These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Defining cell culture conditions to improve human norovirus infectivity assays  

SciTech Connect

Significant difficulties remain for determining whether human noroviruses (hNoV) recovered from water, food, and environmental samples are infectious. Three-dimensional tissue culture of human intestinal cells has shown promise in developing an infectivity assay, but reproducibility, even within a single laboratory, remains problematic. From the literature and our observations, we hypothesized that the common factors that leads to more reproducible hNoV infectivity in vitro requires that the cell line be 1) of human gastrointestinal origin, 2) expresses apical microvilli, and 3) be a positive secretor cell line. The C2BBe1 cell line, which is a brush-border producing clone of Caco-2, meets these three criteria. When challenged with Genogroup II viruses, we observed a 2 Log10 increase in viral RNA titer. A passage experiment with GII viruses showed evidence of the ability to propagate hNoV by both reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and microscopy. Using 3-D C2BBe1 cells improves reproducibility of the infectivity assay for hNoV, but the assay can still be variable. Two sources of variability include the cells themselves (mixed phenotypes of small and large intestine) and initial titer measurements using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) that measures all RNA vs. plaque assays that measure infectious virus.

Straub, Tim M.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Ozanich, Richard M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

2013-01-10

2

A cell culture assay for the detection of cardiotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

An important step in minimizing the number of animal experiments in medical research is the study of in vitro model systems. The authors propose the use of shock protein formation, which is a cellular response to cell-damaging stress as an assay to monitor cardiotoxicity. Isolated and cultured cardiac myocytes were prepared by a trypsin digestion method from 18-day-old fetal mice. These cells respond to typical substances inducing shock protein formation in other cellular systems as well as to known cardiotoxins with the de novo synthesis of shock proteins. Pharmaceuticals relevant in transplant medicine were tested for possible cardiotoxic effects: Cyclosporine A evokes shock protein formation at subtherapeutic concentrations. Azathioprine and methyl-prednisolone exert the same effect but at concentration ranges highly above the therapeutic level. The ability to induce shock protein synthesis obviously seems to be restricted to toxic drugs. The data presented demonstrate that the proposed in vitro model system for cardiotoxicity is animal saving and sensitive.

Loew-Friedrich, Iv.; von Bredow, F.; Schoeppe, W. (Department of Nephrology, Hospital of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

1991-04-01

3

Luciferase reporter assay in Drosophila and mammalian tissue culture cells  

PubMed Central

Luciferase reporter gene assays are one of the most common methods for monitoring gene activity. Because of their sensitivity, dynamic range, and lack of endogenous activity, luciferase assays have been particularly useful for functional genomics in cell-based assays, such as RNAi screening. This unit describes delivery of two luciferase reporters with other nucleic acids (siRNA /dsRNA), measurement of the dual luciferase activities, and analysis of data generated. The systematic query of gene function (RNAi) combined with the advances in luminescent technology have made it possible to design powerful whole genome screens to address diverse and significant biological questions. PMID:24652620

Yun, Chi

2014-01-01

4

In vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses.  

PubMed

Human noroviruses cause severe, self-limiting gastroenteritis that typically lasts 24-48 hours. Because of the lack of suitable tissue culture or animal models, the true nature of norovirus pathogenesis remains unknown. We show, for the first time, that noroviruses can infect and replicate in a physiologically relevant 3-dimensional (3-D), organoid model of human small intestinal epithelium. This level of cellular differentiation was achieved by growing the cells on porous collagen-I coated microcarrier beads under conditions of physiological fluid shear in rotating wall vessel bioreactors. Microscopy, PCR, and fluorescent in situ hybridization provided evidence of norovirus infection. Cytopathic effect and norovirus RNA were detected at each of the 5 cell passages for genogroup I and II viruses. Our results demonstrate that the highly differentiated 3-D cell culture model can support the natural growth of human noroviruses, whereas previous attempts that used differentiated monolayer cultures failed. PMID:17552092

Straub, Timothy M; Höner zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz-Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K; Bartholomew, Rachel A; Valdez, Catherine O; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J; Gerba, Charles P; Abbaszadegan, Morteza; Nickerson, Cheryl A

2007-03-01

5

Heat-Transfer-Method-Based Cell Culture Quality Assay through Cell Detection by Surface Imprinted Polymers.  

PubMed

Previous work has indicated that surface imprinted polymers (SIPs) allow for highly specific cell detection through macromolecular cell imprints. The combination of SIPs with a heat-transfer-based read-out technique has led to the development of a selective, label-free, low-cost, and user-friendly cell detection assay. In this study, the breast cancer cell line ZR-75-1 is used to assess the potential of the platform for monitoring the quality of a cell culture in time. For this purpose, we show that the proposed methodology is able to discriminate between the original cell line (adherent growth, ZR-75-1a) and a descendant cell line (suspension growth, ZR-75-1s). Moreover, ZR-75-1a cells were cultured for a prolonged period of time and analyzed using the heat-transfer method (HTM) at regular time intervals. The results of these experiments demonstrate that the thermal resistance (Rth) signal decays after a certain number of cell culture passages. This can likely be attributed to a compromised quality of the cell culture due to cross-contamination with the ZR-75-1s cell line, a finding that was confirmed by classical STR DNA profiling. The cells do not express the same functional groups on their membrane, resulting in a weaker bond between cell and imprint, enabling cell removal by mechanical friction, provided by flushing the measuring chamber with buffer solution. These findings were further confirmed by HTM and illustrate that the biomimetic sensor platform can be used as an assay for monitoring the quality of cell cultures in time. PMID:25654744

Eersels, Kasper; van Grinsven, Bart; Khorshid, Mehran; Somers, Veerle; Püttmann, Christiane; Stein, Christoph; Barth, Stefan; Diliën, Hanne; Bos, Gerard M J; Germeraad, Wilfred T V; Cleij, Thomas J; Thoelen, Ronald; De Ceuninck, Ward; Wagner, Patrick

2015-02-17

6

CANDLES, an assay for monitoring GPCR induced cAMP generation in cell cultures.  

PubMed

BackgroundG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a physiologically and pharmacologically important family of receptors that upon coupling to G¿S stimulate cAMP production catalyzed by adenylyl cyclase. Thus, developing assays to monitor cAMP production is crucial to screen for ligands in studies of GPCR signaling. Primary cell cultures represent a more robust model than cell lines to study GPCR signaling since they physiologically resemble the parent tissue. Current cAMP assays have two fundamental limitations: 1) absence of cAMP kinetics as competition-based assays require cell lysis and measure only a single time-point, and 2) high variation with separate samples needed to measure consecutive time points. The utility of real-time cAMP biosensors is also limited in primary cell cultures due to their poor transfection efficiency, variable expression levels and inability to select stable clones. We therefore, decided to develop an assay that can measure cAMP not only at a single time-point but the entire cAMP kinetics after GPCR activation in untransfected primary cells.ResultsCANDLES (Cyclic AMP iNdirect Detection by Light Emission from Sensor cells) assay for monitoring cAMP kinetics in cell cultures, particularly in primary cultures was developed. The assay requires co-culturing of primary cells with sensor cells that stably express a luminescent cAMP sensor. Upon GPCR activation in primary cells, cAMP is transferred to sensor cells via gap junction channels, thereby evoking a luminescent read-out. GPCR activation using primary cultures of rat cortical neurons and mouse granulosa cells was measured. Kinetic responses of different agonists to adrenergic receptors were also compared using rat cortical neurons. The assay optimization was done by varying sensor-test cell ratio, using phosphodiesterase inhibitors and testing cell-cell contact requirement.ConclusionsHere we present CANDLES assay based on co-culturing test cells with cAMP-detecting sensor cells. This co-culture setup allows kinetic measurements, eliminates primary cell transfections and reduces variability. A variety of cell types (rat cortical neurons, mouse granulosa cells and established cell lines) and receptors (adrenergic, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptors) were tested for use with CANDLES. The assay is best applied while comparing cAMP generation curves upon different drug treatments to untransfected primary cells. PMID:25366423

Trehan, Ashutosh; Rotgers, Emmi; Coffey, Eleanor T; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Rivero-Müller, Adolfo

2014-11-01

7

Gonococcal and meningococcal pathogenesis as defined by human cell, cell culture, and organ culture assays.  

PubMed Central

Human cells, cell cultures, and organ cultures have been extremely useful for studying the events that occur when gonococci and meningococci encounter human mucosal surfaces. The specificity and selectivity of these events for human cells are striking and correlate with the adaptation of these pathogens for survival on human mucous membranes. To colonize these sites, meningococci and gonococci have developed mechanisms to damage local host defenses such as the mucociliary blanket, to attach to epithelial cells, and to invade these cells. Attachment to epithelial cells mediated by pili, and to some types of cells mediated by PIIs, serves to anchor the organism close to sources of nutrition and allows multiplication. Intracellular invasion, possibly initiated by the major porin protein, may provide additional nutritional support and protection from host defenses. Mucosal invasion may also result in access of gonococci and meningococci to the bloodstream, leading to dissemination. Images PMID:2497953

Stephens, D S

1989-01-01

8

In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses  

SciTech Connect

Human noroviruses (NoV) cause severe, self-limiting gastroenteritis that typically lasts 24 - 48 hours. The true nature of NoV pathogenesis remains unknown due to the lack of suitable tissue culture or animal models. Here we show, for the first time, that NoV can infect and replicate in an organoid, three-dimensional (3-D) model of human small intestinal epithelium (INT-407). Cellular differentiation for this model was achieved by growing the cells in 3-D on porous collagen I-coated microcarrier beads under conditions of physiological fluid shear in rotating wall vessel bioreactors. Microscopy, PCR, and fluorescent in-situ hybridization were employed to provide evidence of NoV infection. CPE and norovirus RNA was detected at each of the five cell passages for both genogroup I and II viruses. Our results demonstrate that the highly differentiated 3-D cell culture model can support the natural growth of human noroviruses, whereas previous attempts using differentiated monolayer cultures failed.

Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin A.; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia A.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

2007-01-30

9

Biochemical assays of cultured cells. [space shuttle oft-3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assay systems were developed for use in interpreting samples to be returned on the space shuttle OFT-3 flights. Samples from electrophoretic separation were used to evaluate the techniques. All assays were determinable on the growth media. Approaches are described for assaying: (1) the human granulocyte conditioning factor; (2) urokinase activity; (3) erythropoietin; (4) the molecular form of urokinase; and (5) protein distribution. Other studies are planned to validate that the activity observed is urokinase and not that of other activators or proteases.

Barlow, G. H.

1981-01-01

10

TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

11

The Effect of Primary Cancer Cell Culture Models on the Results of Drug Chemosensitivity Assays: The Application of Perfusion Microbioreactor System as Cell Culture Vessel  

PubMed Central

To precisely and faithfully perform cell-based drug chemosensitivity assays, a well-defined and biologically relevant culture condition is required. For the former, a perfusion microbioreactor system capable of providing a stable culture condition was adopted. For the latter, however, little is known about the impact of culture models on the physiology and chemosensitivity assay results of primary oral cavity cancer cells. To address the issues, experiments were performed. Results showed that minor environmental pH change could significantly affect the metabolic activity of cells, demonstrating the importance of stable culture condition for such assays. Moreover, the culture models could also significantly influence the metabolic activity and proliferation of cells. Furthermore, the choice of culture models might lead to different outcomes of chemosensitivity assays. Compared with the similar test based on tumor-level assays, the spheroid model could overestimate the drug resistance of cells to cisplatin, whereas the 2D and 3D culture models might overestimate the chemosensitivity of cells to such anticancer drug. In this study, the 3D culture models with same cell density as that in tumor samples showed comparable chemosensitivity assay results as the tumor-level assays. Overall, this study has provided some fundamental information for establishing a precise and faithful drug chemosensitivity assay. PMID:25654105

Chen, Yi-Dao; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Wang, Hung-Ming

2015-01-01

12

Use of an aqueous soluble tetrazolium/formazan assay for cell growth assays in culture.  

PubMed

A new tetrazolium analog of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) was evaluated as a substitute for MTT in the microculture screening assay for in vitro cell growth. This new tetrazolium compound, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2- (4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS), in the presence of phenazine methosulfate (PMS), gave a water-soluble formazan product that had an absorbance maximum at 490-500 nm in phosphate-buffered saline. The amount of colored product formed was proportional to the number of cells and the time of incubation of the cells with MTS/PMS. MTS/PMS was reactive in all the cell lines tested which included mouse leukemia L1210 cells, mouse Ehrlich tumor cells, mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, and human colon tumor cells (HT-29). HT-29 and 3T3 fibroblasts reduced MTS/PMS more efficiently than they reduced MTT. Comparable to the amount of product formed from MTT, MTS/PMS gave excellent product formation. The IC50 value for pyrazoloimidazole obtained using MTS/PMS was 200 microM; for 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, the IC50 value was 0.9 nM. These values compared very favorably with the IC50 values obtained by direct cell counts. Further, the same IC50 values were obtained when the absorbances of the formazan product in the 96-well plates were determined after different times of incubation. PMID:1867954

Cory, A H; Owen, T C; Barltrop, J A; Cory, J G

1991-07-01

13

Development of a novel perfusion microfluidic cell culture device for cell-based assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the development of a novel perfusion microfluidic cell culture device integrated drug delivering, fluid controlling and cell culturing functions on a two- layer PDMS chip. The device consists of an array of 6 X 6 cell culture chambers, a drug gradient generator and two control valves. Cells are physically trapped and cultured in the center of

Yunhuan Zheng; Jianzhang Wu; Jianbo Shao; Qinghui Jin; Jianlong Zhao

2009-01-01

14

In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human noroviruses (NoV) cause severe, self-limiting gastroenteritis that typically lasts 24 - 48 hours. The true nature of NoV pathogenesis remains unknown due to the lack of suitable tissue culture or animal models. Here we show, for the first time, that NoV can infect and replicate in an organoid, three-dimensional (3-D) model of human small intestinal epithelium (INT-407). Cellular differentiation

Timothy M. Straub; Kerstin A. Honer Zu Bentrup; Patricia A. Orosz Coghlan; Alice Dohnalkova; Brooke K. Mayer; Rachel A. Bartholomew; Catherine O. Valdez; Cindy J. Bruckner-Lea; Charles P. Gerba; Morteza Abbaszadegan; Cheryl A. Nickerson

2007-01-01

15

COMPARATIVE TOXICITIES OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF ASBESTOS IN A CELL CULTURE ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Three forms of Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) asbestos, amosite, crocidolite, and chrysotile, were assayed for their cytotoxicity (inhibition of colony formation) in cell culture. Using embryonic human intestine-derived (I-407) and adult rat liver-derived (ARL-6) ep...

16

Nine surface plasmon resonance assays for specific protein quantitation during cell culture and process development.  

PubMed

Quantitation of protein is essential during pharmaceutical development, and a variety of methods and technologies for determination of total and specific protein concentration are available. Here we describe the development of a streamlined assay platform for specific quantitation assays using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. A total of nine different assays were developed using similar conditions, of which eight assays were for quantitation of different human blood plasma proteins (IgG, IgG1-4 subclasses, IgA, transferrin, and albumin) from a chromatography-based IgG plasma process. Lastly, an assay for monitoring the concentration of a recombinant monoclonal antibody during 13days of CHO cell culturing was developed. Assay performances were compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), nephelometry, ARCHITECT, and Cobas c501. SPR assays were shown to have higher sensitivity than analysis using nephelometry, ARCHITECT, and Cobas and to have significantly lower analysis and hands-on time compared with ELISA. Furthermore, the SPR assays were robust enough to be used for up to 12days, allowing specific protein concentration measurement of a sample to be completed at line within 10min. Using the same platform with only few varied parameters between different assays has saved time in the lab as well as for evaluation and presentation of results. PMID:25700863

Frostell, Sa; Mattsson, Anna; Eriksson, Sa; Wallby, Elisabeth; Kärnhall, Johan; Illarionova, Nina B; Estmer Nilsson, Camilla

2015-05-15

17

Establishing Embryonic Mouse Neural Stem Cell Culture Using the Neurosphere Assay  

PubMed Central

In mammalians, stem cells acts as a source of undifferentiated cells to maintain cell genesis and renewal in different tissues and organs during the life span of the animal. They can potentially replace cells that are lost in the aging process or in the process of injury and disease. The existence of neural stem cells (NSCs) was first described by Reynolds and Weiss (1992) in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) using a novel serum?free culture system, the neurosphere assay (NSA). Using this assay, it is also feasible to isolate and expand NSCs from different regions of the embryonic CNS. These in vitro expanded NSCs are multipotent and can give rise to the three major cell types of the CNS. While the NSA seems relatively simple to perform, attention to the procedures demonstrated here is required in order to achieve reliable and consistent results. This video practically demonstrates NSA to generate and expand NSCs from embryonic day 14-mouse brain tissue and provides technical details so one can achieve reproducible neurosphere cultures. The procedure includes harvesting E14 mouse embryos, brain microdissection to harvest the ganglionic eminences, dissociation of the harvested tissue in NSC medium to gain a single cell suspension, and finally plating cells in NSA culture. After 5-7 days in culture, the resulting primary neurospheres are passaged to further expand the number of the NSCs for future experiments. PMID:21248704

Azari, Hassan; Sharififar, Sharareh; Rahman, Maryam; Ansari, Saeed; Reynolds, Brent A.

2011-01-01

18

Monitoring regulation of DNA repair activities of cultured cells in-gel using the comet assay  

PubMed Central

Base excision repair (BER) is the predominant cellular mechanism by which human cells repair DNA base damage, sites of base loss, and DNA single strand breaks of various complexity, that are generated in their thousands in every human cell per day as a consequence of cellular metabolism and exogenous agents, including ionizing radiation. Over the last three decades the comet assay has been employed in scientific research to examine the cellular response to these types of DNA damage in cultured cells, therefore revealing the efficiency and capacity of BER. We have recently pioneered new research demonstrating an important role for post-translational modifications (particularly ubiquitylation) in the regulation of cellular levels of BER proteins, and that subtle changes (?20–50%) in protein levels following siRNA knockdown of E3 ubiquitin ligases or deubiquitylation enzymes can manifest in significant changes in DNA repair capacity monitored using the comet assay. For example, we have shown that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mule, the tumor suppressor protein ARF, and the deubiquitylation enzyme USP47 modulate DNA repair by controlling cellular levels of DNA polymerase ?, and also that polynucleotide kinase phosphatase levels are controlled by ATM-dependant phosphorylation and Cul4A–DDB1–STRAP-dependent ubiquitylation. In these studies we employed a modification of the comet assay whereby cultured cells, following DNA damage treatment, are embedded in agarose and allowed to repair in-gel prior to lysis and electrophoresis. Whilst this method does have its limitations, it avoids the extensive cell culture-based processing associated with the traditional approach using attached cells and also allows for the examination of much more precise DNA repair kinetics. In this review we will describe, using this modified comet assay, our accumulating evidence that ubiquitylation-dependant regulation of BER proteins has important consequences for overall cellular DNA repair capacity. PMID:25076968

Nickson, Catherine M.; Parsons, Jason L.

2014-01-01

19

Microfluidic assay for simultaneous culture of multiple cell types on surfaces or within hydrogels  

PubMed Central

This protocol describes a simple but robust microfluidic assay combining three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) cell culture. The microfluidic platform comprises hydrogel incorporating chambers between surface-accessible microchannels. Using this platform, well-defined biochemical and biophysical stimuli can be applied to multiple cell types interacting over distances of <1mm, thereby replicating many aspects of the in vivo microenvironment. Capabilities exist for time-dependent manipulation of flows and concentration gradients as well as high-resolution real-time imaging for observing spatial-temporal single cell behavior, cell-cell communication, cell-matrix interactions and cell population dynamics. These heterotypic cell type assays can be used to study cell survival, proliferation, migration, morphogenesis and differentiation under controlled conditions. Applications include the study of previously unexplored cellular interactions, and have already provided new insights into how biochemical and biophysical factors regulate interactions between populations of different cell types. It takes 3 days to fabricate the system and experiments can run for up to several weeks. PMID:22678430

Shin, Yoojin; Han, Sewoon; Jeon, Jessie S.; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K.; Sudo, Ryo; Kamm, Roger D.; Chung, Seok

2014-01-01

20

Detection of Hepatitis A Virus by Using a Combined Cell Culture-Molecular Beacon Assay?  

PubMed Central

Rapid and efficient methods for the detection and quantification of infectious viruses are required for public health risk assessment. Current methods to detect infectious viruses are based on mammalian cell culture and rely on the production of visible cytopathic effects (CPE). For hepatitis A virus (HAV), viral replication in cell culture has been reported to be nonlytic and relatively slow. It may take more than 1 week to reach the maximum production and subsequent visualization of CPE. A molecular beacon (MB), H1, specifically targeting a 20-bp 5? noncoding region of HAV, was designed and synthesized. MB H1 was introduced into fixed and permeabilized fetal rhesus monkey kidney (FRhK-4) cells infected with HAV strain HM-175. Upon hybridizing with the viral mRNA, fluorescent cells were visualized easily under a fluorescence microscope. Discernible fluorescence was detected only in infected cells by using the specific MB H1. A nonspecific MB, which was not complementary to the viral RNA sequence, produced no visible fluorescence signal. This MB-based fluorescence assay enabled the direct counting of fluorescent cells and could achieve a detection limit of 1 PFU at 6 h postinfection, demonstrating a significant improvement in viral quantification over current infectivity assays. PMID:18263747

Yeh, Hsiao-Yun; Hwang, Yu-Chen; Yates, Marylynn V.; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

2008-01-01

21

An improved system for exposure of cultured mammalian cells to gaseous compounds in the chromosomal aberration assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas exposure system using rotating vessels was improved for exposure of cultured mammalian cells to gaseous compounds in the chromosomal aberration assay. This system was composed of 12 square culture vessels, a device for preparation of air containing test gas, and positive and negative control gases at target concentrations and for supplying these gases to the culture vessels, and

Masumi Asakura; Toshiaki Sasaki; Toshie Sugiyama; Heihachiro Arito; Shoji Fukushima; Taijiro Matsushima

2008-01-01

22

Cell viability assessment using the Alamar blue assay: a comparison of 2D and 3D cell culture models.  

PubMed

Comparisons of 2D and 3D cell culture models in literature have indicated differences in cellular morphology and metabolism, commonly attributed the better representation of in vivo conditions of the latter cell culture environment. Thus, interest in the use of 3D collagen gels for in vitro analysis has been growing. Although comparative studies to date have indicated an enhanced resistance of cells on collagen matrices against different toxicants, in the present study it is demonstrated that non-adapted protocols can lead to misinterpretation of results obtained from classical colorimetric dye-based cytotoxic assays. Using the well established Alamar blue assay, the study demonstrates how the transfer from 2D substrates to 3D collagen matrices can affect the uptake of the resazurin itself, affecting the outcome of the assay. Using flow cytometry, it is demonstrated that the cell viability is unaffected when cells are grown on collagen matrices, thus the difference seen in the fluorescence is a result of a dilution of the resazurin dye in the collagen matrix, and an increased uptake rate due to the larger cell surface exposed to the surrounding environment, facilitating more effective diffusion through the cellular membrane. The results are supported by a rate equation based simulation, verifying that differing uptake kinetics can result in apparently different cell viability. Finally, this work highlights the feasibility to apply classical dye-based assays on collagen based 3D cell culture models. However, the diffusion and bioavailability of test substances in 3D matrices used in in vitro toxicological assays must be considered and adaption of the protocols is necessary for direct comparison with the traditional 2D models. Moreover, the observations made based on the resazurin dye can be applied to drugs or nanoparticles which freely diffuse through the collagen matrices, thus affecting the effective concentration exposed to the cells. PMID:25300790

Bonnier, F; Keating, M E; Wróbel, T P; Majzner, K; Baranska, M; Garcia-Munoz, A; Blanco, A; Byrne, H J

2015-02-01

23

Comparison of In Vitro Cell Culture and a Mouse Assay for Measuring Infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum  

PubMed Central

In vitro cell cultures were compared to neonatal mice for measuring the infectivity of five genotype 2 isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum. Oocyst doses were enumerated by flow cytometry and delivered to animals and cell monolayers by using standardized procedures. Each dose of oocysts was inoculated into up to nine replicates of 9 to 12 mice or 6 to 10 cell culture wells. Infections were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining in CD-1 mice, by reverse transcriptase PCR in HCT-8 and Caco-2 cells, and by immunofluorescence microscopy in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Infectivity was expressed as a logistic transformation of the proportion of animals or cell culture wells that developed infection at each dose. In most instances, the slopes of the dose-response curves were not significantly different when we compared the infectivity models for each isolate. The 50% infective doses for the different isolates varied depending on the method of calculation but were in the range from 16 to 347 oocysts for CD-1 mice and in the ranges from 27 to 106, 31 to 629, and 13 to 18 oocysts for HCT-8, Caco-2, and MDCK cells, respectively. The average standard deviations for the percentages of infectivity for all replicates of all isolates were 13.9, 11.5, 13.2, and 10.7% for CD-1 mice, HCT-8 cells, Caco-2 cells, and MDCK cells, respectively, demonstrating that the levels of variability were similar in all assays. There was a good correlation between the average infectivity for HCT-8 cells and the results for CD-1 mice across all isolates for untreated oocysts (r = 0.85, n = 25) and for oocysts exposed to ozone and UV light (r = 0.89, n = 29). This study demonstrated that in vitro cell culture was equivalent to the “gold standard,” mouse infectivity, for measuring the infectivity of C. parvum and should therefore be considered a practical and accurate alternative for assessing oocyst infectivity and inactivation. However, the high levels of variability displayed by all assays indicated that infectivity and disinfection experiments should be limited to discerning relatively large differences. PMID:12147476

Rochelle, Paul A.; Marshall, Marilyn M.; Mead, Jan R.; Johnson, Anne M.; Korich, Dick G.; Rosen, Jeffrey S.; De Leon, Ricardo

2002-01-01

24

Gamma radiation increases endonuclease-dependent L1 retrotransposition in a cultured cell assay.  

PubMed

Long Interspersed Elements (LINE-1s, L1s) are the most active mobile elements in the human genome and account for a significant fraction of its mass. The propagation of L1 in the human genome requires disruption and repair of DNA at the site of integration. As Barbara McClintock first hypothesized, genotoxic stress may contribute to the mobilization of transposable elements, and conversely, element mobility may contribute to genotoxic stress. We tested the ability of genotoxic agents to increase L1 retrotransposition in a cultured cell assay. We observed that cells exposed to gamma radiation exhibited increased levels of L1 retrotransposition. The L1 retrotransposition frequency was proportional to the number of phosphorylated H2AX foci, an indicator of genotoxic stress. To explore the role of the L1 endonuclease in this context, endonuclease-deficient tagged L1 constructs were produced and tested for their activity in irradiated cells. The activity of the endonuclease-deficient L1 was very low in irradiated cells, suggesting that most L1 insertions in irradiated cells still use the L1 endonuclease. Consistent with this interpretation, DNA sequences that flank L1 insertions in irradiated cells harbored target site duplications. These results suggest that increased L1 retrotransposition in irradiated cells is endonuclease dependent. The mobilization of L1 in irradiated cells potentially contributes to genomic instability and could be a driving force for secondary mutations in patients undergoing radiation therapy. PMID:16507671

Farkash, Evan A; Kao, Gary D; Horman, Shane R; Prak, Eline T Luning

2006-01-01

25

Optimization of the BGM cell line culture and viral assay procedures for monitoring viruses in the environment.  

PubMed Central

An in-depth study of the continuous cell line designated BGM is described herein, and recommendations are made for standardizing cell culture and viral assay procedures. Based on data gathered from a survey of 58 laboratories using this cell line, a research plan was developed that included the study of growth media, sera, NaHCO3 levels, culture bottles, cell concentration, overlay media, agar, virus infection conditions, and cell-dissociating agents. Additionally, a comparative virus isolation study with BGM cells and nine other cell types was conducted with 37 sewage samples collected from nine different geographic areas. The results of the study indicated that the BGM cell line is superior for virus isolation when compared with the other cell types and that certain media and additives tend to increase BGM cell sensitivity to a specific group of viruses. A standardized procedure for cultivation of BGM cells is described which provides a more effective enterovirus assay system. PMID:3010860

Dahling, D R; Wright, B A

1986-01-01

26

Clonogenic Assay: Adherent Cells  

PubMed Central

The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 19561. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture1. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811)2. Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant formulation. PMID:21445039

Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T.; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C.

2011-01-01

27

Clonogenic assay: adherent cells.  

PubMed

The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811). Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant formulation. PMID:21445039

Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

2011-01-01

28

A microtiter trypan blue absorbance assay for the quantitative determination of excitotoxic neuronal injury in cell culture.  

PubMed

An automated method for the determination of neuronal cell death using trypan blue is described. Following various excitotoxic insults, murine mixed cortical cell cultures are stained with trypan blue (0.05%; 15 min), followed by SDS (1%) lysis. The absorbance of the dye is measured spectrophotometrically at 590 nm using a microtiter plate reader. When compared to the biochemical lactate dehydrogenase assay, no statistical difference in the calculated levels of excitotoxic neuronal cell death was noted between the assays in any given paradigm. This method is fast and reliable. It eliminates the need for cell counting, thus allowing for high volume sample analysis with a minimum of sample error. Utility of this trypan blue absorbance spectrophotometric assay is likely to extend beyond the study of excitotoxic neuronal injury and should complement existing methods for measuring neuronal viability and cytotoxicity in cell culture. PMID:11040379

Uliasz, T F; Hewett, S J

2000-07-31

29

Accurate non-invasive image-based cytotoxicity assays for cultured cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The CloneSelect™ Imager system is an image-based visualisation system for cell growth assessment. Traditionally cell proliferation is measured with the colorimetric MTT assay. RESULTS: Here we show that both the CloneSelect Imager and the MTT approach result in comparable EC50 values when assaying the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and oxaliplatin on various cell lines. However, the image-based technique was found

Patricia Marqués-Gallego; Hans den Dulk; Claude Backendorf; Jaap Brouwer; Jan Reedijk; Julian F Burke

2010-01-01

30

Detection of Hepatitis A Virus by Using a Combined Cell Culture-Molecular Beacon Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid and efficient methods for the detection and quantification of infectious viruses are required for public health risk assessment. Current methods to detect infectious viruses are based on mammalian cell culture and rely on the production of visible cytopathic effects (CPE). For hepatitis A virus (HAV), viral replication in cell culture has been reported to be nonlytic and relatively slow.

Hsiao-Yun Yeh; Yu-Chen Hwang; Marylynn V. Yates; Ashok Mulchandani; Wilfred Chen

2008-01-01

31

Improved chicken embryo cell culture plaque assay for scrub typhus rickettsiae.  

PubMed Central

The plaque technique for three strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi in chicken embryo cell cultures was greatly improved by modifying the trypsinizing procedure and employing homologous chicken serum in the overlay medium. Images PMID:412863

Woodman, D R; Grays, R; Weiss, E

1977-01-01

32

Microscale 3D Collagen Cell Culture Assays in Conventional Flat-Bottom 384-Well Plates.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional (3D) culture systems such as cell-laden hydrogels are superior to standard two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures for many drug-screening applications. However, their adoption into high-throughput screening (HTS) has been lagging, in part because of the difficulty of incorporating these culture formats into existing robotic liquid handling and imaging infrastructures. Dispensing cell-laden prepolymer solutions into 2D well plates is a potential solution but typically requires large volumes of reagents to avoid evaporation during polymerization, which (1) increases costs, (2) makes drug penetration variable and (3) complicates imaging. Here we describe a technique to efficiently produce 3D microgels using automated liquid-handling systems and standard, nonpatterned, flat-bottomed, 384-well plates. Sub-millimeter-diameter, cell-laden collagen gels are deposited on the bottom of a ~2.5 mm diameter microwell with no concerns about evaporation or meniscus effects at the edges of wells, using aqueous two-phase system patterning. The microscale cell-laden collagen-gel constructs are readily imaged and readily penetrated by drugs. The cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutics was monitored by bioluminescence and demonstrated that 3D cultures confer chemoresistance as compared with similar 2D cultures. Hence, these data demonstrate the importance of culturing cells in 3D to obtain realistic cellular responses. Overall, this system provides a simple and inexpensive method for integrating 3D culture capability into existing HTS infrastructure. PMID:25510473

Leung, Brendan M; Moraes, Christopher; Cavnar, Stephen P; Luker, Kathryn E; Luker, Gary D; Takayama, Shuichi

2015-04-01

33

Multilayer and monolayer cell cultures in a cytotoxicity assay of root canal sealers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of a multilayer compared with a monolayer cell culture using six root canal sealers. Both monolayer and multilayer of MU-mu-1 (Mahidol University mouse cell line 1) were cultured in separate 96-well plates. Following incubation at 37 degrees C in 5% CO2 for 4 h in the presence of each sealer, cells were stained with 0.4% Sulphorhodamine-B, viable dye staining and the absorbance at 540 nm determined and calculated as cell viability. There was no statistical difference in the percentage viability for each sealer in both the multilayer and the monolayer cell culture (P > 0.01). Apexit and AH-26 were less toxic (P < 0.01) than MU (Mahidol University) sealer, ROCANAL 3, ROCANAL 2, and Endomethasone which demonstrated the same toxicity (P > 0.01). PMID:10332248

Vajrabhaya, L; Sithisarn, P

1997-03-01

34

A PCR-based Rapid Neutralization Assay for GII.4 Norovirus Infection in HIEC6 Cell Culture.  

PubMed

Because of limited viral replication and lack of cytopathic effect in cell culture, a new PCR-based rapid seroneutralization assay for detection of GII.4 norovirus neutralized antibodies was developed with serum samples from acute-phase patients, convalescent-phase patients and healthy controls. According to this study, neutralizing antibodies were detected in 100% of convalescent-phase sera, and in 2.5% of healthy controls sera. However, all of the acute-phase serum samples could not neutralize virus efficiently. Compared to the results from ELISA (96.2% at sensitivity and 80% at specificity), the present in vitro neutralization assay is more specific and more sensitive. PMID:25800447

Fan, Yi Sun; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Hui Juan; Ding, Yi; Zeng, Wan Jie; Yin, Xu Fang; Ding, Shuang Shuang; Zhang, Jun

2015-03-01

35

Validation of a Cell-Free Translation Assay for Detecting Shiga Toxin 2 in Bacterial Culture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have validated a cell-free translation (CFT) assay for detecting Shiga toxin (Stx). The limit of detection (LOD) for pure Stx2 (PStx2) and partially pure Stx2 (PPStx2) in water reached 20 pg/µl and 3.5 pg/µL respectively without the artificial process of proteolytic activation and reduction of th...

36

Preliminary evaluation of in vitro prescreen assays for developmental toxicants based on cultured murine preimplantation embryos and a cell line developed from a bovine preimplantation embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to evaluate in vitro assays and compare their efficiency in accurate prediction of the potential of chemicals to cause abnormal embryonic\\/foetal development. In vitro assays were based on cultured murine preimplantation embryos and a continuous cell line derived from a bovine preimplantation embryo. Preimplantation embryos collected from superovulated mice were cultured for 72 hr

B. W. Kemppainen; P. Terse; O. Zurovac; D. Stringfellow

1996-01-01

37

GFP-Based Fluorescence Assay for CAG Repeat Instability in Cultured Human Cells  

PubMed Central

Trinucleotide repeats can be highly unstable, mutating far more frequently than point mutations. Repeats typically mutate by addition or loss of units of the repeat. CAG repeat expansions in humans trigger neurological diseases that include myotonic dystrophy, Huntington disease, and several spinocerebellar ataxias. In human cells, diverse mechanisms promote CAG repeat instability, and in mice, the mechanisms of instability are varied and tissue-dependent. Dissection of mechanistic complexity and discovery of potential therapeutics necessitates quantitative and scalable screens for repeat mutation. We describe a GFP-based assay for screening modifiers of CAG repeat instability in human cells. The assay exploits an engineered intronic CAG repeat tract that interferes with expression of an inducible GFP minigene. Like the phenotypes of many trinucleotide repeat disorders, we find that GFP function is impaired by repeat expansion, in a length-dependent manner. The intensity of fluorescence varies inversely with repeat length, allowing estimates of repeat tract changes in live cells. We validate the assay using transcription through the repeat and engineered CAG-specific nucleases, which have previously been reported to induce CAG repeat instability. The assay is relatively fast and should be adaptable to large-scale screens of chemical and shRNA libraries. PMID:25423602

Santillan, Beatriz A.; Moye, Christopher; Mittelman, David; Wilson, John H.

2014-01-01

38

Metabolic response of environmentally isolated microorganisms to industrial effluents: Use of a newly described cell culture assay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An environmental application using a microtiter culture assay to measure the metabolic sensitivity of microorganisms to petrochemical effluents will be tested. The Biomedical Operations and Research Branch at NASA JSC has recently developed a rapid and nondestructive method to measure cell growth and metabolism. Using a colorimetric procedure the uniquely modified assay allows the metabolic kinetics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to be measured. Use of such an assay if adapted for the routine monitoring of waste products, process effluents, and environmentally hazardous substances may prove to be invaluable to the industrial community. The microtiter method as described will be tested using microorganisms isolated from the Galveston Bay aquatic habitat. The microbial isolates will be identified prior to testing using the automated systems available at JSC. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cadmium, and lead will provide control toxic chemicals. The toxicity of industrial effluent from two industrial sites will be tested. An effort will be made to test the efficacy of this assay for measuring toxicity in a mixed culture community.

Ferebee, Robert N.

1992-01-01

39

Polymer-Based Mesh as Supports for Multi-layered 3D Cell Culture and Assays  

PubMed Central

Three-dimensional (3D) culture systems can mimic certain aspects of the cellular microenvironment found in vivo, but generation, analysis and imaging of current model systems for 3D cellular constructs and tissues remain challenging. This work demonstrates a 3D culture system – Cells-in-Gels-in-Mesh (CiGiM) – that uses stacked sheets of polymer-based mesh to support cells embedded in gels to form tissue-like constructs; the stacked sheets can be disassembled by peeling the sheets apart to analyze cultured cells—layer-by-layer—within the construct. The mesh sheets leave openings large enough for light to pass through with minimal scattering, and thus allowing multiple options for analysis—(i) using straightforward analysis by optical light microscopy, (ii) by high-resolution analysis with fluorescence microscopy, or (iii) with a fluorescence gel scanner. The sheets can be patterned into separate zones with paraffin film-based decals, in order to conduct multiple experiments in parallel; the paraffin-based decal films also block lateral diffusion of oxygen effectively. CiGiM simplifies the generation and analysis of 3D culture without compromising throughput, and quality of the data collected: it is especially useful in experiments that require control of oxygen levels, and isolation of adjacent wells in a multi-zone format. PMID:24095253

Simon, Karen A.; Park, Kyeng Min; Mosadegh, Bobak; Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Mazzeo, Aaron; Ngo, Phil M.; Whitesides, George M.

2013-01-01

40

Comparison of a Commercial Real-Time PCR Assay for tcdB Detection to a Cell Culture Cytotoxicity Assay and Toxigenic Culture for Direct Detection of Toxin-Producing Clostridium difficile in Clinical Samples?  

PubMed Central

Rapid detection of toxin-producing strains of Clostridium difficile is essential for optimal management of patients with C. difficile infection. The BD GeneOhm (San Diego, CA) Cdiff assay, a real-time PCR assay that amplifies tcdB, was compared to a cell culture neutralization assay (Wampole C. difficile Toxin B [TOX-B] test; TechLab, Blacksburg, VA) and to toxigenic culture. Using liquid (n = 273) and soft (n = 131) stool specimens from 377 symptomatic patients, all testing was performed on the same day by independent laboratory staff according to the manufacturers' protocols. Toxigenic bacterial culture was performed as follows. A 0.5-ml aliquot of stool was heated to 80°C for 10 min, followed by inoculation onto modified cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar with and without horse blood (Remel, Lenexa, KS) and into prereduced chopped-meat broth. Of the 404 stool specimens tested, 340 were negative and 40 were positive (10.0% prevalence) both by PCR for tcdB and by cytotoxin production. The overall agreement between the BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay and the TOX-B test was 94.8% (380/401). When the TOX-B test was used as the reference method, the initial sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay were 90.9% (40/44), 95.2% (340/357), 70.2% (40/57), and 98.8% (340/344), respectively. When toxigenic culture was used as the “gold standard,” the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay were 83.6%, 98.2%, 89.5%, and 97.1%, respectively, and those of the TOX-B test were 67.2%, 99.1%, 93.2%, and 94.4%, respectively. PCRs for three samples were inhibited upon initial testing; one sample was resolved upon retesting. One sample produced nonspecific cytotoxin results. The BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay performed well compared to a standard cell culture neutralization assay and to toxigenic culture for the detection of toxigenic C. difficile directly from fecal specimens. PMID:19073875

Stamper, Paul D.; Alcabasa, Romina; Aird, Deborah; Babiker, Wisal; Wehrlin, Jennifer; Ikpeama, Ijeoma; Carroll, Karen C.

2009-01-01

41

Comparison of BGM and PLC/PRC/5 cell lines for total culturable viral assay of treated sewage.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare PLC/PRF/5 and BGM cell lines for use in a total culturable viral assay (TCVA) of treated sewage effluents. Samples were collected before and after chlorination from an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant and from the effluent of a high-rate enhanced flocculation system, followed by UV light disinfection. Cell monolayers were observed for cytopathic effect (CPE) after two passages of 14 days each. Monolayers exhibiting viral CPE were tested for the presence of adenoviruses and enteroviruses by PCR or reverse transcription-PCR. Eight percent of the samples exhibited CPE on BGM cells, and 57% showed CPE on PLC/PRF/5 cells. Only enteroviruses were detected on the BGM cells, while 30% and 52% of the samples were positive for enteroviruses and adenoviruses, respectively, on the PLC/PRF/5 cells. Thirty percent of the samples were positive for both adenoviruses and enteroviruses in chlorinated activated sludge effluent. Thirty percent of the samples were positive for adenoviruses in the UV treatment effluent, but no enteroviruses were detected. In conclusion, the PLC/PRF/5 cells were more susceptible than BGM cells to viruses found in treated sewage. The use of BGM cells for TCVA may underestimate viral concentration in sewage effluent samples. The PLC/PRF/5 cells were more susceptible to adenoviruses, which is important in the evaluation of UV disinfection systems because adenoviruses are highly resistant to UV inactivation. PMID:18326686

Rodríguez, Roberto A; Gundy, Patricia M; Gerba, Charles P

2008-05-01

42

A rapid and sensitive assay for detection of replication-competent adenoviruses by a combination of microcarrier cell culture and quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

The development of a rapid and sensitive assay for detection of replication-competent adenoviruses (RCAs) is described. This RCA assay consists of an incubation step of 4 days of adenoviral vectors on A549 cells in a microcarrier cell culture system followed by detection of amplified RCAs by E1-specific quantitative PCR. The detection limit of this assay is 3 RCAs in 1 x 10(10) vector particles per 70 ml of microcarrier cell culture. The main advantage of the combination of cell culture and PCR detection is that replicated virus can be detected long before cytopathic effects become visible and therefore, it is much faster than conventional cell culture-based assays. This assay was validated by spiking replication-incompetent adenoviral vectors with wild-type adenovirus serotype 5 (wt Ad5) as a positive control for RCA. It was found that the replication of wt Ad5 is hampered above a vector particle per cell ratio of 50. However, if microcarrier beads are used, many cells can be grown in a small suspension culture and consequently a large number of vector particles can be tested for contamination with RCA. PMID:17588680

Schalk, Johanna A C; de Vries, Claudette G J C A; Orzechowski, Tom J H; Rots, Marianne G

2007-11-01

43

Evaluation of a Soluble Tetrazolium\\/Formazan Assay for Cell Growth and Drug Sensitivity in Culture Using Human and Other Tumor Cell Lines1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously described the application of an automated micro- culture tetrazolium assay (MTA) involvingdimethyl sulfoxide solubiliza- tion of cellular-generated 3-{4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra- zolium bromide (MTTHormazan to the in vitro assessment of drug effects on cell growth (M. C. Alley et al., Proc. Am. Assen. Cancer Res., 27:389,1986; M. C. Alley et al.. Cancer Res. 48:589-601,1988). There are several inherent disadvantages of

Dominic A. Scudiere; Robert H. Shoemaker; Kenneth D. Paul; Anne Monks; Siobhan Tierney; Thomas H. Nofziger; Michael J. Currens; Donna Seniff; Michael R. Boyd

44

Microfluidic Cell Culture and Its Application in High Throughput Drug Screening: Cardiotoxicity Assay for hERG Channels  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of drug cardiotoxicity is essential to the safe development of novel pharmaceuticals. Assessing a compound's risk for prolongation of the surface electrocardiographic QT interval, and hence risk for life threatening arrhythmias is mandated before approval of nearly all new pharmaceuticals. QT prolongation has most commonly been associated with loss of current through hERG (human ether-a-go-go related gene) potassium ion channels due to direct block of the ion channel by drugs or occasionally by inhibition of the plasma membrane expression of the channel protein. To develop an efficient, reliable, and cost-effective hERG screening assay for detecting drug-mediated disruption of hERG membrane trafficking, we demonstrate the use of microfluidic-based systems to improve throughput and lower cost of current methods. We validate our microfluidics array platform in polystyrene (PS), cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchannels for drug-induced disruption of hERG trafficking by culturing stably transfected HEK cells that overexpressed hERG (WT-hERG), and studying their morphology, proliferation rates, hERG protein expression, and response to drug treatment. Our results show that WT-hERG cells readily proliferate in PS, COP, and PDMS microfluidic channels. We demonstrated that conventional Western blot analysis was possible using cell lysate extracted from a single microchannel. The Western blot analysis also provided important evidence that WT-hERG cells cultured in microchannels maintained regular (well plate-based) expression of hERG. We further showed that experimental procedures can be streamlined by using direct in-channel immunofluorescent staining in conjunction with detection using an infrared scanner. Finally, treatment of WT-hERG cells with five different drugs suggested that PS (and COP) microchannels were more suitable than PDMS microchannels for drug screening applications, particularly for tests involving hydrophobic drug molecules. PMID:21131594

Su, Xiaojing; Young, Edmond W.K.; Underkofler, Heather A. S.; Kamp, Timothy J.; January, Craig T.; Beebe, David J.

2011-01-01

45

An improved filter elution and cell culture assay procedure for evaluating public groundwater systems for culturable enteroviruses.  

PubMed

Large-scale virus studies of groundwater systems require practical and sensitive procedures for both sample processing and viral assay. Filter adsorption-elution procedures have traditionally been used to process large-volume water samples for viruses. In this study, five filter elution procedures using cartridge filters were evaluated for their effectiveness in processing samples. Of the five procedures tested, the third method, which incorporated two separate beef extract elutions (one being an overnight filter immersion in beef extract), recovered 95% of seeded poliovirus compared with recoveries of 36 to 70% for the other methods. For viral enumeration, an expanded roller bottle quantal assay was evaluated using seeded poliovirus. This cytopathic-based method was considerably more sensitive than the standard plaque assay method. The roller bottle system was more economical than the plaque assay for the evaluation of comparable samples. Using roller bottles required less time and manipulation than the plaque procedure and greatly facilitated the examination of large numbers of samples. The combination of the improved filter elution procedure and the roller bottle assay for viral analysis makes large-scale virus studies of groundwater systems practical. This procedure was subsequently field tested during a groundwater study in which large-volume samples (exceeding 800 L) were processed through the filters. PMID:12540097

Dahling, Daniel R

2002-01-01

46

Detection of Infectious Cryptosporidium Oocysts by Cell Culture Immunofluorescence Assay: Applicability to Environmental Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years many waterborne outbreaks related to Cryptosporidium have been described. Current methods for detection of Cryptosporidium in water for the most part rely on viability assays which are not informative concerning the infectivity of oocysts. However, for estimation of the risk of infection with Crypto- sporidium this information is required. For environmental samples the oocyst counts

F. M. Schets; G. B. Engels; A. M. de Roda Husman

2005-01-01

47

Selective extraction, concentration, and assay of orthophosphate from microliter quantities of cultured mammalian cells.  

