecting antibodies to cell surface antigens on human blood cells was developed and evaluated using sera from multitransfused nonleukemic patients sensitized against HLA antigens. The binding assay was found to be reproducible and more sensitive than conventional HLA testing. Seven patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and two patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia successfully treated by chemotherapy

  17. Determination of Somatic and Cancer Stem Cell Self-Renewing Symmetric Division Rate Using Sphere Assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loic P. Deleyrolle; Geoffery Ericksson; Brian J. Morrison; J. Alejandro Lopez; Kevin Burrage; Pamela Burrage; Angelo Vescovi; Rodney L. Rietze; Brent A. Reynolds; Mike O. Karl

    2011-01-01

    Representing a renewable source for cell replacement, neural stem cells have received substantial attention in recent years. The neurosphere assay represents a method to detect the presence of neural stem cells, however owing to a deficiency of specific and definitive markers to identify them, their quantification and the rate they expand is still indefinite. Here we propose a mathematical interpretation

  18. Two High Throughput Screen Assays for Measurement of TNF-? in THP-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Leister, Kristin P; Huang, Ruili; Goodwin, Bonnie L; Chen, Andrew; Austin, Christopher P; Xia, Menghang

    2011-01-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor-? (TNF-?), a secreted cytokine, plays an important role in inflammatory diseases and immune disorders, and is a potential target for drug development. The traditional assays for detecting TNF-?, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay, are not suitable for the large size compound screens. Both assays suffer from a complicated protocol, multiple plate wash steps and/or excessive radioactive waste. A simple and quick measurement of TNF-? production in a cell based assay is needed for high throughput screening to identify the lead compounds from the compound library. We have developed and optimized two homogeneous TNF-? assays using the HTRF (homogeneous time resolved fluorescence) and AlphaLISA assay formats. We have validated the HTRF based TNF-? assay in a 1536-well plate format by screening a library of 1280 pharmacologically active compounds. The active compounds identified from the screen were confirmed in the AlphaLISA TNF-? assay using a bead-based technology. These compounds were also confirmed in a traditional ELISA assay. From this study, several beta adrenergic agonists have been identified as TNF-? inhibitors. We also identified several novel inhibitors of TNF-?, such as BTO-1, CCG-2046, ellipticine, and PD 169316. The results demonstrated that both homogeneous TNF-? assays are robust and suitable for high throughput screening. PMID:21643507

  19. Cultured leptomeningeal cells secrete cerebrospinal fluid proteins.

    PubMed

    Ohe, Y; Ishikawa, K; Itoh, Z; Tatemoto, K

    1996-09-01

    To extrapolate the function of the leptomeninges, we examined the profile of the proteins secreted from the cultured leptomeningeal cells prepared from 1-2-day-old rats. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the medium conditioned with the cultured cells, 20-25 differentially distinctive protein bands were noted. Through several chromatographic procedures (Sephadex G-75, Mono Q, and 7C8-300), altogether 18 proteins were purified to homogeneity, and the partial amino acid sequence of each protein was determined. Homology search revealed that the major proteins included prostaglandin-D-synthase or beta-trace protein, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II, IGF-binding protein-2, apolipoprotein E, beta 2-microglobulin, cystatin C, transferrin, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase or cyclophilin C, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, ubiquitin, lysozyme C, extracellular superoxide dismutase, and collagen alpha-1 (III). Most of these proteins are known to be the major brain-derived protein constituents of CSF and are thought to play important roles in certain biological events in the brain. Considering the morphological features, the present findings suggest the importance of the leptomeninges as an origin of such proteins in CSF. PMID:8752101

  20. Use of a Gastric Juice-Based PCR Assay To Detect Helicobacter pylori Infection in Culture-Negative Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HARUHIKO YOSHIDA; KATSUTARO HIROTA; YASUSHI SHIRATORI; TAKESHI NIHEI; SHIN AMANO; AKIRA YOSHIDA; OSAMU KAWAMATA; MASAO OMATA

    1998-01-01

    A gastric juice-based PCR assay was compared with culture, microscopy, and a rapid urease test with specimens from 114 subjects. The PCR and conventional tests were positive for 76 and 62% of the subjects, respectively. The prevalence of gastroduodenal disease and seropositivity for anti-Helicobacter pylori immuno- globulin G were similarly high among conventional-test-positive and PCR-only-positive subjects compared to all-negative ones.

  1. Evaluation of the sensitivity of three sublethal cytotoxicity assays in human HepG2 cell line using

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ,4-DAT, 17-EE, H2O2, 4-OP, sodium bromate, sodium chlorate, sodium nitrate) was evaluated on the human) Keywords: water contaminants; cytotoxicity assays; HepG2 cell line; RNA synthesis; alamar blue; ATP synthesis assay (RNA), luminometric ATP assay (ATP), fluorometric Alamar blue assay (AB)]. Among all

  2. Callus formation from protoplasts of a maize cell culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Chourey; D. B. Zurawski

    1981-01-01

    A finely dispersed cell suspension culture from the friable callus of the ‘Black Mexican Sweet’ line of maize was obtained. Protoplasts from this cell culture, when grown in a simplified medium described here, showed sustained cell divisions and gave rise to callus.

  3. Cholera toxin stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1982-06-01

    Addition of cholera toxin to human mammary epithelial cultures derived from reduction mammoplasties and primary carcinomas greatly stimulated cell growth and increased the number of times the cells could be successfully subcultured. Other agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels were also growth stimulatory. The increased growth potential conferred by cholera toxin enhances the usefulness of this cell culture system.

  4. A genomewide screen for components of the RNAi pathway in Drosophila cultured cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silke Dorner; Lawrence Lum; Michelle Kim; Renato Paro; Philip A. Beachy; Rachel Green

    2006-01-01

    Posttranscriptional silencing by RNAi is initiated by dsRNAs that are processed into siRNAs that ultimately target homologous mRNAs for degradation. We used luciferase reporter constructs and a cultured cell-based assay to perform a genomewide screen for components of the RNAi pathway in Drosophila melanogaster. The screen identified seven genes that affect the RNAi response, five with previously described function (AGO2,

  5. Cytotoxicity of Trichoderma spp. cultural filtrate against human cervical and breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rahman, Atef Abd El-Mohsen; El-Shafei, Sally Mohamed Abd El-Aziz; Ivanova, Elena Vladimirovna; Fattakhova, Alfia Nurlimanovna; Pankova, Anna Victorovna; El-Shafei, Mohamed Abd El-Aziz; El-Morsi, El-Morsi Abu El-Fotouh; Alimova, Farida Kashifovna

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites with biological activity belonging to a variety of classes of chemical compounds. These fungi also are well known for their ability to produce a wide range of antibiotic substances and to parasitize other fungi. In search for new substances, which might act as anticancer agents, the overall objective of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma asperellum cultural filtrates against human cervical and breast cancer cell lines (HeLa and MCF-7 cells respectively). To achieve this objective, cells were exposed to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/ ml of both T. harzianum cultural filtrate (ThCF) and T. asperellum cultural filtrate (TaCF) for 24h, then the cell viability and the cytotoxic responses were assessed by using trypan blue and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)- 2,5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Morphological changes in cells were investigated by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed that ThCF and TaCF significantly reduce the cell viability, have cytotoxic effects and alter the cellular morphology of HeLa and MCF-7 cells in a concentration dependent manner. A concentration of 80 and 100mg/ml of ThCF resulted in a sharp decline in the cell viability percent of HeLa and MCF-7 respectively (25.2%, 26.5%) which was recorded by trypan blue assay. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of ThCF and TaCF in HeLa and MCF-7 were recorded as 16.6, 12.0, 19.6 and 0.70 mg/ml respectively by MTT assay. These results revealed that ThCF and TaCF have a substantial ability to reduce the viability and proliferation of human cervical and breast cancer cells. PMID:25227819

  6. Development of a luciferase based viral inhibition assay to evaluate vaccine induced CD8 T-cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Naarding, Marloes A.; Fernandez-Fernandez, Natalia; Kappes, John C.; Hayes, Peter; Ahmed, Tina; Icyuz, Mert; Edmonds, Tara G.; Bergin, Philip; Anzala, Omu; Hanke, Tomas; Clark, Lorna; Cox, Josephine H.; Cormier, Emmanuel; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Gilmour, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of SIV and HIV specific CD8 T cells has been shown to correlate with control of in vivo replication. Poor correlation between IFN-? ELISPOT responses and in vivo control of the virus has triggered the development of more relevant assays to assess functional HIV-1 specific CD8 T-cell responses for the evaluation and prioritization of new HIV-1 vaccine candidates. We previously established a viral inhibition assay (VIA) that measures the ability of vaccine-induced CD8 T-cell responses to inhibit viral replication in autologous CD4 T cells. In this assay, viral replication is determined by measuring p24 in the culture supernatant. Here we describe the development of a novel VIA, referred to as IMC LucR VIA that exploits replication-competent HIV-1 infectious molecular clones (IMCs) in which the complete proviral genome is strain-specific and which express the Renilla luciferase (LucR) gene to determine viral growth and inhibition. The introduction of the luciferase readout does provide significant improvement of the read out time. In addition to switching to the LucR read out, changes made to the overall protocol resulted in the miniaturization of the assay from a 48 to a 96-well plate format, which preserved sample and allowed for the introduction of replicates. The overall assay time was reduced from 13 to 8 days. The assay has a high degree of specificity, and the previously observed non-specific background inhibition in cells from HIV-1 negative volunteers has been reduced dramatically. Importantly, we observed an increase in positive responses, indicating an improvement in sensitivity compared to the original VIA. Currently, only a limited number of “whole-genome” IMC-LucR viruses are available and our efforts will focus on expanding the panel to better evaluate anti-viral breadth. Overall, we believe the IMC LucR VIA provides a platform to assess functional CD8 T-cell responses in large-scale clinical trial testing, which will enhance the ability to select the most promising HIV-1 vaccine candidates capable of controlling HIV-1 replication in vivo. PMID:24291126

  7. Microsystems platforms for array-based single-cell biological assays

    E-print Network

    Taff, Brian M., 1978-

    2008-01-01

    For much of the past century, plated cell cultures have served investigations regarding a variety of fundamental biological processes. Though this in vitro approach has been fruitful, for surveying topics including cell ...

  8. Three-Dimensional Cell Culture: A Breakthrough in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Antoni, Delphine; Burckel, Hélène; Josset, Elodie; Noel, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture is an important tool for biological research. Two-dimensional cell culture has been used for some time now, but growing cells in flat layers on plastic surfaces does not accurately model the in vivo state. As compared to the two-dimensional case, the three-dimensional (3D) cell culture allows biological cells to grow or interact with their surroundings in all three dimensions thanks to an artificial environment. Cells grown in a 3D model have proven to be more physiologically relevant and showed improvements in several studies of biological mechanisms like: cell number monitoring, viability, morphology, proliferation, differentiation, response to stimuli, migration and invasion of tumor cells into surrounding tissues, angiogenesis stimulation and immune system evasion, drug metabolism, gene expression and protein synthesis, general cell function and in vivo relevance. 3D culture models succeed thanks to technological advances, including materials science, cell biology and bioreactor design. PMID:25768338

  9. To grow mouse mammary epithelial cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Normal mouse mammary epithelial cells from Balb/c mice were successfully cultivated on tissue culture plastic with lethally irradiated LA7 feeder cells. The feeder cells also promoted colony formation from single mouse mammary cells, and the fraction of cells that formed colonies was proportional to the density of feeder cells. The mouse mammary cells could be passaged at least 8-12 times as long as new feeder cells were added at each passage. The cells now in culture have doubled in number at least 30 times, but the in vitro lifespan is not yet known. The cultures of mouse cells maintained by this technique never became overgrown with fibroblasts and numerous domes formed in the cultures. PMID:6699079

  10. A spectrophotometer-based diffusivity assay reveals that diffusion hindrance of small molecules in extracellular matrix gels used in 3D cultures is dominated by viscous effects.

    PubMed

    Galgoczy, Roland; Pastor, Isabel; Colom, Adai; Giménez, Alicia; Mas, Francesc; Alcaraz, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    The design of 3D culture studies remains challenging due to the limited understanding of extracellular matrix (ECM)-dependent hindered diffusion and the lack of simple diffusivity assays. To address these limitations, we set up a cost-effective diffusivity assay based on a Transwell plate and the spectrophotometer of a Microplate Reader, which are readily accessible to cell biology groups. The spectrophotometer-based assay was used to assess the apparent diffusivity D of FITC-dextrans with molecular weight (4-70kDa) spanning the physiological range of signaling factors in a panel of acellular ECM gels including Matrigel, fibrin and type I collagen. Despite their technical differences, D data exhibited ?15% relative difference with respect to FRAP measurements. Our results revealed that diffusion hindrance of small particles is controlled by the enhanced viscosity of the ECM gel in conformance with the Stokes-Einstein equation rather than by geometrical factors. Moreover, we provided a strong rationale that the enhanced ECM viscosity is largely contributed to by unassembled ECM macromolecules. We also reported that gels with the lowest D exhibited diffusion hindrance closest to the large physiologic hindrance of brain tissue, which has a typical pore size much smaller than ECM gels. Conversely, sparse gels (?1mg/ml), which are extensively used in 3D cultures, failed to reproduce the hindered diffusion of tissues, thereby supporting that dense (but not sparse) ECM gels are suitable tissue surrogates in terms of macromolecular transport. Finally, the consequences of reduced diffusivity in terms of optimizing the design of 3D culture experiments were addressed in detail. PMID:24916283

  11. Toxoplasma dye test using cell culture derived tachyzoites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Ashburn; R Evans; J M W Chatterton; A W L Joss; D O Ho-Yen

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To assess the diagnostic usefulness of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites produced by serial passage in HeLa cell culture.Methods—Tachyzoites derived from serial passage in cell culture were used in the dye test. Human sera were also examined to determine their suitability for use as accessory factor. Using the optimum conditions, the dye test using cell culture derived tachyzoites was compared with the

  12. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells: their cell culture and applications in studies for reproductive biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Abe; Hiroyoshi Hoshi

    1997-01-01

    Epithelial cells of the mammalian oviduct play an important role in reproductive and developmental events that occur there. Oviductal epithelial cells from several mammalian species can be isolated and cultured in serum or serum-free medium in vitro and cell culture of bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) has been described by many investigators. Cultured BOEC show a wide variety of secretory

  13. Development of a Cell-Based Hepatitis C Virus Infection Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer Assay for High-Throughput Antiviral Compound Screening? †

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuemei; Sainz, Bruno; Uprichard, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    A major obstacle in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been the lack of effective, well-tolerated therapeutics. Notably, the recent development of the HCV cell culture infection system now allows not only for the study of the entire viral life cycle, but also for the screening of inhibitors against all aspects of HCV infection. However, in order to screen libraries of potential antiviral compounds, it is necessary to develop a highly reproducible, accurate assay for HCV infection adaptable for high-throughput screening (HTS) automation. Using an internally quenched 5-FAM/QXL 520 fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) substrate containing the HCV NS3 peptide cleavage sequence, we report the development of a simple, mix-and-measure, homogenous, cell-based HCV infection assay amendable for HTS. This assay makes use of synchronized, nondividing human hepatoma-derived Huh7 cells, which support more-reproducible long-term HCV infection and can be readily scaled down to a 96-well-plate format. We demonstrate that this stable cell culture method eliminates common problems associated with standard cell-based HTS, such as cell culture variability, poor reproducibility, and low signal intensity. Importantly, this HCV FRET assay not only can identify inhibitors that act throughout the viral life cycle as effectively as more-standard HCV assays, such as real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis, but also exhibits a high degree of accuracy with limited signal variation (i.e., Z? ? 0.6), providing the basis for a robust HTS campaign for screening compound libraries and identifying novel HCV antivirals. PMID:19620334

  14. Cultured Human Epidermal Cells Do Not Synthesize HLA-DR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vera B. Morhenn; Claudia J. Benike; Alvin J. Cox; Dominique J. Charron; Edgar G. Engleman

    1982-01-01

    All nucleated cells express HLA-A, B, and C antigens. However, only a few cells, including epidermal cells, demonstrate HLA-DR antigens which are potent transplantation immunogens in man. The current study was undertaken to determine if epidermal cells continue to synthesize and\\/or express HLA-DR antigens after prolonged in vitro culture. Epidermal cells cultured for 7 days or more no longer stimulated

  15. Glial activation modulates glutamate neurotoxicity in cerebellar granule cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Serratosa, Joan; Solà, Carme

    2004-02-01

    We studied the influence of glial cells on the neuronal response to glutamate toxicity in cerebellar granule cell cultures. We compared the effect of glutamate on neuronal viability in neuronal vs. neuronal-glial cultures and determined this effect after pretreating the cultures with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli, agent widely used to induce glial activation. Morphological changes in glial cells and nitric oxide (NO) production were evaluated as indicators of glial activation. We observed that glutamate neurotoxicity in neuronal-glial cultures was attenuated in a certain range of glutamate concentration when compared to neuronal cultures, but it was enhanced at higher glutamate concentrations. This enhanced neurotoxicity was associated with morphological changes in astrocytes and microglial cells in the absence of NO production. LPS treatment induced morphological changes in glial cells in neuronal-glial cultures as well as NO production. These effects occurred in the absence of significant neuronal death. However, when LPS-pretreated cultures were treated with glutamate, the sensitivity of neuronal-glial cultures to glutamate neurotoxicity was increased. This was accompanied by additional morphological changes in glial cells in the absence of a further increase in NO production. These results suggest that quiescent glial cells protect neuronal cells from glutamate neurotoxicity, but reactive glial cells increase glutamate neurotoxicity. Therefore, glial cells play a key role in the neuronal response to a negative stimulus, suggesting that this response can be modified through an action on glial cells. PMID:14730699

  16. Identification of leukaemic cells in bone marrow and blood samples by a new cytofluorometric assay.

    PubMed Central

    Hengstschläger, M.; Pfeilstöcker, M.; Wawra, E.

    1996-01-01

    The expression of thymidine kinase--an enzyme of the DNA precursor pathway--is strictly regulated during the normal cellular cycle, but is much higher and permanently expressed in malignant growing cells. We used this fact to detect neoplastic cells in samples freshly taken from leukaemia patients and kept frozen in liquid nitrogen until analysis. Using a new cytofluorometric assay for thymidine kinase in single cells, we were able to identify leukaemic cells in a surplus of normal ones. Our results demonstrate the benefits of this assay for leukaemia diagnosis. PMID:8630285

  17. Cell culture quality control by rapid isoenzymatic characterization.

    PubMed

    Halton, D M; Peterson, W D; Hukku, B

    1983-01-01

    Procedures that involve cell cultures require careful quality control to avoid inter- and intraspecies contamination. We have developed an electrophoresis technique that can be used routinely in cell culture laboratories to monitor cell line integrity. The method involves the isoenzymatic separation of nine polymorphic enzymes, three of which can be used for cell line species determinations and seven of which can be used for human cell line characterizations. Examples of how the system has been applied to both inter- and intraspecies identifications are described. The routine application of this protocol would be a valuable asset for laboratories concerned with establishing effective cell culture quality control. PMID:6401685

  18. Culture surface influence on T-cell phenotype and function.

    PubMed

    Hashimdeen, Shaikh Shimaz; Römhild, Andy; Schmueck, Michael; Kratz, Karl; Lendlein, Andreas; Kurtz, Andreas; Reinke, Petra

    2013-01-01

    When dealing with T lymphocyte culture there is currently very less information available about the interaction between T-cells and the culture system. In this study we look at the influence of the culture chamber on T-cell proliferation in two main aspects of the culture system, namely: culture chamber material and geometry. The study was carried out using unique polymeric closed cell culture inserts, which were processed via injection moulding from polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), polyetherurethane (PEU), polystyrene-co-acrylonitrile (PSAN) and polyetherimide (PEI). Furthermore culture chamber geometry was studied using commercially available 24, 12 and 6-well plates prepared from tissue culture plastic (TCP). For T lymphocyte stimulation two methods were used involving either EBV peptide pools or MACS iBead particles depending on the experiment performed. Culture was done with 1645 RPMI medium supplemented with foetal calf serum, penicillin, streptomycin and rhIL-2. We found four materials out of five we tested (PS, PC, PSAN and PEI) exhibited similar fold expansions with minimal influence on proportions of CD4 and CD8, while PEU had a negative influence on T cell growth along with adversely affected CD4/CD8 proportions. Changes in the geometry of TCP had no effect on T cell growth or maturation rather the size of geometry seems to have more influence on proliferation. T-cells appear to prefer smaller geometries during initial stages of culture while towards the end of the culture size becomes less significant to cell proliferation. The parameters tested in this study have significant influences on T-cell growth and are necessary to consider when designing and constructing expansion systems for antigen specific T lymphocytes. This is important when culturing T-cells for immunotherapeutic applications where antigen specificity, T-cell maturation and function should remain unaffected during culture. PMID:24099989

  19. Rapid, sensitive, and validated method for detection of Salmonella in food by an enrichment broth culture - nested PCR combination assay.