PubMed

A colorimetric procedure is described for determination of orthophosphate (0.2-2.5 nmol) in sample volumes up to 400 microliters. Orthophosphate is selectively extracted (in the form of phosphomolybdate) into an organic solvent mixture (2-methylpropan-1-ol and petroleum spirit) leaving interfering substances, such as labile organic phosphates, in the aqueous phase. Orthophosphate is then back-extracted into a small volume of aqueous sodium hydroxide. By keeping this volume small, orthophosphate from large dilute samples can be concentrated into small volumes and assayed colorimetrically in microcuvettes using the dye malachite green. The procedure is highly reproducible and insensitive to interfering substances, as shown by comparison with a conventional malachite green assay without the solvent extraction. PMID:2817373

Bevington, A; Angier, C M; Kemp, G J; Russell, R G

1989-08-15

48

Basics of Cell Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These manuals are used in the Stem Cell Culture Course at City College of San Francisco. This course is about general mammalian cell culture techniques but includes a laboratory exercise using stem cells (takes 3 weeks to complete). The course is taught to high school students but the materials are also used for college students. Laboratory exercises provide instruction in basic techniques of routine cell culture using common cell lines before progressing to differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Photographs and explanations of common equipment (laminar flow hood, inverted microscope, etc.) and reagents are provided. Laboratory exercises include the following: Basic Aseptic Technique; Media Preparation; Plating cells from frozen stock; Cell counting and plating; Survival assay (UV); Live Cell Identification; Transfection; Freezing cells; Stem cell differentiation. A student lab manual and an instructor manual are provided.

Afshar, Golnar

49

Detection of Epstein–Barr virus-specific memory CD4+ T cells using a peptide-based cultured enzyme-linked immunospot assay  

PubMed Central

Approaches to evaluate T-cell responses to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) include enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT), which quantifies cells capable of immediate interferon-? secretion upon antigen stimulation. However, evaluation of expandable EBV-specific memory T cells in an ELISPOT format has not been described previously. We quantified EBV-specific T-cell precursors with high proliferative capacity by using a peptide-based cultured interferon-? ELISPOT assay. Standard and cultured ELISPOT responses to overlapping peptide pools (15-mers overlapping by 11 amino acids) covering the lytic (BZLF1 and BMRF1) and latent (EBNA1, EBNA3a, EBNA3b, EBNA3c, LMP1 and LMP2) EBV proteins were evaluated in 20 healthy subjects with remote EBV infection and, for comparison, in four solid organ transplant recipients. Cultured ELISPOT responses to both lytic and latent EBV antigens were significantly higher than standard ELISPOT responses. The distribution of EBV-specific T-cell responses detected in healthy virus carriers showed more consistent cultured ELISPOT responses compared with standard ELISPOT responses. T-cell responses quantified by cultured ELISPOT were mainly mediated by CD4+ T cells and a marked pattern of immunodominance to latent-phase antigens (EBNA1 > EBNA3 family antigens > LMP2 > LMP1) was shown. Both the magnitude and distribution of EBV-specific T-cell responses were altered in solid organ transplant recipients; in particular, cultured ELISPOT responses were almost undetectable in a lung-transplanted patient with EBV-associated diseases. Analysis of T-cell responses to EBV by ELISPOT assays might provide new insights into the pathogenesis of EBV-related diseases and serve as new tools in the monitoring of EBV infection in immunocompromised patients. PMID:23560877

Calarota, Sandra A; Chiesa, Antonella; Zelini, Paola; Comolli, Giuditta; Minoli, Lorenzo; Baldanti, Fausto

2013-01-01

50

Neutral red (NR) assay for cell viability and xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultures of human and rat hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutral red (NR) in medium was absorbed and concentrated in lysosomes of cultured rat and human hepatocytes. NR uptake increased with the time of incubation and reached a plateau in 2 hr. Uptake was proportional to the concentration of the NR solution and the numbers of viable liver cells. Prolonged culture of hepatocytes increased the numbers of lysosomes, and thus,

Shao-Zeng Zhang; Michael M. Lipsky; Benjamin F. Trump; Ih-Chang Hsu

1990-01-01

51

An improved infectivity assay combining cell culture with real-time PCR for rapid quantification of human adenoviruses 41 and semi-quantification of human adenovirus in sewage.  

PubMed

A protocol for the rapid detection and semi-quantification of human enteric adenovirus based on the quantification of viral mRNA during cell culture infectivity assay was developed. Infectivity assays for adenovirus incorporated cell culture and reverse transcription real-time PCR, where viral mRNA detection was used to monitor the progress of adenovirus infection (CC/mRNA qPCR). The cell line used was G293. This specific infectivity assay was calibrated against different initial concentrations of human adenovirus 41. In addition, the expression of the host's housekeeping (HK) gene, GAPDH, served as internal control for the mRNA assays for quality assurance of the mRNA extraction and reverse transcription steps. The concentrations of infectious human adenoviruses in different sewage samples were estimated semi-quantitatively using the CC/mRNA qPCR assay and calibration obtained for adenovirus 41. A linear relationship between concentrations of viral mRNA (hexon gene) and infectious units was observed between 10(7) to 10(1) infectious units per assay (R(2) = 0.97) in samples analyzed 3-5 days post infection. The expressions of host cell GAPDH gene were not significantly affected by infections with different concentrations of human adenovirus 41, and between virus positive and negative cell cultures (p > 0.1). The estimated concentrations of human adenoviruses in sewage samples ranged between 10(2) to 10(3) mRNA-IU/L. Most of the viruses detected in sewage samples were from human adenovirus species F. The CC/mRNA qPCR assay can be used for quantifying infectious human adenovirus 41, estimating the levels of human adenoviruses in sewage samples, and applied to other sample settings. The CC/mRNA qPCR protocol described here represents an improvement in the detection of human enteric adenoviruses by reducing incubation time (5 days); whereas the conventional cell culture method requires longer incubation periods (10-20 days). More importantly, this protocol can be used to more rapidly and semi-quantitatively estimate the levels of infectious human adenoviruses in environmental samples. PMID:23579085

Rodríguez, Roberto A; Polston, Patsy M; Wu, Ming Jing; Wu, Jianyong; Sobsey, Mark D

2013-06-01

52

21 CFR 866.2350 - Microbiological assay culture medium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Microbiological assay culture medium. 866.2350 Section 866.2350 ...2350 Microbiological assay culture medium. (a) Identification. A microbiological assay culture medium is a device that consists...

2010-04-01

53

Development of a combined in vitro cell culture--quantitative PCR assay for evaluating the disinfection performance of pulsed light for treating the waterborne enteroparasite Giardia lamblia.  

PubMed

Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan parasite that is recognised as a frequent cause of water-borne disease in humans and animals. We report for the first time on the use of a combined in vitro HCT-8 cell culture-quantitative PCR assay for evaluating the efficacy of using pulsed UV light for treating G. lamblia parasites. Findings showed that current methods that are limited to using vital stains before and after cyst excystation are not appropriate for monitoring or evaluating cyst destruction post PUV-treatments. Use of the human ileocecal HCT-8 cell line was superior to that of the human colon Caco-2 cell line for in vitro culture and determining PUV sensitivity of treated cysts. G. lamblia cysts were also shown to be more resistant to PUV irradiation compared to treating similar numbers of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. These observations also show that the use of this HCT-8 cell culture assay may replace use of animal models for determining disinfection performances of PUV for treating both C. parvum and G. lamblia. PMID:24929148

Garvey, Mary; Stocca, Alessia; Rowan, Neil

2014-09-01

54

Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells from leukoreduction system chambers after plateletpheresis are functional in an in vitro co-culture assay with intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The dendritic cells (DC) found in the intestine are involved both in the maintenance of tolerance towards commensal microbiota, and in the generation of protective immune responses against pathogens, thus contributing to gut immune homeostasis. There is an increasing interest in the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as probiotics; among their beneficial effects we highlight the modulation of the immune system which is one of their fundamental properties. As these effects are strain-dependent, it is important to have in vitro systems that include DC and intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), which are crucial for intestinal homeostasis, to identify candidates by means of bacterial screening. Obtaining enough human cells, necessary to simultaneously test several bacteria, is a major challenge for researchers. In this study we analyzed the usefulness of the cellular fraction retained in leukoreduction system chambers following plateletpheresis (PP) as a source of DC. We compared the capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from buffy coats (BC) or PP to generate DC using a short differentiation protocol. The functionality of the DC obtained was analyzed in co-cultures together with intestinal epithelial HT-29 cells, stimulating with LPS alone or with two LAB commonly used in the food industry, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. DC surface markers CD86, HLA-DR and cytokine production were measured. The behavior of DC derived from PP was similar to the behavior observed for DC derived from BC. When we tested the response of DC to bacteria, we found significant differences in cytokine secretion, especially for IL-10, suggesting that the system has the ability to discriminate LAB with different immunomodulatory properties. We also found that DC derived from both sources displayed a similar ability to phagocyte bacteria. In conclusion, we hereby propose a modification of the two-day protocol for obtaining human DC previously described, using PP as an alternative source of PBMC, to be used in co-culture systems with IEC. The novelty of this protocol is the combination of the blood monocyte source with a simple and fast differentiation method to obtain DC, and their use in a combined culture with IEC and LAB to model microbial-host interaction. Since the initial PP volume is ten times lower than that of BC, the use of PP minimizes biological residue generation and reagent consumption. In addition, monocyte-derived DC from PP were suitable for use in co-culture assays as a first screening step to study the immunomodulatory properties of LAB. PMID:22841576

Tiscornia, Inés; Sánchez-Martins, Viviana; Hernández, Ana; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela

2012-10-31

55

High density micromass cultures of a human chondrocyte cell line: A reliable assay system to reveal the modulatory functions of pharmacological agents  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent and disabling disease for which we do not have a cure. The identification of suitable molecular targets is hindered by the lack of standardized, reproducible and convenient screening assays. Following extensive comparisons of a number of chondrocytic cell lines, culture conditions, and readouts, we have optimized an assay utilizing C-28/I2, a chondrocytic cell line cultured in high-density micromasses. Utilizing molecules with known effects on cartilage (e.g. IL-1?, TGF?1, BMP-2), we have exploited this improved protocol to (i) evoke responses characteristic of primary chondrocytes; (ii) assess the pharmacodynamics of gene over-expression using non-viral expression vectors; (iii) establish the response profiles of known pharmacological treatments; and (iv) investigate their mechanisms of action. These data indicate that we have established a medium-throughput methodology for studying chondrocyte-specific cellular and molecular responses (from gene expression to rapid quantitative measurement of sulfated glycosaminoglycans by Alcian blue staining) that may enable the discovery of novel therapeutics for pharmacological modulation of chondrocyte activation in osteoarthritis. PMID:21946086

Greco, K.V.; Iqbal, A.J.; Rattazzi, L.; Nalesso, G.; Moradi-Bidhendi, N.; Moore, A.R.; Goldring, M.B.; Dell’Accio, F.; Perretti, M.

2014-01-01

56

Identification of Candidate Agents Active against N. ceranae Infection in Honey Bees: Establishment of a Medium Throughput Screening Assay Based on N. ceranae Infected Cultured Cells  

PubMed Central

Many flowering plants in both natural ecosytems and agriculture are dependent on insect pollination for fruit set and seed production. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees are key pollinators providing this indispensable eco- and agrosystem service. Like all other organisms, bees are attacked by numerous pathogens and parasites. Nosema apis is a honey bee pathogenic microsporidium which is widely distributed in honey bee populations without causing much harm. Its congener Nosema ceranae was originally described as pathogen of the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) but jumped host from A. cerana to A. mellifera about 20 years ago and spilled over from A. mellifera to Bombus spp. quite recently. N. ceranae is now considered a deadly emerging parasite of both Western honey bees and bumblebees. Hence, novel and sustainable treatment strategies against N. ceranae are urgently needed to protect honey and wild bees. We here present the development of an in vitro medium throughput screening assay for the identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infections. This novel assay is based on our recently developed cell culture model for N. ceranae and coupled with an RT-PCR-ELISA protocol for quantification of N. ceranae in infected cells. The assay has been adapted to the 96-well microplate format to allow automated analysis. Several substances with known (fumagillin) or presumed (surfactin) or no (paromomycin) activity against N. ceranae were tested as well as substances for which no data concerning N. ceranae inhibition existed. While fumagillin and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole) totally inhibited N. ceranae proliferation, all other test substances were inactive. In summary, the assay proved suitable for substance screening and demonstrated the activity of two synthetic antibiotics against N. ceranae. PMID:25658121

Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

2015-01-01

57

Identification of Candidate Agents Active against N. ceranae Infection in Honey Bees: Establishment of a Medium Throughput Screening Assay Based on N. ceranae Infected Cultured Cells.  

PubMed

Many flowering plants in both natural ecosytems and agriculture are dependent on insect pollination for fruit set and seed production. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees are key pollinators providing this indispensable eco- and agrosystem service. Like all other organisms, bees are attacked by numerous pathogens and parasites. Nosema apis is a honey bee pathogenic microsporidium which is widely distributed in honey bee populations without causing much harm. Its congener Nosema ceranae was originally described as pathogen of the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) but jumped host from A. cerana to A. mellifera about 20 years ago and spilled over from A. mellifera to Bombus spp. quite recently. N. ceranae is now considered a deadly emerging parasite of both Western honey bees and bumblebees. Hence, novel and sustainable treatment strategies against N. ceranae are urgently needed to protect honey and wild bees. We here present the development of an in vitro medium throughput screening assay for the identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infections. This novel assay is based on our recently developed cell culture model for N. ceranae and coupled with an RT-PCR-ELISA protocol for quantification of N. ceranae in infected cells. The assay has been adapted to the 96-well microplate format to allow automated analysis. Several substances with known (fumagillin) or presumed (surfactin) or no (paromomycin) activity against N. ceranae were tested as well as substances for which no data concerning N. ceranae inhibition existed. While fumagillin and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole) totally inhibited N. ceranae proliferation, all other test substances were inactive. In summary, the assay proved suitable for substance screening and demonstrated the activity of two synthetic antibiotics against N. ceranae. PMID:25658121

Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

2015-01-01

58

The importance of the microenvironment in breast cancer progression: recapitulation of mammary tumorigenesis using a unique human mammary epithelial cell model and a three-dimensional culture assay  

PubMed Central

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dominant regulator of tissue development and homeostasis. “Designer microenvironments” in culture and in vivo model systems have shown that the ECM regulates growth, differentiation, and apoptosis in murine and human mammary epithelial cells (MEC) through a hierarchy of transcriptional events involving the intricate interplay between soluble and physical signaling pathways. Furthermore, these studies have shown that these pathways direct and in turn are influenced by the tissue structure. Tissue structure is directed by the cooperative interactions of the cell–cell and cell–ECM pathways and can be modified by stromal factors. Not surprisingly then, loss of tissue structure and alterations in ECM components are associated with the appearance and dissemination of breast tumors, and malignancy is associated with perturbations in cell adhesion, changes in adhesion molecules, and a stromal reaction. Several lines of evidence now support the contention that the pathogenesis of breast cancer is determined (at least in part) by the dynamic interplay between the ductal epithelial cells, the microenvironment, and the tissue structure (acini). Thus, to understand the mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis, the role of the microenvironment (ECM as well as the stromal cells) with respect to tissue structure should be considered and studied. Towards this goal, we have established a unique human MEC model of tumorigenesis, which in concert with a three-dimensional assay, recapitulates many of the genetic and morphological changes observed in breast cancer in vivo. We are currently using this system to understand the role of the microenvironment and tissue structure in breast cancer progression. PMID:9164652

Weaver, V.M.; Fischer, A.H.; Peterson, O.W.; Bissell, M.J.

2010-01-01

59

Mammalian Cell Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian cell culture is used widely in academic, medical and industrial settings. It has provided a means to study the physiology and biochemistry of the cell and developments in the fields of cell and molecular biology have required the use of reproducible model systems that only cultured cell lines can provide. For medical use, cell culture provides test systems to

Simon P. Langdon

60

New Artificial Electron Donors for in Vitro Assay of Nitrate Reductase Isolated from Cultured Tobacco Cells and Other Organisms  

PubMed Central

The capacity of bromphenol blue and its analogs to act as electron donors for measurement of in vitro nitrate reductase activity from tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum var Techné SP 25 strain) was determined. Competitive inhibition was demonstrated to occur between NADH, the natural electron donor, and bromphenol blue, the artificial electron donor, suggesting that both donors bind to a similar active site on the enzyme. NADH-dependent or bromphenol blue-dependent nitrate reductase activity was carried out by a similar molecular weight protein exhibiting similar antigenic sites. Following ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density gradient and two chromatographic steps, nitrate reductase activity from tobacco cells was purified near homogeneity using bromphenol blue as an electron donor in the absence of measurable NADH-dependent activity. The enzyme is composed of two identical subunits of 83 kilodaltons < M?? < 94 kilodaltons. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16664746

Hoarau, Jackson; Hirel, Bertrand; Nato, Aimé

1986-01-01

61

Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances  

DOEpatents

A line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity) is disclosed. Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. Mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics, are also disclosed.

Crespi, Charles L. (Downers Grove, IL); Thilly, William G. (Winchester, MA)

1985-01-01

62

Circulating Tumor Cell Assay Frequently Asked Questions  

Cancer.gov

Version: July 2010 Circulating Tumor Cell Assay Frequently Asked Questions LHTP003.8.1 ?H2AX IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE ASSAY FOR CIRCULATING TUMOR CELLS USING THE CELLSEARCH SYSTEM 1. Do I need any prior experience before applying for the training

63

Stem cell culture engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells have the capacity for self renewal and undergo multilineage differentiation. Stem cells isolated from both blastocysts and adult tissues represent valuable sources of cells for applications in cell therapy, drug screening and tissue engineering. While expanding stem cells in culture, it is critical to maintain their self?renewal and differentiation capacity. In generating particular cell types for specific applications,

Gargi Seth; Catherine M. Verfaillie

2005-01-01

64

Optimizing stem cell culture  

PubMed Central

Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh’s plane. PMID:20803548

Van Der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, François; Wion, Didier

2010-01-01

65

Fifty Percent Tissue Culture Infective Dose Assay for Determining the Titer of Infectious Human Herpesvirus 8  

PubMed Central

We have developed a human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) assay using the T1H6-DC-SIGN cell line. Infection of T1H6-DC-SIGN cells with HHV-8 induces expression of ?-galactosidase, which was used to determine TCID50 levels. Validation of TCID50 values was performed by immunofluorescence assay of HHV-8 infection of immature dendritic cells at various TCID50 doses. PMID:23554189

Nadgir, Sagar V.; Hensler, Heather R.; Knowlton, Emilee R.; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Rappocciolo, Giovanna

2013-01-01

66

In vitro assay of cytotoxicity with cultured liver: accomplishments and possibilities.  

PubMed Central

Tissue cultures offer potential advantages for assaying the toxicity of chemicals and for evaluating tissue susceptibility to toxic agents. Several properties of cultured cells hinder the immediate, widespread use of tissue cultures to assay toxicity routinely. These points are illustrated by briefly reviewing attempts to utilize different types of hepatic cultures to evaluate the actions of carcinogenic chemicals in vitro. Hepatocytes in vivo apparently can metabolize all known procarcinogenic chemicals, but the process of tissue isolation and the environmental conditions in vitro may modify drastically the responses of hepatocytes and other cultured hepatic cells to toxic chemicals. Before cell cultures can be used routinely as the basis of screening systems to detect chemical toxins, specificity and sensitivity of response to chemicals representing all chemical classes must be validated by laboratory studies. PMID:363407

Grisham, J W; Charlton, R K; Kaufman, D G

1978-01-01

67

Culture amplification in human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (CaCo-2) combined with an ELISA as a supplementary assay for accurate diagnosis of rotavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture amplification in colon adenocarcinoma cell line (CaCo-2) combined with enzyme immunoassay (Pathfinder ELISA) was developed as a supplementary tool for rotavirus diagnosis. One hundred and thirty stools in which results by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) were in agreement with those obtained by ELISA were amplified in the CaCo-2 cell line. After the first passage 100% specimens were revealed as

Andrea C. Cumino; Miguel O. Giordano; Laura C. Mart??nez; Silvia I. Medeot; Jorge V. Pavan; Silvia Yudowsky; Mar??a Beatriz Isa; Ariel R. Depetris; Silvia V. Nates

1998-01-01

68

Shortening the culture time in cytogenetic dosimetry using PCC-R assay.  

PubMed

The fast assessment of the dose received by exposed persons is crucial in radiological accidents, so the 48 h of cell culture in conventional cytogenetic dosimetry in addition to some limitations after high doses becomes a disadvantage. The premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay permits to analyse enough cells after high radiation exposure, and the score of PCC-R may reduce the culture time up to 40-42 h. Peripheral whole-blood samples were exposed to 1-10 Gy of gamma radiation and cultured during 40 and 42 h. No statistical difference between frequencies was obtained between 40, 42 and 48 h of culture time, and PCC index decreased with the increase of the dose and increased with the culture time. The protocol proposed allows reduce the culture time down to 40 or 42 h when using the PCC-R assay with adequate precision in dose estimation. PMID:25114320

Romero, Ivonne; Lamadrid, Ana Ilsa; González, Jorge Ernesto; García, Omar; Voisin, Philippe; Roy, Laurence

2015-03-01

69

Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances  

DOEpatents

The present invention pertains to a line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity). Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. The invention also includes mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics. 3 figs.

Crespi, C.L.; Thilly, W.G.

1999-08-10

70

Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances  

DOEpatents

The present invention pertains to a line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity). Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. The invention also includes mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics.

Crespi, Charles L. (Marblehead, MA); Thilly, William G. (Winchester, MA)

1999-01-01

71

Fine-tuning of a three-dimensional microcarrier-based angiogenesis assay for the analysis of endothelial-mesenchymal cell co-cultures in fibrin and collagen gels.  

PubMed

A prerequisite for successful tissue engineering is the existence of a functional microvascular network. We hypothesized that such networks can be created and quantified in an in vitro setting by co-culturing endothelial cells (ECs) with tissue-specific 'bystander cells' in 3-D gel matrices. To test this hypothesis we adapted a previously described in vitro microcarrier-based angiogenesis assay (V. Nehls and D. Drenckhahn, 1995, Microvasc Res 50: 311-322). On optimizing this assay, we noted that the initial EC-microcarrier coverage depended on EC type and seeding technique employed to coat the microcarrier beads with the ECs. A confluent EC monolayer on the microcarrier surfaces formed only when bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were admixed to the beads under gentle agitation on an orbital shaker. After embedding BAEC-covered microcarrier beads into a sandwich-like arrangement of collagen or fibrin gels, we assessed cellular outgrowth at different serum concentrations in terms of migration distance and sprout formation. Quantifiable sprout formation was highest at 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in collagen matrices and at 0.1% FBS in fibrin matrices. At higher serum concentration, excess cell migration and formation of clusters prevented quantitative analysis of sprouting. Following the fine-tuning of this angiogenesis assay, we co-cultured BAECs with adipose tissue-derived fibroblasts (FBs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). While FBs were able to increase the average migration distance of BAECs in both matrices, SMCs enhanced BAEC migration in fibrin, but not in collagen gels. By contrast, the number of newly formed sprouts in fibrin gels was increased by both cell types. We conclude that in this model bystander cells enhance EC network formation in a matrix-dependent manner. Additionally, these results stress the importance of carefully selecting the experimental parameters of a given in vitro angiogenesis model. PMID:17051343

Dietrich, Franziska; Lelkes, Peter I

2006-01-01

72

Comparison of a New Gold Immunochromatographic Assay for the Rapid Diagnosis of the Novel Influenza A (H7N9) Virus with Cell Culture and a Real-Time Reverse-Transcription PCR Assay  

PubMed Central

We assessed a colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA) for rapid detection of influenza A (H7N9) and compared it with reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culture. Samples from 35 H7N9 infected patients were collected, including 45 throat swab samples, 56 sputum samples, and 39 feces samples. All samples were tested by GICA, viral culture, and RT-PCR. GICA specifically reacted with recombinant HA proteins, virus lysates, and clinical samples from H7 subtype viruses. Compared with RT-PCR, GICA demonstrated low sensitivity (33.33%) but high specificity (97.56%). The positive rate of GICA tests for samples collected in the period from 8 to 21 days after contact with poultry was much higher than those for samples collected before or after this period. Compared with viral culture, GICA showed sensitivity of 91.67% and specificity of 82.03%. Sputum specimens were more likely to test positive for H7N9 virus than samples from throat swabs and feces. The GICA-based H7 test is a reliable, rapid, and convenient method for the screening and diagnosis of influenza A (H7N9) disease, especially for the sputum specimens with high viral load. It may be helpful in managing H7N9 epidemics and preliminary diagnosis in early stages in resource-limited settings. PMID:24822207

Wu, Nanping; Peng, Xiaorong; Yao, Hangping; Lu, Xiangyun; Chen, Yu; Wu, Haibo; Xie, Tiansheng; Cheng, Linfang; Liu, Fumin; Kang, Keren; Tang, Shixing; Li, Lanjuan

2014-01-01

73

Automatic cell tracking applied to analysis of cell migration in wound healing assay.  

PubMed

The wound healing assay in vitro is widely used for research and discovery in biology and medicine. This assay allows for observing the healing process in vitro in which the cells on the edges of the artificial wound migrate toward the wound area. The influence of different culture conditions can be measured by observing the change in the size of the wound area. For further investigation, more detailed measurements of the cell behaviors are required. In this paper, we present an application of automatic cell tracking in phase-contrast microscopy images to wound healing assay. The cell behaviors under three different culture conditions have been analyzed. Our cell tracking system can track individual cells during the healing process and provide detailed spatio-temporal measurements of cell behaviors. The application demonstrates the effectiveness of automatic cell tracking for quantitative and detailed analysis of the cell behaviors in wound healing assay in vitro. PMID:22255749

Bise, Ryoma; Kanade, Takeo; Yin, Zhaozheng; Huh, Seung-il

2011-01-01

74

Standardized peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture assay for determination of drug susceptibilities of clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates. The RV-43 Study Group, the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Virology Committee Resistance Working Group.  

PubMed Central

A standardized antiviral drug susceptibility assay for clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates has been developed for use in clinical trials. The protocol is a two-step procedure that first involves cocultivation of patient infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with seronegative phytohemagglutinin-stimulated donor PBMC to obtain an HIV-1 stock. The virus stock is titrated for viral infectivity (50% tissue culture infective dose) by use of serial fourfold virus dilutions in donor PBMC. A standardized inoculum of 1,000 50% tissue culture infective doses per 10(6) cells is used in the second step of the procedure to acutely infect seronegative donor PBMC in a 7-day microtiter plate assay with triplicate wells containing zidovudine (ZDV) concentrations ranging from 0 to 5.0 microM. The ZDV 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for reference ZDV-susceptible and ZDV-resistant HIV-1 isolates ranged from 0.002 to 0.113 microM and from 0.15 to > 5.0 microM, respectively. Use of this consensus protocol reduced interlaboratory variability for ZDV IC50 determinations with reference HIV-1 isolates. Among eight laboratories, the coefficient of variation ranged from 0.85 to 1.25 with different PBMC protocols and was reduced to 0.39 to 0.98 with the standardized assay. Among the clinical HIV-1 isolates assayed by the standardized drug susceptibility assay, the median ZDV IC50 increased gradually with more ZDV therapy. This protocol provides an efficient and reproducible means to assess the in vitro susceptibility to antiretroviral agents of virtually all clinical HIV-1 isolates. PMID:8517697

Japour, A J; Mayers, D L; Johnson, V A; Kuritzkes, D R; Beckett, L A; Arduino, J M; Lane, J; Black, R J; Reichelderfer, P S; D'Aquila, R T

1993-01-01

75

Mammalian Cell Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Course-in-a-Box" from Bio-Link is a good starting point for instructors to develop a course on how to maintain mammalian cells in culture. Students will learn "basic techniques of routine cell culture using common cell lines before progressing to differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells." Laboratories include Basic Aseptic Technique, Media Preparation, and Plating Cells from Frozen Stock. Materials include an Instructor Laboratory Manual, Student Laboratory Manual, Problem Sets, and Quizzes. A free login is required to access the materials.

76

Mammalian Cell Culture Simplified.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)

Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

1991-01-01

77

Neural-Colony Forming Cell Assay: An Assay To Discriminate Bona Fide Neural Stem Cells from Neural Progenitor Cells  

PubMed Central

The neurosphere assay (NSA) is one of the most frequently used methods to isolate, expand and also calculate the frequency of neural stem cells (NSCs). Furthermore, this serum-free culture system has also been employed to expand stem cells and determine their frequency from a variety of tumors and normal tissues. It has been shown recently that a one-to-one relationship does not exist between neurosphere formation and NSCs. This suggests that the NSA as currently applied, overestimates the frequency of NSCs in a mixed population of neural precursor cells isolated from both the embryonic and adult mammalian brain. This video practically demonstrates a novel collagen based semi- solid assay, the neural-colony forming cell assay (N-CFCA), which has the ability to discriminate stem from progenitor cells based on their long-term proliferative potential, and thus provides a method to enumerate NSC frequency. In the N-CFCA, colonies ?2 mm in diameter are derived from cells that meet all the functional criteria of a NSC, while colonies < 2mm are derived from progenitors. The N-CFCA procedure can be used for cells prepared from different sources including primary and cultured adult or embryonic mouse CNS cells. Here we use cells prepared from passage one neurospheres generated from embryonic day 14 mice brain to perform N-CFCA. The cultures are replenished with proliferation medium every seven days for three weeks to allow the plated cells to exhibit their full proliferative potential and then the frequency of neural progenitor and bona fide neural stem cells is calculated respectively by counting the number of colonies that are < 2mm and the ones that are ?2mm in reference to the number of cells that were initially plated. PMID:21403640

Azari, Hassan; Louis, Sharon A.; Sharififar, Sharareh; Vedam-Mai, Vinata; Reynolds, Brent A.

2011-01-01

78

Quantification of an in vitro cell-cell adhesion assay using interactive laser scanning cytometry.  

PubMed

We are interested in identifying cell-cell adhesion molecules on the surface of Sertoli cells that mediate Sertoli cell-spermatogenic cell adhesion. Numerous cell-cell adhesion assays employ microscopic observation, photomicroscopy or radioactive isotopes for quantification. Previously, we developed an in vitro assay for testicular cell interactions. This assay was, however, time consuming using photography for analysis. We have now modified this system using laser cytometry to quantify adherent cells. Rat testicular epithelial cells are cultured for approximately 6 days before labelling with fluorescein diactetate (FDA) to assess confluency by image scanning so that spermatogenic cell binding can be normalized to available epithelial cell surface area. Rat spermatogenic cells are labeled with FDA before addition to epithelial cell monolayers. In some studies, purified spermatogenic cell populations were isolated to determine average cell size. We found that spermatocyte area varied between 225-500 microns2, spermatids were 100-225 microns2 and residual bodies were less than 100 microns2. Using these parameters, scanning cytometry allows the differential analysis of adhesion by individual germ cell sub-classes from mixed cell suspensions, saving time, animals, and major expense. The scanning laser assisted assay is faster, more reproducible and less subjective than earlier cell-cell adhesion assays using light microscopy or isotopes. This experimental approach should facilitate any cell-cell adhesion assay in which one cell type is adherent to a substrate. PMID:1576888

Newton, S C; Millette, C F

1992-01-01

79

Quantum dot-based cell motility assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motility and migration are measurable characteristics of cells that are classically associated with the invasive potential of cancer cells, but in vitro assays of invasiveness have been less than perfect. We previously developed an assay to monitor cell motility and migration using water-soluble CdSe\\/ZnS nanocrystals; cells engulf the fluorescent nanocrystals as they crawl across them and leave behind a fluorescent-free

Teresa Pellegrino; Wolfgang J. Parak; Rosanne Boudreau; Mark A. Le gros; Daniele Gerion; A. Paul Alivisatos; Carolyn A. Larabell

2003-01-01

80

Optimization of NRU assay in primary cultures of Eisenia fetida for metal toxicity assessment.  

PubMed

Coelomocytes, immunocompetent cells of lumbricids, have received special attention for ecotoxicological studies due to their sensibility to pollutants. Their in vitro responses are commonly quantified after in vivo exposure to real or spiked soils. Alternatively, quantifications of in vitro responses after in vitro exposure are being studied. Within this framework, the present study aimed at optimizing the neutral red uptake (NRU) assay in primary culture of Eisenia fetida coelomocytes for its application in soil toxicity testing. Optimized assay conditions were: earthworm depuration for 24 h before retrieving coelomocytes by electric extrusion; 2 × 10(5) seeded cells/well (200 µl) for the NRU assay and incubation for 1 h with neutral red dye. Supplementation of the culture medium with serum was not compatible with the NRU assay, but coelomocytes could be maintained with high viability for 3 days in a serum-free medium without replenishment. Thus, primary cultures were used for 24 h in vitro toxicity testing after exposure to different concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb (ranging from 0.1 to 100 ?g/ml). Primary cultures were sensitive to metals, the viability declining in a dose-dependent manner. The toxicity rank was, from high to low, Pb > Ni > Cd > Cu. Therefore, it can be concluded that the NRU assay in coelomocytes in primary cultures provides a sensitive and prompt response after in vitro exposure to metals. PMID:25011921

Irizar, Amaia; Duarte, Daniel; Guilhermino, Lucia; Marigómez, Ionan; Soto, Manu

2014-09-01

81

Microassay of decarboxylation reactions in cultured cells.  

PubMed

The currently described methods for determination of decarboxylation reaction rates in cultured cells require large quantities of cells and often involve cell manipulation prior to assay. We describe a simple microassay for the rapid measurement of various decarboxylation reaction rates in intact cultured cells. The assay is based on the traditional measurement of 14CO2 generated from 14C-labeled substrates. Key to the method is a novel modification of the standard petri dish. Pyruvate dehydrogenase, branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and ornithine decarboxylase activities were determined in adult cardiomyocyte cultures containing only 0.1-0.5 mg of protein per culture dish. Efficiency of 14CO2 collection ranged between 94 and 100%. Pharmacological enhancement or inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was easily detected in the culture system. This new method simplifies the measurement of various decarboxylation reaction rates in cultured cells and allows rapid, reproducible measurements to be made on small numbers of cells without perturbation of the culture conditions or the cells themselves. PMID:8238897

Bartos, D; Vlessis, A A; Muller, P; Mela-Riker, L; Trunkey, D D

1993-09-01

82

Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines  

PubMed Central

In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

2013-01-01

83

Gaussia luciferase reporter assay for monitoring of biological processes in culture and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Secreted reporters are a useful tool in the monitoring of different biological processes in the conditioned medium of cultured cells as well in the blood and urine of experimental animals. Described here is a protocol for detecting the recently established naturally secreted Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) in cultured cells as well as in blood and urine in vivo. Further, the assay for detecting the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), the most commonly used secreted reporter in serum is also presented. The Gluc reporter system has several advantages over the SEAP assay including: a much reduced assay time (1-10 min vs. 1.5 - 2 h); 20,000-fold (in vitro) or 1000-fold (in vivo) increased sensitivity and a linear range covering over 5 orders of magnitude of cell number. Additionally, the Gluc signal can be detected in urine and the signal can be localized in animals using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. PMID:19373229

Tannous, Bakhos A.

2009-01-01

84

A Biochemical Assay for Acetylcholinesterase Activity in PC12 Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab describes two biochemical assays: One for measuring acetylcholinesterase activity and one for measuring protein concentration. Students learn how to manipulate small-volume samples, use a standard spectrophotometer or a microplate reader spectrophotometer, construct a standard curve, and normalize data. The lab is intended to be used in conjunction with a cell culture lab in which PC12 cells are exposed to various agents that influence their phenotypic state.

Paul J. Schwartz (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey; Department of Neurological Surgery REV)

2007-07-10

85

Human Cell Chips: Adapting DNA Microarray Spotting Technology to Cell-Based Imaging Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we describe human spotted cell chips, a technology for determining cellular state across arrays of cells subjected to chemical or genetic perturbation. Cells are grown and treated under standard tissue culture conditions before being fixed and printed onto replicate glass slides, effectively decoupling the experimental conditions from the assay technique. Each slide is then probed using immunofluorescence or other

Traver Hart; Alice Zhao; Ankit Garg; Swetha Bolusani; Edward M. Marcotte; Joanna Mary Bridger

2009-01-01

86

Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

2004-01-01

87

Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc. has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc. is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

2004-01-01

88

Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid dynamic shear (i.e., as required for viability of shear-sensitive cells) to the developing engineered tissue construct. This bioreactor was recently utilized to show independent and interactive effects of a growth factor (IGF-I) and slow bidirectional perfusion on the survival, differentiation, and contractile performance of 3D tissue engineering cardiac constructs. The main application of this system is within the tissue engineering industry. The ideal final application is within the automated mass production of tissue- engineered constructs. Target industries could be both life sciences companies as well as bioreactor device producing companies.

Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

2010-01-01

89

Notch-ligand binding assays in Drosophila cells.  

PubMed

Activation of the Drosophila transmembrane receptor protein Notch is induced by association with its transmembrane ligands, Delta and Serrate. The ability to assay binding between Notch and its ligands has been essential for characterizing the influence of posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation, as well as for characterizing structural motifs involved in receptor-ligand interactions. We describe here a simple, widely used method for assaying receptor-ligand binding. This method involves expression of soluble forms of either Notch or its ligands, comprising the extracellular domains fused to an easily assayed tag, the enzyme alkaline phosphatase. These soluble proteins are then incubated with their binding partners, either as transmembrane proteins expressed on the surface of cultured cells or as extracellular protein domains attached to agarose beads. After washing, the amount of bound protein can be readily assayed by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity. PMID:25053497

Xu, Aiguo; Irvine, Kenneth D

2014-01-01

90

Fluorometric assay for red blood cell antibodies  

SciTech Connect

A fluorometric assay is described for the detection of red blood cell antibodies. The assay reveals as little as 600 molecules of bound, fluoroesceinated rabbit anti-human IgG antibodies per erythrocyte. Eleven patients with possible autoimmune erythrocyte disorder and negative direct antiglobulin test were studied by the fluorometric assay. The outcome of the fluorometric assay was compared with that of the human allogeneic rosette test. Results obtained by the two methods were in complete agreement. Five of the patients were shown to possess unexpectedly high levels of erythrocyte-bound IgG in spite of a negative, direct antiglobulin test. These findings and the validity of the fluorometric assay are discussed.

Schreiber, A.B.; Lambermont, M.; Strosberg, A.D.; Wybran, J.

1981-03-01

91

Quantum Dot-Based Cell Motility Assay  

SciTech Connect

Because of their favorable physical and photochemical properties, colloidal CdSe/ZnS-semiconductor nanocrystals (commonly known as quantum dots) have enormous potential for use in biological imaging. In this report, we present an assay that uses quantum dots as markers to quantify cell motility. Cells that are seeded onto a homogeneous layer of quantum dots engulf and absorb the nanocrystals and, as a consequence, leave behind a fluorescence-free trail. By subsequently determining the ratio of cell area to fluorescence-free track area, we show that it is possible to differentiate between invasive and noninvasive cancer cells. Because this assay uses simple fluorescence detection, requires no significant data processing, and can be used in live-cell studies, it has the potential to be a powerful new tool for discriminating between invasive and noninvasive cancer cell lines or for studying cell signaling events involved in migration.

Gu, Weiwei; Pellegrino, Teresa; Parak Wolfgang J; Boudreau,Rosanne; Le Gros, Mark A.; Gerion, Daniele; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A.

2005-06-06

92

Microfluidic Cell Culture Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microfluidic devices for cell culturing and methods for using the same are disclosed. One device includes a substrate and membrane. The substrate includes a reservoir in fluid communication with a passage. A bio-compatible fluid may be added to the reservoir and passage. The reservoir is configured to receive and retain at least a portion of a cell mass. The membrane acts as a barrier to evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid from the passage. A cover fluid may be added to cover the bio-compatible fluid to prevent evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid.

Takayama, Shuichi (Inventor); Cabrera, Lourdes Marcella (Inventor); Heo, Yun Seok (Inventor); Smith, Gary Daniel (Inventor)

2014-01-01

93

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Detection of Trichothecenes Produced by the Bioherbicide Myrothecium verrucaria in Cell Cultures, Extracts, and Plant Tissues  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates for trichothecene detection, possessing cross-reactivity with several trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g., verrucarin A, and J, roridin A, L-2, E, and H), were tested for their ability to detect trichothecenes produced by a strain of...

94

Application of long-term cultured interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay for assessing effector and memory T cell responses in cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effector and memory T cells are generated through developmental programing of naïve cells following antigen recognition. If the infection is controlled, up to 95% of the T cells generated during the expansion phase are eliminated (i.e., contraction phase) and memory T cells remain, sometimes for a l...

95

Enzyme?Linked Immunosorbent Assay Detection of Trichothecenes Produced by the Bioherbicide Myrothecium verrucaria in Cell Cultures, Extracts, and Plant Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid technique for trichothecene detection was needed in screening tests of the potential bioherbicide Myrothecium verrucaria (MV), in order to select strains, mutants, or formulations that were void of or that possessed low amounts of these undesirable mycotoxin compounds. Commercially available enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates for trichothecene detection, possessing cross?reactivity with several trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g., verrucarin A, and

Robert E. Hoagland; Mark A. Weaver; C. Douglas Boyette

2008-01-01

96

Cell culture's spider silk road.  

PubMed

A number of synthetic and natural materials have been tried in cell culture and tissue engineering applications in recent years. Now Jeffrey Perkel takes a look at one new culture component that might surprise you-spider silk. PMID:24924388

Perkel, Jeffrey

2014-06-01

97

Human Primary Lung Endothelial Cells in Culture  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary endothelial functions are critical to maintain the low pressure of the pulmonary circulation and effective diffusion capacity of the lung. To investigate pulmonary endothelial cell biology in healthy or diseased lungs, we developed methods to harvest and culture pure populations of primary pulmonary arterial endothelial cells and microvascular endothelial cells from human lung explanted at time of transplantation or from donor lungs not used in transplantation. The purity and characteristics of cultured endothelial cells is ascertained by morphologic criteria using phase contrast and electron microscopy; phenotypic expression profile for endothelial specific proteins such as endothelial nitric oxide synthase, platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule, and von Willbrand factor; and endothelial function assays such as Dil-acetylated low-density lipoprotein uptake and tube formation. This detailed method provides researchers with the ability to establish cells for molecular, genetic, and biochemical investigation of human pulmonary vascular diseases. PMID:22427538

Xu, Weiling; Mavrakis, Lori; Aldred, Micheala A.; Asosingh, Kewal; Erzurum, Serpil C.

2012-01-01

98

Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •DFAT cells are progeny cells derived from dedifferentiated mature adipocytes. •Common problems in this research is potential cell contamination of initial cultures. •The initial cell culture purity is crucial in DFAT cell research field. -- Abstract: Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

Wei, Shengjuan [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China) [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China); Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Bergen, Werner G. [Program in Cellular and Molecular Biosciences/Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)] [Program in Cellular and Molecular Biosciences/Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Hausman, Gary J. [Animal Science Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2771 (United States)] [Animal Science Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2771 (United States); Zan, Linsen, E-mail: zanls@yahoo.com.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China)] [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China); Dodson, Michael V., E-mail: dodson@wsu.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

2013-04-12

99

DETECTION AND TITRATION OF BLUETONGUE VIRUS IN CULICOIDES INSECT CELL CULTURE BY AN ANTIGEN-CAPTURE ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bluetongue virus (BTV) infects sheep, cattle and other ruminants and is transmitted by Culicoides spp. of biting midges. Virus is typically isolated and characterized by infection of susceptible vertebrate cells that undergo detectable and measurable cytopathic effects. Cell lines derived from C. ...

100

Haute Culture: Tailoring stem cells  

E-print Network

research projects and its faculty have founded five stem cell-related startup companies and serveHaute Culture: Tailoring stem cells to make us well Tuesday, April 24, 2012 6:00-7:30 p;Haute Culture: Tailoring stem cells to make us well Moderator Brock Reeve, MPhil, MBA Executive Director

Chou, James

101

3D culture assays of murine mammary branching morphogenesis and epithelial invasion.  

PubMed

Epithelia are fundamental tissues that line cavities, glands, and outer body surfaces. We use three-dimensional (3D) embedded culture of primary murine mammary epithelial ducts, called "organoids," to recapitulate in days in culture epithelial programs that occur over weeks deep within the body. Modulating the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) allows us to model cell- and tissue-level behaviors observed in normal development, such as branching morphogenesis, and in cancer, such as invasion and dissemination. Here, we describe a collection of protocols for 3D culture of mammary organoids in different ECMs and for immunofluorescence staining of 3D culture samples and mammary gland tissue sections. We illustrate expected phenotypic outcomes of each assay and provide troubleshooting tips for commonly encountered technical problems. PMID:25245692

Nguyen-Ngoc, Kim-Vy; Shamir, Eliah R; Huebner, Robert J; Beck, Jennifer N; Cheung, Kevin J; Ewald, Andrew J

2015-01-01

102

KERATINOCYTE CELL-MEDIATED MUTAGENESIS ASSAY: CORRELATION WITH IN VIVO TUMOR STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A murine keratinocyte cell-mediated mutagenesis assay was characterized and examined as an in vitro model system for studying the biotransformation of promutagens/procarcinogens by mouse skin. The assay used living cultured newborn SENCAR keratinocytes for the metabolic activatio...

103

Development of a high-throughput antiviral assay for screening inhibitors of chikungunya virus and generation of drug-resistant mutations in cultured cells.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus that has already infected millions of people in recent large-scale epidemics in Africa, the islands of the Indian Ocean, South and Southeast Asia, and northern Italy. The infection is still ongoing in many countries, such as India. Although the fatal rate is approximately 0.1% in the La Réunion outbreak, it causes painful arthritis-like symptoms that can last for months or even years. Currently, neither vaccine nor approved antiviral therapy exists to protect humans from chikungunya infection. Therefore, there is an urgent unmet medical need for the development of antiviral drugs for pre-exposure prophylaxis and/or treatment of chikungunya infections. In this chapter, we describe a fully validated ATP/luminescence assay that is effective for high-throughput screening of CHIKV inhibitors. Protocols for growing CHIKV stocks and generating drug-resistant viral variants for modes of action studies of compounds are also described. PMID:23821286

Gong, Edwin Yunhao; Bonfanti, Jean-François; Ivens, Tania; Van der Auwera, Marijke; Van Kerckhove, Barbara; Kraus, Guenter

2013-01-01

104

CONTINUOUS-FLOW ENZYME ASSAY ON A MICROFLUIDIC CHIP FOR MONITORING GLYCEROL SECRETION FROM CULTURED ADIPOCYTES  

PubMed Central

A dual-chip microfluidic platform that coupled perfusion of cultured adipocytes with on-line fluorescence-based enzyme assay was developed to monitor glycerol secretions in real-time from cultured adipocytes. The perfusion cell chip, which could be reversibly sealed to allow reloading of cells and reuse of the chip, was shown by modeling to generate low shear stress on the cells under study. Effluent from the perfusion chip was pumped into an enzyme assay chip for monitoring of secretion from the cells. The on-line enzyme assay had a LOD of 4 ?M glycerol. The temporal resolution of the combined system for detecting changes in glycerol concentration was 90 s. The microfluidic device was used to continuously monitor glycerol secretion from murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes, grown and differentiated on glass cover slips, for at least 2 h. An average basal glycerol concentration of 28 ?M was detected in the effluent. Pharmacological treatment with a ?-adrenergic agonist to stimulate lipolysis evoked a 3-fold increase in glycerol secretion followed by sustained release that was 40% higher than basal concentration. The ability to monitor changes in cellular secretion over time may provide insight into adipocyte metabolism and the dysregulation that occurs with obesity-related disorders. PMID:19231843

Clark, Anna M.; Sousa, Kyle M.; Jennings, Colin; MacDougald, Ormond A.; Kennedy, Robert T.

2009-01-01

105

Fermentation with immobilized cell cultures.  

PubMed

For the production of monoclonal antibodies and complex recombinant human proteins or glycoproteins a number of immobilized cell culture systems have been developed. The advantages of such cell culture systems are that cells can be kept in small volumes of cell culture fluid and media can be changed continuously if necessary for induction of product synthesis or removal and harvest of metabolic products. Whereas the hollow fiber and the opticell culture systems can be limited in scaling up the microcarrier system, the fluidized bed bioreactor and the solid bed bioreactor are suitable for scaling up. In contrast to the other systems, the solid bed bioreactor requires no special manipulation for anchoring the cells to the wire springs. In situ cleaning is possible and the beads are reusable. With this cell culture fermentation system, production processes for interferon beta, monoclonal antibodies for interferon alfa and recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator were developed. PMID:3285839

Werner, R G; Merk, W; Walz, F

1988-02-01

106

A new gaseous imaging detector for the assay of lymphocyte cultures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tritium-labelled cell cultures used in studies of lymphocyte proliferation at the Clinical Research Centre are blotted in arrays of 10 × 6 spots spaced at 6 mm. An imaging detector based on the differential induction signals produced at a central amplifying electrode has been developed for the imaging and assay of these blots. A spatial resolution ˜2.5 mm FWHM attained over the aperture of 60 mm × 36 mm enables the individual spots to be reliably counted. Data is captured in a PC/AT at rates which permit an assay to be completed in typically 30-60 min. The simplicity of both the detector and the readout electronics leads to a low cost system. Images and assay results are presented.

Bateman, J. E.; Joyce, A.; Knight, S. C.; Bedford, P.

1991-12-01

107

Detection of soluble T cell receptor-releasing cells by ELISPOT assay.  

PubMed

A specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay has been developed for the detection and enumeration of soluble T cell receptor (TCR)-releasing cells. Using this method, we readily detected at the single cell level the release of soluble TCR by living T lymphoma cells (MT-2 and HSB-2) but not by human B lymphoma cells (DAKIKI), mouse hepatoma cells (MH134) and dead MT-2. Furthermore, distinct spots in MT-2 cell culture were not visualized using several monoclonal antibodies against antigens unrelated to TCRs as a primary antibody. The specific and quantitative detection of soluble TCR-releasing cells using ELISPOT assay will certainly provide a valuable tool to better characterize soluble TCRs and their relationship to immune regulation and a number of diseases. PMID:7775664

Ishizaka, S; Kimoto, M; Nishiyama, T; Araki, T

1995-02-01

108

Huanglongbing and psyllid cell cultures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We successfully established cell cultures of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera), DcHH-1. The cell culture also supported growth of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. This bacterial pathogen is associated with Huanglongbing, known as citrus greening disease. Research on...

109

21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864...Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure...

2013-04-01

110

21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864...Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure...

2014-04-01

111

21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864...Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure...

2012-04-01

112

21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section...Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used...

2010-04-01

113

21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864...Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure...

2011-04-01

114

MATERIALS AND METHODS Cell culture  

E-print Network

cell line hCMEC/D3 which retains the main characteristics of primary brain endothelial cells, has beenMATERIALS AND METHODS Reagents Cell culture The immortalized human brain microvessel endothelial previously described (S1). hCMEC/D3 were grown at a density of 25 000 cells per cm2 in flasks coated with 5

115

New Assay Procedure for Separation of Mycoplasmas from Virus Pools and Tissue Culture Systems  

PubMed Central

Presence of mycoplasma organisms in tissue culture systems and virus pools was detected by titration of the contaminated material on agarose-suspended BHK21/13S cells. The use of this method permitted isolation of mycoplasmas which could not be detected by standard assay methods. Mycoplasma colonies at concentrations ranging from 104 to 106 colony-forming units/ml in agarose-BHK21/13S media could be distinguished from virus plaques, and the two populations of microorganisms could be easily disassociated either by electron microscopy or by biological methods. All isolated mycoplasmas were identified in growth inhibition tests as belonging to the GDL group. The growth inhibition test on agarose-BHK21/13S cell suspension plates could also be applied directly to those strains which could not be isolated by standard assay procedures. Images PMID:4912246

Zgorniak-Nowosielska, Izabella; Sedwick, W. David; Hummeler, Klaus; Koprowski, Hilary

1967-01-01

116

High density cell culture system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

Spaulding, Glenn F. (inventor)

1994-01-01

117

Orosphere Assay: A method for propagation of head and neck cancer stem cells  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence suggests that head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) harbor a small sub-population of highly tumorigenic cells, named cancer stem cells. A limiting factor in cancer stem cell research is the intrinsic difficulty of expanding cells in an undifferentiated state in vitro. Methods Here, we describe the development of the orosphere assay, a method for the study of putative head and neck cancer stem cells. An orosphere is defined as a non-adherent colony of cells sorted from primary HNSCC or from HNSCC cell lines and cultured in 3-D soft agar or ultra-low attachment plates. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and CD44 expression were used here as stem cell markers. Results This assay allowed for the propagation of head and neck cancer cells that retained stemness and self-renewal. Conclusion The orosphere assay is well suited for studies designed to understand the pathobiology of head and neck cancer stem cells. PMID:22791367

Krishnamurthy, Sudha; Nör, Jacques E.

2014-01-01

118

Ovine Carotid Artery-Derived Cells as an Optimized Supportive Cell Layer in 2-D Capillary Network Assays  

PubMed Central

Background Endothelial cell co-culture assays are differentiation assays which simulate the formation of capillary-like tubules with the aid of a supportive cell layer. Different cell types have been employed as a supportive cell layer, including human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and human mammary fibroblasts. However, these sources of human tissue-derived cells are limited, and more readily accessible human or animal tissue-derived cell sources would simplify the endothelial cell co-culture assay. In the present study, we investigated the potential use of alternative, accessible supportive cells for endothelial cell co-culture assay, including human umbilical cord and ovine carotid artery. Methods and Results: Human umbilical artery SMCs (HUASMCs) and ovine carotid artery-derived cells were seeded into 96-well plates, followed by addition of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Nine days after co-culture, cells were fixed, immunostained and analysed using an in vitro angiogenesis quantification tool. Capillary-like structures were detected on ovine carotid artery-derived supportive cell layers. The initial cell number, as well as pro- and anti-angiogenic factors (VEGF, PDGF-BB and Bevacizumab), had a positive or negative influence on the number of capillary-like structures. Furthermore, HUVECs from different donors showed distinct levels of VEGF receptor-2, which correlated with the amount of capillary-like structures. In the case of HUASMC supportive cell layers, HUVECs detached almost completely from the surface. Conclusions Cells of different origin have a varying applicability regarding the endothelial cell co-culture assay: under the conditions described here, ovine carotid artery-derived cells seem to be more suitable than HUASMCs for an endothelial co-culture assay. Furthermore, the ovine carotid artery-derived cells are easier to obtain and are in more abundant supply than the currently used dermal or breast tissue cells. The use of ovine carotid artery-derived cells simplifies the endothelial co-culture assay with respect to testing large amounts of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. PMID:24621607

Dreier, Agnieszka; Unger, Ronald E.; Flanagan, Thomas C.; Kirkpatrick, C. James; Zenke, Martin; Klee, Doris; Jockenhoevel, Stefan

2014-01-01

119

Shellfish tissues evaluated for Perkinsus spp. using the Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium culture assay can be used for downstream molecular assays.  

PubMed

Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM) culture assay is the standard, recommended method for surveillance of Perkinsus spp. infections in marine molluscs. In this assay, shellfish tissues are incubated in RFTM, stained with Lugol's iodine solution to render Perkinsus spp. cells blue-black, and evaluated microscopically to rate infection intensities. A limitation of this assay, however, is the lack of pathogen species specificity. Generally, identification of Perkinsus spp. requires DNA sequence analysis of parallel or additional samples since the exposure to iodine is believed to hamper DNA amplification from samples processed by the RFTM assay. However, we show that P. marinus DNA can be successfully amplified by PCR from Crassostrea virginica tissues cultured in RFTM and stained with Lugol's iodine. The beneficial consequence is that, where necessary, DNA sequence data may be obtained from RFTM-cultured tissues, allowing the identification of the Perkinsus sp. responsible for an observed infection. This would obviate further sampling, representing gain of time and reduction in cost, where a Perkinsus sp. is unexpectedly observed in new host(s) or location(s) but where parallel samples are not available for molecular diagnostics. Laboratories without molecular diagnostic tools for Perkinsus spp. may fix presumptive Perkinsus sp.-positive culture material in 95% ethanol for transport to, and subsequent analysis by, a laboratory that does have this capacity. PMID:18814549

Audemard, C; Carnegie, R B; Burreson, E M

2008-08-01

120

Viral inhibition assay: a CD8 T cell neutralization assay for use in clinical trials of HIV-1 vaccine candidates.  

PubMed

We have characterized an assay measuring CD8 T cell-mediated inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 replication, demonstrating specificity and reproducibility and employing a panel of primary HIV-1 isolates. The assay uses relatively simple autologous cell culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, avoids generation of T cell clones, and can be performed with <2 million peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Efficient CD8 T cell-mediated cross-clade inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro was demonstrated in antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-1-infected subjects with controlled viral replication in vivo but not in viremic subjects. An HIV-1 vaccine candidate, consisting of DNA and recombinant adenovirus 5 vectors tested in a phase I clinical trial, induced CD8 T cells that efficiently inhibited HIV-1 in a HLA-I-dependent manner. Assessment of direct antiviral T cell function by this assay provides additional information to guide vaccine design and the prioritizing of candidates for further clinical trials. PMID:20132004

Spentzou, Aggeliki; Bergin, Philip; Gill, Dilbinder; Cheeseman, Hannah; Ashraf, Ambreen; Kaltsidis, Harry; Cashin-Cox, Michelle; Anjarwalla, Insiyah; Steel, Alan; Higgs, Christopher; Pozniak, Anton; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Wong, Johnson; Anzala, Omu; Karita, Etienne; Dally, Len; Gotch, Frances; Walker, Bruce; Gilmour, Jill; Hayes, Peter

2010-03-01

121

The Molecular Bacterial Load Assay Replaces Solid Culture for Measuring Early Bactericidal Response to Antituberculosis Treatment  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the use of the molecular bacterial load (MBL) assay, for measuring viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum, in comparison with solid agar and liquid culture. The MBL assay provides early information on the rate of decline in bacterial load and has technical advantages over culture in either form. PMID:24871215

Mtafya, Bariki; Phillips, Patrick P. J.; Hoelscher, Michael; Ntinginya, Elias N.; Kohlenberg, Anke; Rachow, Andrea; Rojas-Ponce, Gabriel; McHugh, Timothy D.; Heinrich, Norbert

2014-01-01

122

Morphological characteristics of cultured olfactory bulb cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured olfactory bulb cells from embryonic mice had ultrastructural characteristics similar to those of many cell types in the intact adult mouse olfactory bulb. Identified cultured cells included mitral\\/tufted cells, granule cells, short-axon cells, and fibrous and protoplasmic astrocytes. Cultured neurons were found as individual cells, clusters or aggregates. Clusters consisted of a loose array of neurons that appeared to

S. P. Fracek; L. Guo; R. Schafer

1994-01-01

123

CYTOTOXICITY OF CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS TOWARDS HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS EVALUATED IN A CLONAL ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Survival of human bronchial epithelial cells after administration of four chemical carcinogens was measured in a clonal assay. Human bronchial epithelial cells were obtained from outgrowths of explanted tissue pieces. Serum-free medium was used for both explant culture and clonal...

124

Cryopreservation of Dedifferentiated Cell Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Gottlieb Haberlandt made the first efforts to cultivate single isolated plant cells in salt solutions his goal was to\\u000a prove the totipotency of single cells (Haberlandt 1902). The cultivation of isolated plant cells in a chemically defined culture\\u000a medium became possible only after the discovery and application of auxins (Gautheret 1939). Today plant cells as well as tissues\\u000a can

Elke Heine-Dobbernack; Heiko Kiesecker; Heinz Martin Schumacher

125

Maintaining dendritic cell viability in culture.  

PubMed

When mouse dendritic cells (DCs) are isolated from tissues, purified and placed in a nutritive culture they die more rapidly than would be expected from their normal turnover in vivo. This can distort culture assays of DC function. We therefore tested several approaches to prolonging DC survival in culture. Of several cytokines tested granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor was most effective at preserving the viability of conventional DCs (cDCs) but was ineffective for plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). Surprisingly, Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, crucial for DC development, produced only a marginal improvement in DC survival in culture, and interleukin-3, reported to prevent apoptosis of human pDCs, produced only a minor improvement in survival of mouse DCs. Genetic manipulation of cell death pathways was also tested, to avoid activation effects exerted by cytokine signalling. The isolation of DCs from mice overexpressing Bcl-2 was especially effective in maintaining pDC viability but gave a lesser improvement in cDC viability. DCs isolated from Bim(-/-)Noxa(-/-) mice also showed improved culture survival, but in this case with pDCs showing the least improvement. PMID:25081090

Vremec, David; Hansen, Jacinta; Strasser, Andreas; Acha-Orbea, Hans; Zhan, Yifan; O'Keeffe, Meredith; Shortman, Ken

2015-02-01

126

Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over the past several years, neuroscientists have developed a considerable interest in a glial cell found only in the first\\u000a cranial nerve. These glial cells, which are referred to as “olfactory ensheath-ing cells,” provide ensheathment for the unmyelinated\\u000a axons of the olfactory nerve (Doucette, 1984, Doucette, 1986, 11,1; Raisman, 1985). Two major reasons why these cells have become so popular

Ronald Doucette

127

Kit-On-A-Lid-Assays for accessible self-contained cell assays.  

PubMed Central

Microfluidics have demonstrated the ability to improve the control of the biomechanical and biochemical properties of cell-based assays. However, microscale methods typically rely on macroscopic reagent handling and fluidic loading protocols that are technically challenging and do not scale favorably. Here, we demonstrate a microfluidic platform technology called “Kit-On-A-Lid-Assay” (KOALA), that enables the creation of self-contained microfluidic cell-based assays, integrating all the steps required to perform cell-based assays. The operation of the KOALA platform is user-friendly and consists of bringing together a lid containing the microchannels, and a base containing the pre-packaged reagents, thereby causing fluidic exchange in all the channels simultaneously. We demonstrate that the KOALA cell-based assays can be operated from start to finish without any external laboratory equipment. Finally, we demonstrate KOALA-bases with advanced function allowing the freezing, thawing, and storing of cell-suspensions. PMID:23229806

Berthier, Erwin; Guckenberger, David J.; Cavnar, Peter; Huttenlocher, Anna; Keller, Nancy P.

2013-01-01

128

Fathead minnow FHM cells for use in in vitro cytotoxicity assays of aquatic pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The suitability of the fathead minnow (FHM) epithelial cell line for use as the target (indicator) system in in vitro cytotoxicity assays was evaluated using several endpoints. The organometal diethyltin dichloride served as the representative test agent. The concentration of diethyltin dichloride which resulted in a midpoint toxicity was 3.5 microM in a 3-day cell growth assay, 3.8 microM in the 24-hr neutral red assay, and 16.5 microM in a 4-hr cell detachment assay. The neutral red assay was used to compare the relative sensitivities of the FHM cells (exposed at 34/sup 0/C) with those of bluegill sunfish (BF-2) cells, a fibroblastic cell culture (exposed at 26 degrees C), in the presence of different classes of test agents frequently occurring as aquatic pollutants. For both fish species the sequence of potencies of the test agents was in the order of organometals greater than pesticides approximately equal to polychlorinated biphenyls greater than polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons greater than phenolics. Overall, the FHM cells were more sensitive than were the BF-2 cells. However, there was a better correlation between the in vitro cytotoxicity data for the BF-2 cell culture and LC50 data for bluegill sunfish than between similar data for the FHM cell line and fathead minnows.

Babich, H.; Borenfreund, E.

1987-08-01

129

Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Inferences-from In Vivo Assays  

E-print Network

Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Inferences-from In Vivo Assays CONNIEEAVES,CINDYMILLER,JOHANNE CASHMAN Columbia, Canada Key Words.Hematopoietic stem cells Transplantation Cord blood. Expansion Growthfactors murine hematopoietic stem cells to be quantitated. Measurements of murine CRU have shown

Zandstra, Peter W.

130

Direct Fluorescent Assay of Urokinase and Plasminogen Activators of Normal and Malignant Cells: Kinetics and Inhibitor Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct rate assay for plasminogen activator has been developed using a synthetic fluorogenic peptide substrate, 7-(N-Cbz-glycylglycylargininamido)-4-methylcoumarin trifluoroacetate. The assay correlates well with the standard 125I-labeled fibrin plate assay using highly purified urokinase, culture fluids from WI-38, Chinese hamster ovary or HeLa cells, or Rous sarcoma virus-transformed chick fibroblasts as the source of plasminogen activator. The assay is sensitive, rapid,

M. Zimmerman; J. P. Quigley; B. Ashe; C. Dorn; R. Goldfarb; W. Troll

1978-01-01

131

Homogeneous Cell- and Bead-Based Assays for High Throughput Screening Using Fluorometric Microvolume Assay Technology.  

PubMed

High throughput drug screening has become a critical component of the drug discovery process. The screening of libraries containing hundreds of thousands of compounds has resulted in a requirement for assays and instrumentation that are amenable to nonradioactive formats and that can be miniaturized. Homogeneous assays that minimize upstream automation of the individual assays are also preferable. Fluorometric microvolume assay technology (FMAT) is a fluorescence-based platform for the development of nonradioactive cell- and bead-based assays for HTS. This technology is plate format-independent, and while it was designed specifically for homogeneous ligand binding and immunological assays, it is amenable to any assay utilizing a fluorescent cell or bead. The instrument fits on a standard laboratory bench and consists of a laser scanner that generates a 1 mm(2) digitized image of a 100-µmm deep section of the bottom of a microwell plate. The instrument is directly compatible with a Zymark Twistertrade mark (Zymark Corp., Hopkinton, MA) for robotic loading of the scanner and unattended operation in HTS mode. Fluorescent cells or beads at the bottom of the well are detected as localized areas of concentrated fluorescence using data processing. Unbound flurophore comprising the background signal is ignored, allowing for the development of a wide variety of homogeneous assays. The use of FMAT for peptide ligand binding assays, immunofluorescence, apoptosis and cytotoxicity, and bead-based immunocapture assays is described here, along with a general overview of the instrument and software. PMID:10838439

Miraglia; Swartzman; Mellentin-Michelotti; Evangelista; Smith; Gunawan; Lohman; Goldberg; Manian; Yuan

1999-01-01

132

A novel coagulation assay incorporating adherent endothelial cells in thromboelastometry.  

PubMed

Following vascular injury or activation, endothelial cells (ECs) participate in the modulation of haemostasis and fibrinolysis. Viscoelastic tests (VETs) are a potent bedside monitoring tool that reports haemostatic parameters in real time. However, VETs neglect the influence of the surrounding endothelium. Our aim was therefore to establish an assay that incorporates ECs in a whole blood VET and to assess the impact of ECs on coagulation parameters. Outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were seeded onto microbeads to create transferable EC-microcarriers. Microbeads were then added to citrated whole blood in the measurement cup of a thromboelastometry device (ROTEM). After the addition of CaCl2 (star-TEM®) to the blood sample (NATEM assay), standard ROTEM parameters were analysed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to visualise the interactions of the beads, whole blood components and the ROTEM pin after clotting. SEM showed that the added microbeads were effectively incorporated into the final blood clot. In the presence of activated ECs, the clotting time (CT) of the blood was shortened fourfold compared to that in uncoated control beads. A significant reduction in CT was also observed in the presence of unstimulated ECs. Interestingly, CT was also reduced by the addition of purified EC culture supernatant. CT shortening was prevented by incubating the supernatant with an inhibiting antibody against tissue factor (TF). Our findings demonstrate that ECs can be incorporated into a ROTEM assay via coated microbeads, and whole blood clotting initiation is accelerated by non-activated and activated ECs. PMID:23494019

Zipperle, J; Schlimp, C J; Holnthoner, W; Husa, A-M; Nürnberger, S; Redl, H; Schöchl, H

2013-05-01

133

Cell stretching in extensional flows for assaying cell mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is growing evidence that cell deformability is a useful indicator of cell state and may be a label-free biomarker of metastatic potential, degree of differentiation, and leukocyte activation. In order for deformability measurements to be clinically valuable given the heterogeneity of biological samples, there exists a need for a high-throughput assay of this biophysical property. We developed a robust method for obtaining high-throughput (>1,000 cells/sec) single-cell mechanical measurements which employs coupled hydrodynamic lift forces and curvature-induced secondary flows to uniformly position cells in flow, extensional flow stretching, high-speed imaging, and automated image analysis to extract diameter and deformability parameters. Using this method we have assayed numerous in vitro models of cellular transformations and clinical fluids where malignant cells manifest. We found transformations associated with increased motility or invasiveness increased deformability and the presence of large and deformable cells within clinical pleural fluids correlated well with cytological diagnoses of malignancy. This agrees with the hypothesis that cancerous cells are deformable by necessity--to be able to transverse tight endothelial gaps and invade tissues.

Gossett, Daniel; Tse, Henry; Adeyiga, Oladunni; Yang, Otto; Rao, Jianyu; di Carlo, Dino

2013-03-01

134

Use of immunochromatographic assay for rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from liquid culture  

PubMed Central

A new, simple immunochromatographic assay for rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in liquid cultures has been developed. The principle of the assay is binding of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex specific antigen to the monoclonal antibody conjugated on the test strip. The aim of this study is evaluation of the performance of immunochromatographic assay in identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in primary positive liquid cultures of BacT/Alert automated system. A total of 159 primary positive liquid cultures were tested using the immunochromatographic assay (BD MGIT TBc ID) and the conventional subculture, followed by identification using biochemical tests. Of 159 positive liquid cultures, using the conventional method, Mycobacterium tuberculos is was identified in 119 (74.8%), nontuberculous mycobacteria were found in 4 (2.5%), 14 (8.8%) cultures were contaminated and 22 (13.8%) cultures were found to be negative. Using the immunochromatographic assay, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was detected in 118 (74.2%) liquid cultures, and 41 (25.8%) tests were negative. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the test were 98.3%; 97.5%; 99.15%; 95.12%, respectively. The value of kappa test was 0.950, and McNemar test was 1.00. The immunochromatographic assay is a simple and rapid test which represents a suitable alternative to the conventional subculture method for the primary identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in liquid cultures of BacT/Alert automated system. PMID:22364301

Považan, Anika; Vukeli?, Anka; Savkovi?, Tijana; Kurucin, Tatjana

2012-01-01

135

Cultured Human Renal Cortical Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the STS-90 shuttle flight in April 1998, cultured renal cortical cells revealed new information about genes. Timothy Hammond, an investigator in NASA's microgravity biotechnology program was interested in culturing kidney tissue to study the expression of proteins useful in the treatment of kidney diseases. Protein expression is linked to the level of differentiation of the kidney cells, and Hammond had difficulty maintaining differentiated cells in vitro. Intrigued by the improvement in cell differentiation that he observed in rat renal cells cultured in NASA's rotating wall vessel (a bioreactor that simulates some aspects of microgravity) and during an experiment performed on the Russian Space Station Mir, Hammond decided to sleuth out which genes were responsible for controlling differentiation of kidney cells. To do this, he compared the gene activity of human renal cells in a variety of gravitational environments, including the microgravity of the space shuttle and the high-gravity environment of a centrifuge. Hammond found that 1,632 genes out of 10,000 analyzed changed their activity level in microgravity, more than in any of the other environments. These results have important implications for kidney research as well as for understanding the basic mechanism for controlling cell differentiation.

1998-01-01

136

Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) extract exhibits atropine-sensitive activity in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.  

PubMed

Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) plant extract is used as a herbal alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it was shown that hawthorn extract preparations caused negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay, independent of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effect of hawthorn extract to decrease the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the hypothesis that hawthorn is acting via muscarinic receptors, the effect of hawthorn extract on atrial versus ventricular cardiomyocytes in culture was evaluated. As would be expected for activation of muscarinic receptors, hawthorn extract had a greater effect in atrial cells. Atrial and/or ventricular cardiomyocytes were then treated with hawthorn extract in the presence of atropine or himbacine. Changes in the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes revealed that both muscarinic antagonists significantly attenuated the negative chronotropic activity of hawthorn extract. Using quinuclidinyl benzilate, L-[benzylic-4,4'-(3)H] ([(3)H]-QNB) as a radioligand antagonist, the effect of a partially purified hawthorn extract fraction to inhibit muscarinic receptor binding was quantified. Hawthorn extract fraction 3 dose-dependently inhibited [(3)H]-QNB binding to mouse heart membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that decreased contraction frequency by hawthorn extracts in neonatal murine cardiomyocytes may be mediated via muscarinic receptor activation. PMID:18696181

Salehi, Satin; Long, Shannon R; Proteau, Philip J; Filtz, Theresa M

2009-01-01

137

The use of macrophages stimulated by immune interferon as indicator cells in the mononuclear phagocyte assay.  

PubMed

Macrophages obtained from human monocytes by monolayer culture were stimulated with recombinant immune interferon. They were compared with unstimulated macrophages and monocytes as indicator cells in the mononuclear phagocyte assay, using both IgG anti-Rh(D)-coated complement-coated red cells. The presence of the interferon in the culture medium improved the adherence of macrophages in monolayers. The interferon markedly augmented the number of IgG-coated red cells which became attached to the macrophages and reduced the amount of antibody needed for red cell-macrophage interaction. This stimulatory effect occurred regardless of the IgG subclass composition of the anti-Rh(D) antibody. The activity of the stimulated macrophages to interact with IgG- or complement-coated red cells was considerably greater than that of monocytes. The results imply that macrophages treated with recombinant immune interferon are more sensitive than monocytes as indicator cells in the mononuclear phagocyte assay. PMID:3127106

Wiener, E; Garner, S F

1987-01-01

138

Cell culture compositions  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6 (SEQ ID NO:1 encodes the full length endoglucanase; SEQ ID NO:4 encodes the mature form), and the corresponding endoglucanase VI amino acid sequence ("EGVI"; SEQ ID NO:3 is the signal sequence; SEQ ID NO:2 is the mature sequence). The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yiao, Jian

2014-03-18

139

Behavior of endothelial cells on Matrigel and development of a method for a rapid and reproducible in vitro angiogenesis assay.  

PubMed

During the process of angiogenesis, the normally quiescent endothelial cells that line the vasculature are induced to proliferate, migrate and align to form new blood vessels by angiogenic stimuli. Assays for angiogenic factors mostly involve in vivo approaches. The two most commonly used in vivo assays-the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and the rabbit corneal assay are tedious to perform and are technically demanding. Several in vitro assays have also been developed, based on the ability of endothelial cells to form tubes in 3-D matrices. Here, we describe the modification of a microcarrier bead-based assay. This assay combines cells grown on Cytodex-3 microcarrier beads with Matrigel to provide an easy, rapid, and reliable method for evaluating and measuring angiogenic activity. We also describe the differential behavior of normal and transformed endothelial cells cultured in Matrigel. PMID:17570022

Crabtree, Benedict; Subramanian, Vasanta

2007-02-01

140

Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells: Tissue Origin, Isolation And Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummarySince the pioneering work of Alexander Friedenstein on multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), a tremendous amount of work has been done to isolate, characterize and culture such cells. Assay of colony forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-Fs), the hallmark of MSCs, is used to estimate their frequency in tissue. MSCs are adherent cells, so they are easy to isolate, and they show contact

Philippe Bourin; Mélanie Gadelorge; Julie-Anne Peyrafitte; Sandrine Fleury-Cappellesso; Marilyn Gomez; Christine Rage; Luc Sensebe

2008-01-01

141

Production of tropane alkaloids in cultured cells of Hyoscyamus niger.  

PubMed

Tests for calluses rich in tropane alkaloids were made with newly induced calluses of Atropa belladonna, Datura stramonium and Hyoscyamus niger. Only calluses of H. niger gave an alkaloid-positive test.A Hyoscyamus cell line had the highest total alkaloid content of all the calluses screened by the cell-squash alkaloid assay. Both hyoscyamine and scopolamine were identified in the cultured cells of this line by TLC, GLC and GC-MS. PMID:24259019

Yamada, Y; Hashimoto, T

1982-04-01

142

A microfluidic device for uniform-sized cell spheroids formation, culture, harvesting and flow cytometry analysis  

PubMed Central

Culture of cells as three-dimensional (3D) aggregates, named spheroids, possesses great potential to improve in vitro cell models for basic biomedical research. However, such cell spheroid models are often complicated, cumbersome, and expensive compared to conventional Petri-dish cell cultures. In this work, we developed a simple microfluidic device for cell spheroid formation, culture, and harvesting. Using this device, cells could form uniformly sized spheroids due to strong cell–cell interactions and the spatial confinement of microfluidic culture chambers. We demonstrated cell spheroid formation and culture in the designed devices using embryonic stem cells, carcinoma cells, and fibroblasts. We further scaled up the device capable of simultaneously forming and culturing 5000 spheroids in a single chip. Finally, we demonstrated harvesting of the cultured spheroids from the device with a simple setup. The harvested spheroids possess great integrity, and the cells can be exploited for further flow cytometry assays due to the ample cell numbers. PMID:24396525

Patra, Bishnubrata; Chen, Ying-Hua; Peng, Chien-Chung; Lin, Shiang-Chi; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Tung, Yi-Chung

2013-01-01

143

Isolation and culture of protoplasts from cotton cell cultures  

E-print Network

ISOLATION AND CULTURE OF PROTOPLASTS FROM COTTON CELL CULTURES A Thesis by JOHN JAMES FINER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1981... Major Subject: Plant Physiology ISOLATION AND CULTURE OF PROTOPLASTS FROM COTTON CELL CULTURES A Thesis by John James Finer Approved as tc style and content by: (Chairman ot Committee) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Head oF Department) May 1981...

Finer, John James

1981-01-01

144

A paper-based invasion assay: Assessing chemotaxis of cancer cells in gradients of oxygen.  

PubMed

This work describes a 3D, paper-based assay that can isolate sub-populations of cells based on their invasiveness (i.e., distance migrated in a hydrogel) in a gradient of concentration of oxygen (O2). Layers of paper impregnated with a cell-compatible hydrogel are stacked and placed in a plastic holder to form the invasion assay. In most assays, the stack comprises a single layer of paper containing mammalian cells suspended in a hydrogel, sandwiched between multiple layers of paper containing only hydrogel. Cells in the stack consume and produce small molecules; these molecules diffuse throughout the stack to generate gradients in the stack, and between the stack and the bulk culture medium. Placing the cell-containing layer in different positions of the stack, or modifying the permeability of the holder to oxygen or proteins, alters the profile of the gradients within the stack. Physically separating the layers after culture isolates sub-populations of cells that migrated different distances, and enables their subsequent analysis or culture. Using this system, three independent cell lines derived from A549 cancer cells are shown to produce distinguishable migration behavior in a gradient of oxygen. This result is the first experimental demonstration that oxygen acts as a chemoattractant for cancer cells. PMID:25818432

Mosadegh, Bobak; Lockett, Matthew R; Minn, Kyaw Thu; Simon, Karen A; Gilbert, Karl; Hillier, Shawn; Newsome, David; Li, Howard; Hall, Amy B; Boucher, Diane M; Eustace, Brenda K; Whitesides, George M

2015-06-01

145

Morphological characteristics of cultured olfactory bulb cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured olfactory bulb cells from embryonic mice had ultrastructural characteristics similar to those of many cell types\\u000a in the intact adult mouse olfactory bulb. Identified cultured cells included mitral\\/tufted cells, granule cells, short-axon\\u000a cells, and fibrous and protoplasmic astrocytes. Cultured neurons were found as individual cells, clusters or aggregates. Clusters\\u000a consisted of a loose array of neurons that appeared to

S. P. Fracek; L. Guo; R. Schafer

1994-01-01

146

Modified procedure for labelling target cells in a europium release assay of natural killer cell activity.  

PubMed

Lanthanide europium chelated to diethylenetriaminopentaacetate (EuDTPA) can be used to label target cells such as tumor cells and lymphocytes (Blomberg et al., 1986a,b; Granberg et al., 1988). This procedure has permitted the development of new non-radioactive methods for the detection of target cell cytolysis by natural killer (NK) cells (Blomberg et al., 1986a,b), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) (Granberg et al., 1988) or complement-mediated cytolysis (Cui et al., 1992). However, we had no success with this method because of a lack of comparability between human NK cell activity simultaneously measured by a classical 51Cr release assay (Seaman et al., 1981) and EuDTPA release assay (Blomberg et al., 1986a). Furthermore, cell division and cell viability were significantly impaired by the suggested concentrations of EuCl3. In this paper, we present a modified non-cytotoxic method for target cell labelling with EuDTPA while cells are growing in culture medium. PMID:8486925

Pacifici, R; Di Carlo, S; Bacosi, A; Altieri, I; Pichini, S; Zuccaro, P

1993-05-01

147

Culturing adult stem cells from mouse small intestinal crypts.  

PubMed

In recent years, the study of primary cells in culture has evolved from an extraphysiological, two-dimensional platform to novel, three-dimensional platforms in which the addition of matrix components and/or supporting cells provide an ex vivo niche. Such studies have provided the basis on which to study more advanced physiological processes in detail, including multilayered, long-term cultures, epithelial-stromal interactions, and stem cell behaviors that more closely recapitulate normal morphology than two-dimensional culture. Various techniques for three-dimensional organotypic culture and crypt culture of primary cells from mouse and human small intestine and colon have been described. These methods have allowed for the study of specific stem cell characteristics, including survival, self-renewal, and long-term growth in culture, as well as the ability to propagate all the appropriate progenitor and postmitotic lineages. These assays have become a widely accepted functional measure of "stemness" and, in combination with lineage-tracing experiments in various genetically engineered mouse models, have been critical in the identification of specific markers of intestinal stem cells. In this protocol we draw upon recently described methods for the isolation and culture of mouse small intestinal enterospheres/enteroids from isolated crypts and/or single cells. Cultures of murine colon epithelium, as well as human small intestine and colon, require additional growth factors not discussed here. The description provided here represents current knowledge, and it is possible, if not likely, that modifications in the future will emerge. PMID:25834260

Hamilton, Kathryn E; Crissey, Mary Ann S; Lynch, John P; Rustgi, Anil K

2015-01-01

148

Ocular irritation reversibility assessment for personal care products using a porcine corneal culture assay.  

PubMed

Personal care product manufacturers have used a broad spectrum of alternative ocular irritation assays during the past two decades because these tests do not require the use of live animals, they provide reliable predictive data, and they are relatively inexpensive to conduct. To complement these assays, the ex vivo Porcine Corneal Opacity Reversibility Assay (PorCORA) was recently developed using a corneal culture model to predict reversibility of ocular irritants. Three commercially available consumer products (a shampoo, a hair color glaze, and a hair colorant system containing 12% hydrogen peroxide) were each tested in two PorCORA study replicates in order to assess potential ocular damage reversibility for surfactant-, propylene carbonate-, and peroxide-based formulations, respectively. Under the exaggerated, in vitro study conditions, the surfactant-based shampoo may cause irreversible porcine corneal damage (histological changes in the epithelial squamous cell and/or basal cell layers), whereas the hair color glaze and 12% hydrogen peroxide product caused fully reversible ocular irritation (microscopic changes only in the superficial squamous cell layer). The hair color glaze and peroxide product results correlate with established in vivo data for similar compounds, but the shampoo results contradicted previous BCOP results (expected to be only a mild irritant). Therefore, although the PorCORA protocol shows promise in predicting the extent and reversibility of potential ocular damage caused by accidental consumer eye exposure to personal care products, the contradictory results for the surfactant-based shampoo indicate that more extensive validation testing of the PorCORA is necessary to definitively establish the protocol's reliability as a Draize test replacement. PMID:21172418

Donahue, Douglas A; Avalos, Javier; Kaufman, Lewis E; Simion, F Anthony; Cerven, Daniel R

2011-04-01

149

A simple colony-formation assay in liquid medium, termed 'tadpoling', provides a sensitive measure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture viability.  

PubMed

Here we describe the first high-throughput amenable method of quantifying Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture viability. Current high-throughput methods of assessing yeast cell viability, such as flow cytometry and SGA analysis, do not measure the percentage viability of a culture but instead measure cell vitality or colony fitness, respectively. We developed a method, called tadpoling, to quantify the percentage viability of a yeast culture, with the ability to detect as few as one viable cell amongst ~10(8) dead cells. The most important feature of this assay is the exploitation of yeast colony formation in liquid medium. Utilizing a microtiter dish, we are able to observe a range of viability of 100% to 0.0001%. Comparison of tadpoling to the traditional plating method to measure yeast culture viability reveals that, for the majority of Saccharomyces species analyzed there is no significant difference between the two methods. In comparison to flow cytometry using propidium iodide, the high-throughput method of measuring yeast culture viability, tadpoling is much more accurate at culture viabilities?cell viability. PMID:24185677

Welch, Aaron Z; Koshland, Douglas E

2013-12-01

150

Multiwell stiffness assay for the study of cell responsiveness to cytotoxic drugs  

PubMed Central

It is now well understood that the cell microenvironment, including the surrounding matrix, profoundly affects cell fate. This is especially true for solid tumors where, for example, matrix stiffness is believed to be an important factor in tumorogenesis. Our hypothesis is that since matrix stiffness affects cell fate, it may also be important in drug resistance. To test this hypothesis, we designed and built a multiwell polyacrylamide (PA) gel-based stiffness assay, in which the gels were coated with collagen in order to facilitate cell attachment and proliferation. This PA-based assay was used to examine the effect of stiffness on cultured cell responsiveness to cytotoxic drugs. In particular, we tested multiple cancer cell lines and their susceptibility to paclitaxel, a microtubule-targeting agent. By assessing cell proliferation, morphology, and the IC50 of the drug, we were able to establish that the stiffness affects responsiveness to cytotoxic drugs in a cell dependent manner. PMID:24018833

Zustiak, Silviya; Nossal, Ralph; Sackett, Dan L.

2013-01-01

151

Opsonophagocytic assay.  

PubMed

The opsonophagocytic killing (OPK) assay is used as a correlate for protection to measure the functional capacities of vaccine-candidate-raised antibodies. This in vitro assay aids selecting promising vaccines by demonstrating whether the vaccine-induced antibodies drive efficient complement deposition and subsequent opsonophagocytic killing. Here, we describe two protocols for an OPK assay using either human-derived PMNs or cultured HL-60 cells. PMID:24218277

Dwyer, Markryan; Gadjeva, Mihaela

2014-01-01

152

A microfluidic live cell assay to study anthrax toxin induced cell lethality assisted by conditioned medium  

PubMed Central

It is technically challenging to investigate the function of secreted protein in real time by supply of conditioned medium that contains secreted protein of interest. The internalization of anthrax toxin is facilitated by a secreted protein Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and its receptor, and eventually leads to cell lethality. To monitor the dynamic interplay between these components in live cells, we use an integrated microfluidic device to perform the cell viability assays with real-time controlled culture microenvironment in parallel. Conditioned medium, which contains the secreted proteins from specific cell lines, can be continuously pumped towards the cells that exposed to toxin. The exogenous DKK1 secreted from distant cells is able to rescue the sensitivity to toxin for those DKK1-knocked-down cells. This high-throughput assay allows us to precisely quantify the dynamic interaction between key components that cause cell death, and provide independent evidence of the function of DKK1 in the complex process of anthrax toxin internalization. PMID:25731605

Shen, Jie; Cai, Changzu; Yu, Zhilong; Pang, Yuhong; Zhou, Ying; Qian, Lili; Wei, Wensheng; Huang, Yanyi

2015-01-01

153

A microfluidic live cell assay to study anthrax toxin induced cell lethality assisted by conditioned medium.  

PubMed

It is technically challenging to investigate the function of secreted protein in real time by supply of conditioned medium that contains secreted protein of interest. The internalization of anthrax toxin is facilitated by a secreted protein Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and its receptor, and eventually leads to cell lethality. To monitor the dynamic interplay between these components in live cells, we use an integrated microfluidic device to perform the cell viability assays with real-time controlled culture microenvironment in parallel. Conditioned medium, which contains the secreted proteins from specific cell lines, can be continuously pumped towards the cells that exposed to toxin. The exogenous DKK1 secreted from distant cells is able to rescue the sensitivity to toxin for those DKK1-knocked-down cells. This high-throughput assay allows us to precisely quantify the dynamic interaction between key components that cause cell death, and provide independent evidence of the function of DKK1 in the complex process of anthrax toxin internalization. PMID:25731605

Shen, Jie; Cai, Changzu; Yu, Zhilong; Pang, Yuhong; Zhou, Ying; Qian, Lili; Wei, Wensheng; Huang, Yanyi

2015-01-01

154

An improved method for staining cell colonies in clonogenic assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonogenic assay is a widely used experimental approach to test for the effects of drugs\\/genes on the growth and proliferative\\u000a characteristics of cells in vitro. Accurate quantitation of treatment effects in clonogeneic assays depends on the ability\\u000a to visualize and count cell colonies precisely. We report a novel method (referred as ETeB) for staining cell colonies grown\\u000a on plastic and

Kishore Guda; Leanna Natale; Sanford D. Markowitz

2007-01-01

155

Isolation and Expansion of the Adult Mouse Neural Stem Cells Using the Neurosphere Assay  

PubMed Central

Isolation and expansion of the putative neural stem cells (NSCs) from the adult murine brain was first described by Reynolds and Weiss in 1992 employing a chemically defined serum-free culture system known as the neurosphere assay (NSA). In this assay, the majority of differentiated cell types die within a few days of culture but a small population of growth factor responsive precursor cells undergo active proliferation in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/ basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF). These cells form colonies of undifferentiated cells called neurospheres, which in turn can be subcultured to expand the pool of neural stem cells. Moreover, the cells can be induced to differentiate, generating the three major cell types of the CNS i.e. neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. This assay provides an invaluable tool to supply a consistent, renewable source of undifferentiated CNS precursors, which could be used for in vitro studies and also for therapeutic purposes. This video demonstrates the NSA method to generate and expand NSCs from the adult mouse periventricular region, and provides technical insights to ensure one can achieve reproducible neurosphere cultures. The procedure includes harvesting the brain from the adult mouse, micro-dissection of the periventricular region, tissue preparation and culture in the NSA. The harvested tissue is first chemically digested using trypsin-EDTA and then mechanically dissociated in NSC medium to achieve a single cell suspension and finally plated in the NSA. After 7-10 days in culture, the resulting primary neurospheres are ready for subculture to reach the amount of cells required for future experiments. PMID:21113123

Azari, Hassan; Rahman, Maryam; Sharififar, Sharareh; Reynolds, Brent A.

2010-01-01

156

9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6...AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to...

2012-01-01

157

9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6...AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to...

2014-01-01

158

9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6...AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to...

2013-01-01

159

9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6...AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to...

2011-01-01

160

9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6...AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to...

2010-01-01

161

Reference cells and ploidy in the comet assay  

PubMed Central

In the comet assay single cells are analyzed with respect to their level of DNA damage. Discrimination of the individual cell or cell type based on DNA content, with concomitant scoring of the DNA damage, is useful since this may allow analysis of mixtures of cells. Different cells can then be characterized based on their ploidy, cell cycle stage, or genome size. We here describe two applications of such a cell type-specific comet assay: (i) Testicular cell suspensions, analyzed on the basis of their ploidy during spermatogenesis; and (ii) reference cells in the form of fish erythrocytes which can be included as internal standards to correct for inter-assay variations. With standard fluorochromes used in the comet assay, the total staining signal from each cell – whether damaged or undamaged – was found to be associated with the cell’s DNA content. Analysis of the fluorescence intensity of single cells is straightforward since these data are available in scoring systems based on image analysis. The analysis of testicular cell suspensions provides information on cell type specific composition, susceptibility to genotoxicants, and DNA repair. Internal reference cells, either untreated or carrying defined numbers of lesions induced by ionizing radiation, are useful for investigation of experimental factors that can cause variation in comet assay results, and for routine inclusion in experiments to facilitate standardization of methods, and comparison of comet assay data obtained in different experiments or in different laboratories. They can also be used – in combination with a reference curve – to quantify the DNA lesions induced by a certain treatment. Fish cells of a range of genome sizes, both greater and smaller than human, are suitable for this purpose, and they are inexpensive. PMID:25774164

Brunborg, Gunnar; Collins, Andrew; Graupner, Anne; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Olsen, Ann-Karin

2015-01-01

162

A cell-based reporter assay for screening for EcR agonist/antagonist activity of natural ecdysteroids in Lepidoptera (Bm5) and Diptera (S2) cell cultures, followed by modeling of ecdysteroid-EcR interactions and normal mode analysis.  