    PubMed

    Saroj, Sunil D; Shashidhar, R; Karani, Manisha; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2008-06-01

    A rapid nested PCR assay for detection of Salmonella from food was developed. The sensitivity of the assay developed was comparable to the traditional culture based methods with an advantage in reduction of assay time. The assay procedure with artificially contaminated samples was able to detect as low as 4CFU Salmonella/25g of food samples (sprout, carrot, cucumber and poultry meat). With two synthetic primers of 26 mer TS11 and 25 mer TS4, a 1.2kb fragment was amplified which served as a template for amplification of final 375bp product using TS11 and TS5 primers. No non-specific amplification from the native microbial flora of food samples was observed. The reaction generates a single band specific to Salmonella which allows the analyst to interpret data at ease and without any confusion. Enriched broth serves as template for the reaction which removes labour intensive DNA isolation procedures. In case of artificially contaminated samples, 6h enriched lactose broth can serve as template. However, for market samples where the organisms are under environmental stress, it is desirable to use template from Rappaport Vasiliadis medium. The assay also employes internal amplification control, which is amplified into a 300bp fragment and thus serves as positive control for the reaction and any possibility of false negative due to inhibitory action of food components on PCR reaction can be ruled out. PMID:18406104

  20. XPD Functions as a Tumor Suppressor and Dysregulates Autophagy in Cultured HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian-feng; Li, Lin-lin; Lu, Juan; Yan, Kun; Guo, Wu-hua; Zhang, Ji-xiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent clinical studies have linked polymorphisms in the xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) gene, a key repair gene involved in nucleotide excision repair, to increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the cellular effects of XPD expression in cultured HCC cells remain largely uncharacterized. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the in vitro cellular effects of XPD expression on the HCC cell line HepG2. Material/Methods HepG2 cells were transfected as follows to create four experimental groups: pEGFP-N2/XPD plasmid (XPD) group, EGFP-N2 plasmid (N2) control group, lipofectamine™ 2000 (lipid) control group, and non-transfected (CON) control group. An MTT cell proliferation assay, Annexin V-APC apoptosis assay, colony formation assay, scratch wound migration assay, Transwell migration assay, and Western blotting of the autophagic proteins LC3 and p62 were conducted. Results XPD expression significantly inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation (p<0.05), significantly promoted HepG2 cell apoptosis (p<0.05), significantly inhibited HepG2 colony formation (p<0.05), significantly decreased HepG2 cells’ migratory ability (p<0.05), and significantly lowered HepG2 cells’ invasive capacity (p<0.05). Western blotting showed that XPD expression significantly increased LC3 expression (p<0.05) and significantly reduced p62 expression (p<0.05). Conclusions XPD expression serves as a tumor suppressor and dysregulates autophagic protein degradation in HepG2 cells in vitro. Further in vivo pre-clinical studies and clinical trials are needed to validate XPD’s potential as a tumor-suppressive gene therapy. PMID:26031757

  1. XPD Functions as a Tumor Suppressor and Dysregulates Autophagy in Cultured HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian-Feng; Li, Lin-Lin; Lu, Juan; Yan, Kun; Guo, Wu-Hua; Zhang, Ji-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent clinical studies have linked polymorphisms in the xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) gene, a key repair gene involved in nucleotide excision repair, to increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the cellular effects of XPD expression in cultured HCC cells remain largely uncharacterized. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the in vitro cellular effects of XPD expression on the HCC cell line HepG2. MATERIAL AND METHODS HepG2 cells were transfected as follows to create four experimental groups: pEGFP-N2/XPD plasmid (XPD) group, EGFP-N2 plasmid (N2) control group, lipofectamine™ 2000 (lipid) control group, and non-transfected (CON) control group. An MTT cell proliferation assay, Annexin V-APC apoptosis assay, colony formation assay, scratch wound migration assay, Transwell migration assay, and Western blotting of the autophagic proteins LC3 and p62 were conducted. RESULTS XPD expression significantly inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation (p<0.05), significantly promoted HepG2 cell apoptosis (p<0.05), significantly inhibited HepG2 colony formation (p<0.05), significantly decreased HepG2 cells' migratory ability (p<0.05), and significantly lowered HepG2 cells' invasive capacity (p<0.05). Western blotting showed that XPD expression significantly increased LC3 expression (p<0.05) and significantly reduced p62 expression (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS XPD expression serves as a tumor suppressor and dysregulates autophagic protein degradation in HepG2 cells in vitro. Further in vivo pre-clinical studies and clinical trials are needed to validate XPD's potential as a tumor-suppressive gene therapy. PMID:26031757

  2. Lipids trigger changes in the elasticity of the cytoskeleton in plant cells: a cell optical displacement assay for live cell measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Grabski; Xiao Guang Xie; John E Holland; Melvin Schindler

    1994-01-01

    An assay has been developed to quantita- tively measure the tension and elasticity of the cytoskeleton in living plant cells. The cell optical dis- placement assay (CODA) uses a focused laser beam to optically trap and displace transvacuolar and cortical strands through a defined distance within the cell. Results from these experiments provide evidence for the classification of at least

  3. Three-dimensional tissue culture based on magnetic cell levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Glauco R.; Molina, Jennifer R.; Raphael, Robert M.; Ozawa, Michael G.; Stark, Daniel J.; Levin, Carly S.; Bronk, Lawrence F.; Ananta, Jeyarama S.; Mandelin, Jami; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Bankson, James A.; Gelovani, Juri G.; Killian, T. C.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2010-04-01

    Cell culture is an essential tool in drug discovery, tissue engineering and stem cell research. Conventional tissue culture produces two-dimensional cell growth with gene expression, signalling and morphology that can be different from those found in vivo, and this compromises its clinical relevance. Here, we report a three-dimensional tissue culture based on magnetic levitation of cells in the presence of a hydrogel consisting of gold, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and filamentous bacteriophage. By spatially controlling the magnetic field, the geometry of the cell mass can be manipulated, and multicellular clustering of different cell types in co-culture can be achieved. Magnetically levitated human glioblastoma cells showed similar protein expression profiles to those observed in human tumour xenografts. Taken together, these results indicate that levitated three-dimensional culture with magnetized phage-based hydrogels more closely recapitulates in vivo protein expression and may be more feasible for long-term multicellular studies.

  4. Three-dimensional Tissue Culture Based on Magnetic Cell Levitation

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Glauco R.; Molina, Jennifer R.; Raphael, Robert M.; Ozawa, Michael G.; Stark, Daniel J.; Levin, Carly S.; Bronk, Lawrence F.; Ananta, Jeyarama S.; Mandelin, Jami; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Bankson, James A.; Gelovani, Juri G.

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture is an essential tool for drug discovery, tissue engineering, and stem cell research. Conventional tissue culture produces two-dimensional (2D) cell growth with gene expression, signaling, and morphology that can differ from those in vivo and thus compromise clinical relevancy1–5. Here we report a three-dimensional (3D) culture of cells based on magnetic levitation in the presence of hydrogels containing gold and magnetic iron oxide (MIO) nanoparticles plus filamentous bacteriophage. This methodology allows for control of cell mass geometry and guided, multicellular clustering of different cell types in co-culture through spatial variance of the magnetic field. Moreover, magnetic levitation of human glioblastoma cells demonstrates similar protein expression profiles to those observed in human tumor xenografts. Taken together, these results suggest levitated 3D culture with magnetized phage-based hydrogels more closely recapitulates in vivo protein expression and allows for long-term multi-cellular studies. PMID:20228788

  5. High-throughput fluorescent-based NKCC functional assay in adherent epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The kidney-specific NKCC cotransporter isoform NKCC2 is involved in the Na+ reabsorption in the Thich Ascending Limb (TAL) cells and in the regulation of body fluid volume. In contrast, the isoform NKCC1 represents the major pathway for Cl- entry in endothelial cells, playing a crucial role in cell volume regulation and vascular tone. Importantly, both NKCC isoforms are involved in the regulation of blood pressure and represent important potential drug targets for the treatment of hypertension. Results Taking advantage of an existing Thallium (Tl+)-based kit, we set up a Tl+ influx-based fluorescent assay, that can accurately and rapidly measure NKCC transporter activity in adherent epithelial cells using the high-throughput Flex station device. We assessed the feasibility of this assay in the renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cells stably transfected with a previously characterized chimeric NKCC2 construct (c-NKCC2). We demonstrated that the assay is highly reproducible, offers high temporal resolution of NKCC-mediated ion flux profiles and, importantly, being a continuous assay, it offers improved sensitivity over previous endpoint NKCC functional assays. Conclusions So far the screening of NKCC transporters activity has been done by 86Rb+ influx assays. Indeed, a fluorescence-based high-throughput screening method for testing NKCC inhibitors would be extremely useful in the development and characterization of new anti-hypertensive drugs. PMID:23506056

  6. ELISPOT Assays in 384-Well Format: Up to 30 Data Points with One Million Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jodi; Sundararaman, Srividya; Caspell, Richard; Karacsony, Edith; Karulin, Alexey Y.; Lehmann, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive immune monitoring requires that frequencies of T cells, producing different cytokines, are measured to establish the magnitude of Th1, Th2, and Th17 components of cell-mediated immunity. Antigen titration provides additional information about the affinity of T cell response. In tumor immunity, it is also advisable to account for determinant spreading by testing multiple epitopes. Efforts for comprehensive immune monitoring would require substantial numbers of PBMC to run the above tests systematically, which in most test cases is limiting. Immune monitoring with ELISPOT assays have been performed, thus far, in a 96-well format. In this study we show that one can increase cell utilization by performing the assay in 384-well plates whose membrane surface area is one third that of 96-well plates. Systematic testing of PBMC for antigen-specific T cell response in the two formats demonstrated that the 384-well assay corresponds to a one-in-three miniaturization of the 96-well assay. The lowest number of cells that can be used in the 384-well format, while allowing for sufficient contact with APC, is 33,000 PBMC/well. Therefore, with one million PBMC typically obtained from 1 mL of blood, a 30 well T cell ELISPOT assay can be performed in a 384-well format. PMID:25643292

  7. Automatic cell cloning assay for determining the clonogenic capacity of cancer and cancer stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Fedr, Radek; Pernicová, Zuzana; Slabáková, Eva; Straková, Nicol; Bouchal, Jan; Grepl, Michal; Kozubík, Alois; Sou?ek, Karel

    2013-05-01

    The clonogenic assay is a well-established in vitro method for testing the survival and proliferative capability of cells. It can be used to determine the cytotoxic effects of various treatments including chemotherapeutics and ionizing radiation. However, this approach can also characterize cells with different phenotypes and biological properties, such as stem cells or cancer stem cells. In this study, we implemented a faster and more precise method for assessing the cloning efficiency of cancer stem-like cells that were characterized and separated using a high-speed cell sorter. Cell plating onto a microplate using an automatic cell deposition unit was performed in a single-cell or dilution rank mode by the fluorescence-activated cell sorting method. We tested the new automatic cell-cloning assay (ACCA) on selected cancer cell lines and compared it with the manual approach. The obtained results were also compared with the results of the limiting dilution assay for different cell lines. We applied the ACCA to analyze the cloning capacity of different subpopulations of prostate and colon cancer cells based on the expression of the characteristic markers of stem (CD44 and CD133) and cancer stem cells (TROP-2, CD49f, and CD44). Our results revealed that the novel ACCA is a straightforward approach for determining the clonogenic capacity of cancer stem-like cells identified in both cell lines and patient samples. PMID:23450810

  8. Regulation of heme metabolism in normal and sideroblastic bone marrow cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Ibraham, N.G.; Lutton, J.D.; Hoffman, R.; Levere, R.D.

    1985-05-01

    Heme metabolism was examined in developing in vitro erythroid colonies (CFUE) and in bone marrow samples taken directly from four normal donors and four patients with sideroblastic anemia. Maximum activities of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS), ALA dehydratase (ALAD), and /sup 14/C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in normal marrow CFUE after 8 days of culture, whereas heme oxygenase progressively decreased to low levels of activity during the same period. Assays on nucleated bone marrow cells taken directly from patients revealed that ALAS activity was considerably reduced in idiopathic sideroblastic anemia (IASA) and X-linked sideroblastic anemia (X-SA) bone marrow specimens, whereas the activity increased more than twofold (normal levels) when cells were assayed from 8-day CFUE. In all cases, ALAD activity appeared to be within normal levels. Measurement of heme synthesis revealed that normal levels of /sup 14/C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in IASA cells but were reduced in X-SA cells. In marked contrast to levels in normal cells, heme oxygenase was found to be significantly elevated (two- to fourfold) in bone marrow cells taken directly from patients with IASA and X-SA. Results from this study demonstrate that IASA and X-SA bone marrow cells have disturbances in ALAS and heme metabolism, and that erythropoiesis (CFUE) can be restored to normal levels when cells are cultured in methylcellulose.

  9. Toxicity of used orthodontic archwires assessed by three-dimensional cell culture.

    PubMed

    Vande Vannet, Bart; Mohebbian, Nahid; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether used orthodontic wires made of different materials cause toxicity and loss of viability on three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures. Three types of orthodontic wires, stainless steel, Nitinol, and TMA (n = 9) which had been used clinically in fixed appliances for a period of 1 month, were retrieved at random from five patients. Both upper and lower archwires were collected and subjected to two different protocols: to assess toxicity, two pieces of each wire were placed on 3D cell cultures (reconstituted human epithelium); to investigate the possibility of cell damage, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used and haematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to evaluate morphological changes. Copper wire served as the control to determine the morphology of severe toxicity, and native cell cultures and silk were used as the negative controls. Morphological evaluation of the native cell cultures revealed no toxic reactions. The ranking, from mild to severe toxicity was as follows: stainless steel < Nitinol = TMA. There were no significant differences between TMA and Nitinol. The MTT assay revealed the following mean percentage values for viability: native cell line (negative control), 100; stainless steel, 102.25; TMA, 87.4; Nitinol, 85.3; and copper wire (positive control) 57.2. Histological evaluation of the 3D cell cultures showed no severe toxicity or loss of viability for any of the wires. However, relative comparison between the different wires revealed that stainless steel induced less toxicity/loss of viability compared with TMA and Nitinol wire. PMID:16901961

  10. Characterization of transmembrane auxin transport in Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Seifertová, Daniela; Sk?pa, Petr; Rychtá?, Jan; La?ková, Martina; Pa?ezová, Markéta; Dobrev, Petre I; Hoyerová, Klára; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva

    2014-03-15

    Polar auxin transport is a crucial process for control and coordination of plant development. Studies of auxin transport through plant tissues and organs showed that auxin is transported by a combination of phloem flow and the active, carrier-mediated cell-to-cell transport. Since plant organs and even tissues are too complex for determination of the kinetics of carrier-mediated auxin uptake and efflux on the cellular level, simplified models of cell suspension cultures are often used, and several tobacco cell lines have been established for auxin transport assays. However, there are very few data available on the specificity and kinetics of auxin transport across the plasma membrane for Arabidopsis thaliana suspension-cultured cells. In this report, the characteristics of carrier-mediated uptake (influx) and efflux for the native auxin indole-3-acetic acid and synthetic auxins, naphthalene-1-acetic and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acids (NAA and 2,4-D, respectively) in A. thaliana ecotype Landsberg erecta suspension-cultured cells (LE line) are provided. By auxin competition assays and inhibitor treatments, we show that, similarly to tobacco cells, uptake carriers have high affinity towards 2,4-D and that NAA is a good tool for studies of auxin efflux in LE cells. In contrast to tobacco cells, metabolic profiling showed that only a small proportion of NAA is metabolized in LE cells. These results show that the LE cell line is a useful experimental system for measurements of kinetics of auxin carriers on the cellular level that is complementary to tobacco cells. PMID:24594395

  11. Inhibition of canine parvovirus replication in cultured cells by small interfering RNAs expressed from plasmid vectors.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Cao, Wangbin; Pan, Sumin; Zhong, Fei; Zhang, Manfu

    2012-09-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) target complementary mRNA for specific degradation, a mechanism many viruses are susceptible too. Thus, siRNA degradation of target RNAs can be exploited as novel therapeutics. In this report, we show that the vector-based siRNAs (psiSTRIKEs) expressed by a human U6 promoter could efficiently inhibit CPV replication in cell culture. A series of PsiSTRIKE vectors expressing siRNA were constructed that target structural protein genes or nonstructural protein genes of CPV genome. These plasmids were transfected into FK81 cells via lipofectin and the stable transfection clones were selected. The immunostaining, plaque assay, and cell proliferation assay of the cells infected by CPV were performed. The results show that siRNAs against nonstructural protein genes effectively inhibited CPV replication. The inhibition efficiencies detected by immunostaining assay of psiSTRIKE/vp1510, psiSTRIKE/NS160, and psiSTRIKE/NS1939 were 66%, 76% and 78%, respectively at 48h, and 69%, 46% and 67%, respectively at 96h. Plaque assay showed that, comprising to the control, the psiSTRIKE/NS160 reduced the virion production by 100-fold, and psiSTRIKE/NS1939 or psiSTRIKE/VP1510 reduced the virion production 13-fold. When compared to control, the viability of cells transfected psiSTRIKE/NS160 increased 78% and 124%, respectively at 72 and 120h. Our study may provide a potential therapy against CPV infection. PMID:22820116

  12. A High Throughput Screening Assay for Anti-Mycobacterial Small Molecules Based on Adenylate Kinase Release as a Reporter of Cell Lysis

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Lauren; Ebsworth-Mojica, Katherine; DiDone, Louis; Li, Shao-Gang; Freundlich, Joel S.; Connell, Nancy; Dunman, Paul M.; Krysan, Damian J.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is well-established to be one of the most important bacterial pathogens for which new antimicrobial therapies are needed. Herein, we describe the development of a high throughput screening assay for the identification of molecules that are bactericidal against Mycobacteria. The assay utilizes the release of the intracellular enzyme adenylate kinase into the culture medium as a reporter of mycobacterial cell death. We demonstrate that the assay is selective for mycobactericidal molecules and detects anti-mycobacterial activity at concentrations below the minimum inhibitory concentration of many molecules. Thus, the AK assay is more sensitive than traditional growth assays. We have validated the AK assay in the HTS setting using the Mtb surrogate organism M. smegmatis and libraries of FDA approved drugs as well as a commercially available Diversity set. The screen of the FDA-approved library demonstrated that the AK assay is able to identify the vast majority of drugs with known mycobactericidal activity. Importantly, our screen of the Diversity set revealed that the increased sensitivity of the AK assay increases the ability of M. smegmatis-based screens to detect molecules with relatively poor activity against M. smegmatis but good to excellent activity against Mtb. PMID:26098625

  13. Isolation and culture of sheep bronchial artery endothelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Sanders; S. J. Harrison; W. S. Lee; D. B. Pearse; E. M. Wagner

    1995-01-01

    Methods are described for the isolation of endothelial cells from sheep bronchial artery by treatment with collagenase. Cells obtained from the perfusate of the collagenase-treated vessel are cultured. Identified by their cobblestone morphology, endothelial cell colonies of approximately 50 cells are selected by a cloning cylinder and subcultured using trypsin. Endothelial cells are characterized by the formation of vessel-like tubes

  14. Cell culture of human gingival fibroblasts, oral cancer cells and mesothelioma cells with serum-free media, STK1 and STK2.