PubMed

Ecdysteroid signal transduction is a key process in insect development and therefore an important target for insecticide development. We employed an in vitro cell-based reporter bioassay for the screening of potential ecdysone receptor (EcR) agonistic and antagonistic compounds. Natural ecdysteroids were assayed with ecdysteroid-responsive cell line cultures that were transiently transfected with the reporter plasmid ERE-b.act.luc. We used the dipteran Schneider S2 cells of Drosophila melanogaster and the lepidopteran Bm5 cells of Bombyx mori, representing important pest insects in medicine and agriculture. Measurements showed an EcR agonistic activity only for cyasterone both in S2 (EC50=3.3?M) and Bm5 cells (EC50=5.3?M), which was low compared to that of the commercial dibenzoylhydrazine-based insecticide tebufenozide (EC50=0.71?M and 0.00089?M, respectively). Interestingly, a strong antagonistic activity was found for castasterone in S2 cells with an IC50 of 0.039?M; in Bm5 cells this effect only became visible at much higher concentrations (IC50=18?M). To gain more insight in the EcR interaction, three-dimensional modeling of dipteran and lepidopteran EcR-LBD was performed. In conclusion, we showed that the EcR cell-based reporter bioassay tested here is a useful and practical tool for the screening of candidate EcR agonists and antagonists. The docking experiments as well as the normal mode analysis provided evidence that the antagonist activity of castasterone may be through direct binding with the receptor with specific changes in protein flexibility. The search for new ecdysteroid-like compounds may be particularly relevant for dipterans because the activity of dibenzoylhydrazines appears to be correlated with an extension of the EcR-LBD binding pocket that is prominent in lepidopteran receptors but less so in the modeled dipteran structure. PMID:24267692

Zotti, Moisés J; De Geyter, Ellen; Swevers, Luc; Braz, Antônio S K; Scott, Luis P B; Rougé, Pierre; Coll, Josep; Grutzmacher, Anderson D; Lenardão, Eder J; Smagghe, Guy

2013-11-01

163

The effect of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine on cultured human periodontal ligament cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHx) on cultured human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vitro. Study Design: The effects of irrigation solutions on human PDL cells were evaluated by propidium iodide fluorescence cytotoxicity assay, protein synthesis assay, and mitochondrial activity. Results: Both NaOCl and CHx were cytotoxic to

Yu-Chao Chang; Fu-Mei Huang; Kuo-Wei Tai; Ming-Yung Chou

2001-01-01

164

One Mouse, Two Cultures: Isolation and Culture of Adult Neural Stem Cells from the Two Neurogenic Zones of Individual Mice  

PubMed Central

The neurosphere assay and the adherent monolayer culture system are valuable tools to determine the potential (proliferation or differentiation) of adult neural stem cells in vitro. These assays can be used to compare the precursor potential of cells isolated from genetically different or differentially treated animals to determine the effects of exogenous factors on neural precursor cell proliferation and differentiation and to generate neural precursor cell lines that can be assayed over continuous passages. The neurosphere assay is traditionally used for the post-hoc identification of stem cells, primarily due to the lack of definitive markers with which they can be isolated from primary tissue and has the major advantage of giving a quick estimate of precursor cell numbers in brain tissue derived from individual animals. Adherent monolayer cultures, in contrast, are not traditionally used to compare proliferation between individual animals, as each culture is generally initiated from the combined tissue of between 5-8 animals. However, they have the major advantage that, unlike neurospheres, they consist of a mostly homogeneous population of precursor cells and are useful for following the differentiation process in single cells. Here, we describe, in detail, the generation of neurosphere cultures and, for the first time, adherent cultures from individual animals. This has many important implications including paired analysis of proliferation and/or differentiation potential in both the subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus (DG) of treated or genetically different mouse lines, as well as a significant reduction in animal usage. PMID:24637893

Walker, Tara L.; Kempermann, Gerd

2014-01-01

165

Are in vitro estimates of cell diffusivity and cell proliferation rate sensitive to assay geometry?  

PubMed

Cells respond to various biochemical and physical cues during wound-healing and tumour progression. in vitro assays used to study these processes are typically conducted in one particular geometry and it is unclear how the assay geometry affects the capacity of cell populations to spread, or whether the relevant mechanisms, such as cell motility and cell proliferation, are somehow sensitive to the geometry of the assay. In this work we use a circular barrier assay to characterise the spreading of cell populations in two different geometries. Assay 1 describes a tumour-like geometry where a cell population spreads outwards into an open space. Assay 2 describes a wound-like geometry where a cell population spreads inwards to close a void. We use a combination of discrete and continuum mathematical models and automated image processing methods to obtain independent estimates of the effective cell diffusivity, D, and the effective cell proliferation rate, ?. Using our parameterised mathematical model we confirm that our estimates of D and ? accurately predict the time-evolution of the location of the leading edge and the cell density profiles for both assay 1 and assay 2. Our work suggests that the effective cell diffusivity is up to 50% lower for assay 2 compared to assay 1, whereas the effective cell proliferation rate is up to 30% lower for assay 2 compared to assay 1. PMID:24787651

Treloar, Katrina K; Simpson, Matthew J; McElwain, D L Sean; Baker, Ruth E

2014-09-01

166

Electrolytic valving isolation of cell co-culture microenvironment with controlled cell pairing ratios.  

PubMed

Cancer-stromal interaction is a critical process in tumorigenesis. Conventional dish-based co-culture assays simply mix two cell types in the same dish; thus, they are deficient in controlling cell locations and precisely tracking single cell behavior from heterogeneous cell populations. Microfluidic technology can provide a good spatial-temporal control of microenvironments, but the control has been typically realized by using external pumps, making long-term cultures cumbersome and bulky. In this work, we have presented a cell-cell interaction microfluidic platform that can accurately control the co-culture microenvironment by using a novel electrolytic cell isolation scheme without using any valves or pneumatic pumps. The proposed microfluidic platform can also precisely control the number of interacting cells and pairing ratios to emulate cancer niches. More than 80% of the chambers captured the desired number of cells. The duration of cell isolation can be adjusted by electrolytic bubble generation and removal. We have verified that the electrolytic process has a negligible effect on cell viability and proliferation in our platform. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to incorporate electrolytic bubble generation as a cell isolation method in microfluidics. For proof of feasibility, we have performed cell-cell interaction assays between prostate cancer (PC3) cells and myoblast (C2C12) cells. The preliminary results demonstrated the potential of using electrolysis for micro-environmental control during cell culture. Also, the ratio controlled cell-cell interaction assays were successfully performed which showed that the cell pairing ratios of PC3 to C2C12 affected the proliferation rate of myoblast cells due to increased secretion of growth factors from prostate cancer cells. PMID:25118341

Chen, Yu-Chih; Ingram, Patrick; Yoon, Euisik

2014-12-21

167

DETECTION OF ANEUPLOIDY BY A MONOCHROMOSOMAL HYBRID CELL ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

A short-term assay utilizing human/mouse monochromosomal hybrid cells to detect chemically-induced aneuploidy in mammalian cells is described. A single human chromosome transferred into mouse cells was used as a cytogenetic marker to quantitate abnormal chromosome segregation fol...

168

Ensemble Analysis of Angiogenic Growth in Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Cell Cultures  

E-print Network

We demonstrate ensemble three-dimensional cell cultures and quantitative analysis of angiogenic growth from uniform endothelial monolayers. Our approach combines two key elements: a micro-fluidic assay that enables ...

Farahat, Waleed A.

169

Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay  

PubMed Central

The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells) or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes. Over a 30 year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been little employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases. PMID:25506353

Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

2014-01-01

170

Metabolomic profiling of cultured cancer cells.  

PubMed

Quantitative proteomics approaches have been developed-and now begin to be implemented on a high-throughput basis-to fill-in the large gap between the genomic/transcriptomic setup of (cancer) cells and their phenotypic/behavioral traits, reflecting a significant degree of posttranscriptional regulation in gene expression as well as a robust posttranslational regulation of protein function. However, proteomic profiling assays not only fail to detect labile posttranslational modifications as well as unstable protein-to-protein interactions but also are intrinsically incapable of assessing the enzymatic activity, as opposed to the mere abundance, of a given protein. Thus, determining the abundance of theoretically all the metabolites contained in a cell/tissue/organ/organism may significantly improve the informational value of proteomic approaches. Several techniques have been developed to this aim, including high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). This approach is particularly advantageous for metabolomic profiling as it offers elevated accuracy and improved sensitivity. Here, we describe a simple procedure to determine the complete complement of intracellular metabolites in cultured malignant cells by HPLC coupled to Q-TOF HRMS. According to this method, (1) cells are collected and processed to minimize contaminations as well as fluctuations in their metabolic profile; (2) samples are separated by HPLC and analyzed on a Q-TOF spectrometer; and (3) data are extracted, normalized, and deconvoluted according to refined mathematical methods. This protocol constitutes a simple approach to determine the intracellular metabolomic profile of cultured cancer cells. With minimal variations (mostly related to sample collection and processing), this method is expected to provide reliable metabolomic data on a variety of cellular samples. PMID:24924132

Scoazec, Marie; Durand, Sylvere; Chery, Alexis; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

2014-01-01

171

Growth Factor-Dependent Proliferation of the Pancreatic ?-cell Line ?TC-tet: An Assay for ?-cell Mitogenic Factors  

PubMed Central

The ability to expand normal pancreatic islet ? cells in culture would significantly advance the prospects of cell therapy for diabetes. A number of growth factors can stimulate limited islet cell replication, however other factors may exist which are more effective ?-cell-specific mitogens. The search for novel ?-cell growth factors has been hampered by the lack of a ?-cell-specific proliferation assay. We developed a simple and sensitive assay for ?-cell growth factors based on a conditionally-transformed mouse ?-cell line (?TC-tet). These cells express the SV40 T antigen (Tag) oncoprotein under control of the tetracycline (Tc) operon regulatory system. In the presence of Tc, Tag expression is tightly shut off and the cells undergo complete growth arrest. Here we show that the growth-arrested cells can proliferate in response to growth factors in the absence of Tag. Using this assay, a number of growth factors previously shown to be mitogenic to a mixed islet cell population were found to induce proliferation of pure ? cells. We conclude that growth-arrested ?TC-tet cells can be employed in a survey of factors from various sources for identifying novel factors with ?-cell mitogenic activity. PMID:11900281

Milo-Landesman, Dalit

2002-01-01

172

Comet assay, cloning assay, and light and electron microscopy on one preselected cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to perform long-term studies up to one week on a preselected single cell after micromanipulation (e.g. UVA and NIR microbeam exposure) in comparison with non-treated neighbor cells (control cells) we applied a variety of single cell diagnostic techniques and developed a special comet assay for single preselected cells. For that purpose adherent cells were grown in low concentrations and maintained in special sterile centimeter-sized glass cell chambers. After preselection, a single cell was marked by means of diamond-produced circles on the outer cell chamber window. During exposure to microbeams, NADH-attributed autofluorescence of the chosen cell was detected by fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy. In addition, cell morphology was video-monitored (formation of pseudopodia, membrane blebbing,...). Maintaining the microchamber in the incubator, the irradiated cell was examined 24 h later for cell division (clone formation) and modifications in autofluorescence and morphology (including daughter cells). In the case that no division occurred the vitality of the light-exposed cell and of the control cells were probed by intranuclear propidium iodide accumulation. After fixation, either electron microscopy or single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was performed. To monitor comet formation indicating photoinduced DNA damage in the preselected single cell in comparison with the non-exposed neighbor cells the chamber was filled with low-melting gel and lysis solution and exposed to an electric field. In contrast to the conventional comet assay, where only randomly chosen cells of a suspension are investigated, the novel optimized electrophoresis technique should enhance the possibilities of DNA damage detection to a true single (preselected) cell level. The single cell techniques applied to UVA microexposed Chinese hamster ovary cells (364 nm, 1 mW, 3.5 W/cm2) revealed significant cell damage for J/cm2 fluences such as modifications of intracellular redox state, impaired cell division, formation of giant cells and cell shrinking, swelling of mitochondria and loss of cristae as well as DNA damage.

Koenig, Karsten; Oehring, Hartmut; Halbhuber, Karl-Juergen; Fiedler, Ursula; Bauer, Eckhard; Greulich, Karl-Otto

1998-01-01

173

Comet assay, cloning assay, and light and electron microscopy on one preselected cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to perform long-term studies up to one week on a preselected single cell after micromanipulation (e.g. UVA and NIR microbeam exposure) in comparison with non-treated neighbor cells (control cells) we applied a variety of single cell diagnostic techniques and developed a special comet assay for single preselected cells. For that purpose adherent cells were grown in low concentrations and maintained in special sterile centimeter-sized glass cell chambers. After preselection, a single cell was marked by means of diamond-produced circles on the outer cell chamber window. During exposure to microbeams, NADH-attributed autofluorescence of the chosen cell was detected by fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy. In addition, cell morphology was video-monitored (formation of pseudopodia, membrane blebbing,...). Maintaining the microchamber in the incubator, the irradiated cell was examined 24 h later for cell division (clone formation) and modifications in autofluorescence and morphology (including daughter cells). In the case that no division occurred the vitality of the light-exposed cell and of the control cells were probed by intranuclear propidium iodide accumulation. After fixation, either electron microscopy or single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was performed. To monitor comet formation indicating photoinduced DNA damage in the preselected single cell in comparison with the non-exposed neighbor cells the chamber was filled with low-melting gel and lysis solution and exposed to an electric field. In contrast to the conventional comet assay, where only randomly chosen cells of a suspension are investigated, the novel optimized electrophoresis technique should enhance the possibilities of DNA damage detection to a true single (preselected) cell level. The single cell techniques applied to UVA microexposed Chinese hamster ovary cells (364 nm, 1 mW, 3.5 W/cm2) revealed significant cell damage for J/cm2 fluences such as modifications of intracellular redox state, impaired cell division, formation of giant cells and cell shrinking, swelling of mitochondria and loss of cristae as well as DNA damage.

Koenig, Karsten; Oehring, H.; Halbhuber, Karl-Juergen; Fiedler, Ursula; Bauer, Eckhard; Greulich, Karl O.

1997-12-01

174

A cell viability assay based on monitoring respiration by optical oxygen sensing.  

PubMed

A cell viability assay based on monitoring of the metabolic activity of living cells via their consumption of dissolved oxygen has been developed. It uses a microwell plate format and disposable phosphorescent sensor inserts incorporated into each sample. The wells are subsequently sealed from ambient oxygen using a layer of mineral oil, and periodically scanned from underneath with a simple fiber-optic phosphorescent phase detector. Thus, dissolved oxygen levels and time profiles of cell respiration can be determined noninvasively and compared to each other. The system was tested by monitoring the viability of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In comparison with the conventional cell densitometry assay, the optical oxygen sensor method could reliably monitor lower numbers of cells (10(4)-10(5) vs 10(6)-10(7) cells/ml for densitometry), and accurately determine culture viability within 1 h. The assay was then applied to determine the viability of samples treated with toxic agents such as azide and in response to expression of a physiological inducer of cell death, the Bcl-2 family member Bak. The results obtained confirm that measurement of cell respiration by this assay can serve as a predictable, reliable, and fast method for high-throughput determination of cell viability and growth. PMID:10660466

O'Riordan, T C; Buckley, D; Ogurtsov, V; O'Connor, R; Papkovsky, D B

2000-02-15

175

Culture and differentiation of embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Techniques are described for the culture of murine embryonic stem cells in the absence of heterologous feeder cells and for the induction of differentiation programs. The regulatory factor differentiation inhibiting activity\\/ leukaemia inhibitory factor (DIA\\/LIF) is produced at high concentration by transient expression in Cos cells and is used to suppress stem cell differentiation by addition to the culture

Austin G. Smith

1991-01-01

176

Use of a New Tetrazolium-Based Assay to Study the Production of Superoxide Radicals by Tobacco Cell Cultures Challenged with Avirulent Zoospores of Phytophthora parasitica var nicotianae1  

PubMed Central

The relationship between the production of reactive oxygen species and the hypersensitive response (HR) of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) toward an incompatible race of the Oomycete Phytophthora parasitica var nicotianae has been investigated. A new assay for superoxide radical (O2?) production based on reduction of the tetrazolium dye sodium,3?-(1-[phenylamino-carbonyl]-3,4-tetrazolium)-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzene-sulfonic acid hydrate (XTT) has enabled the quantitative estimation of perhydroxyl/superoxide radical acid-base pair (HO2·/O2?) production during the resistant response. Tobacco suspension cells were inoculated with zoospores from compatible or incompatible races of the pathogen. Subsequent HO2·/O2? production was monitored by following the formation of XTT formazan. In the incompatible interaction only, HO2·/O2? was produced in a minor burst between 0 and 2 h and then in a major burst between 8 and 10 h postinoculation. During this second burst, rates of XTT reduction equivalent to a radical flux of 9.9 × 10?15 mol min?1 cell?1 were observed. The HO2·/O2? scavengers O2? dismutase and Mn(III)desferal each inhibited dye reduction. An HR was observed in challenged, resistant cells immediately following the second burst of radical production. Both scavengers inhibited the HR when added prior to the occurrence of either radical burst, indicating that O2? production is a necessary precursor to the HR. PMID:9625702

Able, Amanda J.; Guest, David I.; Sutherland, Mark W.

1998-01-01

177

Rapid, sensitive, and validated method for detection of Salmonella in food by an enrichment broth culture – Nested PCR combination assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid nested PCR assay for detection of Salmonella from food was developed. The sensitivity of the assay developed was comparable to the traditional culture based methods with an advantage in reduction of assay time. The assay procedure with artificially contaminated samples was able to detect as low as 4CFU Salmonella\\/25g of food samples (sprout, carrot, cucumber and poultry meat).

Sunil D. Saroj; R. Shashidhar; Manisha Karani; Jayant R. Bandekar

2008-01-01

178

Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture  

PubMed Central

Although reports on the efficacy of homeopathic medicines in animal models are limited, there are even fewer reports on the in vitro action of these dynamized preparations. We have evaluated the cytotoxic activity of 30C and 200C potencies of ten dynamized medicines against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites, Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma, lung fibroblast (L929) and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines and compared activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. The effect of dynamized medicines to induce apoptosis was also evaluated and we studied how dynamized medicines affected genes expressed during apoptosis. Mother tinctures as well as some dynamized medicines showed significant cytotoxicity to cells during short and long-term incubation. Potentiated alcohol control did not produce any cytotoxicity at concentrations studied. The dynamized medicines were found to inhibit CHO cell colony formation and thymidine uptake in L929 cells and those of Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosinum were found to induce apoptosis in DLA cells. Moreover, dynamized Carcinosinum was found to induce the expression of p53 while dynamized Thuja produced characteristic laddering pattern in agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. These results indicate that dynamized medicines possess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties. PMID:18955237

Sunila, Ellanzhiyil Surendran; Preethi, Korengath Chandran; Kuttan, Girija

2009-01-01

179

Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

Gonda, Steve R.; Kleis, Stanley J.; Geffert, Sandara K.

2010-01-01

180

Inflight Assay of Red Blood Cell Deformability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies on Soviet and American astronauts have demonstrated that red blood cell production is altered in response to low gravity (g) environment. This is associated with changes in individual red cells including increased mean cell volume and altered membrane deformability. During long orbital missions, there is a tendency for the red cell mass deficit to be at least partly corrected although the cell shape anomalies are not. Data currently available suggest that the observed decrease in red cell mass is the result of sudden suppression of erythropoieses and that the recovery trend observed during long missions reflects re-establishment of erythropoietic homeostasis at a "set point" for the red cell mass that is slightly below the normal level at 1 g.

Ingram, M.; Paglia, D. E.; Eckstein, E. C.; Frazer, R. E.

1985-01-01

181

Evaluation of Verigene Gram-positive blood culture assay performance for bacteremic patients.  

PubMed

The Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP) Assay (Nanosphere Inc., Northbrook, IL) is a microarray-based test designed to rapidly identify directly from positive blood cultures multiple bacterial species and their antimicrobial resistance markers. Nonduplicate blood cultures from 118 patients admitted to Erasme Hospital were prospectively enrolled. All but six organisms were members of the panel (95.6 %). For the identification of pathogens and detection of the mecA gene, the agreement with routine methods was 87.6 % and 97.7 %, respectively. The performance of the BC-GP assay was lower with polymicrobial than with monomicrobial blood cultures. Another concern of the BC-GP assay was the misidentification of Streptococcus mitis as S. pneumoniae (3/8). The BC-GP assay is a rapid and accurate tool for the simultaneous detection of multiple sepsis-causing bacteria and resistant genes from blood cultures, which could have an impact on patient management and healthcare cost. PMID:25260788

Dodémont, M; De Mendonça, R; Nonhoff, C; Roisin, S; Denis, O

2015-03-01

182

Genotoxic effects of oestrogens in breast cells detected by the micronucleus assay and the Comet assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cumulative exposure to oestrogen has been linked to increased risk of breast cancer. Whilst oestrogens induce cancers in rodent bioassays it is unclear whether the mechanisms involved are genotoxic and\\/or epigenetic. The cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) and the alkaline single cell-gel electrophoresis 'Comet' assays were used to examine MCF-7 cells for chromosomal damage and DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs), respectively. The

Edom Yared; Trevor J. McMillan; Francis L. Martin

2002-01-01

183

Comparison of saliva PCR assay versus rapid culture for detection of congenital cytomegalovirus infection.  

PubMed

As part of the CMV and Hearing Multicenter Screening (CHIMES) study, 72,239 newborns were screened for cytomegalovirus by rapid culture and real-time PCR of saliva samples. Of the 266 infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection, discordance between rapid culture and PCR was observed in 14 children, and 13 were identified only by PCR, demonstrating the superiority of the PCR assay. PMID:25876092

Pinninti, Swetha G; Ross, Shannon A; Shimamura, Masako; Novak, Zdenek; Palmer, April L; Ahmed, Amina; Tolan, Robert W; Bernstein, David I; Michaels, Marian G; Sánchez, Pablo J; Fowler, Karen B; Boppana, Suresh B

2015-05-01

184

Cell culture techniques in honey bee research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cell culture techniques are indispensable in most if not all life science disciplines to date. Wherever cell culture models are lacking scientific development is hampered. Unfortunately this has been and still is the case in honey bee research because permanent honey bee cell lines have not yet been...

185

Cell Culture as an Alternative in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programs that are intended to inform and provide "hands-on" experience for students and to facilitate the introduction of cell culture-based laboratory exercises into the high school and college laboratory are examined. The components of the CellServ Program and the Cell Culture Toxicology Training Programs are described. (KR)

Nardone, Roland M.

1990-01-01

186

Characterization of cultured multipotent zebrafish neural crest cells.  

PubMed

The neural crest is a unique cell population associated with vertebrate evolution. Neural crest cells (NCCs) are characterized by their multipotent and migratory potentials. While zebrafish is a powerful genetic model organism, the isolation and culture of zebrafish NCCs would provide a useful adjunct to fully interrogate the genetic networks that regulate NCC development. Here we report for the first time the isolation, in vitro culture, and characterization of NCCs from zebrafish embryos. NCCs were isolated from transgenic sox10:egfp embryos using fluorescence activated cell sorting and cultured in complex culture medium without feeder layers. NCC multilineage differentiation was determined by immunocytochemistry and real-time qPCR, cell migration was assessed by wound healing assay, and the proliferation index was calculated by immunostaining against the mitosis marker phospho-histone H3. Cultured NCCs expressed major neural crest lineage markers such as sox10, sox9a, hnk1, p75, dlx2a, and pax3, and the pluripotency markers c-myc and klf4. We showed that the cultured NCCs can be differentiated into multiple neural crest lineages, contributing to neurons, glial cells, smooth muscle cells, melanocytes, and chondrocytes. We applied the NCC in vitro model to study the effect of retinoic acid on NCC development. We showed that retinoic acid had a profound effect on NCC morphology and differentiation, significantly inhibited proliferation and enhanced cell migration. The availability of high numbers of NCCs and reproducible functional assays offers new opportunities for mechanistic studies of neural crest development, in genetic and chemical biology applications. PMID:24326414

Kinikoglu, Beste; Kong, Yawei; Liao, Eric C

2014-02-01

187

Normal and leukemic human stem cells assayed in SCID mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the processes that regulate the developmental program of normal stem cells and those that initiate proliferative diseases such as leukemia remains one of the major challenges in biology. Progress to address these major questions in the human hematopoietic system have been hampered, until recently, by the lack of in-vivo assays for normal and leukemic stem cells. The recent development

John E. Dick

1996-01-01

188

Single cell gel electrophoresis assay: methodology and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single cell gel electrophoresis or Comet assay is a sensitive, reliable, and rapid method for DNA double- and single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites and delayed repair site detection, in eukariotic individual cells. Given its overall characteristics, this method has been widely used over the past few years in several different areas. In this paper we review the studies published to

E Rojas; M. C Lopez; M Valverde

1999-01-01

189

Use of aggregating cell cultures for toxicological studies.  

PubMed

Relatively simple techniques are now available which allow the preparation of large quantities of highly reproducible aggregate cultures from fetal rat brain or liver cells, and to grow them in a chemically defined medium. Since these cultures exhibit extensive histotypic cellular reorganization and maturation, they offer unique possibilities for developmental studies. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of these cultures in developmental toxicology. Aggregating brain cell cultures were exposed at different developmental stages to model drugs (i.e., antimitotic, neurotoxic, and teratogenic agents) and assayed for their responsiveness by measuring a set of biochemical parameters (i.e., total protein and DNA content, cell type-specific enzyme activities) which permit a monitoring of cellular growth and maturation. It was found that each test compound elicited a distinct, dose-dependent response pattern, which may ultimately serve to screen and classify toxic drugs by using mechanistic criteria. In addition, it could be shown that aggregating liver cell cultures are capable of toxic drug activation, and that they can be used in co-culture with brain cell aggregates, providing a potential model for complementary toxicological and metabolic studies. PMID:3141206

Honegger, P; Werffeli, P

1988-10-15

190

Cell-based assays for Parkinson's disease using differentiated human LUHMES cells  

PubMed Central

Aim: Lund human mesencephalic (LUHMES) cells can be differentiated to post-mitotic cells with biochemical, morphological and functional features of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons. Given the limited scale of primary DAergic neuron culture, we developed differentiated LUHMES cell-based cytotoxicity assays for identifying neuroprotective agents for Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: LUHMES cells were incubated in a differentiation medium containing cAMP and GDNF for 6 d, and then differentiated cells were treated with MPP+ or infected with baculovirus containing ?-synuclein. Cytotoxicity was determined by measuring intracellular ATP levels and caspase 3/7 activity in the cells. DAergic neuron-specific marker protein and mRNA levels in the cells were analyzed using Western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. Results: LUHMES cells grew extensive neurites and became post-mitotic neuron-like cells during differentiation period, and three DAergic neuron markers TH, DAT and Nurr1 exhibited different expression profiles. MPP+ dose-dependently reduced ATP levels in the cells with an IC50 value of 65 ?mol/L. MPP+ (80 ?mol/L) significantly increased caspase 3/7 activity in the cells. Both the CDK inhibitor GW8510 and the GSK3? inhibitor SB216763 effectively rescued MPP+-induced reduction of ATP levels with EC50 values of 12 and 205 nmol/L, respectively. Overexpression of ?-synuclein also significantly decreased intracellular ATP levels and increased caspase 3/7 activity in the cells. GW8510 and SB216763 effectively rescued ?-synuclein overexpression-induced reduction of ATP levels, whereas GW8510, but not SB216763, ameliorated ?-synuclein overexpression-induced increase of caspase 3/7 activity. Conclusion: MPP+- and ?-synuclein overexpression-induced cytotoxicity of differentiated LUHMES cells may serve as good alternative systems for identifying neuroprotective compounds for PD. PMID:24989254

Zhang, Xiao-min; Yin, Ming; Zhang, Min-hua

2014-01-01

191

Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

1982-01-01

192

A Caco-2 cell-based quantitative antioxidant activity assay for antioxidants.  

PubMed

A Caco-2 cell-based antioxidant activity (CAA) assay for quantitative evaluation of antioxidants was developed by optimizing seeding density and culture time of Caco-2 cells, incubation time and concentration of fluorescent probe (2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate, DCFH-DA), incubation way and incubation time of antioxidants (pure phytochemicals) and DCFH-DA with cells, and detection time of fluorescence. Results showed that the CAA assay was of good reproducibility and could be used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of antioxidants at the following conditions: seeding density of 5 × 10(4)/well, cell culture time of 24h, co-incubation of 60 ?M DCFH-DA and pure phytochemicals with Caco-2 cells for 20 min and fluorescence recorded for 90 min. Additionally, a significant correlation was observed between CAA values and rat plasma ORAC values following the intake of antioxidants for selected pure phytochemicals (R(2) = 0.815, p < 0.01), demonstrating the good biological relevance of CAA assay. PMID:25577125

Wan, Hongxia; Liu, Dong; Yu, Xiangying; Sun, Haiyan; Li, Yan

2015-05-15

193

Culture of Cells from Amphibian Embryos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method for in vitro culturing of cells from amphibian early embryos. Such cells can be used to demonstrate such properties of eukaryote cells as cell motility, adhesion, differentiation, and cell sorting into tissues. The technique may be extended to investigate other factors. (Author/JN)

Stanisstreet, Martin

1983-01-01

194

A hybrid microfluidic platform for cell-based assays via diffusive and convective trans-membrane perfusion  

PubMed Central

We present a novel 3D hybrid assembly of a polymer microfluidic chip with polycarbonate track-etched membrane (PCTEM) enabling membrane-supported cell culture. Two chip designs have been developed to establish either diffusive or convective reagent delivery using the integrated PCTEM. While it is well suited to a range of cell-based assays, we specifically employ this platform for the screening of a common antitumor chemotoxic agent (mitomycin C – MMC) on the HL60 myeloid leukemia cell line. The toxic activity of MMC is based on the generation of severe DNA damage in the cells. Using either mode of operation, the HL60 cells were cultured on-chip before, during, and after exposure to MMC at concentrations ranging from 0 to 50??M. Cell viability was analysed off-chip by the trypan blue dye exclusion assay. The results of the on-chip viability assay were found to be consistent with those obtained off-chip and indicated ca. 40% cell survival at MMC concentration of 50??M. The catalogue of capabilities of the here described cell assay platform comprises of (i) the culturing of cells either under shear-free conditions or under induced through-membrane flows, (ii) the tight time control of the reagent exposure, (iii) the straightforward assembly of devices, (iv) the flexibility on the choice of the membrane, and, prospectively, (v) the amenability for large-scale parallelization. PMID:24404021

Vereshchagina, Elizaveta; Mc Glade, Declan; Glynn, Macdara; Ducrée, Jens

2013-01-01

195

Automation of 3-dimensional cell culture in arrayed microfluidic devices  

PubMed Central

The increasing interest in studying the interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) has created a need for high throughput low cost three-dimensional (3D) culture systems. The recent development of tubeless microfluidics via passive pumping provides a high throughput microchannel culture platform compatible with existing high throughput infrastructures (e.g. automated liquid handlers). Here we build on a previously reported high throughput two-dimensional (2D) system to create a robust automated system for 3D culture. Operational controls including temperature and sample handling have been characterized and automated. Human mammary fibroblasts (HMFs) suspended in type-I collagen are loaded and cultured in microchannel arrays, and used to optimize the system operational parameters. A Peltier cooler maintains the collagen as a liquid at 4°C during cell seeding, followed by polymerization at 37°C. Optimization of this platform is discussed (e.g. controlling collagen contraction, increasing cell viability, preventing the removal of microchannel contents), and 3D distribution of HMFs is examined by fluorescent microscopy. Finally, we validate the platform by automating a previously developed 3D breast carcinoma co-culture assay. The platform allows more efficient 3D culture experiments and lays the foundation for high throughput studies of cell-ECM interactions. PMID:21609700

Montanez-Sauri, Sara I.; Sung, Kyung Eun; Puccinelli, John P.; Pehlke, Carolyn; Beebe, David J.

2011-01-01

196

Antibody inhibition of human cytomegalovirus spread in epithelial cell cultures  

PubMed Central

Anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies reduce the incidence of CMV transmission and ameliorate the severity of CMV-associated disease. Neutralizing activity, measured as the ability of antibodies to prevent entry of cell-free virus, is an important component of natural immunity. However, in vivo CMV amplification may occur mainly via spread between adjacent cells within tissues. Thus, inhibition of cell-to-cell spread may be important when evaluating therapeutic antibodies or humoral responses to infection or immunization. In vitro CMV cell-to-cell spread is largely resistant to antibodies in fibroblast cultures but sensitive in endothelial cell cultures. In the present study antibodies in CMV hyperimmuneglobulin or seropositive human sera inhibited CMV cell-to-cell spread in epithelial cell cultures. Spread inhibition activity was quantitated with a GFP reporter assay employing GFP-tagged epithelialtropic variants of CMV strains Towne or AD169. Measurement of spread inhibition provides an additional parameter for the evaluation of candidate vaccines or immunotherapeutics and to further characterize the role of antibodies in controlling CMV transmission and disease. PMID:23669101

Cui, Xiaohong; Lee, Ronzo; Adler, Stuart P.; McVoy, Michael A.

2013-01-01

197

Label-free cell-based dynamic mass redistribution assays.  

PubMed

Label-free cell-based assays offer a powerful approach to drug discovery and compound profiling for endogenously expressed receptors in a variety of cell types, including primary and stem cells. Dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) responses in whole cells following receptor stimulation provide phenotypic activity profiles that are readily amenable to evaluation of compound pharmacology. Protocols are provided in this unit to obtain DMR response profiles in adherent and suspension cells, and then to use known tool compounds to delineate the biology of the underlying signaling pathways from the information-rich kinetic traces that are recorded. PMID:24652622

Gitschier, Hannah J; Bergeron, Audrey B; Randle, David H

2014-01-01

198

Embryonic Stem Cells: Isolation, Characterization and Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells isolated from the mammalian blastocyst. Traditionally, these cells have been derived and cultured with mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) supportive layers, which allow their continuous growth in an undifferentiated state. However, for any future industrial or clinical application hESCs should be cultured in reproducible, defined, and xeno-free culture system, where exposure to animal pathogens is prevented. From their derivation in 1998 the methods for culturing hESCs were significantly improved. This chapter wills discuss hESC characterization and the basic methods for their derivation and maintenance.

Amit, Michal; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

199

Progress in Cell Based Assays for Botulinum Neurotoxin Detection  

PubMed Central

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent human toxins known and the causative agent of botulism, and are widely used as valuable pharmaceuticals. The BoNTs are modular proteins consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain linked by a disulfide bond. Intoxication of neuronal cells by BoNTs is a multi-step process including specific cell binding, endocytosis, conformational change in the endosome, translocation of the enzymatic light chain into the cells cytosol, and SNARE target cleavage. The quantitative and reliable potency determination of fully functional BoNTs produced as active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) requires an assay that considers all steps in the intoxication pathway. The in vivo mouse bioassay has for years been the ‘gold standard’ assay used for this purpose, but it requires the use of large numbers of mice and thus causes associated costs and ethical concerns. Cell-based assays are currently the only in vitro alternative that detect fully functional BoNTs in a single assay and have been utilized for years for research purposes. Within the last 5 years, several cell-based BoNT detection assays have been developed that are able to quantitatively determine BoNT potency with similar or greater sensitivity than the mouse bioassay. These assays now offer an alternative method for BoNT potency determination. Such quantitative and reliable BoNT potency determination is a crucial step in basic research, in the development of pharmaceutical BoNTs, and in the quantitative detection of neutralizing antibodies. PMID:23239357

2013-01-01

200

J Cell Biochem . Author manuscript Optimizing stem cell culture  

E-print Network

J Cell Biochem . Author manuscript Page /1 7 Optimizing stem cell culture Boudewijn Van Der Sanden * Correspondence should be adressed to: Didier Wion Abstract Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

201

Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay  

EPA Science Inventory

The Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST) is an assay which evaluates xenobiotic-induced effects using three endpoints: mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) differentiation, mESC viability, and 3T3-cell viability. Our research goal was to develop an improved high-throughput assay by establi...

202

Standardization of the comet assay technique on FRTL5 cells.  

PubMed

The comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for DNA strand break detection in individual cells. The principle of break detection, using either the alkaline or neutral version of the assay, makes it a good technique for studying both double and single strand DNA breaks. Furthermore, the possibility of following DNA damage at different time moments also makes it possible to investigate the cell repair mechanisms. This explains why in the last few years there has been a tremendous increase in the number of laboratories which started to use this technique. The technique was first created for lymphocyte cells and later on has been used on many other cell types, growing both in suspension and adherent. To date, no one has applied this technique on normal differentiated endocrine cells, such as FRTL5 cells (Fisher Rat Thyroid Cells). The aim of this study has been to standardize the alkaline version of the Comet Assay technique on FRTL5 cells by studying the kinetics of DNA-damage and DNA-repair after different doses of UV-C (254 nm). FRTL-5 cells not only resulted very sensitive to UV-C (p<0.05 at 5 J/m2), but were also able to repair most of their DNA damage very rapidly (within one hour) as shown by a significant exponential regression in comet length. Finally, the successful measurement of biomarkers of UV-C on thyroid cells established the comet assay as a valuable tool in measurement of DNA damage and repair. Any radiation, or other damaging agents, interacting with living organisms could cause DNA damages which, depending upon dosages and kinetics of exposure, may or may not be completely repaired. PMID:11776984

Francesconi, A; Del Terra, E; Meli, A; Ambesi-Impiombato, F S

2001-01-01

203

Single-cell growth analysis in a mixed cell culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform single cell analysis of cell growth in a mixed cell culture. Two species of yeast cells: Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans, are optically trapped using focused continuous-wave near infrared laser. Cell growth for both cells is inhibited only when the two species of cells are in contact with each other. This indicates cell-cell interaction mediated cell growth inhibition mechanism. Single cell level analysis of cell growth studied here contributes to the further understanding of yeast growth arrest in a mixed yeast culture.

Ando, Jun; Bato, Mary Grace P.; Daria, Vincent Ricardo

2008-06-01

204

A Real-Time PCR Assay for the Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in Foods after Enrichment Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time PCR assay was developed for the quantitative detection of Campylobacter jejuni in foods after enrichment culture. The specificity of the assay for C. jejuni was demonstrated with a diverse range of Campylobacter species, related organisms, and unrelated genera. The assay had a linear range of quantification over six orders of magnitude, and the limit of detection was approximately

Andrew D. Sails; Andrew J. Fox; Frederick J. Bolton; David R. A. Wareing; David L. A. Greenway

2003-01-01

205

AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM MAMMALIAN CELL CULTURE MEDIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Metabolites such as ammonia and lactic formed during mammalian cell culture can frequently be toxic to the cells themselves beyond a threshold concentration of the metabolites. ell culture conducted in the presence of such accumulated metabolites is therefore limited in productiv...

206

Gametogony of Sarcocystis sp. in Cell Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual stages and cystlike bodies of Sarcocystis sp., a protozoan parasite found in muscles of reptiles, birds, and mammals, including man, developed in cell culture. Motile organisms, obtained from leg muscles of wild grackles, were inoculated into cell line cultures of embryonic bovine kidney. Mature micro- and macrogametes and the cystlike forms were found 30 and 42 hours after inoculation,

Ronald Fayer

1972-01-01

207

Assay for inorganic pyrophosphate in chondrocyte culture using anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography and radioactive orthophosphate labeling  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for determination of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in cell culture medium and in rabbit articular chondrocytes grown in the presence of radioactive orthophosphate (/sup 32/Pi). Intra- and extracellular /sup 32/PPi formed was measured using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation of the PPi from orthophosphate (Pi) and other phosphate-containing compounds. The chromatographic separation on a weak anion-exchange column is based on the extent to which various phosphate compounds form complexes with Mg2+ at low pH and the rate at which such formation occurs. These complexes are eluted more readily than the uncomplexed compounds. Best results were obtained using a simultaneous gradient of Mg2+ ions and ionic strength. In this case separation of small amounts of PPi from a large excess of Pi was possible without prior removal of Pi or extraction of the PPi fraction. The assay is also useful for measurement of inorganic pyrophosphatase activity. The sensitivity of the assay depends on the specific activity of the added /sup 32/Pi and on the culture conditions, but is comparable with the most sensitive of the enzymatic assays. Sample preparation, particularly deproteinization, proved to be of importance. The losses of PPi which occur during procedures of this sort due to hydrolysis and coprecipitation were quantitated.

Prins, A.P.; Kiljan, E.; v.d. Stadt, R.J.; v.d. Korst, J.K.

1986-02-01

208

Novel Patient Cell-Based HTS Assay for Identification of Small Molecules for a Lysosomal Storage Disease  

PubMed Central

Small molecules have been identified as potential therapeutic agents for lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), inherited metabolic disorders caused by defects in proteins that result in lysosome dysfunctional. Some small molecules function assisting the folding of mutant misfolded lysosomal enzymes that are otherwise degraded in ER-associated degradation. The ultimate result is the enhancement of the residual enzymatic activity of the deficient enzyme. Most of the high throughput screening (HTS) assays developed to identify these molecules are single-target biochemical assays. Here we describe a cell-based assay using patient cell lines to identify small molecules that enhance the residual arylsulfatase A (ASA) activity found in patients with metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), a progressive neurodegenerative LSD. In order to generate sufficient cell lines for a large scale HTS, primary cultured fibroblasts from MLD patients were transformed using SV40 large T antigen. These SV40 transformed (SV40t) cells showed to conserve biochemical characteristics of the primary cells. Using a specific colorimetric substrate para-nitrocatechol sulfate (pNCS), detectable ASA residual activity were observed in primary and SV40t fibroblasts from a MLD patient (ASA-I179S) cultured in multi-well plates. A robust fluorescence ASA assay was developed in high-density 1,536-well plates using the traditional colorimetric pNCS substrate, whose product (pNC) acts as “plate fluorescence quencher” in white solid-bottom plates. The quantitative cell-based HTS assay for ASA generated strong statistical parameters when tested against a diverse small molecule collection. This cell-based assay approach can be used for several other LSDs and genetic disorders, especially those that rely on colorimetric substrates which traditionally present low sensitivity for assay-miniaturization. In addition, the quantitative cell-based HTS assay here developed using patient cells creates an opportunity to identify therapeutic small molecules in a disease-cellular environment where potentially disrupted pathways are exposed and available as targets. PMID:22216298

Ribbens, Jameson; Zheng, Wei; Southall, Noel; Hu, Xin; Marugan, Juan J.; Ferrer, Marc; Maegawa, Gustavo H. B.

2011-01-01

209

EVALUATION OF MIXED CELL TYPES AND 5-IODO-2'-DEOXYURIDINE TREATMENT UPON PLAQUE ASSAY TITERS OF HUMAN ENTERIC VIRUSES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Four continuous cell lines BGM, L-132, HEL-299, and RD were compared both when cultured separately and as mixtures for use in plaque assay titrations of human Adenovirus 1 and six human enterovirus serotypes. The effect of incubating these cell cultures in media containing IDU (5...

210

MAMMALIAN CELL GENE MUTATION ASSAYS WORKING GROUP REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Mammalian cell gene mutation assays have been used for many years and the diversity of the available systems attests to the varied methods found to grow mammalian dells and detect mutations. s part of the International Workshop on Standardization of Genotoxicity Test Procedures, ...

211

Cancer Phylogenetics from Single-Cell Assays Gregory Pennington  

E-print Network

Cancer Phylogenetics from Single-Cell Assays Gregory Pennington Stanley Shackney Russell Schwartz the Carnegie Mellon University Berkman Faculty Development Fund. #12;Keywords: computational biology, cancer, FISH, phylogeny #12;Abstract In the field of cancer biology, there is currently great interest

212

Mammalian cell cultures for biologics manufacturing.  

PubMed

Biopharmaceuticals represent a growing sector of the pharmaceutical industry, and are used for a wide range of indications, including oncology and rheumatology. Cultured mammalian cells have become the predominant expression system for their production, partly due to their ability to complete the posttranslational modifications required for drug safety and efficacy. Over the past decade, the productivity of mammalian cell culture production processes has growth dramatically through improvements in both volumetric and specific productivities. This article presents an overview of the biologics market, including analysis of sales and approvals; as well as a review of industrial production cell lines and cell culture operations. PMID:24258145

Kantardjieff, Anne; Zhou, Weichang

2014-01-01

213

HUMAN VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS IN CULTURE  

PubMed Central

Human endothelial cells, obtained by collagenase treatment of term umbilical cord veins, were cultured using Medium 199 supplemented with 20% fetal calf serum. Small clusters of cells initially spread on plastic or glass, coalesced and grew to form confluent monolayers of polygonal cells by 7 days. Cells in primary and subcultures were identified as endothelium by the presence of Weibel-Palade bodies by electron microscopy. A morphologically distinct subpopulation of cells contaminating some primary endothelial cultures was selectively subcultured, and identified by ultrastructural criteria as vascular smooth muscle. Autoradiography of endothelial cells after exposure to [3H]thymidine showed progressive increases in labeling in growing cultures beginning at 24 h. In recently confluent cultures, labeling indices were 2.4% in central closely packed regions, and 53.2% in peripheral growing regions. 3 days after confluence, labeling was uniform, being 3.5 and 3.9% in central and peripheral areas, respectively. When small areas of confluent cultures were experimentally "denuded," there were localized increases in [3H]thymidine labeling and eventual reconstitution of the monolayer. Liquid scintillation measurements of [3H]thymidine incorporation in primary and secondary endothelial cultures in microwell trays showed a similar correlation of DNA synthesis with cell density. These data indicate that endothelial cell cultures may provide a useful in vitro model for studying pathophysiologic factors in endothelial regeneration. PMID:4363161

Gimbrone, Michael A.; Cotran, Ramzi S.; Folkman, Judah

1974-01-01

214

Longterm cultures of sheep thyroid cells.  

PubMed

A thyroid tissue culture system has been established in which follicular morphology can be preserved for at least 30 days. The system is highly dependent on whether or not the medium supporting the cells is changed during the culture period. The high levels of TSH (40 mU/ml) normally used in thyroid culture systems enhance follicular morphology but are not a prerequisite for differentiation. In the absence of medium changes follicular morphology improves for up to 20 days after initiation of the culture. Thereafter, the cells die unless the medium is changed. If differentiation is to be preserved after 20 days the medium into which the cells are transferred must be "conditioned" by preincubation with thryoid cultures. Regular medium changes into fresh medium causes the cultures to lose their differentiated characteristics and revert to a conventional monolayer. The capacity of these cultures to trap iodide has been quantified using a new method. The method is based on comparison of the 125I--iodide retained by thyroid cells with that retained in a undifferentiated established cell line (CHO--K1). The results demonstrated that trapping can be preserved for at least 20 days in cells cultured in the presence of TSH, provided the medium is not changed; and that under appropriate conditions the cells can trap iodide even in the absence of TSH stimulation. The extent to which the above cultures proliferate is also investigated. At the relatively high innoculation of cells used in primary cultures little proliferation takes place even when the cells are stimulated by TSH. However, regular medium changed induce some growth. In the absence of medium changes the cells die after 15-20 days. Those grown in the presence of TSH live slightly longer than those grown in its absence. Subculturing thyroid cells and innoculating them at low densities in Petri dishes leads to substantial cell proliferation whether or not TSH is present. The doubling time of cells in these cultures is the order of 1 to 2 days. The population resulting from this growth exhibit both epithelial and fibroblast like morphology although the former predominates. When cells from primary thryoid cultures are reseeded at very low concentrations (approximately 10(3) cells/Petri dish) about 3-10 per cent of the population give rise to viable macroscopic clones. PMID:6996408

O'Connor, M K; Malone, J F; Cullen, M J

1980-01-01

215

Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.

1990-01-01

216

Constructing a High Density Cell Culture System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

217

Cell Culture Derived AgMNPV Bioinsecticide: Biological Constraints and Bioprocess Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied parameters for optimizing the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cell culture and viral infection for the production of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrosis virus (AgMNPV) polyhedra inclusion bodies (PIBs) in shaker-Schott or spinner bottles and bioreactors.\\u000a We have assayed the kLa of the systems, initial cell seeding, cell culture volume, dissolved oxygen (DO), multiplicity of infection (MOI), nutrients\\u000a consumption, and

Valeria M. Rodas; Fabiano H. Marques; Marcelo T. Honda; Daniela M. Soares; Soraia A. C. Jorge; Marta M. Antoniazzi; Claudia Medugno; Maria E. B. Castro; Bergmann M. Ribeiro; Marlinda L. Souza; Aldo Tonso; Carlos A. Pereira

2005-01-01

218

Integrating live cells with semiconductor devices: A biocompatibility assay.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in the development of small hybrid cell-semiconductor systems for the non-invasive evaluation of the physiological state of a cell population. These miniature devices can be used in many areas of biomedical applications, ranging from basic research to drug screening during cancer chemosensitivity testing in clinics. A prerequisite for the biological and medical application of these devices is that cells retain their functional and growth properties when in contact with the semiconductor sensor material. The sensor surface is usually coated with dielectric silicon dioxide (SiO2 ) or a silicon nitride layer (Si3 N4 ); therefore, cellular adhesion to these materials and cellular viability on these surfaces are of crucial im-portance. This is especially true for bone cells that are sensitive to the surface microstructure. Therefore, we investigated the short-term (1-7 days) behavior of model bone cells (MG63 human osteosarcoma cells) grown on silicon samples coated with SiO2 . Cell adhesion and morphology were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 1 day after seeding and cell pro-liferation was evaluated by Alamar Blue assay at 2, 3 and 7 days after seeding. No adverse cellular reactions could be detected with these assays suggesting that the tested substrate is suitable for the hybrid cell-semiconductor systems that test bone tumor chemosensitivity. PMID:20799231

Cioffi, M; Giordano, C; Gusmeroli, R; Raimondi, M T; Spinelli, A S; Baranauskas, G

2005-01-01

219

Evaluation of four cell lines for assay of infectious adenoviruses in water samples.  