    PubMed

    Tsugeno, Yuta; Sato, Fuyuki; Muragaki, Yasuteru; Kato, Yukio

    2014-09-01

    The majority of cells are cultured with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) or RPMI supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS), which contains numerous factors, including cytokines, nutrients and unknown growth factors. These factors may affect cell growth, apoptosis and differentiation. The serum-free medium, STK2, has been previously reported as suitable for the cell culture of human mesenchymal stem cells. However, how STK1 or STK2 affect the cell proliferation of normal and cancer cells remains unknown. The present study examined the growth of the human gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) cell-line and the HSC-3, CA9-22 and MSTO cancer cell-lines, cultured with STK1 and STK2. STK1 increased the cell proliferation of HGF-1 compared to DMEM by assessment with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)- 2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay, whereas STK1 and STK2 markedly inhibited the cell proliferation of HSC-3 and MSTO. The cell proliferation rate of CA9-22 cultured with STK1 or STK2 for 96 h was ~2-fold higher than the rate for 24 h culture. The shape of the HSC-3 cells was also found to have changed to round when cultured with STK2. These results indicate that STK1 increased the cell proliferation of HGF-1 compared to DMEM, whereas the proliferation of HSC-3 and MSTO was inhibited by STK1 and STK2. Thus, STK1 and STK2 had different affects on the cell growth of HGF-1, CA9-22, HSC-3 and MSTO. PMID:25054004

  15. Cell and tissue culture of Miscanthus Sacchariflorus

    SciTech Connect

    Godovikova, V.A.; Moiseyeva, E.A.; Shumny, V.K. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-01

    Since recent time search and introduction of new species of plants have paid attention. More perspective are perennial low maintenance landscape plants from genera Phragmites L. and Miscanthus Anderss. known as high speed growing and great amount of cellulose`s containing. Absence of seeds production and limited distribution area prevent from immediately introduction the plants of this species. The main goal of our investigation is the scientific development of the cell and tissue culture methods to get changing clones, salt and cold tolerant plants and their micropogation. At present there are collection of biovariety represented by subspecies, ecotypes and plant regenerants of two species - Miscanthus purpurascens (Anders.) and Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.). Successful results have been achieved in screening of culture media, prepared on MS base medium and contained a row of tropic components to protect the explant and callus tissue from oxidation and necrosis. Initially the callus was induced from stem segments, apical and nodular meristem of vegetative shoots of elulalia, growing in hydroponic greenhouse. Morphological and cytologic analysis of plant-regenerants have been done.

  16. Flow cytometric assay for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of adhesive interactions of tumor cells with endothelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Paprocka; Danuta Du?; Michèle Mitterrand; Nathalie Lamerant-Fayel; Claudine Kieda

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a flow cytometric assay for quantitative determination of adhesive interactions of human endothelial cells (ECs) with tumor cells. EC lines established from human lymph node, appendix, lung, skin and intestine microvessels, labeled with PKH26-GL fluorescent dye, were grown to confluency in 24-well TC plates. Human colon adenocarcinoma cell suspension was overlaid onto

  17. Role of water-soluble matrix fraction, extracted from the nacre of Pinctada maxima, in the regulation of cell activity in abalone mantle cell culture (Haliotis tuberculata).

    PubMed

    Sud, D; Doumenc, D; Lopez, E; Milet, C

    2001-04-01

    In mollusks, the mantle is responsible for the secretion of an organic matrix that mineralizes to form the shell. A model of mantle cell culture has been established from the nacreous gastropod Haliotis tuberculata. First, viability of cells, quantified by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) reduction assay, was monitored in order to determine a cell density and a time-culturing period in order to investigate biomineralization processes in vitro. During the first 11 days of culture, an increase of MTT response demonstrated an activation of cultured cells mitochondrial activity as confirmed by the total protein content assay. The effect of a water-soluble extract from the organic matrix of Pinctada maxima (WSM) was tested on this cell culture system for 11 days-period exposure. WSM reduced the global viability of mantle cells in a dose-dependent way which corresponded to a cell death. Alkaline phosphatase activity normalized to total protein content increased in the presence of WSM. This increase may be due to an activation of cells and a selection of one (or a few) cell type(s). Further investigations will help us to determine this selectivity issue. PMID:11392668

  18. The Human Androgen Receptor X-Chromosome Inactivation Assay for Clonality Diagnostics of Natural Killer Cell Proliferations

    PubMed Central

    Boudewijns, Michaël; van Dongen, Jacques J.M.; Langerak, Anton W.

    2007-01-01

    Clonality is a frequently exploited characteristic of lymphoid malignancies. However, in the natural killer (NK) cell subset of large granular lymphocyte proliferations, clonality is difficult to prove because of the lack of specific genetic markers, such as immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. The human androgen receptor (HUMARA) assay, a polymerase chain reaction-based X-chromosome inactivation assay, is a potential diagnostic tool in these disorders. Although there is much experience with X-chromosome inactivation assays in myeloid proliferations, these assays have found only very limited application in clonality assessment of NK cell proliferations. We applied the HUMARA assay in laboratory diagnostics for detection of clonality in NK cell proliferations. We describe its test performance and report three cases in which clonality of NK cell populations was investigated by use of this assay. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the HUMARA assay in the diagnostic workup of NK cell proliferations. PMID:17591933

  19. Thromboxane A sub 2 receptors are influenced by cell density in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Atsushi; Halushka, P.V. (Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The influence of cell density on the binding characteristics of thromboxane A{sub 2}/prostaglandin H{sub 2} (TXA{sub 2}/PGH{sub 2}) receptors in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells in culture were determined using (1S- (1{alpha}, 2{beta} (5Z), 3a (1E, 3R*), 4{alpha})) - (3- (3-hydroxy-4- (4{prime}-iodophenoxy)-1-butyenyl)-7-oxabicyclo-(2.2.1)heptan-2yl)-5-heptenoic acid ({sup 125}I-BOP). The B{sub max} for {sup 125}I-BOP was 5,430 {plus minus} 139 sites/cell (26.9 {plus minus} 5.7 fmoles/mg protein) for cells cultured in 1% fetal calf serum and 2,809 {plus minus} 830 sites/cell (13.1 {plus minus} 2.2 fmoles/mg protein) for cells cultured in 10% fetal calf serum. Cells were allowed to grow to varying densities and then harvested for assay. There was a negative correlation between the B{sub max} and the cell density per flask. The K{sub d} for I-BOP did not significantly vary in any of the studies. The results demonstrate that cell density plays an important role in influencing the expression of vascular TXA{sub 2}/PGH{sub 2} receptors.

  20. Immunopanning purification and long-term culture of human retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin-Mei; Li Liu, David Ta; Chiang, Sylvia Wai-Yee; Choy, Kwong-Wai; Pang, Chi-Pui; Lam, Dennis Shun-Chiu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To establish a robust method to isolate primary retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from human fetal retina for long-term culture while maintaining neuronal morphology and marker protein expression. Methods A total of six human retinas were obtained from aborted fetuses at 10 to 12 weeks of gestation with informed consent from mothers. RGCs were isolated and purified by a modified two-step immunopanning procedure. The cells were maintained in a serum-free defined medium supplemented with brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neutrophic factor, and forskolin. The viable RGCs and the extent of neurite outgrowth were examined by calcein-acetoxymethylester assay. Expression of RGC markers was studied by immunocytochemistry. Results Primary RGCs from human fetal retinas were isolated and maintained in vitro for one month with substantial neurite elongation. In cell culture, almost 70% of the isolated cells attached, spread, and displayed numerous dendrites. They were immunoreactive to RGC-specific markers (Thy-1, TUJ-1, and Brn3a) and negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein and amacrine cells marker HPC-1. Conclusions Human RGCs were successfully isolated and maintained in long-term culture. This can serve as an ideal model for biologic, toxicological, and genomic assays of human RGCs in vitro. PMID:21203402

  1. Evaluation of the Nanosphere Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture Assay with the VersaTREK Blood Culture System and Assessment of Possible Impact on Selected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Stacy G.; Ciurca, Jane; Smith, Geremy; John, Jeffrey; Lee, Francesca; Doern, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    The Verigene Gram-positive blood culture (BC-GP) assay (Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL) is a molecular method for the rapid identification of Gram-positive organisms and resistance markers directly from blood culture bottles. A total of 148 VersaTREK REDOX 1 40-ml aerobic bottles demonstrating Gram-positive bacteria were tested. Results were compared with those from conventional biochemical and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) identifications. We obtained isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (24), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (14), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) (17), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis (MSSE) (9), other coagulase-negative staphylococci (19), Streptococcus salivarius (5), Streptococcus parasanguinis (2), Streptococcus sanguinis (1), Streptococcus cristatus (1), the Streptococcus bovis group (5), Streptococcus agalactiae (9), the Streptococcus anginosus group (1), Streptococcus pneumoniae (6), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE FCM) (16), vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis (3), Aerococcus viridans (2), Bacillus (6), Corynebacterium (8), Lactobacillus (2), Micrococcus (2), Neisseria mucosa (1), Escherichia coli (3), Candida tropicalis (1), Propionibacterium (1), and Rothia (1). Overall agreement with the culture results was 95%. A total of 137 of 138 (99%) monomicrobial cultures were concordant. We tested 9 polymicrobial samples and found 33% agreement. A chart review of 31 patients with MRSA, MSSA, or VRE demonstrated that the Nanosphere BC-GP assay might have led to more appropriate antibiotic selection for these patients an average of 42 h earlier. Additionally, contact isolation could have been initiated an average of 37 h earlier for patients with MRSA or VRE. The BC-GP assay may have a positive impact on patient care, health care costs, and antibiotic stewardship. PMID:24048531

  2. In vitro measurement of cell death with the annexin A5 affinity assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo van Genderen; Heidi Kenis; Petra Lux; Lisette Ungeth; Cecile Maassen; Niko Deckers; Jagat Narula; Leo Hofstra; Chris Reutelingsperger

    2006-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of cell death is the cell surface–expression of phosphatidylserine. Expression of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface can be measured in vitro with the phosphatidylserine-binding protein annexin A5 conjugated to fluorochromes. This measurement can be made by flow cytometry or by confocal scanning-laser microscopy. The annexin A5 affinity assay comprises the incubation of cells stimulated to execute

  3. Genotoxic effects of sunlight-activated waste water in cultured mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Strniste, G F; Chen, D J; Okinaka, R T

    1982-07-01

    Cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells were incubated with dilutions of an oil shale retort process water and exposed to nautral sunlight. An enhancement of sevenfold to ninefold was seen in photoinduced cytotoxicity (by a colony-forming assay) and mutagenicity [at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus] for cells pretreated with the process water compared to effects seen in cells exposed to sunlight only. Significant photoinduced cytotoxicity was also observed in cultured human skin fibroblasts when exposed to the process water before being exposed to near UV (NUV) radiation. The mutation frequencies (determined for the HPRT locus) induced by the process water and NUV radiation were as great as those frequencies seen for far UV light alone. Increases in genotoxicity were observed in excision repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum skin fibroblasts when compared to the responses seen in normal cells. Risks to health resulting from the phototransformation of these oil shale retort process waste waters are unassessed at this time. PMID:6954312

  4. Development of a replication-competent lentivirus assay for dendritic cell-targeting lentiviral vectors

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Daniel C; McCloskey, Laura; Thorne, Barbara A; Tareen, Semih U; Nicolai, Christopher J; Campbell, David J; Bannister, Richard; Stewart, Hannah J; Pearson, Laura JE; Moyer, Bentley J; Robbins, Scott H; Zielinski, Leah; Kim, Tae; Radcliffe, Pippa A; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Gombotz, Wayne R; Miskin, James E; Kelley-Clarke, Brenna

    2015-01-01

    It is a current regulatory requirement to demonstrate absence of detectable replication-competent lentivirus (RCL) in lentiviral vector products prior to use in clinical trials. Immune Design previously described an HIV-1-based integration-deficient lentiviral vector for use in cancer immunotherapy (VP02). VP02 is enveloped with E1001, a modified Sindbis virus glycoprotein which targets dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) expressed on dendritic cells in vivo. Vector enveloped with E1001 does not transduce T-cell lines used in standard HIV-1-based RCL assays, making current RCL testing formats unsuitable for testing VP02. We therefore developed a novel assay to test for RCL in clinical lots of VP02. This assay, which utilizes a murine leukemia positive control virus and a 293F cell line expressing the E1001 receptor DC-SIGN, meets a series of evaluation criteria defined in collaboration with US regulatory authorities and demonstrates the ability of the assay format to amplify and detect a hypothetical RCL derived from VP02 vector components. This assay was qualified and used to test six independent GMP production lots of VP02, in which no RCL was detected. We propose that the evaluation criteria used to rationally design this novel method should be considered when developing an RCL assay for any lentiviral vector. PMID:26029728

  5. Use of cell-based assays in myasthenia gravis and other antibody-mediated diseases.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Cruz, P M; Huda, S; López-Ruiz, P; Vincent, A

    2015-08-01

    The increasing demand on diagnostic assays that are sensitive and specific for pathogenic antibodies, and the interest in identifying new antigens, prompted the development of cell-based assays for the detection of autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis and other autoimmune disorders. Cell-based assays were initially used to show that clustering the AChR improved the positivity in myasthenia gravis, and similar assays have now been applied to detection of antibodies to neuromuscular junction candidate proteins such as LRP4 and agrin. In addition cell-based assays have been used in the routine detection of antibodies to proteins expressed on the surface of neurons (NMDAR, LGI1, CASPR2, AMPAR, GABA-A/B, GlyR, and DPPX) and glia (AQP4, MOG). Here, we summarize the findings in myasthenia and discuss the advantages, disadvantages and controversial issues of using cell-based assays in the detection of these antibodies, and their relevance to the testing of preclinical models of disease. PMID:25783660

  6. Rapid single-cell electroporation for labeling organotypic cultures

    E-print Network

    Steinmeyer, Joseph D. (Joseph Daly)

    2010-01-01

    Single-cell electroporation is a technique for transfecting individual cells in tissue culture at relatively high efficiencies, however it is both time-consuming and low-throughput and this limits the number of different ...

  7. Culture of cells from mammalian tissue cryopreserved without cryoprotection 

    E-print Network

    Charles, Lara Nicole

    2009-05-15

    Donor cells for nuclear transfer are usually prepared by the culture of fresh tissue. However, animal carcasses are sometimes frozen without cryoprotectants and if it were possible to obtain live cells from carcasses (tissue) preserved...

  8. Lymphokine-activated killer cells lyse human renal cancer cell lines and cultured normal kidney cells.

    PubMed Central

    Miltenburg, A M; Meijer-Paape, M E; Daha, M R; Paul, L C

    1988-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether or not lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells can damage renal tissue and therefore whether they may contribute to graft destruction during kidney allograft rejection. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were activated with a lymphokine preparation and the resulting LAK cells were tested against kidney cells from various sources. Renal cancer cells as well as cultured normal kidney cells were efficiently lysed by LAK cells, as assessed with Cr-labelled target cells, showing that both cell types are sensitive to LAK cell-mediated cytolysis. PMID:3259208

  9. A Cancer Cell-Activatable Aptamer-Reporter System for One-Step Assay of Circulating Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zihua; Tung, Ching-Hsuan; Zu, Youli

    2014-01-01

    The current antibody-mediated numeration assays of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) require multiple steps and are time-consuming. To overcome these technical limitations, a cancer cell-activatable aptamer-reporter was formulated by conjugating a biomarker-specific aptamer sequence with paired fluorochrome-quencher molecules. In contrast to the antibody probes, the intact aptamer-reporter was optically silent in the absence of cells of interest. However, when used in an assay, the aptamer selectively targeted cancer cells through interaction with a specific surface biomarker, which triggered internalization of the aptamer-reporter and, subsequently, into cell lysosomes. Rapid lysosomal degradation of the aptamer-reporter resulted in separation of the paired fluorochrome-quencher molecules. The released fluorochrome emitted bright fluorescent signals exclusively within the targeted cancer cells, with no background noise in the assay. Thus, the assays could be completed in a single step within minutes. By using this one-step assay, CTCs in whole blood and marrow aspirate samples of patients with lymphoma tumors were selectively highlighted and rapidly detected with no off-target signals from background blood cells. The development of the cancer cell-activatable aptamer-reporter system allows for the possibility of a simple and robust point-of-care test for CTC detection, which is currently unavailable. PMID:25118170

  10. Comparative genotoxicity of nanosilver in human liver HepG2 and colon Caco2 cells evaluated by a flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Saura C; Njoroge, Joyce; Bryce, Steven M; Yourick, Jeffrey J; Sprando, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    Two widely used in vitro cell culture models, human liver HepG2 cells and human colon Caco2 cells, and flow cytometry techniques were evaluated as tools for rapid screening of potential genotoxicity of food-related nanosilver. Comparative genotoxic potential of 20?nm silver was evaluated in HepG2 and Caco2 cell cultures by a flow cytometric-based in vitro micronucleus assay. The nanosilver, characterized by the dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis, showed no agglomeration of the silver nanoparticles. The inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated the uptake of 20?nm silver by both cell types. The 20?nm silver exposure of HepG2 cells increased the concentration-dependent micronucleus formation sevenfold at 10?µg?ml(-1) concentration in attached cell conditions and 1.3-fold in cell suspension conditions compared to the vehicle controls. However, compared to the vehicle controls, the 20?nm silver exposure of Caco2 cells increased the micronucleus formation 1.2-fold at a concentration of 10?µg?ml(-1) both in the attached cell conditions as well as in the cell suspension conditions. Our results of flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay appear to suggest that the HepG2 cells are more susceptible to the nanosilver-induced micronucleus formation than the Caco2 cells compared to the vehicle controls. However, our results also suggest that the widely used in vitro models, HepG2 and Caco2 cells and the flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay are valuable tools for the rapid screening of genotoxic potential of nanosilver and deserve more careful evaluation. PMID:25224830

  11. Epidermal growth factor stimulates glycogen synthase activity in cultured cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, C P; Krebs, E G

    1985-01-01

    Addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to quiescent cultured cells was found to stimulate the activity of glycogen synthase (UDPglucose:glycogen 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.11), an enzyme subjected to regulation by covalent modification. In Swiss mouse 3T3 cells, the activation by EGF paralleled the effect seen with insulin; the time course and dose-response curves of the two polypeptide factors were similar. Stimulation of enzyme activity ratio [(activity in the absence of glucose 6-phosphate)/(activity in the presence of glucose 6-phosphate)] was maximal after 20-30 min of incubation. Both factors caused a maximal stimulation of 2.5-fold in synthase activity ratio at approximately equal to 10 nM, and the half-maximal effect was observed at 0.1-1 nM. Insulin and EGF exhibited partial additivity in effecting this enzyme activation. In contrast, human A431 cells showed no response to insulin. Although quantitatively different, the EGF effect in the latter cells was time dependent, reaching a maximum at 90 min, and dose dependent, with a maximal stimulation of 4-fold in synthase activity ratio at 10 nM. Half-maximal effect was observed at 0.3 nM EGF. Direct quantitation of allosteric effectors (glucose 6-phosphate, adenine nucleotides, and Pi) present in the enzyme assay mixtures indicated that the observed activation was not simply a consequence of changes in metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that EGF may be important in regulating glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation/dephosphorylation mechanisms. PMID:3927284

  12. Comparison of Roche Cobas Amplicor Mycobacterium tuberculosis Assay with In-House PCR and Culture for Detection of M. tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Eing, Bodo R.; Becker, Andrea; Sohns, Arthur; Ringelmann, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    The new Roche Cobas Amplicor Mycobacterium tuberculosis assay, which is a semiautomated version of the manually performed Roche Amplicor M. tuberculosis test, was compared to culture and an IS6110-based in-house PCR protocol. A total of 1,681 specimens from 833 patients, including specimen types other than sputum, were tested in parallel by both the in-house PCR and the Cobas Amplicor M. tuberculosis assay. After we resolved discrepant PCR results, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the Cobas Amplicor M. tuberculosis assay were 66.33, 99.71, 94.36, and 97.66%, respectively. The corresponding values for the in-house PCR were 91.08, 99.85, 97.87, and 99.37%, respectively. For culture- and smear-positive specimens, the sensitivity of the Cobas Amplicor M. tuberculosis test was 96.42% (in-house PCR, 100%). If only smear-negative sputum specimens were considered, the Cobas Amplicor M. tuberculosis assay exhibited a sensitivity of 45.45% (in-house PCR, 63.63%) relative to that of culture. With a modified protocol for DNA extraction (washing of samples plus ultrasonication), both PCR methods performed better with gastric aspirates than with sputum samples (sensitivity of the Cobas Amplicor M. tuberculosis assay with smear-negative gastric aspirates, 70.00%; sensitivity of in-house PCR, 90.00%). With dithiothreitol being used for liquefaction of specimens in this study, the Cobas Amplicor M. tuberculosis assay exhibited an inhibition rate of 9.16%. In our view, the new Cobas Amplicor M. tuberculosis test (i) is well suited for typing of smear-positive specimens, (ii) may also be applied to gastric aspirates and other types of specimens if DNA extraction methods are modified appropriately, and (iii) exhibits a sensitivity with smear-negative sputum specimens which makes it recommendable that a minimum of three samples from the same patient be tested. PMID:9650955

  13. Differentiated Rat Glial Cell Strain in Tissue Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Benda; James Lightbody; Gordon Sato; Lawrence Levine; William Sweet

    1968-01-01

    Rat glial tumors induced by injections of N-nitrosomethylurea, were plated and propagated in culture. Among a few cell strains obtained, one clone contains S-100 protein, which is unique to brain in vertebrates. Stationary-phase cultures contain approximately ten times more S-100 protein per cell than exponentially growing cells. When injected into newborn rats, cells producing S-100 grew as a glial tumor,

  14. Serial culturing of human bronchial epithelial cells derived from biopsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra M. de Jong; Marianne A. J. A. van Sterkenburg; Johanna A. Kempenaar; Joop H. Dijkman; Maria Ponec

    1993-01-01

    Summary  In the present study we describe the establishment of serial cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells derived from biopsies\\u000a obtained by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The cell cultures were initiated from small amounts of material (2 mm forceps biopsies)\\u000a using either explants or epithelial cell suspensions in combination with a feeder-layer technique. The rate of cell proliferation\\u000a and the number of passages

  15. Cell culture quality control by rapid isoenzymatic characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Halton; Ward D. Peterson; Bharati Hukku

    1983-01-01

    Summary  Procedures that involve cell cultures require careful quality control to avoid inter- and intraspecies contamination. We have\\u000a developed and electrophoresis technique that can be used routinely in cell culture laboratories to monitor cell line integrity.\\u000a The method involves the isoenzymatic separation of nine polymorphic enzymes, three of which can be used for cell line species\\u000a determinations and seven of which

  16. Nonchromatographic assay for expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in eukaryotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sleigh, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid procedure is described for assaying chloramphenicol acetyltranserase (CAT) enzyme activity following transfection of the CAT gene into eukaryotic cells. CAT enzyme activity in cell extracts catalyzes the transfer of (/sup 14/C)acetyl groups from labeled acetyl coenzyme A to unlabeled chloramphenicol. Labeled reaction product is quantitated by liquid scintillation counting after extraction into ethyl acetate. The method is valid for use with transfected cell extracts only if the extracts are first heated to 65/sup 0/C to remove a factor which degrades acetyl coenzyme A. The revised procedure offers considerable advantages in speed and ease of performance over the chromatographic assay in current use.

  17. Contact inhibition of movement in the cultures of transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Guelstein, V I; Ivanova, O Y; Margolis, L B; Vasiliev, J M; Gelfand, I M

    1973-07-01

    Results of cell-cell collisions were studied with the aid of time-lapse microcinematography in primary cultures of normal mouse-embryo fibroblast-like cells and in cultures of transformed mouse cells of two types: (a) primary fibroblast-like cells transformed by Moloney mouse sarcoma virus; (b) neoplastic fibroblasts of the CIM strain. Collisions of normal fibroblast-like cells and CIM cells in mixed cultures were also analyzed. Classification of the results of collisions was based on observation of the movements of the active cell edge during the first hour after the moment when this edge had contacted another cell. Three types of collision results were detected: halt of the active edge, overlapping, and underlapping. The relative number of overlappings was not higher and that of halts not lower in the cultures of transformed cells as compared with those of normal cells. Analysis of the collisions of normal fibroblasts with transformed cells gave similar results. Thus, the altered morphology of the cultures of these transformed cells cannot be explained by loss of contact inhibition of movement leading to increased ability of cells to move over the surfaces of other cells after collision. PMID:4516201

  18. In vitro red blood cell assay for oxidant toxicity of petroleum oil

    SciTech Connect

    Couillard, C.M.; Leighton, F.A. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada))

    1993-05-01

    Petroleum oil has caused hemolytic anemia in birds and mammals. In birds, an oxidant damage on circulating red cells has been identified as the primary toxic effect of ingested petroleum oils. An in vitro red blood cell assay was developed to discriminate among the oxidant activities of different petroleum oils. The assay used rabbit red blood cells with a rat liver enzyme system and formation of methemoglobin was measured as an indicator of oxidant damage to the red cells. The assay was applied to five different petroleum oils and to naphthalene, a petroleum hydrocarbon known to cause hemolytic anemia. Different petroleum oils differed in their capacity to induce methemoglobin formation. Methemoglobin levels varied from 2.9% with Arabian light crude oil to 6.2% with South Louisiana crude oil. Naphthalene induced formation of up to 37% methemoglobin. Naphthalene and the five petroleum oils generated methemoglobin only in the presence of liver enzymes.

  19. [Detection of viable metabolically active yeast cells using a colorimetric assay].

    PubMed

    R?zicka, F; Holá, V

    2008-02-01

    The increasing concern of yeasts able to form biofilm brings about the need for susceptibility testing of both planktonic and biofilm cells. Detection of viability or metabolic activity of yeast cells after exposure to antimicrobials plays a key role in the assessment of susceptibility testing results. Colorimetric assays based on the color change of the medium in the presence of metabolically active cells proved suitable for this purpose. In this study, the usability of a colorimetric assay with the resazurin redox indicator for monitoring the effect of yeast inoculum density on the reduction rate was tested. As correlation between the color change rate and inoculum density was observed, approximate quantification of viable cells was possible. The assay would be of relevance to antifungal susceptibility testing in both planktonic and biofilm yeasts. PMID:18318392

  20. Colloidal aggregation affects the efficacy of anticancer drugs in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Owen, Shawn C; Doak, Allison K; Wassam, Pascal; Shoichet, Molly S; Shoichet, Brian K

    2012-08-17

    Many small molecules, including bioactive molecules and approved drugs, spontaneously form colloidal aggregates in aqueous solution at micromolar concentrations. Though it is widely accepted that aggregation leads to artifacts in screens for ligands of soluble proteins, the effects of colloid formation in cell-based assays have not been studied. Here, seven anticancer drugs and one diagnostic reagent were found to form colloids in both biochemical buffer and in cell culture media. In cell-based assays, the antiproliferative activities of three of the drugs were substantially reduced when in colloidal form as compared to monomeric form; a new formulation method ensured the presence of drug colloids versus drug monomers in solution. We also found that Evans Blue, a dye classically used to measure vascular permeability and to demonstrate the "enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect" in solid tumors, forms colloids that adsorb albumin, as opposed to older literature that suggested the reverse. PMID:22625864

  1. Endothelial cells suppress granulocyte clusters and stimulate large granulocyte colonies in culture.

    PubMed

    Kobrinsky, N L; MacAngus, N J

    1985-01-01

    Endothelial cells have been shown to produce granulopoietic colony stimulating activity (CSA) under the regulatory control of a humoral factor, MRA produced by blood monocytes. An endothelial cell-derived granulopoietic inhibitory factor has also been described. To further define these apparently paradoxical observations, human bone marrow mononuclear cells were co-cultured with umbilical cord derived endothelial cells in a plasma clot system in vitro. To enhance the sensitivity of the assay for growth effects attributable to the endothelial cells (or their products) alone, an exogenous source of CSA (e.g. a peripheral blood leukocyte feeder layer) was not used. On day ten of culture, less than or equal to 1% endothelial cells markedly stimulated the growth of early granulocyte progenitors (large diaminofluorine positive (DAF+) GM-CFUc) (p less than .01) and a linear dose response relationship was confirmed (p less than .001). Late granulocyte progenitors (DAF+ clusters) were coincidently suppressed by less than or equal to 2% endothelial cells (p less than .01). No effect of endothelial cells on intermediate progenitors (small GM-CFUc) was demonstrated at any concentration. Similar effects were observed with the addition of 5% to 30% endothelial conditioned medium (ECM) (p less than .01). When cohort cultures were evaluated serially, suppression of clusters was observed by day four and stimulation of large GM-CFUcs by day six. These varied effects on different stages of granulocyte differentiation suggest that endothelial cell derived CSA(S) may be of biological relevance in the regulation of granulopoiesis. PMID:3879599

  2. Effects of external radiation in a co-culture model of endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inflammatory response clinically observed after radiation has been described to correlate with elevated expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules by endothelial cells. Therapeutic compensation for this microvascular compromise could be an important approach in the treatment of irradiated wounds. Clinical reports describe the potential of adipose-derived stem cells to enhance wound healing, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain largely unclear. Methods Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) and human adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) were cultured in a co-culture setting and irradiated with sequential doses of 2 to 12 Gy. Cell count was determined 48 h after radiation using a semi-automated cell counting system. Levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined in the supernatants using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Irradiated HDMEC and ASC as well as non-irradiated co-cultures, HDMEC or ASC respectively were used as controls. Results Cell count was significantly reduced in irradiated co-cultures of HDMEC and ASC compared to non-irradiated controls. Levels of IL-6, FGF, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the supernatants of the co-cultures were significantly less affected by external radiation in comparison to HDMEC. Conclusion The increased expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules by HDMEC after external radiation is mitigated in the co-culture setting with ASC. These in vitro changes seem to support the clinical observation that ASC may have a stabilizing effect when injected into irradiated wounds. PMID:23514369

  3. MONOCHROMOSOMAL HYBRID CELL ASSAY FOR EVALUATING THE GENOTOXICITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development and utilization of a monochromosomal hybrid cell assay for detecting aneuploidy and chromosomal aberrations are described. The monochromosomal hybrid cell lines were produced by a two-step process involving transfer of a marker bacterial gene to a human chromosome...

  4. Biotransformation of hyoscyamine into scopolamine in transgenic tobacco cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Elisabeth; Palazón, Javier; Bonfill, Mercedes; Osuna, Lidia; Cusidó, Rosa M; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Piñol, M Teresa

    2007-04-01

    Hyoscyamine-6beta-hydroxylase (H6H) catalyses the conversion of hyoscyamine into its epoxide scopolamine, a compound with a higher added value in the pharmaceutical market than hyoscyamine. We report the establishment of tobacco cell cultures carrying the Hyoscyamus muticus h6h gene under the control of the promoter CAMV 35S. The cell cultures were derived from hairy roots obtained via genetically modified Agrobacterium rhizogenes carrying the pRi and pLAL21 plasmids. The cultures were fed with hyoscyamine, and 4 weeks later the amount of scopolamine produced was quantified by HPLC. The transgenic cell suspension cultures showed a considerable capacity for the bioconversion of hyoscyamine into scopolamine, and released it to the culture medium. Although the scale-up from shake-flask to bioreactor culture usually results in reduced productivities, our transgenic cells grown in a 5-L turbine stirred tank reactor in a batch mode significantly increased the scopolamine accumulation. PMID:16904229

  5. Enhanced infectivity of bluetongue virus in cell culture by centrifugation.

    PubMed Central

    Sundin, D R; Mecham, J O

    1989-01-01

    The effects of centrifugation of the infection of cell culture with bluetongue virus (BTV) were investigated. Baby hamster kidney cells were infected with BTV with or without centrifugation. Viral antigen was detected by immunofluorescence at 24 h in both centrifuged and noncentrifuged cultures. However, after 24 h of infection, the production of PFU in centrifuged cell cultures was 10- to 20-fold greater than that seen in cultures not centrifuged. In addition, centrifugation enhanced the direct detection of PFU from blood samples collected from a sheep experimentally infected with BTV. Images PMID:2549092

  6. Development and validation of an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity-reporter gene assay

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Bhavin S.; Berger, Elaine; Sibley, Sharon; Cahya, Suntara; Xiao, Liqun; LaCerte, Melinda Ann; Vaillancourt, Peter; Wooden, Scott; Gately, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Humanized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are the fastest growing class of biological therapeutics that are being developed for various medical indications, and more than 30 mAbs are already approved and in the market place. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is an important biological function attributed to the mechanism of action of several therapeutic antibodies, particularly oncology targeting mAbs. The ADCC assay is a complicated and highly variable assay. Thus, the use of an ADCC assay as a lot release test or a stability test for clinical trial batches of mAbs has been a substantial challenge to install in quality control laboratories. We describe here the development and validation of an alternate approach, an ADCC-reporter gene assay that is based on the key attributes of the PBMC-based ADCC assay. We tested the biological relevance of this assay using an anti-CD20 based model and demonstrated that this ADCC-reporter assay correlated well with standard ADCC assays when induced with the drugable human isotypes [IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, IgG4S > P (S228P) and IgG4PAA (S228P, F234A, L235A)] and with IgG1 isotype variants with varying amounts of fucosylation. This data demonstrates that the ADCC-reporter gene assay has performance characteristics (accuracy, precision and robustness) to be used not only as a potency assay for lot release and stability testing for antibody therapeutics, but also as a key assay for the characterization and process development of therapeutic molecules. PMID:22531445

  7. Application of a cell-based protease assay for testing inhibitors of picornavirus 3C proteases.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Lonneke; Ulferts, Rachel; Nabuurs, Sander B; Kusov, Yuri; Liu, Hong; George, Shyla; Lacroix, Céline; Goris, Nesya; Lefebvre, David; Lanke, Kjerstin H W; De Clercq, Kris; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2014-03-01

    Proteolytical cleavage of the picornaviral polyprotein is essential for viral replication. Therefore, viral proteases are attractive targets for anti-viral therapy. Most assays available for testing proteolytical activity of proteases are performed in vitro, using heterologously expressed proteases and peptide substrates. To deal with the disadvantages associated with in vitro assays, we modified a cell-based protease assay for picornavirus proteases. The assay is based on the induction of expression of a firefly luciferase reporter by a chimeric transcription factor in which the viral protease and cleavage sites are inserted between the GAL4 binding domain and the VP16 activation domain. Firefly luciferase expression is dependent on cleavage of the transcription factor by the viral protease. This biosafe assay enables testing the effect of compounds on protease activity in cells while circumventing the need for infection. We designed the assay for 3C proteases (3C(pro)) of various enteroviruses as well as of viruses of several other picornavirus genera, and show that the assay is amenable for use in a high-throughput setting. Furthermore, we show that the spectrum of activity of 3C(pro) inhibitor AG7088 (rupintrivir) not only encompasses enterovirus 3C(pro) but also 3C(pro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), an aphthovirus. In contrary, AG7404 (compound 1), an analogue of AG7088, had no effect on FMDV 3C(pro) activity, for which we provide a structural explanation. PMID:24393668

  8. Cytotoxic effects of arthropod venoms on various cultured cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ephraim Cohen; Gary B. Quistad

    1998-01-01

    E. Cohen and G. B. Quistad. Cytotoxic effects of arthropod venoms on various cultured cells. Toxicon36, 353–358, 1998.—The action of arthropod venoms is important to predators in search of prey and to humans as incidental victims or as a source for pharmacologically active compounds. Venoms from 30 arthropods (including 26 spider species) were assessed for cytotoxicity using cultured cells from

  9. Mycophenolic acid antagonizes the activation of cultured human mesangial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Dubus; Benoît Vendrely; Isabelle Christophe; Jean-Pierre Labouyrie; Yahsou Delmas; Jacques Bonnet; Christian Combe

    2002-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid antagonizes the activation of cultured human mesangial cells.BackgroundActivation of mesangial cells is observed in several forms of chronic renal disease, and in culture conditions upon stimulation by fetal calf serum (FCS), or agonists such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?). Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), the precursor of mycophenolic acid (MPA), is currently used in organ transplantation and has been

  10. A mechanistic study on the effect of dexamethasone in moderating cell death in Chinese Hamster Ovary cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Jing, Ying; Qian, Yueming; Ghandi, Mahmoud; He, Aiqing; Borys, Michael C; Pan, Shih-Hsie; Li, Zheng Jian

    2012-01-01

    Dexamethasone (DEX) was previously shown (Jing et al., Biotechnol Bioeng. 2010;107:488-496) to play a dual role in increasing sialylation of recombinant glycoproteins produced by Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. DEX addition increased sialic acid levels of a recombinant fusion protein through increased expression of ?2,3-sialyltransferase and ?1,4-galactosyltransferase, but also decreased the sialidase-mediated, extracellular degradation of sialic acid through slowing cell death at the end of the culture period. This study examines the underlying mechanism for this cytoprotective action by studying the transcriptional response of the CHO cell genome upon DEX treatment using DNA microarrays and gene ontology term analysis. Many of those genes showing a significant transcriptional response were associated with the regulation of programmed cell death. The gene with the highest change in expression level, as validated by Quantitative PCR assays with TaqMan® probes and confirmed by Western Blot analysis, was the antiapoptotic gene Tsc22d3, also referred to as GILZ (glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper). The pathway by which DEX suppressed cell death towards the end of the culture period was also confirmed by showing involvement of glucocorticoid receptors and GILZ through studies using the glucocorticoid antagonist mifepristone (RU-486). These findings advance the understanding of the mechanism by which DEX suppresses cell death in CHO cells and provide a rationale for the application of glucocorticoids in CHO cell culture processes. PMID:22140034

  11. Cell-Based Potassium Ion Channel Screening Using the FluxOR™ Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel W. Beacham; Trillium Blackmer; Michael O Grady; George T. Hanson

    2010-01-01

    FluxOR™ technology is a cell-based assay used for high-throughput screening measurements of potassium channel activity. Using thallium influx as a surrogate indicator of potassium ion channel activity, the FluxOR™ Potassium Ion Channel Assay is based on the activation of a novel fluorescent dye. This indicator reports channel activity with a large fluorogenic response and is proportional to the number of

  12. Tissue-culture light sheet fluorescence microscopy (TC-LSFM) allows long-term imaging of three-dimensional cell cultures under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Pampaloni, Francesco; Berge, Ulrich; Marmaras, Anastasios; Horvath, Peter; Kroschewski, Ruth; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-10-01

    Fluorescence long-term imaging of cellular processes in three-dimensional cultures requires the control of media supply, temperature, and pH, as well as minimal photodamage. We describe a system based on a light sheet fluorescence microscope (LSFM), which is optimized for long-term, multi-position imaging of three-dimensional in-gel cell cultures. The system integrates a stable culture condition control system in the optical path of the light-sheet microscope. A further essential element is a biocompatible agarose container suitable for the LSFM, in which any cell type can be cultured in different gel matrices. The TC-LSFM allows studying any in vitro cultured cell type reacting to, dividing in, or migrating through a three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) gel. For this reason we called it "tissue culture-LSFM" (TC-LSFM). The TC-LSFM system allows fast imaging at multiple locations within a millimeter-sized ECM gel. This increases the number of analyzed events and allows testing population effects. As an example, we show the maturation of a cyst of MDCK (canine kidney epithelial) cells over a period of three days. Moreover, we imaged, tracked, and analyzed MDCK cells during the first five days of cell aggregate formation and discovered a remarkable heterogeneity in cell cycle lengths and an interesting cell death pattern. Thus, TC-LSFM allows performing new long-term assays assessing cellular behavior in three-dimensional ECM-gel cultures. For example migration, invasion or differentiation in epithelial cell systems, stem cells, as well as cancer cells can be investigated. PMID:25183478

  13. Cerebellar Granule Cells in Culture: Monosynaptic Connections with Purkinje Cells and Ionic Currents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoo Hirano; Yoshihiro Kubo; Michael M. Wu

    1986-01-01

    Electrophysiological properties of cerebellar granule cells and synapses between granule and Purkinje cells were studied in dissociated cultures. Electrophysiological properties of neurons and synapses in the mammalian central nervous system are best studied in dissociated cell cultures because of good target cell visibility, control over the contents of the extracellular solution, and the feasibility of whole-cell patch electrode recording, which

  14. Production of antisera against the enterotoxin of Bacteroides fragilis and their use in a cytotoxicity neutralization assay of HT-29 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Van Tassel, R L; Lyerly, D M; Wilkins, T D

    1994-01-01

    To study the enterotoxin of Bacteroides fragilis, the colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 was used in a standard cytotoxicity assay. We produced high-titer neutralizing antisera in rabbits and goats against both crude and purified toxin and developed a cytotoxicity neutralization assay for use in confirming enterotoxin activity in culture filtrates and stools. The neutralization titers of the antisera on the colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 ranged from 1,600 to 2,400. In an antibody screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, titers ranged from 10(4) to 10(5). The antisera produced against the highly purified toxin also neutralized the enterotoxic activity of the toxin and were monospecific by immunoelectrophoresis. Images PMID:8556487

  15. Immunoglobulin production induced in vitro by glucocorticoid hormones: T cell-dependent stimulation of immunoglobulin production without B cell proliferation in cultures of human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, J; Dooley, N J; Koski, I R; Blaese, R M

    1981-01-01

    The direct effects of steroid hormones on the production of immunoglobulins and DNA synthesis by human T and B lymphocytes was evaluated in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As detected by a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, the addition of 0.1 mM to 10 nM hydrocortisone to lymphocytes in culture in the absence of other stimulants or mitogens, resulted in the dramatic induction of immunoglobulin production with responses comparable to those seen in similar cultures stimulated with pokeweed mitogen. Steroid-stimulated immunoglobulin production was first seen after 48 h and peaked at 8-10 d of culture. The production of IgG, IgA, and IgM was induced following incubation with steroid. Glucocorticoids, but not estrogens or androgens, were capable of mediating this effect, and only compounds with affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor were active. The induction of immunoglobulin production was dependent on both T cells and monocytes; cultures depleted of either cell type did not produce immunoglobulin when stimulated with glucocorticoid hormones. Proliferation of B cells or T cells could not be detected by [3H]thymidine incorporation or total cell recovery from steroid-stimulated cultures, even though such cultures demonstrated marked increases in immunoglobulin production. The mechanism responsible for this functional maturation of B cells to become high rate immunoglobulin producing cells is as yet undefined, although it appears to involve more than merely steroid mediated inactivation of suppressor T cells. PMID:7033287

  16. Assay for parathyroid hormone receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Nissenson, R.A.; Teitelbaum, A.P.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents methods used to identify and quantify parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors in kidney and bone. Experimental details are provided for the preparation of radioiodinated PTH, purification of labeled PTH, and PTH binding assays using renal plasma membranes and cultured cells from embryonic chick bone cells.