PubMed

Human viral contamination in drinking and recreational waters poses health risks. The application of PCR-based molecular technology has advanced our knowledge of the occurrence and prevalence of human viruses in water; however, it has provided no information on viral viability and infectivity. Four human cell lines were compared for their sensitivity to different serotypes of human adenoviruses using the TCID50 test. The sensitivity of each cell line varied with different serotypes of adenovirus. Human embryonic kidney cell line 293A and human lung carcinoma cell line A549 were the most sensitive, especially to enteric adenovirus 40 and 41. Plaque assay of primary sewage samples showed 293A can detect viral plaques in 7 of 13 primary sewage samples tested. Adenoviruses were also isolated using 293A from environmental water concentrates. Cloning and sequencing of environmental adenoviral isolates indentified them to be aligned with adenoviruses serotype 40 and serotype 5. The result of this study suggests that plaque assay with 293A cell line is suitable for detection of adenovirus in the aquatic environment. Combining this cell culture with molecular methods for viral assay in the aquatic environment will provide critical information for risk assessment. PMID:19590132

Jiang, Sunny C; Han, Jijun; He, Jian-Wen; Chu, Weiping

2009-12-01

220

Culture of Rodent Spermatogonial Stem Cells, Male Germline Stem Cells of the Postnatal Animal  

PubMed Central

Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), postnatal male germline stem cells, are the foundation of spermatogenesis, during which an enormous number of spermatozoa is produced daily by the testis throughout life of the male. SSCs are unique among stem cells in the adult body because they are the only cells that undergo self-renewal and transmit genes to subsequent generations. In addition, SSCs provide an excellent and powerful model to study stem cell biology because of the availability of a functional assay that unequivocally identifies the stem cell. Development of an in vitro culture system that allows an unlimited supply of SSCs is a crucial technique to manipulate genes of the SSC to generate valuable transgenic animals, to study the self-renewal mechanism, and to develop new therapeutic strategies for infertility. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for the culture of mouse and rat SSCs. A key factor for successful development of the SSC culture system was identification of in vitro growth factor requirements for the stem cell using a defined serum-free medium. Because transplantation assays using immunodeficient mice demonstrated that extrinsic factors for self-renewal of SSCs appear to be conserved among many mammalian species, culture techniques for SSCs of other species, including farm animals and humans, are likely to be developed in the coming 5–10 years. PMID:18442644

Kubota, Hiroshi; Brinster, Ralph L.

2014-01-01

221

Hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) extract exhibits atropine-sensitive activity in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) plant extract is used as a herbal alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases.\\u000a Recently, it was shown that hawthorn extract preparations caused negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine\\u000a cardiomyocyte assay, independent of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. The aim of this study was to further characterize the\\u000a effect of hawthorn extract to

Satin Salehi; Shannon R. Long; Philip J. Proteau; Theresa M. Filtz

2009-01-01

222

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

223

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

224

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

225

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

226

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

227

Comparison of sensitivity to arsenic compounds between a Bhas 42 cell transformation assay and a BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay.  

PubMed

A short-term cell transformation assay has recently been developed, using Bhas 42 cells which were established from BALB/c 3T3 cells transfected by v-Ha-ras gene and postulated to be initiated in the two-stage carcinogenesis theory. The Bhas 42 cell transformation assay has been reported to be capable of detecting initiating and promoting activities of chemical carcinogens, according to the different protocols, initiation assay and promotion assay, respectively. The assay is superior to classical transformation assays in cost and labor performance. The present study was carried out to compare its sensitivity with that of a classical BALB/c 3T3 cell system. We performed the Bhas 42 cell transformation assay with inorganic arsenic compounds which are potent environmental carcinogens in human but not mutagens in bacteria or weak mutagens in mammalian cells in vitro. Sodium arsenite, disodium arsenate, and their metabolites, monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) were included in the study. Sodium arsenite was positive in the initiation assay and all compounds except for DMAA were positive in the promotion assay. These results were compared with reported data in a two-stage BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay. The sensitivity of Bhas 42 cell transformation assay was found to be similar to that of the conventional BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay for the detection of initiating activities of arsenic compounds. For the detection of promoting activities, its sensitivity was equivalent to that of the two-stage BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay where the target cells were initiated with sub-threshold dose of 3-methylcholanthrene, confirming that Bhas 42 cells behave as initiated cells in the transformation assay. PMID:19386250

Muramatsu, Dai; Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Sachiko; Hayashi, Kumiko; Tanaka, Noriho; Sakai, Ayako

2009-04-30

228

Comparison of the illumigene Mycoplasma DNA Amplification Assay and Culture for Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) system, the illumigene Mycoplasma DNA amplification assay (Meridian Bioscience, Inc., Cincinnati, OH) was evaluated to determine its analytical sensitivity, specificity, and clinical application in comparison to historic culture in a collection of archived respiratory specimens. The illumigene limit of detection was ?88 CFU/reaction for 10 Mycoplasma pneumoniae reference strains. This assay correctly identified 36 M. pneumoniae reference strains and clinical isolates from various geographic origins, including both of the main subtypes. No cross-reactions were detected with other mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, other bacterial species, viruses, yeasts, or human DNA. Among 214 respiratory specimens previously cultured for M. pneumoniae, when real-time PCR with bidirectional sequencing of the PCR products was used to resolve discrepancies, the sensitivity was 22 of 22 (100%) and the specificity was 190 of 192 (99%). This commercial LAMP assay is a useful rapid method for detecting M. pneumoniae in clinical specimens. Additional prospective clinical trials with direct comparison to culture and PCR are warranted. PMID:24430454

Ratliff, Amy E.; Duffy, Lynn B.

2014-01-01

229

Establishment, characterization, and toxicological application of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) primary skin fibroblast cell cultures.  

PubMed

Pollution is a well-known threat to sea turtles but its impact is poorly understood. In vitro toxicity testing presents a promising avenue to assess and monitor the effects of environmental pollutants in these animals within the legal constraints of their endangered status. Reptilian cell cultures are rare and, in sea turtles, largely derived from animals affected by tumors. Here we describe the full characterization of primary skin fibroblast cell cultures derived from biopsies of multiple healthy loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta), and the subsequent optimization of traditional in vitro toxicity assays to reptilian cells. Characterization included validating fibroblast cells by morphology and immunocytochemistry, and optimizing culture conditions by use of growth curve assays with a fractional factorial experimental design. Two cell viability assays, MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and an assay measuring cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression by quantitative PCR were optimized in the characterized cells. MTT and LDH assays confirmed cytotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid at 500 ?M following 72 and 96 h exposures while CYP1A5 induction was detected after 72 h exposure to 0.1-10 ?M benzo[a]pyrene. This research demonstrates the validity of in vitro toxicity testing in sea turtles and highlights the need to optimize mammalian assays to reptilian cells. PMID:25384208

Webb, Sarah J; Zychowski, Gregory V; Bauman, Sandy W; Higgins, Benjamin M; Raudsepp, Terje; Gollahon, Lauren S; Wooten, Kimberly J; Cole, Jennifer M; Godard-Codding, Céline

2014-12-16

230

Bioprocessing technology for plant cell suspension cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering various forms of in vitro plant tissue cultures, cell suspension culture is most amenable to large-scale production\\u000a of natural compounds, owing primarily to its superior culture homogeneity. This fact has already been demonstrated in several\\u000a largescale applications, including the commercial shikonin process. The scope of this work is to review the state of the art\\u000a in bioprocessing technologies pertinent

Wei wen Su

1995-01-01

231

An ELISA assay for cytochrome P4501A in fish liver cells  

SciTech Connect

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression in vitro in fish hepatoma cells is described. Cells were cultured as monolayers in 96-microwell cell culture plates and exposed to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 77, 105, 153, and 169; 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), and {beta}-naphthoflavone (BNF) for 3 d. Relative CYP1A protein content, CYP1A enzymatic activity, and total protein content were determined directly within the wells. At low concentrations of PCB 77, PCB 169, and 3-MC, the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was induced, but it was inhibited at high concentrations of these compounds. However, CYP1A protein content measured in an ELISA performed with intact cells increased monotonically in response to the concentration. No CYP1A induction was observed for PCB 105 and PCB 153. Because comparison between EROD activity and CYP1A amount gives information about the catalytic efficiency of CYP1A in the cells, this noncompetitive, solid-phase ELISA is recommended as a complementary method to the EROD assay. This novel ELISA method may be an accurate in vitro technique for a rapid and sensitive screening of CYP1A-inducible compounds.

Brueschweiler, B.J.; Fent, K. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Environmental Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland)]|[Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zuerich, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Wuergler, F.E. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Schwerzenbach (Switzerland). Inst. of Toxicology]|[Univ. of Zuerich, Schwerzenbach (Switzerland)

1996-04-01

232

Rotating cell culture systems for human cell culture: human trophoblast cells as a model.  

PubMed

The field of human trophoblast research aids in understanding the complex environment established during placentation. Due to the nature of these studies, human in vivo experimentation is impossible. A combination of primary cultures, explant cultures and trophoblast cell lines support our understanding of invasion of the uterine wall and remodeling of uterine spiral arteries by extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs), which is required for successful establishment of pregnancy. Despite the wealth of knowledge gleaned from such models, it is accepted that in vitro cell culture models using EVT-like cell lines display altered cellular properties when compared to their in vivo counterparts. Cells cultured in the rotating cell culture system (RCCS) display morphological, phenotypic, and functional properties of EVT-like cell lines that more closely mimic differentiating in utero EVTs, with increased expression of genes mediating invasion (e.g. matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)) and trophoblast differentiation. The Saint Georges Hospital Placental cell Line-4 (SGHPL-4) (kindly donated by Dr. Guy Whitley and Dr. Judith Cartwright) is an EVT-like cell line that was used for testing in the RCCS. The design of the RCCS culture vessel is based on the principle that organs and tissues function in a three-dimensional (3-D) environment. Due to the dynamic culture conditions in the vessel, including conditions of physiologically relevant shear, cells grown in three dimensions form aggregates based on natural cellular affinities and differentiate into organotypic tissue-like assemblies. The maintenance of a fluid orbit provides a low-shear, low-turbulence environment similar to conditions found in vivo. Sedimentation of the cultured cells is countered by adjusting the rotation speed of the RCCS to ensure a constant free-fall of cells. Gas exchange occurs through a permeable hydrophobic membrane located on the back of the bioreactor. Like their parental tissue in vivo, RCCS-grown cells are able to respond to chemical and molecular gradients in three dimensions (i.e. at their apical, basal, and lateral surfaces) because they are cultured on the surface of porous microcarrier beads. When grown as two-dimensional monolayers on impermeable surfaces like plastic, cells are deprived of this important communication at their basal surface. Consequently, the spatial constraints imposed by the environment profoundly affect how cells sense and decode signals from the surrounding microenvironment, thus implying an important role for the 3-D milieu. We have used the RCCS to engineer biologically meaningful 3-D models of various human epithelial tissues. Indeed, many previous reports have demonstrated that cells cultured in the RCCS can assume physiologically relevant phenotypes that have not been possible with other models. In summary, culture in the RCCS represents an easy, reproducible, high-throughput platform that provides large numbers of differentiated cells that are amenable to a variety of experimental manipulations. In the following protocol, using EVTs as an example, we clearly describe the steps required to three-dimensionally culture adherent cells in the RCCS. PMID:22297395

Zwezdaryk, Kevin J; Warner, Jessica A; Machado, Heather L; Morris, Cindy A; Höner zu Bentrup, Kerstin

2012-01-01

233

Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium accelerates skin wound healing: An in vitro study of fibroblast and keratinocyte scratch assays  

SciTech Connect

We have used in vitro scratch assays to examine the relative contribution of dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes in the wound repair process and to test the influence of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) secreted factors on both skin cell types. Scratch assays were established using single cell and co-cultures of L929 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes, with wound closure monitored via time-lapse microscopy. Both in serum supplemented and serum free conditions, wound closure was faster in L929 fibroblast than HaCaT keratinocyte scratch assays, and in co-culture the L929 fibroblasts lead the way in closing the scratches. MSC-CM generated under serum free conditions significantly enhanced the wound closure rate of both skin cell types separately and in co-culture, whereas conditioned medium from L929 or HaCaT cultures had no significant effect. This enhancement of wound closure in the presence of MSC-CM was due to accelerated cell migration rather than increased cell proliferation. A number of wound healing mediators were identified in MSC-CM, including TGF-{beta}1, the chemokines IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES, and collagen type I, fibronectin, SPARC and IGFBP-7. This study suggests that the trophic activity of MSC may play a role in skin wound closure by affecting both dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte migration, along with a contribution to the formation of extracellular matrix.

Walter, M.N.M. [Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG (United Kingdom) [Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG (United Kingdom); School of Life and Health Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7EJ (United Kingdom); Wright, K.T.; Fuller, H.R. [Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG (United Kingdom)] [Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG (United Kingdom); MacNeil, S. [Kroto Research Institute and Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Sheffield University, Sheffield, S1 2UE (United Kingdom)] [Kroto Research Institute and Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Sheffield University, Sheffield, S1 2UE (United Kingdom); Johnson, W.E.B., E-mail: w.e.johnson@aston.ac.uk [School of Life and Health Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7EJ (United Kingdom)] [School of Life and Health Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7EJ (United Kingdom)

2010-04-15

234

Stamp wound assay for studying coupled cell migration and cell debris clearance.  

PubMed

A new method for studying wound healing under realistic conditions in vitro was developed. The method involves creating defined patterns of damaged cell debris with poly(dimethyl)siloxane (PDMS) stamping. This novel assay permitted the quantification of wound healing rates in the presence of cell debris. Experimental results with this assay suggest that cell migration in the presence of cell debris is a two step process requiring (1) non-muscle myosin II-dependent cell clearance followed by (2) cell migration into newly cleared wound areas. The novel stamp wound assay allows the study of coupled cell migration and debris clearance and is a more realistic wound healing assay in vitro. PMID:20961056

Lee, Jiyeon; Wang, Yu-Lin; Ren, Fan; Lele, Tanmay P

2010-11-16

235

Differentiation of mouse iPS cells into ameloblast-like cells in cultures using medium conditioned by epithelial cell rests of Malassez and gelatin-coated dishes.  

PubMed

Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from adult cells and are potentially of great value in regenerative medicine. Recently, it was shown that iPS cells can differentiate into ameloblast-like cells in cultures using feeder cells. In the present study, we sought to induce differentiation of ameloblast-like cells from iPS cells under feeder-free conditions using medium conditioned by cultured epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ERM) cells and gelatin-coated dishes. Two culture conditions were compared: co-cultures of iPS cells and ERM cells; and, culture of iPS cells in ERM cell-conditioned medium. Differentiation of ameloblast-like cells in the cultures was assessed using real-time RT-PCR assays of expression of the marker genes keratin 14, amelogenin, and ameloblastin and by immunocytochemical staining for amelogenin. We found greater evidence of ameloblast-like cell differentiation in the cultures using the conditioned medium. In the latter, the level of amelogenin expression increased daily and was significantly higher than controls on the 7th, 10th, and 14th days. Expression of ameloblastin also increased daily and was significantly higher than controls on the 14th day. The present study demonstrates that mouse iPS cells can be induced to differentiate into ameloblast-like cells in feeder-free cell cultures using ERM cell-conditioned medium and gelatin-coated dishes. PMID:25319805

Yoshida, Koki; Sato, Jun; Takai, Rie; Uehara, Osamu; Kurashige, Yoshihito; Nishimura, Michiko; Chiba, Itsuo; Saitoh, Masato; Abiko, Yoshihiro

2014-10-16

236

Effects of several salt marsh plants on mouse spleen and thymus cell proliferation using mtt assay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, we have tested the effects of 21 salt marsh plants on cell proliferation of mouse immune cells (spleen and thymus) using MTT assay in culture. The methanolic extracts of six salt marsh plants ( Rosa rugosa, Ixeris tamagawaensis, Artemisia capillaris, Tetragonia tetragonoides, Erigeron annus, and Glehnia littoralis) showed very powerful suppressive effects of mouse immune cell death and significant activities of cell proliferation in vitro. Especially, the methanolic extract of Rosa rugosa was found to have fifteen times compared to the control treatment, demonstrating that Rosa rugosa may have a potent stimulation effect on immune cell proliferation. These results suggest that several salt marsh plants including Rosa rugosa could be useful for further study as an immunomodulating agent.

Seo, Youngwan; Lee, Hee-Jung; Kim, You Ah; Youn, Hyun Joo; Lee, Burm-Jong

2005-12-01

237

Culture and Manipulation of Embryonic Cells  

PubMed Central

The direct manipulation of embryonic cells is an important tool for addressing key questions in cell and developmental biology. C. elegans is relatively unique among genetic model systems in being amenable to manipulation of embryonic cells. Embryonic cell manipulation has allowed the identification of cell interactions by direct means, and it has been an important technique for dissecting mechanisms by which cell fates are specified, cell divisions are oriented, and morphogenesis is accomplished. Here, we present detailed methods for isolating, manipulating and culturing embryonic cells of C. elegans. PMID:22226523

Edgar, Lois G.; Goldstein, Bob

2012-01-01

238

Alginate as a cell culture substrate for growth and differentiation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells' behavior in alginate beads that establish 3D environment for cellular growth and mimic extracellular matrix versus the conventional 2D monolayer culture. RPE cells were encapsulated in alginate beads by dripping alginate cell suspension into CaCl2 solution. Beads were suspended in three different media including Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/F12 alone, DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS), and DMEM/F12 supplemented with 30 % human amniotic fluid (HAF). RPE cells were cultivated on polystyrene under the same conditions as controls. Cell phenotype, cell proliferation, cell death, and MTT assay, immunocytochemistry, and real-time RT-PCR were performed to evaluate the effect of alginate on RPE cells characteristics and integrity. RPE cells can survive and proliferate in alginate matrixes. Immunocytochemistry analysis exhibited Nestin, RPE65, and cytokeratin expressions in a reasonable number of cultured cells in alginate beads. Real-time PCR data demonstrated high levels of Nestin, CHX10, RPE65, and tyrosinase gene expressions in RPE cells immobilized in alginate when compared to 2D monolayer culture systems. The results suggest that alginate can be used as a reliable scaffold for maintenance of RPE cells' integrity and in vitro propagation of human retinal progenitor cells for cell replacement therapies in retinal diseases. PMID:25502925

Heidari, Razeih; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Samiei, Shahram; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Davari, Maliheh; Nazemroaya, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Abouzar; Deezagi, Abdolkhalegh

2015-03-01

239

SNP panel identification assay (SPIA): a genetic-based assay for the identification of cell lines  

PubMed Central

Translational research hinges on the ability to make observations in model systems and to implement those findings into clinical applications, such as the development of diagnostic tools or targeted therapeutics. Tumor cell lines are commonly used to model carcinogenesis. The same tumor cell line can be simultaneously studied in multiple research laboratories throughout the world, theoretically generating results that are directly comparable. One important assumption in this paradigm is that researchers are working with the same cells. However, recent work using high throughput genomic analyses questions the accuracy of this assumption. Observations by our group and others suggest that experiments reported in the scientific literature may contain pre-analytic errors due to inaccurate identities of the cell lines employed. To address this problem, we developed a simple approach that enables an accurate determination of cell line identity by genotyping 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Here, we describe the empirical development of a SNP panel identification assay (SPIA) compatible with routine use in the laboratory setting to ensure the identity of tumor cell lines and human tumor samples throughout the course of long term research use. PMID:18304946

Demichelis, Francesca; Greulich, Heidi; Macoska, Jill A.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Sellers, William R.; Garraway, Levi; Rubin, Mark A.

2008-01-01

240

Cell Culture on MEMS Platforms: A Review  

E-print Network

Microfabricated systems provide an excellent platform for the culture of cells, and are an extremely useful tool for the investigation of cellular responses to various stimuli. Advantages offered over traditional methods ...

Ni, Ming

241

Effect of plasma needle on cultured cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate a possible application of plasma in fine surgery, we studied the effects of a small atmospheric glow discharge on living cultured cells. The plasma source used for this purpose was the \\

I. E. Kieft; N. A. Dvinskikh; Jos L. V. Broers; Dick W. Slaaf; Eva Stoffels

2004-01-01

242

Induction and repair of DNA damage measured by the comet assay in human T lymphocytes separated by immunomagnetic cell sorting.  

PubMed

The comet assay is widely used in human biomonitoring to measure DNA damage in whole blood or isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as a marker of exposure to genotoxic agents. Cytogenetic assays with phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated cultured T lymphocytes are also frequently performed in human biomonitoring. Cytogenetic effects (micronuclei, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges) may be induced in vivo but also occur ex vivo during the cultivation of lymphocytes as a consequence of DNA damage present in lymphocytes at the time of sampling. To better understand whether DNA damage measured by the comet assay in PBMC is representative for DNA damage in T cells, we comparatively investigated DNA damage and its repair in PBMC and T cells obtained by immunomagnetic cell sorting. PBMC cultures and T cell cultures were exposed to mutagens with different modes of genotoxic action and DNA damage was measured by the comet assay after the end of a 2h exposure and after 18h post-incubation. The mutagens tested were methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), (±)-anti-B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO), styrene oxide and potassium bromate. MMS and potassium bromate were also tested by the modified comet assay with formamido pyrimidine glycosylase (FPG) protein. The results indicate that the mutagens tested induce DNA damage in PBMC and T cells in the same range of concentrations and removal of induced DNA lesions occurs to a comparable extent. Based on these results, we conclude that the comet assay with PBMC is suited to predict DNA damage and its removal in T cells. PMID:25771724

Bausinger, Julia; Speit, Günter

2014-11-01

243

Cell-free Assays for HIV-1 Uncoating  

PubMed Central

Summary/Abstract Uncoating is an essential step in the retrovirus life cycle about which little is known. Uncoating is defined as the specific dissociation of the capsid shell from the viral core in the host cell cytoplasm. In this chapter, biochemical assays for studying HIV-1 uncoating in vitro are described. These techniques have proven useful for characterizing HIV-1 mutants that exhibit defects in the uncoating step of infection. PMID:19020817

Aiken, Christopher

2013-01-01

244

An improved method for staining cell colonies in clonogenic assays  

PubMed Central

Clonogenic assay is a widely used experimental approach to test for the effects of drugs/genes on the growth and proliferative characteristics of cells in vitro. Accurate quantitation of treatment effects in clonogeneic assays depends on the ability to visualize and count cell colonies precisely. We report a novel method (referred as ETeB) for staining cell colonies grown on plastic and specially coated substrates like collagen. Using colon cancer cell lines grown on plastic and collagen, we compared the colony staining efficiencies of the widely used methylene blue, and Ethidium bromide (ETeB) stains. Results show that the ETeB protocol works well on plastic and is extremely effective for staining colonies on collagen when compared to methylene blue. The key features and advantages of ETeB technique are; (a) reduction in background for colonies grown on collagen and possibly other substrates, (b) the whole procedure takes less than a minute, (c) no post-stain washing step is required which eliminates colony losses for cell lines that are loosely adherent, (d) colony visualization and counting can be done immediately following the staining procedure using a standard UV illuminator and software, and (e) the method works across a wide variety of cell lines. The simplicity and robustness of this procedure should warrant its usage in both small and large-scale clonogenic experiments. PMID:19003022

Natale, Leanna; Markowitz, Sanford D.

2007-01-01

245

Cell assay using a two-photon-excited europium chelate  

PubMed Central

We report application of two-photon excitation of europium chelates to immunolabeling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) cell surface proteins on A431 cancer cells. The europium chelates are excited with two photons of infrared light and emit in the visible. Europium chelates are conjugated to antibodies for EGFR. A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma) cells are labeled with this conjugate and imaged using a multiphoton microscope. To minimize signal loss due to the relatively long-lived Eu3+ emission, the multiphoton microscope is used with scanning laser two-photon excitation and non-scanning detection with a CCD. The chelate labels show very little photobleaching (less than 1% during continuous illumination in the microscope for 20 minutes) and low levels of autofluorescence (less than 1% of the signal from labeled cells). The detection limit of the europium label in the cell assay is better than 100 zeptomoles. PMID:21833362

Xiao, Xudong; Haushalter, Jeanne P.; Kotz, Kenneth T.; Faris, Gregory W.

2011-01-01

246

Impact of static magnetic fields on human myoblast cell cultures.  

PubMed

Treatment of skeletal muscle loss due to trauma or tumor ablation therapy still lacks a suitable clinical approach. Creation of functional muscle tissue in vitro using the differentiation potential of human satellite cells (myoblasts) is a promising new research field called tissue engineering. Strong differentiation stimuli, which can induce formation of myofibers after cell expansion, have to be identified and evaluated in order to create sufficient amounts of neo-tissue. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of static magnetic fields (SMF) on human satellite cell cultures as one of the preferred stem cell sources in skeletal muscle tissue engineering. Experiments were performed using human satellite cells with and without SMF stimulation after incubation with a culture medium containing low [differentiation medium (DM)] or high [growth medium (GM)] concentrations of growth factors. Proliferation analysis using the alamarBlue assay revealed no significant influence of SMF on cell division. Real-time RT-PCR of the following marker genes was investigated: myogenic factor 5 (MYF5), myogenic differentiation antigen 1 (MYOD1), myogenin (MYOG), skeletal muscle ?1 actin (ACTA1), and embryonic (MYH3), perinatal (MYH8) and adult (MYH1) skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain. We detected an influence on marker gene expression by SMF in terms of a down-regulation of the marker genes in cell cultures treated with SMF and DM, but not in cell cultures treated with SMF and GM. Immunocytochemical investigations using antibodies directed against the differentiation markers confirmed the gene expression results and showed an enhancement of maturation after stimulation with GM and SMF. Additional calculation of the fusion index also revealed an increase in myotube formation in cell cultures treated with SMF and GM. Our findings show that the effect of SMF on the process of differentiation depends on the growth factor concentration in the culture medium in human satellite cultures. SMF alone enhances the maturation of human satellite cells treated with GM, but not satellite cells that were additionally stimulated with serum cessation. Therefore, further investigations are necessary before consideration of SMF for skeletal muscle tissue engineering approaches. PMID:21837362

Stern-Straeter, Jens; Bonaterra, Gabriel Alejandro; Kassner, Stefan S; Faber, Anne; Sauter, Alexander; Schulz, Johannes D; Hörmann, Karl; Kinscherf, Ralf; Goessler, Ulrich Reinhart

2011-12-01

247

White Blood Cell-Based Detection of Asymptomatic Scrapie Infection by Ex Vivo Assays  

PubMed Central

Prion transmission can occur by blood transfusion in human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in experimental animal models, including sheep. Screening of blood and its derivatives for the presence of prions became therefore a major public health issue. As infectious titer in blood is reportedly low, highly sensitive and robust methods are required to detect prions in blood and blood derived products. The objectives of this study were to compare different methods - in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays - to detect prion infectivity in cells prepared from blood samples obtained from scrapie infected sheep at different time points of the disease. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) and bioassays in transgenic mice expressing the ovine prion protein were the most efficient methods to identify infected animals at any time of the disease (asymptomatic to terminally-ill stages). However scrapie cell and cerebellar organotypic slice culture assays designed to replicate ovine prions in culture also allowed detection of prion infectivity in blood cells from asymptomatic sheep. These findings confirm that white blood cells are appropriate targets for preclinical detection and introduce ex vivo tools to detect blood infectivity during the asymptomatic stage of the disease. PMID:25122456

Halliez, Sophie; Jaumain, Emilie; Huor, Alvina; Douet, Jean-Yves; Lugan, Séverine; Cassard, Hervé; Lacroux, Caroline; Béringue, Vincent; Andréoletti, Olivier; Vilette, Didier

2014-01-01

248

Development of an ELISA assay for the quantification of soluble huntingtin in human blood cells  

PubMed Central

Background Huntington’s disease (HD) is a monogenic disorder caused by an aberrant expansion of CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene (HTT). Pathogenesis is associated with expression of the mutant (mHTT) protein in the CNS, with its levels most likely related to disease progression and symptom severity. Since non-invasive methods to quantify HTT in the CNS do not exist, measuring amount of soluble HTT in peripheral cells represents an important step in development of disease-modifying interventions in HD. Results An ELISA assay using commercially available antibodies was developed to quantify HTT levels in complex matrices like mammalian cell cultures lysates and human samples. The immunoassay was optimized using a recombinant full-length HTT protein, and validated both on wild-type and mutant HTT species. The ability of the assay to detect significant variations of soluble HTT levels was evaluated using an HSP90 inhibitor that is known to enhance HTT degradation. Once optimized, the bioassay was applied to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HD patients, demonstrating good potential in tracking the disease course. Conclusions The method described here represents a validated, simple and rapid bio-molecular assay to evaluate soluble HTT levels in blood cells as useful tool in disease and pharmacodynamic marker identification for observational and clinical trials. PMID:24274906

2013-01-01

249

Immunological and virological studies of cultured labial biopsy cells from patients with Sjögren's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Labial salivary gland tissues from twenty-five patients were cultured in vitro for virus studies and for use as target cells in cellular and antibody-mediated cytotoxicity assays. Fourteen patients had definite Sjögren's Syndrome (SS), four had possible SS and seven did not have SS. No evidence for the presence of a virus in the cultured cells or after chemical treatment of the cultured cells was obtained. Tubuloreticular structures were present in three of the original biopsies but were not seen in the corresponding cultured cells, although in two of these cell lines rare bundles of intranuclear microfibrils occurred. The significance of these structures is unknown. Autologous serum and autologous lymphocytes were not cytotoxic for the cultured cells. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:4468195

Cremer, Natalie E.; Daniels, T. E.; Oshiro, L. S.; Marcus, F.; Claypool, R.; Sylvester, R. A.; Talal, N.

1974-01-01

250

A rapid and robust assay for detection of S-phase cell cycle progression in plant cells and tissues by using ethynyl deoxyuridine  

PubMed Central

Background Progress in plant cell cycle research is highly dependent on reliable methods for detection of cells replicating DNA. Frequency of S-phase cells (cells in DNA synthesis phase) is a basic parameter in studies on the control of cell division cycle and the developmental events of plant cells. Here we extend the microscopy and flow cytometry applications of the recently developed EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine)-based S-phase assay to various plant species and tissues. We demonstrate that the presented protocols insure the improved preservation of cell and tissue structure and allow significant reduction in assay duration. In comparison with the frequently used detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and tritiated-thymidine incorporation, this new methodology offers several advantages as we discuss here. Results Applications of EdU-based S-phase assay in microscopy and flow cytometry are presented by using cultured cells of alfalfa, Arabidopsis, grape, maize, rice and tobacco. We present the advantages of EdU assay as compared to BrdU-based replication assay and demonstrate that EdU assay -which does not require plant cell wall digestion or DNA denaturation steps, offers reduced assay duration and better preservation of cellular, nuclear and chromosomal morphologies. We have also shown that fast and efficient EdU assay can also be an efficient tool for dual parameter flow cytometry analysis and for quantitative assessment of replication in thick root samples of rice. Conclusions In plant cell cycle studies, EdU-based S-phase detection offers a superior alternative to the existing S-phase assays. EdU method is reliable, versatile, fast, simple and non-radioactive and it can be readily applied to many different plant systems. PMID:20181034

2010-01-01

251

Quasi-spherical microwells on superhydrophobic substrates for long term culture of multicellular spheroids and high throughput assays.  

PubMed

Multicellular tumour spheroids closely recapitulate the physiological environment of tumour tissues. However, their implementation in drug screening assays remains limited due to the technological challenges of forming large numbers of high quality spheroids in platforms compatible with high throughput screening. A simple bench-top microfabrication strategy is demonstrated here based on the principle of ice lithography carried out on superhydrophobic substrates to fabricate quasi-spherical microwells (spheriwells). The microwells shapes and dimensions are directly controlled by the hydrophobicity of the substrate and the volume of the water droplets. The prepared concave microwells enable the formation of dense and homogeneous multicellular tumour spheroids. Spheroids formed within spheriwells are trapped within the microwells, which eliminate loss during media manipulation and facilitate long-term on-chip culture. Morphological and phenotypical changes associated with the growth of MCF-7 adenocarcinoma cells in spheriwells were characterised using imaging flow cytometry and revealed the appearance of heterogeneous populations with loss of E-Cadherin expression. The compatibility of the spheriwells with an on-chip MTT assay is demonstrated. The very unusual shape of the spheriwells, prepared using materials and methods routinely used in most research laboratories, provides a straightforward and scalable platform to prepare high quality multicellular tumour spheroids compatible with high throughput biological screening assays. PMID:24797879

Liu, Tianqing; Winter, Marnie; Thierry, Benjamin

2014-07-01

252

Detection of DNA damage in individual cells from marine organisms using the single cell gel assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single cell gel (SCG) or comet assay is a simple method by which DNA damage is expressed as relative nuclear ‘tail’ length of gel-embedded cells following alkaline electrophoresis. While potentially applicable to any cell type, laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the utility of the SCG method for the detection of genotoxicity in cells of marine fish and invertebrates.

Diane E. Nacci; Stephanie Cayula; Eugene Jackim

1996-01-01

253

Homogeneous Cell and Bead-Based Assays for High Throughput Screening Using Fluorometric Microvolume Assay Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

High throughput drug screening has become a critical component of the drug discovery process. The screening of libraries containing hundreds of thousands of compounds has resulted in a requirement for assays and instrumentation that are amenable to nonradioactive formats and that can be miniaturized. Homogeneous assays that minimize upstream automation of the individual assays are also preferable. Fluorometric microvolume assay

Sheri Miraglia; Elana E. Swartzman; Julia Mellentin-Michelotti; Lolita Evangelista; Christopher Smith; Iwan Gunawan; Kenton Lohman; Edward M. Goldberg; Bala Manian; Pau-Miau Yuan

1999-01-01

254

Genotoxicity of complex mixtures: CHO cell mutagenicity assay  

SciTech Connect

A Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mammalian cell assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of complex mixtures (synthetic fuels). The genotoxicity (mutagenic potency) of the mixtures increased as the temperature of their boiling range increased. Most of the genotoxicity in the 750/sup 0/F+ boiling-range materials was associated with the neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fractions. Chemical analysis data indicate that the PAH fractions of high-boiling coal liquids contain a number of known chemical carcinogens, including five- and six-ring polyaromatics (e.g., benzo(a)pyrene) as well as four- and five-ring alkyl-substituted PAH (e.g., methylchrysene and dimethylbenzanthracenes); concentrations are a function of boiling point (bp). In vitro genotoxicity was also detected in fractions of nitrogen-containing polyaromatic compounds, as well as in those with aliphatics of hydroxy-containing PAH. Mutagenic activity of some fractions was detectable in the CHO assay in the absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system; in some instances, addition of exogenous enzymes and cofactors inhibited expression of the direct-acting mutagenic potential of the fraction. These data indicate that the organic matrix of the chemical fraction determines whether, and to what degree, various mutagens are expressed in the CHO assay. Therefore, the results of biological assays of these mixtures must be correlated with chemical analyses for proper interpretation of these data. 29 references, 16 figures, 4 tables.

Frazier, M.E.; Samuel, J.E.

1985-02-01

255

Establishment and Characterization of a Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Reporter Cell Line for Influenza A Virus Assays?  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus diagnosis has traditionally relied on virus isolation in chicken embryo or cell cultures. Many laboratories have adopted rapid molecular methods for detection of influenza viruses and discontinued routine utilization of the relatively slow viral culture methods. We describe an influenza A virus reporter cell line that contributes to more efficient viral detection in cell culture. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were engineered to constitutively produce an influenza virus genome-like luciferase reporter RNA driven by the canine RNA polymerase I promoter. Induction of a high level of luciferase activity was detected in the Luc9.1 cells upon infection with various strains of influenza A virus, including 2009 H1N1 pandemic and highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. In contrast, infection with influenza B virus or human adenovirus type 5 did not induce significant levels of reporter expression. The reporter Luc9.1 cells were evaluated in neutralizing antibody assays with convalescent H3N2 ferret serum, yielding a neutralization titer comparable to that obtained by the conventional microneutralization assay, suggesting that the use of the reporter cell line might simplify neutralization assays by facilitating the establishment of infectious virus endpoints. Luc9.1 cells were also used to determine the susceptibility of influenza A viruses to a model antiviral drug. The equivalence to conventional antiviral assay results indicated that the Luc9.1 cells could provide an alternative cell-based platform for high-throughput drug discovery screens. In summary, the MDCK-derived Luc9.1 reporter cell line is highly permissive for influenza A virus replication and provides a very specific and sensitive approach for simultaneous detection and isolation of influenza A viruses as well as functional evaluation of antibodies and antiviral molecules. PMID:20504984

Hossain, M. Jaber; Perez, Sandra; Guo, Zhu; Chen, Li-Mei; Donis, Ruben O.

2010-01-01

256

Illuminations: A Cell Notes Publication | January 2014 32 Illuminations: A Cell Notes Publication | January 2014 How to Choose a Cell Health Assay  

E-print Network

a signal. This approach, exemplified by the CellTiter-FluorTM Cell Viability Assay, is homogeneous, more | January 2014 How to Choose a Cell Health Assay Choosing the Right Cell Health Assay Depends on What You Want to Measure by Terry Riss Introduction Promega has a large portfolio of cell health assays, which

Cai, Long

257

Infrared Spectroscopy of Plant Cell Cultures 1  

PubMed Central

Infrared spectroscopy was used to examine suspension-cultured pear (Pyrus communis L.) and Spartina pectinata cells. Noninvasive measurements were made using internal reflectance sampling. Spectra of actively growing cells exhibited a pronounced absorbance at 2343 reciprocal centimeters. The absorbance peak was identified and verified as CO2 dissolved in water. This peak was absent in nonviable cells. Peak height was directly proportional to percent viability in artificial mixtures of viable and nonviable cells, indicating that the level of intracellular CO2 production could be used as a viability determinant for plant cells. Suspension-cultured cells were slowly cooled to subzero temperatures and analyzed for viability using infrared spectroscopy and tetrazolium staining. Both methods showed similar trends in viability assessment. Infrared spectroscopy could provide a more detailed understanding of cell viability and allow measurement on a noninvasive basis. PMID:16668026

Sowa, Sharon; Towill, Leigh E.

1991-01-01

258

Use of a Panfungal PCR Assay for Detection of Fungal Pathogens in a Commercial Blood Culture System  

PubMed Central

A panfungal PCR assay was used to evaluate the ability of the ESP blood culture system to detect fungemia. The results showed that the ESP system is reliable for the detection of fungi and showed the applicability of using a molecular-based assay as a potential rapid and reliable method for the identification of fungi. PMID:15131216

Iwen, Peter C.; Freifeld, Alison G.; Bruening, Tricia A.; Hinrichs, Steven H.

2004-01-01

259

Use of a panfungal PCR assay for detection of fungal pathogens in a commercial blood culture system.  

PubMed

A panfungal PCR assay was used to evaluate the ability of the ESP blood culture system to detect fungemia. The results showed that the ESP system is reliable for the detection of fungi and showed the applicability of using a molecular-based assay as a potential rapid and reliable method for the identification of fungi. PMID:15131216

Iwen, Peter C; Freifeld, Alison G; Bruening, Tricia A; Hinrichs, Steven H

2004-05-01

260

Cell transformation assays: are we barking up the wrong tree?  

PubMed

There has been a current resurgence of interest in the use of cell transformation for predicting carcinogenicity, which is based mainly on rodent carcinogenicity data. In view of this renewed interest, this paper critically reviews the published literature concerning the ability of the available assays to detect IARC Group 1 agents (known human carcinogens) and Group 2A agents (probable human carcinogens). The predictivity of the available assays for human and rodent non-genotoxic carcinogens (NGCs), in comparison with standard and supplementary in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests, is also discussed. The principal finding is that a surprising number of human carcinogens have not been tested for cell transformation across the three main assays (SHE, Balb/c 3T3 and C3H10T1/2), confounding comparative assessment of these methods for detecting human carcinogens. This issue is not being addressed in the ongoing validation studies for the first two of these assays, despite the lack of any serious logistical issues associated with the use of most of these chemicals. In addition, there seem to be no plans for using exogenous bio-transformation systems for the metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens, as recommended in an ECVAM workshop held in 1999. To address these important issues, it is strongly recommended that consideration be given to the inclusion of more human carcinogens and an exogenous source of xenobiotic metabolism, such as an S9 fraction, in ongoing and future validation studies. While cell transformation systems detect a high level of NGCs, it is considered premature to rely only on this endpoint for screening for such chemicals, as recently suggested. This is particularly important, in view of the fact that there is still doubt as to the relevance of morphological transformation to tumorigenesis in vivo, and the wide diversity of potential mechanisms by which NGCs are known to act. Recent progress with regard to increasing the objectivity of scoring the transformed phenotype, and prospects for developing human cell-based transformation assays, are reviewed. PMID:22762196

Combes, Robert D

2012-05-01

261

Human cell culture in a space bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity offers new ways of handling fluids, gases, and growing mammalian cells in efficient suspension cultures. In 1976 bioreactor engineers designed a system using a cylindrical reactor vessel in which the cells and medium are slowly mixed. The reaction chamber is interchangeable and can be used for several types of cell cultures. NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first Space Bioreactor was designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small Bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle Middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption and control of low shear stress on cells.

Morrison, Dennis R.

1988-01-01

262

Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

1987-01-01

263

Pitfalls in cell culture work with xanthohumol.  

PubMed

Xanthohumol, the most abundant prenylated chalcone in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) cones, is well known to exert several promising pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo. Among these, the chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects are probably the most interesting. As xanthohumol is hardly soluble in water and able to undergo conversion to isoxanthohumol we determined several handling characteristics for cell culture work with this compound. Recovery experiments revealed that working with xanthohumol under cell culture conditions requires a minimal amount of 10% FCS to increase its solubility to reasonable concentrations (-50-75 micromol/l) for pharmacological in vitro tests. Additionally, more than 50% of xanthohumol can be absorbed to various plastic materials routinely used in the cell culture using FCS concentrations below 10%. In contrast, experiments using fluorescence microscopy in living cells revealed that detection of cellular intake of xanthohumol is hampered by concentrations above 1% FCS. PMID:22393838

Motyl, M; Kraus, B; Heilmann, J

2012-01-01

264

High density cell culture by membrane-based cell recycle.  

PubMed

Enhancement of productivity of a bioprocess necessitates continuous operation of bioreactors with high biomass concentrations than are possible in conventional batch, fedbatch or continuous modes of culture. Membrane-based cell recycle has been effectively used to maintain high cell concentrations in bioreactors. This review compares membranebased cell recycle operation with other such high density cell culture systems as immobilized cell reactors and reactors with cell recycle by centrifugation or gravity sedimentation. A theoretical of production of primary and secondary metabolites in membrane-based recycle systems is presented. Operation of this type of system is discussed with examples from aerobic and anaerobic fermentations. PMID:14548467

Chang, H N; Yoo, I K; Kim, B S

1994-01-01

265

Additional survey on genotoxicity of natural anthraquinones in the hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair assay.  

PubMed

Genotoxicity of fungal anthraquinones of islandicin, iridoskyrin and (-) rubroskyrin, and a colorant of insect origin, cochineal and its component, carminic acid, an anthraquinone, was examined in the hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair test. The results were compared with that of versicolorin A, an anthraquinone with bisfuran ring, which had been proved to be genotoxic on this assay. All of these anthraquinones, differently from versicolorin A did not show clear response of DNA repair. The results suggest that these agents are not genotoxic carcinogens. PMID:3193483

Mori, H; Yoshimi, N; Iwata, H; Tanaka, T; Kawai, K; Sankawa, U

1988-08-01

266

Enhanced growth medium and method for culturing human mammary epithelial cells  

DOEpatents

Methods are disclosed for isolating and culturing human mammary epithelial cells of both normal and malignant origin. Tissue samples are digested with a mixture including the enzymes collagenase and hyaluronidase to produce clumps of cells substantially free from stroma and other undesired cellular material. Growing the clumps of cells in mass culture in an enriched medium containing particular growth factors allows for active cell proliferation and subculture. Clonal culture having plating efficiencies of up to 40% or greater may be obtained using individual cells derived from the mass culture by plating the cells on appropriate substrates in the enriched media. The clonal growth of cells so obtained is suitable for a quantitative assessment of the cytotoxicity of particular treatment. An exemplary assay for assessing the cytotoxicity of the drug adriamycin is presented.

Stampfer, Martha R. (7290 Sayre Dr., Oakland, CA 94611); Smith, Helene S. (5693 Cabot Dr., Oakland, CA 94611); Hackett, Adeline J. (82 Evergreen Dr., Orinda, CA 94563)

1983-01-01

267

Agarose mold embedding of cultured cells for tissue microarrays.  

PubMed

There are several indications for the placement of samples of cultured cells in tissue microarrays (TMAs). To optimize this technique, three embedding procedures were compared: embedding of fixed cells pelleted by centrifugation, embedding of cells dispersed in an agarose matrix, and embedding of pelleted cells packed into the center of hollow agarose molds. TMAs were made from these preparations. The number of cells per tissue spot and the number of histologic sections that could be obtained from the preparations were determined. The agarose matrix and agarose mold techniques resulted in the longest core samples, while the cell pellet and agarose mold methods resulted in the greatest cell density. Thus, the use of cylindrical agarose molds optimizes both the number of cells present on a histologic section of a TMA, and the number of histologic sections that can be obtained from a TMA. This technique results in a paraffin-embedded cell preparation that yields a cell density of approximately 1000 cells per 0.6-mm diameter circular histologic section, and that produces uniform core samples the full thickness of the donor block. Histologic sections of TMAs prepared in this manner were validated in immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization assays. PMID:12459640

Moskaluk, Christopher A; Stoler, Mark H

2002-12-01

268

Electrophoretic mobilities of cultured human embryonic kidney cells in various buffers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data on the electrophoretic mobility distributions of cells in the new D-1 buffer and the interlaboratory standardization of urokinase assay methods are presented. A table of cell strains and recent data on cell dispersal methods are also included. It was decided that glycerol in A-1 electrophoretic mobility data on cultured human embryonic kidney cells subjected to electrophoresis in this buffer. The buffer composition is presented.