  17. Neurons on Parafilm: versatile elastic substrates for neuronal cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sang Jin; Nam, Yoonkey

    2012-02-15

    A variety of materials has been applied to neuronal cell culture substrates to improve the efficiency of the culture and to provide pertinent cell growth environment. Here we report the application of Parafilm(®) M ('Parafilm') as a novel substrate for neuronal culture and patterning. Cell culture results show that elastic Parafilm had effects on cell viability, length and number of neurites, and soma spreading. Parafilm was also an effective substrate to obtain patterned neuronal cultures using a conventional micro-contract printing (?CP) technique. Polylysine micropatterns in line or grid forms were readily transferred from PDMS stamp to bare Parafilm surfaces and spatially confined neuronal cultures were successfully maintained for over three weeks. We also demonstrate that batch-processing cell culture substrates can be easily fabricated using a piece of Parafilm. The softness, plasticity, and hydrophobicity were main features that made it attractive for Parafilm to be considered as a practical cell culture platform. The results can be extended to develop an inexpensive and practical neuronal culture substrates in tissue engineering and biochip applications. PMID:22068030

  18. Optical Oxygen Sensors for Applications in Microfluidic Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Grist, Samantha M.; Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C.

    2010-01-01

    The presence and concentration of oxygen in biological systems has a large impact on the behavior and viability of many types of cells, including the differentiation of stem cells or the growth of tumor cells. As a result, the integration of oxygen sensors within cell culture environments presents a powerful tool for quantifying the effects of oxygen concentrations on cell behavior, cell viability, and drug effectiveness. Because microfluidic cell culture environments are a promising alternative to traditional cell culture platforms, there is recent interest in integrating oxygen-sensing mechanisms with microfluidics for cell culture applications. Optical, luminescence-based oxygen sensors, in particular, show great promise in their ability to be integrated with microfluidics and cell culture systems. These sensors can be highly sensitive and do not consume oxygen or generate toxic byproducts in their sensing process. This paper presents a review of previously proposed optical oxygen sensor types, materials and formats most applicable to microfluidic cell culture, and analyzes their suitability for this and other in vitro applications. PMID:22163408

  19. Microfluidic concentration-enhanced single cell enzyme activity assay

    E-print Network

    Sarkar, Aniruddh

    2013-01-01

    Cells sense stimuli, process information and respond using signaling networks regulated by enzymatic activity of various proteins. Aberrations in signaling are associated with diseases such as cancer. Most current methods ...

  20. Perceptual Grouping of Membrane Signals in Cell-based Assays

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Hang; Andarawewa, Punya Kumari; Han, Ju; Barcellos-Hoff,Mary Helen; Parvin, Bahram

    2007-02-02

    Membrane proteins organize themselves in a linear fashion where adjacent cells are attached together along the basal-lateral region. Their intensity distributions are often heterogeneous and may lack specificity. Grouping of these linear structures can aid in segmentation and quantitative representation of protein localization. However, quantitative analysis of these signals is often hindered by noise, variation in scale, and perceptual features. This paper introduces an iterative voting method for inferring the membrane signal as it relates to continuity. A unique aspect of this technique is in the topography of the voting kernel, which is refined and reoriented iteratively. The technique can cluster and group membrane signals along the tangential direction. It has an excellent noise immunity and is tolerant to perturbations in scale. Application of this technique to quantitative analysis of cell-cell adhesion mediated by integral cell membrane proteins is demonstrated.

  1. Cell-based optical assay for amyloid ?-induced neuronal cell dysfunction using femtosecond-pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunghee; Yoon, Jonghee; Choi, Chulhee

    2015-03-01

    Amyloid ?-protein (A?) is known as a key molecule related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Over time, the amyloid cascade disrupts essential function of mitochondria including Ca2+ homeostasis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation, and eventually leads to neuronal cell death. However, there have been no methods that analyze and measure neuronal dysfuction in pathologic conditions quantitatively. Here, we suggest a cell-based optical assay to investigate neuronal function in AD using femtosecond-pulsed laser stimulation. We observed that laser stimulation on primary rat hippocampal neurons for a few microseconds induced intracellular Ca2+ level increases or produced intracellular ROS which was a primary cause of neuronal cell death depending on delivered energy. Although A? treatment alone had little effect on the neuronal morphologies and networks in a few hours, A?-treated neurons showed delayed Ca2+ increasing pattern and were more vulnerable to laser-induced cell death compared to normal neurons. Our results collectively indicate that femtosecond laser stimulation can be a useful tool to study neuronal dysfuction related to AD pathologies. We anticipate this optical method to enable studies in the early progression of neuronal impairments and the quantitative evaluation of drug effects on neurons in neurodegenerative diseases, including AD and Parkinson's disease in a preclinical study.

  2. Effects of pulsing electromagnetic fields on cultured cartilage cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sakai; K. Suzuki; T. Nakamura; T. Norimura; T. Tsuchiya

    1991-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on cell proliferation and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis and to study the action site of PEMF stimulation in the cells, we performed a series of experiments on rabbit costal growth cartilage cells and human articular cartilage cells in culture. A PEMF stimulator was made using a Helmholz coil. Repetitive pulse

  3. Process control in cell culture technology using dielectric spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Justice; A. Brix; D. Freimark; M. Kraume; P. Pfromm; B. Eichenmueller; P. Czermak

    2011-01-01

    In the biopharmaceutical industry, mammalian and insect cells as well as plant cell cultures are gaining worldwide importance to produce biopharmaceuticals and as products themselves, for example in stem cell therapy. These highly sophisticated cell-based production processes need to be monitored and controlled to guarantee product quality and to satisfy GMP requirements. With the process analytical technology (PAT) initiative, requirements

  4. Activation of muscle satellite cells in single-fiber cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy Anderson; Orest Pilipowicz

    2002-01-01

    Satellite stem cell activation is the process by which quiescent precursor cells resident on muscle fibers are recruited to cycle and move. Two processes are reported to affect satellite cell activation. In vivo, nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase in fibers (NOS-I?) promotes activation. In cell cultures, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is the major activating factor isolated from crushed

  5. Glycosylation of tyrosinase is a determinant of melanin production in cultured melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Mari; Sonoki, Tomonori; Ito, Minase; Funasaka, Yoko; Suzuki, Tamio; Katagata, Yohtaro

    2013-09-01

    The majority of malignant melanoma cell types are able to produce melanin and the degree of melanin synthesis in various types of cultured cell line differs. In this study, we evaluated three types of cultured cell line, MNT?1, HM3KO and G?361, with differing melanin production levels. The level was greatest in the MNT?1 cells, lower in the HM3KO cells and lowest in the G?361 cells. In addition, a positive correlation between melanin production and tyrosinase activity was observed. The molecular masses of tyrosinases from HM3KO and G?361 cells were marginally lower than those from MNT?1 cells. Glycosylation inhibitor treatment on MNT?1 cells caused decreases in the molecular mass of tyrosinase, its activity and melanin production. An immunoprecipitation assay using anti?tyrosinase indicated that the immature glycosylated tyrosinases were associated with a type of chaperone, Hsp70. The interaction between tyrosinase and Hsp70 was also detected in HM3KO and G?361 cells. The results indicated that the immature glycosylation of tyrosinase has a critical effect on the melanin-producing ability of melanoma cells. PMID:23900309

  6. In Vitro Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord Blood CD133+Cells into Insulin Producing Cells in Co-Culture with Rat Pancreatic Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sahraneshin Samani, Fazel; Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Zandieh, Tahereh; Khoshchehreh, Reyhaneh; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Aghdami, Nasser; Baharvand, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pancreatic stroma plays an important role in the induction of pancreatic cells by the use of close range signaling. In this respect, we presume that pancreatic mesenchymal cells (PMCs) as a fundamental factor of the stromal niche may have an effective role in differentiation of umbilical cord blood cluster of differentiation 133+ (UCB-CD133+) cells into newly-formed ?-cells in vitro. Materials and Methods This study is an experimental research. The UCB-CD133+cells were purified by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and differentiated into insulin producing cells (IPCs) in co-culture, both directly and indirectly with rat PMCs. Immunocytochemistry and enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) were used to determine expression and production of insulin and C-peptide at the protein level. Results Our results demonstrated that UCB-CD133+differentiated into IPCs. Cells in islet-like clusters with (out) co-cultured with rat pancreatic stromal cells produced insulin and C-peptide and released them into the culture medium at the end of the induction protocol. However they did not respond well to glucose challenges. Conclusion Rat PMCs possibly affect differentiation of UCB-CD133+cells into IPCs by increasing the number of immature ?-cells. PMID:26199900

  7. Predictive value of cell assays for developmental toxicity and embryotoxicity of conazole fungicides.

    PubMed

    Dreisig, Karin; Taxvig, Camilla; Birkhøj Kjærstad, Mia; Nellemann, Christine; Hass, Ulla; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates in vivo predictability of a battery of in vitro tests covering developmental toxicity and embryotoxicity of five widely used conazole fungicides. The conazoles were investigated in the embryonic stem cell test, and data were compared to in vivo embryotoxicity data. The same conazoles were evaluated on the basis of data from a battery of cell assays for endocrine activity, including assays for AR, ER, AhR, and sex hormone synthesis, and data were compared to in vivo developmental toxicity data. Overall, the ranking of the five conazole fungicides based on in vitro data were in reasonably good agreement with available in vivo effects. Ketoconazole and epoxiconazole are the most potent embryotoxic compounds, whereas prochloraz belongs to the most potent developmental toxicants. In conclusion, a rough prediction of the ranking of these conazole fungicides for in vivo toxicity data was possible by a holistic evaluation of data from a panel of cell-based assays. PMID:23861077

  8. Development of High-Throughput Quantitative Assays for Glucose Uptake in Cancer Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Hassanein; Brandy Weidow; Elizabeth Koehler; Naimish Bakane; Shawn Garbett; Yu Shyr; Vito Quaranta

    Purpose  Metabolism, and especially glucose uptake, is a key quantitative cell trait that is closely linked to cancer initiation and\\u000a progression. Therefore, developing high-throughput assays for measuring glucose uptake in cancer cells would be enviable for\\u000a simultaneous comparisons of multiple cell lines and microenvironmental conditions. This study was designed with two specific\\u000a aims in mind: the first was to develop and

  9. Phytoplankton photosynthetic characteristics from fluorescence induction assays of individual cells

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.J.; Chekalyuk, A.M.; Sosik, H.M. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Saturating-flash fluorescence techniques, which can provide information about the physiological state of phytoplankton, at present measure bulk water samples and so provide {open_quotes}averaged{close_quotes} values for all the fluorescent particles present. In analyzing natural samples, however, more detailed information about the distribution of photosynthetic characteristics among different cell types and(or) individual cells is desirable. Therefore we developed two methods for applying a {open_quotes}pump-during-probe{close_quotes} technique on a cell-by-cell basis. We used either an epifluorescence microscope or a flow cytometer to make time-resolved measurements of the increase in chlorophyll fluorescence induced by a rectangular excitation pulse of 100-{mu}s duration. We used a biophysical model of fluorescence induction to obtain information about the quantum yield of photochemistry in photosystem 2 (PS2) and the functional absorption cross-section for PS2. For several species (including the smallest phytoplankton, Prochlorococcus, which are 0.7 {mu}m in diameter), the maximum quantum yield of photochemistry in PS2 obtained by averaging data from many individual cells agreed well with estimates derived from bulk measurements of DCMU enhancement of Chl fluorescence. 40 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Combination of culture, antigen and toxin detection, and cytotoxin neutralization assay for optimal Clostridium difficile diagnostic testing

    PubMed Central

    Alfa, Michelle J; Sepehri, Shadi

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been a growing interest in developing an appropriate laboratory diagnostic algorithm for Clostridium difficile, mainly as a result of increases in both the number and severity of cases of C difficile infection in the past decade. A C difficile diagnostic algorithm is necessary because diagnostic kits, mostly for the detection of toxins A and B or glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen, are not sufficient as stand-alone assays for optimal diagnosis of C difficile infection. In addition, conventional reference methods for C difficile detection (eg, toxigenic culture and cytotoxin neutralization [CTN] assays) are not routinely practiced in diagnostic laboratory settings. OBJECTIVE: To review the four-step algorithm used at Diagnostic Services of Manitoba sites for the laboratory diagnosis of toxigenic C difficile. RESULT: One year of retrospective C difficile data using the proposed algorithm was reported. Of 5695 stool samples tested, 9.1% (n=517) had toxigenic C difficile. Sixty per cent (310 of 517) of toxigenic C difficile stools were detected following the first two steps of the algorithm. CTN confirmation of GDH-positive, toxin A- and B-negative assays resulted in detection of an additional 37.7% (198 of 517) of toxigenic C difficile. Culture of the third specimen, from patients who had two previous negative specimens, detected an additional 2.32% (12 of 517) of toxigenic C difficile samples. DISCUSSION: Using GDH antigen as the screening and toxin A and B as confirmatory test for C difficile, 85% of specimens were reported negative or positive within 4 h. Without CTN confirmation for GDH antigen and toxin A and B discordant results, 37% (195 of 517) of toxigenic C difficile stools would have been missed. Following the algorithm, culture was needed for only 2.72% of all specimens submitted for C difficile testing. CONCLUSION: The overview of the data illustrated the significance of each stage of this four-step C difficile algorithm and emphasized the value of using CTN assay and culture as parts of an algorithm that ensures accurate diagnosis of toxigenic C difficile. PMID:24421808

  11. Quantitative alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity staining in brain sections and in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Park, L C; Calingasan, N Y; Sheu, K F; Gibson, G E

    2000-01-01

    The activity of a key mitochondrial enzyme, the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), declines in the brains of patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, as well as in thiamine-deficient (TD) animals. The decreased activity often occurs without a reduction in enzyme protein, which negates the use of immunocytochemistry to study cellular or regional changes in enzyme activity within the brain. To overcome this limitation, an activity staining method using nitroblue tetrazolium was developed. The histochemical activity staining was standardized in cultured cells. The assay was linear with time and was highly specific for KGDHC. The dark-blue reaction product (formazan) formed a pattern that was consistent with mitochondrial localization. Treatment of the cultured cells with both reversible and irreversible inhibitors decreased formazan production, whereas conventional enzyme assays on cell lysates only revealed loss of KGDHC activity with irreversible inhibitors. The activity staining was also linear with time and highly specific for KGDHC activity in mouse brain sections. Staining occurred throughout the brain, and discrete neuronal populations exhibited particularly intense staining. The pattern of staining differed markedly from the distribution of KGDHC protein by immunocytochemistry. Generalized decreases in the intensity of activity staining that occurred in the TD brains compared to controls were comparable with the loss of KGDHC activity by conventional enzyme assay. Thus, the present study introduces a new histochemical method to measure KGDHC activity at the cellular and regional level, which will be useful to determine changes of in situ enzyme activity. PMID:10610692

  12. Isolation, culture, and differentiation potential of mouse marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Anjos-Afonso, Fernando; Bonnet, Dominique

    2008-10-01

    This unit describes how to isolate and expand mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from mouse bone marrow. For reasons that are not clear, it has been difficult to isolate these cells (also known as mesenchymal stem cells). Furthermore, different mouse strains seem to have specific requirements for successful extraction and culture of these cells. A general and easy protocol is presented here for isolating stromal cells from different inbred and transgenic mice commonly used in the stem cell biology field. PMID:18972375

  13. In vitro Cell Culture Model for Toxic Inhaled Chemical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shama; Ahmad, Aftab; Neeves, Keith B.; Hendry-Hofer, Tara; Loader, Joan E.; White, Carl W.; Veress, Livia

    2014-01-01

    Cell cultures are indispensable to develop and study efficacy of therapeutic agents, prior to their use in animal models. We have the unique ability to model well differentiated human airway epithelium and heart muscle cells. This could be an invaluable tool to study the deleterious effects of toxic inhaled chemicals, such as chlorine, that can normally interact with the cell surfaces, and form various byproducts upon reacting with water, and limiting their effects in submerged cultures. Our model using well differentiated human airway epithelial cell cultures at air-liqiuid interface circumvents this limitation as well as provides an opportunity to evaluate critical mechanisms of toxicity of potential poisonous inhaled chemicals. We describe enhanced loss of membrane integrity, caspase release and death upon toxic inhaled chemical such as chlorine exposure. In this article, we propose methods to model chlorine exposure in mammalian heart and airway epithelial cells in culture and simple tests to evaluate its effect on these cell types. PMID:24837339

  14. Three dimensional spheroid cell culture for nanoparticle safety testing.

    PubMed

    Sambale, Franziska; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Stahl, Frank; Blume, Cornelia; Stiesch, Meike; Kasper, Cornelia; Bahnemann, Detlef; Scheper, Thomas

    2015-07-10

    Nanoparticles are widely employed for many applications and the number of consumer products, incorporating nanotechnology, is constantly increasing. A novel area of nanotechnology is the application in medical implants. The widespread use of nanoparticles leads to their higher prevalence in our environment. This, in turn, raises concerns regarding potential risks to humans. Previous studies have shown possible hazardous effects of some nanoparticles on mammalian cells grown in two-dimensional (2D) cultures. However, 2D in vitro cell cultures display several disadvantages such as changes in cell shape, cell function, cell responses and lack of cell-cell contacts. For this reason, the development of better models for mimicking in vivo conditions is essential. In the present work, we cultivated A549 cells and NIH-3T3 cells in three-dimensional (3D) spheroids and investigated the effects of zinc oxide (ZnO-NP) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NP). The results were compared to cultivation in 2D monolayer culture. A549 cells in 3D cell culture formed loose aggregates which were more sensitive to the toxicity of ZnO-NP in comparison to cells grown in 2D monolayers. In contrast, NIH-3T3 cells showed a compact 3D spheroid structure and no differences in the sensitivity of the NIH-3T3 cells to ZnO-NP were observed between 2D and 3D cultures. TiO2-NP were non-toxic in 2D cultures but affected cell-cell interaction during 3D spheroid formation of A549 and NIH-3T3 cells. When TiO2-NP were directly added during spheroid formation in the cultures of the two cell lines tested, several smaller spheroids were formed instead of a single spheroid. This effect was not observed if the nanoparticles were added after spheroid formation. In this case, a slight decrease in cell viability was determined only for A549 3D spheroids. The obtained results demonstrate the importance of 3D cell culture studies for nanoparticle safety testing, since some effects cannot be revealed in 2D cell culture. PMID:25595712

  15. Influence of a three-dimensional, microarray environment on human cell culture in drug screening systems.

    PubMed

    Meli, Luciana; Jordan, Eric T; Clark, Douglas S; Linhardt, Robert J; Dordick, Jonathan S

    2012-12-01

    We have used a modified 3D cellular microarray platform for the high-throughput analysis of growth, cytotoxicity, and protein expression profile of a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2, in alginate. The results obtained were compared to analogous studies in 2D and 3D environments at the microtiter scale. The antiproliferative effects of four drugs, tamoxifen, 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and amitriptyline, were studied as a function of seeding density in the three different culture platforms. The chemosensitivity of HepG2 cells to all four compounds decreased substantially with increasing cell number in the 2D and 3D microtiter-based cultures, while no seeding density dependence was observed in the IC(50) values obtained in the 3D microarray culture platform. These results can be rationalized based on the development of confluence-dependent resistance in cultures where proliferation is restricted by cell-cell contacts and nutrient availability, as is the case for both of the microtiter-based cultures. Additionally, further development of an on-chip, in-cell immunofluorescence assay provided quantitative data on the levels of specific target proteins involved in proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis and drug metabolism, and was used to compare expression profiles between 2D and 3D environments. The up-regulation of several CYP450 enzymes, ?1-integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the 3D microarray cultures suggests that this platform provides a more in vivo-like environment allowing cells to approach their natural phenotype. PMID:22998815