1985-01-01

269

The consensus mechanics of cultured mammalian cells  

PubMed Central

Although understanding cells' responses to mechanical stimuli is seen as increasingly important for understanding cell biology, how to best measure, interpret, and model cells' mechanical properties remains unclear. We determine the frequency-dependent shear modulus of cultured mammalian cells by using four different methods, both unique and well established. This approach clarifies the effects of cytoskeletal heterogeneity, ATP-dependent processes, and cell regional variations on the interpretation of such measurements. Our results clearly indicate two qualitatively similar, but distinct, mechanical responses, corresponding to the cortical and intracellular networks, each having an unusual, weak power-law form at low frequency. The two frequency-dependent responses we observe are remarkably similar to those reported for a variety of cultured mammalian cells measured with different techniques, suggesting it is a useful consensus description. Finally, we discuss possible physical explanations for the observed mechanical response. PMID:16793927

Hoffman, Brenton D.; Massiera, Gladys; Van Citters, Kathleen M.; Crocker, John C.

2006-01-01

270

Detection of Nonhemagglutinating Influenza A(H3) Viruses by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in Quantitative Influenza Virus Culture  

PubMed Central

To assess the efficacy of novel antiviral drugs against influenza virus in clinical trials, it is necessary to quantify infectious virus titers in respiratory tract samples from patients. Typically, this is achieved by inoculating virus-susceptible cells with serial dilutions of clinical specimens and detecting the production of progeny virus by hemagglutination, since influenza viruses generally have the capacity to bind and agglutinate erythrocytes of various species through their hemagglutinin (HA). This readout method is no longer adequate, since an increasing number of currently circulating influenza A virus H3 subtype (A[H3]) viruses display a reduced capacity to agglutinate erythrocytes. Here, we report the magnitude of this problem by analyzing the frequency of HA-deficient A(H3) viruses detected in The Netherlands from 1999 to 2012. Furthermore, we report the development and validation of an alternative method for monitoring the production of progeny influenza virus in quantitative virus cultures, which is independent of the capacity to agglutinate erythrocytes. This method is based on the detection of viral nucleoprotein (NP) in virus culture plates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and it produced results similar to those of the hemagglutination assay using strains with good HA activity, including A/Brisbane/059/07 (H1N1), A/Victoria/210/09 (H3N2), other seasonal A(H1N1), A(H1N1)pdm09, and the majority of A(H3) virus strains isolated in 2009. In contrast, many A(H3) viruses that have circulated since 2010 failed to display HA activity, and infectious virus titers were determined only by detecting NP. The virus culture ELISA described here will enable efficacy testing of new antiviral compounds in clinical trials during seasons in which nonhemagglutinating influenza A viruses circulate. PMID:24622097

Els, C.; Sprong, L.; van Beek, R.; van der Vries, E.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Rimmelzwaan, G. F.

2014-01-01

271

Primary hemocyte culture of Penaeus monodon as an in vitro model for white spot syndrome virus titration, viral and immune related gene expression and cytotoxicity assays.  

PubMed

Immortal cell lines have not yet been reported from Penaeus monodon, which delimits the prospects of investigating the associated viral pathogens especially white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In this context, a method of developing primary hemocyte culture from this crustacean has been standardized by employing modified double strength Leibovitz-15 (L-15) growth medium supplemented with 2% glucose, MEM vitamins (1×), tryptose phosphate broth (2.95 gl?¹), 20% FBS, N-phenylthiourea (0.2 mM), 0.06 ?g ml?¹ chloramphenicol, 100 ?g ml?¹ streptomycin and 100 IU ml?¹ penicillin and hemolymph drawn from shrimp grown under a bio-secured recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In this medium the hemocytes remained viable up to 8 days. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling assay revealed its incorporation in 22 ± 7% of cells at 24h. Susceptibility of the cells to WSSV was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay using a monoclonal antibody against 28 kDa envelope protein of WSSV. A convenient method for determining virus titer as MTT(50)/ml was standardized employing the primary hemocyte culture. Expression of viral genes and cellular immune genes were also investigated. The cell culture could be demonstrated for determining toxicity of a management chemical (benzalkonium chloride) by determining its IC(50). The primary hemocyte culture could serve as a model for WSSV titration and viral and cellular immune related gene expression and also for investigations on cytotoxicity of aquaculture drugs and chemicals. PMID:20807537

Jose, Seena; Mohandas, A; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

2010-11-01

272

Sensitivity of edge detection methods for quantifying cell migration assays.  

PubMed

Quantitative imaging methods to analyze cell migration assays are not standardized. Here we present a suite of two-dimensional barrier assays describing the collective spreading of an initially-confined population of 3T3 fibroblast cells. To quantify the motility rate we apply two different automatic image detection methods to locate the position of the leading edge of the spreading population after 24, 48 and 72 hours. These results are compared with a manual edge detection method where we systematically vary the detection threshold. Our results indicate that the observed spreading rates are very sensitive to the choice of image analysis tools and we show that a standard measure of cell migration can vary by as much as 25% for the same experimental images depending on the details of the image analysis tools. Our results imply that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to meaningfully compare previously published measures of cell migration since previous results have been obtained using different image analysis techniques and the details of these techniques are not always reported. Using a mathematical model, we provide a physical interpretation of our edge detection results. The physical interpretation is important since edge detection algorithms alone do not specify any physical measure, or physical definition, of the leading edge of the spreading population. Our modeling indicates that variations in the image threshold parameter correspond to a consistent variation in the local cell density. This means that varying the threshold parameter is equivalent to varying the location of the leading edge in the range of approximately 1-5% of the maximum cell density. PMID:23826283

Treloar, Katrina K; Simpson, Matthew J

2013-01-01

273

Buffer Combinations for Mammalian Cell Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth and metabolism of cultured mammalian cells are markedly affected by the pH variation in ordinary bicarbonate-buffered media(pH 8.0 to 6.9). Those pH swings can be reduced and the pH of the culture can be stabilized as desired in the range pH 6.4 to 8.3 by appropriate combinations of two or three organic buffers, each at 10 to 15

Harry Eagle

1971-01-01

274

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring cell death in higher eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Cell death is essential for a plethora of physiological processes, and its deregulation characterizes numerous human diseases. Thus, the in-depth investigation of cell death and its mechanisms constitutes a formidable challenge for fundamental and applied biomedical research, and has tremendous implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to standardize the experimental procedures that identify dying and dead cells in cell cultures and/or in tissues, from model organisms and/or humans, in healthy and/or pathological scenarios. Thus far, dozens of methods have been proposed to quantify cell death-related parameters. However, no guidelines exist regarding their use and interpretation, and nobody has thoroughly annotated the experimental settings for which each of these techniques is most appropriate. Here, we provide a nonexhaustive comparison of methods to detect cell death with apoptotic or nonapoptotic morphologies, their advantages and pitfalls. These guidelines are intended for investigators who study cell death, as well as for reviewers who need to constructively critique scientific reports that deal with cellular demise. Given the difficulties in determining the exact number of cells that have passed the point-of-no-return of the signaling cascades leading to cell death, we emphasize the importance of performing multiple, methodologically unrelated assays to quantify dying and dead cells. PMID:19373242

Galluzzi, L; Aaronson, SA; Abrams, J; Alnemri, ES; Andrews, DW; Baehrecke, EH; Bazan, NG; Blagosklonny, MV; Blomgren, K; Borner, C; Bredesen, DE; Brenner, C; Castedo, M; Cidlowski, JA; Ciechanover, A; Cohen, GM; De Laurenzi, V; De Maria, R; Deshmukh, M; Dynlacht, BD; El-Deiry, WS; Flavell, RA; Fulda, S; Garrido, C; Golstein, P; Gougeon, M-L; Green, DR; Gronemeyer, H; Hajn?czky, G; Hardwick, JM; Hengartner, MO; Ichijo, H; Jäättelä, M; Kepp, O; Kimchi, A; Klionsky, DJ; Knight, RA; Kornbluth, S; Kumar, S; Levine, B; Lipton, SA; Lugli, E; Madeo, F; Malorni, W; Marine, J-CW; Martin, SJ; Medema, JP; Mehlen, P; Melino, G; Moll, UM; Morselli, E; Nagata, S; Nicholson, DW; Nicotera, P; Nuñez, G; Oren, M; Penninger, J; Pervaiz, S; Peter, ME; Piacentini, M; Prehn, JHM; Puthalakath, H; Rabinovich, GA; Rizzuto, R; Rodrigues, CMP; Rubinsztein, DC; Rudel, T; Scorrano, L; Simon, H-U; Steller, H; Tschopp, J; Tsujimoto, Y; Vandenabeele, P; Vitale, I; Vousden, KH; Youle, RJ; Yuan, J; Zhivotovsky, B; Kroemer, G

2009-01-01

275

Isolation and Expansion of Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Tumor Cells Using the Neurosphere Assay  

PubMed Central

Stem-like cells have been isolated in tumors such as breast, lung, colon, prostate and brain. A critical issue in all these tumors, especially in glioblastoma mutliforme (GBM), is to identify and isolate tumor initiating cell population(s) to investigate their role in tumor formation, progression, and recurrence. Understanding tumor initiating cell populations will provide clues to finding effective therapeutic approaches for these tumors. The neurosphere assay (NSA) due to its simplicity and reproducibility has been used as the method of choice for isolation and propagation of many of this tumor cells. This protocol demonstrates the neurosphere culture method to isolate and expand stem-like cells in surgically resected human GBM tumor tissue. The procedures include an initial chemical digestion and mechanical dissociation of tumor tissue, and subsequently plating the resulting single cell suspension in NSA culture. After 7-10 days, primary neurospheres of 150-200 ?m in diameter can be observed and are ready for further passaging and expansion. PMID:22064695

Azari, Hassan; Millette, Sebastien; Ansari, Saeed; Rahman, Maryam; Deleyrolle, Loic P.; Reynolds, Brent A.

2011-01-01

276

Isolation of Nuclei from Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells and Myofibers for Use in Chromatin lmmunoprecipitation Assays  

PubMed Central

Studies investigating mechanisms controlling gene regulation frequently examine specific DNA sequences using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays to determine whether specific regulatory factors or modified histones are present. While use of primary cells or cell line models for differentiating or differentiated tissue is widespread, the ability to assess factor binding and histone modification in tissue defines the events that occur in vivo and provides corroboration for studies in cultured cells. Many tissues can be analyzed with minimal modification to existing ChIP protocols that are designed for cultured cells; however, some tissues, such as skeletal muscle, are problematic in that accessibility of the cross-linking agent is limited. We describe a method to isolate skeletal muscle tissue nuclei suitable for use in ChIP protocols. Furthermore, we utilize a simple fractionation of digested skeletal muscle tissue that can separate mature myofibers from satellite cells, which are responsible for postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration, thereby allowing simultaneous preparation of nuclei from both cell types. PMID:22130858

Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Mallappa, Chandrashekara; Dacwag Vallaster, Caroline S.; lmbalzano, Anthony N.

2014-01-01

277

Bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular Renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological culture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

No gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Validation of diagnostic assays for R. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. In this research, quantification of R. salmoninarum in samples by bacteriological culture provided a standardized measure of viable bacteria to evaluate analytical performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and repeatability) of non-culture assays in three matrices (phosphate-buffered saline, ovarian fluid and kidney tissue). Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. Injection challenge of specific pathogen-free Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with R. salmoninarum was used to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Results did not identify a single assay demonstrating the highest analytical and diagnostic performance characteristics, but revealed strengths and weaknesses of each test.

Elliott, D.G.; Applegate, L.J.; Murray, A.L.; Purcell, M.K.; McKibben, C.L.

2013-01-01

278

Bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular Renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological culture.  

PubMed

No gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Validation of diagnostic assays for R. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. In this research, quantification of R. salmoninarum in samples by bacteriological culture provided a standardized measure of viable bacteria to evaluate analytical performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and repeatability) of non-culture assays in three matrices (phosphate-buffered saline, ovarian fluid and kidney tissue). Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. Injection challenge of specific pathogen-free Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with R. salmoninarum was used to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Results did not identify a single assay demonstrating the highest analytical and diagnostic performance characteristics, but revealed strengths and weaknesses of each test. PMID:23346868

Elliott, D G; Applegate, L J; Murray, A L; Purcell, M K; McKibben, C L

2013-09-01

279

Estrogenic activity of phthalate esters by in vitro VTG assay using primary-cultured Xenopus hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Estrogenic activity of phthalate esters in dental soft resins was evaluated with an amphibian system consisting of a vitellogenin (VTG)-detecting Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and a primary-cultured hepatocyte assay using adult male Xenopus laevis. In particular, phthalate esters--Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Butyl phthalyl butyl glycolate (BPBG), Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and Benzyl benzoate (BB)--were investigated. Bisphenol A (BPA) was prepared for comparison with these chemicals, and 17beta-estradiol (E2) was used as a positive control. The chemicals were diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to obtain final concentrations ranging from 10(-11) to 10(-4) mol/l. BPA induced estrogenic activity at a concentration of 1.1x10(-6) mol/l, while E2 showed at 4.1x10(-11) mol/l. DBP, BBP, BB, and BPBG showed no estrogenic activity at concentrations between 4x10(-7) mol/l and 1x10(-4) mol/l. The latter result indicated that these phthalate esters might be metabolically transformed into non-estrogenic substances in Xenopus hepatocytes. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that through in vitro metabolism assessment, the estrogenic activity of chemical substances could be directly detected in terms of VTG secretion in primary-cultured Xenopus hepatocytes. PMID:17076324

Nomura, Yuji; Mitsui, Naoko; Bhawal, Ujjal Kumar; Sawajiri, Masahiko; Tooi, Osamu; Takahashi, Toru; Okazaki, Masayuki

2006-09-01

280

Performance evaluation of 3D polystyrene 96-well plates with human neural stem cells in a calcium assay.  

PubMed

In this study, we have generated a high-throughput screening (HTS)-compatible 3D cell culture platform by chemically "welding" polystyrene scaffolds into standard 2D polystyrene 96-well plates. The variability of scaffolds was minimized by introducing automation into the fabrication process. The fabricated 3D cell culture plates were compared with several commercially available 3D cell culture platforms with light and scanning electron microscopy. Voltage-gated calcium channel functionality was used to access the Z' factors of all plates, including a 2D standard plate control. It was found that with the No-Wash Fluo-4 calcium assay and neural progenitor cells, all plates display acceptable Z' factors for use in HTS. The plates with "welded" polystyrene scaffolds have several advantages, such as being versatile and economical, and are ready to use off the shelf. These characteristics are especially desired in HTS preclinical drug discovery applications. PMID:22496208

Lai, Yinzhi; Kisaalita, William S

2012-08-01

281

Cell Culture on MEMS Platforms: A Review  

PubMed Central

Microfabricated systems provide an excellent platform for the culture of cells, and are an extremely useful tool for the investigation of cellular responses to various stimuli. Advantages offered over traditional methods include cost-effectiveness, controllability, low volume, high resolution, and sensitivity. Both biocompatible and bio-incompatible materials have been developed for use in these applications. Biocompatible materials such as PMMA or PLGA can be used directly for cell culture. However, for bio-incompatible materials such as silicon or PDMS, additional steps need to be taken to render these materials more suitable for cell adhesion and maintenance. This review describes multiple surface modification strategies to improve the biocompatibility of MEMS materials. Basic concepts of cell-biomaterial interactions, such as protein adsorption and cell adhesion are covered. Finally, the applications of these MEMS materials in Tissue Engineering are presented. PMID:20054478

Ni, Ming; Tong, Wen Hao; Choudhury, Deepak; Rahim, Nur Aida Abdul; Iliescu, Ciprian; Yu, Hanry

2009-01-01

282

Effect of amniotic fluid on the in vitro culture of human corneal endothelial cells.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on the growth of human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) and to establish an in vitro method for expanding HCECs. HCECs were cultured in DMEM-F12 supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Confluent monolayer cultures were trypsinized and passaged using either FBS- or HAF-containing media. Cell proliferation and cell death ELISA assays were performed to determine the effect of HAF on cell growth and viability. The identity of the cells cultured in 20% HAF was determined using immunocytochemistry (ICC) and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques to evaluate the expression of factors that are characteristic of HCECs, including Ki-67, Vimentin, Na+/K+-ATPase and ZO-1. HCEC primary cultures were successfully established using 20% HAF-containing medium, and these cultures demonstrated rapid cell proliferation according to the cell proliferation and death ELISA assay results. The ICC and real time RT-PCR results indicated that there was a higher expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and ZO-1 in the 20% HAF cell cultures compared with the control (20% FBS) (P < 0.05). The 20% HAF-containing medium exhibited a greater stimulatory effect on HCEC growth and could represent a potential enriched supplement for HCEC regeneration studies. PMID:24726921

Feizi, Sepehr; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Bagheri, Abouzar; Balagholi, Sahar; Mohammadian, Azam; Rezaei-Kanavi, Mozhgan; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Samiei, Shahram; Negahban, Kambiz

2014-05-01

283

Micro3D cell culture devices for single cell analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present two novel devices for the culturing of single cells or small clusters of cells in an array format. The focus of these devices is to create local 3-dimensional microenvironments for the cells which mimic more closely the adhesion state in an in vivo situation. The devices were manufactured using fast processes and cost-effective materials like

M. R. Dusseillerl; D. Schlaepfer; A. Ferrari; R. Kroschewski; M. Textorl

2005-01-01

284

Immunological evidence for thyroliberin (TRH) neurons in primary cultures of fetal mouse brain cells. Ontogenic aspects.  

PubMed

Primary cultures of dissociated cells were initiated from fetal mouse hypothalami and brain hemispheres, on the 13th and the 16th day of gestation (respectively 12-day and 15-day-old fetuses). After 10 days in vitro, the cultured cells were collected, pooled in an appropriate medium and thyroliberin (TRH) was assayed in the cell extracts using a specific radioimmunoassay. TRH was found in every type of culture. For hypothalami, higher levels of TRH were found when when starting from older embryos, while in brain hemisphere cultures the TRH content increased in culture of 12-day-old fetal cells only, whereas it decreased in cultures of 16-day-old fetal cells. Immunocytochemical staining allows visualization of TRH positive cells in all cultures except in hypothalamic cultures from 12-day-old embryos. This is consistent with the radioimmunoassay data. TRH was localized exclusively in some of the overlying cells, whereas the basal cells were always negative. Specificity of the staining was assessed by immunochemistry and radioimmunoassay. At the electron microscope level, the positive cells display neuronal features. The immunoprecipitate was found in both perikaryon and axons as well as in axonal dilatations. PMID:6766779

Faivre-Bauman, A; Nemeskeri, A; Tougard, C; Tixier-Vidal, A

1980-03-10

285

Bioactive Copper-Doped Glass Scaffolds Can Stimulate Endothelial Cells in Co-Culture in Combination with Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Bioactive glass (BG) scaffolds are being investigated for bone tissue engineering applications because of their osteoconductive and angiogenic nature. However, to increase the in vivo performance of the scaffold, including enhancing the angiogenetic growth into the scaffolds, some researchers use different modifications of the scaffold including addition of inorganic ionic components to the basic BG composition. In this study, we investigated the in vitro biocompatibility and bioactivity of Cu2+-doped BG derived scaffolds in either BMSC (bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells)-only culture or co-culture of BMSC and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC). In BMSC-only culture, cells were seeded either directly on the scaffolds (3D or direct culture) or were exposed to ionic dissolution products of the BG scaffolds, kept in permeable cell culture inserts (2D or indirect culture). Though we did not observe any direct osteoinduction of BMSCs by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay or by PCR, there was increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, observed by PCR and ELISA assays. Additionally, the scaffolds showed no toxicity to BMSCs and there were healthy live cells found throughout the scaffold. To analyze further the reasons behind the increased VEGF expression and to exploit the benefits of the finding, we used the indirect method with HDMECs in culture plastic and Cu2+-doped BG scaffolds with or without BMSCs in cell culture inserts. There was clear observation of increased endothelial markers by both FACS analysis and acetylated LDL (acLDL) uptake assay. Only in presence of Cu2+-doped BG scaffolds with BMSCs, a high VEGF secretion was demonstrated by ELISA; and typical tubular structures were observed in culture plastics. We conclude that Cu2+-doped BG scaffolds release Cu2+, which in turn act on BMSCs to secrete VEGF. This result is of significance for the application of BG scaffolds in bone tissue engineering approaches. PMID:25470000

Rath, Subha N.; Brandl, Andreas; Hiller, Daniel; Hoppe, Alexander; Gbureck, Uwe; Horch, Raymund E.; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Kneser, Ulrich

2014-01-01

286

Bioactive copper-doped glass scaffolds can stimulate endothelial cells in co-culture in combination with mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Bioactive glass (BG) scaffolds are being investigated for bone tissue engineering applications because of their osteoconductive and angiogenic nature. However, to increase the in vivo performance of the scaffold, including enhancing the angiogenetic growth into the scaffolds, some researchers use different modifications of the scaffold including addition of inorganic ionic components to the basic BG composition. In this study, we investigated the in vitro biocompatibility and bioactivity of Cu2+-doped BG derived scaffolds in either BMSC (bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells)-only culture or co-culture of BMSC and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC). In BMSC-only culture, cells were seeded either directly on the scaffolds (3D or direct culture) or were exposed to ionic dissolution products of the BG scaffolds, kept in permeable cell culture inserts (2D or indirect culture). Though we did not observe any direct osteoinduction of BMSCs by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay or by PCR, there was increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, observed by PCR and ELISA assays. Additionally, the scaffolds showed no toxicity to BMSCs and there were healthy live cells found throughout the scaffold. To analyze further the reasons behind the increased VEGF expression and to exploit the benefits of the finding, we used the indirect method with HDMECs in culture plastic and Cu2+-doped BG scaffolds with or without BMSCs in cell culture inserts. There was clear observation of increased endothelial markers by both FACS analysis and acetylated LDL (acLDL) uptake assay. Only in presence of Cu2+-doped BG scaffolds with BMSCs, a high VEGF secretion was demonstrated by ELISA; and typical tubular structures were observed in culture plastics. We conclude that Cu2+-doped BG scaffolds release Cu2+, which in turn act on BMSCs to secrete VEGF. This result is of significance for the application of BG scaffolds in bone tissue engineering approaches. PMID:25470000

Rath, Subha N; Brandl, Andreas; Hiller, Daniel; Hoppe, Alexander; Gbureck, Uwe; Horch, Raymund E; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Kneser, Ulrich

2014-01-01

287

Prevention and Detection of Mycoplasma Contamination in Cell Culture  

PubMed Central

One of the main problems in cell culture is mycoplasma infection. It can extensively affect cell physiology and metabolism. As the applications of cell culture increase in research, industrial production and cell therapy, more concerns about mycoplasma contamination and detection will arise. This review will provide valuable information about: 1. the ways in which cells are contaminated and the frequency and source of mycoplasma species in cell culture; 2. the ways to prevent mycoplasma contamination in cell culture; 3. the importance of mycoplasma tests in cell culture; 4. different methods to identify mycoplasma contamination; 5. the consequences of mycoplasma contamination in cell culture and 6. available methods to eliminate mycoplasma contamination. Awareness about the sources of mycoplasma and pursuing aseptic techniques in cell culture along with reliable detection methods of mycoplasma contamination can provide an appropriate situation to prevent mycoplasma contamination in cell culture. PMID:23508237

Nikfarjam, Laleh; Farzaneh, Parvaneh

2012-01-01

288

Culture media from hypoxia conditioned endothelial cells protect human intestinal cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.  

PubMed

Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a phenomenon, whereby short episodes of non-lethal ischemia to an organ or tissue exert protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in a distant organ. However, there is still an apparent lack of knowledge concerning the RIPC-mediated mechanisms within the target organ and the released factors. Here we established a human cell culture model to investigate cellular and molecular effects of RIPC and to identify factors responsible for RIPC-mediated intestinal protection. Human umbilical vein cells (HUVEC) were exposed to repeated episodes of hypoxia (3 × 15 min) and conditioned culture media (CM) were collected after 24h. Human intestinal cells (CaCo-2) were cultured with or without CM and subjected to 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, gelatin zymography, hydrogen peroxide measurements and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were performed. In HUVEC cultures hypoxic conditioning did not influence the profile of secreted proteins but led to an increased gelatinase activity (P<0.05) in CM. In CaCo-2 cultures 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation resulted in morphological signs of cell damage, increased LDH levels (P<0.001) and elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide (P<0.01). Incubation of CaCo-2 cells with CM reduced the hypoxia-induced signs of cell damage and LDH release (P<0.01) and abrogated the hypoxia-induced increase of hydrogen peroxide. These events were associated with an enhanced phosphorylation status of the prosurvival kinase Erk1/2 (P<0.05) but not Akt and STAT-5. Taken together, CM of hypoxia conditioned endothelial cells protect human intestinal cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. The established culture model may help to unravel RIPC-mediated cellular events and to identify molecules released by RIPC. PMID:24394542

Hummitzsch, Lars; Zitta, Karina; Bein, Berthold; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

2014-03-10

289

Computerized microfluidic cell culture using elastomeric channels and Braille displays  

PubMed Central

Computer-controlled microfluidics would advance many types of cellular assays and microscale tissue engineering studies wherever spatiotemporal changes in fluidics need to be defined. However, this goal has been elusive because of the limited availability of integrated, programmable pumps and valves. This paper demonstrates how a refreshable Braille display, with its grid of 320 vertically moving pins, can power integrated pumps and valves through localized deformations of channel networks within elastic silicone rubber. The resulting computerized fluidic control is able to switch among: (i) rapid and efficient mixing between streams, (ii) multiple laminar flows with minimal mixing between streams, and (iii) segmented plug-flow of immiscible fluids within the same channel architecture. The same control method is used to precisely seed cells, compartmentalize them into distinct subpopulations through channel reconfiguration, and culture each cell subpopulation for up to 3 weeks under perfusion. These reliable microscale cell cultures showed gradients of cellular behavior from C2C12 myoblasts along channel lengths, as well as differences in cell density of undifferentiated myoblasts and differentiation patterns, both programmable through different flow rates of serum-containing media. This technology will allow future microscale tissue or cell studies to be more accessible, especially for high-throughput, complex, and long-term experiments. The microfluidic actuation method described is versatile and computer programmable, yet simple, well packaged, and portable enough for personal use. PMID:15514025

Gu, Wei; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Futai, Nobuyuki; Cho, Brenda S.; Takayama, Shuichi

2004-01-01

290

Calcitonin receptors on neoplastic mononuclear cells cultured from a human giant-cell tumor of the sacrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturable, specific, high-affinity calcitonin receptors were demonstrated in cultured neoplastic mononuclear spindle cells from a giant-cell tumor of the sacrum of a 38-year-old woman. The receptor was analyzed by autoradiography and125I-calcitonin binding assay. Binding reversibility of125I-calcitonin to the cells was not complete and the structural specificity was indicated by the inability of unrelated hormones to compete with calcitonin. The 24

Akio Maeda; Hisao Matsui; Masahiko Kanamori; Kazuo Yudoh; Haruo Tsuji

1994-01-01

291

Cell Cycle Progression of Human Cells Cultured in Rotating Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight has been shown to alter the astronauts immune systems. Because immune performance is complex and reflects the influence of multiple organ systems within the host, scientists sought to understand the potential impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. Lymphocytes and their differentiated immature form, lymphoblasts, play an important and integral role in the body's defense system. T cells, one of the three major types of lymphocytes, play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors. Reported studies have shown that spaceflight can affect the expression of cell surface markers. Cell surface markers play an important role in the ability of cells to interact and to pass signals between different cells of the same phenotype and cells of different phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that cell-cycle regulators are essential for T-cell function. To trigger an effective immune response, lymphocytes must proliferate. The objective of this project is to investigate the changes in growth of human cells cultured in rotating bioreactors and to measure the growth rate and the cell cycle distribution for different human cell types. Human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts will be cultured in a bioreactor to simulate aspects of microgravity. The bioreactor is a cylindrical culture vessel that incorporates the aspects of clinostatic rotation of a solid fluid body around a horizontal axis at a constant speed, and compensates gravity by rotation and places cells within the fluid body into a sustained free-fall. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation of the lymphocytes will be measured for a number of days. In addition, RNA from the cells will be isolated for expression of genes related in cell cycle regulations.

Parks, Kelsey

2009-01-01

292

Date Palm Cell and Protoplast Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes the current status of cell and protoplast cultures in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Critically important steps toward plant regeneration from recalcitrant date palm protoplasts have been achieved in the\\u000a recent past. Callus regeneration was achieved in commercial cvs. Deglet Noor, Takerboucht, Barhee and Zaghloul. The use of\\u000a feeder layer was the main factor for inducing cell

A. Assani; D. Chabane; H. Shittu; N. Bouguedoura

293

Cytotoxicity effects of amiodarone on cultured cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amiodarone is a potent anti-arrhythmic drug used for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Although, the effects of amiodarone are well characterized on post-ischemic heart and cardiomyocytes, its toxicity on extra-cardiac tissues is still poorly understood. To this aim, we have monitored the cytotoxicity effects of this drug on three cultured cell lines including hepatocytes (HepG2), epithelial cells (EAhy 926) and

Emna El Golli-Bennour; Amel Bouslimi; Olfa Zouaoui; Safa Nouira; Abdellatif Achour; Hassen Bacha

294

The Effect of Spaceflight on Bone Cell Cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the response of bone to mechanical loading (unloading) is extremely important in defining the means of adaptation of the body to a variety of environmental conditions such as during heightened physical activity or in extended explorations of space or the sea floor. The mechanisms of the adaptive response of bone are not well defined, but undoubtedly they involve changes occurring at the cellular level of bone structure. This proposal has intended to examine the hypothesis that the loading (unloading) response of bone is mediated by specific cells through modifications of their activity cytoskeletal elements, and/or elaboration of their extracellular matrices. For this purpose, this laboratory has utilized the results of a number of previous studies defining molecular biological, biochemical, morphological, and ultrastructural events of the reproducible mineralization of a primary bone cell (osteoblast) culture system under normal loading (1G gravity level). These data and the culture system then were examined following the use of the cultures in two NASA shuttle flights, STS-59 and STS-63. The cells collected from each of the flights were compared to respective synchronous ground (1G) control cells examined as the flight samples were simultaneously analyzed and to other control cells maintained at 1G until the time of shuttle launch, at which point they were terminated and studied (defined as basal cells). Each of the cell cultures was assayed in terms of metabolic markers- gene expression; synthesis and secretion of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, including certain cytoskeletal components; assembly of collagen into macrostructural arrays- formation of mineral; and interaction of collagen and mineral crystals during calcification of the cultures. The work has utilized a combination of biochemical techniques (radiolabeling, electrophoresis, fluorography, Western and Northern Blotting, and light microscopic immunofluorescence) and structural methods (conventional and high voltage electron microscopy, inununocytochemistry, stereomicroscopy, and 3D image reconstruction). The studies have provided new knowledge of aspects of bone cell development and structural regulation, extracellular matrix assembly, and mineralization during spaceflight and under normal gravity. The information has contributed to insights into the means in general by which cells respond and adapt to different conditions of gravity (loading). The data may as well have suggested an underlying basis for the observed loss of bone by vertebrates, including man, in microgravity; and these scientific results may have implications for understanding bone loss following fracture healing and extended periods of inactivity such as during long-term bedrest.

Landis, William J.

1999-01-01

295

Determining cell number during cell culture using the Scepter cell counter.  

PubMed

Counting cells is often a necessary but tedious step for in vitro cell culture. Consistent cell concentrations ensure experimental reproducibility and accuracy. Cell counts are important for monitoring cell health and proliferation rate, assessing immortalization or transformation, seeding cells for subsequent experiments, transfection or infection, and preparing for cell-based assays. It is important that cell counts be accurate, consistent, and fast, particularly for quantitative measurements of cellular responses. Despite this need for speed and accuracy in cell counting, 71% of 400 researchers surveyed(1) who count cells using a hemocytometer. While hemocytometry is inexpensive, it is laborious and subject to user bias and misuse, which results in inaccurate counts. Hemocytometers are made of special optical glass on which cell suspensions are loaded in specified volumes and counted under a microscope. Sources of errors in hemocytometry include: uneven cell distribution in the sample, too many or too few cells in the sample, subjective decisions as to whether a given cell falls within the defined counting area, contamination of the hemocytometer, user-to-user variation, and variation of hemocytometer filling rate(2). To alleviate the tedium associated with manual counting, 29% of researchers count cells using automated cell counting devices; these include vision-based counters, systems that detect cells using the Coulter principle, or flow cytometry(1). For most researchers, the main barrier to using an automated system is the price associated with these large benchtop instruments(1). The Scepter cell counter is an automated handheld device that offers the automation and accuracy of Coulter counting at a relatively low cost. The system employs the Coulter principle of impedance-based particle detection(3) in a miniaturized format using a combination of analog and digital hardware for sensing, signal processing, data storage, and graphical display. The disposable tip is engineered with a microfabricated, cell- sensing zone that enables discrimination by cell size and cell volume at sub-micron and sub-picoliter resolution. Enhanced with precision liquid-handling channels and electronics, the Scepter cell counter reports cell population statistics graphically displayed as a histogram. PMID:22158024

Ongena, Kathleen; Das, Chandreyee; Smith, Janet L; Gil, Sónia; Johnston, Grace

2010-01-01

296

ANTHOCYANIN (ACN) STABILITY IN CELL CULTURE MEDIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anthocyanins (ACNs) are potential oxygen radical scavengers that have coronary vasoactive and vasoprotective properties. Cell or tissue culture systems have been used to examine the bioactivity and mechanisms of action of ACNs on the vascular system. However, due to their unique chemical structure, ...

297

Plant cell suspension cultures: some engineering considerations.  

PubMed

Higher plants are the source of a vast array of biochemicals which are used as drugs, pesticides, flavourings and fragrances. For some of these compounds, plant cell culture can provide a potential production alternative to traditional cultivation methods or chemical synthesis routes. Many systems have been patented and the last 20 years have seen considerable industrial and academic interest in the development of large scale cultures to produce pharmaceutically active, high value substances. However, the industrial application of plant cell suspension cultures has, to date, been limited. Commercialisation has essentially been impeded by economic feasibility, arising from both biological and engineering considerations. This paper reviews the commercial development of the technology to date and focuses on the impact of specific engineering-related factors, in particular, the shear sensitivity of plant cell suspension cultures. Evidence of sensitivity to hydrodynamic shear in bioreactors has generally been attributed to the physical characteristics of the suspended cells. Recent studies indicate that shear sensitivity may not be as important, in some cases, as initially anticipated. PMID:9487717

Kieran, P M; MacLoughlin, P F; Malone, D M

1997-12-17

298

Human endothelial cell-based assay for endotoxin as sensitive as the conventional Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay.  

PubMed

Endotoxin, also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by bacteria can be present in any liquid or on any biomaterial even if the material is sterile. Endotoxin in mammals can cause fever, inflammation, cell and tissue damage and irreversible septic shock and death. In the body, endothelial cells making up the blood vasculature and endothelial cells in vitro rapidly react to minute amounts of endotoxin resulting in a rapid induction of the cell adhesion molecule E-selectin. In this study we have used immunofluorescent staining to evaluate the expression of E-selectin on human microvascular endothelial cells from the skin (HDMEC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to various concentrations of LPS. In addition, the sensitivity of detection was compared with the most widely used assay for the presence of endotoxin, the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay (LAL). The detection of E-selectin on endothelial cells in the presence of LPS for 4 h was found to be at least as sensitive in detecting the same concentration using the LAL assay. A cell adhesion molecule-enzyme immunosorbent assay was also developed and used to quantify LPS using the endothelial cell model. A comparison of LAL and the immunofluorescent staining method was carried out with solutions, nanoparticles, biomaterial extracts and endothelial cells grown directly on biomaterials. Under all conditions, the endothelial/E-selectin model system was positive for the test samples that were positive by LAL. Thus, we propose the use of this highly sensitive, rapid, reproducible assay for the routine testing of endotoxin in all steps in the manufacturing process of materials destined for use in humans. This can give a rapid feedback and localization of bacterial contamination sources with the LAL being reserved for the testing of the final product. PMID:24456607

Unger, Ronald E; Peters, Kirsten; Sartoris, Anne; Freese, Christian; Kirkpatrick, C James

2014-03-01

299

Proliferation assay of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells exposed to atmospheric-pressure plasmas at room temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proliferation assays of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells have been performed with cell culture media exposed to atmospheric-pressure plasmas (APPs), which generate reactive species in the media at room temperature. It is found that serum in cell culture media functions as a scavenger of highly reactive species and tends to protect cells in the media against cellular damage. On the other hand, if serum is not present in a cell culture medium when it is exposed to APP, the medium becomes cytotoxic and cannot be detoxified by serum added afterwards. Plasma-induced cytotoxic media hinder proliferation of mouse ES cells and may even cause cell death. It is also shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that organic compounds in cell culture media are in general not significantly modified by plasma exposure. These results indicate that if there is no serum in media when they are exposed to APPs, highly reactive species (such as OH radicals) generated in the media by the APP exposure are immediately converted to less reactive species (such as H2O2), which can no longer readily react with serum that is added to the medium after plasma exposure. This study has clearly shown that it is these less reactive species, rather than highly reactive species, that make the medium cytotoxic to mouse ES cells.

Miura, Taichi; Ando, Ayumi; Hirano, Kazumi; Ogura, Chika; Kanazawa, Tatsuya; Ikeguchi, Masamichi; Seki, Atsushi; Nishihara, Shoko; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

2014-11-01

300

UVA-induced oxidative stress in single cells probed by autofluorescence modifications, cloning assay, and comet assay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell damage by low-power 365 nm radiation of a 50 W high-pressure mercury microscopy lamp was studied. UVA exposure to CHO cells resulted for radiant exposures greater than 10 kJ/m2 in significant modifications of NADH-attributed autofluorescence and in inhibition of cell division. Single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) revealed UVA-induced single strand DNA breaks. According to these results, UVA excitation radiation in fluorescence microscopy may damage cells. This has to be considered in vital cell microscopy, e.g. in calcium measurements.

Koenig, Karsten; Krasieva, Tatjana; Bauer, Eckhard; Fiedler, Ulrich; Berns, Michael W.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Greulich, Karl O.

1996-01-01

301

Cell damage by UVA radiation of a mercury microscopy lamp probed by autofluorescence modifications, cloning assay, and comet assay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell damage by low-power 365-nm radiation of a 50-W high-pressure mercury microscopy lamp was studied. Exposure of Chinese hamster ovary cells to ultraviolet-A (UVA) radiation > 10 kJ/m2 resulted in significant modifications of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide attributed autofluorescence and inhibition of cell division. Single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) revealed UVA-induced single-strand DNA breaks. According to these results, UVA excitation radiation in fluorescence microscopy may damage cells. This has to be considered in vital cell microscopy, e.g., in calcium measurements.

Koenig, Karsten; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Bauer, Eckhard; Fiedler, Ursula; Berns, Michael W.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Greulich, Karl O.

1996-04-01

302

Comparison of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay and Conventional Culture Methods for Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Naturally Contaminated Chicken Meat Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the efficacy of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of chicken meat samples naturally contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. A total of 144 Preston enrichment broth cultures from chicken meat samples were assessed by using the LAMP assay and conventional culture methods, which consist of a combination of Preston enrichment culturing and plating onto

Wataru Yamazaki; Masumi Taguchi; Takao Kawai; Kentaro Kawatsu; Junko Sakata; Kiyoshi Inoue; Naoaki Misawa

2009-01-01

303

A high-throughput three-dimensional cell migration assay for toxicity screening with mobile device-based macroscopic image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing demand for in vitro assays for toxicity screening in three-dimensional (3D) environments. In this study, 3D cell culture using magnetic levitation was used to create an assay in which cells were patterned into 3D rings that close over time. The rate of closure was determined from time-lapse images taken with a mobile device and related to drug concentration. Rings of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and tracheal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were tested with ibuprofen and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Ring closure correlated with the viability and migration of cells in two dimensions (2D). Images taken using a mobile device were similar in analysis to images taken with a microscope. Ring closure may serve as a promising label-free and quantitative assay for high-throughput in vivo toxicity in 3D cultures.

Timm, David M.; Chen, Jianbo; Sing, David; Gage, Jacob A.; Haisler, William L.; Neeley, Shane K.; Raphael, Robert M.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Killian, T. C.; Tseng, Hubert; Souza, Glauco R.

2013-10-01

304

A high-throughput three-dimensional cell migration assay for toxicity screening with mobile device-based macroscopic image analysis  

PubMed Central

There is a growing demand for in vitro assays for toxicity screening in three-dimensional (3D) environments. In this study, 3D cell culture using magnetic levitation was used to create an assay in which cells were patterned into 3D rings that close over time. The rate of closure was determined from time-lapse images taken with a mobile device and related to drug concentration. Rings of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and tracheal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were tested with ibuprofen and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Ring closure correlated with the viability and migration of cells in two dimensions (2D). Images taken using a mobile device were similar in analysis to images taken with a microscope. Ring closure may serve as a promising label-free and quantitative assay for high-throughput in vivo toxicity in 3D cultures. PMID:24141454

Timm, David M.; Chen, Jianbo; Sing, David; Gage, Jacob A.; Haisler, William L.; Neeley, Shane K.; Raphael, Robert M.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Killian, T. C.; Tseng, Hubert; Souza, Glauco R.

2013-01-01

305

Biotransformation of bavachinin by three fungal cell cultures.  

PubMed

Biotransformation of bavachinin (1) was investigated using three fungal cell cultures of Aspergillus flavus ATCC 30899, Cunninghamella elegans CICC 40250 and Penicillium raistrickii ATCC 10490, respectively. Two major converted products were identified by LC/MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR and X-ray diffraction. Two biocatalyst systems, A. flavus ATCC 30899 and C. elegans CICC 40250 cell cultures, showed a great capacity of hydroxylation and two hydroxyl groups were attached at C-2? and C-3? positions in the side chain of the bavachinin A-ring, resulting in the formation of the same compound with a name, (S)-6-((R)-2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-methoxychromen-4-one (2). On the other hand, P. raistrickii ATCC 10490 cell cultures possessed the ability to reduction at C-4 of the substrate C-ring, resulting in the production of (2S,4R)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)chromen-4-ol (3). Furthermore, the in vitro anti-tumor activities of the above compounds were evaluated by MTT assay. Compared with the substrate (1), product 3 possessed stronger inhibition activity on the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and slightly lower inhibition activities against Hep G2, HeLa, Hep-2 and A549 cells lines; while the hydroxyl product 2 possessed much lower inhibition activity on tumor cells lines, which might be related to the insertion of two hydroxyl groups. Compounds 2 and 3 were considered to be novel. It was also the first time to biotransform bavachinin (1) by these three fungi, which suggested the potential role of microbial enzymes to synthesize novel compounds from plant secondary metabolites. PMID:24012108

Luo, Jianmei; Liang, Qikun; Shen, Yanbing; Chen, Xi; Yin, Zhinan; Wang, Min

2014-02-01

306

Identification of Hedgehog Pathway Components by RNAi in Drosophila Cultured Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical genetic screens can be limited by the selectivity of mutational targeting, the complexities of anatomically based phenotypic analysis, or difficulties in subsequent gene identification. Focusing on signaling response to the secreted morphogen Hedgehog (Hh), we used RNA interference (RNAi) and a quantitative cultured cell assay to systematically screen functional roles of all kinases and phosphatases, and subsequently 43% of

Lawrence Lum; Shenqin Yao; Brian Mozer; Alessandra Rovescalli; Doris Von Kessler; Marshall Nirenberg; Philip A. Beachy

2003-01-01

307

Catalytic Inhibition of Human DNA Topoisomerase II by Interactions of Grape Cell Culture Polyphenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we isolated mixed polyphenolic fractions on a toyopearl matrix (TP-2 to TP-6) from grape cell cultures that were highly potent catalytic inhibitors in a human DNA topoisomerase II assay for cancer chemoprevention. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potency of, and potential interactions between, individual fractions and some of the purified bioactive polyphenols that comprise these

Jeong-Youn Jo; Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia; Mary Ann Lila

2006-01-01

308

UV inactivation of adenovirus type 41 measured by cell culture mRNA RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenoviruses are among the most resistant waterborne pathogens to UV disinfection, yet of the 51 serologically distinct human adenoviruses, only a few have been evaluated for their sensitivities to UV irradiation. Human enteric adenoviruses (Ad40 and Ad41) are difficult to cultivate and reliably assay for infectivity, requiring weeks to obtain cytopathogenic effects (CPE). Inoculated cell cultures often deteriorate before the

Gwangpyo Ko; Theresa L. Cromeans; Mark D. Sobsey

2005-01-01

309

Probing nanoparticle interactions in cell culture media.  

PubMed

Nanoparticle research is often performed in vitro with little emphasis on the potential role of cell culture medium. In this study, gold nanoparticle interactions with cell culture medium and two cancer cell lines (human T-cell leukemia Jurkat and human pancreatic carcinoma PANC1) were investigated. Gold nanoparticles of 10, 25, 50, and 100 nm in diameter at fixed mass concentration were tested. Size distributions and zeta potentials of gold nanoparticles suspended in deionized (DI) water and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Media (DMEM) supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS) were measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. In DI water, particle size distributions exhibited peaks around their nominal diameters. However, the gold nanoparticles suspended in DMEM supplemented with FCS formed complexes around 100 nm, regardless of their nominal sizes. The DLS and UV-vis spectroscopy results indicate gold nanoparticle agglomeration in DMEM that is not supplemented by FCS. The zeta potential results indicate that protein rich FCS increases the dispersion quality of gold nanoparticle suspensions through steric effects. Cellular uptake of 25 and 50 nm gold nanoparticles by Jurkat and PANC1 cell lines were investigated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. The intracellular gold level of PANC1 cells was higher than that of Jurkat cells, where 50 nm particles enter cells at faster rates than the 25 nm particles. PMID:22421416

Sabuncu, Ahmet C; Grubbs, Janna; Qian, Shizhi; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M; Stacey, Michael W; Beskok, Ali

2012-06-15

310

A Fluid Membrane-Based Soluble Ligand Display System for Live CellAssays  

SciTech Connect

Cell communication modulates numerous biological processes including proliferation, apoptosis, motility, invasion and differentiation. Correspondingly, there has been significant interest in the development of surface display strategies for the presentation of signaling molecules to living cells. This effort has primarily focused on naturally surface-bound ligands, such as extracellular matrix components and cell membranes. Soluble ligands (e.g. growth factors and cytokines) play an important role in intercellular communications, and their display in a surface-bound format would be of great utility in the design of array-based live cell assays. Recently, several cell microarray systems that display cDNA, RNAi, or small molecules in a surface array format were proven to be useful in accelerating high-throughput functional genetic studies and screening therapeutic agents. These surface display methods provide a flexible platform for the systematic, combinatorial investigation of genes and small molecules affecting cellular processes and phenotypes of interest. In an analogous sense, it would be an important advance if one could display soluble signaling ligands in a surface assay format that allows for systematic, patterned presentation of soluble ligands to live cells. Such a technique would make it possible to examine cellular phenotypes of interest in a parallel format with soluble signaling ligands as one of the display parameters. Herein we report a ligand-modified fluid supported lipid bilayer (SLB) assay system that can be used to functionally display soluble ligands to cells in situ (Figure 1A). By displaying soluble ligands on a SLB surface, both solution behavior (the ability to become locally enriched by reaction-diffusion processes) and solid behavior (the ability to control the spatial location of the ligands in an open system) could be combined. The method reported herein benefits from the naturally fluid state of the supported membrane, which allows surface-linked ligands to diffuse freely in two dimensions. Ligands can become reorganized beneath cells, by reaction-diffusion processes, and may also adopt spatial configurations reflecting those of their cognate receptors on the cell surface (Figure 1B). This provides a significant benefit over conventional cell signaling and culturing systems that present inflexible distributions of signaling molecules. In this study, we observe marked differences in the response of cells to membrane surface displayed soluble ligands as a function of membrane fluidity. Tethering of soluble signaling molecules to fluid supported membranes opens up opportunities to use already developed membrane fabrication technologies to present soluble components within a surface array format.