  16. Microglial cells in astroglial cultures: a cautionary note

    PubMed Central

    Saura, Josep

    2007-01-01

    Primary rodent astroglial-enriched cultures are the most popular model to study astroglial biology in vitro. From the original methods described in the 1970's a great number of minor modifications have been incorporated into these protocols by different laboratories. These protocols result in cultures in which the astrocyte is the predominant cell type, but astrocytes are never 100% of cells in these preparations. The aim of this review is to bring attention to the presence of microglia in astroglial cultures because, in my opinion, the proportion of and the role that microglial cells play in astroglial cultures are often underestimated. The main problem with ignoring microglia in these cultures is that relatively minor amounts of microglia can be responsible for effects observed on cultures in which the astrocyte is the most abundant cell type. If the relative contributions of astrocytes and microglia are not properly assessed an observed effect can be erroneously attributed to the astrocytes. In order to illustrate this point the case of NO production in activated astroglial-enriched cultures is examined. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces nitric oxide (NO) production in astroglial-enriched cultures and this effect is very often attributed to astrocytes. However, a careful review of the published data suggests that LPS-induced NO production in rodent astroglial-enriched cultures is likely to be mainly microglial in origin. This review considers cell culture protocol factors that can affect the proportion of microglial cells in astroglial cultures, strategies to minimize the proportion of microglia in these cultures, and specific markers that allow the determination of such microglial proportions. PMID:17937799

  17. DNA damage detected by the comet assay in the white blood cells of workers in a wooden furniture plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jadwiga Palus; El?bieta Dziuba?towska; Konrad Rydzy?ski

    1999-01-01

    The study was aimed at the assessment of genotoxic effects in workers of a wooden furniture manufacture, based on the level of DNA damage in white blood cells (WBC). The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay (known as the comet assay) in individual cells was adapted for detecting damaged DNA in WBC. The level of DNA damage was determined as

  18. Real-time and non-invasive impedimetric monitoring of cell proliferation and chemosensitivity in a perfusion 3D cell culture microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kin Fong; Wu, Min-Hsien; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chen, Yi-Dao

    2014-01-15

    A perfusion three-dimensional (3D) cell culture microfluidic chip has been developed for real-time and non-invasive impedimetric monitoring of cell proliferation and chemosensitivity. In this study, human oral cancer cells (OEC-M1) were encapsulated in 3D agarose scaffold and cultured in a miniaturized chamber under perfusion of tested substance. This setting provides a more in vitro physiologically relevant microenvironment to better mimic the complex in vivo microenvironment. A pair of vertical electrodes was embedded at the opposite sidewalls of the culture chamber for the on-site impedance measurement. Cell density in the 3D construct was shown to be proportional to the impedance magnitude of the entire construct. Therefore, perfusion 3D cell culture was performed for up to 5 days and cell proliferation can be monitored by the impedimetric analysis. Moreover, real-time impedimetric monitoring of cell viability under the perfusion of anti-cancer drug in different concentrations was conducted and the impedance magnitude was directly correlated with the cell viability. From the confirmation of the endpoint cell viability assays, a concentration-dependent effect was shown; however, the response of cell viability during the drug treatment was able to be traced by the impedance measurement. The experimental results showed that cell proliferation and chemosensitivity in 3D cell culture format can be monitored by impedance measurement. This microfluidic chip has a high potential to develop a powerful analytical platform for cancer research. PMID:23920091

  19. Long-Term Culture of Human Bone Marrow Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Gartner; Henry S. Kaplan

    1980-01-01

    A method has been described for the long-term culture of human bone marrow cells in liquid medium. Hematopoiesis, as measured by the production of granulocytic-macrophage progenitor cells (CFUc), continued for at least 20 weeks and was dependent upon the presence of a marrow-derived adherent layer of cells. As in the case of murine marrow liquid cultures, the adherent layer consisted

  20. Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Molnar; Nancy A. Schroedl; Steve R. Gonda; Charles R. Hartzell

    1997-01-01

    Summary  Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells.\\u000a Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and, therefore, provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal\\u000a muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation

  1. Albumin and mammalian cell culture: implications for biotechnology applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey L. Francis

    2010-01-01

    Albumin has a long historical involvement in design of media for the successful culture of mammalian cells, in both the research\\u000a and commercial fields. The potential application of albumins, bovine or human serum albumin, for cell culture is a by-product\\u000a of the physico-chemical, biochemical and cell-specific properties of the molecule. In this review an analysis of these features\\u000a of albumin

  2. Serum-free culture of fractionated bovine bronchial epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe D. Beckmann; Hajime Takizawa; Debra Romberger; Mary Illig; Lorene Claassen; Kathleen Rickard; Stephen I. Rennard

    1992-01-01

    Summary  Procedures for the serum-free culture of a density fractionated population of bovine bronchial epithelial cells have been\\u000a established. Epithelial cells dispersed by protease digestion were fractionated by density equilibrium centrifugation, followed\\u000a by plating of the small basal-like population on type I collagen-coated culture dishes. Two or three passages of 1:4 split\\u000a enriched for a population of actively dividing cells, which

  3. Toxic Concentrations of Exogenously Supplied Methylglyoxal in Hybridoma Cell Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin M. Roy; Tiffany D. Rau; R. Robert Balcarcel

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations at which methylglyoxal, a by-product of cellular metabolism, can be toxic to hybridoma cell cultures were determined\\u000a using exogenously supplied doses. Trypan blue cell counts of 6-well cultures incubated for 24 h with various methylglyoxal\\u000a concentrations revealed inhibition of cell growth at 300 ?M and higher, with a median inhibitory concentration of 490±20 ?M. The primary mode of death was apoptosis, as

  4. Production of Alkaloids in Plant Cell and Tissue Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Laurain-Mattar

    A low or no productivity of alkaloids in plant cell cultures can be explained by an insufficient level of cell differentiation.\\u000a The first strategy described in this chapter for improving isoquinoline alkaloid accumulation is organogenesis and somatic\\u000a embryogenesis induced by the addition of exogenous growth regulators in Papaver somniferum and Leucojum aestivum cell cultures. The second strategy described is the

  5. [In vitro suspension and bioreactor culture of hematopoietic cells].

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhan-You; Xia, Quan-Ming; Kang, Zi-Zhen; Tan, Wen-Song; Dai, Gan-Ce

    2003-09-01

    Stirred culture offers a number of advantages over static systems as it maintains a stable, homogeneous culture environment and is easy to scale-up. This paper focused on the development and application of stirred tank bioreactor to culture hematopoietic cells. Preliminary study of stirred culture of hematopoietic cells was carried out in cord blood mononuclear cells culture in spinner flask. The results showed that the amplification rates of total cell, CFU-GM and BFU-E, with the exception of CFU-Mk, were greater in spinner flask than T-flask. The number of total cells increased 20 fold after 14 days incubation in spinner flask. The amplification rates of CFU-GM, CFU-Mk and BFU-E reached maximum at 10th day, 10th day and 7th day respectively, and the maximal amplification rates were 9.2-fold, 5.5-fold and 2.4-fold respectively, whereas the rate of CD34+ cells in spinner flask was (6.7 +/- 4.0)-fold at day 10. These results indicated that the stirred culture system is better than the static culture systems for hematopoietic cell proliferation. The biocompatibility of cord blood MNC to different types of materials used in bioreactors was also tested. The results showed that glass, stainless steel 316L and polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE) supported the growth of hematopoietic cells well. A higher cell density was reached in stirred bioreactors with controlled pH and DO than static culture. These findings suggested that the controlled large-scale culture could be used to overcome the clinical shortage of hematopoietic cells. PMID:15969089

  6. Blood Culture and Stimulation Conditions for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Cervids by the Cervigam Assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mitogen and antigen induced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) responses of peripheral blood leukocytes from cervids were evaluated using a commercial, whole blood assay for the cytokine (Cervigam trademark, Prionics AG). Whole blood was from Mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer and reindeer, M....

  7. 3-D culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with reversible thermosensitive hydroxybutyl chitosan hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ya Nan; Wang, Qian Qian; Gao, Ting Ting; Kong, Ming; Yang, Kui Kun; An, Yi; Jiang, Shao Yan; Li, Jian; Cheng, Xiao Jie; Chen, Xi Guang

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to present a non-trypsin 3D cell culture method with a reversible thermosensitive HBCS hydrogel. In this study, hydroxybutyl chitosan (HBCS) was synthesized by grafting hydroxybutyl groups on chitosan molecule chains. The prepared HBCS was water-soluble, and the reversible phase transformation temperature was 26 °C. Scanning electron microscope images illuminated the 3-D network of hydrogel formed irregular porous structure which ranged from 50-250 ?m. Cell viability assay indicated that HBCS solution could promote the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and the boost of proliferation was enhanced with the increase of HBCS concentration. HBCS had no harm to the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis functionality of HUVECs. HUVECs could grow and reproduce inside the hydrogel, and showed good vitality after 14-days culture. Meanwhile, cells cultured inside the hydrogel could be passaged successively through the reversible phase transformation process of HBCS. The results revealed that HBCS have the potential to be used for 3-D cell culture without the use of trypsin. PMID:23526152

  8. Lithium chloride induces mesenchymal-to-epithelial reverting transition in primary colon cancer cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    COSTABILE, VALERIA; DURATURO, FRANCESCA; DELRIO, PAOLO; REGA, DANIELA; PACE, UGO; LICCARDO, RAFFAELLA; ROSSI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA; GENESIO, RITA; NITSCH, LUCIO; IZZO, PAOLA; DE ROSA, MARINA

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers stem cell-like phenotype and more motile properties to carcinoma cells. During EMT, the expression of E-cadherin decreases, resulting in loss of cell-cell adhesion and increased migration. Expression of Twist1 and other pleiotropic transcription factors, such as Snail, is known to activate EMT. We established primary colon cancer cell cultures from samples of operated patients and validated cultures by cytogenetic and molecular biology approaches. Western blot assay, quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence were performed to investigate the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, ?-catenin, cytokeratin-20 and -18, Twist1, Snail, CD44, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), Sox2, Oct4 and Nanog. Moreover, cell differentiation was induced by incubation with LiCl-containing medium for 10 days. We observed that these primary colorectal cancer (CRC) cells lost expression of the E-cadherin epithelial marker, which was instead expressed in cancer and normal colon mucosa of the same patient, while overexpressed vimentin (mesenchymal marker), Twist1, Snail (EMT markers) and COX2. Cytokeratin-18 was expressed both in tissues and cell cultures. Expression of stem cell markers, such as CD44, Oct4 and Nanog, were also observed. Following differentiation with the glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) inhibitor LiCl, the cells began to express E-cadherin and, at once, Twist1 and Snail expression was strongly downregulated, suggesting a MET-reverting process. In conclusion, we established primary colon mesenchymal cancer cell cultures expressing mesenchymal and epithelial biomarkers together with high level of EMT transcription factors. We propose that they could represent a good model for studying EMT and its reverting mechanism, the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Our observation indicates that LiCl, a GSK3? inhibitor, induces MET in vitro, suggesting that LiCl and GSK3? could represent, respectively, interesting drug, and target for CRC therapy. PMID:25738332

  9. Abeta mediated diminution of MTT reduction--an artefact of single cell culture?

    PubMed

    Rönicke, Raik; Klemm, Anja; Meinhardt, Jessica; Schröder, Ulrich H; Fändrich, Marcus; Reymann, Klaus G

    2008-01-01

    The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) reduction assay is a frequently used and easily reproducible method to measure beta-amyloid (Abeta) toxicity in different types of single cell culture. To our knowledge, the influence of Abeta on MTT reduction has never been tested in more complex tissue. Initially, we reproduced the disturbed MTT reduction in neuron and astroglia primary cell cultures from rats as well as in the BV2 microglia cell line, utilizing four different Abeta species, namely freshly dissolved Abeta (25-35), fibrillar Abeta (1-40), oligomeric Abeta (1-42) and oligomeric Abeta (1-40). In contrast to the findings in single cell cultures, none of these Abeta species altered MTT reduction in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHC). Moreover, application of Abeta to acutely isolated hippocampal slices from adult rats and in vivo intracerebroventricular injection of Abeta also did not influence the MTT reduction in the respective tissue. Failure of Abeta penetration into the tissue cannot explain the differences between single cells and the more complex brain tissue. Thus electrophysiological investigations disclosed an impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from rat by application of oligomeric Abeta (1-40), but not by freshly dissolved Abeta (25-35) or fibrillar Abeta (1-40). In conclusion, the experiments revealed a glaring discrepancy between single cell cultures and complex brain tissue regarding the effect of different Abeta species on MTT reduction. Particularly, the differential effect of oligomeric versus other Abeta forms on LTP was not reflected in the MTT reduction assay. This may indicate that the Abeta oligomer effect on synaptic function reflected by LTP impairment precedes changes in formazane formation rate or that cells embedded in a more natural environment in the tissue are less susceptible to damage by Abeta, raising cautions against the consideration of single cell MTT reduction activity as a reliable assay in Alzheimer's drug discovery studies. PMID:18800168

  10. Enhancement of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication by Cell Culture-Adaptive Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Nicole; Lohmann, Volker; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2001-01-01

    Studies of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication cycle have been made possible with the development of subgenomic selectable RNAs that replicate autonomously in cultured cells. In these replicons the region encoding the HCV structural proteins was replaced by the neomycin phosphotransferase gene, allowing the selection of transfected cells that support high-level replication of these RNAs. Subsequent analyses revealed that, within selected cells, HCV RNAs had acquired adaptive mutations that increased the efficiency of colony formation by an unknown mechanism. Using a panel of replicons that differed in their degrees of cell culture adaptation, in this study we show that adaptive mutations enhance RNA replication. Transient-transfection assays that did not require selection of transfected cells demonstrated a clear correlation between the level of adaptation and RNA replication. The highest replication level was found with an adapted replicon carrying two amino acid substitutions located in NS3 and one in NS5A that acted synergistically. In contrast, the nonadapted RNA replicated only transiently and at a low level. The correlation between the efficiency of colony formation and RNA replication was corroborated with replicons in which the selectable marker gene was replaced by the gene encoding firefly luciferase. Upon transfection of naive Huh-7 cells, the levels of luciferase activity directly reflected the replication efficiencies of the various replicon RNAs. These results show that cell culture-adaptive mutations enhance HCV RNA replication. PMID:11312331

  11. Collagen biomaterial doped with colominic acid for cell culture applications with regard to peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Stephanie; Stark, Yvonne; Röker, Stefanie; Wieland, Martin; Dräger, Gerald; Kirschning, Andreas; Stahl, Frank; Kasper, Cornelia; Scheper, Thomas

    2007-09-15

    Colominic acid (CA) is a homopolymer of sialic acid residues and is solely composed of polymerised units of alpha-2,8-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid. CA is a specific derivative of polysialic acid (PSA), produced as the capsular polysaccharide of Escherichia coli K1 derived molecule of PSA. PSA in vivo plays a significant role in synaptic plasticity and neural development. The use of collagen materials doped with defined CA is presented for the cultivation of various cell lines relevant for possible applications in Tissue Engineering. First, the release behaviour under culture conditions of the collagen-based (C-CA) materials was investigated by thiobarbituric acid assay. Additionally, the established cell lines, PC-12 and immortalised Schwann cells (ISC), used for neurobiological and neurochemical studies and the model liver cell line Hep-G2 as indicator for biocompatibility testing, were cultured on the C-CA matrix. Cell proliferation (MTT-test) and cell adhesion (DAPI-staining) of the cell lines on the matrices were observed. Likewise, gene expression of the marker genes thyrosine hydroxylase for the PC-12 cells, and albumin, transferrin and CYP3A4 for the Hep-G2 cells was evaluated via RT-PCR. The results indicate that CA integration in established biomaterial constructs enhances cell proliferation and offers promising features as conduits additive in regarding peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:17714819

  12. Insulin-mimetic action of vanadium compounds on osteoblast-like cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, S B; Crans, D C; Keramidas, A D; Cortizo, A M

    1997-02-01

    Vanadium compounds mimic insulin actions in different cell types. The present study concerns the insulin-like effects of three vanadium(V) derivatives and one vanadium(IV) complex on osteoblast-like (UMR106 and MC3T3E1) cells in culture. The vanadium oxalate and vanadium citrate complexes hydrolyzed completely under the culture conditions, whereas more than 40% of the vanadium tartrate and nitrilotriacetate complexes remained. Vanadate, as well as vanadium oxalate, citrate, and tartrate complexes enhanced cell proliferation (as measured by the crystal violet assay), glucose consumption, and protein content in UMR106 and MC3T3E1 osteoblast-like cells. The vanadium nitrilotriacetate complex (the only peroxo complex tested) stimulated cell proliferation in UMR106 but not in MC3T3E1 cells. This derivative strongly transformed the morphology of the MC3T3E1 cells. All vanadium(V) compounds inhibited cell differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity) in UMR106 cells. Our data are consistent with the interpretation that vanadium oxalate and citrate complexes hydrolyze to vanadate. Vanadium nitrilotriacetate would appear to be toxic for normal MC3T3E1 osteoblasts. In contrast, the vanadium tartrate complex induced a proliferative effect; however, it did not alter cell differentiation. PMID:9015381

  13. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of Euphorbia hirta in MCF-7 cell line model using comet assay

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Kwan Yuet; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity activity of Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) in MCF-7 cell line model using comet assay. Methods The cytotoxicity of E. hirta extract was investigated by employing brine shrimp lethality assay and the genotoxicity of E. hirta was assessed by using Comet assay. Results Both toxicity tests exhibited signi?cant toxicity result. In the comet assay, the E. hirta extract exhibited genotoxicity effects against MCF-7 DNA in a time-dependent manner by increasing mean percentage of DNA damage. The extract of E. hirta showed signi?cant toxicity against brine shrimp with an LC50 value of 620.382 µg/mL (24 h). Comparison with positive control potassium dichromate signifies that cytotoxicity exhibited by the methanol extract might have moderate activity. Conclusion The present work confirmed the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of E. hirta. However, the observed toxicity of E. hirta extracts needs to be confirmed in additional studies. PMID:23998008

  14. Semi-microdroplet assay for cell adhesion molecules. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawa, Lawrence Shinzo

    1988-01-01

    A new cell-to-cell adhesion assay was devised. Using dissociated embryos of the sea urchin, this procedure involves rotating a 0.100 ml suspension of single cells with 0.100 ml of the solution to be tested in the bulb portion of a transfer pipet with the tip removed. After 1 hour of rotation at 60 rpm at 15 C, the contents of each bulb were transferred into individual wells of a 96 well flat bottom plate. After the plate was incubated for 1 hour at 15 C, black and white photographs were taken with a 35 mm camera attached to an inverted photomicroscope. Examining a proof sheet of the negatives directly allowed a rapid evaluation of suspected cell adhesion promoting factors. A ranking system was used to evaluate all samples. The assay was tested by examining the effect of specific solutions on the aggregation of single cells obtained from dissociated 23 hour embryos.

  15. Optimization of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cell Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Mohammad; Muzaffar, Musharifa; Shah, Syed Mohmad; Kumar Singh, Manoj; Palta, Prabhat; Kumar Singla, Suresh; Manik, Radheysham; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to retain an undifferentiated pluripotent state, embryonic stem (ES) cells have to be cultured on feeder cell layers. However, use of feeder layers limits stem cell research, since experimental data may result from a combined ES cell and feeder cell response to various stimuli. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, a buffalo ES cell line was established from in vitro derived blastocysts and characterized by the Alkaline phosphatase (AP) and immunoflourescence staining of various pluripotency markers. We examined the effect of various factors like fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and Y-27632 to support the growth and maintenance of bubaline ES cells on gelatin coated dishes, in order to establish feeder free culture systems. We also analyzed the effect of feeder-conditioned media on stem cell growth in gelatin based cultures both in the presence as well as in the absence of the growth factors. Results The results showed that Y-27632, in the presence of FGF-2 and LIF, resulted in higher colony growth and increased expression of Nanog gene. Feeder-Conditioned Medium resulted in a significant increase in growth of buffalo ES cells on gelatin coated plates, however, feeder layer based cultures produced better results than gelatin based cultures. Feeder layers from buffalo fetal fibroblast cells can support buffalo ES cells for more than two years. Conclusion We developed a feeder free culture system that can maintain buffalo ES cells in the short term, as well as feeder layer based culture that can support the long term maintenance of buffalo ES cells. PMID:26199905

  16. Generation of TCR-Engineered T Cells and Their Use To Control the Performance of T Cell Assays.

    PubMed

    Bidmon, Nicole; Attig, Sebastian; Rae, Richard; Schröder, Helene; Omokoko, Tana A; Simon, Petra; Kuhn, Andreas N; Kreiter, Sebastian; Sahin, Ugur; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Britten, Cedrik M

    2015-06-15

    The systematic assessment of the human immune system bears huge potential to guide rational development of novel immunotherapies and clinical decision making. Multiple assays to monitor the quantity, phenotype, and function of Ag-specific T cells are commonly used to unravel patients' immune signatures in various disease settings and during therapeutic interventions. When compared with tests measuring soluble analytes, cellular immune assays have a higher variation, which is a major technical factor limiting their broad adoption in clinical immunology. The key solution may arise from continuous control of assay performance using TCR-engineered reference samples. We developed a simple, stable, robust, and scalable technology to generate reference samples that contain defined numbers of functional Ag-specific T cells. First, we show that RNA-engineered lymphocytes, equipped with selected TCRs, can repetitively deliver functional readouts of a controlled size across multiple assay platforms. We further describe a concept for the application of TCR-engineered reference samples to keep assay performance within or across institutions under tight control. Finally, we provide evidence that these novel control reagents can sensitively detect assay variation resulting from typical sources of error, such as low cell quality, loss of reagent stability, suboptimal hardware settings, or inaccurate gating. PMID:25957167

  17. Neurotrophic Requirements of Human Motor Neurons Defined Using Amplified and Purified Stem Cell-Derived Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, Nuno Jorge; Johnson-Kerner, Bethany; Roybon, Laurent; Kim, Yoon A.; Garcia-Diaz, Alejandro; Wichterle, Hynek; Henderson, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Human motor neurons derived from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs and hiPSCs) are a potentially important tool for studying motor neuron survival and pathological cell death. However, their basic survival requirements remain poorly characterized. Here, we sought to optimize a robust survival assay and characterize their response to different neurotrophic factors. First, to increase motor neuron yield, we screened a small-molecule collection and found that the Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 enhances motor neuron progenitor proliferation up to 4-fold in hESC and hiPSC cultures. Next, we FACS-purified motor neurons expressing the Hb9::GFP reporter from Y-27632-amplified embryoid bodies and cultured them in the presence of mitotic inhibitors to eliminate dividing progenitors. Survival of these purified motor neurons in the absence of any other cell type was strongly dependent on neurotrophic support. GDNF, BDNF and CNTF all showed potent survival effects (EC50 1–2 pM). The number of surviving motor neurons was further enhanced in the presence of forskolin and IBMX, agents that increase endogenous cAMP levels. As a demonstration of the ability of the assay to detect novel neurotrophic agents, Y-27632 itself was found to support human motor neuron survival. Thus, purified human stem cell-derived motor neurons show survival requirements similar to those of primary rodent motor neurons and can be used for rigorous cell-based screening. PMID:25337699

  18. Quantification of antigen-reactive T cells by a modified ELISPOT assay based on freshly isolated blood dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, M; Rohayem, J; Paul, R; Weigle, B; Stein, A; Rieber, E P

    2002-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay has become a widely employed method for quantification of antigen-reactive T lymphocytes. In recent years, various types of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) have been tested as stimulator cells in ELISPOT protocols to achieve a highly sensitive and rapid assay which is not impaired by a marked nonspecific cytokine release. However, the currently available APCs still have disadvantages, such as significant background reactivities, limited sensitivity, and time-consuming preparation procedures. Recently, we succeeded in defining a novel subpopulation of circulating dendritic cells (DCs) that can easily be prepared from human blood. These M-DC8+ DCs proved to be very effective in the induction of antigen-specific T cell responses. In the present study we provide evidence that M-DC8+ DCs are particularly well suited as APCs for the detection of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells after challenge with viral or tumor peptides in ELISPOT assays. In addition, protein-loaded M-DC8+ DCs proved to be quite efficient in the presentation of MHC class II-bound peptides, thus allowing the determination of frequencies of antigen-reactive CD4+ T cells. The use of M-DC8+ DCs as stimulator cells can improve the ELISPOT assay by combining high sensitivity, rapidity, and low background reactivity. PMID:11835528

  19. On the history of hepatitis C virus cell culture systems.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Volker; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2014-03-13

    HCV infections are a major global health burden. After the identification of the virus in 1989, insights into viral replication and drug development have long been hampered by the lack of efficient cell culture models. Their establishment was an important prerequisite for the development of selective antivirals. This review describes the initial difficulties to achieve HCV replication in cell culture, finally leading to the establishment of subgenomic replicons and the infectious virus model (HCVcc). The review further summarizes the current state of HCV cell culture systems with respect to available virus isolates, engineered genomes, and cell types allowing efficient HCV propagation. Finally, we comment on how these cell culture models contributed to the development of directly acting antivirals. PMID:24164647

  20. Cryptosporidium parvum DNA replication in cell-free culture

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L.; Sheoran, A. S.; Widmer, G.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of robust methods for culturing Cryptosporidium parasites remains a major challenge and is hampering efforts to screen for anti-cryptosporidial drugs. In existing culture methods, monolayers of mammalian epithelial cells are inoculated with oocysts. The system supports an initial phase of asexual proliferation of the parasite. For reasons that are not clear, development rapidly declines within 2 to 3 days. The unexpected report of C. parvum culture in the absence of host cells, and the failure of others to reproduce the method, prompted us to apply quantitative PCR to measure changes C. parvum DNA levels in cell-free cultures, and parasite-specific antibodies to identify different life cycle stages. Based on this approach, which has not been applied previously to analyze C. parvum growth in cell-free culture, we found that the concentration of C. parvum DNA increased by about 5-fold over 5 days of culture. Immuno-labelling of cultured organisms revealed morphologically distinct stages, only some of which reacted with Cryptosporidium-specific monoclonal antibodies. These observations are indicative of a modest proliferation of C. parvum in cell-free culture. PMID:19463037

  1. [Research progress in medicinal plant cell suspension culture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Yin, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, Hui; Wei, Chang-Long

    2012-12-01

    China consumes and exports traditional Chinese medicinal resources the most in the world. However, we cannot anchor our hope on field production of traditional Chinese medicinal materials and their active ingredients, due to limited land resources. Therefore, the development of biotechnology is of great importance for China to solve the problem of traditional Chinese medicinal resources. Plant cell culture is an important approach for the sustainable development of precious medicinal resources. This essary summarizes the optimization of conditions for medicinal plant cell culture, the regulation of secondary metabolic pathways and cell bioreactor culture, and realizes that the authentic commercial production of more medicinal plants requires efforts from all aspects. PMID:23630994

  2. Recent developments in cell-based assays and stem cell technologies for botulinum neurotoxin research and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Kiris, Erkan; Kota, Krishna P; Burnett, James C; Soloveva, Veronica; Kane, Christopher D; Bavari, Sina

    2014-03-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceptionally potent inhibitors of neurotransmission, causing muscle paralysis and respiratory failure associated with the disease botulism. Currently, no drugs are available to counter intracellular BoNT poisoning. To develop effective medical treatments, cell-based assays provide a valuable system to identify novel inhibitors in a time- and cost-efficient manner. Consequently, cell-based systems including immortalized cells, primary neurons and stem cell-derived neurons have been established. Stem cell-derived neurons are highly sensitive to BoNT intoxication and represent an ideal model to study the biological effects of BoNTs. Robust immunoassays are used to quantify BoNT activity and play a central role during inhibitor screening. In this review, we examine recent progress in physiologically relevant cell-based assays and high-throughput screening approaches for the identification of both direct and indirect BoNT inhibitors. PMID:24450833

  3. Recent developments in cell-based assays and stem cell technologies for Botulinum neurotoxin research and drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kiris, Erkan; Kota, Krishna P.; Burnett, James C.; Soloveva, Veronica; Kane, Christopher D.; Bavari, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceptionally potent inhibitors of neurotransmission, causing muscle paralysis and respiratory failure associated with the disease botulism. Currently, no drugs are available to counter intracellular BoNT poisoning. To develop effective medical treatments, cell-based assays provide a valuable system to identify novel inhibitors in a time- and cost-efficient manner. Consequently, cell-based systems including immortalized cells, primary neurons, and stem-cell derived neurons have been established. Stem cell-derived neurons are highly sensitive to BoNT intoxication and represent an ideal model to study the biological effects of BoNTs. Robust immunoassays are used to quantify BoNT activity and play a central role during inhibitor screening. In this review, we examine recent progress in physiologically relevant cell-based assays and high-throughput screening approaches for the identification of both direct and indirect BoNT inhibitors. PMID:24450833

  4. Establishment, Culture, and Characterization of Guinea Pig Fetal Fibroblast Cell

    PubMed Central

    Mahboobi, Reza; Dianatpour, Mehdi; Zare, Shahrokh; Hosseini, Seyed Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Establishment of Guinea pig fetal fibroblast cells and their biological evaluation before and after cryopreservation were the main purposes of this study. After determination of the proper age of pregnancy by ultrasonography, 30 days old fetuses of Guinea pigs were recovered. Their skins were cut into small pieces (1?mm2) and were cultured. When reaching 80–90% confluence, the cells were passaged. Cells of the second and eighth passages were cultured in 24-well plates (4 × 104 cells/well) for 6 days and three wells per day were counted. The average cell counts at each time point were then plotted against time and the population doubling time (PDT) was determined. Then, vials of cells (2 × 106 cells/mL) were cryopreserved for 1 month and after thawing, the cell viability was evaluated. The PDT of the second passage was about 23?h and for the eighth passage was about 30?h. The viability of the cultures was 95% in the second passage and 74.5% in the eighth passage. It was shown that the Guinea pig fetal fibroblast cell culture can be established using the adherent culture method while, after freezing, the viability indices of these cells were favorable. PMID:24790770

  5. EVALUATING VIRULENCE OF WATERBORNE AND CLINCIAL AEROMONAS ISOLATES USING GENE EXPRESSION AND MORTALITY IN NEONATAL MICE FOLLOWED BY ASSESSING CELL CULTURE'S ABILITY TO PREDICT VIRULENCE BASED ON TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The virulence of multiple Aeromonas spp. were assessed using two models, a neonatal mouse assay and a mouse intestinal cell culture. Transcriptional responses to both infection models were assessed using microarrays. After artificial infection with a variety of Aeromonas spp., ...

  6. At the Interface: Advanced Microfluidic Assays for Study of Cell Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoko Kamotani; Dongeun Huh; Nobuyuki Futai; Shuichi Takayama

    \\u000a Understanding basic biology and disease mechanisms, testing drug safety and efficacy, engineering tissues and cell-based biosensors\\u000a all require methods to study and manipulate mammalian cell function. A convenient method that has been developed over the\\u000a past century for these purposes is in vitro cell culture where cells are taken out of their normal physiological environment inside the body and kept

  7. Presence of Specific Binding Sites for Phorbol Ester Tumor Promoters in Human Epidermal and Dermal Cells in Culture but Lack of Down Regulation in Epidermal Cells1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiro Chida; Toshio Kuroki

    The presence of specific binding sites for phorbol esters was demonstrated in human epidermal and dermal cells in culture by assay of binding of (3H)phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBU) to intact cells. The specificity of the binding was shown by displacement of the binding with biologically active tumor promoters, such as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, teleocidin B, and mezer- ein, but not with inactive derivatives. The

  8. An autologous endothelial cell:peripheral blood mononuclear cell assay that detects cytokine storm responses to biologics.

    PubMed

    Reed, Daniel M; Paschalaki, Koralia E; Starke, Richard D; Mohamed, Nura A; Sharp, Giles; Fox, Bernard; Eastwood, David; Bristow, Adrian; Ball, Christina; Vessillier, Sandrine; Hansel, Trevor T; Thorpe, Susan J; Randi, Anna M; Stebbings, Richard; Mitchell, Jane A

    2015-06-01

    There is an urgent unmet need for human tissue bioassays to predict cytokine storm responses to biologics. Current bioassays that detect cytokine storm responses in vitro rely on endothelial cells, usually from umbilical veins or cell lines, cocultured with freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy adult volunteers. These assays therefore comprise cells from 2 separate donors and carry the disadvantage of mismatched tissues and lack the advantage of personalized medicine. Current assays also do not fully delineate mild (such as Campath) and severe (such as TGN1412) cytokine storm-inducing drugs. Here, we report a novel bioassay where endothelial cells grown from stem cells in the peripheral blood (blood outgrowth endothelial cells) and PBMCs from the same donor can be used to create an autologous coculture bioassay that responds by releasing a plethora of cytokines to authentic TGN1412 but only modestly to Campath and not to control antibodies such as Herceptin, Avastin, and Arzerra. This assay performed better than the traditional mixed donor assay in terms of cytokine release to TGN1412 and, thus, we suggest provides significant advancement and a definitive system by which biologics can be tested and paves the way for personalized medicine.-Reed, D. M., Paschalaki, K. E., Starke, R. D., Mohamed, N. A., Sharp, G., Fox, B., Eastwood, D., Bristow, A., Ball, C., Vessillier, S., Hansel, T. T., Thorpe, S. J., Randi, A. M., Stebbings, R., Mitchell, J. A. An autologous endothelial cell:peripheral blood mononuclear cell assay that detects cytokine storm responses to biologics. PMID:25746794

  9. Growth, ageing and death of a photoautotrophic plant cell culture.

    PubMed

    Peters, W; Ritter, J; Tiller, H; Valdes, O; Renner, U; Fountain, M; Beck, E

    2000-02-01

    Batch cultures of photoautotrophic cell suspensions of Chenopodium rubrum L., growing in an inorganic medium on CO2 under a daily balanced light-dark regime of 16: 8 h could be maintained for approximately 100 d without subcultivation. The long-lived cultures showed an initial cell division phase of 4 weeks, followed by a stationary phase of another 4 weeks, after which ageing and progressive cell death reduced the number of living cells and the cultures usually expired after another 3-4 weeks. These developmental phases of the cell culture were characterised with respect to photosynthetic performance, dark respiration, content of phytohormones and capacity of cell division. Cell division of the majority of the cells finished in the G1- or G0-phase of the cell cycle, caused by a pronounced decline in the endogenous levels of auxin and cytokinins. Supply of these growth factors to resting cells resulted in resumption of cytokinesis, at least by some of the cells. However, responsiveness to the phytohormones declined during the stationary phase, and subcultivation was no longer possible beyond day 60 when the phases of ageing and death commenced. Ageing was characterised by a further decline in the photosynthetic capacity of the cells, by a climacteric enhancement of dark respiration, but also by a slight increase in the level of IAA and cytokinins concomitant with a decrease in ethylene. Similarities and differences between the development of batch-cultured photoautotrophic cells of C. rubrum and that of a leaf are discussed with respect to using the cell culture as a model for a leaf. PMID:10750906

  10. Capillary Gas Chromatography of Hexadecylphosphocholine in Caco-2T Cells and Cell Culture Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. A. Steelant; E. A. Bruyneel; M. M. Mareel; E. G. Vandeneeckhout

    1995-01-01

    The gas-chromatographic determination of hexadecylphosphocholine (HePC), an experimental antitumor agent of the alkyllysophospholipid group, in Caco-2T cell culture and cell culture media is described. The Caco-2T cells were treated with HePC at a concentration of 40 ?g\\/ml (9.8 ?M) and the uptake of the drug into the cells (calculated per milligram protein) was measured after 48 h culture (37°C, 10%

  11. Inhibition of lymphokine-activated killer cell generation by cultured tumor cell lines in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre J. Guillou; Peter C. Sedman; Carol W. Ramsden

    1989-01-01

    The co-culture of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with high concentrations of interleukin 2 normally generates lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells capable of indiscriminate lysis of tumor targets. However, the addition of certain cell-line-derived tumor cells to the LAK generation cultures within the first 48 h of culture initiation resulted in the suppression of the LAK cytotoxicity measured after 3–4

  12. Expansion of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in High Density Dot Culture of Rat Bone Marrow Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Kretlow, James D.; Zhou, Guangdong; Cao, Yilin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2014-01-01

    In vitro expansion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) remains a challenge in stem cell research and its application. We hypothesize that high density culture is able to expand EPCs from bone marrow by mimicking cell-cell interactions of the bone marrow niche. To test the hypothesis, rat bone marrow cells were either cultured in high density (2×105 cells/cm2) by seeding total 9×105 cells into six high density dots or cultured in regular density (1.6×104 cells/cm2) with the same total number of cells. Flow cytometric analyses of the cells cultured for 15 days showed that high density cells exhibited smaller cell size and higher levels of marker expression related to EPCs when compared to regular density cultured cells. Functionally, these cells exhibited strong angiogenic potentials with better tubal formation in vitro and potent rescue of mouse ischemic limbs in vivo with their integration into neo-capillary structure. Global gene chip and ELISA analyses revealed up-regulated gene expression of adhesion molecules and enhanced protein release of pro-angiogenic growth factors in high density cultured cells. In summary, high density cell culture promotes expansion of bone marrow contained EPCs that are able to enhance tissue angiogenesis via paracrine growth factors and direct differentiation into endothelial cells. PMID:25254487

  13. Expansion of endothelial progenitor cells in high density dot culture of rat bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Gong, Yiyi; Lian, Jie; Wang, Ling; Kretlow, James D; Zhou, Guangdong; Cao, Yilin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2014-01-01

    In vitro expansion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) remains a challenge in stem cell research and its application. We hypothesize that high density culture is able to expand EPCs from bone marrow by mimicking cell-cell interactions of the bone marrow niche. To test the hypothesis, rat bone marrow cells were either cultured in high density (2 × 10(5) cells/cm(2)) by seeding total 9 × 10(5) cells into six high density dots or cultured in regular density (1.6 × 10(4) cells/cm(2)) with the same total number of cells. Flow cytometric analyses of the cells cultured for 15 days showed that high density cells exhibited smaller cell size and higher levels of marker expression related to EPCs when compared to regular density cultured cells. Functionally, these cells exhibited strong angiogenic potentials with better tubal formation in vitro and potent rescue of mouse ischemic limbs in vivo with their integration into neo-capillary structure. Global gene chip and ELISA analyses revealed up-regulated gene expression of adhesion molecules and enhanced protein release of pro-angiogenic growth factors in high density cultured cells. In summary, high density cell culture promotes expansion of bone marrow contained EPCs that are able to enhance tissue angiogenesis via paracrine growth factors and direct differentiation into endothelial cells. PMID:25254487

  14. Aged HCT8 Cell Monolayers Support Cryptosporidium parvum Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Y. Sifuentes; George D. Di Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Cell culture assays in various formats have been used to study the infectivity of Cryptosporidium spp. as well as to determine the infectivity of naturally occurring oocysts in water. Currently, cell culture assays for infectious Cryptosporidium spp. in water have largely been limited to practice in research laboratories. One obstacle to the routine use of Cryptosporidium cell culture assays for

  15. Alterations of gene expression and protein synthesis in co-cultured adipose tissue-derived stem cells and squamous cell-carcinoma cells: consequences for clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This is the first study evaluating the interactions of human adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) and human squamous cell carcinoma cells (SCCs), with regard to a prospective cell-based skin regenerative therapy and a thereby unintended co-localization of ADSCs and SCCs. Methods ADSCs were co-cultured with A431-SCCs and primary SCCs (pSCCs) in a transwell system, and cell-cell interactions were analyzed by assessing doubling time, migration and invasion, angiogenesis, quantitative real time PCR of 229 tumor associated genes, and multiplex protein assays of 20 chemokines and growth factors and eight matrix metalloproteinases (MMPS). Results of co-culture were compared to those of the respective mono-culture. Results ADSCs’ proliferation on the plate was significantly increased when co-cultured with A431-SCCs (P?=?0.038). PSCCs and ADSCs significantly decreased their proliferation in co-culture if cultured on the plate (P?<0.001 and P?=?0.03). The migration of pSCC was significantly increased in co-culture (P?=?0.009), as well as that of ADSCs in A431-SCC-co-culture (P?=?0.012). The invasive behavior of pSCCs and A431-SCCs was significantly increased in co-culture by a mean of 33% and 35%, respectively (P?=?0.038 and P?<0.001). Furthermore, conditioned media from co-cultured ADSC-A431-SCCs and co-cultured ADSCs-pSCCs induced tube formation in an angiogenesis assay in vitro. In A431-SCC-co-culture 36 genes were up- and 6 were down-regulated in ADSCs, in A431-SCCs 14 genes were up- and 8 genes were down-regulated. In pSCCs-co-culture 36 genes were up-regulated in ADSCs, two were down-regulated, one gene was up-regulated in pSCC, and three genes were down-regulated. Protein expression analysis revealed that three proteins were exclusively produced in co-culture (CXCL9, IL-1b, and MMP-7). In A431-SCC-co-culture the concentration of 17 proteins was significantly increased compared to the ADSCs mono-culture (2.8- to 357-fold), and 15 proteins were expressed more highly (2.8- to 1,527-fold) compared to the A431-SCCs mono-culture. In pSCC-co-culture the concentration of 10 proteins was increased compared to ADSCs-mono-culture (2.5- to 77-fold) and that of 15 proteins was increased compared to pSCC mono-culture (2.6- to 480-fold). Conclusions This is the first study evaluating the possible interactions of primary human ADSCs with human SCCs, pointing towards a doubtlessly increased oncological risk, which should not be neglected when considering a clinical use of isolated human ADSCs in skin regenerative therapies. PMID:24887580

  16. Decellularized Feeders: An Optimized Method for Culturing Pluripotent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Mei Ling; Jungebluth, Philipp; Sjöqvist, Sebastian; Nikdin, Hero; Kjartansdóttir, Kristín Rós; Unger, Christian; Vassliev, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Pluripotent cells such as human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells are useful in the field of regenerative medicine because they can proliferate indefinitely and differentiate into all cell types. However, a limiting factor for maintaining and propagating stem cells is the need for inactivated fibroblasts as a growth matrix, since these may potentially cause cross-contamination. In this study, we aimed to maintain stem cells on the extracellular matrix (ECM) of either nonirradiated or ?-irradiated fibroblasts. It has been demonstrated that the ECM contains factors and proteins vital for the adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of pluripotent cells. In order to preserve the ECM, the cell layers of the fibroblasts were decellularized by treatment with 0.05% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), which resulted in an absence of DNA as compared with conventional feeder culture. However, SDS treatment did not cause a detectable change in the ECM architecture and integrity. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry demonstrated that expressions of major ECM proteins, such as fibronectin, collagen, and laminin, remained unaltered. The human pluripotent cells cultured on this decellularized matrix maintained gene expression of the pluripotency markers NANOG and OCT4 and had the potency to differentiate to three germ layers. The in vitro culture system shown here has an excellent potential since the main allogeneic components (i.e., DNA of the feeder cells) are removed. It is also a technically easy, fast, safe, and cheap method for maintaining a refined feeder-free stem cell culture for further cell differentiation studies. PMID:24167316

  17. Insect cell culture and applications to research and pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building on earlier research, insect cell culture began with the successful establishment of one cell line from pupal ovarian tissue. The field has grown to the extent that now over 500 insect cell lines have been established from many insect species representing numerous insect Orders and from seve...