Nam, Jwa-Min; Nair, Pradeep N.; Neve, Richard M.; Gray, Joe W.; Groves, Jay T.

2005-10-14

311

Use of an adaptable cell culture kit for performing lymphocyte and monocyte cell cultures in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of experiments performed in recent years on board facilities such as the Space Shuttle/Spacelab have demonstrated that many cell systems, ranging from simple bacteria to mammalian cells, are sensitive to the microgravity environment, suggesting gravity affects fundamental cellular processes. However, performing well-controlled experiments aboard spacecraft offers unique challenges to the cell biologist. Although systems such as the European 'Biorack' provide generic experiment facilities including an incubator, on-board 1-g reference centrifuge, and contained area for manipulations, the experimenter must still establish a system for performing cell culture experiments that is compatible with the constraints of spaceflight. Two different cell culture kits developed by the French Space Agency, CNES, were recently used to perform a series of experiments during four flights of the 'Biorack' facility aboard the Space Shuttle. The first unit, Generic Cell Activation Kit 1 (GCAK-1), contains six separate culture units per cassette, each consisting of a culture chamber, activator chamber, filtration system (permitting separation of cells from supernatant in-flight), injection port, and supernatant collection chamber. The second unit (GCAK-2) also contains six separate culture units, including a culture, activator, and fixation chambers. Both hardware units permit relatively complex cell culture manipulations without extensive use of spacecraft resources (crew time, volume, mass, power), or the need for excessive safety measures. Possible operations include stimulation of cultures with activators, separation of cells from supernatant, fixation/lysis, manipulation of radiolabelled reagents, and medium exchange. Investigations performed aboard the Space Shuttle in six different experiments used Jurkat, purified T-cells or U937 cells, the results of which are reported separately. We report here the behaviour of Jurkat and U937 cells in the GCAK hardware in ground-based investigations simulating the conditions expected in the flight experiment. Several parameters including cell concentration, time between cell loading and activation, and storage temperature on cell survival were examined to characterise cell response and optimise the experiments to be flown aboard the Space Shuttle. Results indicate that the objectives of the experiments could be met with delays up to 5 days between cell loading into the hardware and initial in flight experiment activation, without the need for medium exchange. Experiment hardware of this kind, which is adaptable to a wide range of cell types and can be easily interfaced to different spacecraft facilities, offers the possibility for a wide range of experimenters successfully and easily to utilise future flight opportunities.

Hatton, J. P.; Lewis, M. L.; Roquefeuil, S. B.; Chaput, D.; Cazenave, J. P.; Schmitt, D. A.

1998-01-01

312

Neurosphere and adherent culture conditions are equivalent for malignant glioma stem cell lines  

PubMed Central

Certain limitations of the neurosphere assay (NSA) have resulted in a search for alternative culture techniques for brain tumor-initiating cells (TICs). Recently, reports have described growing glioblastoma (GBM) TICs as a monolayer using laminin. We performed a side-by-side analysis of the NSA and laminin (adherent) culture conditions to compare the growth and expansion of GBM TICs. GBM cells were grown using the NSA and adherent culture conditions. Comparisons were made using growth in culture, apoptosis assays, protein expression, limiting dilution clonal frequency assay, genetic affymetrix analysis, and tumorigenicity in vivo. In vitro expansion curves for the NSA and adherent culture conditions were virtually identical (P=0.24) and the clonogenic frequencies (5.2% for NSA vs. 5.0% for laminin, P=0.9) were similar as well. Likewise, markers of differentiation (glial fibrillary acidic protein and beta tubulin III) and proliferation (Ki67 and MCM2) revealed no statistical difference between the sphere and attachment methods. Several different methods were used to determine the numbers of dead or dying cells (trypan blue, DiIC, caspase-3, and annexin V) with none of the assays noting a meaningful variance between the two methods. In addition, genetic expression analysis with microarrays revealed no significant differences between the two groups. Finally, glioma cells derived from both methods of expansion formed large invasive tumors exhibiting GBM features when implanted in immune-compromised animals. A detailed functional, protein and genetic characterization of human GBM cells cultured in serum-free defined conditions demonstrated no statistically meaningful differences when grown using sphere (NSA) or adherent conditions. Hence, both methods are functionally equivalent and remain suitable options for expanding primary high-grade gliomas in tissue culture. PMID:25806119

Reyner, Karina; Deleyrolle, Loic; Millette, Sebastien; Azari, Hassan; Day, Bryan W.; Stringer, Brett W.; Boyd, Andrew W.; Johns, Terrance G.; Blot, Vincent; Duggal, Rohit; Reynolds, Brent A.

2015-01-01

313

Neurosphere and adherent culture conditions are equivalent for malignant glioma stem cell lines.  

PubMed

Certain limitations of the neurosphere assay (NSA) have resulted in a search for alternative culture techniques for brain tumor-initiating cells (TICs). Recently, reports have described growing glioblastoma (GBM) TICs as a monolayer using laminin. We performed a side-by-side analysis of the NSA and laminin (adherent) culture conditions to compare the growth and expansion of GBM TICs. GBM cells were grown using the NSA and adherent culture conditions. Comparisons were made using growth in culture, apoptosis assays, protein expression, limiting dilution clonal frequency assay, genetic affymetrix analysis, and tumorigenicity in vivo. In vitro expansion curves for the NSA and adherent culture conditions were virtually identical (P=0.24) and the clonogenic frequencies (5.2% for NSA vs. 5.0% for laminin, P=0.9) were similar as well. Likewise, markers of differentiation (glial fibrillary acidic protein and beta tubulin III) and proliferation (Ki67 and MCM2) revealed no statistical difference between the sphere and attachment methods. Several different methods were used to determine the numbers of dead or dying cells (trypan blue, DiIC, caspase-3, and annexin V) with none of the assays noting a meaningful variance between the two methods. In addition, genetic expression analysis with microarrays revealed no significant differences between the two groups. Finally, glioma cells derived from both methods of expansion formed large invasive tumors exhibiting GBM features when implanted in immune-compromised animals. A detailed functional, protein and genetic characterization of human GBM cells cultured in serum-free defined conditions demonstrated no statistically meaningful differences when grown using sphere (NSA) or adherent conditions. Hence, both methods are functionally equivalent and remain suitable options for expanding primary high-grade gliomas in tissue culture. PMID:25806119

Rahman, Maryam; Reyner, Karina; Deleyrolle, Loic; Millette, Sebastien; Azari, Hassan; Day, Bryan W; Stringer, Brett W; Boyd, Andrew W; Johns, Terrance G; Blot, Vincent; Duggal, Rohit; Reynolds, Brent A

2015-03-01

314

High-Content Assays for Hepatotoxicity Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell–Derived Cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract Development of predictive in vitro assays for early toxicity evaluation is extremely important for improving the drug development process and reducing drug attrition rates during clinical development. High-content imaging-based in vitro toxicity assays are emerging as efficient tools for safety and efficacy testing to improve drug development efficiency. In this report we have used an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)–derived hepatocyte cell model having a primary tissue-like phenotype, unlimited availability, and the potential to compare cells from different individuals. We examined a number of assays and phenotypic markers and developed automated screening methods for assessing multiparameter readouts of general and mechanism-specific hepatotoxicity. Endpoints assessed were cell viability, nuclear shape, average and integrated cell area, mitochondrial membrane potential, phospholipid accumulation, cytoskeleton integrity, and apoptosis. We assayed compounds with known mechanisms of toxicity and also evaluated a diverse hepatotoxicity library of 240 compounds. We conclude that high-content automated screening assays using iPSC-derived hepatocytes are feasible, provide information about mechanisms of toxicity, and can facilitate the safety assessment of drugs and chemicals. PMID:24229356

Sirenko, Oksana; Hesley, Jayne; Rusyn, Ivan

2014-01-01

315

An Approach for Assessing the Signature Quality of Various Chemical Assays when Predicting the Culture Media Used to Grow Microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate an approach for assessing the quality of a signature system designed to predict the culture medium used to grow a microorganism. The system was comprised of four chemical assays designed to identify various ingredients that could be used to produce the culture medium. The analytical measurements resulting from any combination of these four assays can be used in a Bayesian network to predict the probabilities that the microorganism was grown using one of eleven culture media. We evaluated combinations of the signature system by removing one or more of the assays from the Bayes network. We measured and compared the quality of the various Bayes nets in terms of fidelity, cost, risk, and utility, a method we refer to as Signature Quality Metrics

Holmes, Aimee E.; Sego, Landon H.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Anderson, Richard M.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Weimar, Mark R.; Tardiff, Mark F.; Corley, Courtney D.

2013-02-01

316

Antibiotic utilization improvement with the Nanosphere Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture assay.  

PubMed

New technologies offer rapid identification of organisms and antimicrobial resistance markers in blood cultures several hours faster than conventional methods. We sought to determine whether implementation of the Verigene® Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP) assay paired with a well-defined results reporting algorithm would lead to earlier deescalation of empiric therapy for inpatients with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteremia. The algorithm design focused on lessening the demand for pharmacist time by using electronic communications where possible. Our study compared inpatients with MSSA and VRE bacteremia from the time period before (pre-BC-GP) and after (post-BC-GP) implementation of the assay on June 25, 2013. The time from blood draw to identification and susceptibility results was decreased by 36.4 hours (P < 0.001) in the post-BC-GP group. The mean time from collection to the first dose of optimal antibiotics was reduced in the post-BC-GP group by 18.9 hours (P = 0.004) overall, with a 20.6-hour reduction (P = 0.009) for patients with MSSA and a 20.7-hour reduction (P = 0.077) for patients with VRE. Additionally, the percent of patients on empiric therapy who were placed on optimal antibiotics at any time after the Gram stain result was available increased from 64% (45/70) pre-BC-GP to 80% (43/54) post-BC-GP. The BC-GP led to an increased rate of deescalation of empiric antibiotics and a reduction in the time to optimal antibiotics for patients with MSSA and VRE bacteremia. PMID:25829639

Beal, Stacy G; Thomas, Cody; Dhiman, Neelam; Nguyen, Daniel; Qin, Huanying; Hawkins, Jennifer M; Dekmezian, Mhair; Benavides, Raul

2015-04-01

317

Antibiotic utilization improvement with the Nanosphere Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture assay  

PubMed Central

New technologies offer rapid identification of organisms and antimicrobial resistance markers in blood cultures several hours faster than conventional methods. We sought to determine whether implementation of the Verigene® Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP) assay paired with a well-defined results reporting algorithm would lead to earlier deescalation of empiric therapy for inpatients with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteremia. The algorithm design focused on lessening the demand for pharmacist time by using electronic communications where possible. Our study compared inpatients with MSSA and VRE bacteremia from the time period before (pre-BC-GP) and after (post-BC-GP) implementation of the assay on June 25, 2013. The time from blood draw to identification and susceptibility results was decreased by 36.4 hours (P < 0.001) in the post-BC-GP group. The mean time from collection to the first dose of optimal antibiotics was reduced in the post-BC-GP group by 18.9 hours (P = 0.004) overall, with a 20.6-hour reduction (P = 0.009) for patients with MSSA and a 20.7-hour reduction (P = 0.077) for patients with VRE. Additionally, the percent of patients on empiric therapy who were placed on optimal antibiotics at any time after the Gram stain result was available increased from 64% (45/70) pre-BC-GP to 80% (43/54) post-BC-GP. The BC-GP led to an increased rate of deescalation of empiric antibiotics and a reduction in the time to optimal antibiotics for patients with MSSA and VRE bacteremia. PMID:25829639

Beal, Stacy G.; Thomas, Cody; Dhiman, Neelam; Nguyen, Daniel; Qin, Huanying; Hawkins, Jennifer M.; Dekmezian, Mhair

2015-01-01

318

Human T cell priming assay: depletion of peripheral blood lymphocytes in CD25(+) cells improves the in vitro detection of weak allergen-specific T cells.  

PubMed

To develop an in vitro assay that recapitulates the key event of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), that is the priming of effector T cells by hapten-presenting dendritic cells, and then allows for the sensitive detection of chemical allergens represents a major challenge. Classical human T cell priming assays (hTCPA) that have been developed in the past, using hapten-loaded monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) as antigen-presenting cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) as responding cells, were not efficient to prime T cells to common allergens with moderate/weak sensitizing properties. Recent progress in the understanding of the effector and regulatory mechanisms of ACD have shown that T cell priming requires efficient uptake of allergens by immunogenic DCs and that it is controlled by several subsets of regulatory cells including CD25(+) Tregs. We therefore analyzed various parameters involved in allergen-specific T cell activation in vitro and showed that priming of allergen-specific T cells is hampered by several subsets of immune cells comprising CD1a(neg) DCs, CD25(+) T cells, and CD56(+) regulatory cells.CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs prevented the in vitro T cell priming to moderate/weak allergens, and depletion of human PBLs in CD25(+) cells significantly increased specific T cell proliferation and IFN-? secretion. CD56(+) cells exerted an additional control of T cell priming since co-depletion of both CD56(+) and CD25(+) cells improved the magnitude of chemical-specific T cell activation. Finally, CD1a(low) MDDCs were able to inhibit T cell activation obtained by allergen-pulsed CD1a(high) MDDC. Moreover, we showed that uptake by DC of allergen-encapsulated nanoparticles significantly increased their activation status and their ability to prompt specific T cell activation. Hence, by combining the different strategies, i.e., depletion of CD25(+) and CD56(+) cells, use of CD1a(high) MDDC, and nanoparticle encapsulation of allergens, it was possible to induce T cell priming to most of the moderate/weak allergens, including lipophilic molecules highly insoluble in culture media. Therefore, the present optimized in vitro human T cell priming assay is a valuable method to detect the sensitizing properties of chemical allergens. PMID:24214620

Vocanson, Marc; Achachi, Amine; Mutez, Virginie; Cluzel-Tailhardat, Magalie; Varlet, Béatrice Le; Rozières, Aurore; Fournier, Philippe; Nicolas, Jean-François

2014-01-01

319

Rapid Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci from Blood Culture Bottles by Using a Multiplex PCR Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid detection and accurate identification of methicillin-resistant staphylococci are critical for the effective management of infections caused by these organisms. We describe a multiplex PCR-based assay for the direct detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci from blood culture bottles (BacT\\/Alert; Organon-Teknika, Durham, N.C.). A simple lysis method followed by a multiplex PCR assay designed to detect the nuc, mecA, and bacterial 16S

L. Louie; J. Goodfellow; P. Mathieu; A. Glatt; M. Louie; A. E. Simor

2002-01-01

320

Establishing midgut cell culture from Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) and toxicity assessment against ten different insecticides.  

PubMed

Midgut epithelial cell culture was successfully developed from red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) during this study and named as RPW-1. Optimum conditions for four different commercial media were also worked out to successfully maintain the culture. Grace's medium was found to be the most effective for RPW-1 culturing which resulted in the highest cell density of 7.5 × 10(6) cells/ml after 72 h of cell seeding with 96% cell viability. It was followed by Schneider's medium and TNM-FH medium where cell densities reached up to 7.4 × 10(6) and 5.9 × 10(6) cells/ml, respectively, after 72 h having 91 and 89% cell viability. Comparatively, Media-199 was least effective for RPW-1 cell culturing. As a whole, temperature at 27°C and pH 6.3 were the best for RPW-1 culturing where the highest cell density and maximum cell viability were noted. Individually, Grace's medium, Schneider's medium, TNM-FH medium, and Media-199 produced better results at 27°C, 27°C, 24°C, and 21°C and pH 6.3, 6.4, 5.3, and 7.1, respectively. The toxicity assay and MTT cell proliferation assay revealed that, out of the ten insecticides used in this study, emamectin benzoate was the most toxic insecticide to RPW-1 cells resulting in 92% cell mortality and 74% cell growth inhibition. Dieldrin was the least potent, causing only 19% cell mortality and 18% cell growth inhibition. PMID:24197670

Aljabr, Ahmed Mohammed; Rizwan-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Hussain, Abid; Al-Mubarak, Abdullah I; Al-Ayied, Hassan Y

2014-04-01

321

Effect of methisoprinol on virus replication in cell cultures.  

PubMed

The effect of Methisoprinol (active substance: isoprinozine) on the replication of two animal viruses, the TK900 strain of Aujeszky's disease virus and the Roakin strain of the Newcastle disease virus was investigated. When the maximal tolerable doses of the drug were added to two cell cultures (CECC and GMK), its effect on the level of infectious titres of theviruses and their adsorption were assayed. Investigations were also performed to assess the direct effect of Methisoprinol on the viral strains used. The final stage of the experiment aimed at analysing of the replication dynamics of the viruses in the presence of Methisoprinol. Methisoprinol showed no direct effect on the viruses used in the study. Nor did it affect their adsorption. The preparation applied to the culture 24 hours before infection did not influence the replication of viruses, but administered simultaneously with the infection significantly lowered the final titres of viruses. The highest inhibitory effect of the drug was observed during the analysis of the replication dynamics of both viruses in CECC and of pseudorabies virus in GMK cell culture upon the application of the maximal tolerable doses of Methisoprinol and low infectious doses of the viruses. PMID:15230539

Ma?aczewska, J; Rotkiewicz, Z

2004-01-01

322

A Rapid and Sensitive Method for Measuring N-Acetylglucosaminidase Activity in Cultured Cells  

PubMed Central

A rapid and sensitive method to quantitatively assess N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activity in cultured cells is highly desirable for both basic research and clinical studies. NAG activity is deficient in cells from patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB) due to mutations in NAGLU, the gene that encodes NAG. Currently available techniques for measuring NAG activity in patient-derived cell lines include chromogenic and fluorogenic assays and provide a biochemical method for the diagnosis of MPS IIIB. However, standard protocols require large amounts of cells, cell disruption by sonication or freeze-thawing, and normalization to the cellular protein content, resulting in an error-prone procedure that is material- and time-consuming and that produces highly variable results. Here we report a new procedure for measuring NAG activity in cultured cells. This procedure is based on the use of the fluorogenic NAG substrate, 4-Methylumbelliferyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MUG), in a one-step cell assay that does not require cell disruption or post-assay normalization and that employs a low number of cells in 96-well plate format. We show that the NAG one-step cell assay greatly discriminates between wild-type and MPS IIIB patient-derived fibroblasts, thus providing a rapid method for the detection of deficiencies in NAG activity. We also show that the assay is sensitive to changes in NAG activity due to increases in NAGLU expression achieved by either overexpressing the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal function, or by inducing TFEB activation chemically. Because of its small format, rapidity, sensitivity and reproducibility, the NAG one-step cell assay is suitable for multiple procedures, including the high-throughput screening of chemical libraries to identify modulators of NAG expression, folding and activity, and the investigation of candidate molecules and constructs for applications in enzyme replacement therapy, gene therapy, and combination therapies. PMID:23840811

Mauri, Victor; Lotfi, Parisa; Segatori, Laura; Sardiello, Marco

2013-01-01

323

The Standard Scrapie Cell Assay: Development, Utility and Prospects  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases are a family of fatal neurodegenerative diseases that involve the misfolding of a host protein, PrPC. Measuring prion infectivity is necessary for determining efficacy of a treatment or infectivity of a prion purification procedure; animal bioassays are, however, very expensive and time consuming. The Standard Scrapie Cell Assay (SSCA) provides an alternative approach. The SSCA facilitates quantitative in vitro analysis of prion strains, titres and biological properties. Given its robust nature and potential for high throughput, the SSCA has substantial utility for in vitro characterization of prions and can be deployed in a number of settings. Here we provide an overview on establishing the SSCA, its use in studies of disease dissemination and pathogenesis, potential pitfalls and a number of remaining challenges. PMID:25602372

van der Merwe, Jacques; Aiken, Judd; Westaway, David; McKenzie, Debbie

2015-01-01

324

Genetic reprogramming of human amniotic cells with episomal vectors: neural rosettes as sentinels in candidate selection for validation assays.  

PubMed

The promise of genetic reprogramming has prompted initiatives to develop banks of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from diverse sources. Sentinel assays for pluripotency could maximize available resources for generating iPSCs. Neural rosettes represent a primitive neural tissue that is unique to differentiating PSCs and commonly used to identify derivative neural/stem progenitors. Here, neural rosettes were used as a sentinel assay for pluripotency in selection of candidates to advance to validation assays. Candidate iPSCs were generated from independent populations of amniotic cells with episomal vectors. Phase imaging of living back up cultures showed neural rosettes in 2 of the 5 candidate populations. Rosettes were immunopositive for the Sox1, Sox2, Pax6 and Pax7 transcription factors that govern neural development in the earliest stage of development and for the Isl1/2 and Otx2 transcription factors that are expressed in the dorsal and ventral domains, respectively, of the neural tube in vivo. Dissociation of rosettes produced cultures of differentiation competent neural/stem progenitors that generated immature neurons that were immunopositive for ?III-tubulin and glia that were immunopositive for GFAP. Subsequent validation assays of selected candidates showed induced expression of endogenous pluripotency genes, epigenetic modification of chromatin and formation of teratomas in immunodeficient mice that contained derivatives of the 3 embryonic germ layers. Validated lines were vector-free and maintained a normal karyotype for more than 60 passages. The credibility of rosette assembly as a sentinel assay for PSCs is supported by coordinate loss of nuclear-localized pluripotency factors Oct4 and Nanog in neural rosettes that emerge spontaneously in cultures of self-renewing validated lines. Taken together, these findings demonstrate value in neural rosettes as sentinels for pluripotency and selection of promising candidates for advance to validation assays. PMID:25426336

Wilson, Patricia G; Payne, Tiffany

2014-01-01

325

Evaluation of a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay (Keystone Sym)  

EPA Science Inventory

Our goal is to establish an in vitro model system to evaluate chemical effects using a single stem cell culture technique that would improve throughput and provide quantitative markers of differentiation and cell number. To this end, we have used an adherent cell differentiation ...

326

Enzymatic measurement of phosphatidylserine in cultured cells  

PubMed Central

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a quantitatively minor membrane phospholipid involved in diverse cellular functions. In this study, we developed a new fluorometric method for measuring PS using combinations of specific enzymes and Amplex Red. The calibration curve for PS measurement was linear and hyperbolic at low (0–50 µM) and high (50–1000 µM) concentrations, respectively, and the detection limit was 5 µM (50 pmol in the reaction mixture). This assay quantified PS regardless of the chain length and the number of double bonds. We applied this new method to the determination of PS content in HEK293 cells, which was validated by a recovery study and comparison with TLC-phosphorus assay. We showed that the PS content was high in sparse cells. The overexpression of PS synthase 1 elevated not only the cellular PS content but also the phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) contents, suggesting the conversion of PS into PE and the enhancement of PC production. This new assay for PS measurement is simple, specific, sensitive, and high throughput, and it will be useful to clarify the metabolism and biological functions of PS. PMID:22100437

Morita, Shin-ya; Shirakawa, Sachimi; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Nakamura, Keiko; Teraoka, Reiko; Kitagawa, Shuji; Terada, Tomohiro

2012-01-01

327

An embryogenic cell suspension culture of Picea glauca (White spruce)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cell suspension culture of Picea glauca (White spruce) which continuously produces somatic embryos has been established. Embryogenic callus derived from cultured zygotic embryos was used to initiate the culture. Numerous embryos at various early stages of development were recognized; they exhibited a meristematic embryonic region and suspensor consisting of elongate, vacuolated cells. The culture also contained clumps of meristematic

I. Hakman; L. C. Fowke

1987-01-01

328

Advantages and challenges of microfluidic cell culture in polydimethylsiloxane devices.  

PubMed

Culture of cells using various microfluidic devices is becoming more common within experimental cell biology. At the same time, a technological radiation of microfluidic cell culture device designs is currently in progress. Ultimately, the utility of microfluidic cell culture will be determined by its capacity to permit new insights into cellular function. Especially insights that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to obtain with macroscopic cell culture in traditional polystyrene dishes, flasks or well-plates. Many decades of heuristic optimization have gone into perfecting conventional cell culture devices and protocols. In comparison, even for the most commonly used microfluidic cell culture devices, such as those fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), collective understanding of the differences in cellular behavior between microfluidic and macroscopic culture is still developing. Moving in vitro culture from macroscopic culture to PDMS based devices can come with unforeseen challenges. Changes in device material, surface coating, cell number per unit surface area or per unit media volume may all affect the outcome of otherwise standard protocols. In this review, we outline some of the advantages and challenges that may accompany a transition from macroscopic to microfluidic cell culture. We focus on decisive factors that distinguish macroscopic from microfluidic cell culture to encourage a reconsideration of how macroscopic cell culture principles might apply to microfluidic cell culture. PMID:25105943

Halldorsson, Skarphedinn; Lucumi, Edinson; Gómez-Sjöberg, Rafael; Fleming, Ronan M T

2015-01-15

329

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibodies for identification of mycobacteria from early cultures.  

PubMed Central

A simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the identification of cultured mycobacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the Mycobacterium avium complex, and Mycobacterium kansasii has been developed (R. Schöningh, C. P. H. J. Verstijnen, S. Kuijper, and A. H. J. Kolk. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:708-713, 1990). The test for the routine identification of cultured mycobacteria was introduced in five clinical laboratories located in Tanzania, Thailand, Vietnam, and The Netherlands. The ELISA can be conducted without an ELISA reader since the test can be read visually. The results of identification of 255 strains of the M. tuberculosis complex by microbiological means and by ELISA were compared; the specificity and the sensitivity were 100%. For the M. avium complex, the specificity was 100% and the sensitivity was 64%. All 26 M. kansasii strains tested could be identified as M. kansasii. The ELISA described here proved to be useful in both well- and modestly equipped laboratories and may replace the microbiological method of identification of M. tuberculosis and M. kansasii. PMID:1909344

Verstijnen, C P; Ly, H M; Polman, K; Richter, C; Smits, S P; Maselle, S Y; Peerbooms, P; Rienthong, D; Montreewasuwat, N; Koanjanart, S

1991-01-01

330

Quantification of antigen specific CD8 + T cells using an ELISPOT assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ELISPOT assay to detect and determine the number of antigen specific CD8+ T cells was standardized using cloned murine CD8+ T cells specific for the epitope SYVPSAEQI of a rodent malaria antigen. This assay is based on the detection of IFN-? secretion by single cells after their stimulation with antigen. The interferon secretion is visualized as spots revealed by

Yasushi Miyahira; Kenichiro Murata; Dolores Rodriguez; Juan R. Rodriguez; Mariano Esteban; Mauricio M. Rodrigues; Fidel Zavala

1995-01-01

331

Triethyllead treatment of cultured brain cells. Effect on accumulation of radioactive precursors in galactolipids  

SciTech Connect

Cultured cells from chick embryo brains were studied for their sensitivity to triethyllead. Triethyllead chloride (3.16 microM) was added to the nutrient medium and incubated for 48 hr with the cells. Morphological changes in light microscope and radioactive labeling of galactolipids were assayed. Triethyllead treatment reduced the number of neuronal cells with processes. Morphological changes were not observed in glial cells. The (/sup 35/S)sulfate labeling of sulfatides was reduced to 50%. The (/sup 3/H)serine labeling of cerebrosides with alpha-hydroxy fatty acids was not influenced, while the (/sup 3/H)serine labeling of cerebrosides with nonhydroxy fatty acids was inhibited 40% in one- and two- but not in three-week-old cultures. The results indicate that the nerve cell response to triethyllead in cultures is selective, since the neurons are more sensitive than the glia cells and the labeling of sulfatides is more sensitive than that of cerebrosides.

Grundt, I.K.; Ammitzboll, T.; Clausen, J.

1981-02-01

332

Clonal culture of adult mouse lung epithelial stem/progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Clonal culture of stem cells is crucial for their identification, and the characterization of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate their proliferation and differentiation. In the adult mouse lung, epithelial stem/progenitor cells are defined by the phenotype CD45(neg) CD31(neg) EpCAM(pos) CD104(pos) CD24(low). Here we describe a tissue dissociation and flow cytometry strategy for the detection and isolation of adult mouse lung epithelial stem/progenitor cells, and a three-dimensional colony-forming assay for their clonal culture in vitro. PMID:25388397

McQualter, Jonathan L; Bertoncello, Ivan

2015-01-01

333

T-cell costimulatory capacity of oral and skin epithelial cells in vitro: presence of suppressive activity in supernatants from skin epithelial cell cultures.  

PubMed

Oral Langerhans cells (LC) have better T-cell costimulatory capacity than skin LC. In this study factors affecting this capacity have been assessed in a mixed epithelial cell lymphocyte reaction (MELR) assay. Flow cytometry analysis of freshly recovered cells revealed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule expression on 7.5% of the oral epithelial cells and 9.7% of the skin epithelial cells. Monoclonal anti class II antibodies significantly reduced the T-cell proliferation in the MELR. Pretreatment of skin epithelial cells with interleukin-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha or interferon (IFN)-gamma did not affect the MELR proliferation, but incubation with IFNgamma significantly suppressed the T-cell response. Transfer of supernatants from cultures of skin epithelial cells and allogeneic T cells to cultures of oral epithelial cells and T cells resulted in a reduced T-cell proliferation while supernatants from oral epithelial cells and T cells did not reduce proliferation. The higher proliferation in cultures of T cells and oral epithelial cells than in cultures containing skin epithelial cells may be due to the presence of a suppressive factor in the skin epithelial cell suspensions. PMID:14871193

Hasséus, B; Jontell, M; Bergenholtz, G; Dahlgren, U I

2004-02-01

334

Acetaldehyde and hexanaldehyde from cultured white cells  

PubMed Central

Background Noninvasive detection of innate immune function such as the accumulation of neutrophils remains a challenge in many areas of clinical medicine. We hypothesized that granulocytes could generate volatile organic compounds. Methods To begin to test this, we developed a bioreactor and analytical GC-MS system to accurately identify and quantify gases in trace concentrations (parts per billion) emitted solely from cell/media culture. A human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL60, frequently used to assess neutrophil function, was grown in serum-free medium. Results HL60 cells released acetaldehyde and hexanaldehyde in a time-dependent manner. The mean ± SD concentration of acetaldehyde in the headspace above the cultured cells following 4-, 24- and 48-h incubation was 157 ± 13 ppbv, 490 ± 99 ppbv, 698 ± 87 ppbv. For hexanaldehyde these values were 1 ± 0.3 ppbv, 8 ± 2 ppbv, and 11 ± 2 ppbv. In addition, our experimental system permitted us to identify confounding trace gas contaminants such as styrene. Conclusion This study demonstrates that human immune cells known to mimic the function of innate immune cells, like neutrophils, produce volatile gases that can be measured in vitro in trace amounts. PMID:19402909

Shin, Hye-Won; Umber, Brandon J; Meinardi, Simone; Leu, Szu-Yun; Zaldivar, Frank; Blake, Donald R; Cooper, Dan M

2009-01-01

335

Patterning of polymeric cell culture substrates.  

PubMed

The purpose of this chapter is to provide a summary of polymer patterning technologies for biological applications and detailed instructions for resist-free deep ultraviolet (UV) patterning of poly(styrene). Photochemical modifications of this polymer yield unstable peroxides together with stable oxidized chemical groups. The altered physicochemical properties of the polymer surface influence protein adsorption and cell adhesion. HepG2 (human hepatoma cell line), fibroblasts (L929, murine fibroblast line), and other cell lines exhibit strong adhesion on areas of UV-irradiated polymer. Masked irradiations open a simple, fast (cell patterns are obtained within a few hours), and economical route to obtain chemically patterned cell culture substrates. The described protocol is advantageous compared to silane-based patterning techniques on glass or thiol-based patterning on gold because of the elimination of any chemical treatment and the small size of achieved structures. The protocol is compatible with common clean room technologies; however, even without access to a clean room, structured substrates can be produced. The described technique can be a useful tool for a variety of cell cultures used to study biological processes like intercellular communication and organogenesis and for applications like biosensing or tissue engineering. PMID:24439278

Welle, Alexander; Weigel, Simone; Bulut, Özgül Demir

2014-01-01

336

Long-Term Culture of Capillary Endothelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillary endothelial cells from rats, calves, and humans, have been carried in long-term culture. Bovine capillary endothelial cells have been cloned and maintained by serial passage for longer than 8 months. This prolonged culture was accomplished by using tumor-conditioned medium, gelatin-coated plates, and a method of enriching cells in primary culture. Cultured bovine capillary endothelial cells produce Factor VIII antigen

Judah Folkman; Christian C. Haudenschild; Bruce R. Zetter

1979-01-01

337

Differentiation of mammalian skeletal muscle cells cultured on microcarrier beads in a rotating cell culture system.  

PubMed

The growth and repair of adult skeletal muscle are due in part to activation of muscle precursor cells, commonly known as satellite cells or myoblasts. These cells are responsive to a variety of environmental cues, including mechanical stimuli. The overall goal of the research is to examine the role of mechanical signalling mechanisms in muscle growth and plasticity through utilisation of cell culture systems where other potential signalling pathways (i.e. chemical and electrical stimuli) are controlled. To explore the effects of decreased mechanical loading on muscle differentiation, mammalian myoblasts are cultured in a bioreactor (rotating cell culture system), a model that has been utilised to simulate microgravity. C2C12 murine myoblasts are cultured on microcarrier beads in a bioreactor and followed throughout differentiation as they form a network of multinucleated myotubes. In comparison with three-dimensional control cultures that consist of myoblasts cultured on microcarrier beads in teflon bags, myoblasts cultured in the bioreactor exhibit an attenuation in differentiation. This is demonstrated by reduced immunohistochemical staining for myogenin and alpha-actinin. Western analysis shows a decrease, in bioreactor cultures compared with control cultures, in levels of the contractile proteins myosin (47% decrease, p < 0.01) and tropomyosin (63% decrease, p < 0.01). Hydrodynamic measurements indicate that the decrease in differentiation may be due, at least in part, to fluid stresses acting on the myotubes. In addition, constraints on aggregate size imposed by the action of fluid forces in the bioreactor affect differentiation. These results may have implications for muscle growth and repair during spaceflight. PMID:11094818

Torgan, C E; Burge, S S; Collinsworth, A M; Truskey, G A; Kraus, W E

2000-09-01

338

Differentiation of mammalian skeletal muscle cells cultured on microcarrier beads in a rotating cell culture system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The growth and repair of adult skeletal muscle are due in part to activation of muscle precursor cells, commonly known as satellite cells or myoblasts. These cells are responsive to a variety of environmental cues, including mechanical stimuli. The overall goal of the research is to examine the role of mechanical signalling mechanisms in muscle growth and plasticity through utilisation of cell culture systems where other potential signalling pathways (i.e. chemical and electrical stimuli) are controlled. To explore the effects of decreased mechanical loading on muscle differentiation, mammalian myoblasts are cultured in a bioreactor (rotating cell culture system), a model that has been utilised to simulate microgravity. C2C12 murine myoblasts are cultured on microcarrier beads in a bioreactor and followed throughout differentiation as they form a network of multinucleated myotubes. In comparison with three-dimensional control cultures that consist of myoblasts cultured on microcarrier beads in teflon bags, myoblasts cultured in the bioreactor exhibit an attenuation in differentiation. This is demonstrated by reduced immunohistochemical staining for myogenin and alpha-actinin. Western analysis shows a decrease, in bioreactor cultures compared with control cultures, in levels of the contractile proteins myosin (47% decrease, p < 0.01) and tropomyosin (63% decrease, p < 0.01). Hydrodynamic measurements indicate that the decrease in differentiation may be due, at least in part, to fluid stresses acting on the myotubes. In addition, constraints on aggregate size imposed by the action of fluid forces in the bioreactor affect differentiation. These results may have implications for muscle growth and repair during spaceflight.

Torgan, C. E.; Burge, S. S.; Collinsworth, A. M.; Truskey, G. A.; Kraus, W. E.

2000-01-01

339

Evaluation of new transport medium for detection of herpes simplex virus by culture and direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  

PubMed Central

The transport medium Multi-Microbe Media (M4) was evaluated prospectively by culture and direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of herpes simplex virus from 473 specimens. In addition, 377 specimens in Bartels Viral Transport Medium were evaluated. By using culture as a "gold standard," the ELISA sensitivity was approximately 85%, while the specificities exceeded 96% for both media. PMID:7883909

Ogburn, J R; Hoffpauir, J T; Cole, E; Hood, K; Michael, D; Nguyen, T; Raden, S; Raju, B; Reisinger, V; Oefinger, P E

1994-01-01

340

UV inactivation of adenovirus type 41 measured by cell culture mRNA RT-PCR.  

PubMed

Adenoviruses are among the most resistant waterborne pathogens to UV disinfection, yet of the 51 serologically distinct human adenoviruses, only a few have been evaluated for their sensitivities to UV irradiation. Human enteric adenoviruses (Ad40 and Ad41) are difficult to cultivate and reliably assay for infectivity, requiring weeks to obtain cytopathogenic effects (CPE). Inoculated cell cultures often deteriorate before the appearance of distinctive CPE making it difficult to obtain reliable and reproducible data regarding UV inactivation. Adenovirus is a double-stranded DNA virus and produces messenger RNA (mRNA) during replication in host cells. The presence of viral mRNA in host cells is definitive evidence of infection. We recently developed a rapid and reliable cell culture-mRNA RT-PCR assay to detect and quantify adenovirus infectivity. Viral mRNA recovered from cell cultures 5-7 days after infection was purified on oligo-dT latex, treated with DNase, and amplified by RT-PCR using the primers specific for a conserved region of the hexon late mRNA transcript. Treatment of approximately 10(4) Ad41 with different doses of 254 nm germicidal UV radiation resulted in a dose-dependent loss of infectivity. As UV doses were increased from 75 to 200 mJ/cm2, virus survival decreased and no virus infectivity (measured by detectable mRNA) was found at a dose of 225 mJ/cm2 or higher. Our results using the cell culture mRNA RT-PCR assay indicate that Ad41 is more resistant to UV radiation than in a previous study using a conventional cell culture infectivity assay. Results were more similar to those found for Ad 40 using CPE as a measure of infectivity in another previous study. PMID:16046229

Ko, Gwangpyo; Cromeans, Theresa L; Sobsey, Mark D

2005-09-01

341

Cell-based protein stabilization assays for the detection of interactions between small-molecule inhibitors and BRD4.  

PubMed

Bromodomain protein 4 (BRD4), a member of the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein family, acts as a central element in transcriptional elongation and plays essential roles in cell proliferation. Inhibition of BRD4 binding to acetylated histone tails via its two bromodomains, BD1 and BD2, with small-molecule inhibitors has been shown to be a valid strategy to prevent cancer growth. We have evaluated and established two novel assays that quantify the interaction of transfected BRD4 BD1 with chemical inhibitors inside cultured cells. Both methods are based on the principle of ligand-induced protein stabilization by which the binding of a small-molecule inhibitor stabilizes intracellular BRD4 BD1 and protects it from proteolytic degradation. We demonstrate the universal character of this principle by using two orthogonal, highly sensitive detection technologies for the quantification of BRD4 BD1 levels in cellular lysates: enzyme fragment complementation and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET). Upon optimization of both assays to a miniaturized high-throughput format, the methods were validated by testing a set of small-molecule BET inhibitors and comparing the results with those from a cell-free binding assay and a biophysical thermal shift assay. In addition, point mutations were introduced into BRD4 BD1, and the corresponding mutants were characterized in the TR-FRET stabilization assay. PMID:25266565

Schulze, Jessica; Moosmayer, Dieter; Weiske, Joerg; Fernández-Montalván, Amaury; Herbst, Christopher; Jung, Marie; Haendler, Bernard; Bader, Benjamin

2015-02-01

342

Reversible gelling culture media for in-vitro cell culture in three-dimensional matrices  

DOEpatents

A gelling cell culture medium useful for forming a three dimensional matrix for cell culture in vitro is prepared by copolymerizing an acrylamide derivative with a hydrophilic comonomer to form a reversible (preferably thermally reversible) gelling linear random copolymer in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum gelling molecular weight cutoff, mixing the copolymer with an aqueous solvent to form a reversible gelling solution and adding a cell culture medium to the gelling solution to form the gelling cell culture medium. Cells such as chondrocytes or hepatocytes are added to the culture medium to form a seeded culture medium, and temperature of the medium is raised to gel the seeded culture medium and form a three dimensional matrix containing the cells. After propagating the cells in the matrix, the cells may be recovered by lowering the temperature to dissolve the matrix and centrifuging.

An, Yuehuei H. (Charleston, SC); Mironov, Vladimir A. (Mt. Pleasant, SC); Gutowska, Anna (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

343

Infection on a chip: a microscale platform for simple and sensitive cell-based virus assays  

E-print Network

responses to minimize the spread of viral diseases. While nucleic acid- based assays have dominated newInfection on a chip: a microscale platform for simple and sensitive cell-based virus assays Ying sensitivity, uses excessive reagents, and is hard to automate. Recent modification of the assay to exploit

Beebe, David J.

344

Sequencing technologies for animal cell culture research.  

PubMed

Over the last 10 years, 2nd and 3rd generation sequencing technologies have made the use of genomic sequencing within the animal cell culture community increasingly commonplace. Each technology's defining characteristics are unique, including the cost, time, sequence read length, daily throughput, and occurrence of sequence errors. Given each sequencing technology's intrinsic advantages and disadvantages, the optimal technology for a given experiment depends on the particular experiment's objective. This review discusses the current characteristics of six next-generation sequencing technologies, compares the differences between them, and characterizes their relevance to the animal cell culture community. These technologies are continually improving, as evidenced by the recent achievement of the field's benchmark goal: sequencing a human genome for less than $1,000. PMID:25214225

Kremkow, Benjamin G; Lee, Kelvin H

2015-01-01

345

Suitability of human Tenon's fibroblasts as feeder cells for culturing human limbal epithelial stem cells.  

PubMed

Corneal epithelial regeneration through ex vivo expansion of limbal stem cells (LSCs) on 3T3-J2 fibroblasts has revealed some limitations mainly due to the corneal microenvironment not being properly replicated, thus affecting long term results. Insights into the feeder cells that are used to expand LSCs and the mechanisms underlying the effects of human feeder cells have yet to be fully elucidated. We recently developed a standardized methodology to expand human Tenon's fibroblasts (TFs). Here we aimed to investigate whether TFs can be employed as feeder cells for LSCs, characterizing the phenotype of the co-cultures and assessing what human soluble factors are secreted. The hypothesis that TFs could be employed as alternative human feeder layer has not been explored yet. LSCs were isolated from superior limbus biopsies, co-cultured on TFs, 3T3-J2 or dermal fibroblasts (DFs), then analyzed by immunofluorescence (p63?), colony-forming efficiency (CFE) assay and qPCR for a panel of putative stem cell and epithelial corneal differentiation markers (KRT3). Co-cultures supernatants were screened for a set of soluble factors. Results showed that the percentage of p63?(+)LSCs co-cultured onto TFs was significantly higher than those on DFs (p = 0.032) and 3T3-J2 (p = 0.047). Interestingly, LSCs co-cultures on TFs exhibited both significantly higher CFE and mRNA expression levels of ?Np63? than on 3T3-J2 and DFs (p < 0.0001), showing also significantly greater levels of soluble factors (IL-6, HGF, b-FGF, G-CSF, TGF-?3) than LSCs on DFs. Therefore, TFs could represent an alternative feeder layer to both 3T3-J2 and DFs, potentially providing a suitable microenvironment for LSCs culture. PMID:23832306

Scafetta, Gaia; Tricoli, Eleonora; Siciliano, Camilla; Napoletano, Chiara; Puca, Rosa; Vingolo, Enzo Maria; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Polistena, Andrea; Frati, Giacomo; De Falco, Elena

2013-12-01

346

Bacteriorhodopsin production by cell recycle culture of Halobacterium  

E-print Network

Bacteriorhodopsin production by cell recycle culture of Halobacterium halobium Sang Yup Lee*, Ho halobium R1 was cultured with cell recycle in a bioreactor equipped with an external hollow fiber membrane- rhodopsin production. The results obtained from batch and cell recycle culture of H. halobium R1

347

An Introductory Undergraduate Course Covering Animal Cell Culture Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animal cell culture is a core laboratory technique in many molecular biology, developmental biology, and biotechnology laboratories. Cell culture is a relatively old technique that has been sparingly taught at the undergraduate level. The traditional methodology for acquiring cell culture training has been through trial and error, instruction when…

Mozdziak, Paul E.; Petitte, James N.; Carson, Susan D.

2004-01-01

348

Apoptosis in Batch Cultures of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

E-print Network

Apoptosis in Batch Cultures of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells J. Goswami,1 A. J. Sinskey,2 H. Steller of the main problems in the culture of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells continues to be the inability. Keywords: cell culture; Chinese Hamster Ovary; apopto- sis; caspase; bcl-2 INTRODUCTION Chinese Hamster

Sinskey, Anthony J.

349

An automated cell-counting algorithm for fluorescently-stained cells in migration assays  

PubMed Central

A cell-counting algorithm, developed in Matlab®, was created to efficiently count migrated fluorescently-stained cells on membranes from migration assays. At each concentration of cells used (10,000, and 100,000 cells), images were acquired at 2.5 ×, 5 ×, and 10 × objective magnifications. Automated cell counts strongly correlated to manual counts (r2 = 0.99, P < 0.0001 for a total of 47 images), with no difference in the measurements between methods under all conditions. We conclude that our automated method is accurate, more efficient, and void of variability and potential observer bias normally associated with manual counting. PMID:22011343

2011-01-01

350

A cell-based phenotypic assay to identify cardioprotective agents  

PubMed Central

Rationale Tissue ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury underlies several leading causes of death such as heart-attack and stroke. The lack of clinical therapies for IR injury may be partly due to the difficulty of adapting IR injury models to high-throughput screening (HTS). Objective To develop a model of IR injury that is both physiologically relevant and amenable to HTS. Methods and Results A micro-plate based respirometry apparatus was used. Controlling gas flow in the plate head space, coupled with the instrument’s mechanical systems, yielded a 24 well model of IR injury in which H9c2 cardiomyocytes were transiently trapped in a small volume, rendering them ischemic. Following initial validation with known protective molecules, the model was used to screen a 2000 molecule library, with post IR cell death as an endpoint. pO2 and pH monitoring in each well also afforded metabolic data. Ten protective, detrimental and inert molecules from the screen were subsequently tested in a Langendorff perfused heart model of IR injury, revealing strong correlations between the screening endpoint and both recovery of cardiac function (negative r2=0.66), and infarct size (positive, r2=0.62). Relationships between the effects of added molecules on cellular bioenergetics, and protection against IR injury, were also studied. Conclusion This novel cell-based assay can predict either protective or detrimental effects on IR injury in the intact heart. Its application may help identify therapeutic or harmful molecules. PMID:22394516

Guo, Stephanie; Olm-Shipman, Adam; Walters, Andrew; Urciuoli, William R.; Devito, Stefanie; Nadtochiy, Sergiy M.; Wojtovich, Andrew P.; Brookes, Paul S.

2012-01-01

351

A real-time PCR assay for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni in foods after enrichment culture.  