  18. Effect of Withaferin A on cells in tissue culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Batya Shohat

    1973-01-01

    The experiments were performed with embryonal chicken fibroblasts, HeLa cells and H. Ep. 2 (human larynx carcinoma) in hanging drop cultures. They confirm the results obtained with tumor bearing mice. Withaferin A is acting as a mitotic poison and arrests the tumor cells at metaphase. Its effect on cells may be compared to that of colchicine, alkaloids of vinca rosea

  19. FINE STRUCTURE OF SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS GROWN IN TISSUE CULTURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GORDON R. CAMPBELL; YASUO UEHARA; GERDA MARK; GEOFFREY BURNSTOCK

    1971-01-01

    The fine structure of smooth muscle cells of the embryo chicken gizzard cultured in mono- layer was studied by phase-contrast optics and electron microscopy . The smooth muscle cells were irregular in shape, but tended to be elongate . The nucleus usually contained prominent nucleoli and was large in relation to the cell body . When fixed with glutaralde- hyde,

  20. TRANSFORMATION OF SUGAR BEET CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sugar beet transformation method was developed using particle bombardment of short-term suspension cultures of a breeding line FC607. Highly embryogenic suspension cultures derived from leaf callus were bombarded with the uidA (GUS) reporter gene under the control of either the osmotin or protein...

  1. Replica-moulded polydimethylsiloxane culture vessel lids attenuate osmotic drift in long-term cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel Blau; Tanja Neumann; Christiane Ziegler; Fabio Benfenati

    2009-01-01

    An imbalance in medium osmolarity is a determinant that affects cell culture longevity. Even in humidified incubators, evaporation\\u000a of water leads to a gradual increase in osmolarity over time. We present a simple replica-moulding strategy for producing\\u000a self-sealing lids adaptable to standard, small-size cell-culture vessels. They are made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a\\u000a flexible, transparent and biocompatible material, which is gas-permeable

  2. Preparation of Feeder plates for ES cell culture Gelatinize Tissue Culture Plates

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Preparation of Feeder plates for ES cell culture Gelatinize Tissue Culture Plates Gelatinize plates with 0.1% gelatin at room temperature for two hours. (150 µl/well of 96 well plate; 12 ml/10 cm; 4 ml/6cm. Plate cells in gelatinized plates (150 µl/well of 96 well plate; 12 ml/10 cm; 4 ml/6cm; 2 ml/well of 6

  3. A RAPID ASSAY FOR GENE EXPRESSION IN COTTON CELLS TRANSFORMED WITH ONCOGENIC BINARY AGROBACTERIUM STRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple expression assay for evaluation of gene constructs for input of traits into cotton cells (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using oncogenic binary Agrobacterium strains is presented. Explants from three commercial cotton varieties, representing diverse genotypes, exhibited tumor or root formation to ...

  4. PRENEOPLASTIC TRANSFORMATION OF RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS BY COMPLEX ORGANIC MIXTURES IN A CLONAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the study complex organic mixtures that were extracts of particulate emissions from 3 heating sources were tested for the presence of agents that induce preneoplastic transformation of rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells in an in vitro clonal assay. The samples were derived fr...

  5. Endogenous amyloidogenesis in long-term rat hippocampal cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Long-term primary neuronal cultures are a useful tool for the investigation of biochemical processes associated with neuronal senescence. Improvements in available technology make it possible to observe maturation of neural cells isolated from different regions of the rodent brain over a prolonged period in vitro. Existing experimental evidence suggests that cellular aging occurs in mature, long-term, primary neuronal cell cultures. However, detailed studies of neuronal development in vitro are needed to demonstrate the validity of long-term cell culture-based models for investigation of the biochemical mechanisms of in vitro neuronal development and senescence. Results In the current study, neuron-enriched hippocampal cell cultures were used to analyze the differentiation and degeneration of hippocampal neurons over a two month time period. The expression of different neuronal and astroglial biomarkers was used to determine the cytochemical characteristics of hippocampal cells in long-term cultures of varying ages. It was observed that the expression of the intermediate filament nestin was absent from cultures older than 21 days in vitro (DIV), and the expression of neuronal or astrocytic markers appeared to replace nestin. Additionally, morphological evaluations of neuronal integrity and Hoescht staining were used to assess the cellular conditions in the process of hippocampal culture development and aging. It was found that there was an increase in endogenous production of A?1-42 and an increase in the accumulation of Congo Red-binding amyloidal aggregates associated with the aging of neurons in primary culture. In vitro changes in the morphology of co-existing astrocytes and cell culture age-dependent degeneration of neurodendritic network resemble features of in vivo brain aging at the cellular level. Conclusion In conclusion, this study suggests that long-term primary CNS culture is a viable model for the study of basic mechanisms and effective methods to decelerate the process of neuronal senescence. PMID:21569253

  6. The Multiparametric Effects of Hydrodynamic Environments on Stem Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Melissa A.; Sargent, Carolyn Y.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells possess the unique capacity to differentiate into many clinically relevant somatic cell types, making them a promising cell source for tissue engineering applications and regenerative medicine therapies. However, in order for the therapeutic promise of stem cells to be fully realized, scalable approaches to efficiently direct differentiation must be developed. Traditionally, suspension culture systems are employed for the scale-up manufacturing of biologics via bioprocessing systems that heavily rely upon various types of bioreactors. However, in contrast to conventional bench-scale static cultures, large-scale suspension cultures impart complex hydrodynamic forces on cells and aggregates due to fluid mixing conditions. Stem cells are exquisitely sensitive to environmental perturbations, thus motivating the need for a more systematic understanding of the effects of hydrodynamic environments on stem cell expansion and differentiation. This article discusses the interdependent relationships between stem cell aggregation, metabolism, and phenotype in the context of hydrodynamic culture environments. Ultimately, an improved understanding of the multifactorial response of stem cells to mixed culture conditions will enable the design of bioreactors and bioprocessing systems for scalable directed differentiation approaches. PMID:21491967

  7. Transdetermination and transdifferentiation of neural retinal cells into lens in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Okada, T S; Yasuda, K; Kondoh, H; Nomura, K; Takagi, S; Okuyama, K

    1982-01-01

    Two aspects of transdifferentiation of avian neural retina (NR) cells into lens in cell culture were discussed. First, by means of the transfer experiments of NR cells pre-cultivated in spreading cultures (SpC) longer than 10 days into aggregation cultures (AgC), it was shown that NR cells are "transdetermined" into lens direction, before the phenotypic expression of lens in cells at such earlier stages of SpC. In the second part of this article, we showed that NR-cells which have already expressed some neuronal phenotypes can transdifferentiate into lens. This statement is based upon the results of chimeric cultures consisting of neuronal cell fraction separated from 10-day SpC of quail NR and of the epithelial cell fraction of SpC of chick NR. Lens cells formed in such chimeric cultures were mainly of quail origin. PMID:7111277

  8. Concurrent analysis of nose and groin swab specimens by the IDI-MRSA PCR assay is comparable to analysis by individual-specimen PCR and routine culture assays for detection of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Emma J; Grabsch, Elizabeth A; Ballard, Susan A; Mayall, Barrie; Xie, Shirley; Martin, Rhea; Grayson, M Lindsay

    2006-08-01

    The IDI-MRSA assay (Infectio Diagnostic, Inc., Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada) with the Smart Cycler II rapid DNA amplification system (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) appears to be sensitive and specific for the rapid detection of nasal colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of this assay under conditions in which both the nose and cutaneous groin specimens were analyzed together and compared the accuracy of this PCR approach to that when these specimens were tested separately and by culture assays in an inpatient population with known high rates (12 to 15%) of MRSA colonization. Of 211 patients screened, 192 had results assessable by all three methods (agar-broth culture, separate nose and groin IDI-MRSA assay, and combined nose-groin IDI-MRSA assay), with MRSA carriage noted in 31/192 (16.1%), 41/192 (21.4%), and 36/192 (18.8%) patients by each method, respectively. Compared to agar culture results, the sensitivity and specificity of the combined nose-groin IDI-MRSA assay were 88.0% and 91.6%, respectively, whereas when each specimen was processed separately, the sensitivities were 90.0% (nose) and 83.3% (groin) and the specificities were 91.7% (nose) and 90.2% (groin). IDI-MRSA assay of a combined nose-groin specimen appears to have an accuracy similar to that of the current recommended PCR protocol, providing results in a clinically useful time frame, and may represent a more cost-effective approach to using this assay for screening for MRSA colonization. PMID:16891510

  9. Cell-based assay for screening 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young Sik Cho; Chi Hyun Kim; Hyae Gyeong Cheon

    2009-01-01

    11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11?-HSD1) is primarily responsible for intracellular biosynthesis of active glucocorticoid, and its tissue-specific dysregulation has been implicated in the development of metabolic syndromes. We have developed a cell-based assay for measuring 11?-HSD1 activities using murine skeletal muscle cell line C2C12. We found that the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of 11?-HSD1 increased on differentiation with enhanced enzyme activity

  10. Biotransformation of valencene by cultured cells of Gynostemma pentaphyllum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Sakamaki; Ken-ichi Itoh; Tetsuyuki Taniai; Susumu Kitanaka; Yoshikazu Takagi; Wen Chai; C. Akira Horiuchi

    2005-01-01

    It has been found that the suspension cultures of Gynostemma pentaphyllum convert valencene (1) into nootkatone (2) as the major product and nootkatol (3) as the minor product. Based on this finding, a further study was conducted to investigate the biotransformation of 1 by other cultured plant cells (Caragana chamlagu, Hibiscus cannabinus).

  11. Anthraquinones from Ophiorrhiza pumila tissue and cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariko Kitajima; Ute Fischer; Mio Nakamura; Mika Ohsawa; Masahiro Ueno; Hiromitsu Takayama; Matthias Unger; Joachim Stöckigt; Norio Aimi

    1998-01-01

    We have succeeded in initiating and establishing systems of tissue and cell cultures of Ophiorrhiza pumila. Examination of the constituents of the methanol extract of the cultured calli revealed the presence of 11 anthraquinones including two new ones whose structures have been rigorously proved using advanced spectroscopic methods. These findings demonstrated a remarkable difference in the constituents between the wild

  12. Cytotoxicity of T-2 toxin and its metabolites determined with the neutral red cell viability assay.

    PubMed Central

    Babich, H; Borenfreund, E

    1991-01-01

    The neutral red (NR) cell viability assay was used with various cell types of human origin to quantitate the potency of T-2 mycotoxin and its metabolites. The human melanoma SK-Mel/27 cell line was the most sensitive, with a midpoint cytotoxicity value of 2.8 ng of T-2 per ml. With the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, the sequence of potency for a series of mycotoxins was T-2 greater than HT-2 greater than T-2 triol greater than T-2 tetraol. PMID:1892400

  13. Development of a new oxygen consumption rate assay in cultures of Acanthamoeba (Protozoa: Lobosea) and its application to evaluate viability and amoebicidal activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Heredero-Bermejo, I; Criado-Fornelio, A; Soliveri, J; Díaz-Martín, J A; Matilla-Fuentes, J; Sánchez-Arias, J A; Copa-Patiño, J L; Pérez-Serrano, J

    2015-08-01

    A new fluorometric method has been developed for measuring the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of Acanthamoeba cultures in microplates and for screening molecules with amoebicidal activity against this microorganism. The use of a biofunctional matrix (containing an oxygen-sensitive fluorogenic probe) attached to the microplate wells allowed continuous measurement of OCR in the medium, hence assessment of amoebic growth. The new OCR method applied to cell viability yielded a linear relationship and monitoring was much quicker than with indirect viability assays previously used. In addition, two drugs were tested in a cytotoxicity assay monitored by the new OCR viability test. With this procedure, the standard amoebicidal drug chlorhexidine digluconate showed an IC50 of 3.53?+?1.3?mg/l against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and 3.19?+?1.2?mg/l against Acanthamoeba castellanii, whereas a cationic dendrimer [G1Si(NMe3+)4] showed an IC50 of 6.42?+?1.3?mg/l against A. polyphaga. These data agree with previous studies conducted in our laboratory. Therefore, the new OCR method has proven powerful and quick for amoebicidal drug screening and is likely to be applied in biochemical studies concerning protozoa respiration and metabolism. PMID:25956947

  14. Detection and differentiation by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus- and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retroviruslike clinical isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, J R; Pedersen, N C; Carlson, J R

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies can be used in sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure viral antigens. Such an assay was developed to detect the core protein, p24, of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III and lymphadenopathy-associated virus, etiologic agents of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Another AIDS-associated virus, AIDS-associated retrovirus type 2 (ARV-2) could not be detected in this assay because of the low affinity of one of the monoclonal antibodies to ARV-2 p24. Detection of ARV-2 was accomplished with a monoclonal antibody-rabbit polyclonal antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These two assays were used to efficiently detect AIDS-related viruses in lymphocyte cell cultures and to distinguish strains of the viruses. Images PMID:2428827

  15. Immunohistochemical analyses of cell–cell interactions during hepatic organoid formation from fetal mouse liver cells cultured in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshinori Sugiyama; Toru Koike; Nobuyoshi Shiojiri

    2007-01-01

    Cell–cell interactions among cell types constituting the fetal liver such as hepatoblasts, stellate cells and endothelial\\u000a cells lead to functional lobule development. The present study was undertaken to investigate hepatic histogenesis in the primary\\u000a culture of E12.5 mouse livers, including cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. Fetal livers were dispersed with protease\\u000a treatment and cultured for 5 days. Cellular adhesion of each hepatic

  16. Acute shear stress direction dictates adherent cell remodeling and verifies shear profile of spinning disk assays.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, Alexander; Engler, Adam J

    2015-02-01

    Several methods have been developed to quantify population level changes in cell attachment strength given its large heterogeneity. One such method is the rotating disk chamber or 'spinning disk' in which a range of shear forces are applied to attached cells to quantify detachment force, i.e. attachment strength, which can be heterogeneous within cell populations. However, computing the exact force vectors that act upon cells is complicated by complex flow fields and variable cell morphologies. Recent observations suggest that cells may remodel their morphology and align during acute shear exposure, but contrary to intuition, shear is not orthogonal to the radial direction. Here we theoretically derive the magnitude and direction of applied shear and demonstrate that cells, under certain physiological conditions, align in this direction within minutes. Shear force magnitude is also experimentally verified which validates that for spread cells shear forces and not torque or drag dominate in this assay, and demonstrates that the applied force per cell area is largely independent of initial morphology. These findings suggest that direct quantified comparison of the effects of shear on a wide array of cell types and conditions can be made with confidence using this assay without the need for computational or numerical modeling. PMID:25619322

  17. Isolation, Culture and Identification of Porcine Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo-Jiang; Li, Ping-Hua; Huang, Rui-Hua; Sun, Wen-Xing; Wang, Han; Li, Qi-Fa; Chen, Jie; Wu, Wang-Jun; Liu, Hong-Lin

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the optimum protocol for the isolation and culture of porcine muscle satellite cells. Mononuclear muscle satellite cells are a kind of adult stem cell, which is located between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of muscle fibers and is the primary source of myogenic precursor cells in postnatal muscle. Muscle satellite cells are a useful model to investigate the mechanisms of muscle growth and development. Although the isolation and culture protocols of muscle satellite cells in some species (e.g. mouse) have been established successfully, the culture system for porcine muscle satellite cells is very limited. In this study, we optimized the isolation procedure of porcine muscle satellite cells and elaborated the isolation and culture process in detail. Furthermore, we characterized the porcine muscle satellite cells using the immunofluorecence. Our study provides a reference for the isolation of porcine muscle satellite cells and will be useful for studying the molecular mechanisms in these cells. PMID:26104526

  18. Oxygen levels in thermoplastic microfluidic devices during cell culture

    E-print Network

    Ochs, Christopher J.

    We developed a computational model to predict oxygen levels in microfluidic plastic devices during cell culture. This model is based on experimental evaluation of oxygen levels. Conditions are determined that provide ...

  19. Feeding lactate for CHO cell culture processes: impact on culture metabolism and performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Jincai; Wong, Chun Loong; Vijayasankaran, Natarajan; Hudson, Terry; Amanullah, Ashraf

    2012-05-01

    Lactate has long been regarded as one of the key metabolites of mammalian cell cultures. High levels of lactate have clear negative impacts on cell culture processes, and therefore, a great amount of efforts have been made to reduce lactate accumulation and/or to induce lactate consumption in the later stage of cultures. However, there is virtually no report on the impact of lactate depletion after initial accumulation. In this work, we observed that glucose uptake rate dropped over 50% at the onset of lactate consumption, and that catabolism of alanine due to lactate depletion led to ammonium accumulation. We explored the impact of feeding lactate as well as pyruvate to the cultures. In particular, a strategy was employed where CO(2) was replaced by lactic acid for culture pH control, which enabled automatic lactate feeding. The results demonstrated that lactate or pyruvate can serve as an alternative or even preferred carbon source during certain stage of the culture in the presence of glucose, and that by feeding lactate or pyruvate, very low levels of ammonia can be achieved throughout the culture. In addition, low levels of pCO(2) were also maintained in these cultures. This was in strong contrast to the control cultures where lactate was depleted during the culture, and ammonia and pCO(2) build-up were significant. Culture growth and productivity were similar between the control and lactate-fed cultures, as well as various product quality attributes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first comprehensive study on lactate depletion and offers a simple yet effective strategy to overcome ammonia and pCO(2) accumulation that could arise in certain cultures due to early depletion of lactate. PMID:22124879

  20. A novel renal epithelial cell in vitro assay to assess Candida albicans virulence

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Edina K; MacCallum, Donna M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, can cause severe systemic infections in susceptible patient groups. Systemic candidiasis is mainly studied in the mouse intravenous challenge model, where progressive infection correlates with increased early renal chemokine levels. To develop a new in vitro assay to assess C. albicans virulence, which reflects the events occurring in the murine infection model, renal M-1 cortical collecting duct epithelial cells were evaluated as the early producers of cytokines in response to C. albicans. We show that renal epithelial cells respond only to live C. albicans cells capable of forming hyphae, producing chemokines KC and MIP-2, with levels correlating with epithelial cell damage. By assaying epithelial cell responses to strains of known virulence in the murine intravenous challenge model we demonstrate that renal epithelial cells can discriminate between virulent and attenuated strains. This simple, novel assay is a useful initial screen for altered virulence of C. albicans mutants or clinical isolates in vitro and provides an alternative to the mouse systemic infection model. PMID:24225657