PubMed

A real-time PCR assay was developed for the quantitative detection of Campylobacter jejuni in foods after enrichment culture. The specificity of the assay for C. jejuni was demonstrated with a diverse range of Campylobacter species, related organisms, and unrelated genera. The assay had a linear range of quantification over six orders of magnitude, and the limit of detection was approximately 12 genome equivalents. The assay was used to detect C. jejuni in both naturally and artificially contaminated food samples. Ninety-seven foods, including raw poultry meat, offal, raw shellfish, and milk samples, were enriched in blood-free Campylobacter enrichment broth at 37 degrees C for 24 h, followed by 42 degrees C for 24 h. Enrichment cultures were subcultured to Campylobacter charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate blood-free selective agar, and presumptive Campylobacter isolates were identified with phenotypic methods. DNA was extracted from enrichment cultures with a rapid lysis method and used as the template in the real-time PCR assay. A total of 66 samples were positive for C. jejuni by either method, with 57 samples positive for C. jejuni by subculture to selective agar medium and 63 samples positive in the real-time PCR assay. The results of both methods were concordant for 84 of the samples. The total time taken for detection from enrichment broth samples was approximately 3 h for the real-time PCR assay, with the results being available immediately at the end of PCR cycling, compared to 48 h for subculture to selective agar. This assay significantly reduces the total time taken for the detection of C. jejuni in foods and is an important model for other food-borne pathogens. PMID:12620820

Sails, Andrew D; Fox, Andrew J; Bolton, Frederick J; Wareing, David R A; Greenway, David L A

2003-03-01

352

Cell Culture-Derived Influenza Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Conventional egg-based vaccine manufacture has provided decades of safe and effective influenza vaccines using the technologies\\u000a of the 1930–1960s. Concerns over the vulnerability of the egg supply in the case of a pandemic with a high pathogenicity avian\\u000a influenza strain have spurred the development and licensure of mammalian cell culture-based influenza vaccines, the first\\u000a major technological innovation in influenza vaccine

Philip R. Dormitzer

353

Natural killer cells in normal pregnancy: analysis using monoclonal antibodies and single-cell cytotoxicity assays.  

PubMed Central

Peripheral blood lymphocytes (nylon wool non-adherent) from healthy pregnant women and normal non-pregnant females were tested for natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity against K562 target cells both by 51Cr-release assay and single-cell cytotoxicity assay in agarose. The results indicated depression of NK cytotoxicity in pregnancy due to a decrease in the proportion of target-binding lymphocytes as well as a reduction in the lytic capacity of target-bound cells. The ability of active pregnancy-associated NK lymphocytes to recycle appeared to be unimpaired. Analysis of lymphocyte populations with monoclonal antibodies recognizing NK cell-associated antigens showed that the number of Leu-11+ lymphocytes was reduced in pregnancy. Enumeration of Leu-7+ cells and correlation of NK cell subpopulation data with cytotoxicity assay data suggest that pregnancy is associated with a reduction in the number of mature NK cells and probably also an inhibition of post-binding lytic activity. PMID:3864569

Gregory, C D; Lee, H; Rees, G B; Scott, I V; Shah, L P; Golding, P R

1985-01-01

354

Heat shock induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation in cultured cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of heat shock on protein tyrosine phosphorylation in cultured animal cells using antiphosphotyrosine antibodies in immuno- blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy experi- ments. Heat shock significantly elevated the level of phosphotyrosine in proteins in most of the cultured cells examined, including fibroblasts, epithelial cells, nerve cells, and muscle cells, but not in Rous sarcoma virus-transformed fibroblasts. The

P. A. Maher; Elena B. Pasquale

1989-01-01

355

Cell tri-culture for cardiac vascularization.  

PubMed

Poor graft survival is a critical obstacle toward production of clinically relevant engineered tissues. Here we utilize a multicellular culturing approach for induction of vascular networks embedded within cardiac tissue constructs. The construct is composed of human cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells (ECs), and embryonic fibroblast cells co-seeded onto highly porous three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds. The resulting vascularized cardiac constructs showed microstructural details characteristic of cardiomyocytes and nascent vessels and exhibited synchronous beating activity in vitro. Upon implantation, stable grafts were formed presenting intense vascularization, with evidence of anastomosis between the pre-formed endothelial capillaries and host neovessels. PMID:25070333

Lesman, Ayelet; Gepstein, Lior; Levenberg, Shulamit

2014-01-01

356

Performance of enzymatic fuel cell in cell culture.  

PubMed

Here we present the very first study of an enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) in a cell culture. An EFC with Corynascus thermophilus cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) based bioanode and Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase (BOx) based biocathode was constructed at the bottom of a medusa cell culture plate. The constructed EFC had a power density of up to 25 ?W cm(-2) at 0.5 V potential in simple buffer solution and in cell culturing medium. L929 murine fibroblast cells were seeded on top of the EFC and possible effects of the EFC on the cells and vice versa were studied. It was shown that on average the power of the EFC drops by about 70% under a nearly confluent layer of cells. The EFC appeared to have a toxic effect on the L929 cell line. It was concluded that the bioanode, consisting of CDH, produced hydrogen peroxide at toxic concentrations. However, the toxic effect was circumvented by co-immobilizing catalase on the bioanode. PMID:24374299

Lamberg, P; Shleev, S; Ludwig, R; Arnebrant, T; Ruzgas, T

2014-05-15

357

The use of chicken tracheal organ cultures for the isolation and assay of avian infectious bronchitis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A study has been made of the use of chicken tracheal organ cultures for the isolation and assay of avian infectious bronchitis (AIB) virus from both naturally and experimentally infected chickens. Six strains of AIB virus were investigated, 3 of which had been isolated from natural outbreaks of disease. Two of the virus isolations from the outbreaks of AIB

Jane K. A. Cook; J. H. Darbyshire; R. W. Peters

1976-01-01

358

Effects of selenomethionine on cell growth and on S-adenosylmethionine metabolism in cultured malignant cells.  

PubMed Central

The effects of selenomethionine (SeMet) on the growth of 17 cultured cell lines were studied. SeMet in the culture medium of three hepatoma cell lines promoted cell growth at subcytotoxic levels (1-20 microM), but the growth of malignant lymphoid and myeloid cells was not stimulated. L-SeMet was cytotoxic to all 17 cell lines when assayed after culture for 3-10 days. A 50% growth inhibition was observed by 30-160 microM-SeMet in a culture medium containing 100 microM-methionine. SeMet cytotoxicity to normal (fibroblasts) and malignant cells was rather similar, excluding specific antineoplastic cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was increased by decreasing concentrations of methionine. The DL form of SeMet was less cytotoxic than the L form. L-SeMet was metabolized to a selenium analogue of S-adenosylmethionine approximately as effectively as the natural sulphur analogue methionine in malignant R1.1 lymphoblasts. Concomitantly, S-adenosylmethionine pools were decreased. This occurred early and at cytotoxic SeMet levels. Methionine adenosyltransferase activity was not altered by SeMet treatment. ATP pools were not affected early, and decreases in the synthesis of DNA and protein took place late and were apparently related to cell death. RNA synthesis was slightly stimulated at low cytotoxic SeMet levels by 24 h, but was markedly inhibited after 48 h. The SeMet analogue of S-adenosylmethionine could be effectively utilized in a specific enzymic transmethylation. Neither S-adenosylhomocysteine nor its selenium analogue accumulated in the treated cells. These findings together suggest a direct or indirect involvement of S-adenosylmethionine metabolism in SeMet cytotoxicity, but exclude a gross blockage of transmethylations. PMID:2339986

Kajander, E O; Harvima, R J; Kauppinen, L; Akerman, K K; Martikainen, H; Pajula, R L; Kärenlampi, S O

1990-01-01

359

Ascorbic acid transport into cultured pituitary cells  

SciTech Connect

An amidating enzyme designated peptidyl-glycine ..cap alpha..-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) has been studied in a variety of tissues and is dependent on molecular oxygen and stimulated by copper and ascorbic acid. To continue investigating the relationship among cellular ascorbic acid concentrations, amidating ability, and PAM activity, the authors studied ascorbic acid transport in three cell preparations that contain PAM and produce amidated peptides: primary cultures of rat anterior and intermediate pituitary and mouse AtT-20 tumor cells. When incubated in 50 ..mu..M (/sup 14/C)ascorbic acid all three cell preparations concentrated ascorbic acid 20- to 40-fold, producing intracellular ascorbate concentrations of 1 to 2 mM, based on experimentally determined cell volumes. All three cell preparations displayed saturable ascorbic acid uptake with half-maximal initial rates occurring between 9 and 18 ..mu..M ascorbate. Replacing NaCl in the uptake buffer with choline chloride significantly diminished ascorbate uptake in all three preparations. Ascorbic acid efflux from these cells was slow, displaying half-lives of 7 hours. Unlike systems that transport dehydroascorbic acid, the transport system for ascorbic acid in these cells was not inhibited by glucose. Thus, ascorbate is transported into pituitary cells by a sodium-dependent, active transport system.

Cullen, E.I.; May, V.; Eipper, R.A.

1986-05-01

360

Pneumocystis jirovecii Can Be Productively Cultured in Differentiated CuFi-8 Airway Cells  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Although Pneumocystis jirovecii is a well-known and serious pathogen, all previous attempts to isolate, cultivate, and propagate this fungus have failed. This serious challenge in microbiology was addressed in the present study. We examined whether P. jirovecii could be cultured in a permanent three-dimensional air-liquid interface culture system formed by CuFi-8 cells, a differentiated pseudostratified airway epithelial cell line. Cultured pseudostratified cells were inoculated with bronchoalveolar fluid that had been confirmed to be positive for P. jirovecii using PCR. Five days later, the cells and basal medium were harvested and tested for P. jirovecii using quantitative PCR (qPCR), commercially available immunofluorescence detection assays, and Grocott staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded thin sections of infected-cell cultures. We successfully productively cultivated and propagated P. jirovecii from these P. jirovecii-positive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples. Furthermore, we provide evidence that P. jirovecii induced cytopathic effects on lung epithelial cells and was even invasive in cell culture. To the best of our knowledge, the cell culture system developed herein represents the first methodology to enable molecular analyses of this pathogen’s life cycle and further in vitro studies of P. jirovecii, such as assessments of drug sensitivity and resistance as well as investigations of the pathogen’s stability against environmental factors and disinfectants. PMID:24825015

Schildgen, Verena; Mai, Stephanie; Khalfaoui, Soumaya; Lüsebrink, Jessica; Pieper, Monika; Tillmann, Ramona L.; Brockmann, Michael

2014-01-01

361

Developing cell culture-derived pandemic vaccines.  

PubMed

The growing prospect of avian influenza viruses achieving sustained interhuman transmission, combined with the recent emergence of a novel swine-origin A/H1N1 influenza strain, has brought the issue of influenza vaccine production capacity into sharp focus. It is becoming increasingly clear that traditional egg-based manufacturing processes may be insufficient to meet global vaccine demands in a pandemic situation that is caused by a highly pathogenic influenza virus. This review introduces the concepts of modern, cell culture-derived influenza vaccines and their manufacture, and explains the advantages of these vaccines in terms of both speed and efficiency of production as well as immunogenic efficacy. Vaccine production technologies using the mammalian cell lines Vero, MDCK and PER.C6, as well as the baculovirus/insect cell platform, are described in detail. Clinical data are provided from cell culture-derived vaccines that are at an advanced stage of development, and insights are provided into recent developments in the preclinical evaluation of more experimental technologies. PMID:20140813

Barrett, P Noel; Portsmouth, Daniel; Ehrlich, Hartmut J

2010-02-01

362

Adhesive forces in embryonic stem cell cultures  

PubMed Central

Most cell culture systems grow and spread as contact-inhibited monolayers on flat culture dishes, but the embryonic stem cell (ESC) is one of the cell phenotypes that prefer to self-organize as tightly packed three-dimensional (3D) colonies. ESC also readily form 3D cell aggregates, called embryoid bodies (EB) that partially mimic the spatial and temporal processes of the developing embryo. Here, the rationale for ESC aggregation, rather than “spreading” on gelatin-coated or mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)-coated dishes, is examined through the quantification of the expression levels of adhesion molecules on ESC and the calculation of the adhesive forces on ESC. Modeling each ESC as a dodecahedron, the adhesive force for each ESC-ESC binding was found to be 9.1 × 105 pN, whereas, the adhesive force for ESC-MEF binding was found to be an order of magnitude smaller at 7.9 × 104 pN. We also show that E-cadherin is the dominating molecule in the ESC-ESC adhesion and blocking E-cadherin leads to a significant reduction in colony formation. Here, we mathematically describe the preference for ESC to self-assemble into ESC-ESC aggregates and 3D colonies, rather than to bind and spread on gelatin or MEF-coated dishes, and have shown that these interactions are predominantly due to E-cadherin expression on ESC. PMID:22274712

Blancas, Alicia A; Chen, Chi-Shuo; Stolberg, Sarah

2011-01-01

363

Characterization of olfactory receptor neurons and other cell types in dissociated rat olfactory cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dissociated cell cultures, control over the cellular environment facilitates study of the differentiation of mature cellular phenotypes. Central to this approach is a rigorous characterization of the cells that reside in culture. Therefore, we have used a battery of cell type-specific antibody markers to identify the cell types present in dissociated cultures of olfactory mucosal cells (containing cells from

S. K. Pixley

1996-01-01

364

Isoflavone daidzein possesses no antioxidant activities in cell-free assays but induces the antioxidant enzyme catalase.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies have shown that dietary intake of isoflavonones is associated with several properties beneficial to human health. It has been suggested that at least some of these effects are related to the antioxidant activity of isoflavonoids. We analyzed the antioxidant activity of the major isoflavones found in soybeans, but none of these compounds showed prominent antioxidant effects in cell-free assay systems (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay). Therefore, we examined the hypothesis that the antioxidative effects of isoflavones are caused indirectly by up-regulation of antioxidative enzymes, thereby lowering intracellular concentration of reactive oxygene species. Daidzein shows a significant induction of catalase promoter activity at 100 micromol/L in a reporter gene assay and at 200 micromol/L in Northern blot experiments. Another hypothesis for antioxidant effects caused by isoflavones is due to metabolism by intestinal bacteria. Analyzing the daidzein metabolites 3'-OH-daidzein and 6-OH-daidzein in our cell culture model, we found strong antioxidant effects (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay). We conclude that isoflavone daidzein up-regulates the antioxidant enzyme catalase but shows only little antioxidant capacity per se. Antioxidant effects of this dietary isoflavonone may also be due to formation of the antioxidant metabolites 6-OH-daidzein and 3'-OH-daidzein. PMID:19083468

Kampkötter, Andreas; Chovolou, Yvonni; Kulawik, Andreas; Röhrdanz, Elke; Weber, Nadine; Proksch, Peter; Wätjen, Wim

2008-09-01

365

Survival of retinal ganglion cells in slice culture provides a rapid screen for olfactory ensheathing cell preparations.  

PubMed

Transplants of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) cultured from the olfactory bulb are able to induce structural regeneration of severed central axons and return of function in rat models. For clinical purposes it would be preferable to obtain the cells from the more accessible olfactory mucosa in the nasal lining. However, in our laboratory preparations cultures from mucosal samples yielded around 5% of OECs compared with the 50% obtained from samples cultured from the bulb, and when transplanted these mucosal cell preparations were less effective at repair. There are a number of manipulations which may increase the OEC content and the effectiveness of mucosal preparations, but in vivo transplantation would be a highly labour intensive method for evaluating them. As a candidate for a high throughput assay to screen for beneficial effects of modifications to mucosal cells we here report the effects of co-culture of the cells with retinal explants. Both bulbar and mucosal cell preparations prolong the survival of the explants. Counts of the surviving retinal ganglion cells, identified by beta-III-tubulin immunohistochemistry and by their axon trajectory, show that the bulbar cell preparations have around twice the potency of those from the mucosa. This in vitro system, therefore, provides a bioassay that discriminates bulbar and mucosal cell preparations, and a useful tool for evaluating the functional effects of manipulations of cultured mucosal preparations. PMID:20682293

Dai, Chao; Qin Yin, Zheng; Li, Ying; Raisman, Geoffrey; Li, Daqing

2010-10-01

366

Cell Co-culture Patterning Using Aqueous Two-phase Systems  

PubMed Central

Cell patterning technologies that are fast, easy to use and affordable will be required for the future development of high throughput cell assays, platforms for studying cell-cell interactions and tissue engineered systems. This detailed protocol describes a method for generating co-cultures of cells using biocompatible solutions of dextran (DEX) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that phase-separate when combined above threshold concentrations. Cells can be patterned in a variety of configurations using this method. Cell exclusion patterning can be performed by printing droplets of DEX on a substrate and covering them with a solution of PEG containing cells. The interfacial tension formed between the two polymer solutions causes cells to fall around the outside of the DEX droplet and form a circular clearing that can be used for migration assays. Cell islands can be patterned by dispensing a cell-rich DEX phase into a PEG solution or by covering the DEX droplet with a solution of PEG. Co-cultures can be formed directly by combining cell exclusion with DEX island patterning. These methods are compatible with a variety of liquid handling approaches, including manual micropipetting, and can be used with virtually any adherent cell type. PMID:23567187

Frampton, John P.; White, Joshua B.; Abraham, Abin T.; Takayama, Shuichi

2013-01-01

367

Perfluoroalkylated compounds induce cell death and formation of reactive oxygen species in cultured cerebellar granule cells.  

PubMed

The present communication investigates the effects of different perfluoroalkylated compounds (PFCs) on formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells. This allows direct comparison with similar effects found for other environmental contaminants like polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame-retardants. The increase in ROS formation and cell death was assayed using the fluorescent probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) and the trypan blue exclusion assay. The effects of the PFCs were structure dependent. Cell death was induced at relatively low concentrations by perfluorooctyl sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctane sulfonylamide (PFOSA) and the fluorotelomer alcohol 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecanol (FTOH 8:2) with EC(50)-values of 62 ± 7.6, 13 ± 1.8 and 15 ± 4.2 ?M (mean ± SD) respectively. PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and PFOSA induced a concentration dependent increase in ROS formation with EC(50)-values of 27 ± 9.0, 25 ± 11 and 57 ± 19?M respectively. Reduced cell viability and ROS formation were observed at concentration level close to what is found in serum of occupationally exposed workers. The effect of PFCs on ROS formation and cell viability was compared with other halogenated compounds and future investigations should emphasize effects of mixtures and how physical chemical properties of the compounds influence their toxicity. PMID:23340305

Reistad, Trine; Fonnum, Frode; Mariussen, Espen

2013-03-27

368

Comparison of four different colorimetric and fluorometric cytotoxicity assays in a zebrafish liver cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A broad spectrum of cytotoxicity assays is currently used in the fields of (eco)toxicology and pharmacology. To choose an appropriate assay, different parameters like test compounds, detection mechanism, specificity, and sensitivity have to be considered. Furthermore, tissue or cell line can influence test performance. For zebrafish (Danio rerio), as emerging model organism, cell lines are now increasingly used, but

Stephanie K Bopp; Teresa Lettieri

2008-01-01

369

Rotating bio-reactor cell culture apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioreactor system is described in which a tubular housing contains an internal circularly disposed set of blade members and a central tubular filter all mounted for rotation about a common horizontal axis and each having independent rotational support and rotational drive mechanisms. The housing, blade members and filter preferably are driven at a constant slow speed for placing a fluid culture medium with discrete microbeads and cell cultures in a discrete spatial suspension in the housing. Replacement fluid medium is symmetrically input and fluid medium is symmetrically output from the housing where the input and the output are part of a loop providing a constant or intermittent flow of fluid medium in a closed loop.

Schwarz, Ray P. (inventor); Wolf, David A. (inventor)

1991-01-01

370

Microfluidic Probe for Single-Cell Lysis and Analysis in Adherent Tissue Culture  

PubMed Central

Single-cell analysis provides information critical to understanding key disease processes that are characterized by significant cellular heterogeneity. Few current methods allow single-cell measurement without removing cells from the context of interest, which not only destroys contextual information but also may perturb the process under study. Here we present a microfluidic probe that lyses single adherent cells from standard tissue culture and captures the contents to perform single-cell biochemical assays. We use this probe to measure kinase and housekeeping protein activities, separately or simultaneously, from single human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in adherent culture. This tool has the valuable ability to perform measurements that clarify connections between extracellular context, signals and responses, especially in cases where only a few cells exhibit a characteristic of interest. PMID:24594667

Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Han, Jongyoon

2014-01-01

371

Erythrocytic malaria growth or invasion inhibition assays with emphasis on suspension culture GIA.  

PubMed

Erythrocytic cycle malaria parasite growth or invasion inhibition assays (GIA) compare the effects of various test and control substances on malaria parasite growth in erythrocytes or invasion into erythrocytes in vitro. Although inhibitions by antimalarial drugs in vitro correlate well with drug protective levels required in vivo, as yet there are too few data to know how well inhibitions by antibodies in vitro correlate with the types and degrees of immune protection in vivo. Antibody-mediated GIA is frequently complicated by parasite strain-specific inhibitions, as well as nonspecific inhibitory factors generated in sera collected or stored under nonoptimal conditions. In this chapter, we describe methods for collecting and processing sera, for using different strains of parasite, and a simplified method for staining parasite DNA with Hoechst dye 33342 before quantitating parasites using ultraviolet (UV)-excited flow cytometry. We also describe a new type of GIA using suspension cultures in a 48-well plate. Critical to this method is enclosing the plate in a gassed, heat-sealed plastic bag, which, being low mass, can easily be rested at a 13.5 degrees angle on a rotor platform (114 rpm with 1-in. displacement) to produce gentle pulsatile waves of media in each well. The suspension GIA, which, relative to the static GIA, increased inhibition by one antibody and decreased inhibition by another (Table 1), may better simulate in vivo blood flow and may thus better predict in vivo efficacy. PMID:12125152

Haynes, J David; Moch, J Kathleen; Smoot, Douglas S

2002-01-01

372

ASBESTOS AND GASTRO-INTESTINAL CANCER: CELL CULTURE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Three forms of asbestos: amosite, crocidolite, and chrysotile, were assayed for their cytotoxicity and mutagenicity in cell clture. Using embjryonic human intestine derived and adult rat liver derived epitelial cells, the order of toxicity was chrysotile > amosite = crocidolite. ...

373

Cell types in rat liver cultures: their identification and isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the various types of cells in the liver in vivo and in hepatic cellular suspensions produced by perfusion of the liver with collagenase solutions. Methods to identify and isolate different types of hepatic cells are discussed. In vitro culture of various types of liver cells is reviewed and the identification of cultured cells is considered.

J. W. Grisham

1983-01-01

374

Cardiac Cells Beating in Culture: A Laboratory Exercise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how to establish a primary tissue culture, where cells are taken directly from an organ of a living animal. Cardiac cells are taken from chick embryos and transferred to culture dishes. These cells are not transformed and therefore have a limited life span. However, the unique characteristics of cardiac cells are maintained…

Weaver, Debora

2007-01-01

375

Differentiated cultures of primary hamster tracheal airway epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Primary airway epithelial cell cultures can provide a faithful representation of the in vivo airway while allowing for a controlled nutrient source and isolation from other tissues or immune cells. The methods used have significant differences based on tissue source, cell isolation, culture conditions, and assessment of culture purity. We modified and optimized a method for generating tracheal epithelial cultures from Syrian golden hamsters and characterized the cultures for cell composition and function. Soon after initial plating, the epithelial cells reached a high transepithelial resistance and formed tight junctions. The cells differentiated into a heterogeneous, multicellular culture containing ciliated, secretory, and basal cells after culture at an air-liquid interface (ALI). The secretory cell populations initially consisted of MUC5AC-positive goblet cells and MUC5AC/CCSP double-positive cells, but the makeup changed to predominantly Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP)-positive Clara cells after 14 d. The ciliated cell populations differentiated rapidly after ALI, as judged by the appearance of beta tubulin IV-positive cells. The cultures produced mucus, CCSP, and trypsin-like proteases and were capable of wound repair as judged by increased expression of matrilysin. Our method provides an efficient, high-yield protocol for producing differentiated hamster tracheal epithelial cells that can be used for a variety of in vitro studies including tracheal cell differentiation, airway disease mechanisms, and pathogen-host interactions. PMID:15780007

Rowe, Regina K; Brody, Steven L; Pekosz, Andrew

2004-01-01

376

Determination of the activity of pyrimethamine, trimethoprim, sulfonamides, and combinations of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides against Sarcocystis neurona in cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurologic syndrome in horses from the Americas and is usually caused by infection with the apicomplexan parasite, Sarcocystis neurona. The activities of pyrimethamine, trimethoprim, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadiazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethazine, and sulfathiazole were examined against developing S. neurona merozoites in bovine turbinate cell cultures. A microtiter plate host cell lesion based assay was used to

David S Lindsay; J. P Dubey

1999-01-01

377

Detection of DNA damages and repair in human culture cells with simulated space radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA damages and its repair of cultured WI38 human fibroblast cells and T98G human glioblastoma cells were studied by exposing to carbon ion beams of HIMAC accelerator. The exposed cells were incubated at 37 °C for appropriate intervals and the damages were analyzed by alkaline comet assay and quantitative RT-PCR with p53 mRNA Highly inhomogeneous DNA damages were observed among the electrophoretic cell images of the comet assay. The degree of the damages was analyzed semi-quantitatively by using the Comet Index. The damaged fraction of WI38 cells was 85% immediately after 4 Gy (100 keV/?m) irradiation and decreased to 50% after 120 min. incubation indicating a repair of cell DNA. Time dependent p53 gene expression was also analyzed by the quantitative RT-PCR method.

Nagaoka, S.; Nakano, T.; Endo, S.; Onizuka, T.; Kagawa, Y.; Fujitaka, K.; Ohnishi, K.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, T.

1999-09-01

378

Equipment for large-scale mammalian cell culture.  

PubMed

This chapter provides information on commonly used equipment in industrial mammalian cell culture, with an emphasis on bioreactors. The actual equipment used in the cell culture process can vary from one company to another, but the main steps remain the same. The process involves expansion of cells in seed train and inoculation train processes followed by cultivation of cells in a production bioreactor. Process and equipment options for each stage of the cell culture process are introduced and examples are provided. Finally, the use of disposables during seed train and cell culture production is discussed. PMID:24429549

Ozturk, Sadettin S

2014-01-01

379

Neonatal rat heart cells cultured in simulated microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In vitro characteristics of cardiac cells cultured in simulated microgravity are reported. Tissue culture methods performed at unit gravity constrain cells to propagate, differentiate, and interact in a two-dimensional (2D) plane. Neonatal rat cardiac cells in 2D culture organize predominantly as bundles of cardiomyocytes with the intervening areas filled by nonmyocyte cell types. Such cardiac cell cultures respond predictably to the addition of exogenous compounds, and in many ways they represent an excellent in vitro model system. The gravity-induced 2D organization of the cells, however, does not accurately reflect the distribution of cells in the intact tissue. We have begun characterizations of a three-dimensional (3D) culturing system designed to mimic microgravity. The NASA-designed High-Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) bioreactors provide a low shear environment that allows cells to be cultured in static suspension. HARV-3D cultures were prepared on microcarrier beads and compared to control-2D cultures using a combination of microscopic and biochemical techniques. Both systems were uniformly inoculated and medium exchanged at standard intervals. Cells in control cultures adhered to the polystyrene surface of the tissue culture dishes and exhibited typical 2D organization. Cells cultured in HARVs adhered to microcarrier beads, the beads aggregated into defined clusters containing 8 to 15 beads per cluster, and the clusters exhibited distinct 3D layers: myocytes and fibroblasts appeared attached to the surfaces of beads and were overlaid by an outer cell type. In addition, cultures prepared in HARVs using alternative support matrices also displayed morphological formations not seen in control cultures. Generally, the cells prepared in HARV and control cultures were similar; however, the dramatic alterations in 3D organization recommend the HARV as an ideal vessel for the generation of tissuelike organization of cardiac cells in vitro.

Akins, R. E.; Schroedl, N. A.; Gonda, S. R.; Hartzell, C. R.

1997-01-01

380

Neonatal rat heart cells cultured in simulated microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In vitro characteristics of cardiac cells cultured in simulated microgravity are reported. Tissue culture methods performed at unit gravity constrain cells to propagate, differentiate, and interact in a two dimensional (2D) plane. Neonatal rat cardiac cells in 2D culture organize predominantly as bundles of cardiomyocytes with the intervening areas filled by non-myocyte cell types. Such cardiac cell cultures respond predictably to the addition of exogenous compounds, and in many ways they represent an excellent in vitro model system. The gravity-induced 2D organization of the cells, however, does not accurately reflect the distribution of cells in the intact tissue. We have begun characterizations of a three-dimensional (3D) culturing system designed to mimic microgravity. The NASA designed High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) bioreactors provide a low shear environment which allows cells to be cultured in static suspension. HARV-3D cultures were prepared on microcarrier beads and compared to control-2D cultures using a combination of microscopic and biochemical techniques. Both systems were uniformly inoculated and medium exchanged at standard intervals. Cells in control cultures adhered to the polystyrene surface of the tissue culture dishes and exhibited typical 2D organization. Cells in cultured in HARV's adhered to microcarrier beads, the beads aggregated into defined clusters containing 8 to 15 beads per cluster, and the clusters exhibited distinct 3D layers: myocytes and fibroblasts appeared attached to the surfaces of beads and were overlaid by an outer cell type. In addition, cultures prepared in HARV's using alternative support matrices also displayed morphological formations not seen in control cultures. Generally, the cells prepared in HARV and control cultures were similar, however, the dramatic alterations in 3D organization recommend the HARV as an ideal vessel for the generation of tissue-like organizations of cardiac cells in simulated microgravity.

Akins, Robert E.; Schroedl, Nancy A.; Gonda, Steve R.; Hartzell, Charles R.

1994-01-01

381

Epigenomic Consequences of Immortalized Plant Cell Suspension Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cells grown in culture exhibit genetic and epigenetic instability. Using a combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA methylation profiling on tiling microarrays, we have mapped the location and abundance of histone and DNA modifications in a continuously proliferating, dedifferentiated cell suspension culture of Arabidopsis. We have found that euchromatin becomes hypermethylated in culture and that a small percentage of

Milos Tanurdzic; Matthew W Vaughn; Hongmei Jiang; Tae-Jin Lee; R. Keith Slotkin; Bryon Sosinski; William F Thompson; R. W Doerge; Robert A Martienssen

2008-01-01

382

Retrotransposition of marked SVA elements by human L1s in cultured cells.  

PubMed

Human retrotransposons generate structural variation and genomic diversity through ongoing retrotransposition and non-allelic homologous recombination. Cell culture retrotransposition assays have provided great insight into the genomic impact of retrotransposons, in particular, LINE-1(L1) and Alu elements; however, no such assay exists for the youngest active human retrotransposon, SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA). Here we report the development of an SVA cell culture retrotransposition assay. We marked several SVAs with either neomycin or EGFP retrotransposition indicator cassettes. Engineered SVAs retrotranspose using L1 proteins supplemented in trans in multiple cell lines, including U2OS osteosarcoma cells where SVA retrotransposition is equal to that of an engineered L1. Engineered SVAs retrotranspose at 1-54 times the frequency of a marked pseudogene in HeLa HA cells. Furthermore, our data suggest a variable requirement for L1 ORF1p for SVA retrotransposition. Recovered engineered SVA insertions display all the hallmarks of LINE-1 retrotransposition and some contain 5' and 3' transductions, which are common for genomic SVAs. Of particular interest is the fact that four out of five insertions recovered from one SVA are full-length, with the 5' end of these insertions beginning within 5 nt of the CMV promoter transcriptional start site. This assay demonstrates that SVA elements are indeed mobilized in trans by L1. Previously intractable questions regarding SVA biology can now be addressed. PMID:21636526

Hancks, Dustin C; Goodier, John L; Mandal, Prabhat K; Cheung, Ling E; Kazazian, Haig H

2011-09-01

383

Establishment of a primary culture of Echinococcus multilocularis germinal cells.  

PubMed

This study was designed to establish an in vitro primary culture of germinal cells of Echinococcus multilocularis, a parasite that causes alveolar echinococcosis of the liver (AEL). We also investigated the temperature-dependency of the cultured cells. The germinal cells, which originated from a human lesion, were cultured by an original fluid-suspension method at 25 degrees C or 37 degrees C for 4 weeks. Anchorage-dependent and -independent cells were observed by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and immunocytochemistry to confirm their origin. Cell number and viability were examined by immunocytochemistry and mitochondrial exclusion test. The cultured cells were also inoculated into jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) to evaluate metacestode formation. Morphology and immunocytochemistry showed that the cultured cells were typically germinal cells. The cell number declined gradually over the 4-week culture period, but viability remained at 50% at 3 weeks. These findings were not associated with either of the two culture temperatures; moreover, host-associated cells were not noted in the cultured cells at 25 degrees C. The implanted cells formed metacestodes in the jird peritoneal cavity, and their histology demonstrated mature and typical alveolar-type echinococcal cysts. We successfully established an in vitro primary culture of germinal cells. This should contribute to future studies, and, hence, a better outcome for patients with AEL. PMID:9213248

Yamashita, K; Uchino, J; Sato, N; Furuya, K; Namieno, T

1997-06-01

384

Induction of vascular endothelial phenotype and cellular proliferation from human cord blood stem cells cultured in simulated microgravity.  

PubMed

Recent studies have demonstrated that stem cells derived from adult hematopoietic tissues are capable of trans-differentiation into non-hematopoietic cells, and that the culture in microgravity (microg) may modulate the proliferation and differentiation. We investigated the application of microg to human umbilical cord blood stem cells (CBSC) in the induction of vascular endothelial phenotype expression and cellular proliferation. CD34+ mononuclear cells were isolated from waste human umbilical cord blood samples and cultured in simulated microg for 14 days. The cells were seeded in rotary wall vessels (RWV) with or without microcarrier beads (MCB) and vascular endothelial growth factor was added during culture. Controls consisted of culture in 1 G. The cell cultures in RWV were examined by inverted microscopy. Cell counts, endothelial cell and leukocyte markers performed by flow cytometry and FACS scan were assayed at days 1, 4, 7 and at the termination of the experiments. Culture in RWV revealed significantly increased cellular proliferation with three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like aggregates. At day 4, CD34+ cells cultured in RWV bioreactor without MCB developed vascular tubular assemblies and exhibited endothelial phenotypic markers. These data suggest that CD34+ human umbilical cord blood progenitors are capable of trans-differentiation into vascular endothelial cell phenotype and assemble into 3D tissue structures. Culture of CBSC in simulated microg may be potentially beneficial in the fields of stem cell biology and somatic cell therapy. PMID:15835045

Chiu, Brian; Wan, Jim Z-M; Abley, Doris; Akabutu, John

2005-01-01

385

Induction of vascular endothelial phenotype and cellular proliferation from human cord blood stem cells cultured in simulated microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have demonstrated that stem cells derived from adult hematopoietic tissues are capable of trans-differentiation into non-hematopoietic cells, and that the culture in microgravity ( ?g) may modulate the proliferation and differentiation. We investigated the application of ?g to human umbilical cord blood stem cells (CBSC) in the induction of vascular endothelial phenotype expression and cellular proliferation. CD34+ mononuclear cells were isolated from waste human umbilical cord blood samples and cultured in simulated ?g for 14 days. The cells were seeded in rotary wall vessels (RWV) with or without microcarrier beads (MCB) and vascular endothelial growth factor was added during culture. Controls consisted of culture in 1 G. The cell cultures in RWV were examined by inverted microscopy. Cell counts, endothelial cell and leukocyte markers performed by flow-cytometry and FACS scan were assayed at days 1, 4, 7 and at the termination of the experiments. Culture in RWV revealed significantly increased cellular proliferation with three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like aggregates. At day 4, CD34+ cells cultured in RWV bioreactor without MCB developed vascular tubular assemblies and exhibited endothelial phenotypic markers. These data suggest that CD34+ human umbilical cord blood progenitors are capable of trans-differentiation into vascular endothelial cell phenotype and assemble into 3D tissue structures. Culture of CBSC in simulated ?g may be potentially beneficial in the fields of stem cell biology and somatic cell therapy.

Chiu, Brian; Z-M Wan, Jim; Abley, Doris; Akabutu, John

2005-05-01

386

Salt tolerance in cultured cells of Spartina pectinata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspension cultures with cell doubling times of ca. 2 days were developed from the halophytic grass Spartina pectinata. Maximum rates of exponential growth measured by direct cell counts and by total culture packed-cell-volume were not significantly reduced by NaCl up to 200 mM but dropped beyond this point. In contrast, total cell production over a one week culture cycle, by

R. Scott Warren; Lisa M. Baird; Angela K. Thompson

1985-01-01

387

Recombinant Protein Production and Insect Cell Culture and Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using virtually infected or stably transformed insect cells containing a gene encoding the described polypeptide. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production.

Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Andrews, Angela D. (Inventor); Prewett, Tracey L. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

388

Biology on a Chip: Microfabrication for Studying the Behavior of Cultured Cells  

PubMed Central

The ability to culture cells in vitro has revolutionized hypothesis testing in basic cell and molecular biology research and has become a standard methodology in drug screening and toxicology assays. However, the traditional cell culture methodology—consisting essentially of the immersion of a large population of cells in a homogeneous fluid medium—has become increasingly limiting, both from a fundamental point of view (cells in vivo are surrounded by complex spatiotemporal microenvironments) and from a practical perspective (scaling up the number of fluid handling steps and cell manipulations for high-throughput studies in vitro is prohibitively expensive). Micro fabrication technologies have enabled researchers to design, with micrometer control, the biochemical composition and topology of the substrate, the medium composition, as well as the type of neighboring cells surrounding the microenvironment of the cell. In addition, microtechnology is conceptually well suited for the development of fast, low-cost in vitro systems that allow for high-throughput culturing and analysis of cells under large numbers of conditions. Here we review a variety of applications of microfabrication in cell culture studies, with an emphasis on the biology of various cell types. PMID:15139302

Li, Nianzhen; Tourovskaia, Anna; Folch, Albert

2013-01-01

389

Substrate elasticity regulates skeletal muscle stem cell self-renewal in culture  

PubMed Central

Freshly isolated muscle stem cells (MuSCs) exhibit robust regenerative capacity in vivo that is rapidly lost in culture. Using a bioengineered substrate to recapitulate key biophysical and biochemical niche features in conjunction with a novel highly automated single cell tracking algorithm, we show that substrate elasticity is a potent regulator of MuSC fate in culture. Unlike MuSCs on rigid plastic dishes (~106kPa), MuSCs cultured on soft hydrogel substrates that mimic the elasticity of muscle (12kPa) self-renew in vitro and contribute extensively to muscle regeneration when subsequently transplanted into mice and assayed histologically and quantitatively by non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. Our studies provide novel evidence that by recapitulating physiological tissue rigidity, propagation of adult muscle stem cells is possible, enabling future cell-based therapies for muscle wasting diseases. PMID:20647425

Gilbert, PM; Havenstrite, KL; Magnusson, KEG; Sacco, A; Leonardi, NA; Kraft, P; Nguyen, NK; Thrun, S; Lutolf, MP; Blau, HM

2010-01-01

390

Cell immunoblot assay study demonstrating the release of PACAP from individual anterior pituitary cells of rats and the effect of PACAP on LH release.  

PubMed

The presence of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) was previously demonstrated in the anterior pituitary by radioimmunoassay, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With the use of cell immunoblot assay (CIBA), when the pituitary cells were cultured on nitrocellulose membrane, the release of PACAP by individual anterior pituitary cells was observed. The released peptide, trapped by the nitrocellulose membrane forming a blot around the cells, was demonstrated by immunocytochemistry. Double labeling revealed that a part of PACAP-immunoreactive cells can release LH as well. With the use of sandwich enzyme immunoassay (S-EIA), it was found that the concentration of PACAP in the anterior pituitaries is 10(-10) M. In cell culture in a similar concentration, PACAP stimulated the LH release from female gonadotropes, but did not influence it from male ones. The stimulated release of LH was indicated by the enhancement in the diameter of LH blots compared to the untreated control cultures. We concluded that PACAP may be released from the anterior pituitary cells in a concentration which would be able to influence LH release not only in vitro but under in vivo conditions as well. The effect of PACAP on LH release was different in female and male pituitary cultures. PMID:12409218

Szabó, E; Nemeskéri, A; Heinzlmann, A; Suzuki, N; Arimura, A; Köves, K

2002-11-15

391

Analysis of Matrix-Dependent Cell Migration with a Barrier Migration Assay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cell migration plays a pivotal role in many biological processes and is modulated by cytokines and growth factors. In vivo, cells are embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM proteins are linked to the cellular cytoskeleton by integrin adhesion receptors, which transmit extracellular signals into the cell, thereby affecting cell adhesion and migration as well as gene expression. We describe a cell migration assay that uses a barrier device to separate the cells. The assay enables quantification of the migration of adherent cells on defined matrix proteins and the ability to evaluate migration-associated characteristics of individual cells. Thus, the barrier cell migration assay is a useful tool for exploring matrix-dependent migration of adherent cells.

Sven Kroening (University Hospital Erlangen; Department of Nephrology and Hypertension REV)

2010-06-15

392

[Isolation and culture of fetal bovine intestine-derived epithelial stem cells and the differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells].  

PubMed

Objective To establish the culture system of fetal bovine intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) in vitro, identify specific markers of the cell lines and analyze the differentiation potential into hepatocyte-like cells. Methods IESCs were isolated from the 3- to 5-month fetal bovine intestine by the digestion of collagenase I, and cultured in the DMEM/F12 medium. The cell morphology was observed, and the proliferation ability and multiple differentiation potential were demonstrated by subculturing and its growth curve. The mRNA expressions of the surface markers Bmi1, Hes1, Lgr5 and cytokeratin 19 (CK19) were determined by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and the protein levels of Bmi1, LGR5 and CK19 were detected by immunofluorescence cytochemistry. Under the induction of fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF-4) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the cell differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells was assayed by the glycogen staining and RT-PCR. Results IESCs cultured in vitro expressed Bmi1, Hes1, Lgr5 and CK19 mRNAs, and CK19, Bmi1 and LGR5 proteins. The differentiated cells were positively stained by glycogen, and RT-PCR showed that the cells expressed ?-fetoprotein (AFP) and albumin (ALB) mRNAs. Conclusion The culture system of IESCs in vitro is successfully established, and the cells are differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells. PMID:25575060

Sun, Tingting; Cai, Lianshun; Guan, Weijun

2015-01-01

393

A cell-based assay for aggregation inhibitors as therapeutics of polyglutamine-repeat disease and validation in Drosophila  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of polyglutamine-containing aggregates and inclusions are hallmarks of pathogenesis in Huntington's disease that can be recapitulated in model systems. Although the contribution of inclusions to pathogenesis is unclear, cell-based assays can be used to screen for chemical compounds that affect aggregation and may provide therapeutic benefit. We have developed inducible PC12 cell-culture models to screen for loss of visible aggregates. To test the validity of this approach, compounds that inhibit aggregation in the PC12 cell-based screen were tested in a Drosophila model of polyglutamine-repeat disease. The disruption of aggregation in PC12 cells strongly correlates with suppression of neuronal degeneration in Drosophila. Thus, the engineered PC12 cells coupled with the Drosophila model provide a rapid and effective method to screen and validate compounds.

Apostol, Barbara L.; Kazantsev, Alexsey; Raffioni, Simona; Illes, Katalin; Pallos, Judit; Bodai, Laszlo; Slepko, Natalia; Bear, James E.; Gertler, Frank B.; Hersch, Steven; Housman, David E.; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Michels Thompson, Leslie

2003-05-01

394

Detection of Infectious Adenovirus in Cell Culture by mRNA Reverse Transcription-PCR  

PubMed Central

We have developed and evaluated the reverse transcription (RT)-PCR detection of mRNA in cell culture to assay infectious adenoviruses (Ads) by using Ad type 2 (Ad2) and Ad41 as models. Only infectious Ads are detected because they are the only ones able to produce mRNA during replication in cell culture. Three primer sets for RT-PCR amplification of mRNA were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity: a conserved region of late mRNA transcript encoding a virion structural hexon protein and detecting a wide range of human Ads and two primer sets targeting a region of an early mRNA transcript that specifically detects either Ad2 and Ad5 or Ad40 and Ad41. The mRNAs of infected A549 and Graham 293 cells were recovered from cell lysates with oligo(dT) at different time periods after infection and treated with RNase-free DNase to remove residual contaminating DNA, and then Ad mRNA was detected by RT-PCR assay. The mRNA of Ad2 was detected as early as 6 h after infection at 106 infectious units (IU) per cell culture and after longer incubation times at levels as low as 1 to 2 IU per cell culture. The mRNA of Ad41 was detected as soon as 24 h after infection at 106 IU per cell culture and at levels as low as 5 IU per cell culture after longer incubation times. To confirm the detection of only infectious viruses, it was shown that no mRNA was detected from Ad2 and Ad41 inactivated by free chlorine or high doses of collimated, monochromatic (254-nm) UV radiation. Detection of Ad2 mRNA exactly coincided with the presence of virus infectivity detected by cytopathogenic effects in cell cultures, but mRNA detection occurred sooner. These results suggest that mRNA detection by RT-PCR assay in inoculated cell cultures is a very sensitive, specific, and rapid method by which to detect infectious Ads in water and other environmental samples. PMID:14660388

Ko, Gwangpyo; Cromeans, Theresa L.; Sobsey, Mark D.

2003-01-01

395

Detection of infectious adenovirus in cell culture by mRNA reverse transcription-PCR.  

PubMed

We have developed and evaluated the reverse transcription (RT)-PCR detection of mRNA in cell culture to assay infectious adenoviruses (Ads) by using Ad type 2 (Ad2) and Ad41 as models. Only infectious Ads are detected because they are the only ones able to produce mRNA during replication in cell culture. Three primer sets for RT-PCR amplification of mRNA were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity: a conserved region of late mRNA transcript encoding a virion structural hexon protein and detecting a wide range of human Ads and two primer sets targeting a region of an early mRNA transcript that specifically detects either Ad2 and Ad5 or Ad40 and Ad41. The mRNAs of infected A549 and Graham 293 cells were recovered from cell lysates with oligo(dT) at different time periods after infection and treated with RNase-free DNase to remove residual contaminating DNA, and then Ad mRNA was detected by RT-PCR assay. The mRNA of Ad2 was detected as early as 6 h after infection at 10(6) infectious units (IU) per cell culture and after longer incubation times at levels as low as 1 to 2 IU per cell culture. The mRNA of Ad41 was detected as soon as 24 h after infection at 10(6) IU per cell culture and at levels as low as 5 IU per cell culture after longer incubation times. To confirm the detection of only infectious viruses, it was shown that no mRNA was detected from Ad2 and Ad41 inactivated by free chlorine or high doses of collimated, monochromatic (254-nm) UV radiation. Detection of Ad2 mRNA exactly coincided with the presence of virus infectivity detected by cytopathogenic effects in cell cultures, but mRNA detection occurred sooner. These results suggest that mRNA detection by RT-PCR assay in inoculated cell cultures is a very sensitive, specific, and rapid method by which to detect infectious Ads in water and other environmental samples. PMID:14660388

Ko, Gwangpyo; Cromeans, Theresa L; Sobsey, Mark D

2003-12-01

396

Extraction parameters for metabolomics from cultured cells.  

PubMed

The successful extraction of metabolites is a critical step in metabolite profiling. By optimizing metabolite extraction, the range and quantitative capacity of metabolomics studies can be improved. We considered eight separate extraction protocols for the preparation of a metabolite extract from cultured mammalian cells. Parameters considered included temperature, pH, and cell washing before extraction. The effects on metabolite recovery were studied using a liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) platform that measures metabolites of diverse chemical classes, including amino acids, lipids, and sugar derivatives. The temperature considered during t